WorldWideScience

Sample records for meso scale discovery

  1. An interview with James Wilbur, Ph.D. General Manager, Life Sciences, Meso Scale Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, James

    2004-06-01

    James L. Wilbur, Ph.D. received a Bachelor's degree from the University of California, San Diego and a Ph.D. in Chemistry from Stanford University. After completing an NIH Postdoctoral Fellowship with Professor George M. Whitesides in the Department of Chemistry at Harvard University, he joined IGEN International, Inc., where he held a variety of positions in Research and Development. During that time, he was part of the team that developed the core technology and products for Meso Scale Discovery. He assumed his current position in 2001 when Meso Scale Discovery launched the products discussed here.

  2. Probabilistic, meso-scale flood loss modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Botto, Anna; Schröter, Kai; Merz, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    Flood risk analyses are an important basis for decisions on flood risk management and adaptation. However, such analyses are associated with significant uncertainty, even more if changes in risk due to global change are expected. Although uncertainty analysis and probabilistic approaches have received increased attention during the last years, they are still not standard practice for flood risk assessments and even more for flood loss modelling. State of the art in flood loss modelling is still the use of simple, deterministic approaches like stage-damage functions. Novel probabilistic, multi-variate flood loss models have been developed and validated on the micro-scale using a data-mining approach, namely bagging decision trees (Merz et al. 2013). In this presentation we demonstrate and evaluate the upscaling of the approach to the meso-scale, namely on the basis of land-use units. The model is applied in 19 municipalities which were affected during the 2002 flood by the River Mulde in Saxony, Germany (Botto et al. submitted). The application of bagging decision tree based loss models provide a probability distribution of estimated loss per municipality. Validation is undertaken on the one hand via a comparison with eight deterministic loss models including stage-damage functions as well as multi-variate models. On the other hand the results are compared with official loss data provided by the Saxon Relief Bank (SAB). The results show, that uncertainties of loss estimation remain high. Thus, the significant advantage of this probabilistic flood loss estimation approach is that it inherently provides quantitative information about the uncertainty of the prediction. References: Merz, B.; Kreibich, H.; Lall, U. (2013): Multi-variate flood damage assessment: a tree-based data-mining approach. NHESS, 13(1), 53-64. Botto A, Kreibich H, Merz B, Schröter K (submitted) Probabilistic, multi-variable flood loss modelling on the meso-scale with BT-FLEMO. Risk Analysis.

  3. Meso-scale wind variability. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, S.; Larsen, X.; Vincent, C.; Soerensen, P.; Pinson, P.; Trombe, P.-J.; Madsen, H.; Cutululis, N.

    2011-11-15

    The project has aimed to characterize mesoscale meteorological phenomenon for the North Sea and the Inner Danish waters, and additionally aimed on improving the predictability and quality of the power production from offshore windfarms. The meso-scale meteorology has been characterized with respect to the physical processes, climatology, spectral characteristics and correlation properties based on measurements from wind farms, satellite data (SAR) and mesoscale numerical modeling (WRF). The abilities of the WRF model to characterize and predict relevant mesoscale phenomenon has been proven. Additionally application of statistical forecasting, using a Markov switching approach that can be related to the meteorological conditions, to analyze and short term predict the power production from an offshore wind farms have been documented. Two PhD studies have been conducted in connection with the project. The project has been a cooperative project between Risoe DTU, IMM DTU, DONG Energy, Vattenfall and VESTAS. It is registered as Energinet.dk, project no. 2007-1-7141. (Author)

  4. Unifying Inference of Meso-Scale Structures in Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunç, Birkan; Verma, Ragini

    2015-01-01

    Networks are among the most prevalent formal representations in scientific studies, employed to depict interactions between objects such as molecules, neuronal clusters, or social groups. Studies performed at meso-scale that involve grouping of objects based on their distinctive interaction patterns form one of the main lines of investigation in network science. In a social network, for instance, meso-scale structures can correspond to isolated social groupings or groups of individuals that serve as a communication core. Currently, the research on different meso-scale structures such as community and core-periphery structures has been conducted via independent approaches, which precludes the possibility of an algorithmic design that can handle multiple meso-scale structures and deciding which structure explains the observed data better. In this study, we propose a unified formulation for the algorithmic detection and analysis of different meso-scale structures. This facilitates the investigation of hybrid structures that capture the interplay between multiple meso-scale structures and statistical comparison of competing structures, all of which have been hitherto unavailable. We demonstrate the applicability of the methodology in analyzing the human brain network, by determining the dominant organizational structure (communities) of the brain, as well as its auxiliary characteristics (core-periphery).

  5. Unifying Inference of Meso-Scale Structures in Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkan Tunç

    Full Text Available Networks are among the most prevalent formal representations in scientific studies, employed to depict interactions between objects such as molecules, neuronal clusters, or social groups. Studies performed at meso-scale that involve grouping of objects based on their distinctive interaction patterns form one of the main lines of investigation in network science. In a social network, for instance, meso-scale structures can correspond to isolated social groupings or groups of individuals that serve as a communication core. Currently, the research on different meso-scale structures such as community and core-periphery structures has been conducted via independent approaches, which precludes the possibility of an algorithmic design that can handle multiple meso-scale structures and deciding which structure explains the observed data better. In this study, we propose a unified formulation for the algorithmic detection and analysis of different meso-scale structures. This facilitates the investigation of hybrid structures that capture the interplay between multiple meso-scale structures and statistical comparison of competing structures, all of which have been hitherto unavailable. We demonstrate the applicability of the methodology in analyzing the human brain network, by determining the dominant organizational structure (communities of the brain, as well as its auxiliary characteristics (core-periphery.

  6. Optogenetic stimulation of a meso-scale human cortical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Prashanth; Szeri, Andrew; Sleigh, Jamie; Kirsch, Heidi

    2015-03-01

    Neurological phenomena like sleep and seizures depend not only on the activity of individual neurons, but on the dynamics of neuron populations as well. Meso-scale models of cortical activity provide a means to study neural dynamics at the level of neuron populations. Additionally, they offer a safe and economical way to test the effects and efficacy of stimulation techniques on the dynamics of the cortex. Here, we use a physiologically relevant meso-scale model of the cortex to study the hypersynchronous activity of neuron populations during epileptic seizures. The model consists of a set of stochastic, highly non-linear partial differential equations. Next, we use optogenetic stimulation to control seizures in a hyperexcited cortex, and to induce seizures in a normally functioning cortex. The high spatial and temporal resolution this method offers makes a strong case for the use of optogenetics in treating meso scale cortical disorders such as epileptic seizures. We use bifurcation analysis to investigate the effect of optogenetic stimulation in the meso scale model, and its efficacy in suppressing the non-linear dynamics of seizures.

  7. Onset of meso-scale turbulence in active nematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doostmohammadi, A.; Shendruk, T.N.; Thijssen, K.; Yeomans, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Meso-scale turbulence is an innate phenomenon, distinct from inertial turbulence, that spontaneously occurs at low Reynolds number in fluidized biological systems. This spatiotemporal disordered flow radically changes nutrient and molecular transport in living fluids and can strongly affect the

  8. Micro- and meso-scale effects of forested terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Mann, Jakob; Sogachev, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    scales are the height of the planetary boundary layer and the Monin-Obukhov length, which both are related to the energy balance of the surface. Examples of important micro- and meso-scale effects of forested terrain are shown using data and model results from recent and ongoing experiments. For micro......The height and rotor diameter of modern wind turbines are so extensive, that the wind conditions they encounter often are well above the surface layer, where traditionally it is assumed that wind direction and turbulent fluxes are constant with respect to height, if the surface is homogenous....... Deviations from the requirement of homogeneity are often the focus of micro-scale studies in forested areas. Yet, to explain the wind climate in the relevant height range for turbines, it is necessary to also account for the length scales that are important parameters for the meso-scale flow. These length...

  9. LBM estimation of thermal conductivity in meso-scale modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grucelski, A

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there is a growing engineering interest in more rigorous prediction of effective transport coefficients for multicomponent, geometrically complex materials. We present main assumptions and constituents of the meso-scale model for the simulation of the coal or biomass devolatilisation with the Lattice Boltzmann method. For the results, the estimated values of the thermal conductivity coefficient of coal (solids), pyrolytic gases and air matrix are presented for a non-steady state with account for chemical reactions in fluid flow and heat transfer. (paper)

  10. Experimental Study on Meso-Scale Milling Process Using Nanofluid Minimum Quantity Lubrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P. H.; Nam, T. S.; Li, Cheng Jun; Lee, S. W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper present the characteristics of micro- and meso-scale milling processes in which compressed cold air, minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) and MoS 2 nanofluid MQL are used. For process characterization, the micro and meso-scale milling experiments are conducted using desktop meso-scale machine tool system and the surface roughness is measured. The experimental results show that the use of compressed chilly air and nanofluid MQL in the micro- and meso-scale milling processes is effective in improving the surface finish

  11. Green's Kernels and meso-scale approximations in perforated domains

    CERN Document Server

    Maz'ya, Vladimir; Nieves, Michael

    2013-01-01

    There are a wide range of applications in physics and structural mechanics involving domains with singular perturbations of the boundary. Examples include perforated domains and bodies with defects of different types. The accurate direct numerical treatment of such problems remains a challenge. Asymptotic approximations offer an alternative, efficient solution. Green’s function is considered here as the main object of study rather than a tool for generating solutions of specific boundary value problems. The uniformity of the asymptotic approximations is the principal point of attention. We also show substantial links between Green’s functions and solutions of boundary value problems for meso-scale structures. Such systems involve a large number of small inclusions, so that a small parameter, the relative size of an inclusion, may compete with a large parameter, represented as an overall number of inclusions. The main focus of the present text is on two topics: (a) asymptotics of Green’s kernels in domai...

  12. Flame dynamics of a meso-scale heat recirculating combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayan, V.; Gupta, A.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The dynamics of premixed propane-air flame in a meso-scale ceramic combustor has been examined here. The flame characteristics in the combustor were examined by measuring the acoustic emissions and preheat temperatures together with high-speed cinematography. For the small-scale combustor, the volume to surface area ratio is small and hence the walls have significant effect on the global flame structure, flame location and flame dynamics. In addition to the flame-wall thermal coupling there is a coupling between flame and acoustics in the case of confined flames. Flame-wall thermal interactions lead to low frequency flame fluctuations ({proportional_to}100 Hz) depending upon the thermal response of the wall. However, the flame-acoustic interactions can result in a wide range of flame fluctuations ranging from few hundred Hz to few kHz. Wall temperature distribution is one of the factors that control the amount of reactant preheating which in turn effects the location of flame stabilization. Acoustic emission signals and high-speed flame imaging confirmed that for the present case flame-acoustic interactions have more significant effect on flame dynamics. Based on the acoustic emissions, five different flame regimes have been identified; whistling/harmonic mode, rich instability mode, lean instability mode, silent mode and pulsating flame mode. (author)

  13. Implementation of meso-scale radioactive dispersion model for GPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunarko [National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Jakarta (Indonesia). Nuclear Energy Assessment Center; Suud, Zaki [Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Bandung (Indonesia). Physics Dept.

    2017-05-15

    Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Method (LPDM) is applied to model atmospheric dispersion of radioactive material in a meso-scale of a few tens of kilometers for site study purpose. Empirical relationships are used to determine the dispersion coefficient for various atmospheric stabilities. Diagnostic 3-D wind-field is solved based on data from one meteorological station using mass-conservation principle. Particles representing radioactive pollutant are dispersed in the wind-field as a point source. Time-integrated air concentration is calculated using kernel density estimator (KDE) in the lowest layer of the atmosphere. Parallel code is developed for GTX-660Ti GPU with a total of 1 344 scalar processors using CUDA. A test of 1-hour release discovers that linear speedup is achieved starting at 28 800 particles-per-hour (pph) up to about 20 x at 14 4000 pph. Another test simulating 6-hour release with 36 000 pph resulted in a speedup of about 60 x. Statistical analysis reveals that resulting grid doses are nearly identical in both CPU and GPU versions of the code.

  14. MICRO-SEISMOMETERS VIA ADVANCED MESO-SCALE FABRICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Caesar A; Onaran, Guclu; Avenson, Brad; Hall, Neal

    2014-11-07

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) seek revolutionary sensing innovations for the monitoring of nuclear detonations. Performance specifications are to be consistent with those obtainable by only an elite few products available today, but with orders of magnitude reduction in size, weight, power, and cost. The proposed commercial innovation calls upon several technologies including the combination of meso-scale fabrication and assembly, photonics-based displacement / motion detection methods, and the use of digital control electronics . Early Phase II development has demonstrated verified and repeatable sub 2ng noise floor from 3Hz to 100Hz, compact integration of 3-axis prototypes, and robust deployment exercises. Ongoing developments are focusing on low frequency challenges, low power consumption, ultra-miniature size, and low cross axis sensitivity. We are also addressing the rigorous set of specifications required for repeatable and reliable long-term explosion monitoring, including thermal stability, reduced recovery time from mass re-centering and large mechanical shocks, sensitivity stability, and transportability. Successful implementation will result in small, hand-held demonstration units with the ability to address national security needs of the DOE/NNSA. Additional applications envisioned include military/defense, scientific instrumentation, oil and gas exploration, inertial navigation, and civil infrastructure monitoring.

  15. Probabilistic flood damage modelling at the meso-scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Botto, Anna; Schröter, Kai; Merz, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    Decisions on flood risk management and adaptation are usually based on risk analyses. Such analyses are associated with significant uncertainty, even more if changes in risk due to global change are expected. Although uncertainty analysis and probabilistic approaches have received increased attention during the last years, they are still not standard practice for flood risk assessments. Most damage models have in common that complex damaging processes are described by simple, deterministic approaches like stage-damage functions. Novel probabilistic, multi-variate flood damage models have been developed and validated on the micro-scale using a data-mining approach, namely bagging decision trees (Merz et al. 2013). In this presentation we show how the model BT-FLEMO (Bagging decision Tree based Flood Loss Estimation MOdel) can be applied on the meso-scale, namely on the basis of ATKIS land-use units. The model is applied in 19 municipalities which were affected during the 2002 flood by the River Mulde in Saxony, Germany. The application of BT-FLEMO provides a probability distribution of estimated damage to residential buildings per municipality. Validation is undertaken on the one hand via a comparison with eight other damage models including stage-damage functions as well as multi-variate models. On the other hand the results are compared with official damage data provided by the Saxon Relief Bank (SAB). The results show, that uncertainties of damage estimation remain high. Thus, the significant advantage of this probabilistic flood loss estimation model BT-FLEMO is that it inherently provides quantitative information about the uncertainty of the prediction. Reference: Merz, B.; Kreibich, H.; Lall, U. (2013): Multi-variate flood damage assessment: a tree-based data-mining approach. NHESS, 13(1), 53-64.

  16. Meso-scale modeling of irradiated concrete in test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorla, A.; Vaitová, M.; Le Pape, Y.; Štemberk, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A meso-scale finite element model for irradiated concrete is developed. • Neutron radiation-induced volumetric expansion is a predominant degradation mode. • Confrontation with expansion and damage obtained from experiments is successful. • Effects of paste shrinkage, creep and ductility are discussed. - Abstract: A numerical model accounting for the effects of neutron irradiation on concrete at the mesoscale is detailed in this paper. Irradiation experiments in test reactor (Elleuch et al., 1972), i.e., in accelerated conditions, are simulated. Concrete is considered as a two-phase material made of elastic inclusions (aggregate) subjected to thermal and irradiation-induced swelling and embedded in a cementitious matrix subjected to shrinkage and thermal expansion. The role of the hardened cement paste in the post-peak regime (brittle-ductile transition with decreasing loading rate), and creep effects are investigated. Radiation-induced volumetric expansion (RIVE) of the aggregate cause the development and propagation of damage around the aggregate which further develops in bridging cracks across the hardened cement paste between the individual aggregate particles. The development of damage is aggravated when shrinkage occurs simultaneously with RIVE during the irradiation experiment. The post-irradiation expansion derived from the simulation is well correlated with the experimental data and, the obtained damage levels are fully consistent with previous estimations based on a micromechanical interpretation of the experimental post-irradiation elastic properties (Le Pape et al., 2015). The proposed modeling opens new perspectives for the interpretation of test reactor experiments in regards to the actual operation of light water reactors.

  17. Meso-scale modeling of irradiated concrete in test reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giorla, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, One Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Vaitová, M. [Czech Technical University, Thakurova 7, 166 29 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Le Pape, Y., E-mail: lepapeym@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, One Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Štemberk, P. [Czech Technical University, Thakurova 7, 166 29 Praha 6 (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • A meso-scale finite element model for irradiated concrete is developed. • Neutron radiation-induced volumetric expansion is a predominant degradation mode. • Confrontation with expansion and damage obtained from experiments is successful. • Effects of paste shrinkage, creep and ductility are discussed. - Abstract: A numerical model accounting for the effects of neutron irradiation on concrete at the mesoscale is detailed in this paper. Irradiation experiments in test reactor (Elleuch et al., 1972), i.e., in accelerated conditions, are simulated. Concrete is considered as a two-phase material made of elastic inclusions (aggregate) subjected to thermal and irradiation-induced swelling and embedded in a cementitious matrix subjected to shrinkage and thermal expansion. The role of the hardened cement paste in the post-peak regime (brittle-ductile transition with decreasing loading rate), and creep effects are investigated. Radiation-induced volumetric expansion (RIVE) of the aggregate cause the development and propagation of damage around the aggregate which further develops in bridging cracks across the hardened cement paste between the individual aggregate particles. The development of damage is aggravated when shrinkage occurs simultaneously with RIVE during the irradiation experiment. The post-irradiation expansion derived from the simulation is well correlated with the experimental data and, the obtained damage levels are fully consistent with previous estimations based on a micromechanical interpretation of the experimental post-irradiation elastic properties (Le Pape et al., 2015). The proposed modeling opens new perspectives for the interpretation of test reactor experiments in regards to the actual operation of light water reactors.

  18. Scaling of water vapor in the meso-gamma (2-20km) and lower meso-beta (20-50km) scales from tall tower time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressel, K. G.; Collins, W.; Desai, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    Deficiencies in the parameterization of boundary layer clouds in global climate models (GCMs) remains one of the greatest sources of uncertainty in climate change predictions. Many GCM cloud parameterizations, which seek to include some representation of subgrid-scale cloud variability, do so by making assumptions regarding the subgrid-scale spatial probability density function (PDF) of total water content. Properly specifying the form and parameters of the total water PDF is an essential step in the formulation of PDF based cloud parameterizations. In the cloud free boundary layer, the PDF of total water mixing ratio is equivalent to the PDF of water vapor mixing ratio. Understanding the PDF of water vapor mixing ratio in the cloud free atmosphere is a necessary step towards understanding the PDF of water vapor in the cloudy atmosphere. A primary challenge in empirically constraining the PDF of water vapor mixing ratio is a distinct lack of a spatially distributed observational dataset at or near cloud scale. However, at meso-beta (20-50km) and larger scales, there is a wealth of information on the spatial distribution of water vapor contained in the physically retrieved water vapor profiles from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder onboard NASA`s Aqua satellite. The scaling (scale-invariance) of the observed water vapor field has been suggested as means of using observations at satellite observed (meso-beta) scales to derive information about cloud scale PDFs. However, doing so requires the derivation of a robust climatology of water vapor scaling from in-situ observations across the meso- gamma (2-20km) and meso-beta scales. In this work, we present the results of the scaling of high frequency (10Hz) time series of water vapor mixing ratio as observed from the 447m WLEF tower located near Park Falls, Wisconsin. Observations from a tall tower offer an ideal set of observations with which to investigate scaling at meso-gamma and meso-beta scales requiring only the

  19. A three-dimensional meso-scale modeling for helium bubble growth in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzudo, T.; Kaburaki, H.; Wakai, E.

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional meso-scale computer model using a Monte-Carlo simulation method has been proposed to simulate the helium bubble growth in metals. The primary merit of this model is that it enables the visual comparison between the microstructure observed by the TEM imaging and those by calculations. The modeling is so simple that one can control easily the calculation by tuning parameters. The simulation results are confirmed by the ideal gas law and the capillary relation. helium bubble growth, meso-scale modeling, Monte-Carlo simulation, the ideal gas law and the capillary relation. (authors)

  20. The plastic rotation effect in an isotropic gradient plasticity model for applications at the meso scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poh, Leong Hien; Peerlings, R.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Although formulated to represent a large system of polycrystals at the macroscopic level, isotropic gradient plasticity models have routinely been adopted at the meso scale. For such purposes, it is crucial to incorporate the plastic rotation effect in order to obtain a reasonable approximation of

  1. Meso-scale effects of tropical deforestation in Amazonia: preparatory LBA modelling studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Dolman

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of the preparation for the Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia, a meso-scale modelling study was executed to highlight deficiencies in the current understanding of land surface atmosphere interaction at local to sub-continental scales in the dry season. Meso-scale models were run in 1-D and 3-D mode for the area of Rondonia State, Brazil. The important conclusions are that without calibration it is difficult to model the energy partitioning of pasture; modelling that of forest is easier due to the absence of a strong moisture deficit signal. The simulation of the boundary layer above forest is good, above deforested areas (pasture poor. The models' underestimate of the temperature of the boundary layer is likely to be caused by the neglect of the radiative effects of aerosols caused by biomass burning, but other factors such as lack of sufficient entrainment in the model at the mixed layer top may also contribute. The Andes generate patterns of subsidence and gravity waves, the effects of which are felt far into the Rondonian area The results show that the picture presented by GCM modelling studies may need to be balanced by an increased understanding of what happens at the meso-scale. The results are used to identify key measurements for the LBA atmospheric meso-scale campaign needed to improve the model simulations. Similar modelling studies are proposed for the wet season in Rondonia, when convection plays a major role.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; biosphere-atmosphere interactions · Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meterology

  2. Meso-scale effects of tropical deforestation in Amazonia: preparatory LBA modelling studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Dolman

    Full Text Available As part of the preparation for the Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia, a meso-scale modelling study was executed to highlight deficiencies in the current understanding of land surface atmosphere interaction at local to sub-continental scales in the dry season. Meso-scale models were run in 1-D and 3-D mode for the area of Rondonia State, Brazil. The important conclusions are that without calibration it is difficult to model the energy partitioning of pasture; modelling that of forest is easier due to the absence of a strong moisture deficit signal. The simulation of the boundary layer above forest is good, above deforested areas (pasture poor. The models' underestimate of the temperature of the boundary layer is likely to be caused by the neglect of the radiative effects of aerosols caused by biomass burning, but other factors such as lack of sufficient entrainment in the model at the mixed layer top may also contribute. The Andes generate patterns of subsidence and gravity waves, the effects of which are felt far into the Rondonian area The results show that the picture presented by GCM modelling studies may need to be balanced by an increased understanding of what happens at the meso-scale. The results are used to identify key measurements for the LBA atmospheric meso-scale campaign needed to improve the model simulations. Similar modelling studies are proposed for the wet season in Rondonia, when convection plays a major role.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; biosphere-atmosphere interactions · Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meterology

  3. Coastal Foredune Evolution, Part 2: Modeling Approaches for Meso-Scale Morphologic Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    for Meso-Scale Morphologic Evolution by Margaret L. Palmsten1, Katherine L. Brodie2, and Nicholas J. Spore2 PURPOSE: This Coastal and Hydraulics ...managers because foredunes provide ecosystem services and can reduce storm damages to coastal infrastructure, both of which increase the resiliency...MS 2 U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory, Duck, NC ERDC/CHL CHETN-II-57 March 2017 2 models of

  4. A CFD Analysis of The Performance of Pin-Fin Laminar Flow Micro/Meso Scale Heat Exchangers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dimas, Sotirios

    2005-01-01

    A full three dimensional computational study was carried out using a finite-volume based solver for analyzing the performance of pin-fin based micro/meso scale heat exchangers with air as the working fluid...

  5. Resolving meso-scale seabed variability using reflection measurements from an autonomous underwater vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Charles W; Nielsen, Peter L; Dettmer, Jan; Dosso, Stan

    2012-02-01

    Seabed geoacoustic variability is driven by geological processes that occur over a wide spectrum of space-time scales. While the acoustics community has some understanding of horizontal fine-scale geoacoustic variability, less than O(10(0)) m, and large-scale variability, greater than O(10(3)) m, there is a paucity of data resolving the geoacoustic meso-scale O(10(0)-10(3)) m. Measurements of the meso-scale along an ostensibly "benign" portion of the outer shelf reveal three classes of variability. The first class was expected and is due to horizontal variability of layer thicknesses: this was the only class that could be directly tied to seismic reflection data. The second class is due to rapid changes in layer properties and/or boundaries, occurring over scales of meters to hundreds of meters. The third class was observed as rapid variations of the angle/frequency dependent reflection coefficient within a single observation and is suggestive of variability at scales of meter or less. Though generally assumed to be negligible in acoustic modeling, the second and third classes are indicative of strong horizontal geoacoustic variability within a given layer. The observations give early insight into possible effects of horizontal geoacoustic variability on long-range acoustic propagation and reverberation. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America

  6. Characterizing the Meso-scale Plasma Flows in Earth's Coupled Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielse, C.; Nishimura, T.; Lyons, L. R.; Gallardo-Lacourt, B.; Deng, Y.; McWilliams, K. A.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Heliophysics Decadal Survey put forth several imperative, Key Science Goals. The second goal communicates the urgent need to "Determine the dynamics and coupling of Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere, and atmosphere and their response to solar and terrestrial inputs...over a range of spatial and temporal scales." Sun-Earth connections (called Space Weather) have strong societal impacts because extreme events can disturb radio communications and satellite operations. The field's current modeling capabilities of such Space Weather phenomena include large-scale, global responses of the Earth's upper atmosphere to various inputs from the Sun, but the meso-scale ( 50-500 km) structures that are much more dynamic and powerful in the coupled system remain uncharacterized. Their influences are thus far poorly understood. We aim to quantify such structures, particularly auroral flows and streamers, in order to create an empirical model of their size, location, speed, and orientation based on activity level (AL index), season, solar cycle (F10.7), interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) inputs, etc. We present a statistical study of meso-scale flow channels in the nightside auroral oval and polar cap using SuperDARN. These results are used to inform global models such as the Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model (GITM) in order to evaluate the role of meso-scale disturbances on the fully coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system. Measuring the ionospheric footpoint of magnetospheric fast flows, our analysis technique from the ground also provides a 2D picture of flows and their characteristics during different activity levels that spacecraft alone cannot.

  7. From a meso- to micro-scale connectome: Array Tomography and mGRASP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhyun eKim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mapping mammalian synaptic connectivity has long been an important goal of neuroscience because knowing how neurons and brain areas are connected underpins an understanding of brain function. Meeting this goal requires advanced techniques with single synapse resolution and large-scale capacity, especially at multiple scales tethering the meso- and micro-scale connectome. Among several advanced LM-based connectome technologies, Array Tomography (AT and mammalian GFP-Reconstitution Across Synaptic Partners (mGRASP can provide relatively high-throughput mapping synaptic connectivity at multiple scales. AT- and mGRASP-assisted circuit mapping (ATing and mGRASPing, combined with techniques such as retrograde virus, brain clearing techniques, and activity indicators will help unlock the secrets of complex neural circuits. Here, we discuss these useful new tools to enable mapping of brain circuits at multiple scales, some functional implications of spatial synaptic distribution, and future challenges and directions of these endeavors.

  8. Development of a Meso-Scale Fiberoptic Rotation Sensor for a Torsion Actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jun; Desai, Jaydev P

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a meso-scale fiberoptic rotation sensor for a shape memory alloy (SMA) torsion actuator for neurosurgical applications. Within the sensor, a rotary head with a reflecting surface is capable of modulating the light intensity collected by optical fibers when the rotary head is coupled to the torsion actuator. The mechanism of light intensity modulation is modeled, followed by experimental model verification. Meanwhile, working performances for different rotary head designs, optical fibers, and fabrication materials are compared. After the calibration of the fiberoptic rotation sensor, the sensor is capable of precisely measuring rotary motion and controlling the SMA torsion actuator with feedback control.

  9. Meso-scale wrinkled coatings to improve heat transfers of surfaces facing ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakiuchida, Hiroshi; Tajiri, Koji; Tazawa, Masato; Yoshimura, Kazuki; Shimono, Kazuaki; Nakagawa, Yukio; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Fujita, Keisuke; Myoko, Masumi

    2015-01-01

    Meso-scale (micrometer-to submillimeter-scale) wrinkled surfaces coated on steel sheets used in outdoor storage and transport facilities for industrial low-temperature liquids were discovered to efficiently increase convective heat transfer between ambient air and the surface. The radiative and convective heat transfer coefficients of various wrinkled surfaces, which were formed by coating steel sheets with several types of shrinkable paints, were examined. The convective heat transfer coefficient of a surface colder than ambient air monotonically changed with average height difference and interval distance of the wrinkle undulation, where the proportions were 0.0254 and 0.0054 W/m 2 /K/μm, respectively. With this wrinkled coating, users can lower the possibility of condensation and reduce rust and maintenance cost of facilities for industrial low-temperature liquids. From the point of view of manufacturers, this coating method can be easily adapted to conventional manufacturing processes. - Highlights: • Various wrinkled surfaces were fabricated by a practical process. • Topographical effect on convection was parameterized separately from radiation. • Meso-scale wrinkled coatings increased convective heat transfer with ambient air. • Maintenance cost of outdoor steel sheets due to condensation can be reduced

  10. Dynamics of bluff-body-stabilized lean premixed syngas flames in a meso-scale channel

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Bok Jik

    2016-07-15

    Direct numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the dynamics of lean premixed syngas flames stabilized by a bluff-body in a meso-scale channel at near blow-off conditions, in order to provide fundamental insights into the physical mechanisms responsible for the critical phenomena. Flames in a two-dimensional meso-scale channel with a square flame holder are adopted as the model configuration, and a syngas mixture at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 with the CO:H ratio of 1 is considered. As the inlet velocity is increased, the initially stable steady flames undergo a transition to an unsteady mode of regular asymmetric fluctuation. When the inlet velocity is further increased, the flame is eventually blown off. Between the regular fluctuation mode and blow-off limit, there exists a narrow range of the inlet velocity where the flames exhibit periodic local extinction and recovery. Approaching further to the blow-off limit, the recovery mode fails to occur but the flame survives as a short kernel attached to the base of the bluff-body, until it is completely extinguished as the attached flames are gradually shrunk towards the bluff-body. The results are systematically compared with the hydrogen flame results reported in our earlier study. Examination of the characteristic time scales of relevant processes provided understanding of key mechanisms responsible for the observed differences, thereby allowing improved description of the local extinction and re-ignition dynamics that are critical to flame stabilization.

  11. Meso- and Micro-scale flow modelling in the Gulf of Suez, Arab Republic of Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama; Frank, Helmut Paul

    2003-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 10-year wind resource assessment programme in the Gulf of Suez are presented. The primary purpose has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricity producing wind-turbine installatio...... and power density are quite steep. The combination of meso- and micro-scale flow models – here the KAMM/WAsP methodology or the Numerical Wind Atlas – seem necessary in order to make reliable wind resource assessments in all parts of the Gulf of Suez.......The results of a comprehensive, 10-year wind resource assessment programme in the Gulf of Suez are presented. The primary purpose has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricity producing wind-turbine installations......; a secondary purpose has been to evaluate the applicability of current wind resource estimation and siting tools – in particular the European Wind Atlas methodology – to this region where the meso-scale effects are pronounced and the climatic conditions (e.g. atmospheric stability) somewhat extreme. The wind...

  12. Carbon budgets of biological soil crusts at micro-, meso-, and global scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Leopoldo G; Belnap, Jayne; Colesie, Claudia; Raggio, Jose; Weber, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    The importance of biocrusts in the ecology of arid lands across all continents is widely recognized. In spite of this broad distribution, contributions of biocrusts to the global biogeochemical cycles have only recently been considered. While these studies opened a new view on the global role of biocrusts, they also clearly revealed the lack of data for many habitats and of overall standards for measurements and analysis. In order to understand carbon cycling in biocrusts and the progress which has been made during the last 15 years, we offer a multi-scale approach covering different climatic regions. We also include a discussion on available measurement techniques at each scale: A micro-scale section focuses on the individual organism level, including modeling based on the combination of field and lab data. The meso-scale section addresses the CO2 exchange of a complete ecosystem or at the community level. Finally, we consider the contribution of biocrusts at a global scale, giving a general perspective of the most relevant findings regarding the role of biological soil crusts in the global terrestrial carbon cycle.

  13. Large-Scale Agricultural Management and Soil Meso- and Macrofauna Conservation in the Argentine Pampas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Camilo Bedano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil is the most basic resource for sustainable agricultural production; it promotes water quality, is a key component of the biogeochemical cycles and hosts a huge diversity of organisms. However, we are not paying enough attention to soil degradation produced by land use. Modern agriculture has been successful in increasing yields but has also caused extensive environmental damage, particularly soil degradation. In the Argentine Pampas, agriculturization reached a peak with the generalized use of the no-till technological package: genetically modified soybeans tolerant to glyphosate, no-till, glyphosate, and inorganic fertilizers. This phenomenon has been widely spread in the country; the no-till package has been applied in large areas and has been used by tenants in a 60%–70% of cultivated lands. Thus, those who were involved in developing management practices may not be the same as those who will face degradation issues related to those practices. Indeed, most evidence reviewed in this paper suggests that the most widely distributed practices in the Pampas region are actually producing severe soil degradation. Biological degradation is particularly important because soil biota is involved in numerous soil processes on which soil functioning relies, affecting soil fertility and productivity. For example, soil meso- and macrofauna are especially important in nutrient cycling and in soil structure formation and maintenance, and they are key components of the network that links microbial process to the scale of fields and landscapes where ecosystem services are produced. However, the knowledge of the impact of different agricultural managements on soil meso- and macrofauna in Pampas agroecosystems is far from conclusive at this stage. The reason for this lack of definite conclusions is that this area has been given less attention than in other parts of the world; the response of soil fauna to agricultural practices is complex and taxa

  14. Climatological changing effects on wind, precipitation and erosion: Large, meso and small scale analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslan, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The Fourier transformation analysis for monthly average values of meteorological parameters has been considered, and amplitudes, phase angles have been calculated by using ground measurements in Turkey. The first order harmonics of meteorological parameters show large scale effects, while higher order harmonics show the effects of small scale fluctuations. The variations of first through sixth order harmonic amplitudes and phases provide a useful means of understanding the large and local scale effects on meteorological parameters. The phase angle can be used to determine the time of year the maximum or minimum of a given harmonic occurs. The analysis helps us to distinguish different pressure, relative humidity, temperature, precipitation and wind speed regimes and transition regions. Local and large scale phenomenon and some unusual seasonal patterns are also defined near Keban Dam and the irrigation area. Analysis of precipitation based on long term data shows that semi-annual fluctuations are predominant in the study area. Similarly, pressure variations are mostly influenced by semi-annual fluctuations. Temperature and humidity variations are mostly influenced by meso and micro scale fluctuations. Many large and meso scale climate change simulations for the 21st century are based on concentration of green house gases. A better understanding of these effects on soil erosion is necessary to determine social, economic and other impacts of erosion. The second part of this study covers the time series analysis of precipitation, rainfall erosivity and wind erosion at the Marmara Region. Rainfall and runoff erosivity factors are defined by considering the results of field measurements at 10 stations. Climatological changing effects on rainfall erosion have been determined by monitoring meteorological variables. In the previous studies, Fournier Index is defined to estimate the rainfall erosivity for the study area. The Fournier Index or in other words a climatic index

  15. Improved analysis and visualization of friction loop data: unraveling the energy dissipation of meso-scale stick-slip motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokorian, Jaap; Merlijn van Spengen, W.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a new method for analyzing and visualizing friction force measurements of meso-scale stick-slip motion, and introduce a method for extracting two separate dissipative energy components. Using a microelectromechanical system tribometer, we execute 2 million reciprocating sliding cycles, during which we measure the static friction force with a resolution of \

  16. Imaging Catalysts at Work: A Hierarchical Approach from the Macro- to the Meso- and Nano-scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights the importance of developing multi-scale characterisation techniques for analysing operating catalysts in their working environment. We emphasise that a hierarchy of insitu techniques that provides macro-, meso- and nano-scale information is required to elucidate and optimise....../heat/mass transport gradients in shaped catalysts and catalyst grains and c)meso- and nano-scale information about particles and clusters, whose physical and electronic properties are linked directly to the micro-kinetic behaviour of the catalysts. Techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR), Raman, X......-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV/Vis, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), which have mainly provided global atomic scale information, are being developed to provide the same information on a more local scale, often with sub-second time resolution. X-ray microscopy, both in the soft and more recently...

  17. Modelling daily sediment yield from a meso-scale catchment, a case study in SW Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keesstra, S. D.; Schoorl, J.; Temme, A. J. A. M.

    2009-01-01

    For management purposes it is important to be able to assess the sediment yield of a catchment. however, at this moment models designed for estimating sediment yield are only capable to give either very detailed storm-based information or year averages. The storm-based models require input data that are not available for most catchment. However, models that estimate yearly averages, ignore a lot of other detailed information, like daily discharge and precipitation data. There are currently no models available that model sediment yield on the temporal scale of one day and the spatial scale of a meso-scale catchment, without making use of very detailed input data. To fill this scientific and management gap, landscape evolution model LAPSUS has been adapted to model sediment yield on a daily basis. This model has the water balance as a base. To allow calibration with the discharge at the outlet, a subsurface flow module has been added to the model. (Author) 12 refs.

  18. Modelling daily sediment yield from a meso-scale catchment, a case study in SW Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keesstra, S. D.; Schoorl, J.; Temme, A. J. A. M.

    2009-07-01

    For management purposes it is important to be able to assess the sediment yield of a catchment. however, at this moment models designed for estimating sediment yield are only capable to give either very detailed storm-based information or year averages. The storm-based models require input data that are not available for most catchment. However, models that estimate yearly averages, ignore a lot of other detailed information, like daily discharge and precipitation data. There are currently no models available that model sediment yield on the temporal scale of one day and the spatial scale of a meso-scale catchment, without making use of very detailed input data. To fill this scientific and management gap, landscape evolution model LAPSUS has been adapted to model sediment yield on a daily basis. This model has the water balance as a base. To allow calibration with the discharge at the outlet, a subsurface flow module has been added to the model. (Author) 12 refs.

  19. Development of an Efficient Meso- scale Multi-phase Flow Solver in Nuclear Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taehun [City Univ. (CUNY), NY (United States)

    2015-10-20

    The proposed research aims at formulating a predictive high-order Lattice Boltzmann Equation for multi-phase flows relevant to nuclear energy related application - namely, saturated and sub-cooled boiling in reactors, and liquid- liquid mixing and extraction for fuel cycle separation. An efficient flow solver will be developed based on the Finite Element based Lattice Boltzmann Method (FE- LBM), accounting for phase-change heat transfer and capable of treating multiple phases over length scales from the submicron to the meter. A thermal LBM will be developed in order to handle adjustable Prandtl number, arbitrary specific heat ratio, a wide range of temperature variations, better numerical stability during liquid-vapor phase change, and full thermo-hydrodynamic consistency. Two-phase FE-LBM will be extended to liquid–liquid–gas multi-phase flows for application to high-fidelity simulations building up from the meso-scale up to the equipment sub-component scale. While several relevant applications exist, the initial applications for demonstration of the efficient methods to be developed as part of this project include numerical investigations of Critical Heat Flux (CHF) phenomena in nuclear reactor fuel bundles, and liquid-liquid mixing and interfacial area generation for liquid-liquid separations. In addition, targeted experiments will be conducted for validation of this advanced multi-phase model.

  20. Diatoms as a fingerprint of sub-catchment contributions to meso-scale catchment runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Julian; Wetzel, Carlos E.; Martinez-Carreras, Nuria; Ector, Luc; Pfister, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, calls were made for new eco-hydrological approaches to improve understanding of hydrological processes. Recently diatoms, one of the most common and diverse algal groups that can be easily transported by flowing water due to their small size (~10-200 µm), were used to detect the onset and cessation of surface runoff to small headwater streams and constrain isotopic and hydro-chemical hydrograph separation methods. While the method showed its potential in the hillslope-riparian zone-stream continuum of headwater catchments, the behavior of diatoms and their use for hydrological process research in meso-scale catchments remains uncertain. Diatoms can be a valuable support for isotope and hydro-chemical tracer methods when these become ambiguous with increasing scale. Distribution and abundance of diatom species is controlled by various environmental factors (pH, soil type, moisture conditions, exposition to sunlight, etc.). We therefore hypothesize that species abundance and composition can be used as a proxy for source areas. This presentation evaluates the potential for diatoms to trace source-areas in the nested meso-scale Attert River basin (250 km2, Luxembourg, Europe). We sampled diatom populations in streamwater during one flood event in Fall 2011 in 6 sub-catchments and the basin outlet - 17 to 28 samples/catchment for the different sampling locations. Diatoms were classified and counted in every individual sample. In total more than 400 diatom species were detected. Ordination analysis revealed a clear distinction between communities sampled in different sub-catchments. The species composition at the catchment outlet reflects a mixing of the diatom composition originating from different sub-catchments. This data suggests that diatoms indeed can reflect the geographic origin of stream water at the catchment outlet. The centroids of the ordination analysis might be linked to the physiographic characteristics (geology and land use) of the

  1. Meso-beta scale perturbations of the wind field by thunderstorm cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulanski, S. L.; Heymsfield, G. M.

    1986-01-01

    Data from the high density storm-scale rawinsonde network of the Severe Environmental Storms and Mesoscale Experiment revealed temporal and spatial changes in the divergence fields of the troposphere in response to severe storm evolution on May 2, 1979; these changes were detectable on the meso-beta scale. This unique set of data was subsequently used to study the evolution of the wind, divergence and vertical motion fields in the presence of intense convection. Mid- and upper-tropospheric divergence was superimposed over low-level convergence. The divergence, which has a maximum value of .0004/s, occurred 75 to 100 km upwind as well as over the tornadic cells. To the south of the storm cells, the kinematic pattern was in reverse, upper level convergence was superimposed over low-level divergence. A vertical motion doublet was found to ascend over the squall line and descend about 70 km south of the squall line. It is suggested that the following effects are accountable for the nature of the kinematic fields: (1) blocking of tropospheric environmental flow by the storm cells, (2) anvil outflows, particularly from the tornadic cells, and (3) divergence from the exit region of the jet stream.

  2. Meso-scale magnetic signatures for nuclear reactor steel irradiation embrittlement monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, J. D., E-mail: pradeep.ramuhalli@pnnl.gov; Ramuhalli, P., E-mail: pradeep.ramuhalli@pnnl.gov; Hu, S.; Li, Y.; Jiang, W.; Edwards, D. J.; Schemer-Kohrn, A. L.; Johnson, B. R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); McCloy, J. S., E-mail: john.mccloy@wsu.edu; Xu, K., E-mail: john.mccloy@wsu.edu [Washington State University, PO Box 642920, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States)

    2015-03-31

    Verifying the structural integrity of passive components in light water and advanced reactors will be necessary to ensure safe, long-term operations of the existing U.S. nuclear fleet. This objective can be achieved through nondestructive condition monitoring techniques, which can be integrated with plant operations to quantify the “state of health” of structural materials in real-time. While nondestructive methods for monitoring many classes of degradation (such as fatigue or stress corrosion cracking) are relatively advanced, this is not the case for degradation caused by irradiation. The development of nondestructive evaluation technologies for these types of degradation will require advanced materials characterization techniques and tools that enable comprehensive understanding of nuclear reactor material microstructural and behavioral changes under extreme operating environments. Irradiation-induced degradation of reactor steels causes changes in their microstructure that impacts their micro-magnetic properties. In this paper, we describe preliminary results of integrating advanced material characterization techniques with meso-scale computational models. In the future, this will help to provide an interpretive understanding of the state of degradation in structural materials. Microstructural data are presented from monocrystalline Fe and are correlated with variable-field magnetic force microscopy and micro-magnetic measurements. Ongoing research is focused on extending the measurements and models on thin films to gain insights into the structural state of irradiated materials and the resulting impact on magnetic properties. Preliminary conclusions from these correlations are presented, and next steps described.

  3. Image-based correlation between the meso-scale structure and deformation of closed-cell foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yongle, E-mail: yongle.sun@manchester.ac.uk [School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester, Sackville Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Zhang, Xun [Henry Moseley X-ray Imaging Facility, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Upper Brook Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Shao, Zhushan [School of Civil Engineering, Xi' an University of Architecture & Technology, Xi' an 710055 (China); Li, Q.M. [School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester, Sackville Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2017-03-14

    In the correlation between structural parameters and compressive behaviour of cellular materials, previous studies have mostly focused on averaged structural parameters and bulk material properties for different samples. This study focuses on the meso-scale correlation between structure and deformation in a 2D foam sample generated from a computed tomography slice of Alporas™ foam, for which quasi-static compression was simulated using 2D image-based finite element modelling. First, a comprehensive meso-scale structural characterisation of the 2D foam was carried out to determine the size, aspect ratio, orientation and anisotropy of individual cells, as well as the length, straightness, inclination and thickness of individual cell walls. Measurements were then conducted to obtain the axial distributions of local structural parameters averaged laterally to compression axis. Second, the meso-scale deformation was characterised by cell-wall strain, cell area ratio, digital image correlation strain and local compressive engineering strain. According to the results, the through-width sub-regions over an axial length between the average (lower bound) and the maximum (upper bound) of cell size should be used to characterise the meso-scale heterogeneity of the cell structure and deformation. It was found that the first crush band forms in a sub-region where the ratio of cell-wall thickness to cell-wall length is a minimum, in which the collapse deformation is dominated by the plastic bending and buckling of cell walls. Other morphological parameters have secondary effect on the initiation of crush band in the 2D foam. The finding of this study suggests that the measurement of local structural properties is crucial for the identification of the “weakest” region which determines the initiation of collapse and hence the corresponding collapse load of a heterogeneous cellular material.

  4. Image-based correlation between the meso-scale structure and deformation of closed-cell foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yongle; Zhang, Xun; Shao, Zhushan; Li, Q.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the correlation between structural parameters and compressive behaviour of cellular materials, previous studies have mostly focused on averaged structural parameters and bulk material properties for different samples. This study focuses on the meso-scale correlation between structure and deformation in a 2D foam sample generated from a computed tomography slice of Alporas™ foam, for which quasi-static compression was simulated using 2D image-based finite element modelling. First, a comprehensive meso-scale structural characterisation of the 2D foam was carried out to determine the size, aspect ratio, orientation and anisotropy of individual cells, as well as the length, straightness, inclination and thickness of individual cell walls. Measurements were then conducted to obtain the axial distributions of local structural parameters averaged laterally to compression axis. Second, the meso-scale deformation was characterised by cell-wall strain, cell area ratio, digital image correlation strain and local compressive engineering strain. According to the results, the through-width sub-regions over an axial length between the average (lower bound) and the maximum (upper bound) of cell size should be used to characterise the meso-scale heterogeneity of the cell structure and deformation. It was found that the first crush band forms in a sub-region where the ratio of cell-wall thickness to cell-wall length is a minimum, in which the collapse deformation is dominated by the plastic bending and buckling of cell walls. Other morphological parameters have secondary effect on the initiation of crush band in the 2D foam. The finding of this study suggests that the measurement of local structural properties is crucial for the identification of the “weakest” region which determines the initiation of collapse and hence the corresponding collapse load of a heterogeneous cellular material.

  5. Probing properties, stability, and performances of hierarchical meso-porous materials with nano-scale interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldinozzi, Gianguido; Gosset, Dominique; Simeone, David; Muller, Guillaume; Laberty-Robert, Christel; Sanchez, Clement

    2012-01-01

    Nano-crystals growth mechanism embedded into meso-porous thin films has been determined directly from grazing incidence X-ray diffraction data. We have shown, for the first time, that surface capillary forces control the growth mechanism of nano-crystals into these nano-architectures. Moreover, these data allow an estimation of the surface tension of the nano-crystals organized into a 3-D nano-architecture. The analysis of the variations in the strain field of these nano-crystals gives information on the evolution of the microstructure of these meso-porous films, that is, the contacts among nano-crystals. This work represents the first application of grazing incidence X-ray for understanding stability and performances of meso-porous thin films. This approach can be used to understand the structural stability of these nano-architectures at high temperature. (authors)

  6. Meso-Scale Modeling of Spall in a Heterogeneous Two-Phase Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, Harry Keo [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2008-07-11

    The influence of the heterogeneous second-phase particle structure and applied loading conditions on the ductile spall response of a model two-phase material was investigated. Quantitative metallography, three-dimensional (3D) meso-scale simulations (MSS), and small-scale spall experiments provided the foundation for this study. Nodular ductile iron (NDI) was selected as the model two-phase material for this study because it contains a large and readily identifiable second- phase particle population. Second-phase particles serve as the primary void nucleation sites in NDI and are, therefore, central to its ductile spall response. A mathematical model was developed for the NDI second-phase volume fraction that accounted for the non-uniform particle size and spacing distributions within the framework of a length-scale dependent Gaussian probability distribution function (PDF). This model was based on novel multiscale sampling measurements. A methodology was also developed for the computer generation of representative particle structures based on their mathematical description, enabling 3D MSS. MSS were used to investigate the effects of second-phase particle volume fraction and particle size, loading conditions, and physical domain size of simulation on the ductile spall response of a model two-phase material. MSS results reinforce existing model predictions, where the spall strength metric (SSM) logarithmically decreases with increasing particle volume fraction. While SSM predictions are nearly independent of applied load conditions at lower loading rates, which is consistent with previous studies, loading dependencies are observed at higher loading rates. There is also a logarithmic decrease in SSM for increasing (initial) void size, as well. A model was developed to account for the effects of loading rate, particle size, matrix sound-speed, and, in the NDI-specific case, the probabilistic particle volume fraction model. Small-scale spall experiments were designed

  7. Thermal performance of a meso-scale liquid-fuel combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, V.; Gupta, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Demonstrated successful combustion of liquid fuel-air mixtures in a novel meso-scale combustor. → Flame quenching was eliminated using heat recirculation in a swiss roll type combustor that also extended the flammability limits. → Liquid fuel was rapidly vaporized with the use of hot narrow channel walls that eliminated the need of a fuel atomizer. → Maximum power density of the combustor was estimated to be about 8.5 GW/m3 and heat load in the range of 50-280W. → Overall efficiency of the combustor was estimated in the range of 12 to 20%. - Abstract: Combustion in small scale devices poses significant challenges due to the quenching of reactions from wall heat losses as well as the significantly reduced time available for mixing and combustion. In the case of liquid fuels there are additional challenges related to atomization, vaporization and mixing with the oxidant in the very short time-scale liquid-fuel combustor. The liquid fuel employed here is methanol with air as the oxidizer. The combustor was designed based on the heat recirculating concept wherein the incoming reactants are preheated by the combustion products through heat exchange occurring via combustor walls. The combustor was fabricated from Zirconium phosphate, a ceramic with very low thermal conductivity (0.8 W m -1 K -1 ). The combustor had rectangular shaped double spiral geometry with combustion chamber in the center of the spiral formed by inlet and exhaust channels. Methanol and air were introduced immediately upstream at inlet of the combustor. The preheated walls of the inlet channel also act as a pre-vaporizer for liquid fuel which vaporizes the liquid fuel and then mixes with air prior to the fuel-air mixture reaching the combustion chamber. Rapid pre-vaporization of the liquid fuel by the hot narrow channel walls eliminated the necessity for a fuel atomizer. Self-sustained combustion of methanol-air was achieved in a chamber volume as small as 32.6 mm 3

  8. Improvement of Hydrological Simulations by Applying Daily Precipitation Interpolation Schemes in Meso-Scale Catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Szcześniak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based precipitation data are still the dominant input type for hydrological models. Spatial variability in precipitation can be represented by spatially interpolating gauge data using various techniques. In this study, the effect of daily precipitation interpolation methods on discharge simulations using the semi-distributed SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool model over a 30-year period is examined. The study was carried out in 11 meso-scale (119–3935 km2 sub-catchments lying in the Sulejów reservoir catchment in central Poland. Four methods were tested: the default SWAT method (Def based on the Nearest Neighbour technique, Thiessen Polygons (TP, Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW and Ordinary Kriging (OK. =The evaluation of methods was performed using a semi-automated calibration program SUFI-2 (Sequential Uncertainty Fitting Procedure Version 2 with two objective functions: Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE and the adjusted R2 coefficient (bR2. The results show that: (1 the most complex OK method outperformed other methods in terms of NSE; and (2 OK, IDW, and TP outperformed Def in terms of bR2. The median difference in daily/monthly NSE between OK and Def/TP/IDW calculated across all catchments ranged between 0.05 and 0.15, while the median difference between TP/IDW/OK and Def ranged between 0.05 and 0.07. The differences between pairs of interpolation methods were, however, spatially variable and a part of this variability was attributed to catchment properties: catchments characterised by low station density and low coefficient of variation of daily flows experienced more pronounced improvement resulting from using interpolation methods. Methods providing higher precipitation estimates often resulted in a better model performance. The implication from this study is that appropriate consideration of spatial precipitation variability (often neglected by model users that can be achieved using relatively simple interpolation methods can

  9. Quantitative modelling of the closure of meso-scale parallel currents in the nightside ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marchaudon

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available On 12 January 2000, during a northward IMF period, two successive conjunctions occur between the CUTLASS SuperDARN radar pair and the two satellites Ørsted and FAST. This situation is used to describe and model the electrodynamic of a nightside meso-scale arc associated with a convection shear. Three field-aligned current sheets, one upward and two downward on both sides, are observed. Based on the measurements of the parallel currents and either the conductance or the electric field profile, a model of the ionospheric current closure is developed along each satellite orbit. This model is one-dimensional, in a first attempt and a two-dimensional model is tested for the Ørsted case. These models allow one to quantify the balance between electric field gradients and ionospheric conductance gradients in the closure of the field-aligned currents. These radar and satellite data are also combined with images from Polar-UVI, allowing for a description of the time evolution of the arc between the two satellite passes. The arc is very dynamic, in spite of quiet solar wind conditions. Periodic enhancements of the convection and of electron precipitation associated with the arc are observed, probably associated with quasi-periodic injections of particles due to reconnection in the magnetotail. Also, a northward shift and a reorganisation of the precipitation pattern are observed, together with a southward shift of the convection shear. Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; electric fields and currents; particle precipitation – Magnetospheric physics (magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions

  10. Compression instrument for tissue experiments (cite) at the meso-scale: device validation - biomed 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Douglas W; Rajagopalan, Padma; Devita, Raffaella; Sparks, Jessica L

    2011-01-01

    Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) are the primary site of numerous transport and exchange processes essential for liver function. LSECs rest on a sparse extracellular matrix layer housed in the space of Disse, a 0.5-1LSECs from hepatocytes. To develop bioengineered liver tissue constructs, it is important to understand the mechanical interactions among LSECs, hepatocytes, and the extracellular matrix in the space of Disse. Currently the mechanical properties of space of Disse matrix are not well understood. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a device for performing mechanical tests at the meso-scale (100nm-100m), to enable novel matrix characterization within the space of Disse. The device utilizes a glass micro-spherical indentor attached to a cantilever made from a fiber optic cable. The 3-axis translation table used to bring the specimen in contact with the indentor and deform the cantilever. A position detector monitors the location of a laser passing through the cantilever and allows for the calculation of subsequent tissue deformation. The design allows micro-newton and nano-newton stress-strain tissue behavior to be quantified. To validate the device accuracy, 11 samples of silicon rubber in two formulations were tested to experimentally confirm their Young's moduli. Prior macroscopic unconfined compression tests determined the formulations of EcoFlex030 (n-6) and EcoFlex010 (n-5) to posses Young's moduli of 92.67+-6.22 and 43.10+-3.29 kPa respectively. Optical measurements taken utilizing CITE's position control and fiber optic cantilever found the moduli to be 106.4 kPa and 47.82 kPa.

  11. Up-scaling of multi-variable flood loss models from objects to land use units at the meso-scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kreibich

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Flood risk management increasingly relies on risk analyses, including loss modelling. Most of the flood loss models usually applied in standard practice have in common that complex damaging processes are described by simple approaches like stage-damage functions. Novel multi-variable models significantly improve loss estimation on the micro-scale and may also be advantageous for large-scale applications. However, more input parameters also reveal additional uncertainty, even more in upscaling procedures for meso-scale applications, where the parameters need to be estimated on a regional area-wide basis. To gain more knowledge about challenges associated with the up-scaling of multi-variable flood loss models the following approach is applied: Single- and multi-variable micro-scale flood loss models are up-scaled and applied on the meso-scale, namely on basis of ATKIS land-use units. Application and validation is undertaken in 19 municipalities, which were affected during the 2002 flood by the River Mulde in Saxony, Germany by comparison to official loss data provided by the Saxon Relief Bank (SAB.In the meso-scale case study based model validation, most multi-variable models show smaller errors than the uni-variable stage-damage functions. The results show the suitability of the up-scaling approach, and, in accordance with micro-scale validation studies, that multi-variable models are an improvement in flood loss modelling also on the meso-scale. However, uncertainties remain high, stressing the importance of uncertainty quantification. Thus, the development of probabilistic loss models, like BT-FLEMO used in this study, which inherently provide uncertainty information are the way forward.

  12. Up-scaling of multi-variable flood loss models from objects to land use units at the meso-scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Schröter, Kai; Merz, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    Flood risk management increasingly relies on risk analyses, including loss modelling. Most of the flood loss models usually applied in standard practice have in common that complex damaging processes are described by simple approaches like stage-damage functions. Novel multi-variable models significantly improve loss estimation on the micro-scale and may also be advantageous for large-scale applications. However, more input parameters also reveal additional uncertainty, even more in upscaling procedures for meso-scale applications, where the parameters need to be estimated on a regional area-wide basis. To gain more knowledge about challenges associated with the up-scaling of multi-variable flood loss models the following approach is applied: Single- and multi-variable micro-scale flood loss models are up-scaled and applied on the meso-scale, namely on basis of ATKIS land-use units. Application and validation is undertaken in 19 municipalities, which were affected during the 2002 flood by the River Mulde in Saxony, Germany by comparison to official loss data provided by the Saxon Relief Bank (SAB).In the meso-scale case study based model validation, most multi-variable models show smaller errors than the uni-variable stage-damage functions. The results show the suitability of the up-scaling approach, and, in accordance with micro-scale validation studies, that multi-variable models are an improvement in flood loss modelling also on the meso-scale. However, uncertainties remain high, stressing the importance of uncertainty quantification. Thus, the development of probabilistic loss models, like BT-FLEMO used in this study, which inherently provide uncertainty information are the way forward.

  13. Design and fabrication of a meso-scale stirling engine and combustor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echekki, Tarek (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Haroldsen, Brent L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Krafcik, Karen L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Morales, Alfredo Martin (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Mills, Bernice E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Liu, Shiling (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Lee, Jeremiah C. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Karpetis, Adionos N. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Chen, Jacqueline H. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Ceremuga, Joseph T. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Raber, Thomas N. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Hekmuuaty, Michelle A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-05-01

    Power sources capable of supplying tens of watts are needed for a wide variety of applications including portable electronics, sensors, micro aerial vehicles, and mini-robotics systems. The utility of these devices is often limited by the energy and power density capabilities of batteries. A small combustion engine using liquid hydrocarbon fuel could potentially increase both power and energy density by an order of magnitude or more. This report describes initial development work on a meso-scale external combustion engine based on the Stirling cycle. Although other engine designs perform better at macro-scales, we believe the Stirling engine cycle is better suited to small-scale applications. The ideal Stirling cycle requires efficient heat transfer. Consequently, unlike other thermodynamic cycles, the high heat transfer rates that are inherent with miniature devices are an advantage for the Stirling cycle. Furthermore, since the Stirling engine uses external combustion, the combustor and engine can be scaled and optimized semi-independently. Continuous combustion minimizes issues with flame initiation and propagation. It also allows consideration of a variety of techniques to promote combustion that would be difficult in a miniature internal combustion engine. The project included design and fabrication of both the engine and the combustor. Two engine designs were developed. The first used a cylindrical piston design fabricated with conventional machining processes. The second design, based on the Wankel rotor geometry, was fabricated by through-mold electroforming of nickel in SU8 and LIGA micromolds. These technologies provided the requisite precision and tight tolerances needed for efficient micro-engine operation. Electroformed nickel is ideal for micro-engine applications because of its high strength and ductility. A rotary geometry was chosen because its planar geometry was more compatible with the fabrication process. SU8 lithography provided rapid

  14. Information processing in micro and meso-scale neural circuits during normal and disease states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luongo, Francisco

    Neural computation can occur at multiple spatial and temporal timescales. The sum total of all of these processes is to guide optimal behaviors within the context of the constraints imposed by the physical world. How the circuits of the brain achieves this goal represents a central question in systems neuroscience. Here I explore the many ways in which the circuits of the brain can process information at both the micro and meso scale. Understanding the way information is represented and processed in the brain could shed light on the neuropathology underlying complex neuropsychiatric diseases such as autism and schizophrenia. Chapter 2 establishes an experimental paradigm for assaying patterns of microcircuit activity and examines the role of dopaminergic modulation on prefrontal microcircuits. We find that dopamine type 2 (D2) receptor activation results in an increase in spontaneous activity while dopamine type 1 (D1) activation does not. Chapter 3 of this dissertation presents a study that illustrates how cholingergic activation normally produces what has been suggested as a neural substrate of attention; pairwise decorrelation in microcircuit activity. This study also shows that in two etiologicall distinct mouse models of autism, FMR1 knockout mice and Valproic Acid exposed mice, this ability to decorrelate in the presence of cholinergic activation is lost. This represents a putative microcircuit level biomarker of autism. Chapter 4 examines the structure/function relationship within the prefrontal microcircuit. Spontaneous activity in prefrontal microcircuits is shown to be organized according to a small world architecture. Interestingly, this architecture is important for one concrete function of neuronal microcircuits; the ability to produce temporally stereotyped patterns of activation. In the final chapter, we identify subnetworks in chronic intracranial electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings using pairwise electrode coherence and dimensionality reduction

  15. The Heterotrophic Bacterial Response During the Meso-scale Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J. L.; Barber, R. T.; Ducklow, H. W.

    2002-12-01

    Previous meso-scale iron enrichments have demonstrated the stimulatory effect of iron on primary productivity and the accelerated flow of carbon into the surface ocean foodweb. In stratified waters, heterotrophic activity can work against carbon export by remineralizing POC and/or DOC back to CO2, effectively slowing the biological pump. To assess the response of heterotrophic activity to iron enrichment, we measured heterotrophic bacterial production and abundance during the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX). Heterotrophic bacterial processes primarily affect the latter of the two carbon export mechanisms, removal of DOC to the deep ocean. Heterotrophic bacterial production (BP), measured via tritiated thymidine (3H-TdR) and leucine (3H-Leu) incorporation, increased ~40% over the 18-d observation period in iron fertilized waters south of the Polar Front (South Patch). Also, South Patch BP was 61% higher than in the surrounding unfertilized waters. Abundance, measured by flow cytometry (FCM) and acridine orange direct counts (AODC), also increased in the South Patch from 3 to 5 x 108 cells liter-1, a 70% increase. Bacterial biomass increased from ~3.6 to 6.3 μg C liter-1, a clear indication that production rates exceeded removal rates (bactivory, viral lysis) over the course of 18 days. Biomass within the fertilized patch was 11% higher than in surrounding unfertilized waters reflecting a similar trend. This pattern is in contrast to SOIREE where no accumulation of biomass was observed. High DNA-containing (HDNA) cells detected by FCM also increased over time in iron fertilized waters from 20% to 46% relative to the total population suggesting an active subpopulation of cells that were growing faster than the removal rates. In iron fertilized waters north of the Polar Front (North Patch), BP and abundance were ~90% and 80% higher, respectively, than in unfertilized waters. Our results suggest an active bacterial population that responded to iron fertilization

  16. Evaluation of planetary boundary layer schemes in meso-scale simulations above the North and Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurps, Hauke; Tambke, Jens; Steinfeld, Gerald; von Bremen, Lueder

    2014-05-01

    The development and design of wind energy converters for offshore wind farms require profound knowledge of the wind profile in the lower atmosphere. Especially an accurate and reliable estimation of turbulence, shear and veer are necessary for the prediction of energy production and loads. Currently existing wind energy turbines in the North Sea have hub heights of around 90 m and upper tip heights around 150 m, which is already higher than the highest measurement masts (e.g. FINO1: 103 m). The next generation of wind turbines will clearly outrange these altitudes, so the interest is to examine the atmosphere's properties above the North Sea up to 300 m. Therefore, besides the Prandtl layer also the Ekman layer has to be taken into account, which implies that changes of the wind direction with height become more relevant. For this investigation we use the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF), a meso-scale numerical weather prediction system. In this study we compare different planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes (MYJ, MYNN, QNSE) with the same high quality input from ECMWF used as boundary conditions (ERA-Interim). It was found in previous studies that the quality of the boundary conditions is crucially important for the accuracy of comparisons between different PBL schemes. This is due to the fact that the major source of meso-scale simulation errors is introduced by the driving boundary conditions and not by the different schemes of the meso-scale model itself. Hence, small differences in results from different PBL schemes can be distorted arbitrarily by coarse input data. For instance, ERA-Interim data leads to meso-scale RMSE values of 1.4 m/s at 100 m height above sea surface with mean wind speeds around 10 m/s, whereas other Reanalysis products lead to RMSEs larger than 2 m/s. Second, we compare our simulations to operational NWP results from the COSMO model (run by the DWD). In addition to the wind profile, also the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE

  17. Meso-Scale Modelling of Deformation, Damage and Failure in Dual Phase Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari Sarraf, Iman

    Advanced high strength steels (AHSS), such as dual phase (DP) and transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels, offer high ductility, formability, and strength, as well as high strength-to-weight ratio and improved crash resistance. Dual phase steels belong to a family of high strength grades which consist of martensite, responsible for strengthening, distributed in a ductile ferrite matrix which accommodates the deformation throughout the forming process. It has been shown that the predominant damage mechanism and failure in DP steels depends on the ferrite and martensite grain sizes and their morphology, and can range from a mixture of brittle and ductile rupture to completely ductile rupture in a quasi-static uniaxial tension test. In this study, a hybrid finite element cellular automata model, initially proposed by Anton Shterenlikht (2003), was developed to evaluate the forming behaviour and predict the onset of instability and damage evolution in a dual phase steel. In this model, the finite element constitutive model is used to represent macro-level strain gradients and a damage variable, and two different cell arrays are designed to represent the ductile and brittle fracture modes in meso-scale. In the FE part of the model, a modified Rousselier ductile damage model is developed to account for nucleation, growth and coalescence of voids. Also, several rate-dependent hardening models were developed and evaluated to describe the work hardening flow curve of DP600. Based on statistical analysis and simulation results, a modified Johnson-Cook (JC) model and a multiplicative combination of the Voce-modified JC functions were found to be the most accurate hardening models. The developed models were then implemented in a user-defined material subroutine (VUMAT) for ABAQUS/Explicit finite element simulation software to simulate uniaxial tension tests at strain rates ranging from 0.001 1/s to 1000 1/s, Marciniak tests, and electrohydraulic free-forming (EHFF

  18. Meso-scale modelling of the heat conductivity effect on the shock response of a porous material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnyansky, A. D.

    2017-06-01

    Understanding of deformation mechanisms of porous materials under shock compression is important for tailoring material properties at the shock manufacturing of advanced materials from substrate powders and for studying the response of porous materials under shock loading. Numerical set-up of the present work considers a set of solid particles separated by air representing a volume of porous material. Condensed material in the meso-scale set-up is simulated with a viscoelastic rate sensitive material model with heat conduction formulated from the principles of irreversible thermodynamics. The model is implemented in the CTH shock physics code. The meso-scale CTH simulation of the shock loading of the representative volume reveals the mechanism of pore collapse and shows in detail the transition from a high porosity case typical for abnormal Hugoniot response to a moderate porosity case typical for conventional Hugoniot response. Results of the analysis agree with previous analytical considerations and support hypotheses used in the two-phase approach.

  19. The instability characteristics of lean premixed hydrogen and syngas flames stabilized on meso-scale bluff-body

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Yu Jeong

    2017-01-05

    Bluff-body flame stabilization has been used as one of main flame stabilization schemes to improve combustion stability in both large and small scale premixed combustion systems. The detailed investigation of instability characteristics is needed to understand flame stability mechanism. Direct numerical simulations are conducted to investigate flame dynamics on the instability of lean premixed hydrogen/air and syngas/air flames stabilized on a meso-scale bluff-body. A two-dimensional channel of 10 mm height and 10 mm length with a square bluff-body stabilizer of 0.5 mm is considered. The height of domain is chosen as an unconfined condition to minimize the effect of the blockage ratio. Flame/flow dynamics are observed by increasing the mean inflow velocity from a steady stable to unsteady asymmetrical instability, followed by blowoff. Detailed observations between hydrogen and syngas flames with a time scale analysis are presented.

  20. Meso- and Micro-scale Modelling in China: Wind atlas analysis for 12 meteorological stations in NE China (Dongbei)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Yang, Z.; Hansen, Jens Carsten

    As part of the “Meso-Scale and Micro-Scale Modelling in China” project, also known as the CMA component of the Sino-Danish Wind Energy Development Programme (WED), microscale modelling and analyses have been carried out for 12 meteorological stations in NE China. Wind speed and direction data from...... the twelve 70-m masts have been analysed using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP 10). The wind-climatological inputs are the observed wind climates derived from the WAsP Climate Analyst. Topographical inputs are elevation maps constructed from SRTM 3 data and roughness length maps...... constructed from Google Earth satellite imagery. The maps have been compared to Chinese topographical maps and adjusted accordingly. Summaries are given of the data measured at the 12 masts for the reference period 2009. The main result of the microscale modelling is an observational wind atlas for NE China...

  1. Production of ultra-thin nano-scaled graphene platelets from meso-carbon micro-beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

    2014-11-11

    A method of producing nano-scaled graphene platelets (NGPs) having an average thickness no greater than 50 nm, typically less than 2 nm, and, in many cases, no greater than 1 nm. The method comprises (a) intercalating a supply of meso-carbon microbeads (MCMBs) to produce intercalated MCMBs; and (b) exfoliating the intercalated MCMBs at a temperature and a pressure for a sufficient period of time to produce the desired NGPs. Optionally, the exfoliated product may be subjected to a mechanical shearing treatment, such as air milling, air jet milling, ball milling, pressurized fluid milling, rotating-blade grinding, or ultrasonicating. The NGPs are excellent reinforcement fillers for a range of matrix materials to produce nanocomposites. Nano-scaled graphene platelets are much lower-cost alternatives to carbon nano-tubes or carbon nano-fibers.

  2. Tracer experiment data sets for the verification of local and meso-scale atmospheric dispersion models including topographic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, E.; Schuler, W.

    1992-01-01

    Software and data for nuclear energy applications are acquired, tested and distributed by several information centres; in particular, relevant computer codes are distributed internationally by the OECD/NEA Data Bank (France) and by ESTSC and EPIC/RSIC (United States). This activity is coordinated among the centres and is extended outside the OECD area through an arrangement with the IAEA. This article proposes more specifically a scheme for acquiring, storing and distributing atmospheric tracer experiment data (ATE) required for verification of atmospheric dispersion models especially the most advanced ones including topographic effects and specific to the local and meso-scale. These well documented data sets will form a valuable complement to the set of atmospheric dispersion computer codes distributed internationally. Modellers will be able to gain confidence in the predictive power of their models or to verify their modelling skills. (au)

  3. A dual theory of price and value in a meso-scale economic model with stochastic profit rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    The problem of commodity price determination in a market-based, capitalist economy has a long and contentious history. Neoclassical microeconomic theories are based typically on marginal utility assumptions, while classical macroeconomic theories tend to be value-based. In the current work, I study a simplified meso-scale model of a commodity capitalist economy. The production/exchange model is represented by a network whose nodes are firms, workers, capitalists, and markets, and whose directed edges represent physical or monetary flows. A pair of multivariate linear equations with stochastic input parameters represent physical (supply/demand) and monetary (income/expense) balance. The input parameters yield a non-degenerate profit rate distribution across firms. Labor time and price are found to be eigenvector solutions to the respective balance equations. A simple relation is derived relating the expected value of commodity price to commodity labor content. Results of Monte Carlo simulations are consistent with the stochastic price/labor content relation.

  4. Characterisation of stable isotopes to identify residence times and runoff components in two meso-scale catchments in the Abay/Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekleab, S.; Wenninger, J.W.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of the stable isotopes oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (2H) were carried out in two meso-scale catchments, Chemoga (358 km2) and Jedeb (296 km2) south of Lake Tana, Abay/Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. The region is of paramount importance for the water resources in the Nile basin, as

  5. Identifying residence times and streamflow generation processes using ?18O and ?2H in meso-scale catchments in the Abay/Upper Blue Nile, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teklaeb, S.; Wenninger, J.W.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of the stable isotopes oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (2H) were carried out in two meso-scale catchments, Chemoga (358 km2) and Jedeb (296 km2) south of Lake Tana, Abay/Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. The region is of paramount importance for the water resources in the Nile basin.

  6. Development of a portable power system with meso-scale vortex combustor and thermo-electric device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimokuri, D; Hara, T; Ishizuka, S

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a small scale power generation system with a meso-scale vortex combustor has been developed. The system was consisted of a couple of thermo-electric device and a heat medium. The medium was made of duralumin, 40 × 40 × 20 mm and 52 g weight, and the vortex combustion chamber of 7 mm inner diameter was embedded in it. It was found that a stable flame could be established in the narrow 7 mm channel even the mean axial velocity reached 1.2 m/s. And furthermore, the vortex flow significantly enhanced the heat transfer from the burned gas to combustion chamber, and as a result, the medium was heated to 300°C quickly (within 5 minutes) by the combustion of propane / air mixture for 145W input energy. The system could successfully generate 1.98 W (4.3 V and 0.46 A), which corresponded to the energy conversion rate of 0.7 % per unit thermo-electric device

  7. Meso-scale Modeling of Block Copolymers Self-Assembly in Casting Solutions for Membrane Manufacture

    KAUST Repository

    Moreno Chaparro, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Isoporous membranes manufactured from diblock copolymer are successfully produced at laboratory scale under controlled conditions. Because of the complex phenomena involved, membrane preparation requires trial and error methodologies to find

  8. Coarse-graining to the meso and continuum scales with molecular-dynamics-like models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plimpton, Steve

    Many engineering-scale problems that industry or the national labs try to address with particle-based simulations occur at length and time scales well beyond the most optimistic hopes of traditional coarse-graining methods for molecular dynamics (MD), which typically start at the atomic scale and build upward. However classical MD can be viewed as an engine for simulating particles at literally any length or time scale, depending on the models used for individual particles and their interactions. To illustrate I'll highlight several coarse-grained (CG) materials models, some of which are likely familiar to molecular-scale modelers, but others probably not. These include models for water droplet freezing on surfaces, dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) models of explosives where particles have internal state, CG models of nano or colloidal particles in solution, models for aspherical particles, Peridynamics models for fracture, and models of granular materials at the scale of industrial processing. All of these can be implemented as MD-style models for either soft or hard materials; in fact they are all part of our LAMMPS MD package, added either by our group or contributed by collaborators. Unlike most all-atom MD simulations, CG simulations at these scales often involve highly non-uniform particle densities. So I'll also discuss a load-balancing method we've implemented for these kinds of models, which can improve parallel efficiencies. From the physics point-of-view, these models may be viewed as non-traditional or ad hoc. But because they are MD-style simulations, there's an opportunity for physicists to add statistical mechanics rigor to individual models. Or, in keeping with a theme of this session, to devise methods that more accurately bridge models from one scale to the next.

  9. Regionalization of meso-scale physically based nitrogen modeling outputs to the macro-scale by the use of regression trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künne, A.; Fink, M.; Kipka, H.; Krause, P.; Flügel, W.-A.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, a method is presented to estimate excess nitrogen on large scales considering single field processes. The approach was implemented by using the physically based model J2000-S to simulate the nitrogen balance as well as the hydrological dynamics within meso-scale test catchments. The model input data, the parameterization, the results and a detailed system understanding were used to generate the regression tree models with GUIDE (Loh, 2002). For each landscape type in the federal state of Thuringia a regression tree was calibrated and validated using the model data and results of excess nitrogen from the test catchments. Hydrological parameters such as precipitation and evapotranspiration were also used to predict excess nitrogen by the regression tree model. Hence they had to be calculated and regionalized as well for the state of Thuringia. Here the model J2000g was used to simulate the water balance on the macro scale. With the regression trees the excess nitrogen was regionalized for each landscape type of Thuringia. The approach allows calculating the potential nitrogen input into the streams of the drainage area. The results show that the applied methodology was able to transfer the detailed model results of the meso-scale catchments to the entire state of Thuringia by low computing time without losing the detailed knowledge from the nitrogen transport modeling. This was validated with modeling results from Fink (2004) in a catchment lying in the regionalization area. The regionalized and modeled excess nitrogen correspond with 94%. The study was conducted within the framework of a project in collaboration with the Thuringian Environmental Ministry, whose overall aim was to assess the effect of agro-environmental measures regarding load reduction in the water bodies of Thuringia to fulfill the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (Bäse et al., 2007; Fink, 2006; Fink et al., 2007).

  10. Investigations into Library Web-Scale Discovery Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Vaughan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Web-scale discovery services for libraries provide deep discovery to a library’s local and licensed content, and represent an evolution, perhaps a revolution, for end user information discovery as pertains to library collections.  This article frames the topic of web-scale discovery, and begins by illuminating web-scale discovery from an academic library’s perspective – that is, the internal perspective seeking widespread staff participation in the discovery conversation.  This included the creation of a discovery task force, a group which educated library staff, conducted internal staff surveys, and gathered observations from early adopters.  The article next addresses the substantial research conducted with library vendors which have developed these services.  Such work included drafting of multiple comprehensive question lists distributed to the vendors, onsite vendor visits, and continual tracking of service enhancements.  Together, feedback gained from library staff, insights arrived at by the Discovery Task Force, and information gathered from vendors collectively informed the recommendation of a service for the UNLV Libraries.

  11. Short-term meso-scale variability of mesozooplankton communities in a coastal upwelling system (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roura, Álvaro; Álvarez-Salgado, Xosé A.; González, Ángel F.; Gregori, María; Rosón, Gabriel; Guerra, Ángel

    2013-02-01

    The short-term, meso-scale variability of the mesozooplankton community present in the coastal upwelling system of the Ría de Vigo (NW Spain) has been analysed. Three well-defined communities were identified: coastal, frontal and oceanic, according to their holoplankton-meroplankton ratio, richness, and total abundance. These communities changed from summer to autumn due to a shift from downwelling to upwelling-favourable conditions coupled with taxa dependent changes in life strategies. Relationships between the resemblance matrix of mesozooplankton and the resemblance matrices of meteorologic, hydrographic and community-derived biotic variables were determined with distance-based linear models (DistLM, 18 variables), showing an increasing amount of explained variability of 6%, 16.1% and 54.5%, respectively. A simplified model revealed that the variability found in the resemblance matrix of mesozooplankton was mainly described by the holoplankton-meroplankton ratio, the total abundance, the influence of lunar cycles, the upwelling index and the richness; altogether accounting for 64% of the total variability. The largest variability of the mesozooplankton resemblance matrix (39.6%) is accounted by the holoplankton-meroplankton ratio, a simple index that describes appropriately the coastal-ocean gradient. The communities described herein kept their integrity in the studied upwelling and downwelling episodes in spite of the highly advective environment off the Ría de Vigo, presumably due to behavioural changes in the vertical position of the zooplankton.

  12. Continuous formation of N-chloro-N,N-dialkylamine solutions in well-mixed meso-scale flow reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Katherine E

    2015-01-01

    Summary The continuous flow synthesis of a range of organic solutions of N,N-dialkyl-N-chloramines is described using either a bespoke meso-scale tubular reactor with static mixers or a continuous stirred tank reactor. Both reactors promote the efficient mixing of a biphasic solution of N,N-dialkylamine in organic solvent, and aqueous sodium hypochlorite to achieve near quantitative conversions, in 72–100% in situ yields, and useful productivities of around 0.05 mol/h with residence times from 3 to 20 minutes. Initial calorimetric studies have been carried out to inform on reaction exotherms, rates and safe operation. Amines which partition mainly in the organic phase require longer reaction times, provided by the CSTR, to compensate for low mass transfer rates in the biphasic system. The green metrics of the reaction have been assessed and compared to existing procedures and have shown the continuous process is improved over previous procedures. The organic solutions of N,N-dialkyl-N-chloramines produced continuously will enable their use in tandem flow reactions with a range of nucleophilic substrates. PMID:26734089

  13. Continuous formation of N-chloro-N,N-dialkylamine solutions in well-mixed meso-scale flow reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. John Blacker

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The continuous flow synthesis of a range of organic solutions of N,N-dialkyl-N-chloramines is described using either a bespoke meso-scale tubular reactor with static mixers or a continuous stirred tank reactor. Both reactors promote the efficient mixing of a biphasic solution of N,N-dialkylamine in organic solvent, and aqueous sodium hypochlorite to achieve near quantitative conversions, in 72–100% in situ yields, and useful productivities of around 0.05 mol/h with residence times from 3 to 20 minutes. Initial calorimetric studies have been carried out to inform on reaction exotherms, rates and safe operation. Amines which partition mainly in the organic phase require longer reaction times, provided by the CSTR, to compensate for low mass transfer rates in the biphasic system. The green metrics of the reaction have been assessed and compared to existing procedures and have shown the continuous process is improved over previous procedures. The organic solutions of N,N-dialkyl-N-chloramines produced continuously will enable their use in tandem flow reactions with a range of nucleophilic substrates.

  14. Study of the Arrangement Effect of Units on the Shear Strength Masonry Walls in Meso-Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sepehrinia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Masonry is one of the oldest building materials which have been used in most heritage structures and new construction. In this study by using a meso-scale finite element model, the behavior of masonry walls is investigated under monotonic loading by Abaqus software. The most important factor in determining the behavior of masonry structures is discontinuity joints which are interface between unit and mortar. In most previous studies cohesive element is used for modeling of interface element. But in this study, by ignoring cohesive elements that represents the interface element between unit and mortar in masonry structures, it can be seen that while reducing the computational requirements, the results are in good agreement with experimental studies. Another important factor in the behavior of masonry walls is the arrangement of masonry units. In this study the overlapping effect of rows of units on the shear strength and failure mode of masonry walls have been investigated. As a result, it was observed that by increasing overlap, shear resistance of masonry walls increased.

  15. Meso-Scale Progressive Damage Behavior Characterization of Triaxial Braided Composites under Quasi-Static Tensile Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yiru; Zhang, Songjun; Jiang, Hongyong; Xiang, Jinwu

    2018-04-01

    Based on continuum damage mechanics (CDM), a sophisticated 3D meso-scale finite element (FE) model is proposed to characterize the progressive damage behavior of 2D Triaxial Braided Composites (2DTBC) with 60° braiding angle under quasi-static tensile load. The modified Von Mises strength criterion and 3D Hashin failure criterion are used to predict the damage initiation of the pure matrix and fiber tows. A combining interface damage and friction constitutive model is applied to predict the interface damage behavior. Murakami-Ohno stiffness degradation scheme is employed to predict the damage evolution process of each constituent. Coupling with the ordinary and translational symmetry boundary conditions, the tensile elastic response including tensile strength and failure strain of 2DTBC are in good agreement with the available experiment data. The numerical results show that the main failure modes of the composites under axial tensile load are pure matrix cracking, fiber and matrix tension failure in bias fiber tows, matrix tension failure in axial fiber tows and interface debonding; the main failure modes of the composites subjected to transverse tensile load are free-edge effect, matrix tension failure in bias fiber tows and interface debonding.

  16. Meso-Scale Finite Element Analysis of Mechanical Behavior of 3D Braided Composites Subjected to Biaxial Tension Loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Curiel-Sosa, Jose L.; Bui, Tinh Quoc

    2018-04-01

    In many engineering applications, 3D braided composites are designed for primary loading-bearing structures, and they are frequently subjected to multi-axial loading conditions during service. In this paper, a unit-cell based finite element model is developed for assessment of mechanical behavior of 3D braided composites under different biaxial tension loadings. To predict the damage initiation and evolution of braiding yarns and matrix in the unit-cell, we thus propose an anisotropic damage model based on Murakami damage theory in conjunction with Hashin failure criteria and maximum stress criteria. To attain exact stress ratio, force loading mode of periodic boundary conditions which never been attempted before is first executed to the unit-cell model to apply the biaxial tension loadings. The biaxial mechanical behaviors, such as the stress distribution, tensile modulus and tensile strength are analyzed and discussed. The damage development of 3D braided composites under typical biaxial tension loadings is simulated and the damage mechanisms are revealed in the simulation process. The present study generally provides a new reference to the meso-scale finite element analysis (FEA) of multi-axial mechanical behavior of other textile composites.

  17. Investigation of porous concrete through macro and meso-scale testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agar Ozbek, A.S.; Weerheijm, J.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.

    2010-01-01

    In designing a porous concrete, containing a high volume of air pores, the effects of its mesoscale phases on its macro level properties have to be known. For this purpose, porous concretes having different aggregate gradings and cement paste compositions were investigated through macro-scale

  18. Meso-scale Modeling of Block Copolymers Self-Assembly in Casting Solutions for Membrane Manufacture

    KAUST Repository

    Moreno Chaparro, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Isoporous membranes manufactured from diblock copolymer are successfully produced at laboratory scale under controlled conditions. Because of the complex phenomena involved, membrane preparation requires trial and error methodologies to find the optimal conditions, leading to a considerable demand of resources. Experimental insights demonstrate that the self-assembly of the block copolymers in solution has an effect on the final membrane structure. Nevertheless, the complete understanding of these multi-scale phenomena is elusive. Herein we use the coarse-grained method Dissipative Particle Dynamics to study the self-assembly of block copolymers that are used for the preparation of the membranes. To simulate representative time and length scales, we introduce a framework for model reduction of polymer chain representations for dissipative particle dynamics, which preserves the properties governing the phase equilibria. We reduce the number of degrees of freedom by accounting for the correlation between beads in fine-grained models via power laws and the consistent scaling of the simulation parameters. The coarse-graining models are consistent with the experimental evidence, showing a morphological transition of the aggregates as the polymer concentration and solvent affinity change. We show that hexagonal packing of the micelles can occur in solution within different windows of polymer concentration depending on the solvent affinity. However, the shape and size dispersion of the micelles determine the characteristic arrangement. We describe the order of crew-cut micelles using a rigid-sphere approximation and propose different phase parameters that characterize the emergence of monodisperse-spherical micelles in solution. Additionally, we investigate the effect of blending asymmetric diblock copolymers (AB/AC) over the properties of the membranes. We observe that the co-assembly mechanism localizes the AC molecules at the interface of A and B domains, and induces

  19. Understanding the shock and detonation response of high explosives at the continuum and meso scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, C. A.; Lambourn, B. D.; Whitworth, N. J.; James, H. R.; Belfield, W. J.

    2018-03-01

    The shock and detonation response of high explosives has been an active research topic for more than a century. In recent years, high quality data from experiments using embedded gauges and other diagnostic techniques have inspired the development of a range of new high-fidelity computer models for explosives. The experiments and models have led to new insights, both at the continuum scale applicable to most shock and detonation experiments, and at the mesoscale relevant to hotspots and burning within explosive microstructures. This article reviews the continuum and mesoscale models, and their application to explosive phenomena, gaining insights to aid future model development and improved understanding of the physics of shock initiation and detonation propagation. In particular, it is argued that "desensitization" and the effect of porosity on high explosives can both be explained by the combined effect of thermodynamics and hydrodynamics, rather than the traditional hotspot-based explanations linked to pressure-dependent reaction rates.

  20. Generic framework for meso-scale assessment of climate change hazards in coastal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl

    2013-01-01

    coastal environments worldwide through a specially designed coastal classification system containing 113 generic coastal types. The framework provides information on the degree to which key climate change hazards are inherent in a particular coastal environment, and covers the hazards of ecosystem......This paper presents a generic framework for assessing inherent climate change hazards in coastal environments through a combined coastal classification and hazard evaluation system. The framework is developed to be used at scales relevant for regional and national planning and aims to cover all...... and computing requirements, allowing for application in developing country settings. It is presented as a graphical tool—the Coastal Hazard Wheel—to ease its application for planning purposes....

  1. No Habitat Selection during Spring Migration at a Meso-Scale Range across Mosaic Landscapes: A Case Study with the Woodcock (Scolopax rusticola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariñe Crespo

    Full Text Available Success of migration in birds in part depends on habitat selection. Overall, it is still poorly known whether there is habitat selection amongst landbird migrants moving across landscapes. Europe is chiefly covered by agro-forestry mosaic landscapes, so migratory species associated to either agricultural landscapes or woodland habitats should theoretically find suitable stopover sites along migration. During migration from wintering to breeding quarters, woodcocks (Scolopax rusticola tagged with PTT satellite-tracking transmitters were used to test for the hypothesis that migrants associated to agro-forest habitats have no habitat selection during migration, at a meso-scale level. Using a GIS platform we extracted at a meso-scale range habitat cover at stopover localities. Results obtained from comparisons of soil covers between points randomly selected and true stopover localities sites revealed, as expected, the species may not select for particular habitats at a meso-scale range, because the habitat (or habitats required by the species can be found virtually everywhere on their migration route. However, those birds stopping over in places richer in cropland or mosaic habitats including both cropland and forest and with proportionally less closed forest stayed for longer than in areas with lower surfaces of cropland and mosaic and more closed forest. This suggests that areas rich in cropland or mosaic habitat were optimal.

  2. Meso-scale modeling of air pollution transport/chemistry/deposition and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitada, Toshihiro

    2007-01-01

    Transport/chemistry/deposition model for atmospheric trace chemical species is now regarded as an important tool for an understanding of the effects of various human activities, such as fuel combustion and deforestation, on human health, eco-system, and climate and for planning of appropriate control of emission sources. Several 'comprehensive' models have been proposed such as RADM (Chang, et al., 1987), STEM-II (Carmichael, et al., 1986), and CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality model, e.g., EPA website, 2003); the 'comprehensive' models include not only gas/aerosol phase chemistry but also aqueous phase chemistry in cloud/rain water in addition to the processes of advection, diffusion, wet deposition (mass transfer between aqueous and gas/aerosol phases), and dry deposition. The target of the development of the 'comprehensive' model will be that the model can correctly reproduce mass balance of various chemical species in the atmosphere with keeping adequate accuracy for calculated concentration distributions of chemical species. For the purpose, one of the important problems is a reliable wet deposition modeling, and here, we introduce two types of methods of 'cloud-resolving' and 'non-cloud-resolving' modeling for the wet deposition of pollutants. (author)

  3. In Situ Decommissioning Sensor Network, Meso-Scale Test Bed - Phase 3 Fluid Injection Test Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrato, M. G.

    2013-01-01

    The DOE Office of Environmental management (DOE EM) faces the challenge of decommissioning thousands of excess nuclear facilities, many of which are highly contaminated. A number of these excess facilities are massive and robust concrete structures that are suitable for isolating the contained contamination for hundreds of years, and a permanent decommissioning end state option for these facilities is in situ decommissioning (ISD). The ISD option is feasible for a limited, but meaningfull number of DOE contaminated facilities for which there is substantial incremental environmental, safety, and cost benefits versus alternate actions to demolish and excavate the entire facility and transport the rubble to a radioactive waste landfill. A general description of an ISD project encompasses an entombed facility; in some cases limited to the blow-grade portion of a facility. However, monitoring of the ISD structures is needed to demonstrate that the building retains its structural integrity and the contaminants remain entombed within the grout stabilization matrix. The DOE EM Office of Deactivation and Decommissioning and Facility Engineering (EM-13) Program Goal is to develop a monitoring system to demonstrate long-term performance of closed nuclear facilities using the ISD approach. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has designed and implemented the In Situ Decommissioning Sensor Network, Meso-Scale Test Bed (ISDSN-MSTB) to address the feasibility of deploying a long-term monitoring system into an ISD closed nuclear facility. The ISDSN-MSTB goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of installing and operating a remote sensor network to assess cementitious material durability, moisture-fluid flow through the cementitious material, and resulting transport potential for contaminate mobility in a decommissioned closed nuclear facility. The original ISDSN-MSTB installation and remote sensor network operation was demonstrated in FY 2011-12 at the ISDSN-MSTB test cube

  4. In Situ Decommissioning Sensor Network, Meso-Scale Test Bed - Phase 3 Fluid Injection Test Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrato, M. G.

    2013-09-27

    The DOE Office of Environmental management (DOE EM) faces the challenge of decommissioning thousands of excess nuclear facilities, many of which are highly contaminated. A number of these excess facilities are massive and robust concrete structures that are suitable for isolating the contained contamination for hundreds of years, and a permanent decommissioning end state option for these facilities is in situ decommissioning (ISD). The ISD option is feasible for a limited, but meaningfull number of DOE contaminated facilities for which there is substantial incremental environmental, safety, and cost benefits versus alternate actions to demolish and excavate the entire facility and transport the rubble to a radioactive waste landfill. A general description of an ISD project encompasses an entombed facility; in some cases limited to the blow-grade portion of a facility. However, monitoring of the ISD structures is needed to demonstrate that the building retains its structural integrity and the contaminants remain entombed within the grout stabilization matrix. The DOE EM Office of Deactivation and Decommissioning and Facility Engineering (EM-13) Program Goal is to develop a monitoring system to demonstrate long-term performance of closed nuclear facilities using the ISD approach. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has designed and implemented the In Situ Decommissioning Sensor Network, Meso-Scale Test Bed (ISDSN-MSTB) to address the feasibility of deploying a long-term monitoring system into an ISD closed nuclear facility. The ISDSN-MSTB goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of installing and operating a remote sensor network to assess cementitious material durability, moisture-fluid flow through the cementitious material, and resulting transport potential for contaminate mobility in a decommissioned closed nuclear facility. The original ISDSN-MSTB installation and remote sensor network operation was demonstrated in FY 2011-12 at the ISDSN-MSTB test cube

  5. Ensemble modelling of nitrogen fluxes: data fusion for a Swedish meso-scale catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Exbrayat

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Model predictions of biogeochemical fluxes at the landscape scale are highly uncertain, both with respect to stochastic (parameter and structural uncertainty. In this study 5 different models (LASCAM, LASCAM-S, a self-developed tool, SWAT and HBV-N-D designed to simulate hydrological fluxes as well as mobilisation and transport of one or several nitrogen species were applied to the mesoscale River Fyris catchment in mid-eastern Sweden.

    Hydrological calibration against 5 years of recorded daily discharge at two stations gave highly variable results with Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE ranging between 0.48 and 0.83. Using the calibrated hydrological parameter sets, the parameter uncertainty linked to the nitrogen parameters was explored in order to cover the range of possible predictions of exported loads for 3 nitrogen species: nitrate (NO3, ammonium (NH4 and total nitrogen (Tot-N. For each model and each nitrogen species, predictions were ranked in two different ways according to the performance indicated by two different goodness-of-fit measures: the coefficient of determination R2 and the root mean square error RMSE. A total of 2160 deterministic Single Model Ensembles (SME was generated using an increasing number of members (from the 2 best to the 10 best single predictions. Finally the best SME for each model, nitrogen species and discharge station were selected and merged into 330 different Multi-Model Ensembles (MME. The evolution of changes in R2 and RMSE was used as a performance descriptor of the ensemble procedure.

    In each studied case, numerous ensemble merging schemes were identified which outperformed any of their members. Improvement rates were generally higher when worse members were introduced. The highest improvements were achieved for the nitrogen SMEs compiled with multiple linear regression models with R2 selected members, which

  6. A unified bond theory, probabilistic meso-scale modeling, and experimental validation of deformed steel rebar in normal strength concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chenglin

    Bond between deformed rebar and concrete is affected by rebar deformation pattern, concrete properties, concrete confinement, and rebar-concrete interfacial properties. Two distinct groups of bond models were traditionally developed based on the dominant effects of concrete splitting and near-interface shear-off failures. Their accuracy highly depended upon the test data sets selected in analysis and calibration. In this study, a unified bond model is proposed and developed based on an analogy to the indentation problem around the rib front of deformed rebar. This mechanics-based model can take into account the combined effect of concrete splitting and interface shear-off failures, resulting in average bond strengths for all practical scenarios. To understand the fracture process associated with bond failure, a probabilistic meso-scale model of concrete is proposed and its sensitivity to interface and confinement strengths are investigated. Both the mechanical and finite element models are validated with the available test data sets and are superior to existing models in prediction of average bond strength (rib spacing-to-height ratio of deformed rebar. It can accurately predict the transition of failure modes from concrete splitting to rebar pullout and predict the effect of rebar surface characteristics as the rib spacing-to-height ratio increases. Based on the unified theory, a global bond model is proposed and developed by introducing bond-slip laws, and validated with testing of concrete beams with spliced reinforcement, achieving a load capacity prediction error of less than 26%. The optimal rebar parameters and concrete cover in structural designs can be derived from this study.

  7. Application and comparison of the SCS-CN-based rainfall-runoff model in meso-scale watershed and field scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, L.; Wang, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) based hydrologic model, has widely been used for agricultural watersheds in recent years. However, there will be relative error when applying it due to differentiation of geographical and climatological conditions. This paper introduces a more adaptable and propagable model based on the modified SCS-CN method, which specializes into two different scale cases of research regions. Combining the typical conditions of the Zhanghe irrigation district in southern part of China, such as hydrometeorologic conditions and surface conditions, SCS-CN based models were established. The Xinbu-Qiao River basin (area =1207 km2) and the Tuanlin runoff test area (area =2.87 km2)were taken as the study areas of basin scale and field scale in Zhanghe irrigation district. Applications were extended from ordinary meso-scale watershed to field scale in Zhanghe paddy field-dominated irrigated . Based on actual measurement data of land use, soil classification, hydrology and meteorology, quantitative evaluation and modifications for two coefficients, i.e. preceding loss and runoff curve, were proposed with corresponding models, table of CN values for different landuse and AMC(antecedent moisture condition) grading standard fitting for research cases were proposed. The simulation precision was increased by putting forward a 12h unit hydrograph of the field area, and 12h unit hydrograph were simplified. Comparison between different scales show that it’s more effectively to use SCS-CN model on field scale after parameters calibrated in basin scale These results can help discovering the rainfall-runoff rule in the district. Differences of established SCS-CN model's parameters between the two study regions are also considered. Varied forms of landuse and impacts of human activities were the important factors which can impact the rainfall-runoff relations in Zhanghe irrigation district.

  8. Simulation of Wind-Driven Snow Redistribution at a High-Elevation Alpine Site Using a Meso-Scale Atmospheric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vionnet, V.; Martin, E.; Masson, V.; Guyomarc'h, G.; Naaim-Bouvet, F.; Prokop, A.; Durand, Y.; Lac, C.

    2012-12-01

    In alpine regions, blowing snow events strongly influence the temporal and spatial evolution of the snow depth distribution throughout the winter season. We recently developed a new simulation system to gain understanding on the complex processes that drive the redistribution of snow by the wind in complex terrain. This new system couples directly the detailed snow-pack model Crocus with the meso-scale atmospheric model Meso-NH. A blowing snow scheme allows Meso-NH to simulate the transport of snow particles in the atmosphere. We used the coupled system to study a blowing snow event with snowfall that occurred in February 2011 in the Grandes Rousses range (French Alps). Three nested domains at an horizontal resolution of 450, 150 and 50 m allow the model to simulate the complex 3D precipitation and wind fields around our experimental site (2720 m a.s.l.) during this 22-hour event. Wind-induced snow transport is activated over the domains of higher resolution (150 and 50 m). We firstly assessed the ability of the model to reproduce atmospheric flows at high resolution in alpine terrain using a large dataset of observations (meteorological data, vertical profile of wind speed). Simulated blowing snow fluxes are then compared with measurements from SPC and mechanical snow traps. Finally a map of snow erosion and accumulation produced by Terrestrial Laser measurements allows to evaluate the quality of the simulated snow depth redistribution.

  9. Simulation of atmospheric temperature inversions over greater cairo using the MM5 Meso-Scale atmospheric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandil, H.A.; Elhadidi, B.M.; Kader, A. A.; Moaty, A.A.; Sherif, A.O.

    2006-01-01

    Air pollution episodes have been recorded in Cairo, during the fall season, since 1999, as a result of specific meteorological conditions combined with large quantity of pollutants created by several ground-based sources. The main reason for the smog-like episodes (black clouds) is adverse weather conditions with low and variable winds, high humidity and strong temperature inversions in the few-hundred meters above the ground. The two important types of temperature inversion affecting the air pollution are surface or ground (radiation) inversion and subsidence (elevated) inversion. The surface temperature inversion is associated with a rapid decrease in the ground surface temperature with the simultaneous existence of warm air in the lower troposphere. The inversion develops at dusk and continues until the surface warms again the following day. Pollutants emitted during the night are caught under this i nversion lid. S ubsidence inversion forms when warm air masses move over colder air masses. The inversion develops with a stagnating high-pressure system (generally associated with fair weather). Under these conditions, the pressure gradient becomes progressively weaker so that winds become light. These light winds greatly reduce the horizontal transport and dispersion of pollutants. At the same time, the subsidence inversion acts as a barrier to the vertical dispersion of the pollutants. In this study, the Penn State/NCAR meso -scale model (MM5) is used to simulate the temperature inversion phenomenon over Greater Cairo region during the fall season of 2004. Accurate computations of the heat transfer at the surface are needed to capture this phenomenon. This can only be achieved by high-resolution simulations in both horizontal and vertical directions. Hence, for accurate simulation of the temperature inversion over Greater Cairo, four nested domains of resolutions of 27 km, 9 km, 3 km and 1 km, respectively, were used in the horizontal planes. Furthermore, 42

  10. Wildfire particulate matter in Europe during summer 2003: meso-scale modeling of smoke emissions, transport and radiative effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hodzic

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates effects of wildfire emissions on air quality in Europe during an intense fire season that occurred in summer 2003. A meso-scale chemistry transport model CHIMERE is used, together with ground based and satellite aerosol optical measurements, to assess the dispersion of fire emissions and to quantify the associated radiative effects. The model has been improved to take into account a MODIS-derived daily smoke emission inventory as well as the injection altitude of smoke particles. The simulated aerosol optical properties are put into a radiative transfer model to estimate (off-line the effects of smoke particles on photolysis rates and atmospheric radiative forcing. We have found that the simulated wildfires generated comparable amounts of primary aerosol pollutants (130 kTons of PM2.5, fine particles to anthropogenic sources during August 2003, and caused significant changes in aerosol optical properties not only close to the fire source regions, but also over a large part of Europe as a result of the long-range transport of the smoke. Including these emissions into the model significantly improved its performance in simulating observed aerosol concentrations and optical properties. Quantitative comparison with MODIS and POLDER data during the major fire event (3–8 August 2003 showed the ability of the model to reproduce high aerosol optical thickness (AOT over Northern Europe caused by the advection of the smoke plume from the Portugal source region. Although there was a fairly good spatial agreement with satellite data (correlation coefficients ranging from 0.4 to 0.9, the temporal variability of AOT data at specific AERONET locations was not well captured by the model. Statistical analyses of model-simulated AOT data at AERONET ground stations showed a significant decrease in the model biases suggesting that wildfire emissions are responsible for a 30% enhancement in mean AOT values during the heat

  11. Implications of meso- to micro-scale deformation for fault sealing capacity: Insights from the Lenghu5 fold-and-thrust belt, Qaidam Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liujuan; Pei, Yangwen; Li, Anren; Wu, Kongyou

    2018-06-01

    As faults can be barriers to or conduits for fluid flow, it is critical to understand fault seal processes and their effects on the sealing capacity of a fault zone. Apart from the stratigraphic juxtaposition between the hanging wall and footwall, the development of fault rocks is of great importance in changing the sealing capacity of a fault zone. Therefore, field-based structural analysis has been employed to identify the meso-scale and micro-scale deformation features and to understand their effects on modifying the porosity of fault rocks. In this study, the Lenghu5 fold-and-thrust belt (northern Qaidam Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau), with well-exposed outcrops, was selected as an example for meso-scale outcrop mapping and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) micro-scale structural analysis. The detailed outcrop maps enabled us to link the samples with meso-scale fault architecture. The representative rock samples, collected in both the fault zones and the undeformed hanging walls/footwalls, were studied by SEM micro-structural analysis to identify the deformation features at the micro-scale and evaluate their influences on the fluid flow properties of the fault rocks. Based on the multi-scale structural analyses, the deformation mechanisms accounting for porosity reduction in the fault rocks have been identified, which are clay smearing, phyllosilicate-framework networking and cataclasis. The sealing capacity is highly dependent on the clay content: high concentrations of clay minerals in fault rocks are likely to form continuous clay smears or micro- clay smears between framework silicates, which can significantly decrease the porosity of the fault rocks. However, there is no direct link between the fault rocks and host rocks. Similar stratigraphic juxtapositions can generate fault rocks with very different magnitudes of porosity reduction. The resultant fault rocks can only be predicted only when the fault throw is smaller than the thickness of a faulted bed, in

  12. Electrical Characteristics, Electrode Sheath and Contamination Layer Behavior of a Meso-Scale Premixed Methane-Air Flame Under AC/DC Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Yan, Limin; Zhang, Hao; Li, Guoxiu

    2016-05-01

    Electrical characteristics of a nozzle-attached meso-scale premixed methane-air flame under low-frequency AC (0-4300 V, 0-500 Hz) and DC (0-3300 V) electric fields were studied. I-V curves were measured under different experimental conditions to estimate the magnitude of the total current 100-102 μA, the electron density 1015-1016 m-3 and further the power dissipation ≤ 0.7 W in the reaction zone. At the same time, the meso-scale premixed flame conductivity 10-4-10-3 Ω-1·m-1 as a function of voltage and frequency was experimentally obtained and was believed to represent a useful order-of magnitude estimate. Moreover, the influence of the collision sheath relating to Debye length (31-98 μm) and the contamination layer of an active electrode on measurements was discussed, based on the combination of simulation and theoretical analysis. As a result, the electrode sheath dimension was evaluated to less than 0.5 mm, which indicated a complex effect of the collision sheath on the current measurements. The surface contamination effect of an active electrode was further analyzed using the SEM imaging method, which showed elements immigration during the contamination layer formation process. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51376021), and the Fundamental Research Fund for Major Universities (No. 2013JBM079)

  13. Content validity and electronic PRO (ePRO) usability of the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale-Mesothelioma (LCSS-Meso) in mesothelioma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelhorn, Heather L; Skalicky, Anne M; Balantac, Zaneta; Eremenco, Sonya; Cimms, Tricia; Halling, Katarina; Hollen, Patricia J; Gralla, Richard J; Mahoney, Martin C; Sexton, Chris

    2018-02-01

    Obtaining qualitative data directly from the patient perspective enhances the content validity of patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments. The objective of this qualitative study was to evaluate the content validity of the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale for Mesothelioma (LCSS-Meso) and its usability on an electronic device. A cross-sectional methodological study, using a qualitative approach, was conducted among patients recruited from four clinical sites. The primary target population included patients with pleural mesothelioma; data were also collected from patients with peritoneal mesothelioma on an exploratory basis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted consisting of concept elicitation, cognitive interviewing, and evaluation of electronic patient-reported outcome (ePRO) usability. Participants (n = 21) were interviewed in person (n = 9) or by telephone (n = 12); 71% were male with a mean age of 69 years (SD = 14). The most common signs and symptoms experienced by participants with pleural mesothelioma (n = 18) were shortness of breath, fluid build-up, pain, fatigue, coughing, and appetite loss. The most commonly described symptoms for those with peritoneal mesothelioma (n = 4) were bloating, changes in appetite, fatigue, fluid build-up, shortness of breath, and pain. Participants with pleural mesothelioma commonly described symptoms assessed by the LCSS-Meso in language consistent with the questionnaire and a majority understood and easily completed each of the items. The ePRO version was easy to use, and there was no evidence that the electronic formatting changed the way participants responded to the questions. Results support the content validity of the LCSS-Meso and the usability of the electronic format for use in assessing symptoms among patients with pleural mesothelioma.

  14. Utilizing the meso-scale grain boundary stress to estimate the onset of delamination in 2099-T861 aluminium–lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Russell J; Beaudoin, Armand J

    2010-01-01

    Aluminium–lithium alloys provide a lower density and higher stiffness alternative to other high strength aluminium alloys. However, many Al–Li alloys exhibit a non-traditional failure mechanism called delamination, which refers to the failure of the elongated grain boundary interface. In this investigation, delaminations were observed after cyclic deformation of both uniaxial and torsion experiments. A cyclically stable rate-independent crystal plasticity framework with kinematic hardening was developed to address many experimental trends of stabilized cyclic plasticity. Utilizing this framework, meso-scale grain boundary interface stresses were estimated with uniform deformation and bi-crystal models. These models are computationally amenable to investigate both orientation dependence and the statistical nature of the grain boundary stresses for a given bulk texture and nominal loading. A coupled shear-normal Findley-based damage parameter was formulated to quantitatively characterize the nucleation of delamination consistently with experimental trends

  15. Combined meso-scale modeling and experimental investigation of the effect of mechanical damage on the transport properties of cementitious composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Balaji; Niknezhad, Davood; Bernard, Fabrice; Kamali-Bernard, Siham

    2016-09-01

    The transport properties of cementitious composites such as concrete are important indicators of their durability, and are known to be heavily influenced by mechanical loading. In the current work, we use meso-scale hygro-mechanical modeling with a morphological 3D two phase mortar-aggregate model, in conjunction with experimentally obtained properties, to investigate the coupling between mechanical loading and damage and the permeability of the composite. The increase in permeability of a cylindrical test specimen at 28% aggregate fraction during a uniaxial displacement-controlled compression test at 85% of the peak load was measured using a gas permeameter. The mortar's mechanical behavior is assumed to follow the well-known compression damaged plasticity (CDP) model with isotropic damage, at varying thresholds, and obtained from different envelope curves. The damaged intrinsic permeability of the mortar evolves according to a logarithmic matching law with progressive loading. We fit the matching law parameters to the experimental result for the test specimen by inverse identification using our meso-scale model. We then subject a series of virtual composite specimens to quasi-static uniaxial compressive loading with varying boundary conditions to obtain the simulated damage and strain evolutions, and use the damage data and the previously identified parameters to determine the evolution of the macroscopic permeability tensor for the specimens, using a network model. We conduct a full parameter study by varying aggregate volume fraction, granulometric distribution, loading/boundary conditions and "matching law" parameters, as well as for different strain-damage thresholds and uniaxial loading envelope curves. Based on this study, we propose Avrami equation-based upper and lower bounds for the evolution of the damaged permeability of the composite.

  16. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope variation in the northern lampfish and Neocalanus, marine survival rates of pink salmon, and meso-scale eddies in the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Thomas C., Jr.

    2010-10-01

    Northern lampfish (NLF), Stenobrachius leucopsarus (Myctophidae), the dominant pelagic fish taxon of the subarctic North Pacific Ocean, were sampled opportunistically in MOCNESS tows made on continental slope waters of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) as well as in deep areas of Prince William Sound (PWS) during 1997-2006. The overall mean whole-body lipid-corrected stable carbon isotope value of NLF from the GOA was -21.4 (SD = 0.7) whereas that from PWS was -19.5 (SD = 0.9). This pattern is similar to that observed for late feeding stage Neocalanus cristatus copepods thus confirming a mean cross-shelf carbon stable isotope gradient. As well, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between the considerable temporal variation in the monthly mean carbon stable isotope composition of GOA Neocalanus and GOA NLF ( r = 0.69, P food chain length whereas carbon stable isotopes reflect organic carbon production. The carbon stable isotope values of NLF, measured in May, were positively correlated to marine survival rate of PWS hatchery salmon cohorts entering the marine environment the same year ( r = 0.84, P < 0.001). The carbon stable isotope values for Neocalanus in May were also positively correlated to salmon marine survival ( r = 0.82, P < 0.001). Processes thus manifested through the carbon stable isotope value of biota from the continental slope more closely predicted marine survival rate than that of the salmon themselves. The incipient relationships suggested by the correlations are consistent with the hypothesis that exchange between coastal and oceanic waters in the study area is driven by meso-scale eddies. These eddies facilitate the occurrence of slope phytoplankton blooms as well as drive oceanic zooplankton subsidies into coastal waters. The strong as well as more significant correlations of salmon marine survival rate to NLF as well as slope Neocalanus carbon stable isotope values point to processes taking place at the slope (i.e., interactions

  17. A large-scale chromosome-specific SNP discovery guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Bala Ani; Lucas, Stuart; Budak, Hikmet

    2017-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most prevalent type of variation in genomes that are increasingly being used as molecular markers in diversity analyses, mapping and cloning of genes, and germplasm characterization. However, only a few studies reported large-scale SNP discovery in Aegilops tauschii, restricting their potential use as markers for the low-polymorphic D genome. Here, we report 68,592 SNPs found on the gene-related sequences of the 5D chromosome of Ae. tauschii genotype MvGB589 using genomic and transcriptomic sequences from seven Ae. tauschii accessions, including AL8/78, the only genotype for which a draft genome sequence is available at present. We also suggest a workflow to compare SNP positions in homologous regions on the 5D chromosome of Triticum aestivum, bread wheat, to mark single nucleotide variations between these closely related species. Overall, the identified SNPs define a density of 4.49 SNPs per kilobyte, among the highest reported for the genic regions of Ae. tauschii so far. To our knowledge, this study also presents the first chromosome-specific SNP catalog in Ae. tauschii that should facilitate the association of these SNPs with morphological traits on chromosome 5D to be ultimately targeted for wheat improvement.

  18. Evaluation of the performance of a meso-scale NWP model to forecast solar irradiance on Reunion Island for photovoltaic power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalecinski, Natacha; Haeffelin, Martial; Badosa, Jordi; Periard, Christophe

    2013-04-01

    Solar photovoltaic power is a predominant source of electrical power on Reunion Island, regularly providing near 30% of electrical power demand for a few hours per day. However solar power on Reunion Island is strongly modulated by clouds in small temporal and spatial scales. Today regional regulations require that new solar photovoltaic plants be combined with storage systems to reduce electrical power fluctuations on the grid. Hence cloud and solar irradiance forecasting becomes an important tool to help optimize the operation of new solar photovoltaic plants on Reunion Island. Reunion Island, located in the South West of the Indian Ocean, is exposed to persistent trade winds, most of all in winter. In summer, the southward motion of the ITCZ brings atmospheric instabilities on the island and weakens trade winds. This context together with the complex topography of Reunion Island, which is about 60 km wide, with two high summits (3070 and 2512 m) connected by a 1500 m plateau, makes cloudiness very heterogeneous. High cloudiness variability is found between mountain and coastal areas and between the windward, leeward and lateral regions defined with respect to the synoptic wind direction. A detailed study of local dynamics variability is necessary to better understand cloud life cycles around the island. In the presented work, our approach to explore the short-term solar irradiance forecast at local scales is to use the deterministic output from a meso-scale numerical weather prediction (NWP) model, AROME, developed by Meteo France. To start we evaluate the performance of the deterministic forecast from AROME by using meteorological measurements from 21 meteorological ground stations widely spread around the island (and with altitudes from 8 to 2245 m). Ground measurements include solar irradiation, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, air temperature, precipitation and pressure. Secondly we study in the model the local dynamics and thermodynamics that

  19. Implementing web-scale discovery services a practical guide for librarians

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, JoLinda

    2014-01-01

    Implementing Web-Scale Discovery Services: A Practical Guide for Librarians is a source for librarians seeking to evaluate, purchase, and implement a web-scale discovery service. The book breaks down each phase of the project into decision points and action plans to help librarians select and implement a system that meets their specific needs.

  20. Evaluation of high intensity precipitation from 16 Regional climate models over a meso-scale catchment in the Midlands Regions of England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterhall, F.; He, Y.; Cloke, H.; Pappenberger, F.; Freer, J.; Wilson, M.; McGregor, G.

    2009-04-01

    Local flooding events are often triggered by high-intensity rain-fall events, and it is important that these can be correctly modelled by Regional Climate Models (RCMs) if the results are to be used in climate impact assessment. In this study, daily precipitation from 16 RCMs was compared with observations over a meso-scale catchment in the Midlands Region of England. The RCM data was provided from the European research project ENSEMBLES and the precipitation data from the UK MetOffice. The RCMs were all driven by reanalysis data from the ERA40 dataset over the time period 1961-2000. The ENSEMBLES data is on the spatial scale of 25 x 25 km and it was disaggregated onto a 5 x 5 km grid over the catchment and compared with interpolated observational data with the same resolution. The mean precipitation was generally underestimated by the ENSEMBLES data, and the maximum and persistence of high intensity rainfall was even more underestimated. The inter-annual variability was not fully captured by the RCMs, and there was a systematic underestimation of precipitation during the autumn months. The spatial pattern in the modelled precipitation data was too smooth in comparison with the observed data, especially in the high altitudes in the western part of the catchment where the high precipitation usually occurs. The RCM outputs cannot reproduce the current high intensity precipitation events that are needed to sufficiently model extreme flood events. The results point out the discrepancy between climate model output and the high intensity precipitation input needs for hydrological impact modelling.

  1. Water supply sustainability and adaptation strategies under anthropogenic and climatic changes of a meso-scale Mediterranean catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Lila; Ruelland, Denis; Estupina, Valérie Borrell; Dezetter, Alain; Servat, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Assessing water supply sustainability is crucial to meet stakeholders' needs, notably in the Mediterranean. This region has been identified as a climate change hot spot, and as a region where water demand is continuously increasing due to population growth and the expansion of irrigated areas. The Hérault River catchment (2500 km2, France) is a typical example and a negative trend in discharge has been observed since the 1960s. In this context, local stakeholders need to evaluate possible future changes in water allocation capacity in the catchment, using climate change, dam management and water use scenarios. A modelling framework that was already calibrated and validated on this catchment over the last 50 years was used to assess whether water resources could meet water demands at the 2030 horizon for the domestic, agricultural and environmental sectors. Water supply sustainability was evaluated at the sub-basin scale according to priority allocations using a water supply capacity index, frequency of unsatisfactory years as well as the reliability, resilience and sustainability metrics. Water use projections were based on the evolution of population, per-unit water demand, irrigated areas, water supply network efficiency, as well as on the evaluation of a biological flow. Climate projections were based on an increase in temperature up to 2°C and a decrease in daily precipitation by 20%. Adaptation strategies considered reducing per-unit water demand for the domestic sector and the importation of water volume for the agricultural sector. The dissociated effects of water use and climatic constraints on water supply sustainability were evaluated. Results showed that the downstream portions would be the more impacted as they are the most exploited ones. In the domestic sector, sustainability indicators would be more degraded by climate change scenarios than water use constraints. In the agricultural sector the negative impact of water use scenarios would be

  2. Combined influence of meso-scale circulation and bathymetry on the foraging behaviour of a diving predator, the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Annette; Trathan, Philip N.; Edmonston, Johnnie G.; Bost, Charles-André

    2016-02-01

    Investigating the responses of marine predators to environmental features is of key importance for understanding their foraging behaviour and reproductive success. In this study we examined the foraging behaviour of king penguins breeding at Kerguelen (southern Indian Ocean) in relation to oceanographic and bathymetric features within their foraging ambit. We used ARGOS and Global Positioning System tracking together with Time-Depth-Temperature-Recorders (TDR) to follow the at-sea movements of incubating and brooding king penguins. Combining the penguin behaviour with oceanographic data at the surface through satellite data and at depth through in-situ recordings by the TDRs enabled us to explore how these predators adjusted their horizontal and vertical foraging movements in response to their physical environment. Relating the observed behaviour and oceanographic patterns to local bathymetry lead to a comprehensive picture of the combined influence of bathymetry and meso-scale circulation on the foraging behaviour of king penguins. During both breeding stages king penguins foraged in the area to the south-east of Kerguelen, where they explored an influx of cold waters of southern origin interacting with the Kerguelen Plateau bathymetry. Foraging in the Polar Front and at the thermocline was associated with high prey capture rates. However, foraging trip orientation and water mass utilization suggested that bathymetrically entrained cold-water features provided the most favourable foraging locations. Our study explicitly reports the exploration of bathymetry-related oceanographic features by foraging king penguins. It confirms the presence of Areas of Ecological Significance for marine predators on the Kerguelen Plateau, and suggests the importance of further areas related to the cold-water flow along the shelf break of the Kerguelen Plateau.

  3. High-frequency and meso-scale winter sea-ice variability in the Southern Ocean in a high-resolution global ocean model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stössel, Achim; von Storch, Jin-Song; Notz, Dirk; Haak, Helmuth; Gerdes, Rüdiger

    2018-03-01

    This study is on high-frequency temporal variability (HFV) and meso-scale spatial variability (MSV) of winter sea-ice drift in the Southern Ocean simulated with a global high-resolution (0.1°) sea ice-ocean model. Hourly model output is used to distinguish MSV characteristics via patterns of mean kinetic energy (MKE) and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) of ice drift, surface currents, and wind stress, and HFV characteristics via time series of raw variables and correlations. We find that (1) along the ice edge, the MSV of ice drift coincides with that of surface currents, in particular such due to ocean eddies; (2) along the coast, the MKE of ice drift is substantially larger than its TKE and coincides with the MKE of wind stress; (3) in the interior of the ice pack, the TKE of ice drift is larger than its MKE, mostly following the TKE pattern of wind stress; (4) the HFV of ice drift is dominated by weather events, and, in the absence of tidal currents, locally and to a much smaller degree by inertial oscillations; (5) along the ice edge, the curl of the ice drift is highly correlated with that of surface currents, mostly reflecting the impact of ocean eddies. Where ocean eddies occur and the ice is relatively thin, ice velocity is characterized by enhanced relative vorticity, largely matching that of surface currents. Along the ice edge, ocean eddies produce distinct ice filaments, the realism of which is largely confirmed by high-resolution satellite passive-microwave data.

  4. Meso-scale on-road vehicle emission inventory approach: a study on Dhaka City of Bangladesh supporting the 'cause-effect' analysis of the transport system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Asif; Allan, Andrew; Zito, Rocco

    2016-03-01

    The study aims to develop an emission inventory (EI) approach and conduct an inventory for vehicular sources in Dhaka City, Bangladesh. A meso-scale modelling approach was adopted for the inventory; the factors that influence the emissions and the magnitude of emission variation were identified and reported on, which was an innovative approach to account emissions unlike the conventional inventory approaches. Two techniques for the emission inventory were applied, viz. (i) a combined top-down and bottom-up approach that considered the total vehicle population and the average diurnal on-road vehicle speed profile in the city and (ii) a bottom-up approach that accounted for road link-specific emissions of the city considering diurnal traffic volume and speed profiles of the respective roads. For the bottom-up approach, road link-specific detailed data were obtained through field survey in 2012, where mid-block traffic count of the day, vehicle speed profile, road network and congestion data were collected principally. The emission variances for the change in transport system characteristics (like change in fuel type, AC usage pattern, increased speed and reduced congestion/stopping) were predicted and analysed in this study; congestion influenced average speed of the vehicles, and fuel types in the vehicles were identified as the major stressors. The study performance was considered reasonable when comparing with the limited number of similar studies conducted earlier. Given the increasing trend of private vehicles each year coupled with increasing traffic congestion, the city is under threat of increased vehicular emissions unless a good management strategy is implemented. Although the inventory is conducted for Dhaka and the result may be important locally, the approach adopted in this research is innovative in nature to be followed for conducting research on other urban transport systems.

  5. LHCbDIRAC as Apache Mesos microservices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haen, Christophe; Couturier, Benjamin

    2017-10-01

    The LHCb experiment relies on LHCbDIRAC, an extension of DIRAC, to drive its offline computing. This middleware provides a development framework and a complete set of components for building distributed computing systems. These components are currently installed and run on virtual machines (VM) or bare metal hardware. Due to the increased workload, high availability is becoming more and more important for the LHCbDIRAC services, and the current installation model is showing its limitations. Apache Mesos is a cluster manager which aims at abstracting heterogeneous physical resources on which various tasks can be distributed thanks to so called “frameworks” The Marathon framework is suitable for long running tasks such as the DIRAC services, while the Chronos framework meets the needs of cron-like tasks like the DIRAC agents. A combination of the service discovery tool Consul together with HAProxy allows to expose the running containers to the outside world while hiding their dynamic placements. Such an architecture brings a greater flexibility in the deployment of LHCbDirac services, allowing for easier deployment maintenance and scaling of services on demand (e..g LHCbDirac relies on 138 services and 116 agents). Higher reliability is also easier, as clustering is part of the toolset, which allows constraints on the location of the services. This paper describes the investigations carried out to package the LHCbDIRAC and DIRAC components into Docker containers and orchestrate them using the previously described set of tools.

  6. Experiences with the ALICE Mesos infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzano, D.; Eulisse, G.; Grigoraş, C.; Napoli, K.

    2017-10-01

    Apache Mesos is a resource management system for large data centres, initially developed by UC Berkeley, and now maintained under the Apache Foundation umbrella. It is widely used in the industry by companies like Apple, Twitter, and Airbnb and it is known to scale to 10 000s of nodes. Together with other tools of its ecosystem, such as Mesosphere Marathon or Metronome, it provides an end-to-end solution for datacenter operations and a unified way to exploit large distributed systems. We present the experience of the ALICE Experiment Offline & Computing in deploying and using in production the Apache Mesos ecosystem for a variety of tasks on a small 500 cores cluster, using hybrid OpenStack and bare metal resources. We will initially introduce the architecture of our setup and its operation, we will then describe the tasks which are performed by it, including release building and QA, release validation, and simple Monte Carlo production. We will show how we developed Mesos enabled components (called “Mesos Frameworks”) to carry out ALICE specific needs. In particular, we will illustrate our effort to integrate Work Queue, a lightweight batch processing engine developed by University of Notre Dame, which ALICE uses to orchestrate release validation. Finally, we will give an outlook on how to use Mesos as resource manager for DDS, a software deployment system developed by GSI which will be the foundation of the system deployment for ALICE next generation Online-Offline (O2).

  7. Web-scale discovery in an academic health sciences library: development and implementation of the EBSCO Discovery Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jolinda L; Obrig, Kathe S; Abate, Laura E

    2013-01-01

    Funds made available at the close of the 2010-11 fiscal year allowed purchase of the EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS) for a year-long trial. The appeal of this web-scale discovery product that offers a Google-like interface to library resources was counter-balanced by concerns about quality of search results in an academic health science setting and the challenge of configuring an interface that serves the needs of a diverse group of library users. After initial configuration, usability testing with library users revealed the need for further work before general release. Of greatest concern were continuing issues with the relevance of items retrieved, appropriateness of system-supplied facet terms, and user difficulties with navigating the interface. EBSCO has worked with the library to better understand and identify problems and solutions. External roll-out to users occurred in June 2012.

  8. Large-scale discovery of promoter motifs in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Down

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A key step in understanding gene regulation is to identify the repertoire of transcription factor binding motifs (TFBMs that form the building blocks of promoters and other regulatory elements. Identifying these experimentally is very laborious, and the number of TFBMs discovered remains relatively small, especially when compared with the hundreds of transcription factor genes predicted in metazoan genomes. We have used a recently developed statistical motif discovery approach, NestedMICA, to detect candidate TFBMs from a large set of Drosophila melanogaster promoter regions. Of the 120 motifs inferred in our initial analysis, 25 were statistically significant matches to previously reported motifs, while 87 appeared to be novel. Analysis of sequence conservation and motif positioning suggested that the great majority of these discovered motifs are predictive of functional elements in the genome. Many motifs showed associations with specific patterns of gene expression in the D. melanogaster embryo, and we were able to obtain confident annotation of expression patterns for 25 of our motifs, including eight of the novel motifs. The motifs are available through Tiffin, a new database of DNA sequence motifs. We have discovered many new motifs that are overrepresented in D. melanogaster promoter regions, and offer several independent lines of evidence that these are novel TFBMs. Our motif dictionary provides a solid foundation for further investigation of regulatory elements in Drosophila, and demonstrates techniques that should be applicable in other species. We suggest that further improvements in computational motif discovery should narrow the gap between the set of known motifs and the total number of transcription factors in metazoan genomes.

  9. Genome-scale metabolic models as platforms for strain design and biological discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mienda, Bashir Sajo

    2017-07-01

    Genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) have been developed and used in guiding systems' metabolic engineering strategies for strain design and development. This strategy has been used in fermentative production of bio-based industrial chemicals and fuels from alternative carbon sources. However, computer-aided hypotheses building using established algorithms and software platforms for biological discovery can be integrated into the pipeline for strain design strategy to create superior strains of microorganisms for targeted biosynthetic goals. Here, I described an integrated workflow strategy using GEMs for strain design and biological discovery. Specific case studies of strain design and biological discovery using Escherichia coli genome-scale model are presented and discussed. The integrated workflow presented herein, when applied carefully would help guide future design strategies for high-performance microbial strains that have existing and forthcoming genome-scale metabolic models.

  10. Evaluating Web-Scale Discovery Services: A Step-by-Step Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Deodato

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Selecting a web-scale discovery service is a large and important undertaking that involves a significant investment of time, staff, and resources. Finding the right match begins with a thorough and carefully planned evaluation process. In order to be successful, this process should be inclusive, goal-oriented, data-driven, user-centered, and transparent. The following article offers a step-by-step guide for developing a web-scale discovery evaluation plan rooted in these five key principles based on best practices synthesized from the literature as well as the author’s own experiences coordinating the evaluation process at Rutgers University. The goal is to offer academic libraries that are considering acquiring a web-scale discovery service a blueprint for planning a structured and comprehensive evaluation process.

  11. Discovery of Kolmogorov Scaling in the Natural Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice H. P. M. van Putten

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider the rate R and variance σ 2 of Shannon information in snippets of text based on word frequencies in the natural language. We empirically identify Kolmogorov’s scaling law in σ 2 ∝ k - 1 . 66 ± 0 . 12 (95% c.l. as a function of k = 1 / N measured by word count N. This result highlights a potential association of information flow in snippets, analogous to energy cascade in turbulent eddies in fluids at high Reynolds numbers. We propose R and σ 2 as robust utility functions for objective ranking of concordances in efficient search for maximal information seamlessly across different languages and as a starting point for artificial attention.

  12. LHCbDIRAC as Apache Mesos microservices

    CERN Multimedia

    Couturier, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb experiment relies on LHCbDIRAC, an extension of DIRAC, to drive its offline computing. This middleware provides a development framework and a complete set of components for building distributed computing systems. These components are currently installed and ran on virtual machines (VM) or bare metal hardware. Due to the increased load of work, high availability is becoming more and more important for the LHCbDIRAC services, and the current installation model is showing its limitations. Apache Mesos is a cluster manager which aims at abstracting heterogeneous physical resources on which various tasks can be distributed thanks to so called "framework". The Marathon framework is suitable for long running tasks such as the DIRAC services, while the Chronos framework meets the needs of cron-like tasks like the DIRAC agents. A combination of the service discovery tool Consul together with HAProxy allows to expose the running containers to the outside world while hiding their dynamic placements. Such an arc...

  13. Comparison of three web-scale discovery services for health sciences research*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosie Hanneke, MLS

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative effectiveness of three web-scale discovery (WSD tools in answering health sciences search queries. Methods: Simple keyword searches, based on topics from six health sciences disciplines, were run at multiple real-world implementations of EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS, Ex Libris’s Primo, and ProQuest’s Summon. Each WSD tool was evaluated in its ability to retrieve relevant results and in its coverage of MEDLINE content. Results: All WSD tools returned between 50%–60% relevant results. Primo returned a higher number of duplicate results than the other 2WSD products. Summon results were more relevant when search terms were automatically mapped to controlled vocabulary. EDS indexed the largest number of MEDLINE citations, followed closely by Summon. Additionally, keyword searches in all 3 WSD tools retrieved relevant material that was not found with precision (Medical Subject Headings searches in MEDLINE. Conclusions: None of the 3 WSD products studied was overwhelmingly more effective in returning relevant results. While difficult to place the figure of 50%–60% relevance in context, it implies a strong likelihood that the average user would be able to find satisfactory sources on the first page of search results using a rudimentary keyword search. The discovery of additional relevant material beyond that retrieved from MEDLINE indicates WSD tools’ value as a supplement to traditional resources for health sciences researchers.

  14. Comparison of three web-scale discovery services for health sciences research*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanneke, Rosie; O'Brien, Kelly K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative effectiveness of three web-scale discovery (WSD) tools in answering health sciences search queries. Methods Simple keyword searches, based on topics from six health sciences disciplines, were run at multiple real-world implementations of EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS), Ex Libris's Primo, and ProQuest's Summon. Each WSD tool was evaluated in its ability to retrieve relevant results and in its coverage of MEDLINE content. Results All WSD tools returned between 50%–60% relevant results. Primo returned a higher number of duplicate results than the other 2 WSD products. Summon results were more relevant when search terms were automatically mapped to controlled vocabulary. EDS indexed the largest number of MEDLINE citations, followed closely by Summon. Additionally, keyword searches in all 3 WSD tools retrieved relevant material that was not found with precision (Medical Subject Headings) searches in MEDLINE. Conclusions None of the 3 WSD products studied was overwhelmingly more effective in returning relevant results. While difficult to place the figure of 50%–60% relevance in context, it implies a strong likelihood that the average user would be able to find satisfactory sources on the first page of search results using a rudimentary keyword search. The discovery of additional relevant material beyond that retrieved from MEDLINE indicates WSD tools' value as a supplement to traditional resources for health sciences researchers. PMID:27076797

  15. Comparison of three web-scale discovery services for health sciences research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanneke, Rosie; O'Brien, Kelly K

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative effectiveness of three web-scale discovery (WSD) tools in answering health sciences search queries. Simple keyword searches, based on topics from six health sciences disciplines, were run at multiple real-world implementations of EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS), Ex Libris's Primo, and ProQuest's Summon. Each WSD tool was evaluated in its ability to retrieve relevant results and in its coverage of MEDLINE content. All WSD tools returned between 50%-60% relevant results. Primo returned a higher number of duplicate results than the other 2 WSD products. Summon results were more relevant when search terms were automatically mapped to controlled vocabulary. EDS indexed the largest number of MEDLINE citations, followed closely by Summon. Additionally, keyword searches in all 3 WSD tools retrieved relevant material that was not found with precision (Medical Subject Headings) searches in MEDLINE. None of the 3 WSD products studied was overwhelmingly more effective in returning relevant results. While difficult to place the figure of 50%-60% relevance in context, it implies a strong likelihood that the average user would be able to find satisfactory sources on the first page of search results using a rudimentary keyword search. The discovery of additional relevant material beyond that retrieved from MEDLINE indicates WSD tools' value as a supplement to traditional resources for health sciences researchers.

  16. The challenge of emergency response dispersion models on the meso-gamma urban scale: A case study of the July 26, 1993 oleum tank car spill in Richmond, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskett, R.L.; Vogt, P.J.; Schalk, W.W. III; Pobanz, B.M.; Foster, C.S.; Ellis, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    Atmospheric modeling of accidental toxic chemical releases requires accurate simulation of wind flows on the 1 to 25 km (meso-γ) scale. Complex meteorological fields have been a challenge to real-time emergency response models for decades especially when,wind observations are sparse. 'ne Gaussian model is a reasonable tool for the first few kilometers if the terrain is relatively flat, the wind flow is simple (no vertical structure), and meteorological data are available at the source. Most other situations demand three-dimensional models. Three-dimensional diagnostic wind field models depend on available meteorological observations which are subsequently adjusted by mass conservation to create a wind field over the terrain. Even in urban areas with multiple meteorological stations, 3-D diagnostic models may suffer from a lack of sufficient real-time observations. Deterministic models are stressed even more during variable low wind speed or stable atmospheric conditions, especially if the release is denser-than-air. Furthermore, typical wind direction measurement errors of 5 to 10 degrees extrapolated 10 or 20 km cause significant dislocations of downwind concentrations. This paper presents a recent case study that illustrates the difficulty of modeling accidental toxic releases in urban areas

  17. Relay discovery and selection for large-scale P2P streaming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengwei Zhang

    Full Text Available In peer-to-peer networks, application relays have been commonly used to provide various networking services. The service performance often improves significantly if a relay is selected appropriately based on its network location. In this paper, we studied the location-aware relay discovery and selection problem for large-scale P2P streaming networks. In these large-scale and dynamic overlays, it incurs significant communication and computation cost to discover a sufficiently large relay candidate set and further to select one relay with good performance. The network location can be measured directly or indirectly with the tradeoffs between timeliness, overhead and accuracy. Based on a measurement study and the associated error analysis, we demonstrate that indirect measurements, such as King and Internet Coordinate Systems (ICS, can only achieve a coarse estimation of peers' network location and those methods based on pure indirect measurements cannot lead to a good relay selection. We also demonstrate that there exists significant error amplification of the commonly used "best-out-of-K" selection methodology using three RTT data sets publicly available. We propose a two-phase approach to achieve efficient relay discovery and accurate relay selection. Indirect measurements are used to narrow down a small number of high-quality relay candidates and the final relay selection is refined based on direct probing. This two-phase approach enjoys an efficient implementation using the Distributed-Hash-Table (DHT. When the DHT is constructed, the node keys carry the location information and they are generated scalably using indirect measurements, such as the ICS coordinates. The relay discovery is achieved efficiently utilizing the DHT-based search. We evaluated various aspects of this DHT-based approach, including the DHT indexing procedure, key generation under peer churn and message costs.

  18. On a morphological approach of the meso-structure for the multi-scale analysis of the thermo-hydro-mechanical behaviour of cementitious materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, T.T.H.

    2011-01-01

    The investigation of the behavior of heated concrete is a major research topic which concerns the assessment of safety level of structures when exposed to high temperatures, for instance during a fire. For this purpose, several modeling approaches were developed within thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) frameworks in order to take into account the involved physic-chemical and mechanical processes that affect stability of heated concrete. However, existing models often do note account explicitly for the heterogeneity of the material: concrete is composite material that may be schematized as an assembly of inclusions (aggregates) embedded in a cementitious matrix (cement paste). This latter may be described as a partially saturated open porous medium. The aggregates are characterized by their mineralogical nature together with their morphology and size distribution. The material heterogeneity bring an additional complexity: the need to take into account the microstructure in order to quantify the effect of matrix-inclusion thermal, hygral and mechanical incompatibilities on the THM behavior of concrete. This work is a first step in this direction. For this purpose, a three-dimensional (3D) multi-scale finite element model is developed. It allows affecting specific behaviors to matrix and inclusions. For the former, where mass transports occur within the connected porous network, a three-fluids approach (liquid water, vapor and dry air) is adopted and is coupled to a poro-mechanical damage based approach. For inclusions (aggregates) no hygral component arises a pure thermo-mechanical model is considered. The developed model is then used to investigate, either by 2D or 3D numerical simulations, effects of mineralogical nature, morphology and distribution of aggregates. Studied effects have mainly concerned the influence of these parameters on local fluctuations of simulated temperature, gas pressure and damage fields with regard to experimentally observed dispersion. The

  19. Atmospheric Dust Modeling from Meso to Global Scales with the Online NMMB/BSC-Dust Model Part 2: Experimental Campaigns in Northern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haustein, K.; Perez, C.; Baldasano, J. M.; Jorba, O.; Basart, S.; Miller, R. L.; Janjic, Z.; Black, T.; Nickovic, S.; Todd, M. C.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The new NMMB/BSC-Dust model is intended to provide short to medium-range weather and dust forecasts from regional to global scales. It is an online model in which the dust aerosol dynamics and physics are solved at each model time step. The companion paper (Perez et al., 2011) develops the dust model parameterizations and provides daily to annual evaluations of the model for its global and regional configurations. Modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD) was evaluated against AERONET Sun photometers over Northern Africa, Middle East and Europe with correlations around 0.6-0.7 on average without dust data assimilation. In this paper we analyze in detail the behavior of the model using data from the Saharan Mineral dUst experiment (SAMUM-1) in 2006 and the Bodele Dust Experiment (BoDEx) in 2005. AOD from satellites and Sun photometers, vertically resolved extinction coefficients from lidars and particle size distributions at the ground and in the troposphere are used, complemented by wind profile data and surface meteorological measurements. All simulations were performed at the regional scale for the Northern African domain at the expected operational horizontal resolution of 25 km. Model results for SAMUM-1 generally show good agreement with satellite data over the most active Saharan dust sources. The model reproduces the AOD from Sun photometers close to sources and after long-range transport, and the dust size spectra at different height levels. At this resolution, the model is not able to reproduce a large haboob that occurred during the campaign. Some deficiencies are found concerning the vertical dust distribution related to the representation of the mixing height in the atmospheric part of the model. For the BoDEx episode, we found the diurnal temperature cycle to be strongly dependant on the soil moisture, which is underestimated in the NCEP analysis used for model initialization. The low level jet (LLJ) and the dust AOD over the Bodélé are well reproduced

  20. Atmospheric dust modeling from meso to global scales with the online NMMB/BSC-Dust model – Part 2: Experimental campaigns in Northern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Haustein

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The new NMMB/BSC-Dust model is intended to provide short to medium-range weather and dust forecasts from regional to global scales. It is an online model in which the dust aerosol dynamics and physics are solved at each model time step. The companion paper (Pérez et al., 2011 develops the dust model parameterizations and provides daily to annual evaluations of the model for its global and regional configurations. Modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD was evaluated against AERONET Sun photometers over Northern Africa, Middle East and Europe with correlations around 0.6–0.7 on average without dust data assimilation. In this paper we analyze in detail the behavior of the model using data from the Saharan Mineral dUst experiment (SAMUM-1 in 2006 and the Bodélé Dust Experiment (BoDEx in 2005. AOD from satellites and Sun photometers, vertically resolved extinction coefficients from lidars and particle size distributions at the ground and in the troposphere are used, complemented by wind profile data and surface meteorological measurements. All simulations were performed at the regional scale for the Northern African domain at the expected operational horizontal resolution of 25 km. Model results for SAMUM-1 generally show good agreement with satellite data over the most active Saharan dust sources. The model reproduces the AOD from Sun photometers close to sources and after long-range transport, and the dust size spectra at different height levels. At this resolution, the model is not able to reproduce a large haboob that occurred during the campaign. Some deficiencies are found concerning the vertical dust distribution related to the representation of the mixing height in the atmospheric part of the model. For the BoDEx episode, we found the diurnal temperature cycle to be strongly dependant on the soil moisture, which is underestimated in the NCEP analysis used for model initialization. The low level jet (LLJ and the dust AOD over the Bodélé are

  1. Characterizing Listener Engagement with Popular Songs Using Large-Scale Music Discovery Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneshiro, Blair; Ruan, Feng; Baker, Casey W.; Berger, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Music discovery in everyday situations has been facilitated in recent years by audio content recognition services such as Shazam. The widespread use of such services has produced a wealth of user data, specifying where and when a global audience takes action to learn more about music playing around them. Here, we analyze a large collection of Shazam queries of popular songs to study the relationship between the timing of queries and corresponding musical content. Our results reveal that the distribution of queries varies over the course of a song, and that salient musical events drive an increase in queries during a song. Furthermore, we find that the distribution of queries at the time of a song's release differs from the distribution following a song's peak and subsequent decline in popularity, possibly reflecting an evolution of user intent over the “life cycle” of a song. Finally, we derive insights into the data size needed to achieve consistent query distributions for individual songs. The combined findings of this study suggest that music discovery behavior, and other facets of the human experience of music, can be studied quantitatively using large-scale industrial data. PMID:28386241

  2. Characterizing Listener Engagement with Popular Songs Using Large-Scale Music Discovery Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneshiro, Blair; Ruan, Feng; Baker, Casey W; Berger, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Music discovery in everyday situations has been facilitated in recent years by audio content recognition services such as Shazam. The widespread use of such services has produced a wealth of user data, specifying where and when a global audience takes action to learn more about music playing around them. Here, we analyze a large collection of Shazam queries of popular songs to study the relationship between the timing of queries and corresponding musical content. Our results reveal that the distribution of queries varies over the course of a song, and that salient musical events drive an increase in queries during a song. Furthermore, we find that the distribution of queries at the time of a song's release differs from the distribution following a song's peak and subsequent decline in popularity, possibly reflecting an evolution of user intent over the "life cycle" of a song. Finally, we derive insights into the data size needed to achieve consistent query distributions for individual songs. The combined findings of this study suggest that music discovery behavior, and other facets of the human experience of music, can be studied quantitatively using large-scale industrial data.

  3. Progress toward the development of micro- and meso-scale methods for predicting the behavior of low-API gravity oils (LAPIO) spilled on water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostazeski, S.A.; Durell, G.S.; Uhler, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    Bench-scale weathering studies were conducted on a number of low-API gravity oils (LAPIO), and flume tank studies were conducted on several LAPIO products. The objective was to develop a method which would predict the environmental behaviour of LAPIO fuel spilled on water. Unlike crude oils and petroleum products which float when spilled on water, LAPIO spills are unpredictable. LAPIO fuels, which are used for electric power generation, have densities greater or equal to 1.0 g/ml. When spilled at sea, they may float, be neutrally buoyant, or sink, depending on the conditions of the receiving water. Their behavior depends on the physical and chemical properties of the specific oil and also the temperature and composition of the water. In order to simulate the behavior of oil spilled at sea, a number of different LAPIO fuels were artificially weathered by evaporative distillation. Tests were conducted to determine the physical and chemical properties of the oil residues, the buoyancy of the oils, their emulsifying properties and chemical dispersability. Results have shown that current laboratory methods for determining emulsion formation, stability, and kinetics are not adequate for these highly viscous fuels. Laboratory methods need refining and improving. 7 refs

  4. Improving a spatial rainfall product using a data-mining approach and its effect on the hydrological response of a meso-scale catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriani, F.; Stisen, S.; Demirel, C.

    2017-12-01

    The spatial representation of rainfall is of primary importance to correctly study the uncertainty of basin recharge and its propagation to the surface and underground circulation. We consider here the daily grid rainfall product provided by the Danish Meteorological Institute as input to the National Water Resources Model of Denmark. Due to a drastic reduction in the rain gauge network (from approximately 500 stations in the period 1996-2006, to 250 in the period 2007-2014), the grid rainfall product, based on the interpolation of these data, is much less reliable. The research is focused on the Skjern catchment (1,050 km2 western Jutland), where we can dispose of the complete rain-gauge database from the Danish Hydrological Observatory and compute the distributed hydrological response at the 1-km scale.To give a better estimation of the gridded rainfall input, we start from ground measurements by simulating the missing data with a stochastic data-mining approach, then we compute again the grid interpolation. To maximize the predictive power of the technique, combinations of station time-series that are the most informative to each other are selected on the basis of their correlation and available historical data. Then, the missing data inside these time-series are simulated together using the direct sampling technique (DS) [1, 2]. DS simulates a datum by sampling the historical record of the same stations where a similar data pattern occurs, preserving their complex statistical relation. The simulated data are reinjected in the whole dataset and used as well as conditioning data to progressively fill up the gaps in other stations.The results show that the proposed methodology, tested on the period 1995-2012, can increase the realism of the grid rainfall product by regenerating the missing ground measurements. The hydrological response is analyzed considering the observations at 5 hydrological stations. The presented methodology can be used in many regions to

  5. Assessment of surface water resources availability using catchment modeling and the results of tracer studies in the meso-scale Migina Catchment, Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyaneza, O.; Mukubwa, A.; Maskey, S.; Wenninger, J.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2013-12-01

    In the last couple of years, different hydrological research projects were undertaken in the Migina catchment (243.2 km2), a tributary of the Kagera river in Southern Rwanda. These projects were aimed to understand hydrological processes of the catchment using analytical and experimental approaches and to build a pilot case whose experience can be extended to other catchments in Rwanda. In the present study, we developed a hydrological model of the catchment, which can be used to inform water resources planning and decision making. The semi-distributed hydrological model HEC-HMS (version 3.5) was used with its soil moisture accounting, unit hydrograph, liner reservoir (for base flow) and Muskingum-Cunge (river routing) methods. We used rainfall data from 12 stations and streamflow data from 5 stations, which were collected as part of this study over a period of two years (May 2009 and June 2011). The catchment was divided into five sub-catchments each represented by one of the five observed streamflow gauges. The model parameters were calibrated separately for each sub-catchment using the observed streamflow data. Calibration results obtained were found acceptable at four stations with a Nash-Sutcliffe Model Efficiency of 0.65 on daily runoff at the catchment outlet. Due to the lack of sufficient and reliable data for longer periods, a model validation (split sample test) was not undertaken. However, we used results from tracer based hydrograph separation from a previous study to compare our model results in terms of the runoff components. It was shown that the model performed well in simulating the total flow volume, peak flow and timing as well as the portion of direct runoff and base flow. We observed considerable disparities in the parameters (e.g. groundwater storage) and runoff components across the five sub-catchments, that provided insights into the different hydrological processes at sub-catchment scale. We conclude that such disparities justify the need

  6. Validation of Micro-Meso Electrical Relations for Laminates with Varying Anisotropy

    KAUST Repository

    Selvakumaran, Lakshmi; Lubineau, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    For electrical impedance tomography (EIT) to be useful in monitoring transverse cracks in composites, it is imperative to establish the relation between conductivity and cracking density. Micro to meso scale homogenization has been developed

  7. Zebrafish whole-adult-organism chemogenomics for large-scale predictive and discovery chemical biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Hong Lam

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability to perform large-scale, expression-based chemogenomics on whole adult organisms, as in invertebrate models (worm and fly, is highly desirable for a vertebrate model but its feasibility and potential has not been demonstrated. We performed expression-based chemogenomics on the whole adult organism of a vertebrate model, the zebrafish, and demonstrated its potential for large-scale predictive and discovery chemical biology. Focusing on two classes of compounds with wide implications to human health, polycyclic (halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons [P(HAHs] and estrogenic compounds (ECs, we generated robust prediction models that can discriminate compounds of the same class from those of different classes in two large independent experiments. The robust expression signatures led to the identification of biomarkers for potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR and estrogen receptor (ER agonists, respectively, and were validated in multiple targeted tissues. Knowledge-based data mining of human homologs of zebrafish genes revealed highly conserved chemical-induced biological responses/effects, health risks, and novel biological insights associated with AHR and ER that could be inferred to humans. Thus, our study presents an effective, high-throughput strategy of capturing molecular snapshots of chemical-induced biological states of a whole adult vertebrate that provides information on biomarkers of effects, deregulated signaling pathways, and possible affected biological functions, perturbed physiological systems, and increased health risks. These findings place zebrafish in a strategic position to bridge the wide gap between cell-based and rodent models in chemogenomics research and applications, especially in preclinical drug discovery and toxicology.

  8. The Genetic Etiology of Tourette Syndrome: Large-Scale Collaborative Efforts on the Precipice of Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgitsi, Marianthi; Willsey, A. Jeremy; Mathews, Carol A.; State, Matthew; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Paschou, Peristera

    2016-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by multiple motor and phonic tics. It has a complex etiology with multiple genes likely interacting with environmental factors to lead to the onset of symptoms. The genetic basis of the disorder remains elusive. However, multiple resources and large-scale projects are coming together, launching a new era in the field and bringing us on the verge of discovery. The large-scale efforts outlined in this report are complementary and represent a range of different approaches to the study of disorders with complex inheritance. The Tourette Syndrome Association International Consortium for Genetics (TSAICG) has focused on large families, parent-proband trios and cases for large case-control designs such as genomewide association studies (GWAS), copy number variation (CNV) scans, and exome/genome sequencing. TIC Genetics targets rare, large effect size mutations in simplex trios, and multigenerational families. The European Multicentre Tics in Children Study (EMTICS) seeks to elucidate gene-environment interactions including the involvement of infection and immune mechanisms in TS etiology. Finally, TS-EUROTRAIN, a Marie Curie Initial Training Network, aims to act as a platform to unify large-scale projects in the field and to educate the next generation of experts. Importantly, these complementary large-scale efforts are joining forces to uncover the full range of genetic variation and environmental risk factors for TS, holding great promise for identifying definitive TS susceptibility genes and shedding light into the complex pathophysiology of this disorder. PMID:27536211

  9. The genetic etiology of Tourette Syndrome: Large-scale collaborative efforts on the precipice of discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianthi Georgitsi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (TS is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by multiple motor and phonic tics. It has a complex etiology with multiple genes likely interacting with environmental factors to lead to the onset of symptoms. The genetic basis of the disorder remains elusive;however, multiple resources and large-scale projects are coming together, launching a new era in the field and bringing us on the verge of discovery. The large-scale efforts outlined in this report, are complementary and represent a range of different approaches to the study of disorders with complex inheritance. The Tourette Syndrome Association International Consortium for Genetics (TSAICG has focused on large families, parent-proband trios and cases for large case-control designs such as genomewide association studies (GWAS, copy number variation (CNV scans and exome/genome sequencing. TIC Genetics targets rare, large effect size mutations in simplex trios and multigenerational families. The European Multicentre Tics in Children Study (EMTICS seeks to elucidate gene-environment interactions including the involvement of infection and immune mechanisms in TS etiology. Finally, TS-EUROTRAIN, a Marie Curie Initial Training Network, aims to act as a platform to unify large-scale projects in the field and to educate the next generation of experts. Importantly, these complementary large-scale efforts are joining forces to uncover the full range of genetic variation and environmental risk factors for TS, holding great promise for indentifying definitive TS susceptibility genes and shedding light into the complex pathophysiology of this disorder.

  10. Discovery of a parsec-scale bipolar nebula around MWC 349A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Menten, K. M.

    2012-05-01

    We report the discovery of a bipolar nebula around the peculiar emission-line star MWC 349A using archival Spitzer Space Telescope 24 μm data. The nebula extends over several arcminutes (up to 5 pc) and has the same orientation and geometry as the well-known subarcsecond-scale (~400 times smaller) bipolar radio nebula associated with this star. We discuss the physical relationship between MWC 349A and the nearby B0 III star MWC 349B and propose that both stars were members of a hierarchical triple system, which was ejected from the core of the Cyg OB2 association several Myr ago and recently was dissolved into a binary system (now MWC 349A) and a single unbound star (MWC 349B). Our proposal implies that MWC 349A is an evolved massive star (likely a luminous blue variable) in a binary system with a low-mass star. A possible origin of the bipolar nebula around MWC 349A is discussed.

  11. Grid for Meso american Archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucet, G.

    2007-01-01

    Meso american archaeology works with large amounts of disperse and diverse information, thus the importance of including new methods that optimise the acquisition, conservation, retrieval, and analysis of data to generate knowledge more efficiently and create a better understanding of history. Further, this information --which includes texts, coordinates, raster graphs, and vector graphs-- comes from a considerable geographical area --parts of Mexico, Nicaragua, Honduras and Costa Rica as well as Guatemala, El Salvador and Belize-- is constantly expanding. This information includes elements like shards, buildings, mural paintings, high and low reliefs, topography, maps, and information about the fauna and soil. Grid computing offers a solution to handle all this information: it respects researchers' need for independence while supplying a platform to share, process and compare the data obtained. Additionally, the Grid can enhance space-time analyses with remote visualisation techniques that can, in turn, incorporate geographical information systems and virtual reality. (Author)

  12. Meso-optics for science and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroko, L.M.

    1996-01-01

    The paper represents a concise overview of the meso-optical devices which provide very high selectivity and productivity. The source of these advantages is governed by the absence of the traditional 3D scanning operations. The information compression is accomplished on-line via conical wavefronts without any computer data processing. The factor of merits is of the order of 100:1. Meso-optical Fourier transition microscope for nuclear emulsion sees only straight line particle tracks and does not require depth scanning. Confocal meso-optical microscope accomplishes selective observation of the vertical particle tracks. In the meso-optical profilometer we use the phenomenon of the longitudinal interference of the conical waves. Meso-optical undulator as inserted device in the photon factories transforms conical waves into spherical ones and then into a point. Self-focusing undulator focuses side-going synchrotron radiation. Meso-optical conicometer accomplishes precise control of the conical surfaces both internal and external. Meso-optical interferometer with multipass transmission of the conical waves is used for on-line observation of the deviation of the surface of the industrial parts from the conical etalon without any scanning operations. 23 refs., 23 figs

  13. Web-Scale Discovery Services Retrieve Relevant Results in Health Sciences Topics Including MEDLINE Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Margaret Stovold

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Hanneke, R., & O’Brien, K. K. (2016. Comparison of three web-scale discovery services for health sciences research. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 104(2, 109-117. http://dx.doi.org/10.3163/1536-5050.104.2.004 Abstract Objective – To compare the results of health sciences search queries in three web-scale discovery (WSD services for relevance, duplicate detection, and retrieval of MEDLINE content. Design – Comparative evaluation and bibliometric study. Setting – Six university libraries in the United States of America. Subjects – Three commercial WSD services: Primo, Summon, and EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS. Methods – The authors collected data at six universities, including their own. They tested each of the three WSDs at two data collection sites. However, since one of the sites was using a legacy version of Summon that was due to be upgraded, data collected for Summon at this site were considered obsolete and excluded from the analysis. The authors generated three questions for each of six major health disciplines, then designed simple keyword searches to mimic typical student search behaviours. They captured the first 20 results from each query run at each test site, to represent the first “page” of results, giving a total of 2,086 total search results. These were independently assessed for relevance to the topic. Authors resolved disagreements by discussion, and calculated a kappa inter-observer score. They retained duplicate records within the results so that the duplicate detection by the WSDs could be compared. They assessed MEDLINE coverage by the WSDs in several ways. Using precise strategies to generate a relevant set of articles, they conducted one search from each of the six disciplines in PubMed so that they could compare retrieval of MEDLINE content. These results were cross-checked against the first 20 results from the corresponding query in the WSDs. To aid investigation of overall

  14. Changing the Scale and Efficiency of Chemical Warfare Countermeasure Discovery Using the Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Randall T.; MacRae, Calum A.

    2013-01-01

    As the scope of potential chemical warfare agents grows rapidly and as the diversity of potential threat scenarios expands with non-state actors, so a need for innovative approaches to countermeasure development has emerged. In the last few years, the utility of the zebrafish as a model organism that is amenable to high-throughput screening has become apparent and this system has been applied to the unbiased discovery of chemical warfare countermeasures. This review summarizes the in vivo screening approach that has been pioneered in the countermeasure discovery arena, and highlights the successes to date as well as the potential challenges in moving the field forward. Importantly, the establishment of a zebrafish platform for countermeasure discovery would offer a rapid response system for the development of antidotes to the continuous stream of new potential chemical warfare agents. PMID:24273586

  15. On micro-meso relations homogenizing electrical properties of transversely cracked laminated composites

    KAUST Repository

    Lubineau, Gilles

    2013-11-01

    A practical way to track the development of transverse cracking in a laminated composite is to monitor the change of its electrical resistance. Yet, the relations between transverse cracking and the global modification of resistivity is still unclear that makes difficult to interpret these non-destructive-testing results. Here, we introduce the homogenization process that defines at the meso scale an equivalent homogeneous ply that is energetically equivalent to the cracked one. It is shown that this equivalent ply mainly depends on the cracking level while it can be considered independent on the rest of the laminated structure. The direct consequence is that the meso scale is a pertinent one to perform the homogenization. Then, non-destructive electrical measurements can be considered as a reliable technique to access meso scale damage indicators. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Preparative Scale Resolution of Enantiomers Enables Accelerated Drug Discovery and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Leek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The provision of pure enantiomers is of increasing importance not only for the pharmaceutical industry but also for agro-chemistry and biotechnology. In drug discovery and development, the enantiomers of a chiral drug depict unique chemical and pharmacological behaviors in a chiral environment, such as the human body, in which the stereochemistry of the chiral drugs determines their pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and toxicological properties. We present a number of challenging case studies of up-to-kilogram separations of racemic or enriched isomer mixtures using preparative liquid chromatography and super critical fluid chromatography to generate individual enantiomers that have enabled the development of new candidate drugs within AstraZeneca. The combination of chromatography and racemization as well as strategies on when to apply preparative chiral chromatography of enantiomers in a multi-step synthesis of a drug compound can further facilitate accelerated drug discovery and the early clinical evaluation of the drug candidates.

  17. Optimizing CMS build infrastructure via Apache Mesos

    CERN Document Server

    Abduracmanov, David; Degano, Alessandro; Elmer, Peter; Eulisse, Giulio; Mendez, David; Muzaffar, Shahzad

    2015-12-23

    The Offline Software of the CMS Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN consists of 6M lines of in-house code, developed over a decade by nearly 1000 physicists, as well as a comparable amount of general use open-source code. A critical ingredient to the success of the construction and early operation of the WLCG was the convergence, around the year 2000, on the use of a homogeneous environment of commodity x86-64 processors and Linux. Apache Mesos is a cluster manager that provides efficient resource isolation and sharing across distributed applications, or frameworks. It can run Hadoop, Jenkins, Spark, Aurora, and other applications on a dynamically shared pool of nodes. We present how we migrated our continuos integration system to schedule jobs on a relatively small Apache Mesos enabled cluster and how this resulted in better resource usage, higher peak performance and lower latency thanks to the dynamic scheduling capabilities of Mesos.

  18. Meso-Decorated Switching-Knot Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jin; Sawamura, Kensuke; Makino, Masato; Kabir, M. H.; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    Gels are a new material having three-dimensional network structures of macromolecules. They possess excellent properties as swellability, high permeability and biocompatibility, and have been applied in various fields of daily life, food, medicine, architecture, and chemistry .In this study, we tried to prepare new multi-functional and high-strength gels by using Meso-Decoration (Meso-Deco), one new method of structure design at intermediate mesoscale. High-performance rigid-rod aromatic polymorphic crystals. The strengthening of gels can be realized by meso-decorating the gels' structure using high-performance polymorphic crystals. New gels with good mechanical properties, novel optical properties and thermal properties are expected to be developed.

  19. Discovery potential of xenon-based neutrinoless double beta decay experiments in light of small angular scale CMB observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Cadenas, J.J.; Martín-Albo, J.; Vidal, J. Muñoz; Peña-Garay, C.

    2013-01-01

    The South Pole Telescope (SPT) has probed an expanded angular range of the CMB temperature power spectrum. Their recent analysis of the latest cosmological data prefers nonzero neutrino masses, with Σm ν = (0.32±0.11) eV. This result, if confirmed by the upcoming Planck data, has deep implications on the discovery of the nature of neutrinos. In particular, the values of the effective neutrino mass m ββ involved in neutrinoless double beta decay (ββ0ν) are severely constrained for both the direct and inverse hierarchy, making a discovery much more likely. In this paper, we focus in xenon-based ββ0ν experiments, on the double grounds of their good performance and the suitability of the technology to large-mass scaling. We show that the current generation, with effective masses in the range of 100 kg and conceivable exposures in the range of 500 kg·year, could already have a sizeable opportunity to observe ββ0ν events, and their combined discovery potential is quite large. The next generation, with an exposure in the range of 10 ton·year, would have a much more enhanced sensitivity, in particular due to the very low specific background that all the xenon technologies (liquid xenon, high-pressure xenon and xenon dissolved in liquid scintillator) can achieve. In addition, a high-pressure xenon gas TPC also features superb energy resolution. We show that such detector can fully explore the range of allowed effective Majorana masses, thus making a discovery very likely

  20. CH of masonry materials via meshless meso-modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Giambanco

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study a multi-scale computational strategy for the analysis of masonry structures is presented. The structural macroscopic behaviour is obtained making use of the Computational Homogenization (CH technique based on the solution of the boundary value problem (BVP of a detailed Unit Cell (UC chosen at the meso-scale and representative of the heterogeneous material. The smallest UC is composed by a brick and half of its surrounding joints, the former assumed to behave elastically while the latter considered with an elastoplastic softening response. The governing equations at the macroscopic level are formulated in the framework of finite element method while the Meshless Method (MM is adopted to solve the BVP at the mesoscopic level. The work focuses on the BVP solution. The consistent tangent stiffness matrix at a macroscopic quadrature point is evaluated on the base of BVP results for the UC together with a localisation procedure. Validation of the MM procedure at the meso-scale level is demonstrated by numerical examples that show the results of the BVP for the simple cases of normal and shear loading of the UC.

  1. Scaling the walls of discovery: using semantic metadata for integrative problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Maurice; Aggarwal, Amit; Gao, Kevin; Tucker-Kellogg, Greg

    2009-03-01

    Current data integration approaches by bioinformaticians frequently involve extracting data from a wide variety of public and private data repositories, each with a unique vocabulary and schema, via scripts. These separate data sets must then be normalized through the tedious and lengthy process of resolving naming differences and collecting information into a single view. Attempts to consolidate such diverse data using data warehouses or federated queries add significant complexity and have shown limitations in flexibility. The alternative of complete semantic integration of data requires a massive, sustained effort in mapping data types and maintaining ontologies. We focused instead on creating a data architecture that leverages semantic mapping of experimental metadata, to support the rapid prototyping of scientific discovery applications with the twin goals of reducing architectural complexity while still leveraging semantic technologies to provide flexibility, efficiency and more fully characterized data relationships. A metadata ontology was developed to describe our discovery process. A metadata repository was then created by mapping metadata from existing data sources into this ontology, generating RDF triples to describe the entities. Finally an interface to the repository was designed which provided not only search and browse capabilities but complex query templates that aggregate data from both RDF and RDBMS sources. We describe how this approach (i) allows scientists to discover and link relevant data across diverse data sources and (ii) provides a platform for development of integrative informatics applications.

  2. Atmospheric transport of radioisotopes and the assessment of population doses on a European scale. Application of the MESOS code to the meteorological dispersion of radioactive discharges from notional nuclear sites in the European Community with particular reference to the mesoscale. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ApSimon, H.M.; Goddard, A.J.H.

    1983-01-01

    A first requirement of this work was the development of a model to predict the medium to long range transport and dispersal of atmospheric releases of radionuclides. One of the difficulties in such predictions is that meteorological conditions at the source become less and less relevant as the travel time increases and it is not obvious how models suitable for use close to the source may be extrapolated. Furthermore, a model capable of predicting a range of possible consequences of an accidental release in a wide variety of evolving meteorological situation necessarily has to be more detailed than a mode giving average or representative values. A suitable model, called MESOS, was therefore developed. This model uses data derived from standard meteorological observations from synoptic stations and ships to follow the trajectories and dispersion of material released. Evolving meteorological conditions in the boundary layer of the atmosphere, such as the mixing layer depth, are included in the model; and the important contribution of synoptic scale wind shear to horizontal spreading and dilution of material over longer travel distances allowed for. MESOS also takes account of the time of occurrence, the location, and the intensity and duration of rain leading to wet deposition. Time-integrated atmospheric concentrations, and dry and wet deposition may be calculated at a grid of receptor points for releases of several different nuclides. A critical review of the model is presented in which various sources of error in predictions for short term releases are discussed and in which a more detailed explanation is given of the meteorological aspects of the model. Although the MESOS model was not intended for accurate forecasting in a particular accident situation, results are presented, and compared with measurement, for the release of iodine 131 during the Windscale release of 1957. In order to apply the model to Western Europe using realistic data it was necessary to

  3. complexes based on meso-substituted dipyrrins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Coordination polymers; meso-substituted dipyrrins; heteroleptic; acetylacetonato; ... Room temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements were ... After cooling to ambient tem- perature it ... crystals of 1 were obtained from CH2Cl2/ hexane (1. : 1) solution. .... are air-stable, crystalline solids, soluble in common.

  4. Meso Mechanical Analysis of AC Mixture Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldekidan, M.F.; Huurman, M.; Vaccari, E.; Poot, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ongoing research into performance modeling of Asphalt Concrete (AC) mixtures using meso mechanics approaches is being undertaken at Delft University of Technology (TUD). The approach has already been successfully employed for evaluating the long term performance of porous asphalt concrete. The work

  5. Discrete meso-element simulation of the failure behavior of short-fiber composites under dynamic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenyan; Tang, Z.P.; Liu Yunxin

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, more attention has been paid to a better understanding of the failure behavior and mechanism of heterogeneous materials at the meso-scale level. In this paper, the crack initiation and development in epoxy composites reinforced with short steel fibers under dynamic loading were simulated and analyzed with the 2D Discrete Meso-Element Dynamic Method. Results show that the damage process depends greatly on the binding property between matrix and fibers

  6. Resource Discovery for Extreme Scale Collaboration (RDESC) Final Report - RPI/TWC - Year 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Peter [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2015-05-30

    The amount of data produced in the practice of science is growing rapidly. Despite the accumulation and demand for scientific data, relatively little is actually made available for the broader scientific community. We surmise that the root of the problem is the perceived difficulty to electronically publish scientific data and associated metadata in a way that makes it discoverable. We propose to exploit Semantic Web technologies and practices to make (meta)data discoverable and easy to publish. We share our experiences in curating metadata to illustrate both the flexibility of our approach and the pain of discovering data in the current research environment. We also make recommendations by concrete example of how data publishers can provide their (meta)data by adding some limited, additional markup to HTML pages on the Web. With little additional effort from data publishers, the difficulty of data discovery/access/sharing can be greatly reduced and the impact of research data greatly enhanced.

  7. Robust node estimation and topology discovery for large-scale networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-02-23

    Various examples are provided for node estimation and topology discovery for networks. In one example, a method includes receiving a packet having an identifier from a first node; adding the identifier to another transmission packet based on a comparison between the first identifier and existing identifiers associated with the other packet; adjusting a transmit probability based on the comparison; and transmitting the other packet based on a comparison between the transmit probability and a probability distribution. In another example, a system includes a network device that can adds an identifier received in a packet to a list including existing identifiers and adjust a transmit probability based on a comparison between the identifiers; and transmit another packet based on a comparison between the transmit probability and a probability distribution. In another example, a method includes determining a quantity of sensor devices based on a plurality of identifiers received in a packet.

  8. Robust node estimation and topology discovery for large-scale networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Douik, Ahmed S.; Aly, Salah A.; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2017-01-01

    Various examples are provided for node estimation and topology discovery for networks. In one example, a method includes receiving a packet having an identifier from a first node; adding the identifier to another transmission packet based on a comparison between the first identifier and existing identifiers associated with the other packet; adjusting a transmit probability based on the comparison; and transmitting the other packet based on a comparison between the transmit probability and a probability distribution. In another example, a system includes a network device that can adds an identifier received in a packet to a list including existing identifiers and adjust a transmit probability based on a comparison between the identifiers; and transmit another packet based on a comparison between the transmit probability and a probability distribution. In another example, a method includes determining a quantity of sensor devices based on a plurality of identifiers received in a packet.

  9. Higgs Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    has been challenged by the discovery of a not-so-heavy Higgs-like state. I will therefore review the recent discovery \\cite{Foadi:2012bb} that the standard model top-induced radiative corrections naturally reduce the intrinsic non-perturbative mass of the composite Higgs state towards the desired...... via first principle lattice simulations with encouraging results. The new findings show that the recent naive claims made about new strong dynamics at the electroweak scale being disfavoured by the discovery of a not-so-heavy composite Higgs are unwarranted. I will then introduce the more speculative......I discuss the impact of the discovery of a Higgs-like state on composite dynamics starting by critically examining the reasons in favour of either an elementary or composite nature of this state. Accepting the standard model interpretation I re-address the standard model vacuum stability within...

  10. Preparation of gluten-free bread using a meso-structured whey protein particle system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemsdijk, van L.E.; Goot, van der A.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a novel method for making gluten-free bread using mesoscopically structured whey protein. The use of the meso-structured protein is based on the hypothesis that the gluten structure present in a developed wheat dough features a particle structure on a mesoscopic length scale

  11. Fixing the EW scale in supersymmetric models after the Higgs discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Ghilencea, D M

    2013-01-01

    TeV-scale supersymmetry was originally introduced to solve the hierarchy problem and therefore fix the electroweak (EW) scale in the presence of quantum corrections. Numerical methods testing the SUSY models often report a good likelihood L (or chi^2=-2ln L) to fit the data {\\it including} the EW scale itself (m_Z^0) with a {\\it simultaneously} large fine-tuning i.e. a large variation of this scale under a small variation of the SUSY parameters. We argue that this is inconsistent and we identify the origin of this problem. Our claim is that the likelihood (or chi^2) to fit the data that is usually reported in such models does not account for the chi^2 cost of fixing the EW scale. When this constraint is implemented, the likelihood (or chi^2) receives a significant correction (delta_chi^2) that worsens the current data fits of SUSY models. We estimate this correction for the models: constrained MSSM (CMSSM), models with non-universal gaugino masses (NUGM) or higgs soft masses (NUHM1, NUHM2), the NMSSM and the ...

  12. Towards agile large-scale predictive modelling in drug discovery with flow-based programming design principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampa, Samuel; Alvarsson, Jonathan; Spjuth, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Predictive modelling in drug discovery is challenging to automate as it often contains multiple analysis steps and might involve cross-validation and parameter tuning that create complex dependencies between tasks. With large-scale data or when using computationally demanding modelling methods, e-infrastructures such as high-performance or cloud computing are required, adding to the existing challenges of fault-tolerant automation. Workflow management systems can aid in many of these challenges, but the currently available systems are lacking in the functionality needed to enable agile and flexible predictive modelling. We here present an approach inspired by elements of the flow-based programming paradigm, implemented as an extension of the Luigi system which we name SciLuigi. We also discuss the experiences from using the approach when modelling a large set of biochemical interactions using a shared computer cluster.Graphical abstract.

  13. Final Report Scalable Analysis Methods and In Situ Infrastructure for Extreme Scale Knowledge Discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, Patrick [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States)

    2017-09-13

    The primary challenge motivating this project is the widening gap between the ability to compute information and to store it for subsequent analysis. This gap adversely impacts science code teams, who can perform analysis only on a small fraction of the data they calculate, resulting in the substantial likelihood of lost or missed science, when results are computed but not analyzed. Our approach is to perform as much analysis or visualization processing on data while it is still resident in memory, which is known as in situ processing. The idea in situ processing was not new at the time of the start of this effort in 2014, but efforts in that space were largely ad hoc, and there was no concerted effort within the research community that aimed to foster production-quality software tools suitable for use by Department of Energy (DOE) science projects. Our objective was to produce and enable the use of production-quality in situ methods and infrastructure, at scale, on DOE high-performance computing (HPC) facilities, though we expected to have an impact beyond DOE due to the widespread nature of the challenges, which affect virtually all large-scale computational science efforts. To achieve this objective, we engaged in software technology research and development (R&D), in close partnerships with DOE science code teams, to produce software technologies that were shown to run efficiently at scale on DOE HPC platforms.

  14. Electrohydrodynamic Liquid Disintegration in Micro-, Meso- and Nanoscopic Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertes, Akos

    2008-11-01

    The electrohydrodynamic dispersion of liquids spans length scales from 1 mm to 1 nm and involves temporal variations from 1 s to 10 ps. The disintegration mechanisms are diverse and, due to the differences in the dominating forces, vary on the micro-, meso- and nanoscale extending to lower boundaries of 1 μm, 10 nm and 1 nm, respectively. Using fast imaging, spray current measurements, phase Doppler anemometry and molecular dynamics calculations, we followed the behavior of electrified liquids in the three most common geometries, spherical, pendant drop and slender jet, with dimensions ranging from 100 μm to 1 nm. Microscale disintegration involves jet ejection from conical surface deformations, jet breakup due to varicose, kink and ramified jet instabilities, and asymmetric droplet fission resulting in side jets. As the liquid dimensions shift from the microscopic dimensions where the processes are governed by the surface tension and the Maxwell stress, to the meso- and nanoscale, thermal fluctuations become increasingly important. The presence of charges in nanodroplets leads to enhanced surface fluctuations, the formation of extreme protrusions and eventually solvated ion evaporation. Charging of slender nanojets results in longer shape relaxation times along with the fission of systems charged below the Rayleigh limit. In collaboration with Jelena Lusic and Peter Nemes, George Washington University.

  15. Influence of the ammonium hydroxide concentration in morphological control of meso porous silica particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sukbon; Jung, Chonghun; Yoon, Inho; Kim, Changki; Choi, Wangkyu; Moon, Jeikwon

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of new M41S meso porous silica families in 1992 extended the applications into much wider pore ranges, bringing in a new prosperous era in porous material research. The synthesis of these meso porous silicas has been mainly accomplished through a self-assembly between surfactant molecules and inorganic species under various pH conditions. Meanwhile, many studies have been conducted on the application as catalysts, adsorbents, and packing materials for separation columns due to their unique properties such as high specific surface area, large pore volume, tuneable pore size, and narrow pore size distribution. The pore sizes of these materials can be easily controlled by changing the alkyl-chain length of the surfactant used. However, the control of the morphology and the pore structure is not so common. The morphological control of these materials in particular is one of the major challenges for their industrial application. Recently, the meso porous silica materials with various shapes such as fibers, films, polyhedral particles, and spheres have been reported. In our previous study, the core-shell nanoparticles with a silica core and a meso porous shell under basic conditions were synthesized using the silica nanoparticles as a core and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS)-cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr)-NH 4 OH-H 2 O-C 2 H 5 OH system. In this work, we report the synthesis of the most well known hexagonal MCM-41 among three main mesophases in the M41S families using TEOS-CTABr-NH 4 OH-H 2 O system. Also, in the control of the morphology and pore structure of the meso porous silica materials, the influence of the NH 4 OH concentration was investigated

  16. Exploring Large Scale Data Analysis and Visualization for ARM Data Discovery Using NoSQL Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, B.; Gustafson, W. I., Jr.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Toto, T.; Devarakonda, R.; Palanisamy, G.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a new way of providing ARM data discovery through data analysis and visualization services. ARM stands for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement. This Program was created to study cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer and also include additional measurements of aerosol and precipitation at various highly instrumented ground and mobile stations. The total volume of ARM data is roughly 900TB. The current search for ARM data is performed by using its metadata, such as the site name, instrument name, date, etc. NoSQL technologies were explored to improve the capabilities of data searching, not only by their metadata, but also by using the measurement values. Two technologies that are currently being implemented for testing are Apache Cassandra (noSQL database) and Apache Spark (noSQL based analytics framework). Both of these technologies were developed to work in a distributed environment and hence can handle large data for storing and analytics. D3.js is a JavaScript library that can generate interactive data visualizations in web browsers by making use of commonly used SVG, HTML5, and CSS standards. To test the performance of NoSQL for ARM data, we will be using ARM's popular measurements to locate the data based on its value. Recently noSQL technology has been applied to a pilot project called LASSO, which stands for LES ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation Workflow. LASSO will be packaging LES output and observations in "data bundles" and analyses will require the ability for users to analyze both observations and LES model output either individually or together across multiple time periods. The LASSO implementation strategy suggests that enormous data storage is required to store the above mentioned quantities. Thus noSQL was used to provide a powerful means to store portions of the data that provided users with search capabilities on each simulation's traits through a web application. Based on the user selection

  17. Scalable Analysis Methods and In Situ Infrastructure for Extreme Scale Knowledge Discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethel, Wes [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-07-24

    The primary challenge motivating this team’s work is the widening gap between the ability to compute information and to store it for subsequent analysis. This gap adversely impacts science code teams, who are able to perform analysis only on a small fraction of the data they compute, resulting in the very real likelihood of lost or missed science, when results are computed but not analyzed. Our approach is to perform as much analysis or visualization processing on data while it is still resident in memory, an approach that is known as in situ processing. The idea in situ processing was not new at the time of the start of this effort in 2014, but efforts in that space were largely ad hoc, and there was no concerted effort within the research community that aimed to foster production-quality software tools suitable for use by DOE science projects. In large, our objective was produce and enable use of production-quality in situ methods and infrastructure, at scale, on DOE HPC facilities, though we expected to have impact beyond DOE due to the widespread nature of the challenges, which affect virtually all large-scale computational science efforts. To achieve that objective, we assembled a unique team of researchers consisting of representatives from DOE national laboratories, academia, and industry, and engaged in software technology R&D, as well as engaged in close partnerships with DOE science code teams, to produce software technologies that were shown to run effectively at scale on DOE HPC platforms.

  18. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. XIII. Discovery of 40 New Galaxy-scale Strong Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yiping; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bolton, Adam S.; Koopmans, Léon V. E.; Treu, Tommaso; Montero-Dorta, Antonio D.; Auger, Matthew W.; Czoske, Oliver; Gavazzi, Raphaël; Marshall, Philip J.; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2017-12-01

    We present the full sample of 118 galaxy-scale strong-lens candidates in the Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey for the Masses (S4TM) Survey, which are spectroscopically selected from the final data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Follow-up Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging observations confirm that 40 candidates are definite strong lenses with multiple lensed images. The foreground-lens galaxies are found to be early-type galaxies (ETGs) at redshifts 0.06–0.44, and background sources are emission-line galaxies at redshifts 0.22–1.29. As an extension of the SLACS Survey, the S4TM Survey is the first attempt to preferentially search for strong-lens systems with relatively lower lens masses than those in the pre-existing strong-lens samples. By fitting HST data with a singular isothermal ellipsoid model, we find that the total projected mass within the Einstein radius of the S4TM strong-lens sample ranges from 3 × 1010 M ⊙ to 2 × 1011 M ⊙. In Shu et al., we have derived the total stellar mass of the S4TM lenses to be 5 × 1010 M ⊙ to 1 × 1012 M ⊙. Both the total enclosed mass and stellar mass of the S4TM lenses are on average almost a factor of 2 smaller than those of the SLACS lenses, which also represent the typical mass scales of the current strong-lens samples. The extended mass coverage provided by the S4TM sample can enable a direct test, with the aid of strong lensing, for transitions in scaling relations, kinematic properties, mass structure, and dark-matter content trends of ETGs at intermediate-mass scales as noted in previous studies. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST), obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with HST program #12210.

  19. The BCube Crawler: Web Scale Data and Service Discovery for EarthCube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, L. A.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Duerr, R.; Tayachow, A.; Mingo, E.

    2014-12-01

    Web-crawling, a core component of the NSF-funded BCube project, is researching and applying the use of big data technologies to find and characterize different types of web services, catalog interfaces, and data feeds such as the ESIP OpenSearch, OGC W*S, THREDDS, and OAI-PMH that describe or provide access to scientific datasets. Given the scale of the Internet, which challenges even large search providers such as Google, the BCube plan for discovering these web accessible services is to subdivide the problem into three smaller, more tractable issues. The first, to be able to discover likely sites where relevant data and data services might be found, the second, to be able to deeply crawl the sites discovered to find any data and services which might be present. Lastly, to leverage the use of semantic technologies to characterize the services and data found, and to filter out everything but those relevant to the geosciences. To address the first two challenges BCube uses an adapted version of Apache Nutch (which originated Hadoop), a web scale crawler, and Amazon's ElasticMapReduce service for flexibility and cost effectiveness. For characterization of the services found, BCube is examining existing web service ontologies for their applicability to our needs and will re-use and/or extend these in order to query for services with specific well-defined characteristics in scientific datasets such as the use of geospatial namespaces. The original proposal for the crawler won a grant from Amazon's academic program, which allowed us to become operational; we successfully tested the Bcube Crawler at web scale obtaining a significant corpus, sizeable enough to enable work on characterization of the services and data found. There is still plenty of work to be done, doing "smart crawls" by managing the frontier, developing and enhancing our scoring algorithms and fully implementing the semantic characterization technologies. We describe the current status of the project

  20. Gram Scale Syntheses of (-)-Incarvillateine and Its Analogs. Discovery of Potent Analgesics for Neuropathic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin; Zhang, Fengying; Yu, Gang; Song, Yan; Wang, Xintong; Wang, Meiliang; Gong, Zehui; Su, Ruibin; Jia, Yanxing

    2016-04-28

    (-)-Incarvillateine (INCA) is the major antinociceptive component of Incarvillea sinensis, which has been used to treat rheumatism and relieve pain in traditional Chinese medicine. We have developed a concise and general synthetic approach for INCA, which enabled gram-scale asymmetric syntheses of (-)-INCA, (-)-incarvilline, (-)-isoincarvilline, and six other INCA analogues. The synthesis of isoincarvilline was reported for the first time. Three structurally simplified analogues of INCA were also synthesized. In vivo screening found that INCA and two structurally optimized analogues were efficacious in preventing the acetic acid-induced writhing response. Moreover, their analgesic efficacy was demonstrated in formalin induced pain model. More importantly, administration of 20 or 40 mg/kg INCA and two structurally optimized analogues showed strong analgesic effects in spared nerve injury (SNI) model, and their effective doses were lower than the current gold standard, gabapentin (100 mg/kg in this model).

  1. Synthesis and crystallographic analysis of meso-2,3-difluoro-1,4-butanediol and meso-1,4-dibenzyloxy-2,3-difluorobutane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Linclau

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A large-scale synthesis of meso-2,3-difluoro-1,4-butanediol in 5 steps from (Z-but-2-enediol is described. Crystallographic analysis of the diol and the corresponding benzyl ether reveals an anti conformation of the vicinal difluoride moiety. Monosilylation of the diol is high-yielding but all attempts to achieve chain extension through addition of alkyl Grignard and acetylide nucleophiles failed.

  2. RRW: repeated random walks on genome-scale protein networks for local cluster discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Tolga

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We propose an efficient and biologically sensitive algorithm based on repeated random walks (RRW for discovering functional modules, e.g., complexes and pathways, within large-scale protein networks. Compared to existing cluster identification techniques, RRW implicitly makes use of network topology, edge weights, and long range interactions between proteins. Results We apply the proposed technique on a functional network of yeast genes and accurately identify statistically significant clusters of proteins. We validate the biological significance of the results using known complexes in the MIPS complex catalogue database and well-characterized biological processes. We find that 90% of the created clusters have the majority of their catalogued proteins belonging to the same MIPS complex, and about 80% have the majority of their proteins involved in the same biological process. We compare our method to various other clustering techniques, such as the Markov Clustering Algorithm (MCL, and find a significant improvement in the RRW clusters' precision and accuracy values. Conclusion RRW, which is a technique that exploits the topology of the network, is more precise and robust in finding local clusters. In addition, it has the added flexibility of being able to find multi-functional proteins by allowing overlapping clusters.

  3. Unlocking biomarker discovery: large scale application of aptamer proteomic technology for early detection of lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M Ostroff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. New diagnostics are needed to detect early stage lung cancer because it may be cured with surgery. However, most cases are diagnosed too late for curative surgery. Here we present a comprehensive clinical biomarker study of lung cancer and the first large-scale clinical application of a new aptamer-based proteomic technology to discover blood protein biomarkers in disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a multi-center case-control study in archived serum samples from 1,326 subjects from four independent studies of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC in long-term tobacco-exposed populations. Sera were collected and processed under uniform protocols. Case sera were collected from 291 patients within 8 weeks of the first biopsy-proven lung cancer and prior to tumor removal by surgery. Control sera were collected from 1,035 asymptomatic study participants with ≥ 10 pack-years of cigarette smoking. We measured 813 proteins in each sample with a new aptamer-based proteomic technology, identified 44 candidate biomarkers, and developed a 12-protein panel (cadherin-1, CD30 ligand, endostatin, HSP90α, LRIG3, MIP-4, pleiotrophin, PRKCI, RGM-C, SCF-sR, sL-selectin, and YES that discriminates NSCLC from controls with 91% sensitivity and 84% specificity in cross-validated training and 89% sensitivity and 83% specificity in a separate verification set, with similar performance for early and late stage NSCLC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study is a significant advance in clinical proteomics in an area of high unmet clinical need. Our analysis exceeds the breadth and dynamic range of proteome interrogated of previously published clinical studies of broad serum proteome profiling platforms including mass spectrometry, antibody arrays, and autoantibody arrays. The sensitivity and specificity of our 12-biomarker panel improves upon published protein and gene expression panels

  4. DISCOVERY OF A LARGE NUMBER OF CANDIDATE PROTOCLUSTERS TRACED BY ∼15 Mpc-SCALE GALAXY OVERDENSITIES IN COSMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Yi-Kuan; Gebhardt, Karl; Overzier, Roderik

    2014-01-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of studying the epoch of massive galaxy cluster formation in a more systematic manner using current and future galaxy surveys, we report the discovery of a large sample of protocluster candidates in the 1.62 deg 2 COSMOS/UltraVISTA field traced by optical/infrared selected galaxies using photometric redshifts. By comparing properly smoothed three-dimensional galaxy density maps of the observations and a set of matched simulations incorporating the dominant observational effects (galaxy selection and photometric redshift uncertainties), we first confirm that the observed ∼15 comoving Mpc-scale galaxy clustering is consistent with ΛCDM models. Using further the relation between high-z overdensity and the present day cluster mass calibrated in these matched simulations, we found 36 candidate structures at 1.6 < z < 3.1, showing overdensities consistent with the progenitors of M z = 0 ∼ 10 15 M ☉ clusters. Taking into account the significant upward scattering of lower mass structures, the probabilities for the candidates to have at least M z= 0 ∼ 10 14 M ☉ are ∼70%. For each structure, about 15%-40% of photometric galaxy candidates are expected to be true protocluster members that will merge into a cluster-scale halo by z = 0. With solely photometric redshifts, we successfully rediscover two spectroscopically confirmed structures in this field, suggesting that our algorithm is robust. This work generates a large sample of uniformly selected protocluster candidates, providing rich targets for spectroscopic follow-up and subsequent studies of cluster formation. Meanwhile, it demonstrates the potential for probing early cluster formation with upcoming redshift surveys such as the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment and the Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph survey

  5. Las comunidades locales como estructuras meso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrand, Alexis

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Entre el nivel micro y el nivel macro: meso. Si el nivel macro está definido por la regulación nacional, estatal o del mercado y el nivel micro por la regulación interpersonal, una agencia de regulación intermediaria de mayor importancia ha sido definida como “comunidad local” (Wellman, Fischer. Aparte de las dimensiones organizacionales (organizaciones locales, clubes, tiendas... e institucionales (poder local, partidos... locales, es posible definir algunas propiedades estructurales pertinentes de los sistemas de relaciones interpersonales privadas: uno es el grado de “cerrado” (closure local (Barnes: redes locales vs. transversales, o la “dualidad” de estos sistemas. Apoyándose en la idea de que la eficiencia de los “puentes” reside en el tipo de cliques que conectan (Lin, es posible definir tipos variados de micro-estructuras, cuyas distribuciones en diferentes localidades son indicadores sucedáneos o aproximaciones de las diferentes meso estructuras de sistemas relacionales como combinaciones de redes “locales” y “no locales”.

  6. Overview of the Meso-NH model version 5.4 and its applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lac

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Meso-NH model version 5.4. Meso-NH is an atmospheric non hydrostatic research model that is applied to a broad range of resolutions, from synoptic to turbulent scales, and is designed for studies of physics and chemistry. It is a limited-area model employing advanced numerical techniques, including monotonic advection schemes for scalar transport and fourth-order centered or odd-order WENO advection schemes for momentum. The model includes state-of-the-art physics parameterization schemes that are important to represent convective-scale phenomena and turbulent eddies, as well as flows at larger scales. In addition, Meso-NH has been expanded to provide capabilities for a range of Earth system prediction applications such as chemistry and aerosols, electricity and lightning, hydrology, wildland fires, volcanic eruptions, and cyclones with ocean coupling. Here, we present the main innovations to the dynamics and physics of the code since the pioneer paper of Lafore et al. (1998 and provide an overview of recent applications and couplings.

  7. Meso-/Nanoporous Semiconducting Metal Oxides for Gas Sensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Duc Hoa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and/or design of new materials and/or structures for effective gas sensor applications with fast response and high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability are very important issues in the gas sensor technology. This critical review introduces our recent progress in the development of meso-/nanoporous semiconducting metal oxides and their applications to gas sensors. First, the basic concepts of resistive gas sensors and the recent synthesis of meso-/nanoporous metal oxides for gas sensor applications are introduced. The advantages of meso-/nanoporous metal oxides are also presented, taking into account the crystallinity and ordered/disordered porous structures. Second, the synthesis methods of meso-/nanoporous metal oxides including the soft-template, hard-template, and temple-free methods are introduced, in which the advantages and disadvantages of each synthetic method are figured out. Third, the applications of meso-/nanoporous metal oxides as gas sensors are presented. The gas nanosensors are designed based on meso-/nanoporous metal oxides for effective detection of toxic gases. The sensitivity, selectivity, and stability of the meso-/nanoporous gas nanosensors are also discussed. Finally, some conclusions and an outlook are presented.

  8. Verification of Meso-Zeaxanthin in Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, John M; Beatty, Stephen; Meagher, Katie A; Howard, Alan N; Kelly, David; Thurnham, David I

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives The carotenoids lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z), and meso-zeaxanthin (MZ) accumulate in the central retina (the macula), where they are collectively known as macular pigment (MP). MP has been shown to enhance visual function in both diseased and non-diseased retinae, and therefore an understanding and confirmation of, the origins of these carotenoids is needed. Studies have shown that L and Z are present in many foodstuffs found in a typical Western diet (e.g. spinach, kale, peppers, yellow corn and eggs). It has been shown that MZ is generated from L in the primate retina and earlier reports suggested that MZ was present in some fish species. Recently, however, one research group reported that MZ is not present in fish and suggested that the earlier reports showing MZ in these marine species were a methodological artefact. The current study was designed to investigate the reason for the contradiction, and test for the presence of MZ in fish and some other foods. Methods Raw fruits, vegetables and fish were extracted for carotenoid analysis by high performance liquid chromatography. Results MZ was not detected in any of the fruits or vegetables tested in our study. However, using retention time matching, absorption spectrum comparison, and sample spiking, we verified the presence of MZ in salmon skin, sardine skin, trout skin and trout flesh. Conclusion This study confirmed the presence MZ in nature, and in the human food chain. PMID:25717420

  9. Meso-scale atmospheric events promote phytoplankton blooms in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Bay of Bengal is considered to be a low productive region compared to the Arabian Sea based on conventional seasonal observations. Such seasonal observations are not representative of a calendar year since the conventional approach might miss episodic high productive events associated with extreme ...

  10. Churchill: an ultra-fast, deterministic, highly scalable and balanced parallelization strategy for the discovery of human genetic variation in clinical and population-scale genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Benjamin J; Fitch, James R; Hu, Yangqiu; Corsmeier, Donald J; Zhong, Huachun; Wetzel, Amy N; Nordquist, Russell D; Newsom, David L; White, Peter

    2015-01-20

    While advances in genome sequencing technology make population-scale genomics a possibility, current approaches for analysis of these data rely upon parallelization strategies that have limited scalability, complex implementation and lack reproducibility. Churchill, a balanced regional parallelization strategy, overcomes these challenges, fully automating the multiple steps required to go from raw sequencing reads to variant discovery. Through implementation of novel deterministic parallelization techniques, Churchill allows computationally efficient analysis of a high-depth whole genome sample in less than two hours. The method is highly scalable, enabling full analysis of the 1000 Genomes raw sequence dataset in a week using cloud resources. http://churchill.nchri.org/.

  11. In meso in situ serial X-ray crystallography of soluble and membrane proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chia-Ying; Olieric, Vincent; Ma, Pikyee; Panepucci, Ezequiel; Diederichs, Kay; Wang, Meitian; Caffrey, Martin

    2015-01-01

    crystallography synchrotron beamlines worldwide. Because of its simplicity and effectiveness, the IMISX approach is likely to supplant existing in meso crystallization protocols. It should prove particularly attractive in the area of ligand screening for drug discovery and development

  12. Volatility Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Gustavo Fruet; Scherrer, Cristina; Papailias, Fotis

    The price discovery literature investigates how homogenous securities traded on different markets incorporate information into prices. We take this literature one step further and investigate how these markets contribute to stochastic volatility (volatility discovery). We formally show...... that the realized measures from homogenous securities share a fractional stochastic trend, which is a combination of the price and volatility discovery measures. Furthermore, we show that volatility discovery is associated with the way that market participants process information arrival (market sensitivity......). Finally, we compute volatility discovery for 30 actively traded stocks in the U.S. and report that Nyse and Arca dominate Nasdaq....

  13. Seasonal meso- and microhabitat selection by the northern snakehead (Channa argus) in the Potomac river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, N.W.R.; Thorson, J.T.; Angermeier, P.L.

    2010-01-01

     The northern snakehead (Channa argus) is a large piscivorous fish that is invasive in eastern Europe and has recently been introduced in North America. We examined the seasonal habitat selection at meso- and microhabitat scales using radio-telemetry to increase understanding of the ecology of this species, which will help to inform management decisions. After the spawning season (postspawn season, September–November), northern snakeheads preferred offshore Eurasian water-milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) beds with shallow water (∼115 cm) and soft substrate. In the winter (November–April), these fish moved to deeper water (∼135 cm) with warmer temperatures, but habitat selection was weak at both scales. Northern snakeheads returned to shallower water (∼95 cm) in the prespawn season (April–June) and used milfoil and other cover. Habitat selection was the strongest at both meso- and microhabitat scales during the spawning season (June–September), when fish preferred macrophytes and cover in shallow water (∼88 cm). Our results help to identify habitats at the risk of invasion by northern snakeheads. We suggest that control efforts and future research focus on shallow waters, and take into consideration the seasonal habitat preferences.

  14. Quantitative study on crack of meso-damage and fracture concrete ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lysis of the meso-fracture process of concrete materials is performed. ... the result of the accumulation and development of damage and cracks at the meso-level. ... characteristics of concrete under uniaxial compression used fractal theory, and ...

  15. Discovery of ordered and quasi-ordered photonic crystal structures in the scales of the beetle Eupholus magnificus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouya, C.; Stavenga, D. G.; Vukusic, P.

    2011-01-01

    The outer wing casings (elytra) of the weevil Eupholus magnificus are marked by yellow and blue bands. We have investigated the scales covering the elytra by using microspectrophotometry, imaging scatterometry, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform analysis. We demonstrate that the

  16. Meso-level analysis, the missing link in energy strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, Niels J.; Moll, Henri C.; Schoot Uiterkamp, Anton J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Energy is essential for human societies. Energy systems, though, are also associated with several adverse environmental effects. So far societies have been unable to successfully change their energy systems in a way that addresses environmental and health concerns. Lack of policy consensus often resulted in so-called 'stop-go' policies, which were identified as some of the most important barriers regarding successful energy transitions. The lack of policy consensus and coherent long-term strategies may result from a lack of knowledge of energy systems' meso-level dynamics. The meso-level involves the dynamic behaviour of the individual system elements and the coupling of individual technologies, resulting in interdependencies and regimes. Energy systems are at the meso-level characterised by two typical aspects, i.e. dynamics driven by interactions between actors, and heterogeneous characteristics of actors. These aspects give rise to the ineffectiveness of traditional energy policies, which is illustrated with examples from the transport sector and household electricity consumption. We found that analysis of energy systems at the meso-level helps to better understand energy systems. To resolve persistent policy issues, the traditional 'one size fits all' energy policies are not sufficient. In order to tackle the difficult issues, 'redesign of system organisation', 'target group approach', or 'target group induced system re-orientation' are needed

  17. Guanidine-catalyzed enantioselective desymmetrization of meso-aziridines

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yan

    2011-01-01

    An amino-indanol derived chiral guanidine was developed as an efficient Brønsted base catalyst for the desymmetrization of meso-aziridines with both thiols and carbamodithioic acids as nucleophiles, which provided 1,2-difunctionalized ring-opened products in high yields and enantioselectivities. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. LSP Studies As a Quest For Meso-Level Regularities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jan

    2015-01-01

    the suggested type of analysis. I proceed to present Knowledge Communication as theoretical-methodological framework of such analyses, followed by a presentation of the differences between a micro, a macro and a meso level approach to studying specialized communication. In the last part of the paper, I...

  19. Synthesis and characterization of new meso-substituted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    tems. 10. Their ability to carry out the reactions rather unusual in organic chemistry has been the object of intensive investigations aiming to utilize them as a model compounds for biological systems and as catalysts. 11. Therefore, the synthesis of well defined meso-substituted unsymmetrical porphyrin deriva- tives (A3B) is ...

  20. Prospects for discovery of supersymmetric No-Scale F-SU(5) at the once and future LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianjun; Maxin, James A.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Walker, Joel W.

    2012-06-01

    We present the reach of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) into the parameter space of No-Scale F-SU(5), starting our analysis with the current operating energy of √{s}=7 TeV, and extending it on through the bright future of a 14 TeV beam. No-Scale F-SU(5) is a model defined by the confluence of the F-lipped SU(5) Grand Unified Theory, two pairs of hypothetical TeV scale vector-like supersymmetric multiplets with origins in F-theory, and the dynamically established boundary conditions of No-Scale Supergravity. When searching for a five standard deviation signal, we find that the CMS experiment at the √{s}=7 TeV LHC began to penetrate the phenomenologically viable parameter space of this model at just under 1 fb of integrated luminosity, and that the majority of this space remains intact, subsequent to analyses of the first 1.1 fb of CMS data. On the contrary, the ATLAS experiment had not reached the F-SU(5) parameter space in its first 1.34 fb of luminosity. Since the CMS and ATLAS detectors have now each amassed a milestone of 5 fb of collected luminosity, the current LHC is presently effectively probing No-Scale F-SU(5). Upon the crossing of the 5 fb threshold, the 7 TeV LHC will have achieved five standard deviation discoverability for a unified gaugino mass of up to about 532 GeV, a light stop of 577 GeV, a gluino of 728 GeV, and heavy squarks of just over 1 TeV. Extending the analysis to include a future LHC center-of-mass beam energy of √{s}=14 TeV, the full model space of No-Scale F-SU(5) should be visible to CMS at about 30 fb of integrated luminosity. We stress that the F-SU(5) discoverability thresholds discussed here are contingent upon retaining only those events with nine jets or more for the CMS experiment and seven jets or more for the ATLAS experiment.

  1. Discovery of small-scale-structure in the large molecule/dust distribution in the diffuse ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiner, Martin A.; Fossey, Stephen J.; Sarre, Peter J.

    There is mounting evidence that far from being homogeneously distributed, interstellar matter can have a clumpy or filamentary structure on the scale of 10s to a few 1000s of AU and which is commonly described as small scale structure (SSS). Initially confined to VLBI HI observations and HI observations of high-velocity pulsars, evidence for SSS has also come indirectly from molecular radio studies of e.g. HCO+ and infrared absorption by H3+. Much of the recent data on SSS has been obtained through optical/UV detection of atomic and diatomic molecular lines. Is there small scale structure in the large molecule/dust distribution? While this question could in principle be explored by measuring differences in the interstellar extinction towards the components of binary stars, in practice this would be difficult. Rather we chose to investigate this by recording very high signal-to-noise spectra of diffuse interstellar absorption bands. Although the carriers remain unidentified, the diffuse bands are generally considered to be tracers of the large molecule/dust distribution and scale well with reddening. Using the Anglo-Australian Telescope we have made UCLES observations of pairs of stars with separations ranging between 500 and 30000 AU. The signal-to-noise achieved was up to 2000, thus allowing variations in central depth of less than a few tenths of a percent to be discernible. Striking differences in diffuse band strengths for closely spaced lines of sight are found showing clearly that there exists small-scale-structure in the large molecule/dust distribution. For example, in the Ophiuchus star-formation region the central depths for the λ6614 diffuse band towards the ρ Oph stars A, B, C and D/E all differ and range between 0.966 and 0.930. Further interesting behaviour is found when comparing the relative strengths of diffuse bands between closely parallel lines of sight. Taking again the ρ Oph group, for λ5797 the strengths follow the order DE > B > C > A

  2. Modellierung of meso- and macroscale river basins - a workshop held at Lauenburg; Modellierung in meso- bis makroskaligen Flusseinzugsgebieten - Tagungsband zum gleichnamigen Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutmoeller, J.; Raschke, E. (eds.) [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik

    2001-07-01

    During the past decade measuring and modelling of global and regional processes that exchange energy and water in the climate system of the Earth became a focus in hydrological and meteorological research. Besides climate research many more applications will gain from this effort, e.g. as weather forecasting, water management and agriculture. As large scale weather and climate applications diversify to water related issues such as water resources, reservoir management, and flood and drought forecasting hydrologists and meteorologists are challenged to work interdisciplinary. The workshop 'Modelling of meso- and macroscale river basins' brought together various current aspects of this issue, ranging from coupled atmosphere-hydrology models to integrated river basin management to land use change. Recent results are introduced and summarised in this report. (orig.)

  3. Beyond Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen; Sassmannshausen, Sean Patrick

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter we explore four alternatives to the dominant discovery view of entrepreneurship; the development view, the construction view, the evolutionary view, and the Neo-Austrian view. We outline the main critique points of the discovery presented in these four alternatives, as well...

  4. Chemical Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Herbert C.

    1974-01-01

    The role of discovery in the advance of the science of chemistry and the factors that are currently operating to handicap that function are considered. Examples are drawn from the author's work with boranes. The thesis that exploratory research and discovery should be encouraged is stressed. (DT)

  5. Discovery of megaparsec-scale, low surface brightness nonthermal emission in merging galaxy clusters using the green bank telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnsworth, Damon; Rudnick, Lawrence [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Brown, Shea [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, 203 Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Brunetti, Gianfranco [INAF/Istituto di Radioastronomia, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2013-12-20

    We present results from a study of 12 X-ray bright clusters at 1.4 GHz with the 100 m Green Bank Telescope. After subtraction of point sources using existing interferometer data, we reach a median (best) 1σ rms sensitivity level of 0.01 (0.006) μJy arcsec{sup –2}, and find a significant excess of diffuse, low surface brightness emission in 11 of 12 Abell clusters observed. We also present initial results at 1.4 GHz of A2319 from the Very Large Array. In particular, we find: (1) four new detections of diffuse structures tentatively classified as two halos (A2065, A2069) and two relics (A2067, A2073); (2) the first detection of the radio halo in A2061 at 1.4 GHz, which qualifies this as a possible ultra-steep spectrum halo source with a synchrotron spectral index of α ∼ 1.8 between 327 MHz and 1.4 GHz; (3) a ∼2 Mpc radio halo in the sloshing, minor-merger cluster A2142; (4) a >2× increase of the giant radio halo extent and luminosity in the merging cluster A2319; (5) a ∼7× increase to the integrated radio flux and >4× increase to the observed extent of the peripheral radio relic in A1367 to ∼600 kpc, which we also observe to be polarized on a similar scale; (6) significant excess emission of ambiguous nature in three clusters with embedded tailed radio galaxies (A119, A400, A3744). Our radio halo detections agree with the well-known X-ray/radio luminosity correlation, but they are larger and fainter than current radio power correlation studies would predict. The corresponding volume-averaged synchrotron emissivities are 1-2 orders of magnitude below the characteristic value found in previous studies. Some of the halo-like detections may be some type of previously unseen, low surface brightness radio halo or blend of unresolved shock structures and sub-Mpc-scale turbulent regions associated with their respective cluster merging activity. Four of the five tentative halos contain one or more X-ray cold fronts, suggesting a possible connection between gas

  6. Scientific Grand Challenges: Discovery In Basic Energy Sciences: The Role of Computing at the Extreme Scale - August 13-15, 2009, Washington, D.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galli, Giulia [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Workshop Chair; Dunning, Thom [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Workshop Chair

    2009-08-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) and Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) workshop in August 2009 on extreme-scale computing provided a forum for more than 130 researchers to explore the needs and opportunities that will arise due to expected dramatic advances in computing power over the next decade. This scientific community firmly believes that the development of advanced theoretical tools within chemistry, physics, and materials science—combined with the development of efficient computational techniques and algorithms—has the potential to revolutionize the discovery process for materials and molecules with desirable properties. Doing so is necessary to meet the energy and environmental challenges of the 21st century as described in various DOE BES Basic Research Needs reports. Furthermore, computational modeling and simulation are a crucial complement to experimental studies, particularly when quantum mechanical processes controlling energy production, transformations, and storage are not directly observable and/or controllable. Many processes related to the Earth’s climate and subsurface need better modeling capabilities at the molecular level, which will be enabled by extreme-scale computing.

  7. Addressing the Recalcitrance of Cellulose Degradation through Cellulase Discovery, Nano-scale Elucidation of Molecular Mechanisms, and Kinetic Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Larry P., Bergstrom, Gary; Corgie, Stephane; Craighead, Harold; Gibson, Donna; Wilson, David

    2011-06-13

    This research project was designed to play a vital role in the development of low cost sugars from cellulosic biomass and contributing to the national effort to displace fossil fuel usage in the USA transportation sector. The goal was to expand the portfolio of cell wall degrading enzymes through innovative research at the nano-scale level, prospecting for novel cellulases and building a kinetic framework for the development of more effective enzymatic conversion processes. More precisely, the goal was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms for some cellulases that are very familiar to members of our research team and to investigate what we hope are novel cellulases or new enzyme combinations from the world of plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria. Hydrolytic activities of various cellulases and cellulase cocktails were monitored at the nanoscale of cellulose fibrils and the microscale of pretreated cellulose particles, and we integrated this insight into a heterogeneous reaction framework. The over-riding approach for this research program was the application of innovative and cutting edge optical and high-throughput screening and analysis techniques for observing how cellulases hydrolyze real substrates.

  8. Discovery of Protein–lncRNA Interactions by Integrating Large-Scale CLIP-Seq and RNA-Seq Datasets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jun-Hao; Liu, Shun; Zheng, Ling-Ling; Wu, Jie; Sun, Wen-Ju; Wang, Ze-Lin; Zhou, Hui; Qu, Liang-Hu; Yang, Jian-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as important regulatory molecules in developmental, physiological, and pathological processes. However, the precise mechanism and functions of most of lncRNAs remain largely unknown. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing of immunoprecipitated RNAs after cross-linking (CLIP-Seq) provide powerful ways to identify biologically relevant protein–lncRNA interactions. In this study, by analyzing millions of RNA-binding protein (RBP) binding sites from 117 CLIP-Seq datasets generated by 50 independent studies, we identified 22,735 RBP–lncRNA regulatory relationships. We found that one single lncRNA will generally be bound and regulated by one or multiple RBPs, the combination of which may coordinately regulate gene expression. We also revealed the expression correlation of these interaction networks by mining expression profiles of over 6000 normal and tumor samples from 14 cancer types. Our combined analysis of CLIP-Seq data and genome-wide association studies data discovered hundreds of disease-related single nucleotide polymorphisms resided in the RBP binding sites of lncRNAs. Finally, we developed interactive web implementations to provide visualization, analysis, and downloading of the aforementioned large-scale datasets. Our study represented an important step in identification and analysis of RBP–lncRNA interactions and showed that these interactions may play crucial roles in cancer and genetic diseases.

  9. Discovery of Protein–lncRNA Interactions by Integrating Large-Scale CLIP-Seq and RNA-Seq Datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jun-Hao; Liu, Shun; Zheng, Ling-Ling; Wu, Jie; Sun, Wen-Ju; Wang, Ze-Lin; Zhou, Hui; Qu, Liang-Hu, E-mail: lssqlh@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Yang, Jian-Hua, E-mail: lssqlh@mail.sysu.edu.cn [RNA Information Center, Key Laboratory of Gene Engineering of the Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2015-01-14

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as important regulatory molecules in developmental, physiological, and pathological processes. However, the precise mechanism and functions of most of lncRNAs remain largely unknown. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing of immunoprecipitated RNAs after cross-linking (CLIP-Seq) provide powerful ways to identify biologically relevant protein–lncRNA interactions. In this study, by analyzing millions of RNA-binding protein (RBP) binding sites from 117 CLIP-Seq datasets generated by 50 independent studies, we identified 22,735 RBP–lncRNA regulatory relationships. We found that one single lncRNA will generally be bound and regulated by one or multiple RBPs, the combination of which may coordinately regulate gene expression. We also revealed the expression correlation of these interaction networks by mining expression profiles of over 6000 normal and tumor samples from 14 cancer types. Our combined analysis of CLIP-Seq data and genome-wide association studies data discovered hundreds of disease-related single nucleotide polymorphisms resided in the RBP binding sites of lncRNAs. Finally, we developed interactive web implementations to provide visualization, analysis, and downloading of the aforementioned large-scale datasets. Our study represented an important step in identification and analysis of RBP–lncRNA interactions and showed that these interactions may play crucial roles in cancer and genetic diseases.

  10. Meso-optical Fourier transform microscope with double focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batusov, Yu.A.; Soroko, L.M.; Tereshchenko, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    The meso-optical Fourier transform microscope (MFTM) with double focusing for particle tracks of low ionization level in the nuclear emulsion is described. It is shown experimentally that this device enables one to get high concentration of information about the position of the particle track in the nuclear emulsion and thus to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. It is shown that spreading of the meso-optical image of the particle track in the sagittal section of the MFTM can be eliminated completely in the frame of the diffraction limit. The number of the additional degrees of freedom in this new MFTM system along depth coordinate is equal to 20 in comparison to single degree of freedom in the Fourier transform microscope of the direct observation. 10 refs.; 15 figs

  11. Meso(topoclimatic maps and mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Plánka

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric characteristics can be studied from many points of view, most often we talk about time and spatial standpoint. Application of time standpoint leads either to different kinds of the synoptic and prognostic maps production, which presents actual state of atmosphere in short time section in the past or in the near future or to the climatic maps production which presents longterm weather regime. Spatial standpoint then differs map works according to natural phenomenon proportions, whereas the scale of their graphic presentation can be different. It depends on production purpose of each work.In the paper there are analysed methods of mapping and climatic maps production, which display longterm regime of chosen atmospheric features. These athmosphere features are formed in interaction with land surface and also have direct influence on people and their activities throughout the country. At the same time they’re influenced by anthropogenic intervention to the landscape.

  12. Validation of Micro-Meso Electrical Relations for Laminates with Varying Anisotropy

    KAUST Repository

    Selvakumaran, Lakshmi

    2015-08-01

    For electrical impedance tomography (EIT) to be useful in monitoring transverse cracks in composites, it is imperative to establish the relation between conductivity and cracking density. Micro to meso scale homogenization has been developed for classical carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminate which provides such a relationship. However, we have shown in previous studies that the detectability of transverse cracks in such CFRP, which are characterized by very anisotropic electrical properties, is poor. Then, it is better to lower the electrical anisotropy, which can be achieved by various technologies including doping the polymeric resin by conductive nanoparticles. However, the validity of mesoscale homogenization for laminates with such low anisotropy has not been tested before. Here, we show that the mesoscale damage indicator is intrinsic for composites with varying anisotropy.

  13. Isolation of two tissue-specific Drosophila paired box genes, Pox meso and Pox neuro.

    OpenAIRE

    Bopp, D; Jamet, E; Baumgartner, S; Burri, M; Noll, M

    1989-01-01

    Two new paired domain genes of Drosophila, Pox meso and Pox neuro, are described. In contrast to the previously isolated paired domain genes, paired and gooseberry, which contain both a paired and a homeo-domain (PHox genes), Pox meso and Pox neuro possess no homeodomain. Evidence suggesting that the new genes encode tissue-specific transcriptional factors and belong to the same regulatory cascade as the other paired domain genes includes (i) tissue-specific expression of Pox meso in the soma...

  14. Bridging the Macro and the Micro by Considering the Meso: Reflections on the Fractal Nature of Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Bergström

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We pursued the following three interconnected points: (1 there are unexplored opportunities for resilience scholars from different disciplines to cross-inspire and inform, (2 a systems perspective may enhance understanding of human resilience in health and social settings, and (3 resilience is often considered to be fractal, i.e., a phenomenon with recognizable or recurring features at a variety of scales. Following a consideration of resilience from a systems perspective, we explain how resilience can, for analytic purposes, be constructed at four scales: micro, meso, macro, and cross-scale. Adding to the cross-scale perspective of the social-ecological field, we have suggested an analytical framework for resilience studies of the health field, which incorporates holism and complexity by embracing an ecological model of cognition, something supported by empirical studies of organizations in crisis situations at various spatial as well as temporal scales.

  15. On Selective Derivatization of meso-Tetraarylporphyrins (A Microreview)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowski, S.

    2003-01-01

    The studies on selective derivatization in one or two aromatic rings of meso-tetraarylporphyrin systems (and their zinc and copper complexes) using (a) selective nitration, (b) Vicarious Nucleophilic Substitution of Hydrogen(VNS), and (c) alkylation of the above intermediates with alkyl halides, are reported. The stepwise selective nitration of meso-aryl substituted porphyrins with fuming yellow nitric acid (d= 1.53) at the tempreture 0 deg to 20 deg results in the formation of 5-(4-nitroaryl)- 10, 15, 20-triarylporphyrins, 5,10-bis(4-nitroaryl)-15,20-diarylporphrins or trinitro- and tetranitro-derivatives, respectively, in good or reasonable yield. The above intermediates, after simple transformation to their copper or zinc complexes react with carbanions bearing leaving groups at the carbanionic center, according to VNS scheme. This reaction can be also realized at low temperature (-30 deg- 40 deg) without complexation of the parent nitroporphyrins. Alkylation of the products obtained with alkyl halides or alkyl halides bearing multiple bonds in the carbon chain led to useful compounds for further functionalization . (Author) 53 refs., 7sches., 4 figs

  16. Developmentally Regulated Production of meso-Zeaxanthin in Chicken Retinal Pigment Epithelium/Choroid and Retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorusupudi, Aruna; Shyam, Rajalekshmy; Li, Binxing; Vachali, Preejith; Subhani, Yumna K; Nelson, Kelly; Bernstein, Paul S

    2016-04-01

    meso-Zeaxanthin is a carotenoid that is rarely encountered in nature outside of the vertebrate eye. It is not a constituent of a normal human diet, yet this carotenoid comprises one-third of the primate macular pigment. In the current study, we undertook a systematic approach to biochemically characterize the production of meso-zeaxanthin in the vertebrate eye. Fertilized White Leghorn chicken eggs were analyzed for the presence of carotenoids during development. Yolk, liver, brain, serum, retina, and RPE/choroid were isolated, and carotenoids were extracted. The samples were analyzed on C-30 or chiral HPLC columns to determine the carotenoid composition. Lutein and zeaxanthin were found in all studied nonocular tissues, but no meso-zeaxanthin was ever detected. Among the ocular tissues, the presence of meso-zeaxanthin was consistently observed starting at embryonic day 17 (E17) in the RPE/choroid, several days before its consistent detection in the retina. If RPE/choroid of an embryo was devoid of meso-zeaxanthin, the corresponding retina was always negative as well. This is the first report of developmentally regulated synthesis of meso-zeaxanthin in a vertebrate system. Our observations suggest that the RPE/choroid is the primary site of meso-zeaxanthin synthesis. Identification of meso-zeaxanthin isomerase enzyme in the developing chicken embryo will facilitate our ability to determine the biochemical mechanisms responsible for production of this unique carotenoid in other higher vertebrates, such as humans.

  17. Vapor phase versus liquid phase grafting of meso-porous alumina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sripathi, V.G.P.; Mojet, Barbara; Nijmeijer, Arian; Benes, Nieck Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Functionalization of meso-porous c-alumina has been performed by grafting of 3-Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (3APTMS) simultaneously from either the liquid phase or from the vapor phase. In both cases, after grafting nitrogen physisorption indicates that the materials remain meso-porous with

  18. Preparation, characterization of electrospun meso-hydroxylapatite nanofibers and their sorptions on Co(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hualin, E-mail: hlwang@hfut.edu.cn [School of Chemical Technology, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China); Zhang, Peng; Ma, Xingkong; Jiang, Suwei; Huang, Yan; Zhai, Linfeng [School of Chemical Technology, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China); Jiang, Shaotong [School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China)

    2014-01-30

    Highlights: • PVA/HA nanofibers could change into meso-HA nanofibers by calcination process. • Sorption of Co(II) on meso-HA was strongly dependent on pH and ionic strength. • Sorption kinetic data were well fitted by the pseudo-second-order rate equation. • Sorption isotherms could be well described by the Langmuir model. • Sorption process of Co(II) on meso-HA nanofibers was spontaneous and endothermic. -- Abstract: In this work, mesoporous hydroxylapatite (meso-HA) nanofibers were prepared via calcination process with polyvinyl alcohol/HA (PVA/HA) hybrid nanofibers fabricated by electrospinning technique as precursors, and the removal efficiency of meso-HA nanofibers toward Co(II) was evaluated via sorption kinetics and sorption isotherms. Furthermore, the sorption behaviors of Co(II) on meso-HA nanofibers were explored as a function of pH, ionic strength, and thermodynamic parameters. There existed hydrogen bonds between HA and PVA matrix in precursor nanofibers which could change into meso-HA nanofibers with main pore diameter at 27 nm and specific surface area at 114.26 m{sup 2}/g by calcination process. The sorption of Co(II) on meso-HA was strongly dependent on pH and ionic strength. Outer-sphere surface complexation or ion exchange was the main mechanisms of Co(II) adsorption on meso-HA at low pH, whereas inner-sphere surface complexation was the main adsorption mechanism at high pH. The sorption kinetic data were well fitted by the pseudo-second-order rate equation. The sorption isotherms could be well described by the Langmuir model. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH°, ΔS° and ΔG°) calculated from the temperature-dependent sorption isotherms suggested that the sorption process of Co(II) on meso-HA nanofibers was spontaneous and endothermic.

  19. Modelling of rate effects at multiple scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, R.R.; Simone, A.; Sluys, L. J.

    2008-01-01

    , the length scale in the meso-model and the macro-model can be coupled. In this fashion, a bridging of length scales can be established. A computational analysis of  a Split Hopkinson bar test at medium and high impact load is carried out at macro-scale and meso-scale including information from  the micro-scale.......At the macro- and meso-scales a rate dependent constitutive model is used in which visco-elasticity is coupled to visco-plasticity and damage. A viscous length scale effect is introduced to control the size of the fracture process zone. By comparison of the widths of the fracture process zone...

  20. Meso and micro level workforce challenges in psychiatric rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifels, Lennart; Pirkis, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Results of an exploratory study are presented which examined workforce challenges in Australia's most established psychiatric rehabilitation sector. The study had the two-fold aim of investigating workforce challenges at an organizational ("meso") level and at the level of direct-service workers' daily practice ("micro"). Data from 23 key informant interviews conducted with service managers and long-serving staff were analyzed through basic descriptive and thematic analyses. Organizations faced significant annual staff turnover (25.6%), specific staff supply shortages, and challenges in recruiting staff with adequate experience and longevity to match the complexity of client issues. Workers equally encountered challenges in this increasingly complex and rapidly changing field of work. CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Workforce strategies designed to attract/retain experienced staff can improve workforce cohesiveness and sustainability, as can training and support activities aimed at equipping staff to reflect on and operate in dynamic and changing work environments.

  1. Constitutive relation of concrete containing meso-structural characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guo

    Full Text Available A constitutive model of concrete is proposed based on the mixture theory of porous media within thermodynamic framework. By treating concrete as a multi-phase multi-component mixture, we constructed the constitutive functions for elastic, interfacial, and plastic strain energy respectively. A constitutive law of concrete accommodating internal micro-cracks and interfacial boundaries was established. The peak stress predicted with the developed model depends primarily on the volume ratio of aggregate, and the results explain very well reported experimental phenomena. The strain-stress curve under uniaxial loading was found in a good agreement with experimental data for concrete with three different mixing proportions. Keywords: Constitutive model of concrete, Mixture theory of porous media, Meso-structure, Interfacial energy

  2. Safety analysis of urban arterials at the meso level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Wang, Xuesong

    2017-11-01

    Urban arterials form the main structure of street networks. They typically have multiple lanes, high traffic volume, and high crash frequency. Classical crash prediction models investigate the relationship between arterial characteristics and traffic safety by treating road segments and intersections as isolated units. This micro-level analysis does not work when examining urban arterial crashes because signal spacing is typically short for urban arterials, and there are interactions between intersections and road segments that classical models do not accommodate. Signal spacing also has safety effects on both intersections and road segments that classical models cannot fully account for because they allocate crashes separately to intersections and road segments. In addition, classical models do not consider the impact on arterial safety of the immediately surrounding street network pattern. This study proposes a new modeling methodology that will offer an integrated treatment of intersections and road segments by combining signalized intersections and their adjacent road segments into a single unit based on road geometric design characteristics and operational conditions. These are called meso-level units because they offer an analytical approach between micro and macro. The safety effects of signal spacing and street network pattern were estimated for this study based on 118 meso-level units obtained from 21 urban arterials in Shanghai, and were examined using CAR (conditional auto regressive) models that corrected for spatial correlation among the units within individual arterials. Results showed shorter arterial signal spacing was associated with higher total and PDO (property damage only) crashes, while arterials with a greater number of parallel roads were associated with lower total, PDO, and injury crashes. The findings from this study can be used in the traffic safety planning, design, and management of urban arterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  3. Controlled release of ibuprofen by meso-macroporous silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría, E.; Maestro, A.; Porras, M.; Gutiérrez, J. M.; González, C.

    2014-02-01

    Structured meso-macroporous silica was successfully synthesized from an O/W emulsion using decane as a dispersed phase. Sodium silicate solution, which acts as a silica source and a poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (EO19PO39EO19) denoted as P84 was used in order to stabilize the emulsion and as a mesopore template. The materials obtained were characterized through transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), small-angle X-ray diffraction scattering (SAXS) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. Ibuprofen (IBU) was selected as the model drug and loaded into ordered meso-macroporous materials. The effect of the materials’ properties on IBU drug loading and release was studied. The results showed that the loading of IBU increases as the macropore presence in the material is increased. The IBU adsorption process followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. A two-step release process, consisting of an initial fast release and then a slower release was observed. Macropores enhanced the adsorption capacity of the material; this was probably due to the fact that they allowed the drug to access internal pores. When only mesopores were present, ibuprofen was probably adsorbed on the mesopores close to the surface. Moreover, the more macropore present in the material, the slower the release behaviour observed, as the ibuprofen adsorbed in the internal pores had to diffuse along the macropore channels up to the surface of the material. The material obtained from a highly concentrated emulsion was functionalized with amino groups using two methods, the post-grafting mechanism and the co-condensation mechanism. Both routes improve IBU adsorption in the material and show good behaviour as a controlled drug delivery system.

  4. Discovery Mondays

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Many people don't realise quite how much is going on at CERN. Would you like to gain first-hand knowledge of CERN's scientific and technological activities and their many applications? Try out some experiments for yourself, or pick the brains of the people in charge? If so, then the «Lundis Découverte» or Discovery Mondays, will be right up your street. Starting on May 5th, on every first Monday of the month you will be introduced to a different facet of the Laboratory. CERN staff, non-scientists, and members of the general public, everyone is welcome. So tell your friends and neighbours and make sure you don't miss this opportunity to satisfy your curiosity and enjoy yourself at the same time. You won't have to listen to a lecture, as the idea is to have open exchange with the expert in question and for each subject to be illustrated with experiments and demonstrations. There's no need to book, as Microcosm, CERN's interactive museum, will be open non-stop from 7.30 p.m. to 9 p.m. On the first Discovery M...

  5. Stiffness and Poisson ratio in longitudinal compression of fiber yarns in meso-FE modelling of composite reinforcement forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Naouar, N.; Vidal-Salle, E.; Boisse, P.

    2018-05-01

    In meso-scale finite element modeling, the yarns of the reinforcement are considered to be solids made of a continuous material in contact with their neighbors. The present paper consider the mechanical behavior of these yarns that can happen for some loadings of the reinforcement. The yarns present a specific mechanical behavior when under longitudinal compression because they are made up of a large number of fibers, Local buckling of the fibers causes the compressive stiffness of the continuous material representing the yarn to be much weaker than when under tension. In addition, longitudinal compression causes an important transverse expansion. It is shown that the transverse expansion can be depicted by a Poisson ratio that remained roughly constant when the yarn length and the compression strain varied. Buckling of the fibers significantly increases the transverse dimensions of the yarn which leads to a large Poisson ratio (up to 12 for a yarn analyzed in the present study). Meso-scale finite element simulations of reinforcements with binder yarns submitted to longitudinal compression showed that these improvements led to results in good agreement with micro-CT analyses.

  6. Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...

  7. A Tale of Two Discoveries: Comparing the Usability of Summon and EBSCO Discovery Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Anita K.; MacDonald, Jean B.

    2013-01-01

    Web-scale discovery systems are gaining momentum among academic libraries as libraries seek a means to provide their users with a one-stop searching experience. Illinois State University's Milner Library found itself in the unique position of having access to two distinct discovery products, EBSCO Discovery Service and Serials Solutions' Summon.…

  8. Caustic meso-optical confocal microscope for vertical particle tracks. Proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroko, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    The principal of the proposed caustic meso-optical microscope for vertical particle tracks in the nuclear photoemulsion is explained. The results of the experiments performed to illustrate the main features of this new meso-optical microscope are given. The proposed caustic meso-optical microscope for vertical particle tracks in the nuclear photoemulsion can be effectively used in the experimental investigation of such rare processes as ν μ - ν τ oscillations and of the Pb-Pb interactions. 2 refs., 7 figs

  9. Analysis of Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and Meso-Zeaxanthin in the Organs of Carotenoid-Supplemented Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, David; Prado-Cabrero, Alfonso; Nolan, John M

    2018-02-03

    The macular carotenoids (i.e., lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z) and meso -zeaxanthin (MZ)) exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and optical properties that are believed to support human health and function. Studying the accumulation and distribution of these nutrients in tissues and organs, in addition to the eye, is an important step in understanding how these nutrients might support global human function and health (e.g., heart and brain). Chicken is an appropriate animal model with which to study the accumulation of these carotenoids in organs, as the relevant transport molecules and carotenoid binding proteins for L, Z and MZ are present in both humans and chickens. In this experiment, a sample of 3 chickens that were supplemented with L and MZ diacetate (active group) and a sample of 3 chickens that received a standard diet (control group) were analysed. Both groups were analysed for L, Z and MZ concentrations in the brain, eyes, heart, lung, duodenum/pancreas, jejunum/ileum, kidney and breast tissue. L, Z and MZ were identified in all the organs/tissues analysed from the active group. L and Z were identified in all of the organs/tissues analysed from the control group; while, MZ was identified in the eyes of these animals only. The discovery that MZ is accumulated in the tissues and organs of chickens supplemented with this carotenoid is important, given that it is known that a combination of L, Z and MZ exhibits superior antioxidant capacity when compared to any of these carotenoids in isolation.

  10. Antibody informatics for drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirai, Hiroki; Prades, Catherine; Vita, Randi

    2014-01-01

    to the antibody science in every project in antibody drug discovery. Recent experimental technologies allow for the rapid generation of large-scale data on antibody sequences, affinity, potency, structures, and biological functions; this should accelerate drug discovery research. Therefore, a robust bioinformatic...... infrastructure for these large data sets has become necessary. In this article, we first identify and discuss the typical obstacles faced during the antibody drug discovery process. We then summarize the current status of three sub-fields of antibody informatics as follows: (i) recent progress in technologies...... for antibody rational design using computational approaches to affinity and stability improvement, as well as ab-initio and homology-based antibody modeling; (ii) resources for antibody sequences, structures, and immune epitopes and open drug discovery resources for development of antibody drugs; and (iii...

  11. Lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin: The basic and clinical science underlying carotenoid-based nutritional interventions against ocular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Paul S; Li, Binxing; Vachali, Preejith P; Gorusupudi, Aruna; Shyam, Rajalekshmy; Henriksen, Bradley S; Nolan, John M

    2016-01-01

    The human macula uniquely concentrates three carotenoids: lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin. Lutein and zeaxanthin must be obtained from dietary sources such as green leafy vegetables and orange and yellow fruits and vegetables, while meso-zeaxanthin is rarely found in diet and is believed to be formed at the macula by metabolic transformations of ingested carotenoids. Epidemiological studies and large-scale clinical trials such as AREDS2 have brought attention to the potential ocular health and functional benefits of these three xanthophyll carotenoids consumed through the diet or supplements, but the basic science and clinical research underlying recommendations for nutritional interventions against age-related macular degeneration and other eye diseases are underappreciated by clinicians and vision researchers alike. In this review article, we first examine the chemistry, biochemistry, biophysics, and physiology of these yellow pigments that are specifically concentrated in the macula lutea through the means of high-affinity binding proteins and specialized transport and metabolic proteins where they play important roles as short-wavelength (blue) light-absorbers and localized, efficient antioxidants in a region at high risk for light-induced oxidative stress. Next, we turn to clinical evidence supporting functional benefits of these carotenoids in normal eyes and for their potential protective actions against ocular disease from infancy to old age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Methanol-Sensing Property Improvement of Meso structured Zinc Oxide Prepared by the Nano casting Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Q.; Zheng, W.T.; Wei, C.D.; Lin, H.M.

    2013-01-01

    The specific structure and morphology often play a critical role in governing the excellent intrinsic properties of the compound semiconductor. Herein, meso structured ZnO with excellent methanol-sensing properties was prepared by a structure replication procedure through the incipient wetness technique. The investigation on the crystal structure and morphology of the resultant material shows that the product consists of hexagonally arranged meso pores and crystalline walls, and its structure is an ideal replication of CMK-3 template. Consequently, meso structured ZnO was fabricated as a gas sensor for methanol. The excellent methanol-sensing performance was achieved at a relatively low operating temperature of 120°C. In comparison with the non porous ZnO prepared through conventional coprecipitation approach, meso structured ZnO material shows the higher sensitivity and stability. Furthermore, it shows the discrimination between methanol and ethanol sensitivity, which makes it a good candidate in fabricating selective methanol sensor in practice

  13. Asymmetric Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons Reactions with meso-Dialdehydes: Scope, Mechanism, and Synthetic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rein, Tobias; Vares, Lauri; Kawasaki, Ikuo

    1999-01-01

    Asymmetric Homer-Wadsworth-Emmons reactions between chiral phosphonate reagents and various meso-dialdehydes have been investigated. A mechanistic model useful for rationalizing the experimentally observed stereoselectivities is presented. Furthermore; strategies for applying these reactions...

  14. Controlled in meso phase crystallization--a method for the structural investigation of membrane proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kubicek

    Full Text Available We investigated in meso crystallization of membrane proteins to develop a fast screening technology which combines features of the well established classical vapor diffusion experiment with the batch meso phase crystallization, but without premixing of protein and monoolein. It inherits the advantages of both methods, namely (i the stabilization of membrane proteins in the meso phase, (ii the control of hydration level and additive concentration by vapor diffusion. The new technology (iii significantly simplifies in meso crystallization experiments and allows the use of standard liquid handling robots suitable for 96 well formats. CIMP crystallization furthermore allows (iv direct monitoring of phase transformation and crystallization events. Bacteriorhodopsin (BR crystals of high quality and diffraction up to 1.3 Å resolution have been obtained in this approach. CIMP and the developed consumables and protocols have been successfully applied to obtain crystals of sensory rhodopsin II (SRII from Halobacterium salinarum for the first time.

  15. ImmunoGrid, an integrative environment for large-scale simulation of the immune system for vaccine discovery, design and optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pappalardo, F.; Halling-Brown, M. D.; Rapin, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    conceptual models of the immune system, models of antigen processing and presentation, system-level models of the immune system, Grid computing, and database technology to facilitate discovery, formulation and optimization of vaccines. ImmunoGrid modules share common conceptual models and ontologies......Vaccine research is a combinatorial science requiring computational analysis of vaccine components, formulations and optimization. We have developed a framework that combines computational tools for the study of immune function and vaccine development. This framework, named ImmunoGrid combines...

  16. Pulse electrochemical meso/micro/nano ultraprecision machining technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Young Bin; Park, Jeong Woo

    2013-11-01

    This study demonstrated meso/micro/nano-ultraprecision machining through electrochemical reactions using intermittent DC pulses. The experiment focused on two machining methods: (1) pulse electrochemical polishing (PECP) of stainless steel, and (2) pulse electrochemical nano-patterning (PECNP) on a silicon (Si) surface, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) for fabrication. The dissolution reaction at the stainless steel surface following PECP produced a very clean, smooth workpiece. The advantages of the PECP process included improvements in corrosion resistance, deburring of the sample surface, and removal of hydrogen from the stainless steel surface as verified by time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). In PECNP, the electrochemical reaction generated within water molecules produced nanoscale oxide textures on a Si surface. Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) was used to evaluate nanoscale-pattern processing on a Si wafer surface produced by AFM-PECNP For both processes using pulse electrochemical reactions, three-dimensional (3-D) measurements and AFM were used to investigate the changes on the machined surfaces. Preliminary results indicated the potential for advancing surface polishing techniques and localized micro/nano-texturing technology using PECP and PECNP processes.

  17. Dynamics of meso and thermo citrate synthases with implicit solvation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, J. M. M.

    The dynamics of hydration of meso and thermo citrate synthases has been investigated using the EEF1 methodology implemented with the CHARMM program. The native enzymes are composed of two identical subunits, each divided into a small and large domain. The dynamics behavior of both enzymes at 30°C and 60°C has been compared. The results of simulations show that during the hydration process, each subunit follows a different pathway of hydration, in spite of the identical sequence. The hydrated structures were compared with the crystalline structure, and the root mean square deviation (RMSD) of each residue along the trajectory was calculated. The regions with larger and smaller mobility were identified. In particular, helices belonging to the small domain are more mobile than those of the large domain. In contrast, the residues that constitute the active site show a much lower displacement compared with the crystalline structure. Hydration free energy calculations point out that Thermoplasma acidophilum citrate synthase (TCS) is more stable than chicken citrate synthase (CCS), at high temperatures. Such result has been ascribed to the higher number of superficial charges in the thermophilic homologue, which stabilizes the enzyme, while the mesophilic homologue denatures. These results are in accord with the experimental found that TCS keeps activity at temperatures farther apart from the catalysis regular temperature than the CCS.

  18. Wastewater use in agriculture and potential effects on meso and macrofauna soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinéia Tessaro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The use of wastewater in agriculture has been practiced on an increasing scale over the past decades because of its fertilizing potential and the reduction in demand for surface water and groundwater. However, this practice may bring harm when performed without planning, not respecting the capacity of the soil to recycle organic waste. The most common problems are contamination of surface and groundwater via leaching and runoff, as well as accumulation of nutrients and potentially polluting elements that compromise chemical, physical and biological characteristics of the soil. The biological compartment, represented by the micro, meso and macrofauna, plays an important role in nutrient cycling, decomposition of organic matter, particle movement and transport of materials at different depths, helping to maintain soil physical and chemical characteristics. In this sense, this paper aims to discuss the effect of using different kinds of wastewater in agriculture on soil biology, highlighting strengths and weaknesses, as well as emphasizing the need to conduct investigations that enhance the positive aspects of wastewater use associated with edaphic processes.

  19. Investigating SWOT's capabilities to detect meso and submesoscale eddies in the western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Navarro, Laura; Pascual, Ananda; Fablet, Ronan; Mason, Evan

    2017-04-01

    The primary oceanographic objective of the future Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) altimetric satellite is to characterize the mesoscale and submesoscale ocean circulation. The aim of this study is to assess the capabilities of SWOT to resolve the meso and submesoscale in the western Mediterranean. With ROMS model data as inputs for the SWOT simulator, pseudo-SWOT data were generated. These data were compared with the original ROMS model data and ADT data from present day altimetric satellites to assess the temporal and spatial resolution of SWOT in the western Mediterranean. We then addressed the removal of the satellite's noise in the pseudo-SWOT data using a Laplacian diffusion. We investigated different parameters of the filter by looking at their impact on the spatial spectra and RMSEs calculated from the simulator outputs. To further assess the satellites capabilities, we derived absolute geostrophic velocities and relative vorticity. Our numerical experiments show that the noise patterns affect the spectral content of the pseudo-SWOT fields below 30 km. The Laplacian diffusion improves the recovery of the spectral signature of the altimetric field, especially down to 20 km. With the help of this filter, we manage to observe small scale oceanic features in pseudo-SWOT data, and in its derived variables.

  20. Effects of confinement in meso-porous silica and carbon nano-structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, V.

    2006-07-01

    Physico-chemical properties of materials can be strongly modified by confinement because of the quantum effects that appear at such small length scales and also because of the effects of the confinement itself. The aim of this thesis is to show that both the nature of the confining material and the size of the pores and cavities have a strong impact on the confined material. We first show the effect of the pore size of the host meso-porous silica on the temperature of the solid-solid phase transition of silver selenide, a semiconducting material with enhanced magnetoresistive properties under non-stoichiometric conditions. Narrowing the pores from 20 nm to 2 nm raises the phase transition temperature from 139 C to 146 C. This result can be explained by considering the interaction between the confining and confined materials as a driving force. The effects of confinement are also studied in the case of hydrogen and deuterium inside cavities of organized carbon nano-structures. The effects that appear in the adsorption/desorption cycles are much stronger with carbon nano-horns as the host material than with C60 pea-pods and single-walled carbon nano-tubes. (author)

  1. The discovery of subatomic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, S.

    1984-01-01

    This book developed from a course for students with no prior training in mathematics of physics to learn about the achievements of 20th century physics and classical physics. It covers the discovery of fundamental particles of ordinary atoms: the electron, the proton, and the neutron. The general outline is historical and it is for readers unfamiliar with classical physics who wish to understand the ideas and experiments that make up the history of 20th century physics. Contents include: A world of particles, the discovery of the electron, the atomic scale, the nucleus, more particles

  2. Discovery of Novel Antimicrobial Peptides from Varanus komodoensis (Komodo Dragon) by Large-Scale Analyses and De-Novo-Assisted Sequencing Using Electron-Transfer Dissociation Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Barney M; Juba, Melanie L; Russo, Paul S; Devine, Megan; Barksdale, Stephanie M; Scott, Shaylyn; Settlage, Robert; Michalak, Pawel; Gupta, Kajal; Vliet, Kent; Schnur, Joel M; van Hoek, Monique L

    2017-04-07

    Komodo dragons are the largest living lizards and are the apex predators in their environs. They endure numerous strains of pathogenic bacteria in their saliva and recover from wounds inflicted by other dragons, reflecting the inherent robustness of their innate immune defense. We have employed a custom bioprospecting approach combining partial de novo peptide sequencing with transcriptome assembly to identify cationic antimicrobial peptides from Komodo dragon plasma. Through these analyses, we identified 48 novel potential cationic antimicrobial peptides. All but one of the identified peptides were derived from histone proteins. The antimicrobial effectiveness of eight of these peptides was evaluated against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), with seven peptides exhibiting antimicrobial activity against both microbes and one only showing significant potency against P. aeruginosa. This study demonstrates the power and promise of our bioprospecting approach to cationic antimicrobial peptide discovery, and it reveals the presence of a plethora of novel histone-derived antimicrobial peptides in the plasma of the Komodo dragon. These findings may have broader implications regarding the role that intact histones and histone-derived peptides play in defending the host from infection. Data are available via ProteomeXChange with identifier PXD005043.

  3. AuRu/meso-Mn2O3: A Highly Active and Stable Catalyst for Methane Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Z.; Fang, J. Y.; Xie, S. H.; Deng, J. G.; Liu, Y. X.; Dai, H. X.

    2018-05-01

    Three-dimensionally ordered mesoporous Mn2O3 (meso-Mn2O3) and its supported Au, Ru, and AuRu alloy (0.49 wt% Au/meso-Mn2O3, 0.48 wt% Ru/meso-Mn2O3, and 0.97 wt% AuRu/meso-Mn2O3 (Au/Ru molar ratio = 0.98)) nanocatalysts were prepared using the KIT-6-templating and polyvinyl alcohol-protected reduction methods, respectively. Physicochemical properties of the samples were characterized by means of numerous techniques, and their catalytic activities were evaluated for the combustion of methane. It is found that among all of the samples, 0.48 wt% Ru/meso-Mn 2O3 and 0.97 wt% AuRu/meso-Mn2O3 performed the best (the reaction temperature (T90% ) at 90% methane conversion was 530-540°C), but the latter showed a better thermal stability than the former. The partial deactivation of 0.97 wt% AuRu/meso-Mn2O3 due to H2O or CO2 introduction was reversible. It is concluded that the good catalytic activity and thermal stability of 0.97 wt% AuRu/meso-Mn2O3 was associated with the high dispersion of AuRu alloy NPs (2-5 nm) on the surface of meso-Mn2O3 and good low-temperature reducibility.

  4. Control the Morphologies and the Pore Architectures of Meso porous Silicas through a Dual-Templating Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.; Chen, H.; Xu, Z.; Wang, S.; Li, B.; Li, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Meso porous silica nanospheres were prepared using a chiral cationic low-molecular-weight amphiphile and organic solvents such as toluene, cyclohexane, and tetrachlorocarbon through a dual-templating approach. X-ray diffraction, nitrogen sorption, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques have been used to characterize the meso porous silicas. The volume ratio of toluene to water plays an important role in controlling the morphologies and the pore architectures of the meso porous silicas. It was also found that meso porous silica nano flakes can be prepared by adding tetrahydrofuran to the reaction mixtures.

  5. Genotoxicity of meso-2,3-dimercapto succinic acid-coated silver sulfide quantum dot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Özkan Vardar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanotecnology products have been used in wide applications in chemistry, electronics, energy generation, and medicine. Despite significant interest in developing quantum dots (QDs for biomedical applications, many researchers are convinced that QDs will never be used for the treatment of patients because of their potential toxicity. In various in vitro cell culture studies, the cytotoxic properties of some QD have been demonstrated and they have been suggested to be toxic in humans. In this study, the cytotoxic properties of Ag2S-(Meso-2,3-Dimercapto Succinic acid nanomaterials in V79 cells (Chinese lung fibroblast cell line were determined by MTT assay. The genotoxic effects of Ag2S-(Meso-2,3-Dimercapto Succinic acid were evaluated by the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis. The cells were treated with Ag2S-(Meso-2,3-Dimercapto Succinic acid at the concentrations of 5- 2000 µg/ml. No cytotoxic effect of Ag2S-(Meso-2,3-Dimercapto Succinic acid at all concentrations studied was observed. No significant increases in DNA damage were found at the studied concentrations when compared to negative control in V79 cells. In conclusion, further in vitro and in vivo studies are required to determine the safety doses of Ag2S-(Meso-2,3-Dimercapto Succinic acid.

  6. STUDY OF SUBCELLULAR DISTRIBUTION OF CRYSTALLINE MESO-TETRA(3-PYRIDYLBACTERIOCHLORIN NANOPARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Maklygina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of subcellular distribution of molecular meso-tetra(3-pyridylbacteriochlorin nanocrystals proposed as therapeutic agents for photodynamic therapy are represented in the article. Investigations and measurement of spectroscopic properties of molecular crystals of near-infrared photosensitizer were conducted using special device complex based on fiber-optic spectrometer. Investigation and analysis of the pattern of subcellular accumulation of meso-tetra(3-pyridylbacteriochlorin in molecular (dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO as solvent and nanocrystalline forms on different cell lines: human monocytes (THP-1, human cervical cancer cells (HeLa and mouse malignant brain tumor cells (glioma C6. The dynamics of subcellylar accumulation of the agent at concentration of 5 and 10 mg/l was assessed with laser microscope-spectrum analyzer and by confocal microscopy. The study showed that in the course of interaction with cell lines molecular nanocrystals of the agent developed ability to fluorescence. Hence, in the cellular environment meso-tetra(3-pyridyl bacteriochlorin nanoparticles became phototoxic giving opportunities for their use for fluorescence diagnosis and photodynamic therapy. Specific role of meso-tetra(3-pyridylbacteriochlorin in the range of photosensitizers is determined by its spectral characteristics, i.e. absorption and fluorescence in near-infrared band, which allows measuring and affecting on deeper layers of biotissue. Thus, the use of meso-tetra(3-pyridylbacteriochlorin nanoparticles as nanophotosensitizers may improve the efficacy of diagnosis and treatment of deep-seated tumors.

  7. Causality discovery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Ertl, T.; Jirotka, M.; Trefethen, A.; Schmidt, A.; Coecke, B.; Bañares-Alcántara, R.

    2012-11-01

    Causality is the fabric of our dynamic world. We all make frequent attempts to reason causation relationships of everyday events (e.g., what was the cause of my headache, or what has upset Alice?). We attempt to manage causality all the time through planning and scheduling. The greatest scientific discoveries are usually about causality (e.g., Newton found the cause for an apple to fall, and Darwin discovered natural selection). Meanwhile, we continue to seek a comprehensive understanding about the causes of numerous complex phenomena, such as social divisions, economic crisis, global warming, home-grown terrorism, etc. Humans analyse and reason causality based on observation, experimentation and acquired a priori knowledge. Today's technologies enable us to make observations and carry out experiments in an unprecedented scale that has created data mountains everywhere. Whereas there are exciting opportunities to discover new causation relationships, there are also unparalleled challenges to benefit from such data mountains. In this article, we present a case for developing a new piece of ICT, called Causality Discovery Technology. We reason about the necessity, feasibility and potential impact of such a technology.

  8. Meso-Helical Ag(I) Coordination Polymer Based on a Pyridylimidazole Ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Youngjin; Kim, Jinho; Lee, Eunji; Park, Ki-Min; Moon, Suk-Hee

    2016-01-01

    In the fields of material science and metallosupramolecular chemistry, coordination polymers with various helical types have been extensively explored because of their charming structures, and their potential applications in material chemistry. Among them, meso-helical coordination polymers consisting of achiral 1D strands, which are generally constructed by a crystallographic inversion symmetry, are relatively rare. The coordination polymer 1 exhibits a rare one-dimensional meso-helical chain topology constructed by its internal inversion symmetry. The skeleton of this meso-helical chain is preserved up to 300°C. The complexation of silver(I) ion to the free pyim ligand give rise to the enhanced photoluminescence intensity and slightly blue-shifted emission maximum, originated from intraligand (IL) π[BOND]π* transition and rigidochromic effect. Further exploration of complexation of this ligand with other transition metal ions is currently in progress

  9. Spatio-temporal distributions of meso convective systems in NE China and its vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Meiying; Li, Zechun; Zhang, Xiaoling; Li, Xun

    2008-08-01

    Based on the IR cloud imagery from the Chinese FY-2C satellite for June ~ August, 2005 - 2007, statistics is undertaken of meso convective systems (MCS) over NE China and its neighborhood, obtaining the space - time distributions of MCS. MCS include elliptical type( MCC's) , persistent elongated type (PECS's), in shape. Dividing the total MCS into MαMCS, MβMCS and MCC (PECS) . Results show that the number of meso-α MCS (dominantly PECS's) is considerably more than that of meso-β MCS (largely MCCss), which are observed mainly in the NE China plain and Daxing'an Mountains, especially in the entrance to the plain as well as its central ~ northern portion; the MCS occur mainly in June ~ August, particularly in June; the extratropical MCS show two peak phases, one being in 1500-2200 BST the other being 0000-0700 BST as the secondary peaking interval.

  10. Meso-decorated self-healing gels: network structure and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jin; Sawamura, Kensuke; Igarashi, Susumu; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2013-04-01

    Gels are a new material having three-dimensional network structures of macromolecules. They possess excellent properties as swellability, high permeability and biocompatibility, and have been applied in various fields of daily life, food, medicine, architecture, and chemistry. In this study, we tried to prepare new multi-functional and high-strength gels by using Meso-Decoration (Meso-Deco), one new method of structure design at intermediate mesoscale. High-performance rigid-rod aromatic polymorphic crystals, and the functional groups of thermoreversible Diels-Alder reaction were introduced into soft gels as crosslinkable pendent chains. The functionalization and strengthening of gels can be realized by meso-decorating the gels' structure using high-performance polymorphic crystals and thermoreversible pendent chains. New gels with good mechanical properties, novel optical properties and thermal properties are expected to be developed.

  11. Articles of Data Confederation: DataONE, the KNB, and a multitude of Metacats- scaling interoperable data discovery and preservation from the lab to the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildhauer, M.; Jones, M. B.; Jones, C. S.; Tao, J.

    2017-12-01

    The opportunities for synthesis science to advance understanding of the environment have never been greater. Challenges remain, however, with regards to preserving data in discoverable and re-usable formats, to inform new integrative analyses, and support reproducible science. In this talk I will describe one promising solution for data preservation, discovery, and re-use- the Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity, or KNB. The KNB (http://knb.ecoinformatics.org) has been providing a reliable data repository for ecological and environmental researchers for over 15 years. The KNB is a distributed, open-source, web-enabled data repository based upon a formal metadata standard, EML, that is endorsed by several major ecological institutions including the LTER Network and NCEAS. A KNB server, also called a "Metacat", can be setup on very modest hardware, typically within a few hours, requres no expensive or proprietary software, and only moderate systems administration expertise. A tiered architecture allows KNB servers (or "Metacats") to communicate with other KNB servers, to afford greater operational reliability, higher performance, and reductions in potental data loss. The KNB is a strong member of the DataONE "Data Observation Network for Earth" (http://dataone.org) system, that confederates over 35 significant earth science data repositories (and still growing) from around the world through an open and powerful API. DataONE provides for integrated search over member repository holdings that incorporate features based on W3C-compliant semantics through annotations with OWL/RDF vocabularies such as PROV and the Environment Ontology, ENVO. The KNB and DataONE frameworks have given rise to an Open Science software development community that is actively building tools based on software that scientists already use, such as MATLAB and R. These tools can be used to both contribute data to, and operate upon data within the KNB and DataONE systems. An active User Community

  12. Design and evaluation of hybrid meso-porous silicas to uranium extraction from sulfuric media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlot, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear industries are perpetually looking for technical, economic and environmental progresses. Important volumes of acidic waste are generated by nuclear plants of the front end. The extraction of uranium from these solutions is required to decontaminate effluents (decrease of the radioactivity) and value uranium (re-incorporation in the cycle). Uranium leaching is mostly achieved using sulfuric acid leading to the production of aqueous effluents that contain a large grade of sulfate complexes. In such conditions, uranyl sulfate complexes constitute the predominant uranium species in solution and its extraction represents a real scientific and technological challenge. Commonly, precipitation, solvent extraction or solid phase extraction are used. The last one is particularly adapted for low grade solutions due to it weak environmental footprint (no solvent are handling) and the facility of the process involved (i.e. fixed bed column). among the available solid-phase extraction candidates, hybrid meso-porous silicas get a crucial part. They develop a very high specific surface areas and a driven porosity which give them a high potential of extraction capacities. In this manuscript the tailoring and the evaluation of hybrid meso-porous silicas have been investigated. Firstly, the work focus on the organic part grafted by post-synthetic pathway, the N,N-dialkyl-carbamoyl-phosphonate based molecules have been identified to get interesting extraction properties. This study emphasizes that acid groups are required and that alkyl substituents get a real importance in the extraction efficiency. On the second hand, the role of pore size has been investigated. The results obtained disclosed that pores size diameters directly impact the grafting ratio as well as the homogeneity of the material: (1) materials with a pore size below 3 nm are heterogeneously functionalized due to steric issues, (2) a homogeneous organic monolayer grafted onto the silica skeleton occurs when

  13. [Distribution pattern of meso-micro soil fauna in Eucalyptus grandis plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yumei; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Wanqin

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, meso-micro soil fauna were extracted and collected by Baermann's and Tullgren' s method, and their distribution pattern in the Eucalyptus grandis plantation of Hongya County, Sichuan Province was studied. A total of 13 550 specimens were collected, belonging to 6 phyla, 13 classes, and 26 orders. Acarina, Nematoda, Collembola were the dominant groups, and Enchytraeidae was the frequent one. The group and individual numbers of meso-micro soil fauna varied with seasons, being the maximum in autumn or winter, fewer in summer, and the minimum in spring. The density of meso-micro soil fauna in soil profile decreased rapidly with increasing soil depth, but a converse distribution was observed from time to time in 5 - 10 cm and 10 - 15 cm soil layers. The meso-micro soil fauna collected by Baermann's and Tullgren's method had a density of 3. 333 x 10(3) - 2. 533 x 10(5) ind x m(-2) and 1.670 x 10(2) - 2.393 x 10(5) ind x m(-2), respectively, and the decreasing rate of the density with the increase of soil depth was higher for those collected by Tullgren's method. The density-group index of meso-micro soil fauna in the E. grandis plantation was the lowest in spring, but the highest in autumn or summer. There were no significant differences in the density of meso-micro soil fauna and in the density-group index between E. grandis plantation and Quercus acutissima secondary forest.

  14. Comparative efficiency of racemic- and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid to mobilize mercury in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prester, Lj.; Restek Samarzija, N.; Blanusa, M.; Piasek, M.; Kostial, K.; Jones, M.M.; Singh, P.K.

    1996-01-01

    Two stereoisomeric forms of chelating agent 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), meso- and racemic (rac-) DMSA, were compared for mercury mobilization in rats (Experiment 1). Acute oral toxicity of both chelators (LD 50 ) was also tested (Experiment 2). Experiments were carried out on 6-7 weeks old albino Wistar female rats. In Experiment 1 three groups of 9-10 animals were given intraperitoneally 0.5 mg HgCl 2 /kg b.w. and 2.5 mCi (92.5 kBq) of radioactive mercury in the form of 203 Hg(NO 3 ) 2 .Five days after mercury, therapy with 1.0 mmol/kg/day of either meso- or rac-DMSA was started and continued for four days. Whole body radioactivity was measured during the four-day therapy, i.e. 24 hours after each chelator application. In Experiment 2, chelators were given by gastric tube. They were dissolved in 8% NaHCOP 3 with addition of NaOH in equivalent quantities to obtain soluble sodium salts. Meso-DMSA was given at doses of 6, 8 or 12 mmol/kg and rac-DMSA at doses of 12 or 18.7 mmol/kg (3 rats at each dose level). Rat mortality was recorded during 8 days. Results of Experiment 1 showed that the efficiency of rac-DMSA in reducing body retention of mercury-203 was significantly higher than of meso-DMSA. At the end of experiment, reduction of mercury -203 whole body retention was 62% of control in meso-DMSA compared to 29% of control in rac D MSA group. In Experiment 2, the approximate oral LD 50 value were estimated to be >18.7 mmol/kg for meso-DMSA and between 8 and 12 mmol/kg for rac-DMSA. In conclusion, rac-DMSA reduces more efficiently mercury body load than its meso-form. However, more studies are needed to evaluate advantage of rac-DMSA application in spite of its higher toxicity compared to meso-DMSA. (author)

  15. Discovery of candidate disease genes in ENU-induced mouse mutants by large-scale sequencing, including a splice-site mutation in nucleoredoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa K Boles

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An accurate and precisely annotated genome assembly is a fundamental requirement for functional genomic analysis. Here, the complete DNA sequence and gene annotation of mouse Chromosome 11 was used to test the efficacy of large-scale sequencing for mutation identification. We re-sequenced the 14,000 annotated exons and boundaries from over 900 genes in 41 recessive mutant mouse lines that were isolated in an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU mutation screen targeted to mouse Chromosome 11. Fifty-nine sequence variants were identified in 55 genes from 31 mutant lines. 39% of the lesions lie in coding sequences and create primarily missense mutations. The other 61% lie in noncoding regions, many of them in highly conserved sequences. A lesion in the perinatal lethal line l11Jus13 alters a consensus splice site of nucleoredoxin (Nxn, inserting 10 amino acids into the resulting protein. We conclude that point mutations can be accurately and sensitively recovered by large-scale sequencing, and that conserved noncoding regions should be included for disease mutation identification. Only seven of the candidate genes we report have been previously targeted by mutation in mice or rats, showing that despite ongoing efforts to functionally annotate genes in the mammalian genome, an enormous gap remains between phenotype and function. Our data show that the classical positional mapping approach of disease mutation identification can be extended to large target regions using high-throughput sequencing.

  16. Meso-ester and carboxylic acid substituted BODIPYs with far-red and near-infrared emission for bioimaging applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ni, Yong; Zeng, Lintao; Kang, Namyoung; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Wang, Liang; Zeng, Zebing; Chang, Young-Tae; Wu, Jishan

    2014-01-01

    -6) become partially soluble in water, and their absorptions and emissions are located in the far-red or near-infrared region. Three synthetic approaches are attempted to access the meso-carboxylic acid (COOH)-substituted BODIPYs 7 and 8 from the meso

  17. Meso-ester and carboxylic acid substituted BODIPYs with far-red and near-infrared emission for bioimaging applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ni, Yong

    2014-01-21

    A series of meso-ester-substituted BODIPY derivatives 1-6 are synthesized and characterized. In particular, dyes functionalized with oligo(ethylene glycol) ether styryl or naphthalene vinylene groups at the α positions of the BODIPY core (3-6) become partially soluble in water, and their absorptions and emissions are located in the far-red or near-infrared region. Three synthetic approaches are attempted to access the meso-carboxylic acid (COOH)-substituted BODIPYs 7 and 8 from the meso-ester-substituted BODIPYs. Two feasible synthetic routes are developed successfully, including one short route with only three steps. The meso-COOH-substituted BODIPY 7 is completely soluble in pure water, and its fluorescence maximum reaches around 650 nm with a fluorescence quantum yield of up to 15 %. Time-dependent density functional theory calculations are conducted to understand the structure-optical properties relationship, and it is revealed that the Stokes shift is dependent mainly on the geometric change from the ground state to the first excited singlet state. Furthermore, cell staining tests demonstrate that the meso-ester-substituted BODIPYs (1 and 3-6) and one of the meso-COOH-substituted BODIPYs (8) are very membrane-permeable. These features make these meso-ester- and meso-COOH-substituted BODIPY dyes attractive for bioimaging and biolabeling applications in living cells. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. A Review of the Appropriateness of Existing Micro- and Meso-level Models of Athlete Development within Equestrian Sport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, D.M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to use a case study approach to review the appropriateness of existing micro- and meso-level models of athlete development within the sport specific context of equestrianism. At a micro-level the Long Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model was chosen. At a meso-level, the

  19. Usability of Discovery Portals

    OpenAIRE

    Bulens, J.D.; Vullings, L.A.E.; Houtkamp, J.M.; Vanmeulebrouk, B.

    2013-01-01

    As INSPIRE progresses to be implemented in the EU, many new discovery portals are built to facilitate finding spatial data. Currently the structure of the discovery portals is determined by the way spatial data experts like to work. However, we argue that the main target group for discovery portals are not spatial data experts but professionals with limited spatial knowledge, and a focus outside the spatial domain. An exploratory usability experiment was carried out in which three discovery p...

  20. Usability of Discovery Portals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulens, J.D.; Vullings, L.A.E.; Houtkamp, J.M.; Vanmeulebrouk, B.

    2013-01-01

    As INSPIRE progresses to be implemented in the EU, many new discovery portals are built to facilitate finding spatial data. Currently the structure of the discovery portals is determined by the way spatial data experts like to work. However, we argue that the main target group for discovery portals

  1. Discovery and the atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    ''Discovery and the Atom'' tells the story of the founding of nuclear physics. This programme looks at nuclear physics up to the discovery of the neutron in 1932. Animation explains the science of the classic experiments, such as the scattering of alpha particles by Rutherford and the discovery of the nucleus. Archive film shows the people: Lord Rutherford, James Chadwick, Marie Curie. (author)

  2. Discovery, genotyping and characterization of structural variation and novel sequence at single nucleotide resolution from de novo genome assemblies on a population scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Siyang; Huang, Shujia; Rao, Junhua

    2015-01-01

    present a novel approach implemented in a single software package, AsmVar, to discover, genotype and characterize different forms of structural variation and novel sequence from population-scale de novo genome assemblies up to nucleotide resolution. Application of AsmVar to several human de novo genome......) as well as large deletions. However, these approaches consistently display a substantial bias against the recovery of complex structural variants and novel sequence in individual genomes and do not provide interpretation information such as the annotation of ancestral state and formation mechanism. We...... assemblies captures a wide spectrum of structural variants and novel sequences present in the human population in high sensitivity and specificity. Our method provides a direct solution for investigating structural variants and novel sequences from de novo genome assemblies, facilitating the construction...

  3. Discovery of a Large-Scale Filament Connected to the Massive Galaxy Cluster MACS J0717.5+3745 at z=0.551,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, H.; Barrett, E.; Donovan, D.

    2004-07-01

    We report the detection of a 4 h-170 Mpc long large-scale filament leading into the massive galaxy cluster MACS J0717.5+3745. The extent of this object well beyond the cluster's nominal virial radius (~2.3 Mpc) rules out prior interaction between its constituent galaxies and the cluster and makes it a prime candidate for a genuine filament as opposed to a merger remnant or a double cluster. The structure was discovered as a pronounced overdensity of galaxies selected to have V-R colors close to the cluster red sequence. Extensive spectroscopic follow-up of over 300 of these galaxies in a region covering the filament and the cluster confirms that the entire structure is located at the cluster redshift of z=0.545. Featuring galaxy surface densities of typically 15 Mpc-2 down to luminosities of 0.13L*V, the most diffuse parts of the filament are comparable in density to the clumps of red galaxies found around A851 in the only similar study carried out to date (Kodama et al.). Our direct detection of an extended large-scale filament funneling matter onto a massive distant cluster provides a superb target for in-depth studies of the evolution of galaxies in environments of greatly varying density and supports the predictions from theoretical models and numerical simulations of structure formation in a hierarchical picture. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Based partly on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (US), the Particle Physics and Astronomy

  4. Preparation of reduced graphene oxide/meso-TiO_2/AuNPs ternary composites and their visible-light-induced photocatalytic degradation n of methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yongfang; Ma, Zheng; Xu, Lidong; Wang, Hefang; Fu, Nian

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Reduced graphene oxide/meso-TiO_2/AuNPs (RGO/meso-TiO_2/AuNPs) ternary composites were prepared via the addition of graphene oxide to the dispersion of meso-TiO_2/AuNPs under a hydrothermal condition. The RGO/meso-TiO_2/AuNPs ternary composites show high photocatalytic activity toward MB. - Highlights: • RGO/meso-TiO_2/AuNPs were obtained by addition of graphene oxide to meso-TiO_2/AuNPs. • Au NPs in the mesopores of meso-TiO_2 reduce the recombination of charge carriers. • RGO covered with the surface of the meso-TiO_2 enhance the adsorption of MB. • RGO/meso-TiO_2/AuNPs composites show high photocatalytic performance toward MB. - Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide/meso-TiO_2/AuNPs (RGO/meso-TiO_2/AuNPs) ternary composites were prepared via the addition of graphene oxide to the dispersion of meso-TiO_2/AuNPs under hydrothermal conditions. The structure and the morphology of the RGO/meso-TiO_2/AuNPs materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic activity of RGO/meso-TiO_2/AuNPs was evaluated by degradation of methyl blue (MB) under visible-light illumination. The ternary composites present an extended light absorption range, efficient charge separation properties, high adsorption ability for MB and high photocatalytic degradation activity of MB compared to the meso-TiO_2 and meso-TiO_2/AuNPs.

  5. Preparation of reduced graphene oxide/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs ternary composites and their visible-light-induced photocatalytic degradation n of methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yongfang; Ma, Zheng; Xu, Lidong [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Wang, Hefang, E-mail: whf0618@163.com [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Fu, Nian, E-mail: funian3678@163.com [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); College of Physics Science and Technology of Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)

    2016-04-30

    Graphical abstract: Reduced graphene oxide/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs (RGO/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs) ternary composites were prepared via the addition of graphene oxide to the dispersion of meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs under a hydrothermal condition. The RGO/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs ternary composites show high photocatalytic activity toward MB. - Highlights: • RGO/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs were obtained by addition of graphene oxide to meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs. • Au NPs in the mesopores of meso-TiO{sub 2} reduce the recombination of charge carriers. • RGO covered with the surface of the meso-TiO{sub 2} enhance the adsorption of MB. • RGO/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs composites show high photocatalytic performance toward MB. - Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs (RGO/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs) ternary composites were prepared via the addition of graphene oxide to the dispersion of meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs under hydrothermal conditions. The structure and the morphology of the RGO/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic activity of RGO/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs was evaluated by degradation of methyl blue (MB) under visible-light illumination. The ternary composites present an extended light absorption range, efficient charge separation properties, high adsorption ability for MB and high photocatalytic degradation activity of MB compared to the meso-TiO{sub 2} and meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs.

  6. Symmetry-breaking intramolecular charge transfer in the excited state of meso-linked BODIPY dyads

    KAUST Repository

    Whited, Matthew T.; Patel, Niral M.; Roberts, Sean T.; Allen, Kathryn; Djurovich, Peter I.; Bradforth, Stephen E.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of symmetric BODIPY dyads where the chromophores are attached at the meso position, using either a phenylene bridge or direct linkage. Both molecules undergo symmetry-breaking intramolecular charge transfer in the excited state, and the directly linked dyad serves as a visible-light-absorbing analogue of 9,9′-bianthryl.

  7. Quantitative study on crack of meso-damage and fracture concrete ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1School of Civil Engineering, Chang'an University, Xi'an 710061, China. 2Institute of Geotechnical ... lysis of the meso-fracture process of concrete materials is performed. The results demonstrate that the ... realize the quantitative analysis of micro cracks of concrete material (Ammouche et al 2000). The whole CT images of ...

  8. Shoreline resilience to individual storms and storm clusters on a meso-macrotidal barred beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angnuureng, Donatus Bapentire; Almar, Rafael; Senechal, Nadia; Castelle, Bruno; Addo, Kwasi Appeaning; Marieu, Vincent; Ranasinghe, Roshanka

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of individual storms and storm clusters on shoreline recovery for the meso-to macrotidal, barred Biscarrosse beach in SW France, using 6 years of daily video observations. While the study area experienced 60 storms during the 6-year study period, only 36 storms

  9. Meso-meteorological effect of thermal releases from nuclear power plants in the GW range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahloul, C.; Le Berre, P.

    1975-01-01

    A comparison is made between the energy released by nuclear power plants into the environment and the energy brought into action by meso-meteorological phenomena. Observations on the occasion of important heat release (forest fires) are made and compared with the thermal effluents generated by nuclear power plants [fr

  10. Topology Discovery Using Cisco Discovery Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Sergio R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of discovering network topology in proprietary networks. Namely, we investigate topology discovery in Cisco-based networks. Cisco devices run Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) which holds information about these devices. We first compare properties of topologies that can be obtained from networks deploying CDP versus Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) and Management Information Base (MIB) Forwarding Database (FDB). Then we describe a method of discovering topology ...

  11. Integrated Modeling and Experimental Studies at the Meso Scale for Advanced Reactive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    CuO) thermite, and the metal/intermetallic system composed of titanium, silicon, and tita - nium, boron. A typical shock compaction experiment is...intense and weak chemical reactions recurring within a time interval of approximately 100 µ s. Similar results were observed for the tita - nium...region where there is only tita - nium (x < xf), from a region where there is only boron (x > xf). Since Y2 = 0 for x < xf, we find that a1 = −D13, b1

  12. Meso-scale atmospheric events promote phytoplankton blooms in the coastal Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Maneesha, K.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Reddy, N.P.C.; Sadhuram, Y.; Murty, T.V.R.; Sarma, V.V.; DileepKumar, M.

    mixing does not cool SST in the post monsoon north Bay of Bengal; Atmos. Sci. Letts. 9 1–6. Senjyu T and Watanabe T 1999 A sudden temperature decrease along the Sanin coast induced by a typhoon; Umi to Sora 75 1–8 (in Japanese with English abstract...

  13. Detection of meso-micro scale surface features based on microcanonical multifractal formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Wei; Xie, Tao; Perrie, William

    2018-01-01

    Not Available Project supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (Grant No. 2016YFC1401007), the Global Change Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB953901), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41776181), the Canadian Program on Energy Research and Development (OERD), Canadian Space Agency’s SWOT Program, and the Canadian Marine Environmental Observation Prediction and Response Network (MEOPAR).

  14. Income Inequality across Micro and Meso Geographic Scales in the Midwestern United States, 1979-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, David J.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the spatial distribution of income inequality and the socioeconomic factors affecting it using spatial analysis techniques across 16,285 block groups, 5,050 tracts, and 618 counties in the western part of the North Central Region of the United States. Different geographic aggregations result in different inequality outcomes,…

  15. Micro-to-Meso Scale Limit for Shape-Memory-Alloy Models with Thermal Coupling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benešová, Barbora; Roubíček, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2012), s. 1059-1089 ISSN 1540-3459 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/0357 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : martensitic transformation * relaxation * thermodynamics * gradient young measures Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.562, year: 2012 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/abs/10.1137/110852176

  16. Meso- to micro-scale coupled simulations of flow over complex terrain at the Perdigao site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neher, J.; van Veen, L.; Chow, F. K.; Mirocha, J. D.; Lundquist, J. K.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, the site of the 2017 Perdigao field campaign is analyzed with high resolution large-eddy simulations generated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model as a coupled mesoscale to microscale model. The fine topographic features of the site, with its ridgelines a mere 1.2 km apart, the occurrence of intermittent turbulence at night, and the presence of a wind turbine on one of the ridgelines pose a challenge for many current numerical models. Key test cases in the observational data that demonstrate these modelling difficulties are identified, and advanced modeling techniques for overcoming these issues in the WRF model are presented. These techniques include vertical grid nesting for control of the grid aspect ratio, the cell perturbation method for accelerating the generation of turbulence at the boundary, the dynamic reconstruction model as a closure model that allows for backscatter of turbulence, and the actuator disk model for representing the turbine wake. Multiple nesting configurations are considered, with special consideration given to spanning the `grey zone' where neither PBL nor LES closures are effective. Comparisons between model results and measured sounding, meteorological tower, and Lidar data are used to evaluate the effectiveness of these techniques, and the model results are evaluated to provide a broader view of the flow field and the turbine wake interactions at the site.

  17. The diffusion of radioactive gases in the meso-scale (20 km-400 km)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wippermann, F.

    1974-01-01

    The term ''Mesoscale'' refers to distances between 20 km and 400 km from the source; in defining this range, the structure of atmospheric turbulence is taken into account. To arrive at an evaluation of diffusion in the mesoscale, quantitative methods from the microscale (source distance 400 km) are extrapolated into the mesoscale. In the first case a table is given to read off the minimum factor by which the concentration is reduced in the mesoscale as the source distance increases to obtain the diffusion for the worst possible case, the existence of a mixing-layer topped by a temperature inversion, was assumed. For this it was essential, first of all, to determine the source distance xsub(D) beyond which the diffusing gases are completely mixed within the mixing-layer of thickness D. To make allowance for all possible thicknesses of this mixing-layer, a measurement carried out at ground level at only 10 km from the source can be used to calculate the correct concentrations in the mixing-layer; the dilution factors will then be related to this value. Possible ways of an improved incorporation of certain factors in the diffusion estimate, such as the topography of the earth's surface, the roughness of terrain, the vertical profiles of wind and exchange coefficients and the effects of non-stability are given in the last section

  18. Ecological relationships of meso-scale distribution in 25 neotropical vertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Lincoln José; Norris, Darren; de Oliveira, Tadeu Gomes; Michalski, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrates are a vital ecological component of Amazon forest biodiversity. Although vertebrates are a functionally important part of various ecosystem services they continue to be threatened by anthropogenic impacts throughout the Amazon. Here we use a standardized, regularly spaced arrangement of camera traps within 25km2 to provide a baseline assessment of vertebrate species diversity in a sustainable use protected area in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. We examined seasonal differences in the per species encounter rates (number of photos per camera trap and number of cameras with photos). Generalized linear models (GLMs) were then used to examine the influence of five variables (altitude, canopy cover, basal area, distance to nearest river and distance to nearest large river) on the number of photos per species and on functional groups. GLMs were also used to examine the relationships between large predators [Jaguar (Panthera onca) and Puma (Puma concolor)] and their prey. A total of 649 independent photos of 25 species were obtained from 1,800 camera trap days (900 each during wet and dry seasons). Only ungulates and rodents showed significant seasonal differences in the number of photos per camera. The number of photos differed between seasons for only three species (Mazama americana, Dasyprocta leporina and Myoprocta acouchy) all of which were photographed more (3 to 10 fold increase) during the wet season. Mazama americana was the only species where a significant difference was found in occupancy, with more photos in more cameras during the wet season. For most groups and species variation in the number of photos per camera was only explained weakly by the GLMs (deviance explained ranging from 10.3 to 54.4%). Terrestrial birds (Crax alector, Psophia crepitans and Tinamus major) and rodents (Cuniculus paca, Dasyprocta leporina and M. acouchy) were the notable exceptions, with our GLMs significantly explaining variation in the distribution of all species (deviance explained ranging from 21.0 to 54.5%). The group and species GLMs showed some novel ecological information from this relatively pristine area. We found no association between large cats and their potential prey. We also found that rodent and bird species were more often recorded closer to streams. As hunters gain access via rivers this finding suggests that there is currently little anthropogenic impact on the species. Our findings provide a standardized baseline for comparison with other sites and with which planned management and extractive activities can be evaluated.

  19. Ecological relationships of meso-scale distribution in 25 neotropical vertebrate species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln José Michalski

    Full Text Available Vertebrates are a vital ecological component of Amazon forest biodiversity. Although vertebrates are a functionally important part of various ecosystem services they continue to be threatened by anthropogenic impacts throughout the Amazon. Here we use a standardized, regularly spaced arrangement of camera traps within 25km2 to provide a baseline assessment of vertebrate species diversity in a sustainable use protected area in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. We examined seasonal differences in the per species encounter rates (number of photos per camera trap and number of cameras with photos. Generalized linear models (GLMs were then used to examine the influence of five variables (altitude, canopy cover, basal area, distance to nearest river and distance to nearest large river on the number of photos per species and on functional groups. GLMs were also used to examine the relationships between large predators [Jaguar (Panthera onca and Puma (Puma concolor] and their prey. A total of 649 independent photos of 25 species were obtained from 1,800 camera trap days (900 each during wet and dry seasons. Only ungulates and rodents showed significant seasonal differences in the number of photos per camera. The number of photos differed between seasons for only three species (Mazama americana, Dasyprocta leporina and Myoprocta acouchy all of which were photographed more (3 to 10 fold increase during the wet season. Mazama americana was the only species where a significant difference was found in occupancy, with more photos in more cameras during the wet season. For most groups and species variation in the number of photos per camera was only explained weakly by the GLMs (deviance explained ranging from 10.3 to 54.4%. Terrestrial birds (Crax alector, Psophia crepitans and Tinamus major and rodents (Cuniculus paca, Dasyprocta leporina and M. acouchy were the notable exceptions, with our GLMs significantly explaining variation in the distribution of all species (deviance explained ranging from 21.0 to 54.5%. The group and species GLMs showed some novel ecological information from this relatively pristine area. We found no association between large cats and their potential prey. We also found that rodent and bird species were more often recorded closer to streams. As hunters gain access via rivers this finding suggests that there is currently little anthropogenic impact on the species. Our findings provide a standardized baseline for comparison with other sites and with which planned management and extractive activities can be evaluated.

  20. Meso- and small-scale vertical motions in the deep Western Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haren, Hans van, E-mail: hans.van.haren@nioz.n [Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg (Netherlands)

    2011-01-21

    Acoustic reflections on particles larger than a few mm are compared with optical background data of bioluminescence at the ANTARES neutrino telescope site in the deep North-western Mediterranean Sea. Periodic increases of these data are associated with increases in horizontal and downward vertical currents. The observations provide unique knowledge of some oceanographic processes in the Mediterranean. Several periodicities are distinguished: seasonal, with large increase during spring, 20-day, which is associated with a meandering continental boundary current, 1-17.6 h, evidencing deep internal waves.

  1. Mucin Aggregation from a Rod-like Meso-Scale Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moreno, N.; Perilla, J.E.; Colina, C.M.; Lísal, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 113, 9-10 (2015), s. 898-909 ISSN 0026-8976 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-02938S; GA MŠk LH12020 Grant - others:COLCIENCIAS(CO) 1101-521-28526; DIB-Universidad NC(CO) 1537 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : aggregation * coarse-graining * kinetics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.837, year: 2015

  2. A meso-scale model to study the compressive strength of woven carbon fiber reinforced plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schormans, J.M.J.; Remmers, J.J.C.; Wilson, W.; Deshpande, V.S.

    2016-01-01

    Modeling kink-band formation in woven composites using a detailed micro-model is numerically expensive. In order to reduce the computational resources, a method to homogenize fiber-tows is proposed which uses a rules of mixture approach. The method is tested by comparing the stiffness and

  3. Meso-scale defect evaluation of selective laser melting using spatially resolved acoustic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, M; Catchpole-Smith, S; Patel, R; Marrow, P; Li, Wenqi; Tuck, C; Sharples, S D; Clare, A T

    2017-09-01

    Developments in additive manufacturing technology are serving to expand the potential applications. Critical developments are required in the supporting areas of measurement and in process inspection to achieve this. CM247LC is a nickel superalloy that is of interest for use in aerospace and civil power plants. However, it is difficult to process via selective laser melting (SLM) as it suffers from cracking during rapid cooling and solidification. This limits the viability of CM247LC parts created using SLM. To quantify part integrity, spatially resolved acoustic spectroscopy (SRAS) has been identified as a viable non-destructive evaluation technique. In this study, a combination of optical microscopy and SRAS was used to identify and classify the surface defects present in SLM-produced parts. By analysing the datasets and scan trajectories, it is possible to correlate morphological information with process parameters. Image processing was used to quantify porosity and cracking for bulk density measurement. Analysis of surface acoustic wave data showed that an error in manufacture in the form of an overscan occurred. Comparing areas affected by overscan with a bulk material, a change in defect density from 1.17% in the bulk material to 5.32% in the overscan regions was observed, highlighting the need to reduce overscan areas in manufacture.

  4. Meso-scale defect evaluation of selective laser melting using spatially resolved acoustic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, M.; Catchpole-Smith, S.; Patel, R.; Marrow, P.; Li, Wenqi; Tuck, C.; Sharples, S. D.; Clare, A. T.

    2017-09-01

    Developments in additive manufacturing technology are serving to expand the potential applications. Critical developments are required in the supporting areas of measurement and in process inspection to achieve this. CM247LC is a nickel superalloy that is of interest for use in aerospace and civil power plants. However, it is difficult to process via selective laser melting (SLM) as it suffers from cracking during rapid cooling and solidification. This limits the viability of CM247LC parts created using SLM. To quantify part integrity, spatially resolved acoustic spectroscopy (SRAS) has been identified as a viable non-destructive evaluation technique. In this study, a combination of optical microscopy and SRAS was used to identify and classify the surface defects present in SLM-produced parts. By analysing the datasets and scan trajectories, it is possible to correlate morphological information with process parameters. Image processing was used to quantify porosity and cracking for bulk density measurement. Analysis of surface acoustic wave data showed that an error in manufacture in the form of an overscan occurred. Comparing areas affected by overscan with a bulk material, a change in defect density from 1.17% in the bulk material to 5.32% in the overscan regions was observed, highlighting the need to reduce overscan areas in manufacture.

  5. Evaluating healthcare priority setting at the meso level: A thematic review of empirical literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waithaka, Dennis; Tsofa, Benjamin; Barasa, Edwine

    2018-01-01

    Background: Decentralization of health systems has made sub-national/regional healthcare systems the backbone of healthcare delivery. These regions are tasked with the difficult responsibility of determining healthcare priorities and resource allocation amidst scarce resources. We aimed to review empirical literature that evaluated priority setting practice at the meso (sub-national) level of health systems. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google scholar databases and supplemented these with manual searching for relevant studies, based on the reference list of selected papers. We only included empirical studies that described and evaluated, or those that only evaluated priority setting practice at the meso-level. A total of 16 papers were identified from LMICs and HICs. We analyzed data from the selected papers by thematic review. Results: Few studies used systematic priority setting processes, and all but one were from HICs. Both formal and informal criteria are used in priority-setting, however, informal criteria appear to be more perverse in LMICs compared to HICs. The priority setting process at the meso-level is a top-down approach with minimal involvement of the community. Accountability for reasonableness was the most common evaluative framework as it was used in 12 of the 16 studies. Efficiency, reallocation of resources and options for service delivery redesign were the most common outcome measures used to evaluate priority setting. Limitations: Our study was limited by the fact that there are very few empirical studies that have evaluated priority setting at the meso-level and there is likelihood that we did not capture all the studies. Conclusions: Improving priority setting practices at the meso level is crucial to strengthening health systems. This can be achieved through incorporating and adapting systematic priority setting processes and frameworks to the context where used, and making considerations of both process

  6. Innovative synthesis of meso-structured YSZ using V2O5 complex fluids as a template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiot, Camille; Grandjean, Stephane; Batail, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Within the framework of generation IV nuclear reactors, the prospect of a closed fuel cycle generate a need for new advanced materials integrating the actinides jointly. Researches are conducted on fuel material precursors synthesized by soft chemistry processes, which allow a fine control of the homogeneity and ordering at a nano-scale[1]. In a view to meso-structure an inorganic matrix, recent studies[2,3] have highlighted the potential of mineral liquid crystals as templates in new soft chemistry synthesis routes. The studies presently exposed relate to an original synthesis of an inorganic-inorganic hybrid material consisting in a main zirconia matrix tem plated by ribbon-like vanadium pentoxide. After eliminating the V 2 O 5 template, the obtained solid is to be a meso-porous material with ordered pores, and becomes a prime choice material, for example to immobilize actinides. The zirconia matrix has been chosen for its ability to host actinides, which are surrogated by neodymium. It is also a preliminary material for the study of the synthesis of uranium oxide based materials, thus preventing from the drawbacks of working with radioactive materials. The vanadium pentoxide is used as a template since it structure itself as ribbon-like mineral liquid crystals that can be aligned in weak magnetic field; consequently, the final material may be structured at a nano-scale over a macroscopic range. Since the shape of vanadium oxide in solution is very sensitive to the ionic strength of the medium and the pH, the real challenge is to establish a synthesis protocol which is compatible with the presence of vanadium pentoxide, remaining in its ribbon-like liquid crystal form. References: [1] Masson, M.; Grandjean, S.; Lacquement, J.; Bourg, S.; Delauzun, J. M.; Lacombe, J.; Nuclear Engineering and Design, 236 (5-6),516 (2006). [2] Camerel, F.; Gabriel, J.-C.P.; Batail, P.; Adv. Funct. Mater., 13 (5), 377 (2003). [3] Gabriel, J

  7. Large-Scale Pattern Discovery in Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin-Mahieux, Thierry

    This work focuses on extracting patterns in musical data from very large collections. The problem is split in two parts. First, we build such a large collection, the Million Song Dataset, to provide researchers access to commercial-size datasets. Second, we use this collection to study cover song recognition which involves finding harmonic patterns from audio features. Regarding the Million Song Dataset, we detail how we built the original collection from an online API, and how we encouraged other organizations to participate in the project. The result is the largest research dataset with heterogeneous sources of data available to music technology researchers. We demonstrate some of its potential and discuss the impact it already has on the field. On cover song recognition, we must revisit the existing literature since there are no publicly available results on a dataset of more than a few thousand entries. We present two solutions to tackle the problem, one using a hashing method, and one using a higher-level feature computed from the chromagram (dubbed the 2DFTM). We further investigate the 2DFTM since it has potential to be a relevant representation for any task involving audio harmonic content. Finally, we discuss the future of the dataset and the hope of seeing more work making use of the different sources of data that are linked in the Million Song Dataset. Regarding cover songs, we explain how this might be a first step towards defining a harmonic manifold of music, a space where harmonic similarities between songs would be more apparent.

  8. Service Discovery At Home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundramoorthy, V.; Scholten, Johan; Jansen, P.G.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    Service discovery is a fady new field that kicked off since the advent of ubiquitous computing and has been found essential in the making of intelligent networks by implementing automated discovery and remote control between deviies. This paper provides an ovewiew and comparison of several prominent

  9. Academic Drug Discovery Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Henriette Schultz; Valentin, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Academic drug discovery centres (ADDCs) are seen as one of the solutions to fill the innovation gap in early drug discovery, which has proven challenging for previous organisational models. Prior studies of ADDCs have identified the need to analyse them from the angle of their economic...

  10. Decades of Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    For the past two-and-a-half decades, the Office of Science at the U.S. Department of Energy has been at the forefront of scientific discovery. Over 100 important discoveries supported by the Office of Science are represented in this document.

  11. Service discovery at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundramoorthy, V.; Scholten, Johan; Jansen, P.G.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2003-01-01

    Service discovery is a fairly new field that kicked off since the advent of ubiquitous computing and has been found essential in the making of intelligent networks by implementing automated discovery and remote control between devices. This paper provides an overview and comparison of several

  12. Study on coal mine macro, meso and micro safety management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longkang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the coal mine safety production situation in our country improved year by year, but severe accidents still occurred; the accidents caused great economic loss to the national economy. According to statistical analysis, almost all of the coal mine accidents will expose the hidden danger in before, most of the accidents caused due to safety management not reaching the designated position and the hidden danger management does not take any decision in time. Based on the coal mine safety management holes in our country, the coal mine macro, meso and micro safety management system was established in this paper, which includes meaning and conception of the theories of the macro, meso and micro safety management, and also includes the matching hardware equipment, in order to achieve the hidden danger's closed-loop control and dynamic early warning in the process of coal mine production.

  13. Acid-base and coordination properties of Meso-substituted porphyrins in nonaqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukhovskaya, S. G.; Nam, Dao Tkhe; Fien, Chan Ding; Domanina, E. N.; Ivanova, Yu. B.; Semeikin, A. S.

    2017-09-01

    Acid-base and coordination properties of alkyl and aryl meso-substituted porphyrins are studied spectrophotometrically in nonaqueous solutions. It is found that the nature of the substituent greatly affects the basicity of ligands for porphyrins characterized by a flat structure of macrocycle. The electronic effects of substituents have a much weaker influence on the kinetics of complexing. These effects could be due to the opposite orientation of some factors: an increase in the basicity and stability of the N-H bonds of porphyrin reaction centers. Dissociation constants p K b of the cationic forms of meso-substituted derivatives of porphyrin are measured. The values of p K b are in good agreement with classic concepts of the nature of substituents, particularly those indirectly included in the macrocycle through phenyl buffer rings.

  14. Cooperation of micro- and meso-porous carbon electrode materials in electric double-layer capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Cheng [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 Renmin Street, Changchun 130022, Jilin Province (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Qi, Li; Wang, Hongyu [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 Renmin Street, Changchun 130022, Jilin Province (China); Yoshio, Masaki [Advanced Research Center, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    The capacitive characteristics of micro- and meso-porous carbon materials have been compared in cyclic voltammetric studies and galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. Meso-porous carbon can keep certain high capacitance values at high scan rates, whereas micro-porous carbon possesses very high capacitance values at low scan rates but fades quickly as the scan rate rises up. For better performance of electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), the cooperative application of both kinds of carbon materials has been proposed in the following two ways: mixing both kinds of carbons in the same electrode or using the asymmetric configuration of carbon electrodes in the same EDLC. The cooperative effect on the electrochemical performance has also been addressed. (author)

  15. The Meso-level Structure of F/OSS Collaboration Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conald, Guido; Rullani, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Social networks in Free/Open Source Software (F/OSS) have been usually analyzed at the level of the single project e.g., [6], or at the level of a whole ecology of projects, e.g., [33]. In this paper, we also investigate the social network generated by developers who collaborate to one or multiple...... F/OSS projects, but we focus on the less-studied meso-level structure emerging when applying to this network a community-detection technique. The network of ‘communities’ emerging from this analysis links sub-groups of densely connected developers, sub-groups that are smaller than the components...... of the network but larger than the teams working on single projects. Our results reveal the complexity of this meso-level structure, where several dense sub-groups of developers are connected by sparse collaboration among different sub-groups. We discuss the theoretical implications of our findings...

  16. Hydrothermal synthesis of meso porous silica MCM-41 using commercial sodium silicate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melendez O, H. I.; Mercado S, A.; Garcia C, L. A.; Castruita, G.; Perera M, Y A., E-mail: ivan_melendez380@hotmail.com [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada, Bldv. Enrique Reyna Hermosillo No. 140, Saltillo 25294, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2013-08-01

    In this work, ordered meso porous silica MCM-41 was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis using industrial-grade sodium silicate (Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}) as silica source, hexadecyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide (CTAB) as template agent and ethyl acetate as ph regulator. The influence of CTAB/SiO{sub 2} molar ratio, reaction time, aging temperature, and co-surfactant type on the structural and morphological properties of the obtained silica was studied. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. Ordered meso porous MCM-41 silica was obtained at 80 C by using a range of CTAB/SiO{sub 2} molar ratio from 0.35 to 0.71 and reaction times up to 72 h and isopropanol (i-Pr OH) as co-surfactant. (Author)

  17. Hydrothermal synthesis of meso porous silica MCM-41 using commercial sodium silicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melendez O, H. I.; Mercado S, A.; Garcia C, L. A.; Castruita, G.; Perera M, Y A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, ordered meso porous silica MCM-41 was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis using industrial-grade sodium silicate (Na 2 SiO 3 ) as silica source, hexadecyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide (CTAB) as template agent and ethyl acetate as ph regulator. The influence of CTAB/SiO 2 molar ratio, reaction time, aging temperature, and co-surfactant type on the structural and morphological properties of the obtained silica was studied. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. Ordered meso porous MCM-41 silica was obtained at 80 C by using a range of CTAB/SiO 2 molar ratio from 0.35 to 0.71 and reaction times up to 72 h and isopropanol (i-Pr OH) as co-surfactant. (Author)

  18. Genetic determination of the meso-diaminopimelate biosynthetic pathway of mycobacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Cirillo, J. D.; Weisbrod, T. R.; Banerjee, A.; Bloom, B. R.; Jacobs, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    The increasing incidence of multiple-drug-resistant mycobacterial infections indicates that the development of new methods for treatment of mycobacterial diseases should be a high priority. meso-Diaminopimelic acid (DAP), a key component of a highly immunogenic subunit of the mycobacterial peptidoglycan layer, has been implicated as a potential virulence factor. The mycobacterial DAP biosynthetic pathway could serve as a target for design of new antimycobacterial agents as well as the constru...

  19. [Soil meso- and micro-fauna community structures in different urban forest types in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shi Ke; Wang, Juan Juan; Zhu, Sha; Zhang, Qi; Li, Xiang; Zheng, Wen Jing; You, Wen Hui

    2016-07-01

    Soil meso- and micro-fauna of four urban forest types in Shanghai were investigated in four months which include April 2014, July 2014, October 2014 and January 2015. A total of 2190 soil fauna individuals which belong to 6 phyla, 15 classes and 22 groups were collected. The dominant groups were Nematoda and Arcari, accounting for 56.0% and 21.8% of the total in terms of individual numbers respectively. The common groups were Enchytraeidae, Rotatoria, Collembola and Hymenoptera and they accounted for 18.7% of the total in terms of individual numbers. There was a significant difference (PMetasequoia glyptostroboides forest, the smallest in Cinnamomum camphora forest. The largest groupe number was found in near-nature forest, the smallest was found in M. glyptostroboides forest. There was obvious seasonal dynamics in each urban forest type and green space which had larger density in autumn and larger groupe number in summer and autumn. In soil profiles, the degree of surface accumulation of soil meso- and micro-fauna in C. camphora forest was higher than in other forests and the vertical distribution of soil meso- and micro-fauna in near-nature forest was relatively homogeneous in four layers. Density-group index was ranked as: near-nature forest (6.953)> C. camphora forest (6.351)> Platanus forest (6.313)>M. glyptostroboides forest (5.910). The community diversity of soil fauna in each vegetation type could be displayed preferably by this index. It could be inferred through redundancy analysis (RDA) that the soil bulk density, organic matter and total nitrogen were the main environmental factors influencing soil meso- and micro-fauna community structure in urban forest. The positive correlations occurred between the individual number of Arcari, Enchytraeidae and soil organic matter and total nitrogen, as well as between the individual number of Diptera larvae, Rotatoria and soil water content.

  20. "Eureka, Eureka!" Discoveries in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Pankaj

    2011-01-01

    Accidental discoveries have been of significant value in the progress of science. Although accidental discoveries are more common in pharmacology and chemistry, other branches of science have also benefited from such discoveries. While most discoveries are the result of persistent research, famous accidental discoveries provide a fascinating…

  1. Energy intensities in Mato Grosso state and in meso-regions; Intensidades energeticas nas mesorregioes de Mato Grosso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavarros, Otacilio Borges; Melo, Moises Candido de; Dorileo, Ivo Leandro [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Estudos em Planejamento Energetico (NIEPE)

    2004-07-01

    This work presents some energetic intensities in Mato Grosso state and in each of its five meso-regions that are in the document produced in 2002 by the NIPE/UFMT (Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Estudos em Planejamento Energetico of the Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso) entitled: 'Energetic Balance of the Mato Grosso and meso-regions: period 1995-2001'. (author)

  2. [Community structure of soil meso- and micro-fauna in different habitats of urbanized region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhong; Zhang, Jia-en; Li, Qing-fang

    2009-12-01

    Investigations were made in May, June, and November 2007 and January 2008 to study the structural characteristics and their seasonal variations of soil meso- and micro-fauna communities in six habitats of three land use types (forest land, constructed grassland and farmland) in Tianhe District of Guangzhou City. The horizontal spatial distribution of soil fauna differed with habitat. During the investigation periods, the Botanical Garden of South China Agricultural University had the highest individual number (1286) of soil mesa- and micro-fauna, while the farmland, especially in the Fenghuang Street area, had the lowest number of individuals and groups. The seasonal variation of the individual number was in order of autumn (1815) > spring (1623) > winter (1365) > summer (1276). Hierarchical clustering and detrended correspondence analysis also showed that the community composition of soil meso- and micro-fauna in different habitats exhibited distinct seasonal variation. In the same seasons, the community structure and composition of soil meso- and micro-fauna in different habitats were correlated to the degrees of human interferences and the properties of soil environment.

  3. A functional interaction approach to the definition of meso regions: The case of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlebach Martin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The definition of functional meso regions for the territory of the Czech Republic is articulated in this article. Functional regions reflect horizontal interactions in space and are presented as a useful tool for various types of geographical analyses, and also for spatial planning, economic policy designs, etc. This paper attempts to add to the discussion on the need to delineate areal units at different hierarchical levels, and to understand the functional flows and spatial behaviours of the population in a given space. Three agglomerative methods are applied in the paper (the CURDS regionalisation algorithm, Intramax, and cluster analysis, and they have not been used previously in Czech geography for the delineation of functional meso regions. Existing functional regions at the micro-level, based on daily travel-to-work flows from the 2001 census, have served as the building blocks. The analyses have produced five regional systems at the meso level, based on daily labour commuting movements of the population. Basic statistics and a characterisation of these systems are provided in this paper.

  4. A Hierarchically Micro-Meso-Macroporous Zeolite CaA for Methanol Conversion to Dimethyl Ether

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchical zeolite CaA with microporous, mesoporous and macroporous structure was hydrothermally synthesized by a ”Bond-Blocking” method using organo-functionalized mesoporous silica (MS as a silica source. The characterization by XRD, SEM/TEM and N2 adsorption/desorption techniques showed that the prepared material had well-crystalline zeolite Linde Type A (LTA topological structure, microspherical particle morphologies, and hierarchically intracrystalline micro-meso-macropores structure. With the Bond-Blocking principle, the external surface area and macro-mesoporosity of the hierarchical zeolite CaA can be adjusted by varying the organo-functionalized degree of the mesoporous silica surface. Similarly, the distribution of the micro-meso-macroporous structure in the zeolite CaA can be controlled purposely. Compared with the conventional microporous zeolite CaA, the hierarchical zeolite CaA as a catalyst in the conversion of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME, exhibited complete DME selectivity and stable catalytic activity with high methanol conversion. The catalytic performances of the hierarchical zeolite CaA results clearly from the micro-meso-macroporous structure, improving diffusion properties, favoring the access to the active surface and avoiding secondary reactions (no hydrocarbon products were detected after 3 h of reaction.

  5. Meso-Scale Experimental & Numerical Studies for Predicting Macro-scale Performance of Advanced Reactive Materials (ARMs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    to full density at ~0.5 GPa, while the crush-up stress for flake -Ni+Al mixtures of similar size is ~2 GPa, and that of nano-sized Ni+Al was ~6 GPa...13 However, flake -Ni+Al mixtures reacted at the lowest threshold stress, due to the additional bending and buckling modes that cause the flake -Ni...volume, Sv, via the relationship, Sv=2PL. The aluminum powder compacts were affixed to the lapped end of a copper projectile (38.1mm high x 7.62mm

  6. Effects of Meso-Scale and Small-Scale Interactions on Global Climate. Volume I. Orographic Effects on Global Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-02-28

    STATEMENT (ol Ih, »b.tfet »nftod in Block 30. II d/ ffa ,en( Irom Report) It. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19. KEY WORDS (Conllnue on rev«., «ij» (/ nee» fry...given by 3-29 a^M—. K^^M^^M— ■ - - ■ ■■■■ ’■^-•—- P?B«BWWI^WW™’W"W,SIW!«W5F«^IIW»! BPP ^!^^ ..’ i •’ SSS-R-75-2556 Res(T0) L(T" - WC

  7. Wide-Area Publish/Subscribe Mobile Resource Discovery Based on IPv6 GeoNetworking

    OpenAIRE

    Noguchi, Satoru; Matsuura, Satoshi; Inomata, Atsuo; Fujikawa, Kazutoshi; Sunahara, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    Resource discovery is an essential function for distributed mobile applications integrated in vehicular communication systems. Key requirements of the mobile resource discovery are wide-area geographic-based discovery and scalable resource discovery not only inside a vehicular ad-hoc network but also through the Internet. While a number of resource discovery solutions have been proposed, most of them have focused on specific scale of network. Furthermore, managing a large number of mobile res...

  8. The Greatest Mathematical Discovery?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2010-05-12

    What mathematical discovery more than 1500 years ago: (1) Is one of the greatest, if not the greatest, single discovery in the field of mathematics? (2) Involved three subtle ideas that eluded the greatest minds of antiquity, even geniuses such as Archimedes? (3) Was fiercely resisted in Europe for hundreds of years after its discovery? (4) Even today, in historical treatments of mathematics, is often dismissed with scant mention, or else is ascribed to the wrong source? Answer: Our modern system of positional decimal notation with zero, together with the basic arithmetic computational schemes, which were discovered in India about 500 CE.

  9. Multidimensional process discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, J.T.S.

    2013-01-01

    Typically represented in event logs, business process data describe the execution of process events over time. Business process intelligence (BPI) techniques such as process mining can be applied to get strategic insight into business processes. Process discovery, conformance checking and

  10. Fateful discovery almost forgotten

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    "The discovery of the fission of uranium exactly half a century ago is at risk of passing unremarked because of the general ambivalence towards the consequences of this development. Can that be wise?" (4 pages)

  11. Toxins and drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Alan L

    2014-12-15

    Components from venoms have stimulated many drug discovery projects, with some notable successes. These are briefly reviewed, from captopril to ziconotide. However, there have been many more disappointments on the road from toxin discovery to approval of a new medicine. Drug discovery and development is an inherently risky business, and the main causes of failure during development programmes are outlined in order to highlight steps that might be taken to increase the chances of success with toxin-based drug discovery. These include having a clear focus on unmet therapeutic needs, concentrating on targets that are well-validated in terms of their relevance to the disease in question, making use of phenotypic screening rather than molecular-based assays, and working with development partners with the resources required for the long and expensive development process. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Defining Creativity with Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Nicholas Charles; Martin, Lee

    2017-01-01

    The standard definition of creativity has enabled significant empirical and theoretical advances, yet contains philosophical conundrums concerning the nature of novelty and the role of recognition and values. In this work we offer an act of conceptual valeting that addresses these issues and in doing so, argue that creativity definitions can be extended through the use of discovery. Drawing on dispositional realist philosophy we outline why adding the discovery and bringing into being of new ...

  13. On the antiproton discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccioni, O.

    1989-01-01

    The author of this article describes his own role in the discovery of the antiproton. Although Segre and Chamberlain received the Nobel Prize in 1959 for its discovery, the author claims that their experimental method was his idea which he communicated to them informally in December 1954. He describes how his application for citizenship (he was Italian), and other scientists' manipulation, prevented him from being at Berkeley to work on the experiment himself. (UK)

  14. Discovery Driven Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Discovery Driven Growh : A breakthrough process to reduce risk and seize opportunity, af Rita G. McGrath & Ian C. MacMillan, Boston: Harvard Business Press. Udgivelsesdato: 14 august......Anmeldelse af Discovery Driven Growh : A breakthrough process to reduce risk and seize opportunity, af Rita G. McGrath & Ian C. MacMillan, Boston: Harvard Business Press. Udgivelsesdato: 14 august...

  15. The π discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    The paper traces the discovery of the Π meson. The discovery was made by exposure of nuclear emulsions to cosmic radiation at high altitudes, with subsequent scanning of the emulsions for meson tracks. Disintegration of nuclei by a negative meson, and the decay of a Π meson were both observed. Further measurements revealed the mass of the meson. The studies carried out on the origin of the Π-mesons, and their mode of decay, are both described. (U.K.)

  16. Throughput Capacity of Ad Hoc Networks with Route Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blum Rick S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughput capacity of large ad hoc networks has been shown to scale adversely with the size of network . However the need for the nodes to find or repair routes has not been analyzed in this context. In this paper, we explicitly take route discovery into account and obtain the scaling law for the throughput capacity under general assumptions on the network environment, node behavior, and the quality of route discovery algorithms. We also discuss a number of possible scenarios and show that the need for route discovery may change the scaling for the throughput capacity.

  17. Polar Domain Discovery with Sparkler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, R.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ottilingam, N. K.; Singh, K.; Lopez, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    The scientific web is vast and ever growing. It encompasses millions of textual, scientific and multimedia documents describing research in a multitude of scientific streams. Most of these documents are hidden behind forms which require user action to retrieve and thus can't be directly accessed by content crawlers. These documents are hosted on web servers across the world, most often on outdated hardware and network infrastructure. Hence it is difficult and time-consuming to aggregate documents from the scientific web, especially those relevant to a specific domain. Thus generating meaningful domain-specific insights is currently difficult. We present an automated discovery system (Figure 1) using Sparkler, an open-source, extensible, horizontally scalable crawler which facilitates high throughput and focused crawling of documents pertinent to a particular domain such as information about polar regions. With this set of highly domain relevant documents, we show that it is possible to answer analytical questions about that domain. Our domain discovery algorithm leverages prior domain knowledge to reach out to commercial/scientific search engines to generate seed URLs. Subject matter experts then annotate these seed URLs manually on a scale from highly relevant to irrelevant. We leverage this annotated dataset to train a machine learning model which predicts the `domain relevance' of a given document. We extend Sparkler with this model to focus crawling on documents relevant to that domain. Sparkler avoids disruption of service by 1) partitioning URLs by hostname such that every node gets a different host to crawl and by 2) inserting delays between subsequent requests. With an NSF-funded supercomputer Wrangler, we scaled our domain discovery pipeline to crawl about 200k polar specific documents from the scientific web, within a day.

  18. Application of diazene-directed fragment assembly to the total synthesis and stereochemical assignment of (+)-desmethyl-meso-chimonanthine and related heterodimeric alkaloids

    OpenAIRE

    Lathrop, Stephen; Movassaghi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    We describe the first application of our methodology for heterodimerization via diazene fragmentation towards the total synthesis of (−)-calycanthidine, meso-chimonanthine, and (+)-desmethyl-meso-chimonanthine. Our syntheses of these alkaloids feature an improved route to C3a-aminocyclotryptamines, an enhanced method for sulfamide synthesis and oxidation, in addition to a late-stage diversification leading to the first enantioselective total synthesis of (+)-desmethyl-meso-chimonanthine and i...

  19. Setting Healthcare Priorities at the Macro and Meso Levels: A Framework for Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barasa, Edwine W; Molyneux, Sassy; English, Mike; Cleary, Susan

    2015-09-16

    Priority setting in healthcare is a key determinant of health system performance. However, there is no widely accepted priority setting evaluation framework. We reviewed literature with the aim of developing and proposing a framework for the evaluation of macro and meso level healthcare priority setting practices. We systematically searched Econlit, PubMed, CINAHL, and EBSCOhost databases and supplemented this with searches in Google Scholar, relevant websites and reference lists of relevant papers. A total of 31 papers on evaluation of priority setting were identified. These were supplemented by broader theoretical literature related to evaluation of priority setting. A conceptual review of selected papers was undertaken. Based on a synthesis of the selected literature, we propose an evaluative framework that requires that priority setting practices at the macro and meso levels of the health system meet the following conditions: (1) Priority setting decisions should incorporate both efficiency and equity considerations as well as the following outcomes; (a) Stakeholder satisfaction, (b) Stakeholder understanding, (c) Shifted priorities (reallocation of resources), and (d) Implementation of decisions. (2) Priority setting processes should also meet the procedural conditions of (a) Stakeholder engagement, (b) Stakeholder empowerment, (c) Transparency, (d) Use of evidence, (e) Revisions, (f) Enforcement, and (g) Being grounded on community values. Available frameworks for the evaluation of priority setting are mostly grounded on procedural requirements, while few have included outcome requirements. There is, however, increasing recognition of the need to incorporate both consequential and procedural considerations in priority setting practices. In this review, we adapt an integrative approach to develop and propose a framework for the evaluation of priority setting practices at the macro and meso levels that draws from these complementary schools of thought. © 2015

  20. Setting Healthcare Priorities at the Macro and Meso Levels: A Framework for Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barasa, Edwine W.; Molyneux, Sassy; English, Mike; Cleary, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Priority setting in healthcare is a key determinant of health system performance. However, there is no widely accepted priority setting evaluation framework. We reviewed literature with the aim of developing and proposing a framework for the evaluation of macro and meso level healthcare priority setting practices. Methods: We systematically searched Econlit, PubMed, CINAHL, and EBSCOhost databases and supplemented this with searches in Google Scholar, relevant websites and reference lists of relevant papers. A total of 31 papers on evaluation of priority setting were identified. These were supplemented by broader theoretical literature related to evaluation of priority setting. A conceptual review of selected papers was undertaken. Results: Based on a synthesis of the selected literature, we propose an evaluative framework that requires that priority setting practices at the macro and meso levels of the health system meet the following conditions: (1) Priority setting decisions should incorporate both efficiency and equity considerations as well as the following outcomes; (a) Stakeholder satisfaction, (b) Stakeholder understanding, (c) Shifted priorities (reallocation of resources), and (d) Implementation of decisions. (2) Priority setting processes should also meet the procedural conditions of (a) Stakeholder engagement, (b) Stakeholder empowerment, (c) Transparency, (d) Use of evidence, (e) Revisions, (f) Enforcement, and (g) Being grounded on community values. Conclusion: Available frameworks for the evaluation of priority setting are mostly grounded on procedural requirements, while few have included outcome requirements. There is, however, increasing recognition of the need to incorporate both consequential and procedural considerations in priority setting practices. In this review, we adapt an integrative approach to develop and propose a framework for the evaluation of priority setting practices at the macro and meso levels that draws from these

  1. Setting Healthcare Priorities at the Macro and Meso Levels: A Framework for Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwine W. Barasa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Priority setting in healthcare is a key determinant of health system performance. However, there is no widely accepted priority setting evaluation framework. We reviewed literature with the aim of developing and proposing a framework for the evaluation of macro and meso level healthcare priority setting practices. Methods We systematically searched Econlit, PubMed, CINAHL, and EBSCOhost databases and supplemented this with searches in Google Scholar, relevant websites and reference lists of relevant papers. A total of 31 papers on evaluation of priority setting were identified. These were supplemented by broader theoretical literature related to evaluation of priority setting. A conceptual review of selected papers was undertaken. Results Based on a synthesis of the selected literature, we propose an evaluative framework that requires that priority setting practices at the macro and meso levels of the health system meet the following conditions: (1 Priority setting decisions should incorporate both efficiency and equity considerations as well as the following outcomes; (a Stakeholder satisfaction, (b Stakeholder understanding, (c Shifted priorities (reallocation of resources, and (d Implementation of decisions. (2 Priority setting processes should also meet the procedural conditions of (a Stakeholder engagement, (b Stakeholder empowerment, (c Transparency, (d Use of evidence, (e Revisions, (f Enforcement, and (g Being grounded on community values. Conclusion Available frameworks for the evaluation of priority setting are mostly grounded on procedural requirements, while few have included outcome requirements. There is, however, increasing recognition of the need to incorporate both consequential and procedural considerations in priority setting practices. In this review, we adapt an integrative approach to develop and propose a framework for the evaluation of priority setting practices at the macro and meso levels that draws from

  2. Copepod faecal pellet transfer through the meso- and bathypelagic layers in the Southern Ocean in spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Anna; Manno, Clara; Ward, Peter; Henson, Stephanie A.; Sanders, Richard; Tarling, Geraint A.

    2017-03-01

    The faecal pellets (FPs) of zooplankton can be important vehicles for the transfer of particulate organic carbon (POC) to the deep ocean, often making large contributions to carbon sequestration. However, the routes by which these FPs reach the deep ocean have yet to be fully resolved. We address this by comparing estimates of copepod FP production to measurements of copepod FP size, shape, and number in the upper mesopelagic (175-205 m) using Marine Snow Catchers, and in the bathypelagic using sediment traps (1500-2000 m). The study is focussed on the Scotia Sea, which contains some of the most productive regions in the Southern Ocean, where epipelagic FP production is likely to be high. We found that, although the size distribution of the copepod community suggests that high numbers of small FPs are produced in the epipelagic, small FPs are rare in the deeper layers, implying that they are not transferred efficiently to depth. Consequently, small FPs make only a minor contribution to FP fluxes in the meso- and bathypelagic, particularly in terms of carbon. The dominant FPs in the upper mesopelagic were cylindrical and elliptical, while ovoid FPs were dominant in the bathypelagic. The change in FP morphology, as well as size distribution, points to the repacking of surface FPs in the mesopelagic and in situ production in the lower meso- and bathypelagic, which may be augmented by inputs of FPs via zooplankton vertical migrations. The flux of carbon to the deeper layers within the Southern Ocean is therefore strongly modulated by meso- and bathypelagic zooplankton, meaning that the community structure in these zones has a major impact on the efficiency of FP transfer to depth.

  3. Potential of hybrid functionalized meso-porous materials for the separation and immobilization of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luca, V.

    2013-01-01

    Functionalized meso-porous materials are a class of hybrid organic-inorganic material in which a meso-porous metal oxide framework is functionalized with multifunctional organic molecules. These molecules may contain one or more anchor groups that form strong bonds to the pore surfaces of the metal oxide framework and free functional groups that can impart and or modify the functionality of the material such as for binding metal ions in solution. Such materials have been extensively studied over the past decade and are of particular interest in absorption applications because of the tremendous versatility in choosing the composition and architecture of the metal oxide framework and the nature of the functional organic molecule as well as the efficient mass transfer that can occur through a well-designed hierarchically porous network. A sorbent for nuclear applications would have to be highly selective for particular radio nuclides, it would need to be hydrolytically and radiolytically stable, and it would have to possess reasonable capacity and fast kinetics. The sorbent would also have to be available in a form suitable for use in a column. Finally, it would also be desirable if once saturated with radio nuclides, the sorbent could be recycled or converted directly into a ceramic or glass waste form suitable for direct repository disposal or even converted directly into a material that could be used as a transmutation target. Such a cradle-to- grave strategy could have many benefits in so far as process efficiency and the generation of secondary wastes are concerned.This paper will provide an overview of work done on all of the above mentioned aspects of the development of functionalized meso-porous adsorbent materials for the selective separation of lanthanides and actinides and discuss the prospects for future implementation of a cradle-to-grave strategy with such materials. (author)

  4. A rate-dependent multi-scale crack model for concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karamnejad, A.; Nguyen, V.P.; Sluys, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    A multi-scale numerical approach for modeling cracking in heterogeneous quasi-brittle materials under dynamic loading is presented. In the model, a discontinuous crack model is used at macro-scale to simulate fracture and a gradient-enhanced damage model has been used at meso-scale to simulate

  5. The synthesis, characterization, crystal structure and theoretical calculations of a new meso-BOBIPY substituted phthalonitrile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Pinar; Yildiz, S. Zeki; Atalay, Yusuf; Dege, Necmi; Demirtas, Günes

    2014-01-01

    A novel 4-(2-meso-BOBIPY-phenoxy)phthalonitrile (6) derivative has been synthesized starting from BF 3 –OEt 2 complex and 4-(2-meso-dipyrromethene-phenoxy)phthalonitrile (5) which was prepared by the oxidation of 4-(2-meso-dipyrromethane-phenoxy)phthalonitrile (4). The final product exhibit noticeable spectroscopic properties which were examined by its absorption and fluorescence emission spectra. The original compounds prepared in the reaction pathway were characterized by the combination of FT-IR, 1 H and 13 C NMR, UV–vis, MS and HRMS spectral data. The final product (6) was obtained as single crystal which crystallized in the triclinic space group P-1 with a=7.9411 (6) Å, b=9.0150 (6) Å, c=14.419 (1) Å, α=74.917 (5)°, β=86.824 (6)°, γ=84.109 (5)° and Z=2. The crystal structure has intermolecular C–H···F–B and C–H···N interactions. These interactions construct bifurcated hydrogen bonds in the crystal structure. In this study, It has been calculated; molecular structure, vibrational frequencies, 1 H and 13 C NMR chemical shifts and HOMO and LUMO energies of the title compound by using B3LYP method with 6–311++G(dp) basis set, and the electronic spectral characterization was investigated for the target product, as well. - Highlights: • A novel 4-(2-meso-BOBIPY-phenoxy)phthalonitrile derivative has been synthesized. • The title product exhibit noticeable spectroscopic properties which were examined by its absorption and fluorescence emission spectra. • The final product (6) was obtained as single crystal which crystallized in the triclinic space group. • Molecular structure, vibrational frequencies, 1 H and 13 C NMR chemical shifts and HOMO and LUMO energies of the title compound were calculated theoretically. • The electronic spectral characterization was investigated, as well. • The title compound is also open to prepare further BODIPY substituted oligomeric molecules via on it

  6. Synthesis of a Phlorin from a Meso-Fused Anthriporphyrin by a Diels-Alder Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Adil S; Hong, Jung-Ho; Shin, June-Ho; Cho, Dong-Gyu

    2017-12-18

    An anthracene-containing meso-fused carbaporphyrin, which has extended π-conjugation pathways as compared to the corresponding naphthalene-containing carbaporphyrin, has been synthesized. The weak global aromaticity of the anthriporphyrin also allowed its use as the diene for a Diels-Alder reaction with dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD). The resulting phlorin contains an interesting bicyclic structure. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge, this phlorin is the first Diels-Alder adduct of a diene forming part of the global π-conjugation pathway of an aromatic porphyrinoid. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Towards meso -Ester BODIPYs with Aggregation-Induced Emission Properties: The Effect of Substitution Positions

    KAUST Repository

    Chua, Ming Hui; Ni, Yong; Garai, Monalisa; Zheng, Bin; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Xu, Qing Hua; Xu, Jianwei; Wu, Jishan

    2015-01-01

    Three meso-ester boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyes have been synthesized and functionalized with aggregation-induced emission (AIE)-active tetraphenylethene or triphenylethene moieties. It was found that functionalizing at the different positions of the BODIPY core resulted in the final dye having different emission properties in response to aggregation: from aggregation-induced quenching (ACQ) to being AIE active. X-ray crystallographic analysis was thus performed to provide an explanation for these differences. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Towards meso -Ester BODIPYs with Aggregation-Induced Emission Properties: The Effect of Substitution Positions

    KAUST Repository

    Chua, Ming Hui

    2015-06-17

    Three meso-ester boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyes have been synthesized and functionalized with aggregation-induced emission (AIE)-active tetraphenylethene or triphenylethene moieties. It was found that functionalizing at the different positions of the BODIPY core resulted in the final dye having different emission properties in response to aggregation: from aggregation-induced quenching (ACQ) to being AIE active. X-ray crystallographic analysis was thus performed to provide an explanation for these differences. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. meso-Substituted bisanthenes as soluble and stable near-infrared dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jinling

    2010-02-05

    (Chemical Equation Presented) Three meso-substituted bisanthenes, 4-6, were prepared in a short synthetic route from the bisanthenequinone. They exhibit largely improved stability and solubility in comparison to the parent bisanthene. All of these compounds also show near-infrared (NIR) absorption and emission with high to moderate fluorescence quantum yields. Amphoteric redox behavior was observed for 4-6 by cyclic voltammetry, and these compounds can be reversibly oxidized and reduced into respective cationic and anionic species by both electrochemical and chemical processes. In addition, compound 5 adopts a herringbone π-stacking motif in the single crystal. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  10. Meso-structures of dynamical chaos and E-infinity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhamedov, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    A novel proposal is made to develop a unified theory of dynamical chaos using an idea of extra-coordinates. It is supposed that chaos is capable to translate influences from quantum level of description to the classical macroscopic one and vise versa. The notion of macroscopically prepared microstates is proposed to determine a special case of extra-coordinates induced by cooperative effects at quantum resolution of dynamical events. Meso-structures mediating quantum and classical appearances of chaotic motion are studied in the light of E-infinity theory.

  11. Isoporphyrin intermediate in heme oxygenase catalysis. Oxidation of alpha-meso-phenylheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John P; Niemevz, Fernando; Buldain, Graciela; de Montellano, Paul Ortiz

    2008-07-11

    Human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) catalyzes the O2- and NADPH-dependent oxidation of heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron. The first step involves regiospecific insertion of an oxygen atom at the alpha-meso carbon by a ferric hydroperoxide and is predicted to proceed via an isoporphyrin pi-cation intermediate. Here we report spectroscopic detection of a transient intermediate during oxidation by hHO-1 of alpha-meso-phenylheme-IX, alpha-meso-(p-methylphenyl)-mesoheme-III, and alpha-meso-(p-trifluoromethylphenyl)-mesoheme-III. In agreement with previous experiments (Wang, J., Niemevz, F., Lad, L., Huang, L., Alvarez, D. E., Buldain, G., Poulos, T. L., and Ortiz de Montellano, P. R. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 42593-42604), only the alpha-biliverdin isomer is produced with concomitant formation of the corresponding benzoic acid. The transient intermediate observed in the NADPH-P450 reductase-catalyzed reaction accumulated when the reaction was supported by H2O2 and exhibited the absorption maxima at 435 and 930 nm characteristic of an isoporphyrin. Product analysis by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of the product generated with H2O2 identified it as an isoporphyrin that, on quenching, decayed to benzoylbiliverdin. In the presence of H218O2, one labeled oxygen atom was incorporated into these products. The hHO-1-isoporphyrin complexes were found to have half-lives of 1.7 and 2.4 h for the p-trifluoromethyl- and p-methyl-substituted phenylhemes, respectively. The addition of NADPH-P450 reductase to the H2O2-generated hHO-1-isoporphyrin complex produced alpha-biliverdin, confirming its role as a reaction intermediate. Identification of an isoporphyrin intermediate in the catalytic sequence of hHO-1, the first such intermediate observed in hemoprotein catalysis, completes our understanding of the critical first step of heme oxidation.

  12. Discovery of charm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, G.

    1984-11-01

    In my talk I will cover the period 1973 to 1976 which saw the discoveries of the J/psi and psi' resonances and most of the Psion spectroscopy, the tau lepton and the D 0 ,D + charmed meson doublet. Occasionally I will refer briefly to more recent results. Since this conference is on the history of the weak-interactions I will deal primarily with the properties of naked charm and in particular the weakly decaying doublet of charmed mesons. Most of the discoveries I will mention were made with the SLAC-LBL Magnetic Detector or MARK I which we operated at SPEAR from 1973 to 1976. 27 references

  13. Researching the Components of Formation of the Export Potential of Industry on the Micro-and Meso-Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlenchyk Nataliya F.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses approaches to formation of the export potential of industry on the micro- and meso-levels. A number of factors influencing the formation of the export potential of industry on the micro- and meso-levels has been considered. It was found that the components of the export potential of industry on the micro- and meso-levels are factors, capabilities (potential, and resources. It has been suggested to perceive the defining resources of formation of the export potential of industrial enterprises as: personnel, production, financial-investment, innovation, marketing, information, organizational, and managerial. It has been found that the main resources of export potential of the industry of region include: production, raw material, natural, financial, investment, social, and innovation. There is a number of opportunities that contribute to the formation of the export potential of the region’s industry, in particular: labor, industrial, financial, raw material, natural, investment, innovation, social, information, and organizational-managerial.

  14. Optochemical sensing of hydrogen chloride gas using meso-tetramesitylporphyrin deposited glass plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalimuthu, Palanisamy; Abraham John, S.

    2008-01-01

    Meso-tetramesitylporphyrin (MTMP) deposited glass plate (solid state sensor) was used to sense hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas based on optochemical method. Exposure of the solid state sensor to HCl vapor results in the formation of protonated meso-tetramesitylporphyrin (PMTMP). UV-vis and fluorescence spectral techniques were used to study the protonation of MTMP in dichloromethane-methanol mixture. The optical spectra of MTMP show an intense Soret band at 418 nm with a 14 nm red shift upon protonation by HCl. Ab-initio calculations were carried out to visualize the effect of protonation on planarity and stability of the porphyrin ring. The solid state sensor was characterized by UV-vis spectral technique. The sensor exhibits characteristic Soret and Q bands for the deposited MTMP with slight red shift when compared to MTMP in dichloromethane. The concentration of gaseous HCl was monitored from the changes in the absorbance of Soret band of PMTMP at 452 nm. The detection limit of the solid state sensor towards gaseous HCl was found to be 0.03 ppm. The present solid state sensor was highly stable for several months

  15. Structural and Molecular Characterization of meso-Substituted Zinc Porphyrins: A DFT Supported Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mele

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Structural parameters of a range of over 100 meso-substituted zinc porphyrins were reviewed and compared to show how far the nature of the functional group may affect the interatomic distances and bond angles within the porphyrin core. It was proved that even despite evident deformations of the molecular structure, involving twisting of the porphyrin's central plane, the coupled π-bonding system remains flexible and stable. DFT calculations were applied to a number of selected porphyrins representative for the reviewed compounds to emphasize the relevance of theoretical methods in structural investigations of complex macrocyclic molecular systems. Experimental and DFT-simulated IR spectral data were reported and analyzed in context of the individual molecular features introduced by the meso substituents into the porphyrin moiety base. Raw experimental spectral data, including 1H- and 13C-NMR, UV-Vis, FTIR, XRD, and other relevant physicochemical details have been provided for a specially chosen reference zinc porphyrin functionalized by tert-butylphenyl groups.

  16. Bioinformatics for discovery of microbiome variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brejnrod, Asker Daniel

    of various molecular methods to build hypotheses about the impact of a copper contaminated soil. The introduction is a broad introduction to the field of microbiome research with a focus on the technologies that enable these discoveries and how some of the broader issues have related to this thesis......Sequencing based tools have revolutionized microbiology in recent years. Highthroughput DNA sequencing have allowed high-resolution studies on microbial life in many different environments and at unprecedented low cost. These culture-independent methods have helped discovery of novel bacteria...... 1 ,“Large-scale benchmarking reveals false discoveries and count transformation sensitivity in 16S rRNA gene amplicon data analysis methods used in microbiome studies”, benchmarked the performance of a variety of popular statistical methods for discovering differentially abundant bacteria . between...

  17. An Approach to Preparation of trans-DHQs via Ring-Opening of meso-N-Sulfonylaziridines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolsøe, Jens Mortansson Jelstrup; Riegert, David; Müller, Paul

    2011-01-01

    As an approach to the enantioselective synthesis of trans-decahydroquinolines (DHQs), desymmetrization of meso-aziridine (5) with various carbon nucleophiles under catalytic conditions was investigated. By applying TMSCN in the presence of YbCl3 and chiral nonracemic ligands, nitrile 13 was obtai......As an approach to the enantioselective synthesis of trans-decahydroquinolines (DHQs), desymmetrization of meso-aziridine (5) with various carbon nucleophiles under catalytic conditions was investigated. By applying TMSCN in the presence of YbCl3 and chiral nonracemic ligands, nitrile 13...

  18. Discovery: Pile Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mestre, Neville

    2017-01-01

    Earlier "Discovery" articles (de Mestre, 1999, 2003, 2006, 2010, 2011) considered patterns from many mathematical situations. This article presents a group of patterns used in 19th century mathematical textbooks. In the days of earlier warfare, cannon balls were stacked in various arrangements depending on the shape of the pile base…

  19. Discovery and Innovation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discovery and Innovation is a journal of the African Academy of Sciences (AAS) ... World (TWAS) meant to focus attention on science and technology in Africa and the ... of Non-wood Forest Products: Potential Impacts and Challenges in Africa ...

  20. Discovery of TUG-770

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elisabeth; Hansen, Steffen V F; Urban, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1 or GPR40) enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells and currently attracts high interest as a new target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We here report the discovery of a highly potent FFA1 agonist with favorable physicochemical...

  1. The discovery of fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, H.A.C.

    1978-01-01

    In this article by the retired head of the Separation Processes Group of the Chemistry Division, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, U.K., the author recalls what he terms 'an exciting drama, the unravelling of the nature of the atomic nucleus' in the years before the Second World War, including the discovery of fission. 12 references. (author)

  2. The Discovery of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paul S.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses a model for explaining the spread of human population explosion on North American continent since its discovery 12,000 years ago. The model may help to map the spread of Homo sapiens throughout the New World by using the extinction chronology of the Pleistocene megafauna. (Author/PS)

  3. Priority setting at the micro-, meso- and macro-levels in Canada, Norway and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapiriri, Lydia; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Martin, Douglas K

    2007-06-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to describe the process of healthcare priority setting in Ontario-Canada, Norway and Uganda at the three levels of decision-making; (2) to evaluate the description using the framework for fair priority setting, accountability for reasonableness; so as to identify lessons of good practices. We carried out case studies involving key informant interviews, with 184 health practitioners and health planners from the macro-level, meso-level and micro-level from Canada-Ontario, Norway and Uganda (selected by virtue of their varying experiences in priority setting). Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed using a modified thematic approach. The descriptions were evaluated against the four conditions of "accountability for reasonableness", relevance, publicity, revisions and enforcement. Areas of adherence to these conditions were identified as lessons of good practices; areas of non-adherence were identified as opportunities for improvement. (i) at the macro-level, in all three countries, cabinet makes most of the macro-level resource allocation decisions and they are influenced by politics, public pressure, and advocacy. Decisions within the ministries of health are based on objective formulae and evidence. International priorities influenced decisions in Uganda. Some priority-setting reasons are publicized through circulars, printed documents and the Internet in Canada and Norway. At the meso-level, hospital priority-setting decisions were made by the hospital managers and were based on national priorities, guidelines, and evidence. Hospital departments that handle emergencies, such as surgery, were prioritized. Some of the reasons are available on the hospital intranet or presented at meetings. Micro-level practitioners considered medical and social worth criteria. These reasons are not publicized. Many practitioners lacked knowledge of the macro- and meso-level priority-setting processes. (ii) Evaluation

  4. Stratigraphic and structural relationships between Meso-Cenozoic Lagonegro basin and coeval carbonate platforms in southern Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescatore, Tullio; Renda, Pietro; Schiattarella, Marcello; Tramutoli, Mariano

    1999-12-01

    Lucanian segment — are shown by means of both regional and detailed geological cross-sections. The Lagonegro units constantly underlie the carbonate units originating from detachment and thrusting of the western platform and overlie the eastern (i.e. Apulian) platform. The Lagonegro units show a strong lateral variability of map-scale structures. Dome-and-basin folds are in fact largely observable in the Lucanian Apennine. Further, the belt is widely affected by Plio-Quaternary strike-slip and extensional faults. Yet, excluding the brittle deformation due to Quaternary faulting, the complexity of structural styles seems to result from the Neogene refolding of more ancient structures produced by Oligo-Miocene intraplate deformation. This hypothesis is supported by two independent lines of evidence: the first is the recognition of unconformities between the lower Miocene Numidian sandstone and the underlying Lagonegro successions, at least in the southwestern sectors; the second is that the internal (i.e. western) platform remains undeformed until the early Miocene. Both stratigraphic and structural data suggest an external position of the Meso-Cenozoic Lagonegro basin with regard to the coeval Apenninic platform.

  5. The neutron discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six, J.

    1987-01-01

    The neutron: who had first the idea, who discovered it, who established its main properties. To these apparently simple questions, multiple answers exist. The progressive discovery of the neutron is a marvellous illustration of some characteristics of the scientific research, where the unforeseen may be combined with the expected. This discovery is replaced in the context of the 1930's scientific effervescence that succeeded the revolutionary introduction of quantum mechanics. This book describes the works of Bothe, the Joliot-Curie and Chadwick which led to the neutron in an unexpected way. A historical analysis allows to give a new interpretation on the hypothesis suggested by the Joliot-Curie. Some texts of these days will help the reader to revive this fascinating story [fr

  6. Atlas of Astronomical Discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Schilling, Govert

    2011-01-01

    Four hundred years ago in Middelburg, in the Netherlands, the telescope was invented. The invention unleashed a revolution in the exploration of the universe. Galileo Galilei discovered mountains on the Moon, spots on the Sun, and moons around Jupiter. Christiaan Huygens saw details on Mars and rings around Saturn. William Herschel discovered a new planet and mapped binary stars and nebulae. Other astronomers determined the distances to stars, unraveled the structure of the Milky Way, and discovered the expansion of the universe. And, as telescopes became bigger and more powerful, astronomers delved deeper into the mysteries of the cosmos. In his Atlas of Astronomical Discoveries, astronomy journalist Govert Schilling tells the story of 400 years of telescopic astronomy. He looks at the 100 most important discoveries since the invention of the telescope. In his direct and accessible style, the author takes his readers on an exciting journey encompassing the highlights of four centuries of astronomy. Spectacul...

  7. Viral pathogen discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Charles Y

    2015-01-01

    Viral pathogen discovery is of critical importance to clinical microbiology, infectious diseases, and public health. Genomic approaches for pathogen discovery, including consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR), microarrays, and unbiased next-generation sequencing (NGS), have the capacity to comprehensively identify novel microbes present in clinical samples. Although numerous challenges remain to be addressed, including the bioinformatics analysis and interpretation of large datasets, these technologies have been successful in rapidly identifying emerging outbreak threats, screening vaccines and other biological products for microbial contamination, and discovering novel viruses associated with both acute and chronic illnesses. Downstream studies such as genome assembly, epidemiologic screening, and a culture system or animal model of infection are necessary to establish an association of a candidate pathogen with disease. PMID:23725672

  8. Fateful discovery almost forgotten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The paper reviews the discovery of the fission of uranium, which took place fifty years ago. A description is given of the work of Meitner and Frisch in interpreting the Fermi data on the bombardment of uranium nuclei with neutrons, i.e. proposing fission. The historical events associated with the development and exploitation of uranium fission are described, including the Manhattan Project, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Shippingport, and Chernobyl. (U.K.)

  9. Discovery as a process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.

    1994-05-01

    The three great myths, which form a sort of triumvirate of misunderstanding, are the Eureka! myth, the hypothesis myth, and the measurement myth. These myths are prevalent among scientists as well as among observers of science. The Eureka! myth asserts that discovery occurs as a flash of insight, and as such is not subject to investigation. This leads to the perception that discovery or deriving a hypothesis is a moment or event rather than a process. Events are singular and not subject to description. The hypothesis myth asserts that proper science is motivated by testing hypotheses, and that if something is not experimentally testable then it is not scientific. This myth leads to absurd posturing by some workers conducting empirical descriptive studies, who dress up their study with a ``hypothesis`` to obtain funding or get it published. Methods papers are often rejected because they do not address a specific scientific problem. The fact is that many of the great breakthroughs in silence involve methods and not hypotheses or arise from largely descriptive studies. Those captured by this myth also try to block funding for those developing methods. The third myth is the measurement myth, which holds that determining what to measure is straightforward, so one doesn`t need a lot of introspection to do science. As one ecologist put it to me ``Don`t give me any of that philosophy junk, just let me out in the field. I know what to measure.`` These myths lead to difficulties for scientists who must face peer review to obtain funding and to get published. These myths also inhibit the study of science as a process. Finally, these myths inhibit creativity and suppress innovation. In this paper I first explore these myths in more detail and then propose a new model of discovery that opens the supposedly miraculous process of discovery to doser scrutiny.

  10. Stepwise π-extension of meso-alkylidenyl porphyrins through sequential 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and redox reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dowoo; Jeong, Seung Doo; Ishida, Masatoshi; Lee, Chang-Hee

    2014-08-25

    Several regioselectively π-extended, pyrrole fused porphyrinoids have been synthesized by the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of meso-alkylidene-(benzi)porphyrins. Pd(II) complexes gave oxidation resistant, bis-pyrrole fused adducts. The repeated 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition followed by oxidation-reduction of pentaphyrin analogs afforded π-extended porphyrin analogs.

  11. Cation-pi interaction of the univalent silver cation with meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole: Experimental and theoretical study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polášek, Miroslav; Kvíčala, J.; Makrlík, E.; Křížová, Věra; Vaňura, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1130, FEB 2017 (2017), s. 408-413 ISSN 0022-2860 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 20/2015; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : silver cation * meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole * complexation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 1.753, year: 2016

  12. Preparation of tailored carbons with meso- and micro- porosity via template synthesis route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard. M. Williams

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A low cost templating approach to making non-ordered carbons with a tailored meso/micropore structure is described. A series of mesoporous carbons was prepared from polyfurfuryl alcohol and phenolic resin precursors by a templating route, using a variety of commercially available silica gels as the template material. Carbons were produced with mesopore volumes up to 1 cm3 g-1, mesopore sizes in the range of 4 nm to 8 nm and surface areas in the range of 300 to 700 m2 g-1. These mesoporous carbons were subsequently activated in CO2 to add controlled amounts of microporosity to produce carbons with both a micro and mesoporous structure. Significantly, the activation process did not appreciably change the mesopore size distribution of the carbons. By altering the activation time, it was possible to tailor the micropore: mesopore volume ratios within wide limits.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of a novel meso-porphyrin and its metallo derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Bega

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing interest in the properties of substituted meso-tetraarylporphyrins and metallo porphyrins as catalysts for oxidation of hydrocarbons, oxygen detection, among others. This work describes the synthesis of a new porphyrin, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-butoxy-3-methoxyphenylporphyrin, and its metallo complexes. Herein it was used a readily available reactant, vanillin, as starting material which was submitted to alkylation with n-bromobutane affording the synthetic precursor. The desired porphyrin was obtained by reacting the O-alkylated aldehyde with pyrrole in the presence of propionic acid (Alder-Longo method. The purified porphyrin was then subjected to the metallation process using iron (II and manganese (II salts. The synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, UV-Vis, NMR and EPR spectroscopy.

  14. Quantum solitonic wave-packet of a meso-scopic system in singularity free gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buoninfante, Luca; Lambiase, Gaetano; Mazumdar, Anupam

    2018-06-01

    In this paper we will discuss how to localise a quantum wave-packet due to self-gravitating meso-scopic object by taking into account gravitational self-interaction in the Schrödinger equation beyond General Relativity. In particular, we will study soliton-like solutions in infinite derivative ghost free theories of gravity, which resolves the gravitational 1 / r singularity in the potential. We will show a unique feature that the quantum spread of such a gravitational system is larger than that of the Newtonian gravity, therefore enabling us a window of opportunity to test classical and quantum properties of such theories of gravity in the near future at a table-top experiment.

  15. Land use effect on soil meso and macro-organisms in Quindio coffee zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghian Siavosh

    2001-01-01

    Meso and macro-organisms communities in different agro-ecosystems were evaluated on the Colombian coffee region (Quindio) during the second semester of 1997. Soil samples were taken at 10 cm of deep and the Berlese funnel apparatus was used for evaluations. The agro-ecosystems were Guadual (Guadua angustifolia), traditional and technical coffee, citrus, and cassava crops, cattle ranching (extensive and intensive systems). A total of twenty taxonomic groups were identified. The most abundant and common specimens were ants, acari, collembola and diplura. The greatest diversity and abundance of organisms were registered on the G. angustifolia and coffee agro-ecosystems. The opposite tendency was observed on the cattle ranching due to physical degradation, associated to soil compacting

  16. The economy as a complex spatial system macro, meso and micro perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Kubin, Ingrid; Bougheas, Spiros; Kirman, Alan; Kopel, Michael; Bischi, Gian

    2018-01-01

    This book is open access under a CC BY-NC 4.0 license. This collected volume represents the final outcome of the COST Action IS1104 “The EU in the new complex geography of economic systems: models, tools and policy evaluation”. Visualizing the EU as a complex and multi-layered network, the book is organized in three parts, each of them dealing with a different level of analysis: At the macro-level, Part I considers the interactions within large economic systems (regions or countries) involving trade, workers migration, and other factor movements. At the meso-level, Part II discusses interactions within specific but wide-ranging markets, with a focus on financial markets and banking systems. Lastly, at the micro-level, Part III explores the decision-making of single firms, especially in the context of location decisions.

  17. The micro and meso-porous materials. Characterization; Les materiaux micro et mesoporeux. Caracterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibault-Starzyk, F.

    2004-10-01

    The micro and meso-porous materials, called zeolites, are very important in the modern chemical industry and in petrochemistry. This book deals in particular with the study and the characterization of zeolites. Its aim is to give to generalist chemists the tools for approaching experimentally these particular materials. The main methods of study and characterization are gathered in eight chapters, and the authors stress on the specificities due to the porous system: -structural analysis by the diffraction methods; -infrared spectroscopy; -NMR; -micro-calorimetry; -adsorption thermodynamics; -methods using the programed temperature; -modeling; -reactivity: kinetics and chemical engineering. This book appeals to students, engineers or searchers, without previous knowledge on these materials, but having a bachelor's degree or a master degree in general chemistry. (O.M.)

  18. Meso-cenozoic extensional tectonics and uranium metallogenesis in southeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuehui; Chen Zuyi; Cai Yuqi; Fu Jin; Feng Quanhong; Shi Zuhai

    1998-12-01

    Through a systematic study on Meso-Cenozoic extensional tectonics in Southeast China, the authors point out that there are three major types of extensional tectonics such as taphrogenic thermo-upwelling, and gravitational extensional tectonics. The characteristics of structural forms, combination patterns, movement style and syn-tectonic magmatism of different extensional tectonics are studied. Then according to the known isotope age data of uranium mineralizations in the area, the relations between the process of extensional tectonics and regional uranium metallogenesis, as well as the corresponding relations in space and time between extensional tectonics and uranium deposits of different types are analyzed. In conclusion, the authors suggest that the uranium mineralizations of different types in Southeast China are characterized by an united ore-forming mechanism due to the apparent control of extensional tectonics to the regional uranium metallogenesis

  19. Meso-optical Fourier transform microscope - a new device for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astakhov, A.Ya.; Batusov, Yu.A.; Bencze, G.L.; Farago, I.; Kisvaradi, A.; Molnar, L.; Soroko, L.M.; Vegh, J.

    1989-01-01

    A new device for high energy physics, the Meso-optical Fourier Transform Microscope (MFTM), designed for observation fo straight line particle tracks in nuclear research emulsion is described. The MFTM works without any mechanical or electronical depth scanning and can be considered as a selectivity viewing 'eye'. The computer controlled system containing MFTM as its main unit is given. This system can be used for a fast search for particle tracks and events produced by high energy neutrinos from particle accelerators. The results of the first experimental test of the computer controlled MFTM are presented. The performance of this system is described and discussed. It is shown that the angular resolution of the MFTM is 1 angular minute and the measurement time is equal to 30 ms per image. As all operations in the MFTM proceed without any depth scanning, this new evaluation system works at least two orders of magnitude faster than any known system with a traditional optical microscope. (orig.)

  20. Self-citations at the meso and individual levels: effects of different calculation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costas, Rodrigo; van Leeuwen, Thed N; Bordons, María

    2010-03-01

    This paper focuses on the study of self-citations at the meso and micro (individual) levels, on the basis of an analysis of the production (1994-2004) of individual researchers working at the Spanish CSIC in the areas of Biology and Biomedicine and Material Sciences. Two different types of self-citations are described: author self-citations (citations received from the author him/herself) and co-author self-citations (citations received from the researchers' co-authors but without his/her participation). Self-citations do not play a decisive role in the high citation scores of documents either at the individual or at the meso level, which are mainly due to external citations. At micro-level, the percentage of self-citations does not change by professional rank or age, but differences in the relative weight of author and co-author self-citations have been found. The percentage of co-author self-citations tends to decrease with age and professional rank while the percentage of author self-citations shows the opposite trend. Suppressing author self-citations from citation counts to prevent overblown self-citation practices may result in a higher reduction of citation numbers of old scientists and, particularly, of those in the highest categories. Author and co-author self-citations provide valuable information on the scientific communication process, but external citations are the most relevant for evaluative purposes. As a final recommendation, studies considering self-citations at the individual level should make clear whether author or total self-citations are used as these can affect researchers differently.

  1. Investigating influences on current community pharmacy practice at micro, meso, and macro levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansyah, Andi; Sainsbury, Erica; Krass, Ines

    The nature of Australian community pharmacy is continually evolving, raising the need to explore the current situation in order to understand the potential impact of any changes. Although community pharmacy has the potential to play a greater role in health care, it is currently not meeting this potential. To investigate the nature of the contemporary practice of community pharmacy in Australia and examine the potential missed opportunities for role expansion in health care. In-depth semi-structured interviews with a wide-range of key stakeholders within and beyond community pharmacy circles were conducted. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed for emerging themes. Twenty-seven key informants across Eastern half of Australia were interviewed between December 2014 and August 2015. Several key elements of the current situation representing the social, economic and policy context of community pharmacy have been identified. These elements operate interdependently, influence micro, meso and macro levels of community pharmacy operation and are changing in the current climate. Community pharmacy has untapped potential in primary health care, but it has been slow to change to meet opportunities available in the current situation. As the current situation is complex, interrelated and dynamic with often unintended and unpredictable consequences, this paper suggests that policy makers to consider the micro, meso and macro levels of community pharmacy operation when making significant policy changes. The framework proposed in this study can be a helpful tool to analyze the processes operating at these three levels and their influences on practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Patch use in time and space for a meso-predator in a risky world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Shomen; Zelcer, Michal; Kotler, Burt P

    2009-03-01

    Predator-prey studies often assume a three trophic level system where predators forage free from any risk of predation. Since meso-predators themselves are also prospective prey, they too need to trade-off between food and safety. We applied foraging theory to study patch use and habitat selection by a meso-predator, the red fox. We present evidence that foxes use a quitting harvest rate rule when deciding whether or not to abandon a foraging patch, and experience diminishing returns when foraging from a depletable food patch. Furthermore, our data suggest that patch use decisions of red foxes are influenced not just by the availability of food, but also by their perceived risk of predation. Fox behavior was affected by moonlight, with foxes depleting food resources more thoroughly (lower giving-up density) on darker nights compared to moonlit nights. Foxes reduced risk from hyenas by being more active where and when hyena activity was low. While hyenas were least active during moon, and most active during full moon nights, the reverse was true for foxes. Foxes showed twice as much activity during new moon compared to full moon nights, suggesting different costs of predation. Interestingly, resources in patches with cues of another predator (scat of wolf) were depleted to significantly lower levels compared to patches without. Our results emphasize the need for considering risk of predation for intermediate predators, and also shows how patch use theory and experimental food patches can be used for a predator. Taken together, these results may help us better understand trophic interactions.

  3. Discovery Mondays: Zoom on materials

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Following the success of the first Discovery Monday, which had over 100 visitors, the series of evening events in Microcosm continues. On Monday 2nd June, discover the world of materials. Find out how CERN scientists examine, manufacture and study different materials, at different scales. Did you know for example that using electrons you can observe a hair at a scale equivalent to looking at a boat with the naked eye? Also, that using ultrasound, you can measure the thickness of an object that is completely inaccessible? Find out more about these techniques, and also the high-tech machining and soldering that is carried out in CERN's central workshop. Plus, see how engineers can detect tiny leaks through solder points - essential for maintaining the vacuum in the LHC. The evening is open to all, without reservation, suggested age 12 and above. Rendez-vous in Microcosm on Monday 2nd June From 19.30 - 21.00 Free entry For more information : http://www.cern.ch/microcosm Using a scanning microscope, the head o...

  4. 14 CFR 406.143 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 406.143 Section 406.143... Transportation Adjudications § 406.143 Discovery. (a) Initiation of discovery. Any party may initiate discovery... after a complaint has been filed. (b) Methods of discovery. The following methods of discovery are...

  5. Nano-scale Materials and Nano-technology Processes in Environmental Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissokov, Gh; Tzvetkoff, T.

    2003-01-01

    A number of environmental and energy technologies have benefited substantially from nano-scale technology: reduced waste and improved energy efficiency; environmentally friendly composite structures; waste remediation; energy conversion. In this report examples of current achievements and paradigm shifts are presented: from discovery to application; a nano structured materials; nanoparticles in the environment (plasma chemical preparation); nano-porous polymers and their applications in water purification; photo catalytic fluid purification; hierarchical self-assembled nano-structures for adsorption of heavy metals, etc. Several themes should be considered priorities in developing nano-scale processes related to environmental management: 1. To develop understanding and control of relevant processes, including protein precipitation and crystallisation, desorption of pollutants, stability of colloidal dispersion, micelle aggregation, microbe mobility, formation and mobility of nanoparticles, and tissue-nanoparticle interaction. Emphasis should be given to processes at phase boundaries (solid-liquid, solid-gas, liquid-gas) that involve mineral and organic soil components, aerosols, biomolecules (cells, microbes), bio tissues, derived components such as bio films and membranes, and anthropogenic additions (e.g. trace and heavy metals); 2. To carry out interdisciplinary research that initiates Noel approaches and adopts new methods for characterising surfaces and modelling complex systems to problems at interfaces and other nano-structures in the natural environment, including those involving biological or living systems. New technological advances such as optical traps, laser tweezers, and synchrotrons are extending examination of molecular and nano-scale processes to the single-molecule or single-cell level; 3. To integrate understanding of the roles of molecular and nano-scale phenomena and behaviour at the meso- and/or macro-scale over a period of time

  6. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  7. A condição das coxas anteriores, do meso-catepímero e do meso-catepisterno dos Tabanidae (Diptera e sua possível importância na classificação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Bernardi

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The condition of certain neglected structures and their possible importance to the classification of the family Tabanidae are studied. The front coxae are considered as belonging to two types: 1 short and robust; 2 long and slender. The posterior edge of the meso-katepimeron presents two conditions: 1 without projection, 2 with backward projection. Similar conditions are found in the meso-Katepisternum, but with intermediate conditions. These characters are discussed in relation to the system proposed for the family by Mackerras. Conditions 1 and 2 of the former two structures separate, respectively, the Pangoniinae and Scepsidinae from the Chrysopsinae and Tabaninae. Condition 2 of the third structure seems to be developing independently in different groups of Tabaninae, with varying degrees of development.

  8. Observations and modelling of shoreline and multiple sandbar behaviour on a high-energy meso-tidal beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splinter, Kristen D.; Gonzalez, Maria V. G.; Oltman-Shay, Joan; Rutten, Jantien; Holman, Robert

    2018-05-01

    This contribution describes 10 years of observed sandbar and shoreline cross-shore position variability at a meso-tidal, high energy, multiple sandbar beach. To examine relationships between the temporal variability in shoreline/sandbar position with offshore wave forcing, a simple equilibrium model is applied to these data. The analysis presented in this paper shows that the equilibrium model is skilled at predicting the alongshore-averaged, time-varying position of the shoreline (R = 0.82) and the outer sandbar position (R = 0.75), suggesting that these end members of the nearshore sediment system are most strongly influenced by offshore wave forcing in a predictable, equilibrium-forced manner. The middle and inner bars are hypothesized to act as sediment transport pathways between the shoreline and the outer bar. Prediction of these more transient features by an equilibrium model was less skilful. Model coefficients reveal that these two end members (outer bar and shoreline) in the sediment system act in opposite directions to changes in the annual offshore wave forcing. During high wave events, sediment is removed from the shoreline and deposited in the nearshore sediment system with simultaneous landward retreat of the shoreline and offshore migration of the outer sandbar. While both end member features have cycles at annual and inter-annual scales, their respective equilibrium response factor differs by almost a factor of 10, with the shoreline responding around an inter-annual mean (ϕ = 1000 days) and the outer bar responding around a seasonal mean (ϕ = 170 days). The model accurately predicts shoreline response to both mild (e.g. 2004/05, 2008/09) and extreme (e.g. 2005/06, 2009/10) winter storms, as well as their summer recovery. The more mobile and dynamic outer sandbar is well-modelled during typical winters. Summer onshore sandbar migration of the outer bar in 2005 and 2006 is under-predicted as the system transitioned between a triple (winter) and

  9. Computational methods in drug discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Sumudu P. Leelananda; Steffen Lindert

    2016-01-01

    The process for drug discovery and development is challenging, time consuming and expensive. Computer-aided drug discovery (CADD) tools can act as a virtual shortcut, assisting in the expedition of this long process and potentially reducing the cost of research and development. Today CADD has become an effective and indispensable tool in therapeutic development. The human genome project has made available a substantial amount of sequence data that can be used in various drug discovery project...

  10. Representation Discovery using Harmonic Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mahadevan, Sridhar

    2008-01-01

    Representations are at the heart of artificial intelligence (AI). This book is devoted to the problem of representation discovery: how can an intelligent system construct representations from its experience? Representation discovery re-parameterizes the state space - prior to the application of information retrieval, machine learning, or optimization techniques - facilitating later inference processes by constructing new task-specific bases adapted to the state space geometry. This book presents a general approach to representation discovery using the framework of harmonic analysis, in particu

  11. Meso- and micropore characteristics of coal lithotypes: Implications for CO2 adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Drobniak, A.; Rupp, J.

    2008-01-01

    Lithotypes (vitrain, clarain, and fusain) of high volatile bituminous Pennsylvanian coals (Ro of 0.56-0.62%) from Indiana (the Illinois Basin) have been studied with regard to meso- and micropore characteristics using low-pressure nitrogen and carbon dioxide adsorption techniques, respectively. High-pressure CO2 adsorption isotherms were obtained from lithotypes of the Lower Block Coal Member (the Brazil Formation) and the Springfield Coal Member (the Petersburg Formation), and after evacuation of CO2, the lithotypes were re-analyzed for meso- and micropore characteristics to investigate changes related to high-pressure CO2 adsorption. Coal lithotypes have differing Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas and mesopore volumes, with significantly lower values in fusains than in vitrains or clarains. Fusains have very limited pore volume in the pore size width of 4-10 nm, and the volume, increases with an increase in pore size, in contrast to vitrain, for which a 4-10 nm range is the dominant pore'Wlidth. For clarain, both pores of 4-10 nm and pores larger than 20 nm contribute substantially to the mesoporosity. Micropore surface areas are the smallest for fusain (from 72.8 to 98.2 m2/g), largest for vitrain (from 125.0 to,158.4 m2 /g), and intermediate for clarain (from 110.5 to 124.4 m2/g). Similar relationships are noted for micropore volumes, and the lower values of these parameters in fusains are related to smaller volumes of all incremental micropore sizes. In the Springfield and the Lower Block Coal Members, among lithotypes studied, fusain has the lowest adsorption capacity. For the Lower Block, vitrain has significantly higher adsorption capacity than fusain and clarain, whereas for the Springfield, vitrain and clarain have comparable but still significantly higher adsorption capacities than fusain. The Lower Block vitrain and fusain have much higher adsorption capacities than those in the Springfield, whereas the clarains of the two coals are comparable

  12. Discovery in a World of Mashups

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, T. A.; Ritschel, B.; Hourcle, J. A.; Moon, I. S.

    2014-12-01

    When the first digital information was stored electronically, discovery of what existed was through file names and the organization of the file system. With the advent of networks, digital information was shared on a wider scale, but discovery remained based on file and folder names. With a growing number of information sources, named based discovery quickly became ineffective. The keyword based search engine was one of the first types of a mashup in the world of Web 1.0. Embedded links from one document to another with prescribed relationships between files and the world of Web 2.0 was formed. Search engines like Google used the links to improve search results and a worldwide mashup was formed. While a vast improvement, the need for semantic (meaning rich) discovery was clear, especially for the discovery of scientific data. In response, every science discipline defined schemas to describe their type of data. Some core schemas where shared, but most schemas are custom tailored even though they share many common concepts. As with the networking of information sources, science increasingly relies on data from multiple disciplines. So there is a need to bring together multiple sources of semantically rich information. We explore how harvesting, conceptual mapping, facet based search engines, search term promotion, and style sheets can be combined to create the next generation of mashups in the emerging world of Web 3.0. We use NASA's Planetary Data System and NASA's Heliophysics Data Environment to illustrate how to create a multi-discipline mash-up.

  13. Historical aspects of the discovery of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, David L.

    2016-01-01

    The historical events that led up to the discovery of plutonium and subsequently, how that discovery helped shape the modern period table of the elements, and ushered in a new era of nuclear science and technology are discussed. When the first of the transuranium elements, neptunium was discovered, it was realized that the radioactive βdecay of "2"3"9Np should lead to the formation of element 94. The scale of the experiments at that time, however, precluded its identification. Plutonium was first produced late in 1940 by Seaborg, McMillan, Kennedy, and Wahl1,2 by bombarding uranium with deuterons to produce the isotope "2"3"8Pu

  14. Mathematical model and calculation algorithm of micro and meso levels of separation process of gaseous mixtures in molecular sieves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umarova, Zhanat; Botayeva, Saule; Yegenova, Aliya; Usenova, Aisaule [South Kazakhstan State University, 5, Tauke Khan Avenue, 160012 Shymkent (Kazakhstan)

    2015-05-15

    In the given article, the main thermodynamic aspects of the issue of modeling diffusion transfer in molecular sieves have been formulated. Dissipation function is used as a basic notion. The differential equation, connecting volume flow with the change of the concentration of catchable component has been derived. As a result, the expression for changing the concentration of the catchable component and the coefficient of membrane detecting has been received. As well, the system approach to describing the process of gases separation in ultra porous membranes has been realized and micro and meso-levels of mathematical modeling have been distinguished. The non-ideality of the shared system is primarily taken into consideration at the micro-level and the departure from the diffusion law of Fick has been taken into account. The calculation method of selectivity considering fractal structure of membranes has been developed at the meso level. The calculation algorithm and its software implementation have been suggested.

  15. Mathematical model and calculation algorithm of micro and meso levels of separation process of gaseous mixtures in molecular sieves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umarova, Zhanat; Botayeva, Saule; Yegenova, Aliya; Usenova, Aisaule

    2015-01-01

    In the given article, the main thermodynamic aspects of the issue of modeling diffusion transfer in molecular sieves have been formulated. Dissipation function is used as a basic notion. The differential equation, connecting volume flow with the change of the concentration of catchable component has been derived. As a result, the expression for changing the concentration of the catchable component and the coefficient of membrane detecting has been received. As well, the system approach to describing the process of gases separation in ultra porous membranes has been realized and micro and meso-levels of mathematical modeling have been distinguished. The non-ideality of the shared system is primarily taken into consideration at the micro-level and the departure from the diffusion law of Fick has been taken into account. The calculation method of selectivity considering fractal structure of membranes has been developed at the meso level. The calculation algorithm and its software implementation have been suggested

  16. New strategy for surface functionalization of periodic mesoporous silica based on meso-HSiO1.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhuoying; Bai, Ling; Huang, Suwen; Zhu, Cun; Zhao, Yuanjin; Gu, Zhong-Ze

    2014-01-29

    Organic functionalization of periodic mesoporous silicas (PMSs) offers a way to improve their excellent properties and wide applications owing to their structural superiority. In this study, a new strategy for organic functionalization of PMSs is demonstrated by hydrosilylation of the recently discovered "impossible" periodic mesoporous hydridosilica, meso-HSiO1.5. This method overcomes the disadvantages of present pathways for organic functionalization of PMSs with organosilica. Moreover, compared to the traditional functionalization on the surface of porous silicon by hydrosilylation, the template-synthesized meso-HSiO1.5 is more flexible to access functional-groups-loaded PMSs with adjustable microstructures. The new method and materials will have wider applications based on both the structure and surface superiorities.

  17. Nanoparticles of Pt and Ag supported in meso porous SiO2: characterization and catalytic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, M.E.; Perez H, R.; Perez A, M.; Mondragon G, G.; Arenas A, J.

    2004-01-01

    The surface properties of catalysts of Pt and Ag supported in conventional SiO 2 hey have been studied through reduction reactions of N 2 O with H 2 which is a sensitive reaction to the structure. In our case it was used a meso porous ceramic support of SiO 2 of great surface area (1100 m 2 /gr), where it is caused a high dispersion of the metallic nanoparticles of Pt and Ag, the total charge of the active phase in the meso porous support was of 3% in weight. The catalysts show a variation in the percentages of conversion of N 2 O depending on the size and dispersion of the metallic phases. (Author)

  18. Hippocampus discovery First steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasz Engelhardt

    Full Text Available The first steps of the discovery, and the main discoverers, of the hippocampus are outlined. Arantius was the first to describe a structure he named "hippocampus" or "white silkworm". Despite numerous controversies and alternate designations, the term hippocampus has prevailed until this day as the most widely used term. Duvernoy provided an illustration of the hippocampus and surrounding structures, considered the first by most authors, which appeared more than one and a half century after Arantius' description. Some authors have identified other drawings and texts which they claim predate Duvernoy's depiction, in studies by Vesalius, Varolio, Willis, and Eustachio, albeit unconvincingly. Considering the definition of the hippocampal formation as comprising the hippocampus proper, dentate gyrus and subiculum, Arantius and Duvernoy apparently described the gross anatomy of this complex. The pioneering studies of Arantius and Duvernoy revealed a relatively small hidden formation that would become one of the most valued brain structures.

  19. Synthesis of meso-crystalline Al2O3 nano-platelet coatings using combustion chemical vapor deposition (C-CVD)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dhonge, BP

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available , National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria 0001, South Africa b Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu, India Abstract Meso...

  20. Shotgun Proteomics and Biomarker Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Hayes McDonald

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Coupling large-scale sequencing projects with the amino acid sequence information that can be gleaned from tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS has made it much easier to analyze complex mixtures of proteins. The limits of this “shotgun” approach, in which the protein mixture is proteolytically digested before separation, can be further expanded by separating the resulting mixture of peptides prior to MS/MS analysis. Both single dimensional high pressure liquid chromatography (LC and multidimensional LC (LC/LC can be directly interfaced with the mass spectrometer to allow for automated collection of tremendous quantities of data. While there is no single technique that addresses all proteomic challenges, the shotgun approaches, especially LC/LC-MS/MS-based techniques such as MudPIT (multidimensional protein identification technology, show advantages over gel-based techniques in speed, sensitivity, scope of analysis, and dynamic range. Advances in the ability to quantitate differences between samples and to detect for an array of post-translational modifications allow for the discovery of classes of protein biomarkers that were previously unassailable.

  1. NIF Discovery Science Eagle Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jave; Martinez, David; Pound, Marc; Heeter, Robert; Casner, Alexis; Villette, Bruno; Mancini, Roberto

    2017-10-01

    The University of Maryland and and LLNL are investigating the origin and dynamics of the famous Pillars of the Eagle Nebula and similar parsec-scale structures at the boundaries of HII regions in molecular hydrogen clouds. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Discovery Science program Eagle Nebula has performed NIF shots to study models of pillar formation. The shots feature a new long-duration x-ray source, in which multiple hohlraums mimicking a cluster of stars are driven with UV light in series for 10 to 15 ns each to create a 30 to 60 ns output x-ray pulse. The source generates deeply nonlinear hydrodynamics in the Eagle science package, a structure of dense plastic and foam mocking up a molecular cloud containing a dense core. Omega EP and NIF shots have validated the source concept, showing that earlier hohlraums do not compromise later ones by preheat or by ejecting ablated plumes that deflect later beams. The NIF shots generated radiographs of shadowing-model pillars, and also showed evidence that cometary structures can be generated. The velocity and column density profiles of the NIF shadowing and cometary pillars have been compared with observations of the Eagle Pillars made at the millimeter-wave BIMA and CARMA observatories. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. Diversity of Innate Immune Recognition Mechanism for Bacterial Polymeric meso-Diaminopimelic Acid-type Peptidoglycan in Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yang; Park, Ji-Won; Kwon, Hyun-Mi; Hwang, Hyun-Ok; Jang, In-Hwan; Masuda, Akiko; Kurokawa, Kenji; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Lee, Won-Jae; Dohmae, Naoshi; Zhang, Jinghai; Lee, Bok Luel

    2010-01-01

    In Drosophila, the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides in response to microbial infections is under the control of the Toll and immune deficiency (Imd) signaling pathway. The Toll signaling pathway responds mainly to the lysine-type peptidoglycan of Gram-positive bacteria and fungal β-1,3-glucan, whereas the Imd pathway responds to the meso-diaminopimelic acid (DAP)-type peptidoglycan of Gram-negative bacteria and certain Gram-positive bacilli. Recently we determined the activation mechanism ...

  3. Potential Mechanism of Action of meso-Dihydroguaiaretic Acid on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo F. Clemente-Soto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The isolation and characterization of the lignan meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid (MDGA from Larrea tridentata and its activity against Mycobacterial tuberculosis has been demonstrated, but no information regarding its mechanism of action has been documented. Therefore, in this study we carry out the gene expression from total RNA obtained from M. tuberculosis H37Rv treated with MDGA using microarray technology, which was validated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. Results showed that the alpha subunit of coenzyme A transferase of M. tuberculosis H37Rv is present in both geraniol and 1-and 2-methylnaphthalene degradation pathways, which are targeted by MDGA. This assumption was supported by molecular docking which showed stable interaction between MDGA with the active site of the enzyme. We propose that inhibition of coenzyme A transferase of M. tuberculosis H37Rv results in the accumulation of geraniol and 1-and 2-methylnaphtalene inside bacteria, causing membrane destabilization and death of the pathogen. The natural product MDGA is thus an attractive template to develop new anti-tuberculosis drugs, because its target is different from those of known anti-tubercular agents.

  4. Genetic determination of the meso-diaminopimelate biosynthetic pathway of mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, J D; Weisbrod, T R; Banerjee, A; Bloom, B R; Jacobs, W R

    1994-07-01

    The increasing incidence of multiple-drug-resistant mycobacterial infections indicates that the development of new methods for treatment of mycobacterial diseases should be a high priority. meso-Diaminopimelic acid (DAP), a key component of a highly immunogenic subunit of the mycobacterial peptidoglycan layer, has been implicated as a potential virulence factor. The mycobacterial DAP biosynthetic pathway could serve as a target for design of new antimycobacterial agents as well as the construction of in vivo selection systems. We have isolated the asd, dapA, dapB, dapD, and dapE genes involved in the DAP biosynthetic pathway of Mycobacterium bovis BCG. These genes were isolated by complementation of Escherichia coli mutations with an expression library of BCG DNA. Our analysis of these genes suggests that BCG may use more than one pathway for biosynthesis of DAP. The nucleotide sequence of the BCG dapB gene was determined. The activity of the product of this gene in Escherichia coli provided evidence that the gene may encode a novel bifunctional dihydrodipicolinate reductase and DAP dehydrogenase.

  5. Irrigating poplar energy crops with landfill leachate negatively affects soil micro- and meso-fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, David R; Zalesny, Jill A; Zalesny, Ronald S; Wiese, Adam H

    2011-10-01

    Increased municipal solid waste generated worldwide combined with substantial demand for renewable energy has prompted testing and deployment of woody feedstock production systems that reuse and recycle wastewaters as irrigation and fertilization. Populus selections are ideal for such systems given their fast growth, extensive root systems, and high water usage rates. Maintaining ecological sustainability (i.e., the capacity for an ecosystem to maintain its function and retain its biodiversity over time) during tree establishment and development is an important component of plantation success, especially for belowground faunal populations. To determine the impact of solid waste leachate on soil micro- and meso-fauna, we compared soilfrom eight different Populus clones receiving municipal solid waste landfill leachate irrigation with clones receiving fertilized (N, P K) well water irrigation. Microfauna (i.e., nematodes) communities were more diverse in control soils. Mesofauna (i.e., insects) were associated with all clones; however, they were four times more abundant around trees found within the control plot than those that received leachate treatments. Nematode and insect abundance varied among Populus clones yet insect diversity was greater in the leachate-treated soils. Phytotechnologies must allow for soil faunal sustainability, as upsetting this balance could lead to great reductions in phytotechnology efficacy.

  6. Selective updating of working memory content modulates meso-cortico-striatal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P; Sambataro, Fabio; Radulescu, Eugenia; Altamura, Mario; Iudicello, Jennifer; Zoltick, Bradley; Weinberger, Daniel R; Goldberg, Terry E; Mattay, Venkata S

    2011-08-01

    Accumulating evidence from non-human primates and computational modeling suggests that dopaminergic signals arising from the midbrain (substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area) mediate striatal gating of the prefrontal cortex during the selective updating of working memory. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we explored the neural mechanisms underlying the selective updating of information stored in working memory. Participants were scanned during a novel working memory task that parses the neurophysiology underlying working memory maintenance, overwriting, and selective updating. Analyses revealed a functionally coupled network consisting of a midbrain region encompassing the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area, caudate, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex that was selectively engaged during working memory updating compared to the overwriting and maintenance of working memory content. Further analysis revealed differential midbrain-dorsolateral prefrontal interactions during selective updating between low-performing and high-performing individuals. These findings highlight the role of this meso-cortico-striatal circuitry during the selective updating of working memory in humans, which complements previous research in behavioral neuroscience and computational modeling. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Oil prices and the South African economy. A macro-meso-micro analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fofana, Ismael; Chitiga, Margaret; Mabugu, Ramos

    2009-01-01

    Three levels of analysis are used to track the channels by which South Africa and its people are impacted by an increase of oil prices, namely the macro-economic level, the meso-economic level and the micro-economic/household level. The paper uses an economy and energy integrated approach to quantify these different channels. The approach combines a household survey dataset and an input-output dataset to implement the models. Results indicate that the impacts on the macroeconomy are negative, with gross domestic product falling and the current account balance worsening. All of the industries falling into the high intensive oil - use group witness an increase of their input cost that is above the economy - wide average. The impact of doubling paraffin prices results in poor households in rural areas and among the ''Black'' population, in particular, witnessing an increase of their cost of living which is much higher than their corresponding highest expenditure quintile groups. An increase of transport fuel hits the richer households much harder. The distributional impacts of rising transport cost as a consequence of high oil and oil-products prices shows that median quintile expenditure groups observe the highest impact both in urban and rural areas and especially among the ''Black'' population. (author)

  8. Labor migration, externalities and ethics: theorizing the meso-level determinants of HIV vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses labor migration as an example of how focusing on the meso-level highlights the social processes through which structural factors produce HIV risk. Situating that argument in relation to existing work on economic organization and HIV risk as well as research on labor migration and HIV vulnerabilities, the paper demonstrates how analyzing the processes through which labor migration creates vulnerability can shift attention away from the proximate behavioral determinants of HIV risk and toward the community and policy levels. Further, it presents the concepts of externalities and the ethics of consumption, which underline how both producers and consumers benefit from low-waged migrant labor, and thus are responsible for the externalization of HIV risk characteristic of supply chains that rely on migrant labor. These concepts point to strategies through which researchers and advocates could press the public and private sectors to improve the conditions in which migrants live and work, with implications for HIV as well as other health outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Plastic pollution in freshwater ecosystems: macro-, meso-, and microplastic debris in a floodplain lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blettler, Martin C M; Ulla, Maria Alicia; Rabuffetti, Ana Pia; Garello, Nicolás

    2017-10-23

    Plastic pollution is considered an important environmental problem by the United Nations Environment Programme, and it is identified, alongside climate change, as an emerging issue that might affect biological diversity and human health. However, despite research efforts investigating plastics in oceans, relatively little studies have focused on freshwater systems. The aim of this study was to estimate the spatial distribution, types, and characteristics of macro-, meso-, and microplastic fragments in shoreline sediments of a freshwater lake. Food wrappers (mainly polypropylene and polystyrene), bags (high- and low-density polyethylene), bottles (polyethylene terephthalate), and disposable Styrofoam food containers (expanded polystyrene) were the dominant macroplastics recorded in this study. Contrary to other studies, herein macroplastic item surveys would not serve as surrogates for microplastic items. This is disadvantageous since macroplastic surveys are relatively easier to conduct. Otherwise, an average of 25 mesoplastics (mainly expanded polystyrene) and 704 microplastic particles (diverse resins) were recorded per square meter in sandy sediments. Comparisons with other studies from freshwater and marine beaches indicated similar relevance of plastic contamination, demonstrating for the first time that plastic pollution is a serious problem in the Paraná floodplain lakes. This study is also valuable from a social/educational point of view, since plastic waste has been ignored in the Paraná catchment as a pollutant problem, and therefore, the outcome of the current study is a relevant contribution for decision makers.

  10. Controlling porosity of porous carbon cathode for lithium oxygen batteries: Influence of micro and meso porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjae; Yoo, Eunjoo; Ahn, Wha-Seung; Shim, Sang Eun

    2018-06-01

    In rechargeable lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries, the porosity of porous carbon materials plays a crucial role in the electrochemical performance serving as oxygen diffusion path and Li ion transfer passage. However, the influence of optimization of porous carbon as an air electrode on cell electrochemical performance remains unclear. To understand the role of carbon porosity in Li-O2 batteries, carbon materials featuring controlled pore sizes and porosity, including C-800 (nearly 96% microporous) and AC-950 (55:45 micro/meso porosity), are designed and synthesized by carbonization using a triazine-based covalent organic polymer (TCOP). We find that the microporous C-800 cathode allows 120 cycles with a limited capacity of 1000 mAh g-1, about 2 and 10 times higher than that of mixed-porosity AC-950 and mesoporous CMK-3, respectively. Meanwhile, the specific discharge capacity of the C-800 electrode at 200 mA g-1 is 6003 mAh g-1, which is lower than that of the 8433 and 9960 mAh g-1 when using AC-950 and CMK-3, respectively. This difference in the electrochemical performance of the porous carbon cathode with different porosity causes to the generation and decomposition of Li2O2 during the charge and discharge cycle, which affects oxygen diffusion and Li ion transfer.

  11. Electrochemical behavior of meso-substituted iron porphyrins in alkaline aqueous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezina, N. M.; Bazanov, M. I.; Maksimova, A. A.; Semeikin, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    The effect meso-substitution in iron porphyrin complexes has on their redox behavior in alkaline aqueous solutions is studied via cyclic voltammetry. The voltammetric features of the reduction of iron pyridylporphyrins suggest that the sites of electron transfer lie at the ligand, the metal ion, and the pyridyl moieties. The electron transfer reactions between the different forms of these compounds, including the oxygen reduction reaction they mediate, are outlined to show the sequence and potential ranges in which they occur in alkaline aqueous media. Under our experimental conditions, the iron porphyrins exist as μ-oxo dimmers whose activity for the electrocatalytic reduction of oxygen displays a considerable dependence on the nature of the substitutents and nitrogen isomerization (for pyridylporphyrins) and grows in the order (Fe( ms-Ph)4P)2O, (Fe[ ms-(Py-3)Ph3]P)2O, (Fe[ ms-(Py-4)4]P)2O, and (Fe[ ms-(Py-3)4]P)2O.

  12. Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and meso-Zeaxanthin in the Clinical Management of Eye Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole K. Scripsema

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin are xanthophyll carotenoids found within the retina and throughout the visual system. The retina is one of the most metabolically active tissues in the body. The highest concentration of xanthophylls is found within the retina, and this selective presence has generated many theories regarding their role in supporting retinal function. Subsequently, the effect of xanthophylls in the prevention and treatment of various eye diseases has been examined through epidemiological studies, animal studies, and clinical trials. This paper attempts to review the epidemiological studies and clinical trials investigating the effects of xanthophylls on the incidence and progression of various eye diseases. Observational studies have reported that increased dietary intake and higher serum levels of lutein and zeaxanthin are associated with lower risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD, especially late AMD. Randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials have demonstrated that xanthophyll supplementation increases macular pigment levels, improves visual function, and decreases the risk of progression to late AMD, especially neovascular AMD. Current publications on the preventive and therapeutic effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, and retinopathy of prematurity have reported encouraging results.

  13. Report on the International Workshop “Networks, Regions and Institutions in Mongol Eurasia: A Meso-Historical Analysis”, Jerusalem, 17–18 May, 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Hautala

    2017-01-01

    On May 17–18, 2017, an international workshop “Networks, Regions and Institutions in Mongol Eurasia: A Meso-Historical Analysis” was held at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem with the participation of researchers from Israel, Japan, Britain, United States, Russia, China, Hungary and Finland. The main goal of the workshop was to reveal the potential of the “meso-historical analysis” in the study of the Mongol Empire, including the simultaneous consideration of global changes in Eurasia caused...

  14. Relationship between land use pattern and the structure and diversity of soil meso-micro arthropod community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Limin; Zhang, Xueping; Cui, Wei

    2014-05-01

    Soil arthropod communities can provide valuable information regarding the impacts of human disturbances on ecosystem structure. Our study evaluated the structure, composition and diversity of soil meso-micro arthropod communities, in six different vegetation types and assessed the impacts of human activity. A completely randomized design, including 3 replicates from 6 sites (mowing steppe, natural grassland, severe degradation grassland, farmland, artificial shelter forest, and wetland) was used. Soil samples from the depth of 0 to 20 cm were collected during May, July, and September 2007. Soil meso-micro arthropod were separated using the Tullgren funnels method, and were identified and counted. Soil pH value, organic matter, and total nitrogen were measured in topsoil (0-20 cm) from each site. A total of 5,602 soil meso-micro arthropod individuals were collected, representing 4 classes, 14 orders, and 57 families. Most soil arthropods were widely distributed; however, some species appeared to be influenced by environment variables, and might serve as bioindicators of adverse human impacts. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated the soil arthropod distribution in the severely degraded grassland, mowing steppe, farmland, and shelter forest differed from the natural grassland. Arthropod density and diversity were greatest in May, and the forestland community was the most stable. Because of the vital role soil arthropods have in maintaining a healthy ecosystem, mechanisms to maintain their abundance and diversity should be further evaluated.

  15. Collaborative project. Ocean-atmosphere interaction from meso-to planetary-scale. Mechanisms, parameterization, and variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, Richard [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Bryan, Frank [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Tribbia, Joseph [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Park, Sungsu [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Dennis, John [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Saravanan, R. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Schneider, Niklas [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Kwon, Young-Oh [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-06-11

    This project aims to improve long term global climate simulations by resolving ocean mesoscale activity and the corresponding response in the atmosphere. The main computational objectives are; i) to perform and assess Community Earth System Model (CESM) simulations with the new Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) spectral element dynamical core; ii) use static mesh refinement to focus on oceanic fronts; iii) develop a new Earth System Modeling tool to investigate the atmospheric response to fronts by selectively filtering surface flux fields in the CESM coupler. The climate research objectives are 1) to improve the coupling of ocean fronts and the atmospheric boundary layer via investigations of dependency on model resolution and stability functions: 2) to understand and simulate the ensuing tropospheric response that has recently been documented in observations: and 3) to investigate the relationship of ocean frontal variability to low frequency climate variability and the accompanying storm tracks and extremes in high resolution simulations. This is a collaborative multi-institution project consisting of computational scientists, climate scientists and climate model developers. It specifically aims at DOE objectives of advancing simulation and predictive capability of climate models through improvements in resolution and physical process representation.

  16. A CFD Analysis of The Performance of Pin-Fin Laminar Flow Micro/Meso Scale Heat Exchangers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dimas, Sotirios

    2005-01-01

    .... A staggered arrangement of cylindrical pin fins in rectangular channel geometry was used. Various configurations were considered consistent with a parallel experimental study being conducted based on a micro-wind tunnel setup...

  17. Meso- and Micro-scale modelling in China: Wind measurements at 12 meteorological stations in NE China (Dongbei)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelöw-Marsden, Petter; Enevoldsen, Karen

    This report is part of the presentation of the results obtained during the CMA component of the Wind Energy Development (WED) program. It describes the techniques and results of the project “A02 Measurements” which produced wind measurements from mast mounted anemometers and vanes in Dongbei...

  18. Response and recovery of a pristine groundwater ecosystem impacted by toluene contamination - A meso-scale indoor aquifer experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzyk, Agnieszka; Fillinger, Lucas; Larentis, Michael; Qiu, Shiran; Maloszewski, Piotr; Hünniger, Marko; Schmidt, Susanne I.; Stumpp, Christine; Marozava, Sviatlana; Knappett, Peter S. K.; Elsner, Martin; Meckenstock, Rainer; Lueders, Tillmann; Griebler, Christian

    2017-12-01

    Microbial communities are the driving force behind the degradation of contaminants like aromatic hydrocarbons in groundwater ecosystems. However, little is known about the response of native microbial communities to contamination in pristine environments as well as their potential to recover from a contamination event. Here, we used an indoor aquifer mesocosm filled with sandy quaternary calciferous sediment that was continuously fed with pristine groundwater to study the response, resistance and resilience of microbial communities to toluene contamination over a period of almost two years, comprising 132 days of toluene exposure followed by nearly 600 days of recovery. We observed an unexpectedly high intrinsic potential for toluene degradation, starting within the first two weeks after the first exposure. The contamination led to a shift from oxic to anoxic, primarily nitrate-reducing conditions as well as marked cell growth inside the contaminant plume. Depth-resolved community fingerprinting revealed a low resistance of the native microbial community to the perturbation induced by the exposure to toluene. Distinct populations that were dominated by a small number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) rapidly emerged inside the plume and at the plume fringes, partially replacing the original community. During the recovery period physico-chemical conditions were restored to the pristine state within about 35 days, whereas the recovery of the biological parameters was much slower and the community composition inside the former plume area had not recovered to the original state by the end of the experiment. These results demonstrate the low resilience of sediment-associated groundwater microbial communities to organic pollution and underline that recovery of groundwater ecosystems cannot be assessed solely by physico-chemical parameters.

  19. Climate change impact on the discharge in meso-scale catchments and consequences for the hydropower-production in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, Ole; Hänggi, Pascal; Köplin, Nina; Meyer, Rapahel; Schädler, Bruno; Weingartner, Rolf

    2013-04-01

    The potential effect of climate change on hydrology is the acceleration of the hydrological cycle that in turn will likely cause changes in the discharge regime. As a result, socio-economic systems (e.g., tourism, hydropower industry) may be drastically affected. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the effect of climate change on different hydrological components like mean and low-flow levels, and drought stress in mesoscale catchments of Switzerland. In terms of mean flows approx. 200 catchments in Switzerland were simulated for the reference period 1984-2005 using the hydrological model PREVAH and projection for near (2025-2046) and far future (2074-2095) are based on delta-change values of 10 ENSEMBLES regional climate models assuming A1B emission scenario (CH2011 climate scenario data sets). We found seven distinct response types of catchments, each exhibiting a characteristic annual cycle of hydrologic change. A general pattern observed for all catchments, is the clearly decreasing summer runoff. Hence, within a second analysis of future discharge a special focus was set on summer low flow in a selection of 29 catchments in the Swiss Midlands. Low flows are critical as they have great implications on water usage and biodiversity. We re-calibrated the hydrological model PREVAH with a focus on base-flow and gauged discharge and used the aforementioned climate data sets and simulation time periods. We found low flow situations to be very likely to increase in both, magnitude and duration, especially in central and western Switzerland plateau. At third, the drought stress potential was analyzed by simulating the soil moisture level under climate change conditions in a high mountain catchment. We used the distributed hydrological model WaSiM-ETH for this aspect as soil characteristics are much better represented in this model. Soil moisture in forests below 2000 m a.s.l. were found to be affected at most, which might have implication to their function as avalanche protection forests. However, we found high uncertainties related to the downscaling method applied. Finally, we analyzed the effect of changed discharge characteristics on the hydropower production by coupling the hydrological model BERNHYDRO with a hydropower management model. For the near future (until 2050), the results indicate that losses in the hydropower production during the summer can be compensated by benefit during winter. These different aspects of climate change impacts on the hydrosphere reveal a differentiated picture involving potentially threatened and widely unaffected catchments, hydrologic parameters and hydrologic constraints to the society.

  20. Materials Discovery | Materials Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Materials Discovery Images of red and yellow particles NREL's research in materials characterization of sample by incoming beam and measuring outgoing particles, with data being stored and analyzed Staff Scientist Dr. Zakutayev specializes in design of novel semiconductor materials for energy

  1. Service discovery using Bloom filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goering, P.T.H.; Heijenk, Geert; Lelieveldt, B.P.F.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; de Laat, C.T.A.M.; Heijnsdijk, J.W.J.

    A protocol to perform service discovery in adhoc networks is introduced in this paper. Attenuated Bloom filters are used to distribute services to nodes in the neighborhood and thus enable local service discovery. The protocol has been implemented in a discrete event simulator to investigate the

  2. On the pulse of discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    What started 50 years ago as a `smudge' on paper has flourished into a fundamental field of astrophysics replete with unexpected applications and exciting discoveries. To celebrate the discovery of pulsars, we look at the past, present and future of pulsar astrophysics.

  3. Multisensor satellite observations of meso- and submesoscale surface circulation in the Liguro-Provençal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimova, Svetlana; Alvera-Azcarate, Aida

    2017-04-01

    Despite great efforts being paid to studying circulation of the Western Mediterranean Basin and the factors triggering bioproductivity of its marine ecosystem, the evidence provided by satellite imagery has not been fully analysed yet. In the present paper, we concentrate our attention on mesoscale and submesoscale circulation features of the Liguro-Provençal Basin captured by satellite radiometer, spectroradiometer, and radar images. Using such a dataset makes it possible to observe the circulation features from a wide spatial range, from the basin scale through mesoscale to the scales of a few kilometers. Mesoscale features in this study are being mostly observed with thermal infrared imagery retrieved by AVHRR and AATSR sensors. Special attention in the work was paid to an analysis of the data coming from a geostationary satellite, namely ones provided by SEVIRI. Due to their uniquely high temporal resolution, such imagery allows observing circulation features in their evolution. During the winter blooming events, surface circulation at meso- to submesoscales in the region of interest was additionally highlighted by images obtained in the visible range. Full spatial resolution images provided by Envisat MERIS, Sentinel-2 MSI, and Landsat TM/ETM+/OLI made the greatest contribution to this part. The smallest scales (namely submesoscale) are being observed with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery provided by Envisat ASAR and Sentinel-1 SAR. During an analysis of SAR images, it was noted that there was strikingly great amount of biogenic surfactants on the water surface in the region of interest. Apparently, low biological productivity typical for the Western Mediterranean ecosystem is not a limiting factor for the formation of surfactant films seen in SAR imagery. This finding though requires further consideration in some other researches, and hereafter we just benefited from the presence of surfactants, because they behave as good tracers of surface currents

  4. 29 CFR 2700.56 - Discovery; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...(c) or 111 of the Act has been filed. 30 U.S.C. 815(c) and 821. (e) Completion of discovery... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery; general. 2700.56 Section 2700.56 Labor... Hearings § 2700.56 Discovery; general. (a) Discovery methods. Parties may obtain discovery by one or more...

  5. 19 CFR 207.109 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 207.109 Section 207.109 Customs Duties... and Committee Proceedings § 207.109 Discovery. (a) Discovery methods. All parties may obtain discovery under such terms and limitations as the administrative law judge may order. Discovery may be by one or...

  6. 30 CFR 44.24 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 44.24 Section 44.24 Mineral... Discovery. Parties shall be governed in their conduct of discovery by appropriate provisions of the Federal... discovery. Alternative periods of time for discovery may be prescribed by the presiding administrative law...

  7. 19 CFR 356.20 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 356.20 Section 356.20 Customs Duties... § 356.20 Discovery. (a) Voluntary discovery. All parties are encouraged to engage in voluntary discovery... sanctions proceeding. (b) Limitations on discovery. The administrative law judge shall place such limits...

  8. 24 CFR 180.500 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 180.500 Section 180.500... OPPORTUNITY CONSOLIDATED HUD HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CIVIL RIGHTS MATTERS Discovery § 180.500 Discovery. (a) In general. This subpart governs discovery in aid of administrative proceedings under this part. Discovery in...

  9. 15 CFR 25.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 25.21 Section 25.21... Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for..., discovery is available only as ordered by the ALJ. The ALJ shall regulate the timing of discovery. (d...

  10. 39 CFR 963.14 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 963.14 Section 963.14 Postal Service... PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.14 Discovery. Discovery is to be conducted on a... such discovery as he or she deems reasonable and necessary. Discovery may include one or more of the...

  11. 22 CFR 224.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 224.21 Section 224.21 Foreign....21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of... parties, discovery is available only as ordered by the ALJ. The ALJ shall regulate the timing of discovery...

  12. Effects of confinement in meso-porous silica and carbon nano-structures; Etude des effets de confinement dans la silice mesoporeuse et dans certaines nanostructures carbonees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon, V

    2006-07-15

    Physico-chemical properties of materials can be strongly modified by confinement because of the quantum effects that appear at such small length scales and also because of the effects of the confinement itself. The aim of this thesis is to show that both the nature of the confining material and the size of the pores and cavities have a strong impact on the confined material. We first show the effect of the pore size of the host meso-porous silica on the temperature of the solid-solid phase transition of silver selenide, a semiconducting material with enhanced magnetoresistive properties under non-stoichiometric conditions. Narrowing the pores from 20 nm to 2 nm raises the phase transition temperature from 139 C to 146 C. This result can be explained by considering the interaction between the confining and confined materials as a driving force. The effects of confinement are also studied in the case of hydrogen and deuterium inside cavities of organized carbon nano-structures. The effects that appear in the adsorption/desorption cycles are much stronger with carbon nano-horns as the host material than with C60 pea-pods and single-walled carbon nano-tubes. (author)

  13. Performance modeling of neighbor discovery in proactive routing protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Medina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that neighbor discovery is a critical component of proactive routing protocols in wireless ad hoc networks. However there is no formal study on the performance of proposed neighbor discovery mechanisms. This paper provides a detailed model of key performance metrics of neighbor discovery algorithms, such as node degree and the distribution of the distance to symmetric neighbors. The model accounts for the dynamics of neighbor discovery as well as node density, mobility, radio and interference. The paper demonstrates a method for applying these models to the evaluation of global network metrics. In particular, it describes a model of network connectivity. Validation of the models shows that the degree estimate agrees, within 5% error, with simulations for the considered scenarios. The work presented in this paper serves as a basis for the performance evaluation of remaining performance metrics of routing protocols, vital for large scale deployment of ad hoc networks.

  14. Novel treatment option for MUC16-positive malignancies with the targeted TRAIL-based fusion protein Meso-TR3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Gunjal; Spitzer, Dirk; Gibbs, Jesse; Belt, Brian; Powell, Matthew A; Mutch, David G; Goedegebuure, Peter; Collins, Lynne; Piwnica-Worms, David; Hawkins, William G

    2014-01-01

    The targeted delivery of cancer therapeutics represents an ongoing challenge in the field of drug development. TRAIL is a promising cancer drug but its activity profile could benefit from a cancer-selective delivery mechanism, which would reduce potential side effects and increase treatment efficiencies. We recently developed the novel TRAIL-based drug platform TR3, a genetically fused trimer with the capacity for further molecular modifications such as the addition of tumor-directed targeting moieties. MUC16 (CA125) is a well characterized biomarker in several human malignancies including ovarian, pancreatic and breast cancer. Mesothelin is known to interact with MUC16 with high affinity. In order to deliver TR3 selectively to MUC16-expressing cancers, we investigated the possibility of targeted TR3 delivery employing the high affinity mesothelin/MUC16 ligand/receptor interaction. Using genetic engineering, we designed the novel cancer drug Meso-TR3, a fusion protein between native mesothelin and TR3. The recombinant proteins were produced with mammalian HEK293T cells. Meso-TR3 was characterized for binding selectivity and killing efficacy against MUC16-positive cancer cells and controls that lack MUC16 expression. Drug efficacy experiments were performed in vitro and in vivo employing an intraperitoneal xenograft mouse model of ovarian cancer. Similar to soluble mesothelin itself, the strong MUC16 binding property was retained in the Meso-TR3 fusion protein. The high affinity ligand/receptor interaction was associated with a selective accumulation of the cancer drug on MUC16-expressing cancer targets and directly correlated with increased killing activity in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model of ovarian cancer. The relevance of the mesothelin/MUC16 interaction for attaching Meso-TR3 to the cancer cells was verified by competitive blocking experiments using soluble mesothelin. Mechanistic studies using soluble DR5-Fc and caspase blocking assays confirmed

  15. Discovery Mondays: Surveyors' Tools

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Surveyors of all ages, have your rulers and compasses at the ready! This sixth edition of Discovery Monday is your chance to learn about the surveyor's tools - the state of the art in measuring instruments - and see for yourself how they work. With their usual daunting precision, the members of CERN's Surveying Group have prepared some demonstrations and exercises for you to try. Find out the techniques for ensuring accelerator alignment and learn about high-tech metrology systems such as deviation indicators, tracking lasers and total stations. The surveyors will show you how they precisely measure magnet positioning, with accuracy of a few thousandths of a millimetre. You can try your hand at precision measurement using different types of sensor and a modern-day version of the Romans' bubble level, accurate to within a thousandth of a millimetre. You will learn that photogrammetry techniques can transform even a simple digital camera into a remarkable measuring instrument. Finally, you will have a chance t...

  16. Meso- and macroporous sulfonated starch solid acid catalyst for esterification of palm fatty acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M. Lokman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a heterogeneous solid acid catalyst was successfully developed from starch. The catalyst was prepared by a significant two-step process; the initial step was incomplete carbonization of starch (ICS at 400 °C for 12 h and consequently followed by sulfonation process using concentrated H2SO4 to produce sulfonated-incomplete carbonized starch (ICS-SO3H. The characterization of the ICS-SO3H catalyst was done for chemical and physical properties such as X-ray diffraction (XRD, ammonia-temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD, surface area analysis, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, elemental analysis and morphology analysis by scanning electron microscope (SEM. BET results showed the structure of ICS-SO3H consists of meso- and macro-porous properties, which allowed high density of the SO3H group attached on its carbon networks. The catalytic activity of ICS-SO3H catalyst was determined by analyzing the catalyst performance to esterify palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD and sequentially produced methyl ester. The maximum free fatty acid (FFA conversion and FAME yield were as high as 94.6% and 90.4%, respectively, at 75 °C using 10:1 methanol-to-PFAD molar ratio and 2 wt.% of catalyst within 3 h. The catalyst has sufficient potential to recycle up to 6 reactions without reactivation step and any remarkable loss of catalytic activity. It revealed that the heterogeneous ICS-SO3H catalyst exhibits high stability, reusability and catalytic activity.

  17. Meso-modeling of Carbon Fiber Composite for Crash Safety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shih-Po; Chen, Yijung; Zeng, Danielle; Su, Xuming

    2017-04-06

    In the conventional approach, the material properties for crash safety simulations are typically obtained from standard coupon tests, where the test results only provide single layer material properties used in crash simulations. However, the lay-up effects for the failure behaviors of the real structure were not considered in numerical simulations. Hence, there was discrepancy between the crash simulations and experimental tests. Consequently, an intermediate stage is required for accurate predictions. Some component tests are required to correlate the material models in the intermediate stage. In this paper, a Mazda Tube under high-impact velocity is chosen as an example for the crash safety analysis. The tube consists of 24 layers of uni-directional (UD) carbon fiber composite materials, in which 4 layers are perpendicular to, while the other layers are parallel to the impact direction. An LS-DYNA meso-model was constructed with orthotropic material models counting for the single-layer material behaviors. Between layers, a node-based tie-break contact was used for modeling the delamination of the composite material. Since fiber directions are not single-oriented, the lay-up effects could be an important effect. From the first numerical trial, premature material failure occurred due to the use of material parameters obtained directly from the coupon tests. Some parametric studies were conducted to identify the cause of the numerical instability. The finding is that the material failure strength used in the numerical model needs to be enlarged to stabilize the numerical model. Some hypothesis was made to provide the foundation for enlarging the failure strength and the corresponding experiments will be conducted to validate the hypothesis.

  18. Studies on the Synthesis, Photophysical and Biological Evaluation of Some Unsymmetrical Meso-Tetrasubstituted Phenyl Porphyrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rica Boscencu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We designed three unsymmetrical meso-tetrasubstituted phenyl porphyrins for further development as theranostic agents for cancer photodynamic therapy (PDT: 5-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-10,15,20-tris-(4-acetoxy-3-methoxyphenylporphyrin (P2.2, Zn(II-5-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-10,15,20-tris-(4-acetoxy-3-methoxyphenylporphyrin (Zn(II2.2 and Cu(II-5-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-10,15,20-tris-(4-acetoxy-3-methoxyphenylporphyrin (Cu(II2.2. The porphyrinic compounds were synthesized and their structures were confirmed by elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-Vis, EPR and NMR. The compounds had a good solubility in polar/nonpolar media. P2.2 and, to a lesser extent, Zn(II2.2 were fluorescent, albeit with low fluoresence quantum yields. P2.2 and Zn(II2.2 exhibited PDT-acceptable values of singlet oxygen generation. A “dark” cytotoxicity study was performed using cells that are relevant for the tumor niche (HT-29 colon carcinoma cells and L929 fibroblasts and for blood (peripheral mononuclear cells. Cellular uptake of fluorescent compounds, cell viability/proliferation and death were evaluated. P2.2 was highlighted as a promising theranostic agent for PDT in solid tumors considering that P2.2 generated PDT-acceptable singlet oxygen yields, accumulated into tumor cells and less in blood cells, exhibited good fluorescence within cells for imagistic detection, and had no significant cytotoxicity in vitro against tumor and normal cells. Complexing of P2.2 with Zn(II or Cu(II altered several of its PDT-relevant properties. These are consistent arguments for further developing P2.2 in animal models of solid tumors for in vivo PDT.

  19. Residual flow patterns and morphological changes along a macro- and meso-tidal coastline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Nicoletta; Plater, Andrew James

    2017-11-01

    The hydrodynamic and residual transport patterns arising from oscillating tidal motion have important consequences for the transport of sediments, and for the evolution of the shoreline, especially under macro- and meso-tidal conditions. For many locations there are significant uncertainties about residual currents and sediment transport characteristics, and their possible influence on the morphological evolution of the coastline and on the character of the bed. Herein we use the coastline of SE England as a test case to investigate possible changes in residual currents, and residual transport patterns from neap to spring tide, the reciprocal interaction between residuals and the character of the bed, and the morphological evolution of the coastline at a century timescale. We found that in the long term the morphology of the system evolves toward a dynamic equilibrium configuration characterized by smaller, and spatially constant residual transport patterns. While the spatial distribution of residual currents maintains a similar trend during both neap and spring tide, during spring tide and for large areas residual currents switch between northerly and southerly directions, and their magnitude is doubled. Residual eddies develop in regions characterized by the presence of sand bars due to the interaction of the tide with the varying topography. Residual transport patterns are also computed for various sediment fractions, and based on the hydrodynamics and sediment availability at the bottom. We found that the distribution of sediments on the bed is significantly correlated with the intensity of residuals. Finally, the majority of long-term morphological changes tend to develop or augment sand banks features, with an increase in elevation and steepening of the bank contours.

  20. 'The Lusiads', poem of discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Furlan Felizi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes reading Os Lusíadas as a discovery journey. Discovery here read as aletheia or “revelation”, as proposed by Sophia de Mello Brey­ner Andresen in 1980. Using Martin Heidegger’s notion of aletheia in the book Parmenides along with Jorge de Sena and Sophia de Mello Breyner Andresen reflections on Camões, I’ll seek to point out alternative readings for Os Lusíadas as a “discovery journey”.

  1. Discovery of natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, P.W.

    1976-01-01

    Mankind will continue to need ores of more or less the types and grades used today to supply its needs for new mineral raw materials, at least until fusion or some other relatively cheap, inexhaustible energy source is developed. Most deposits being mined today were exposed at the surface or found by relatively simple geophysical or other prospecting techniques, but many of these will be depleted in the foreseeable future. The discovery of deeper or less obvious deposits to replace them will require the conjunction of science and technology to deduce the laws that governed the concentration of elements into ores and to detect and evaluate the evidence of their whereabouts. Great theoretical advances are being made to explain the origins of ore deposits and understand the general reasons for their localization. These advances have unquestionable value for exploration. Even a large deposit is, however, very small, and, with few exceptions, it was formed under conditions that have long since ceased to exist. The explorationist must suppress a great deal of "noise" to read and interpret correctly the "signals" that can define targets and guide the drilling required to find it. Is enough being done to ensure the long-term availability of mineral raw materials? The answer is probably no, in view of the expanding consumption and the difficulty of finding new deposits, but ingenuity, persistence, and continued development of new methods and tools to add to those already at hand should put off the day of "doing without" for many years. The possibility of resource exhaustion, especially in view of the long and increasing lead time needed to carry out basic field and laboratory studies in geology, geophysics, and geochemistry and to synthesize and analyze the information gained from them counsels against any letting down of our guard, however (17). Research and exploration by government, academia, and industry must be supported and encouraged; we cannot wait until an eleventh

  2. Supernovae Discovery Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Colin

    2018-01-01

    Abstract:We present supernovae (SN) search efficiency measurements for recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) surveys. Efficiency is a key component to any search, and is important parameter as a correction factor for SN rates. To achieve an accurate value for efficiency, many supernovae need to be discoverable in surveys. This cannot be achieved from real SN only, due to their scarcity, so fake SN are planted. These fake supernovae—with a goal of realism in mind—yield an understanding of efficiency based on position related to other celestial objects, and brightness. To improve realism, we built a more accurate model of supernovae using a point-spread function. The next improvement to realism is planting these objects close to galaxies and of various parameters of brightness, magnitude, local galactic brightness and redshift. Once these are planted, a very accurate SN is visible and discoverable by the searcher. It is very important to find factors that affect this discovery efficiency. Exploring the factors that effect detection yields a more accurate correction factor. Further inquires into efficiency give us a better understanding of image processing, searching techniques and survey strategies, and result in an overall higher likelihood to find these events in future surveys with Hubble, James Webb, and WFIRST telescopes. After efficiency is discovered and refined with many unique surveys, it factors into measurements of SN rates versus redshift. By comparing SN rates vs redshift against the star formation rate we can test models to determine how long star systems take from the point of inception to explosion (delay time distribution). This delay time distribution is compared to SN progenitors models to get an accurate idea of what these stars were like before their deaths.

  3. Scaling the heterogeneously heated convective boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heerwaarden, C.; Mellado, J.; De Lozar, A.

    2013-12-01

    We have studied the heterogeneously heated convective boundary layer (CBL) by means of large-eddy simulations (LES) and direct numerical simulations (DNS). What makes our study different from previous studies on this subject are our very long simulations in which the system travels through multiple states and that from there we have derived scaling laws. In our setup, a stratified atmosphere is heated from below by square patches with a high surface buoyancy flux, surrounded by regions with no or little flux. By letting a boundary layer grow in time we let the system evolve from the so-called meso-scale to the micro-scale regime. In the former the heterogeneity is large and strong circulations can develop, while in the latter the heterogeneity is small and does no longer influence the boundary layer structure. Within each simulation we can now observe the formation of a peak in kinetic energy, which represents the 'optimal' heterogeneity size in the meso-scale, and the subsequent decay of the peak and the development towards the transition to the micro-scale. We have created a non-dimensional parameter space that describes all properties of this system. By studying the previously described evolution for different combinations of parameters, we have derived three important conclusions. First, there exists a horizontal length scale of the heterogeneity (L) that is a function of the boundary layer height (h) and the Richardson (Ri) number of the inversion at the top of the boundary layer. This relationship has the form L = h Ri^(3/8). Second, this horizontal length scale L allows for expressing the time evolution, and thus the state of the system, as a ratio of this length scale and the distance between two patches Xp. This ratio thus describes to which extent the circulation fills up the space that exists between two patch centers. The timings of the transition from the meso- to the micro-scale collapse under this scaling for all simulations sharing the same flux

  4. CO2 capture on micro/meso-porous composites of (zeolite A)/(MCM-41) with Ca2+ located: Computer simulation and experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jianhai Zhou; Huiling Zhao; Jinxia Li; Yujun Zhu; Jun Hu; Honglai Liu; Ying Hu

    2013-01-01

    Composing of both zeolite and meso-porous structures, micro/meso-porous composites exhibit promising CO 2 capture capabilities. In this work, a full-atomic mimetic 5A-MCM-41 structure with bimodal pores has been constructed, in which the microporous structure of 5A zeolite is constructed and optimized based on zeolite A with Ca and Na cations introduced; whereas the meso-porous MCM-41 structure is produced by caving the cylindrical pores in the obtained 5A zeolite matrix. CO 2 adsorption on 5A-MCM- 41 has been simulated by the grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC). The simulation results demonstrated that CO 2 is preferentially adsorbed in micropores, and the CO 2 adsorption capacity and its isosteric heat on 5A-MCM-41 are much larger than those of N 2 . The CO 2 selectivity of 5A-MCM-41 results from the electrostatic interaction of the quadrupole CO 2 molecule with Ca 2+ cations of the zeolite. Furthermore, the hierarchical micro/meso-porous composites are synthesized to verify the simulated predictions. By the hydrothermal reaction using 5A zeolite 'seeds' as the silicon source and hexadecyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as the meso-porous template, 5A-MCM-41 composites are obtained, the characteristic results show that typical 5A microporous structure is remained and disordered meso-porous networks are produced in the composites.Moreover, the CO 2 adsorption capacity of the 5A-MCM- 41 composites can reach as high as 4.08 mmol/g at 100 kPa and 298 K. These observations have been strongly supported that micro/meso-porous composites with metal ions located would be promising adsorbents for CO 2 separation. (authors)

  5. In search of late time evolution self-similar scaling laws of Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov hydrodynamic instabilities - recent theorical advance and NIF Discovery-Science experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvarts, Dov

    2017-10-01

    Hydrodynamic instabilities, and the mixing that they cause, are of crucial importance in describing many phenomena, from very large scales such as stellar explosions (supernovae) to very small scales, such as inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. Such mixing causes the ejection of stellar core material in supernovae, and impedes attempts at ICF ignition. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) occurs at an accelerated interface between two fluids with the lower density accelerating the higher density fluid. The Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability occurs when a shock wave passes an interface between the two fluids of different density. In the RTI, buoyancy causes ``bubbles'' of the light fluid to rise through (penetrate) the denser fluid, while ``spikes'' of the heavy fluid sink through (penetrate) the lighter fluid. With realistic multi-mode initial conditions, in the deep nonlinear regime, the mixing zone width, H, and its internal structure, progress through an inverse cascade of spatial scales, reaching an asymptotic self-similar evolution: hRT =αRT Agt2 for RT and hRM =αRM tθ for RM. While this characteristic behavior has been known for years, the self-similar parameters αRT and θRM and their dependence on dimensionality and density ratio have continued to be intensively studied and a relatively wide distribution of those values have emerged. This talk will describe recent theoretical advances in the description of this turbulent mixing evolution that sheds light on the spread in αRT and θRM. Results of new and specially designed experiments, done by scientists from several laboratories, were performed recently using NIF, the only facility that is powerful enough to reach the self-similar regime, for quantitative testing of this theoretical advance, will be presented.

  6. RAS - Screens & Assays - Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    The RAS Drug Discovery group aims to develop assays that will reveal aspects of RAS biology upon which cancer cells depend. Successful assay formats are made available for high-throughput screening programs to yield potentially effective drug compounds.

  7. Discovery of the iron isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuh, A.; Fritsch, A.; Heim, M.; Shore, A.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-eight iron isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  8. Discovery of the silver isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuh, A.; Fritsch, A.; Ginepro, J.Q.; Heim, M.; Shore, A.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-eight silver isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  9. Synthetic biology of antimicrobial discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Bijan; Lu, Timothy K.

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic discovery has a storied history. From the discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming to the relentless quest for antibiotics by Selman Waksman, the stories have become like folklore, used to inspire future generations of scientists. However, recent discovery pipelines have run dry at a time when multidrug resistant pathogens are on the rise. Nature has proven to be a valuable reservoir of antimicrobial agents, which are primarily produced by modularized biochemical pathways. Such modularization is well suited to remodeling by an interdisciplinary approach that spans science and engineering. Herein, we discuss the biological engineering of small molecules, peptides, and non-traditional antimicrobials and provide an overview of the growing applicability of synthetic biology to antimicrobials discovery. PMID:23654251

  10. Discovery of the cadmium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, S.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-seven cadmium isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  11. Discoveries of isotopes by fission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    country of discovery as well as the production mechanism used to produce the isotopes. ... the disintegration products of bombarded uranium, as a consequence of a ..... advanced accelerator and newly developed separation and detection ...

  12. Synthetic biology of antimicrobial discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Bijan; Lu, Timothy K

    2013-07-19

    Antibiotic discovery has a storied history. From the discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming to the relentless quest for antibiotics by Selman Waksman, the stories have become like folklore used to inspire future generations of scientists. However, recent discovery pipelines have run dry at a time when multidrug-resistant pathogens are on the rise. Nature has proven to be a valuable reservoir of antimicrobial agents, which are primarily produced by modularized biochemical pathways. Such modularization is well suited to remodeling by an interdisciplinary approach that spans science and engineering. Herein, we discuss the biological engineering of small molecules, peptides, and non-traditional antimicrobials and provide an overview of the growing applicability of synthetic biology to antimicrobials discovery.

  13. The discovery of 'heavy light'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The history of the discoveries of fundamental quanta is described starting from Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism up to the development of a theory of weak interaction and the detection of the W and Z bosons. (HSI).

  14. Discovery – Development of Rituximab

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI funded the development of rituximab, one of the first monoclonal antibody cancer treatments. With the discovery of rituximab, more than 70 percent of patients diagnosed with non-hodgkin lymphoma now live five years past their initial diagnosis.

  15. Radioactivity. Centenary of radioactivity discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.; Tubiana, M.; Bimbot, R.

    1997-01-01

    This small booklet was edited for the occasion of the exhibitions of the celebration of the centenary of radioactivity discovery which took place in various locations in France from 1996 to 1998. It recalls some basic knowledge concerning radioactivity and its applications: history of discovery, atoms and isotopes, radiations, measurement of ionizing radiations, natural and artificial radioactivity, isotope dating and labelling, radiotherapy, nuclear power and reactors, fission and fusion, nuclear wastes, dosimetry, effects and radioprotection. (J.S.)

  16. Computational methods in drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumudu P. Leelananda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The process for drug discovery and development is challenging, time consuming and expensive. Computer-aided drug discovery (CADD tools can act as a virtual shortcut, assisting in the expedition of this long process and potentially reducing the cost of research and development. Today CADD has become an effective and indispensable tool in therapeutic development. The human genome project has made available a substantial amount of sequence data that can be used in various drug discovery projects. Additionally, increasing knowledge of biological structures, as well as increasing computer power have made it possible to use computational methods effectively in various phases of the drug discovery and development pipeline. The importance of in silico tools is greater than ever before and has advanced pharmaceutical research. Here we present an overview of computational methods used in different facets of drug discovery and highlight some of the recent successes. In this review, both structure-based and ligand-based drug discovery methods are discussed. Advances in virtual high-throughput screening, protein structure prediction methods, protein–ligand docking, pharmacophore modeling and QSAR techniques are reviewed.

  17. Get Involved in Planetary Discoveries through New Worlds, New Discoveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupla, Christine; Shipp, S. S.; Halligan, E.; Dalton, H.; Boonstra, D.; Buxner, S.; SMD Planetary Forum, NASA

    2013-01-01

    "New Worlds, New Discoveries" is a synthesis of NASA’s 50-year exploration history which provides an integrated picture of our new understanding of our solar system. As NASA spacecraft head to and arrive at key locations in our solar system, "New Worlds, New Discoveries" provides an integrated picture of our new understanding of the solar system to educators and the general public! The site combines the amazing discoveries of past NASA planetary missions with the most recent findings of ongoing missions, and connects them to the related planetary science topics. "New Worlds, New Discoveries," which includes the "Year of the Solar System" and the ongoing celebration of the "50 Years of Exploration," includes 20 topics that share thematic solar system educational resources and activities, tied to the national science standards. This online site and ongoing event offers numerous opportunities for the science community - including researchers and education and public outreach professionals - to raise awareness, build excitement, and make connections with educators, students, and the public about planetary science. Visitors to the site will find valuable hands-on science activities, resources and educational materials, as well as the latest news, to engage audiences in planetary science topics and their related mission discoveries. The topics are tied to the big questions of planetary science: how did the Sun’s family of planets and bodies originate and how have they evolved? How did life begin and evolve on Earth, and has it evolved elsewhere in our solar system? Scientists and educators are encouraged to get involved either directly or by sharing "New Worlds, New Discoveries" and its resources with educators, by conducting presentations and events, sharing their resources and events to add to the site, and adding their own public events to the site’s event calendar! Visit to find quality resources and ideas. Connect with educators, students and the public to

  18. Discovery of SM Higgs Boson in ATLAS Experiment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    ics, Higgs boson, particle detec- tors, trigger, grid computing. Discovery of SM Higgs Boson in ATLAS Experiment. Prafulla Kumar Behera. Prafulla Kumar Behera is an experimental high energy physicist at the. IITM, Chennai. He has participated in many large-scale collider experiments namely. BELLE at Japan, BABAR.

  19. Impact of a Discovery System on Interlibrary Loan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Linda R.; Coopey, Barbara M.

    2016-01-01

    Web-scale discovery services such as Summon (Serial Solutions), WorldCat Local (OCLC), EDS (EBSCO), and Primo (Ex Libris) are often touted as a single search solution to connect users to library-owned and -licensed content, improving discoverability and retrieval of resources. Assessing how well these systems achieve this goal can be challenging,…

  20. Real-World Implementation of Video Outpatient Consultations at Macro, Meso, and Micro Levels: Mixed-Method Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Shaw, Sara; Wherton, Joseph; Vijayaraghavan, Shanti; Morris, Joanne; Bhattacharya, Satya; Hanson, Philippa; Campbell-Richards, Desirée; Ramoutar, Seendy; Collard, Anna; Hodkinson, Isabel

    2018-04-17

    There is much interest in virtual consultations using video technology. Randomized controlled trials have shown video consultations to be acceptable, safe, and effective in selected conditions and circumstances. However, this model has rarely been mainstreamed and sustained in real-world settings. The study sought to (1) define good practice and inform implementation of video outpatient consultations and (2) generate transferable knowledge about challenges to scaling up and routinizing this service model. A multilevel, mixed-method study of Skype video consultations (micro level) was embedded in an organizational case study (meso level), taking account of national context and wider influences (macro level). The study followed the introduction of video outpatient consultations in three clinical services (diabetes, diabetes antenatal, and cancer surgery) in a National Health Service trust (covering three hospitals) in London, United Kingdom. Data sources included 36 national-level stakeholders (exploratory and semistructured interviews), longitudinal organizational ethnography (300 hours of observations; 24 staff interviews), 30 videotaped remote consultations, 17 audiotaped face-to-face consultations, and national and local documents. Qualitative data, analyzed using sociotechnical change theories, addressed staff and patient experience and organizational and system drivers. Quantitative data, analyzed via descriptive statistics, included uptake of video consultations by staff and patients and microcategorization of different kinds of talk (using the Roter interaction analysis system). When clinical, technical, and practical preconditions were met, video consultations appeared safe and were popular with some patients and staff. Compared with face-to-face consultations for similar conditions, video consultations were very slightly shorter, patients did slightly more talking, and both parties sometimes needed to make explicit things that typically remained implicit in

  1. Dissolved organic matter dynamics in the oligo/meso-haline zone of wetland-influenced coastal rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maie, Nagamitsu; Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Watanabe, Akira; Tsutsuki, Kiyoshi; Yamashita, Youhei; Melling, Lulie; Cawley, Kaelin M.; Shima, Eikichi; Jaffé, Rudolf

    2014-08-01

    Wetlands are key components in the global carbon cycle and export significant amounts of terrestrial carbon to the coastal oceans in the form of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Conservative behavior along the salinity gradient of DOC and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) has often been observed in estuaries from their freshwater end-member (salinity = 0) to the ocean (salinity = 35). While the oligo/meso-haline (salinity DOC and CDOM optical properties determined by UV absorbance at 254 nm (A254) and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) along the lower salinity range (salinity DOC and A254 was observed, while these parameters showed similar conservative behavior for the third. Three distinct EEM-PARAFAC models established for each of the rivers provided similar spectroscopic characteristics except for some unique fluorescence features observed for the Judan River. The distribution patterns of PARAFAC components suggested that the inputs from plankton and/or submerged aquatic vegetation can be important in the Bekanbeushi River. Further, DOM photo-products formed in the estuarine lake were also found to be transported upstream. In the Harney River, whereas upriver-derived terrestrial humic-like components were mostly distributed conservatively, some of these components were also derived from mangrove inputs in the oligo/meso-haline zone. Interestingly, fluorescence intensities of some terrestrial humic-like components increased with salinity for the Judan River possibly due to changes in the dissociation state of acidic functional groups and/or increase in the fluorescence quantum yield along the salinity gradient. The protein-like and microbial humic-like components were distributed differently between three wetland rivers, implying that interplay between loss to microbial degradation and inputs from diverse sources are different for the three wetland-influenced rivers. The results presented here

  2. Tetrabenzoporphyrin and -mono-, -cis-di- and Tetrabenzotriazaporphyrin Derivatives: Electrochemical and Spectroscopic Implications of meso CH Group Replacement with Nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van As, Adele; Joubert, Chris C; Buitendach, Blenerhassitt E; Erasmus, Elizabeth; Conradie, Jeanet; Cammidge, Andrew N; Chambrier, Isabelle; Cook, Michael J; Swarts, Jannie C

    2015-06-01

    Nonperipherally hexyl-substituted metal-free tetrabenzoporphyrin (2H-TBP, 1a) tetrabenzomonoazaporphyrin (2H-TBMAP, 2a), tetrabenzo-cis-diazaporphyrin (2H-TBDAP, 3a), tetrabenzotriazaporphyrin (2H-TBTAP, 4a), and phthalocyanine (2H-Pc, 5a), as well as their copper complexes (1b-5b), were synthesized. As the number of meso nitrogen atoms increases from zero to four, λmax of the Q-band absorption peak becomes red-shifted by almost 100 nm, and extinction coefficients increased at least threefold. Simultaneously the blue-shifted Soret (UV) band substantially decreased in intensity. These changes were related to the relative electron-density of each macrocycle expressed as the group electronegativity sum of all meso N and CH atom groups, ∑χR. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy differentiated between the three different types of macrocyclic nitrogen atoms (the Ninner, (NH)inner, and Nmeso) in the metal-free complexes. Binding energies of the Nmeso and Ninner,Cu atoms in copper chelates could not be resolved. Copper insertion lowered especially the cathodic redox potentials, while all four observed redox processes occurred at larger potentials as the number of meso nitrogens increased. Computational chemical methods using density functional theory confirmed 1b to exhibit a Cu(II) reduction prior to ring-based reductions, while for 2b, Cu(II) reduction is the first reductive step only if the nonperipheral substituents are hydrogen. When they are methyl groups, it is the second reduction process; when they are ethyl, propyl, or hexyl, it becomes the third reductive process. Spectro-electrochemical measurements showed redox processes were associated with a substantial change in intensity of at least two main absorbances (the Q and Soret bands) in the UV spectra of these compounds.

  3. A new concept of the anatomy of the thoracic oesophagus: the meso-oesophagus. Observational study during thoracoscopic esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Miguel A; Weijs, Teus J; Bleys, Ronald L A W; van Hillegersberg, Richard; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I; Gisbertz, Suzanne S; Ruurda, Jelle P; Straatman, Jennifer; Osugi, Harushi; van der Peet, Donald L

    2015-09-01

    During thoracoscopic oesophageal surgery, we observed not previously described fascia-like structures. Description of similar structures in rectal cancer surgery was of paramount importance in improving the quality of resection. Therefore, we aimed to describe a new comprehensive concept of the surgical anatomy of the thoracic oesophagus with definition of the meso-oesophagus. We retrospectively evaluated 35 consecutive unedited videos of thoracoscopic oesophageal resections for cancer, to determine the surgical anatomy of the oesophageal fascia's vessels and lymphatic drainage. The resulting concept was validated in a prospective study, including 20 patients at three different centres. Additional confirmation was sought by a histologic study of a cadaver's thorax. A thin layer of connective tissue around the infracarinal oesophagus, involving the lymph nodes at the level of the carina, was observed during thoracoscopic esophagectomy in 32 of the 35 patients included in the retrospective study and in 19 of the 20 patients included in the prospective study. A thick fascia-like structure from the upper thoracic aperture to the lower thoracic aperture was visualized in all patients. This fascia is encountered between the descending aorta and left aspect of the infracarinal oesophagus. Above the carina it expands on both sides of the oesophagus to lateral mediastinal structures. This fascia contains oesophageal vessels, lymph vessels and nodes and nerves. The histologic study confirmed these findings. Here we described the concept of the "meso-oesophagus". Applying the description of the meso-oesophagus will create a better understanding of the oesophageal anatomy, leading to more adequate and reproducible surgery.

  4. Maximizing Academic Library Collections: Measuring Changes in Use Patterns Owing to EBSCO Discovery Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of academic libraries adopting web-scale discovery tools, few studies have quantified their effect on the use of library collections. This study measures the impact that EBSCO Discovery Service has had on use of library resources through circulation statistics, use of electronic resources, and interlibrary loan requests.…

  5. Meso-Molding Three-Dimensional Macroporous Perovskites: A New Approach to Generate High-Performance Nanohybrid Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arandiyan, Hamidreza; Scott, Jason; Wang, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Newly designed 3D highly ordered macro/mesoporous multifunctional La1-xCexCoO3 nanohybrid frameworks with a 2D hexagonal mesostructure were fabricated via facile meso-molding in a three-dimensionally macroporous perovskite (MTMP) route. The nanohybrid framework exhibited excellent catalytic...... activity for methane combustion, which derived from the MTMP providing a larger surface area and pore volume, uniform pore sizes, higher accessible surface oxygen concentration, better low-temperature reducibility, and a unique nanovoid 3D structure....

  6. Survival of weed seeds and animal parasites as affected by anaerobic digestion at meso- and thermophilic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Hansen, Christian M.

    2013-01-01

    did not affect egg survival during the first 48h and it took up to 10days before total elimination was reached. In general, anaerobic digestion in biogas plants seems an efficient way (thermophilic more efficient than mesophilic) to treat organic farm wastes in a way that suppresses animal parasites......, Ascaris suum, was assessed under conditions similar to biogas plants managed at meso- (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. Cattle manure was used as digestion substrate and experimental units were sampled destructively over time. Regarding weed seeds, the effect of thermophilic conditions (55°C...

  7. Punta del este terrane: meso proterozoic basement and neo proterozoic cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F.; Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Basei, M.; Peel, E.; Oyhantcabal, P.; Cordani, U.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Eastern basement of Uruguay consists of Meso and Neoproterozoic rocks. Mesoproterozoic basement had been deformed by pre-Brasiliano and Brasiliano events. Regional variations in this basement and in the Neoproterozoic cover show equivalent deformation styles and intensities. Models proposed for tectonic evolution have been scarce and confusing. Specially, the ones that concern the moment of collision and/or juxtaposition of blocks. The Punta del Este Terrane (PET) is composed of gneisses and migmatites formed between 1000 Ma to 900 Ma (Preciozzi et al., 2001). These rocks had been strongly reworked during Brasiliano and Rio Doce orogenesis (ca. 900-500 Ma). This crustal segment represents a high grade metamorphic terrane, which is correlated to some gneissic complexes southwest of Africa. Particularly, it is correlated to Kibaran-Namaqua Belt in Namibia. U-Pb ages between 1000 Ma and 900 Ma, obtained in zircons from tonalitic granitoids, are interpreted as indicative of their crystallization (Fig. 1). Besides, anatectic fluids related to migmatites leucosomes yielded ages of ca. 520 to 540 Ma. This denotes that superimposed metamorphic conditions during Brasiliano orogenesis reached, at least, lower amphibolite facies. PET basement gneisses present Sm-Nd model ages (TDM) between 2.4 to 1.8 Ga, showing long crustal residence, corroborated by the very negative εNd values of –1.3 and –14.3. During Brazilian orogenesy they were affected by deformation processes and anatexis. Metasedimentary PET cover occurs near La Paloma and Rocha towns. It is represented by a siliciclastic metasedimentary succession corresponding to the Rocha formation. In La Pedrera town recognized three sedimentary facies were (1-3): (1) sandstones and pelites; (2) green pelites; and (3) rhytmites. The transition from facies (1) to facies (3) shows the passage from fluvial environment with tidal influence to tidal flat with predominance of sub tidal deposits (Pazos and S

  8. 42 CFR 426.432 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 426.432 Section 426.432 Public Health... § 426.432 Discovery. (a) General rule. If the ALJ orders discovery, the ALJ must establish a reasonable timeframe for discovery. (b) Protective order—(1) Request for a protective order. Any party receiving a...

  9. 40 CFR 27.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 27.21 Section 27.21... Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for..., discovery is available only as ordered by the presiding officer. The presiding officer shall regulate the...

  10. 13 CFR 134.213 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 134.213 Section 134.213... OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS Rules of Practice for Most Cases § 134.213 Discovery. (a) Motion. A party may obtain discovery only upon motion, and for good cause shown. (b) Forms. The forms of discovery...

  11. 37 CFR 41.150 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 41.150 Section 41... COMMERCE PRACTICE BEFORE THE BOARD OF PATENT APPEALS AND INTERFERENCES Contested Cases § 41.150 Discovery. (a) Limited discovery. A party is not entitled to discovery except as authorized in this subpart. The...

  12. 19 CFR 354.10 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 354.10 Section 354.10 Customs Duties... ANTIDUMPING OR COUNTERVAILING DUTY ADMINISTRATIVE PROTECTIVE ORDER § 354.10 Discovery. (a) Voluntary discovery. All parties are encouraged to engage in voluntary discovery procedures regarding any matter, not...

  13. 14 CFR 13.220 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 13.220 Section 13.220... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice in FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.220 Discovery. (a) Initiation of discovery. Any party may initiate discovery described in this section, without the consent or...

  14. 49 CFR 604.38 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 604.38 Section 604.38 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION CHARTER SERVICE Hearings. § 604.38 Discovery. (a) Permissible forms of discovery shall be within the discretion of the PO. (b) The PO shall limit the frequency and extent of discovery permitted by...

  15. 15 CFR 719.10 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 719.10 Section 719.10... Discovery. (a) General. The parties are encouraged to engage in voluntary discovery regarding any matter... the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure relating to discovery apply to the extent consistent with this...

  16. 14 CFR 16.213 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 16.213 Section 16.213... PRACTICE FOR FEDERALLY-ASSISTED AIRPORT ENFORCEMENT PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 16.213 Discovery. (a) Discovery... discovery permitted by this section if a party shows that— (1) The information requested is cumulative or...

  17. 28 CFR 76.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 76.21 Section 76.21 Judicial... POSSESSION OF CERTAIN CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 76.21 Discovery. (a) Scope. Discovery under this part covers... as a general guide for discovery practices in proceedings before the Judge. However, unless otherwise...

  18. 36 CFR 1150.63 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 1150.63 Section... PRACTICE AND PROCEDURES FOR COMPLIANCE HEARINGS Prehearing Conferences and Discovery § 1150.63 Discovery. (a) Parties are encouraged to engage in voluntary discovery procedures. For good cause shown under...

  19. 10 CFR 13.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 13.21 Section 13.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are...) Unless mutually agreed to by the parties, discovery is available only as ordered by the ALJ. The ALJ...

  20. 49 CFR 1121.2 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 1121.2 Section 1121.2 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE RAIL EXEMPTION PROCEDURES § 1121.2 Discovery. Discovery shall follow the procedures set forth at 49 CFR part 1114, subpart B. Discovery may begin upon the filing of the petition for...

  1. 24 CFR 26.18 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 26.18 Section 26.18... PROCEDURES Hearings Before Hearing Officers Discovery § 26.18 Discovery. (a) General. The parties are encouraged to engage in voluntary discovery procedures, which may commence at any time after an answer has...

  2. 38 CFR 42.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 42.21 Section... IMPLEMENTING THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 42.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are... creation of a document. (c) Unless mutually agreed to by the parties, discovery is available only as...

  3. 22 CFR 521.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Discovery. 521.21 Section 521.21 Foreign... Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for... interpreted to require the creation of a document. (c) Unless mutually agreed to by the parties, discovery is...

  4. 31 CFR 10.71 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 10.71 Section 10.71 Money... SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.71 Discovery. (a) In general. Discovery may be... relevance, materiality and reasonableness of the requested discovery and subject to the requirements of § 10...

  5. 42 CFR 426.532 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 426.532 Section 426.532 Public Health... § 426.532 Discovery. (a) General rule. If the Board orders discovery, the Board must establish a reasonable timeframe for discovery. (b) Protective order—(1) Request for a protective order. Any party...

  6. 39 CFR 955.15 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 955.15 Section 955.15 Postal Service... APPEALS § 955.15 Discovery. (a) The parties are encouraged to engage in voluntary discovery procedures. In connection with any deposition or other discovery procedure, the Board may issue any order which justice...

  7. 49 CFR 1503.633 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 1503.633 Section 1503.633... Rules of Practice in TSA Civil Penalty Actions § 1503.633 Discovery. (a) Initiation of discovery. Any party may initiate discovery described in this section, without the consent or approval of the ALJ, at...

  8. 43 CFR 35.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 35.21 Section 35.21 Public... AND STATEMENTS § 35.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests...) Unless mutually agreed to by the parties, discovery is available only as ordered by the ALJ. The ALJ...

  9. 14 CFR 1264.120 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 1264.120 Section 1264.120... PENALTIES ACT OF 1986 § 1264.120 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1..., discovery is available only as ordered by the presiding officer. The presiding officer shall regulate the...

  10. 22 CFR 128.6 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 128.6 Section 128.6 Foreign... Discovery. (a) Discovery by the respondent. The respondent, through the Administrative Law Judge, may... discovery if the interests of national security or foreign policy so require, or if necessary to comply with...

  11. 37 CFR 11.52 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 11.52 Section 11... Disciplinary Proceedings; Jurisdiction, Sanctions, Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.52 Discovery. Discovery... establishes that discovery is reasonable and relevant, the hearing officer, under such conditions as he or she...

  12. 24 CFR 26.42 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 26.42 Section 26.42... PROCEDURES Hearings Pursuant to the Administrative Procedure Act Discovery § 26.42 Discovery. (a) General. The parties are encouraged to engage in voluntary discovery procedures, which may commence at any time...

  13. 49 CFR 386.37 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 386.37 Section 386.37 Transportation... and Hearings § 386.37 Discovery. (a) Parties may obtain discovery by one or more of the following...; and requests for admission. (b) Discovery may not commence until the matter is pending before the...

  14. 29 CFR 1955.32 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 1955.32 Section 1955.32 Labor Regulations...) PROCEDURES FOR WITHDRAWAL OF APPROVAL OF STATE PLANS Preliminary Conference and Discovery § 1955.32 Discovery... allow discovery by any other appropriate procedure, such as by interrogatories upon a party or request...

  15. 31 CFR 16.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 16.21 Section 16.21 Money... FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 16.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized... to require the creation of a document. (c) Unless mutually agreed to by the parties, discovery is...

  16. 15 CFR 766.9 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 766.9 Section 766.9... PROCEEDINGS § 766.9 Discovery. (a) General. The parties are encouraged to engage in voluntary discovery... provisions of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure relating to discovery apply to the extent consistent with...

  17. 43 CFR 4.1130 - Discovery methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery methods. 4.1130 Section 4.1130... Special Rules Applicable to Surface Coal Mining Hearings and Appeals Discovery § 4.1130 Discovery methods. Parties may obtain discovery by one or more of the following methods— (a) Depositions upon oral...

  18. DISCOVERY OF SMALL-SCALE SPIRAL STRUCTURES IN THE DISK OF SAO 206462 (HD 135344B): IMPLICATIONS FOR THE PHYSICAL STATE OF THE DISK FROM SPIRAL DENSITY WAVE THEORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, T.; Takeuchi, T. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Grady, C. A. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer, Suite 100, Oakland CA 96002 (United States); Hashimoto, J. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Fukagawa, M. [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1, Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Hornbeck, J. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Sitko, M. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut St., Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Russell, R. [The Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, CA 90009 (United States); Werren, C. [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0011 (United States); Cure, M. [Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia, Universidad de Valparaiso, Avda. Gran Bretana 1111, Casilla 5030, Valparaiso (Chile); Currie, T. [ExoPlanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ohashi, N. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Okamoto, Y.; Momose, M. [College of Science, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Honda, M. [Department of Information Science, Kanagawa University, 2946 Tsuchiya, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1293 (Japan); Inutsuka, S. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi, 464-8602 (Japan); Dong, R.; Brandt, T. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, NJ08544 (United States); Abe, L. [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, 06300 Nice (France); Brandner, W., E-mail: muto@geo.titech.ac.jp [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2012-04-01

    We present high-resolution, H-band imaging observations, collected with Subaru/HiCIAO, of the scattered light from the transitional disk around SAO 206462 (HD 135344B). Although previous sub-mm imagery suggested the existence of a dust-depleted cavity at r {<=} 46 AU, our observations reveal the presence of scattered light components as close as 0.''2 ({approx} 28 AU) from the star. Moreover, we have discovered two small-scale spiral structures lying within 0.''5 ({approx} 70 AU). We present models for the spiral structures using the spiral density wave theory, and derive a disk aspect ratio of h {approx} 0.1, which is consistent with previous sub-mm observations. This model can potentially give estimates of the temperature and rotation profiles of the disk based on dynamical processes, independently from sub-mm observations. It also predicts the evolution of the spiral structures, which can be observable on timescales of 10-20 years, providing conclusive tests of the model. While we cannot uniquely identify the origin of these spirals, planets embedded in the disk may be capable of exciting the observed morphology. Assuming that this is the case, we can make predictions on the locations and, possibly, the masses of the unseen planets. Such planets may be detected by future multi-wavelength observations.

  19. DISCOVERY OF SMALL-SCALE SPIRAL STRUCTURES IN THE DISK OF SAO 206462 (HD 135344B): IMPLICATIONS FOR THE PHYSICAL STATE OF THE DISK FROM SPIRAL DENSITY WAVE THEORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, T.; Takeuchi, T.; Grady, C. A.; Hashimoto, J.; Fukagawa, M.; Hornbeck, J. B.; Sitko, M.; Russell, R.; Werren, C.; Curé, M.; Currie, T.; Ohashi, N.; Okamoto, Y.; Momose, M.; Honda, M.; Inutsuka, S.; Dong, R.; Brandt, T.; Abe, L.; Brandner, W.

    2012-01-01

    We present high-resolution, H-band imaging observations, collected with Subaru/HiCIAO, of the scattered light from the transitional disk around SAO 206462 (HD 135344B). Although previous sub-mm imagery suggested the existence of a dust-depleted cavity at r ≤ 46 AU, our observations reveal the presence of scattered light components as close as 0.''2 (∼ 28 AU) from the star. Moreover, we have discovered two small-scale spiral structures lying within 0.''5 (∼ 70 AU). We present models for the spiral structures using the spiral density wave theory, and derive a disk aspect ratio of h ∼ 0.1, which is consistent with previous sub-mm observations. This model can potentially give estimates of the temperature and rotation profiles of the disk based on dynamical processes, independently from sub-mm observations. It also predicts the evolution of the spiral structures, which can be observable on timescales of 10-20 years, providing conclusive tests of the model. While we cannot uniquely identify the origin of these spirals, planets embedded in the disk may be capable of exciting the observed morphology. Assuming that this is the case, we can make predictions on the locations and, possibly, the masses of the unseen planets. Such planets may be detected by future multi-wavelength observations.

  20. Discovery of Small-Scale Spiral Structures in the Disk of SAO 206462 (HD 135344B): Implications for the Physical State of the Disk from Spiral Density Wave Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C. A.; Currie, T.

    2012-01-01

    We present high-resolution, H-band, imaging observations, collected with Subaru/HiCIAO, of the scattered light from the transitional disk around SAO 206462 (HD 135344B). Although previous sub-mm imagery suggested the existence of the dust-depleted cavity at r approximates 46 AU, our observations reveal the presence of scattered light components as close as 0".2 (approx 28 AU) from the star. Moreover, we have discovered two small-scale spiral structures lying within 0".5 (approx 70 AU). We present models for the spiral structures using the spiral density wave theory, and derive a disk aspect ratio of h approx 0.1, which is consistent with previous sub-mm observations. This model can potentially give estimates of the temperature and rotation profiles of the disk based on dynamical processes, independently from sub-mm observations. It also predicts the evolution of the spiral structures, which can be observable on timescales of 10-20 years, providing conclusive tests of the model. While we cannot uniquely identify the origin of these spirals, planets embedded in the disk may be capable of exciting the observed morphology. Assuming that this is the case, we can make predictions on the locations and, possibly, the masses of the unseen planets. Such planets may be detected by future multi-wavelengths observations.

  1. The Europa Ocean Discovery mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, B.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chyba, C.F. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Abshire, J.B. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center] [and others

    1997-06-01

    Since it was first proposed that tidal heating of Europa by Jupiter might lead to liquid water oceans below Europa`s ice cover, there has been speculation over the possible exobiological implications of such an ocean. Liquid water is the essential ingredient for life as it is known, and the existence of a second water ocean in the Solar System would be of paramount importance for seeking the origin and existence of life beyond Earth. The authors present here a Discovery-class mission concept (Europa Ocean Discovery) to determine the existence of a liquid water ocean on Europa and to characterize Europa`s surface structure. The technical goal of the Europa Ocean Discovery mission is to study Europa with an orbiting spacecraft. This goal is challenging but entirely feasible within the Discovery envelope. There are four key challenges: entering Europan orbit, generating power, surviving long enough in the radiation environment to return valuable science, and complete the mission within the Discovery program`s launch vehicle and budget constraints. The authors will present here a viable mission that meets these challenges.

  2. Meso and microscopic characterization of deformation bands in porous sandstones: an example on the Paleozoic, Pre- and Sin-rift sequences of the Araripe Basin, Northeast of Brazil; Caracterizacao meso e microscopica de bandas de deformacao em arenitos porosos: um exemplo nas tectonossequencias Paleozoica, Pre- e Sin-rifte da Bacia do Araripe, Nordeste do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Neto, Joao Marculino de; Silva, Fernando Cesar Alves da; Sa, Emanuel Ferraz Jardim de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Geodinamica e Geofisica], e-mails: jota_ex2@hotmail.com, fernando@geologia.ufrn.br, emanuel@ccet.ufrn.br

    2012-04-15

    Deformation bands are narrow tabular volumes developed in porous sandstones. Although these structures are a product of brittle deformation, they may have internally a continuous displacement gradient. When granular cataclasis is the dominant deformation mechanism, the initial properties of their host rocks (i.e., porosity and permeability) can change significantly. The deformation bands in sandstones from the pre- and syn-rift of the Araripe Basin were studied in meso and microscale in order to classify them and to understand the deformation mechanisms involved during their nucleation and development. Their geometric-spatial, kinematic, and rheological criteria allowed establishing relations between the origin of deformation bands and lithification of their host rocks. Additionally, some inferences on their influence to the fluid flow in the reservoir-scale were outlined. Moreover, the study of deformation bands contributed to the understanding of the tectonic evolution of the studied basin. Accordingly, the study of deformation bands can support research on local and regional aspects of the tectonosedimentary evolution of sedimentary basins. (author)

  3. Fe uptake from meso and D,L-racemic Fe(o,o-EDDHA) isomers by strategy I and II plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdán, Mar; Alcañiz, Sara; Juárez, Margarita; Jordá, Juana D; Bermúdez, Dolores

    2006-02-22

    One of the most efficient fertilizers to correct Fe deficiency in calcareous soils and waters with high bicarbonate content is based on ferric ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis(o-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid [Fe(o,o-EDDHA)]. Fe(o,o-EDDHA) forms two groups of geometric isomers known as meso and D,L-racemic. To determine the Fe uptake from meso and D,L-racemic Fe(o,o-EDDHA), four iron-efficient plants, two plants representative of strategy I (tomato and pepper) and two plants representative of strategy II (wheat and oats), were grown in hydroponic culture. Results indicated that strategy II plants took up iron from both Fe(o,o-EDDHA) isomers equally. However, strategy I plants took mainly the iron associated with the meso form (the lowest stability isomer).

  4. Analysis of glyoxal, methylglyoxal and dimethylglyoxal in beverages and edible products by mekc using meso-stilbenediamine as derivatizing reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, M.; Chaudhary, M.A.; Khuhawar, M.Y.; Arain, R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: The reactive alpha-diketones; glyoxal (Go), methylglyoxal (MGo) and dimethyglyoxal (DMGo) were determined from wines, beers, whisky, coffee, tea, soy sauce, juices and yoghurt by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) using meso-stilbenediamine (meso-SD) as derivatizing reagent. The separation was carried out from uncoated fused silica capillary with effective length 39 cm x 75 micro m internal diameter (id), applied voltage 20 kV and photodiode detection at 228 nm. SDS was used as micellar medium at pH 8, and sodium tetraborate (0.1M) as buffer. The amounts of Go, MGo, and DMGo in Pakistani wines and beers were found within 1.31-6.49 micro g /mL with RSD 1.2 -3.7 %. The amount of Go, MGo and DMGo in food products (Brewed Coffee, Instant Coffee, Instant Tea, Soy sauce, Orange juice , Apple juice and Yoghurt) found were within 0.043-3.42 micro g /mL or micro g /g with RSD 1.1-3.9 %. The analysis was repeatable and reproducible using MEKC. Samples of wine and apple juice were also analyzed by using standard addition method and recoveries were calculated within 96.3-98.5 % with RSD 1.8-2.6 %. (author)

  5. Meso-Cenozoic tectonic evolution and uranium potential evaluations of basins in Beishan-Gansu corridor region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Qingyin; Chen Zuyi; Liu Hongxu; Yu Jinshui

    2006-01-01

    Beishan-Gansu Corridor region is located at the intersection of the plates of Tarim, North China, Kazakhstan, Siberia and Qaidam. During the Meso-Cenozoic, the region experienced movements of Indo-sinian, Yanshanian, Sichuanian, North China, Himalayan and Neotectonic, and over 20 medium-small size superimposed continental basins were formed. On the basis of analyzing the tectonic stress field, sediment-filling and structure-deformation; the general trending of tectonic evolution in the Meso-Cenozoic is summarized as three-time compressional uplifting and two-time extensional down-faulting. The different evolution of basins under the above mentioned setting can be divided into six stages according to characteristics of filled sediment. The sand bodies developed in down-faulted basins are favorable for uranium ore-formation as they are formed under humid paleoclimates, and rich in reducing matter. Therefore, the Lower-Middle Jurassic is selected as the main target horizon for sandstone-hosted uranium deposit, and the Lower Cretaceous as the minor one. Although the tectonic reactivation of the target horizon after its deposition was generally strong, the slopes formed in some basins could be favorable for the infiltration of uranium-and oxygen-bearing groundwater into sand bodies and form uranium deposits. According to the favorable sand bodies and tectonic reactivation, the northern parts of Chaoshui and Bayingobi basins are regarded as potential regions which are worthy of further exploration. (authors)

  6. Does a meso-caval shunt have positive effects in a pig large-for-size liver transplantation model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannuri, Ana Cristina Aoun; de Albuquerque Rangel Moreira, Daniel; Belon, Alessandro; Coelho, Maria Cecília Mendonça; Gonçalves, Josiane Oliveira; Serafini, Suellen; Tannuri, Uenis

    2017-08-01

    In pediatric liver transplantations with LFS grafts, higher incidences of graft dysfunction probably occur due to IRI. It was postulated that increasing the blood supply to the graft by means of a meso-caval shunt could ameliorate the IRI. Eleven pigs underwent liver transplantation and were divided into two groups: LFS and LFS+SHUNT group. A series of flowmetric, metabolic, histologic, and molecular studies were performed. No significant metabolic differences were observed between the groups. One hour after reperfusion, portal flow was significantly lower in the recipients than in the donors, proving that the graft was maintained in low portal blood flow, although the shunt could promote a transient increase in the portal blood flow and a decrease in the arterial flow. Finally, it was verified that the shunt promoted a decrease in inflammation and steatosis scores and a decrease in the expression of the eNOS gene (responsible for the generation of nitric oxide in the vascular endothelium) and an increase in the expression of the proapoptotic gene BAX. The meso-caval shunt was responsible for some positive effects, although other deleterious flowmetric and molecular alterations also occurred. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Deep Learning in Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawehn, Erik; Hiss, Jan A; Schneider, Gisbert

    2016-01-01

    Artificial neural networks had their first heyday in molecular informatics and drug discovery approximately two decades ago. Currently, we are witnessing renewed interest in adapting advanced neural network architectures for pharmaceutical research by borrowing from the field of "deep learning". Compared with some of the other life sciences, their application in drug discovery is still limited. Here, we provide an overview of this emerging field of molecular informatics, present the basic concepts of prominent deep learning methods and offer motivation to explore these techniques for their usefulness in computer-assisted drug discovery and design. We specifically emphasize deep neural networks, restricted Boltzmann machine networks and convolutional networks. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Discovery of the Higgs boson

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    The recent observation of the Higgs boson has been hailed as the scientific discovery of the century and led to the 2013 Nobel Prize in physics. This book describes the detailed science behind the decades-long search for this elusive particle at the Large Electron Positron Collider at CERN and at the Tevatron at Fermilab and its subsequent discovery and characterization at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Written by physicists who played leading roles in this epic search and discovery, this book is an authoritative and pedagogical exposition of the portrait of the Higgs boson that has emerged from a large number of experimental measurements. As the first of its kind, this book should be of interest to graduate students and researchers in particle physics.

  9. Bioinformatics in translational drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooller, Sarah K; Benstead-Hume, Graeme; Chen, Xiangrong; Ali, Yusuf; Pearl, Frances M G

    2017-08-31

    Bioinformatics approaches are becoming ever more essential in translational drug discovery both in academia and within the pharmaceutical industry. Computational exploitation of the increasing volumes of data generated during all phases of drug discovery is enabling key challenges of the process to be addressed. Here, we highlight some of the areas in which bioinformatics resources and methods are being developed to support the drug discovery pipeline. These include the creation of large data warehouses, bioinformatics algorithms to analyse 'big data' that identify novel drug targets and/or biomarkers, programs to assess the tractability of targets, and prediction of repositioning opportunities that use licensed drugs to treat additional indications. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. A comprehensive review of the lipid cubic phase or in meso method for crystallizing membrane and soluble proteins and complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffrey, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive and up-to-date review of the lipid cubic phase or in meso method for crystallizing membrane and soluble proteins and complexes is reported. Recent applications of the method for in situ serial crystallography at X-ray free-electron lasers and synchrotrons are described. The lipid cubic phase or in meso method is a robust approach for crystallizing membrane proteins for structure determination. The uptake of the method is such that it is experiencing what can only be described as explosive growth. This timely, comprehensive and up-to-date review introduces the reader to the practice of in meso crystallogenesis, to the associated challenges and to their solutions. A model of how crystallization comes about mechanistically is presented for a more rational approach to crystallization. The possible involvement of the lamellar and inverted hexagonal phases in crystallogenesis and the application of the method to water-soluble, monotopic and lipid-anchored proteins are addressed. How to set up trials manually and automatically with a robot is introduced with reference to open-access online videos that provide a practical guide to all aspects of the method. These range from protein reconstitution to crystal harvesting from the hosting mesophase, which is noted for its viscosity and stickiness. The sponge phase, as an alternative medium in which to perform crystallization, is described. The compatibility of the method with additive lipids, detergents, precipitant-screen components and materials carried along with the protein such as denaturants and reducing agents is considered. The powerful host and additive lipid-screening strategies are described along with how samples that have low protein concentration and cell-free expressed protein can be used. Assaying the protein reconstituted in the bilayer of the cubic phase for function is an important element of quality control and is detailed. Host lipid design for crystallization at low temperatures and for

  11. A comprehensive review of the lipid cubic phase or in meso method for crystallizing membrane and soluble proteins and complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffrey, Martin, E-mail: martin.caffrey@tcd.ie [Trinity College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland)

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive and up-to-date review of the lipid cubic phase or in meso method for crystallizing membrane and soluble proteins and complexes is reported. Recent applications of the method for in situ serial crystallography at X-ray free-electron lasers and synchrotrons are described. The lipid cubic phase or in meso method is a robust approach for crystallizing membrane proteins for structure determination. The uptake of the method is such that it is experiencing what can only be described as explosive growth. This timely, comprehensive and up-to-date review introduces the reader to the practice of in meso crystallogenesis, to the associated challenges and to their solutions. A model of how crystallization comes about mechanistically is presented for a more rational approach to crystallization. The possible involvement of the lamellar and inverted hexagonal phases in crystallogenesis and the application of the method to water-soluble, monotopic and lipid-anchored proteins are addressed. How to set up trials manually and automatically with a robot is introduced with reference to open-access online videos that provide a practical guide to all aspects of the method. These range from protein reconstitution to crystal harvesting from the hosting mesophase, which is noted for its viscosity and stickiness. The sponge phase, as an alternative medium in which to perform crystallization, is described. The compatibility of the method with additive lipids, detergents, precipitant-screen components and materials carried along with the protein such as denaturants and reducing agents is considered. The powerful host and additive lipid-screening strategies are described along with how samples that have low protein concentration and cell-free expressed protein can be used. Assaying the protein reconstituted in the bilayer of the cubic phase for function is an important element of quality control and is detailed. Host lipid design for crystallization at low temperatures and for

  12. Evaluation of convergence behavior of metamodeling techniques for bridging scales in multi-scale multimaterial simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Oishik; Davis, Sean; Jacobs, Gustaaf; Udaykumar, H.S.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of several metamodeling techniques, viz. the Polynomial Stochastic Collocation method, Adaptive Stochastic Collocation method, a Radial Basis Function Neural Network, a Kriging Method and a Dynamic Kriging Method is evaluated. This is done with the express purpose of using metamodels to bridge scales between micro- and macro-scale models in a multi-scale multimaterial simulation. The rate of convergence of the error when used to reconstruct hypersurfaces of known functions is studied. For sufficiently large number of training points, Stochastic Collocation methods generally converge faster than the other metamodeling techniques, while the DKG method converges faster when the number of input points is less than 100 in a two-dimensional parameter space. Because the input points correspond to computationally expensive micro/meso-scale computations, the DKG is favored for bridging scales in a multi-scale solver

  13. Deletion of meso-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase gene budC for enhanced D-2,3-butanediol production in Bacillus licheniformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background D-2,3-butanediol has many industrial applications such as chiral reagents, solvents, anti-freeze agents, and low freezing point fuels. Traditional D-2,3-butanediol producing microorganisms, such as Klebsiella pneumonia and K. xoytoca, are pathogenic and not capable of producing D-2,3-butanediol at high optical purity. Bacillus licheniformis is a potential 2,3-butanediol producer but the wild type strain (WX-02) produces a mix of D- and meso-type isomers. BudC in B. licheniformis is annotated as 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase or acetoin reductase, but no pervious experiment was performed to verify this hypothesis. Results We developed a genetically modified strain of B. licheniformis (WX-02 ΔbudC) as a D-2,3-butanediol producer with high optimal purity. A marker-less gene deletion protocol based on a temperature sensitive knock-out plasmid T2-Ori was used to knock out the budC gene in B. licheniformis WX-02. The budC knock-out strain successfully abolished meso-2,3-butanediol production with enhanced D-2,3-butanediol production. No meso-BDH activity was detectable in cells of this strain. On the other hand, the complementary strain restored the characteristics of wild strain, and produced meso-2,3-butanediol and possessed meso-BDH activity. All of these data suggested that budC encoded the major meso-BDH catalyzing the reversible reaction from acetoin to meso-2,3-butanediol in B. licheniformis. The budC knock-out strain produced D-2,3-butanediol isomer only with a high yield of 30.76 g/L and a productivity of 1.28 g/L-h. Conclusions We confirmed the hypothesis that budC gene is responsible to reversibly transfer acetoin to meso-2,3-butanediol in B. licheniformis. A mutant strain of B. licheniformis with depleted budC gene was successfully developed and produced high level of the D-2,3-butanediol with high optimal purity. PMID:24475980

  14. The effect of NaOH and KOH on the characterization of meso porous AlOOH nano structures in the hydrothermal route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghnazari, N.; Abdollahifar, M.; Jahani, F.

    2014-01-01

    Meso porous AlOOH was synthesized by hydrothermal treatment from aluminium nitrate and NaOH or KOH. The effect of NaOH and KOH as precipitating agents on the characterization of samples were investigated. XRD, Ftir, FESEM and N 2 adsorption-desorption analytical techniques were used to characterize the products. Our results showed that using KOH as precipitating agent was favour-able for the formation of meso porous and crystalline AlOOH with high Bet-specific surface area of 98 m 2 /g. (Author)

  15. The effect of NaOH and KOH on the characterization of meso porous AlOOH nano structures in the hydrothermal route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghnazari, N.; Abdollahifar, M.; Jahani, F., E-mail: abdollahifar@gmail.com [Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah Branch, Department of Chemical Engineering, 67131 Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-10-01

    Meso porous AlOOH was synthesized by hydrothermal treatment from aluminium nitrate and NaOH or KOH. The effect of NaOH and KOH as precipitating agents on the characterization of samples were investigated. XRD, Ftir, FESEM and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption analytical techniques were used to characterize the products. Our results showed that using KOH as precipitating agent was favour-able for the formation of meso porous and crystalline AlOOH with high Bet-specific surface area of 98 m{sup 2}/g. (Author)

  16. meso-Octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole as an effective macrocyclic receptor for the univalent thallium cation in the gas phase: Experimental and theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polášek, Miroslav; Makrlík, Emanuel; Kvíčala, Jaroslav; Křížová, Věra; Vaňura, Petr

    2018-02-01

    By using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), it was proven experimentally that the univalent thallium cation (Tl+) forms with meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole (1) the cationic complex species 1 Tl+. When this kinetically stable cation-π complex 1 Tl+ is collisionally activated, it decomposes by elimination of the whole ligand 1 or small meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole fragments. Further, applying quantum chemical DFT calculations, four different conformations of the resulting complex 1 Tl+ were derived. It means that under the present experimental conditions, this ligand 1 can be considered as a very effective macrocyclic receptor for the thallium cation.

  17. A Cognitive Adopted Framework for IoT Big-Data Management and Knowledge Discovery Prospective

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Nilamadhab; Lin, Chung-Chih; Chang, Hsien-Tsung

    2015-01-01

    In future IoT big-data management and knowledge discovery for large scale industrial automation application, the importance of industrial internet is increasing day by day. Several diversified technologies such as IoT (Internet of Things), computational intelligence, machine type communication, big-data, and sensor technology can be incorporated together to improve the data management and knowledge discovery efficiency of large scale automation applications. So in this work, we need to propos...

  18. Caracterización de la meso y macrofauna edáfica en sistemas de cultivo del Sudeste Bonaerense Characterization of the meso and macrofauna of a Southeastern Buenos Aires province soil under different cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio H Gizzi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: i. determinar la composición taxonómica y la abundancia relativa de la meso y macrofauna y de sus grupos tróficos en suelos del sudeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires, ii. evaluar la densidad de los organismos que integran dichas comunidades y iii. estudiar el efecto de los sistemas de cultivo (combinación entre sistema de labranza y rotación y la fertilización sobre la meso y macrofauna. Se utilizaron cuatro sistemas de cultivo: LC50 [(50% pastura - 50% agricultura bajo labranza convencional (LC], SD50 [(50% pastura - 50% agricultura bajo siembra directa (SD], LC75 (25% pastura - 75% agricultura bajo LC, SD75 (25% pastura - 75% agricultura bajo SD y cuatro dosis de fertilización nitrogenada (0, 60, 120 y 180 kg de N ha-1. En el año 2000, en LC50 y en SD50 se sembró una pastura (P, la que en 2001 tenía un año de implantada. En el 2000, en LC75 y en SD75 se sembró maíz y en el 2001, soja. Dentro de la mesofauna, la mayoría de los individuos fueron enquitreidos, que en el primer año no presentaron diferencias entre LC y SD, mientras que en el segundo, los mayores porcentajes se observaron en P cuando ésta tenía más de un año de implantada. En la macrofauna predominaron oligoquetos megadrilos, isópodos y miriápodos y en P en ambos años los isópodos y miriápodos fueron dominantes. En el primer año, las densidades de la meso y macrofauna no mostraron diferencias significativas (p>0,003 entre sistemas de cultivo, sin embargo, fueron mayores en los cultivos bajo SD. En el segundo año, las densidades fueron significativamente mayores (p0,003 entre los sistemas de cultivo y las dosis de fertilización. A pesar de no haberse observado diferencias significativas (p>0,003 entre los sistemas en el primer año, los cuatro grupos fueron más abundantes en P y SD que en LC. En el segundo año, los detritívoros, los predadores y los omnívoros fueron significativamente más abundantes en P que en

  19. Magmatism and Tectonics in the Meso-Archean Pongola Supergroup, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Allan

    2013-04-01

    The Pongola Supergroup is one of the most extensive and well preserved volcano-sedimentary successions emplaced in a continental setting in the Meso-Archean (c. 2.95 Ga). It contrasts with both the older (Barberton type c.3.5 Ga) and younger (Belingwe type c.2.7 Ga) greenstone belts in southern Africa in that the sequence has not undergone the strong horizontal compressional tectonics typically related to greenstone belt-TTG environments. However, it is appropriate to compare this sequence with rocks of the Barberton greenstone belt by which the final phase of deposition preceded that of the juxtaposed Pongola basin with a relatively small time interval. The Pongola succession, which commenced with the first major magmatic event after the Barberton greenstone belt, overlies granitoids and remnants of greenstone belts in SE South Africa and in SW Swaziland. Formation was not in a continental rift environment but most likely in a marginal epicontinental basin with syn-depositional subsidence in a half-graben fault system in the type area. The Pongola rocks occur in two domains related to a NW-trending central basement high in the Kaapvaal Craton and achieving a maximum thickness of 8 km in the northern areas. The lower section (Nsuze group 3.7 km thick) is made up mainly of lavas and pyroclastic rocks and the upper section (Mozaan Group 4.3 km thick) is aranaceous sediments and argillites with a thick volcanic unit observed in the south-eastern facies. Chemical affinities of the lavas include tholeiite and calc-alkaline over the compositional range of basalt to rhyolite. There is a preponderance of andesites in the compositional array. The preservation of these rocks gives insight into the range of volcanic processes that took place at this stage of Earth history and in some areas it is possible to identify eruptions from a single source over several kilometres, as well as feeder-dyke systems to the lava flows. Simultaneous eruption of contrasting magmas from several

  20. Open-framework micro- and meso-structured chalcogenides and their ion exchange properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Nan

    2007-12-01

    Micro- and meso- structured chalcogenides with open inorganic framework have driven tremendous attention and intense work during the last two decades. They belong to a special category of materials possessing multifunctional potential due to their large void space within the atomic skeletons and the novel physical properties brought by the chalcogen elements. The latter are not generally present in typical open-framework oxides. In addition, because of the different size and electronegativity of the chalcogen elements compared to oxygen, many new structural properties were expected to emerge when the work in this dissertation was undertaken. The major body of this work involves group 13 (e.g. Ga, In) or 14 (e.g. Ge, Sn) elements with chalcogen. Transition metals also are incorporated in a few examples. The first two groups of compounds reported belong to the latter case. Unique structure types have been obtained under hydrothermal conditions via the combination of M (M = Zn, Cd), Sn and Q (Q = S, Se) to build microporous A6M4Sn3Q13 (A = K, Rb) based on truncated penta-supertrahedral cluster [M4Sn4Q 17]10-. More surprisingly, the protonation of K 6Cd4Sn3Se13 led to another new compound K14Cd15Sn12Se46 which possesses a labyrinth-like void space within the compact [Cd15Sn12Se 46]14- anionic skeleton. This structural characteristic leads to an unusual stability of the compound in acid. Both the K6Cd 4Sn3Se13 and K14Cd15Sn 12Se46 are fast ion-exchangers and their K+ ions can be replaced by other alkali metal cations and even H+ for the latter. Other work reported was aimed at the heavier analogs of alumiophosphate, i.e. the open-frameworks based on group 13 (Ga, In), 15 (Sb) and chalcogen elements. Two groups of chalcoantimonates with two-dimensional architectures [M5Sb6S19]5- and polymorphic [M2Sb2Q7]2- (M = Ga, In; Q = S, Se) were obtained. With the help of bulky organic structure-directing agents, large windows were formed in some of these anionic slabs. The windows

  1. Mass spectrometry for protein quantification in biomarker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mu; You, Jinsam

    2012-01-01

    Major technological advances have made proteomics an extremely active field for biomarker discovery in recent years due primarily to the development of newer mass spectrometric technologies and the explosion in genomic and protein bioinformatics. This leads to an increased emphasis on larger scale, faster, and more efficient methods for detecting protein biomarkers in human tissues, cells, and biofluids. Most current proteomic methodologies for biomarker discovery, however, are not highly automated and are generally labor-intensive and expensive. More automation and improved software programs capable of handling a large amount of data are essential to reduce the cost of discovery and to increase throughput. In this chapter, we discuss and describe mass spectrometry-based proteomic methods for quantitative protein analysis.

  2. The Record Los Angeles Heat Event of September 2010: 1. Synoptic-Scale-Meso-β-Scale Analyses of Interactive Planetary Wave Breaking, Terrain- and Coastal-Induced Circulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Michael L.; Tilley, Jeffrey S.; Hatchett, Benjamin J.; Smith, Craig M.; Walston, Joshua M.; Shourd, Kacie N.; Lewis, John M.

    2017-10-01

    On 27 September 2010 the Los Angeles Civic Center reached its all-time record maximum temperature of 45°C before 1330 local daylight time with several other regional stations observing all-time record breaking heat early in that afternoon. This record event is associated with a general circulation pattern predisposed to hemispheric wave breaking. Three days before the event, wave breaking organizes complex terrain- and coastal-induced processes that lead to isentropic surface folding into the Los Angeles Basin. The first wave break occurs over the western two thirds of North America leading to trough elongation across the southwestern U.S. Collocated with this trough is an isentropic potential vorticity filament that is the locus of a thermally indirect circulation central to warming and associated thickness increases and ridging westward across the Great Basin. In response to this circulation, two subsynoptic wave breaks are triggered along the Pacific coast. The isentropic potential vorticity filament is coupled to the breaking waves and the interaction produces a subsynoptic low-pressure center and a deep vortex aloft over the southeastern California desert. This coupling leads to advection of an elevated mixed layer over Point Conception the night before the record-breaking heat that creates a coastally trapped low-pressure area southwest of Los Angeles. The two low-pressure centers create a low-level pressure gradient and east-southeasterly jet directed offshore over the Los Angeles Basin by sunrise on 27 September. This allows the advection of low-level warm air from the inland terrain toward the coastally trapped disturbance and descending circulation resulting in record heating.

  3. Solid-state electrochemistry on the nanometer and atomic scales: the scanning probe microscopy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelcov, Evgheni; Yang, Sang Mo; Jesse, Stephen; Balke, Nina; Vasudevan, Rama K.; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2016-01-01

    Energy technologies of the 21st century require understanding and precise control over ion transport and electrochemistry at all length scales – from single atoms to macroscopic devices. This short review provides a summary of recent works dedicated to methods of advanced scanning probe microscopy for probing electrochemical transformations in solids at the meso-, nano- and atomic scales. Discussion presents advantages and limitations of several techniques and a wealth of examples highlighting peculiarities of nanoscale electrochemistry. PMID:27146961

  4. Quarks, history of a discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husson, D.

    2000-01-01

    This book gives a presentation of quarks and stresses on the historical aspects of the studies that led to their discovery. The 'aesthetical' motivations of the scientists in their research are explained with only a minimum of mathematical concepts. (J.S.)

  5. On the threshold of discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherenkov, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The author, the discoverer of the Cherenkov radiation, recalls some interesting circumstances of his discoery 50 years ago and puts it into the context of the knowledge of the period. The discovery of Cherenkov radiation which today is in practice used especially for the detection of charged particles, was correctly understood and appreciated somewhat belatedly. At first the discovery was met with distrust and the original article announcing it was rejected by the magazine Nature. In effect, the discovery was not the result of any planned experiment but was the by-product of another research. It was, of course, allowed by previous achievements in various fields of physics, namely progress reached in the study of luminescence by S.I. Vavilov and his pupils. The discovery was made during an experimental study of luminescence induced in liquids by the β and γ radiations of uranyl salts. During his attempts to suppress the background radiation from vessel walls the autor found a ''background'' from pure solvent which differed from luminescence by being independent of the concentration, temperature and viscosity of the liquid. A closer examination of the phenomenon more or less by accident revealed its marked spatial asymmetry which had major importance for the development of the theory of the new phenomenon by I.V. Tamm and I.M. Frank. (A.K.)

  6. DISCOVERY IN THE URBAN SPRAWL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HYMOVITZ, LEON

    FOR A CULTURAL ENRICHMENT PROJECT ("DISCOVERY") IN A DISADVANTAGED PHILADELPIA HIGH SCHOOL, ATTENDANCE AT MUSIC, ART, AND THEATER EVENTS EARNED POINTS TOWARD A CERTIFICATE. THE STUDENTS ELECTED THE EVENTS FROM A PREPARED LIST OF ACTIVITIES, WHICH OFTEN WERE MADE PART OF THE ACADEMIC PROGRAM AND THE SCHOOL ASSEMBLIES. AS WELL AS OFFERING…

  7. Hubble 15 years of discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Kornmesser, M

    2006-01-01

    Hubble: 15 Years of Discovery was a key element of the European Space Agency's 15th anniversary celebration activities for the 1990 launch of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. As an observatory in space, Hubble is one of the most successful scientific projects of all time, both in terms of scientific output and its immediate public appeal.

  8. Applied metabolomics in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuperlovic-Culf, M; Culf, A S

    2016-08-01

    The metabolic profile is a direct signature of phenotype and biochemical activity following any perturbation. Metabolites are small molecules present in a biological system including natural products as well as drugs and their metabolism by-products depending on the biological system studied. Metabolomics can provide activity information about possible novel drugs and drug scaffolds, indicate interesting targets for drug development and suggest binding partners of compounds. Furthermore, metabolomics can be used for the discovery of novel natural products and in drug development. Metabolomics can enhance the discovery and testing of new drugs and provide insight into the on- and off-target effects of drugs. This review focuses primarily on the application of metabolomics in the discovery of active drugs from natural products and the analysis of chemical libraries and the computational analysis of metabolic networks. Metabolomics methodology, both experimental and analytical is fast developing. At the same time, databases of compounds are ever growing with the inclusion of more molecular and spectral information. An increasing number of systems are being represented by very detailed metabolic network models. Combining these experimental and computational tools with high throughput drug testing and drug discovery techniques can provide new promising compounds and leads.

  9. Nobel Prize Honors Autophagy Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Japanese cell biologist Yoshinori Ohsumi, PhD, was awarded this year's Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of autophagy. His groundbreaking studies in yeast cells illuminated how cells break down and recycle damaged material, a process that is critical to the survival of both normal cells and some cancer cells. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Translational medicine and drug discovery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Littman, Bruce H; Krishna, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    ..., and examples of their application to real-life drug discovery and development. The latest thinking is presented by researchers from many of the world's leading pharmaceutical companies, including Pfizer, Merck, Eli Lilly, Abbott, and Novartis, as well as from academic institutions and public- private partnerships that support translational research...

  11. New oil and gas discoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alazard-Toux, N.

    2004-01-01

    During the period 1999-2003, new oil and gas fields generated additional reserves of nearly 11 000 bcm of natural gas and 62 Gbbl of oil and condensates, volumes very much superior to those discovered in the five previous years. Two-thirds of these discoveries were located offshore, half in deep water. (author)

  12. Maximum Entropy in Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yuan Tseng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drug discovery applies multidisciplinary approaches either experimentally, computationally or both ways to identify lead compounds to treat various diseases. While conventional approaches have yielded many US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs, researchers continue investigating and designing better approaches to increase the success rate in the discovery process. In this article, we provide an overview of the current strategies and point out where and how the method of maximum entropy has been introduced in this area. The maximum entropy principle has its root in thermodynamics, yet since Jaynes’ pioneering work in the 1950s, the maximum entropy principle has not only been used as a physics law, but also as a reasoning tool that allows us to process information in hand with the least bias. Its applicability in various disciplines has been abundantly demonstrated. We give several examples of applications of maximum entropy in different stages of drug discovery. Finally, we discuss a promising new direction in drug discovery that is likely to hinge on the ways of utilizing maximum entropy.

  13. Structural Biology Guides Antibiotic Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Modern drug discovery programs require the contribution of researchers in a number of specialist areas. One of these areas is structural biology. Using X-ray crystallography, the molecular basis of how a drug binds to its biological target and exerts its mode of action can be defined. For example, a drug that binds into the active site of an…

  14. Finding malaria hot-spots in northern Angola: the role of individual, household and environmental factors within a meso-endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Ricardo J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying and targeting hyper-endemic communities within meso-endemic areas constitutes an important challenge in malaria control in endemic countries such like Angola. Recent national and global predictive maps of malaria allow the identification and quantification of the population at risk of malaria infection in Angola, but their small-scale accuracy is surrounded by large uncertainties. To observe the need to develop higher resolution malaria endemicity maps a predictive risk map of malaria infection for the municipality of Dande (a malaria endemic area in Northern Angola was developed and compared to existing national and global maps, the role of individual, household and environmental risk factors for malaria endemicity was quantified and the spatial variation in the number of children at-risk of malaria was estimated. Methods Bayesian geostatistical models were developed to predict small-scale spatial variation using data collected during a parasitological survey conducted from May to August 2010. Maps of the posterior distributions of predicted prevalence were constructed in a geographical information system. Results Malaria infection was significantly associated with maternal malaria awareness, households with canvas roofing, distance to health care centre and distance to rivers. The predictive map showed remarkable spatial heterogeneity in malaria risk across the Dande municipality in contrast to previous national and global spatial risk models; large high-risk areas of malaria infection (prevalence >50% were found in the northern and most eastern areas of the municipality, in line with the observed prevalence. Conclusions There is remarkable spatial heterogeneity of malaria burden which previous national and global spatial modelling studies failed to identify suggesting that the identification of malaria hot-spots within seemingly mesoendemic areas may require the generation of high resolution malaria maps

  15. Finding malaria hot-spots in northern Angola: the role of individual, household and environmental factors within a meso-endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Ricardo J Soares; Langa, Antonio; Sousa-Figueiredo, José Carlos; Clements, Archie C A; Nery, Susana Vaz

    2012-11-22

    Identifying and targeting hyper-endemic communities within meso-endemic areas constitutes an important challenge in malaria control in endemic countries such like Angola. Recent national and global predictive maps of malaria allow the identification and quantification of the population at risk of malaria infection in Angola, but their small-scale accuracy is surrounded by large uncertainties. To observe the need to develop higher resolution malaria endemicity maps a predictive risk map of malaria infection for the municipality of Dande (a malaria endemic area in Northern Angola) was developed and compared to existing national and global maps, the role of individual, household and environmental risk factors for malaria endemicity was quantified and the spatial variation in the number of children at-risk of malaria was estimated. Bayesian geostatistical models were developed to predict small-scale spatial variation using data collected during a parasitological survey conducted from May to August 2010. Maps of the posterior distributions of predicted prevalence were constructed in a geographical information system. Malaria infection was significantly associated with maternal malaria awareness, households with canvas roofing, distance to health care centre and distance to rivers. The predictive map showed remarkable spatial heterogeneity in malaria risk across the Dande municipality in contrast to previous national and global spatial risk models; large high-risk areas of malaria infection (prevalence >50%) were found in the northern and most eastern areas of the municipality, in line with the observed prevalence. There is remarkable spatial heterogeneity of malaria burden which previous national and global spatial modelling studies failed to identify suggesting that the identification of malaria hot-spots within seemingly mesoendemic areas may require the generation of high resolution malaria maps. Individual, household and hydrological factors play an important role

  16. Soil loss risk and habitat quality in streams of a meso-scale river basin Risco de perda de solo e qualidade do habitat numa bacia hidrográfica de meso-escala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Marco da Silva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil loss expectation and possible relationships among soil erosion, riparian vegetation and water quality were studied in the São José dos Dourados River basin, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Through Geographic Information System (GIS resources and technology, Soil Loss Expectation (SLE data obtained using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE model were analyzed. For the whole catchment area and for the 30 m buffer strips of the streams of 22 randomly selected catchments, the predominant land use and habitat quality were studied. Owing mainly to the high soil erodibility, the river basin is highly susceptible to erosive processes. Habitat quality analyses revealed that the superficial water from the catchments is not chemically impacted but suffers physical damage. A high chemical purity is observed since there are no urban areas along the catchments. The water is physically poor because of high rates of sediment delivery and the almost nonexistence of riparian vegetation.Expectativa de perda de solo e possíveis relações entre erosão, vegetação ripária e qualidade da água foram estudados na bacia do rio São José dos Dourados (SP. Através de recursos de geoprocessamento e da Equação Universal de Perda de Solos, os dados sobre expectativa de perda de solo foram levantados. Para a área de drenagem total e a faixa tampão dos corpos d'água de 22 sub-bacias aleatoriamente selecionadas, analisou-se a cobertura do solo predominante e qualidade do habitat. Devido principalmente à alta erodibilidade do solo, a área estudada é altamente suscetível ao processo erosivo. As análises de qualidade da água revelaram que as águas superficiais das sub-bacias estão quimicamente não impactadas, mas fisicamente degradadas. A alta pureza química deve-se, possivelmente, à ausência de áreas urbanizadas ao longo das sub-bacias e as alterações nas características físicas são, possivelmente, decorrentes das altas taxas de transferência de sedimento aos corpos d'água e à quase ausência de mata ciliar.

  17. Experimental photodynamic therapy with MESO-tetrakisphenylporphyrin (TPP) in liposomes leads to disintegration of human amelanotic melanoma implanted to nude mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Petr; Nekvasil, Miloš; Škobisová, Eva; Urbánková, Eva; Jirsa, M.; Zadinová, M.; Poučková, P.; Klepáček, I.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 5 (2003), s. 693-702 ISSN 0020-7136 R&D Projects: GA MZd NC4810; GA MZd NC6564 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : photodynamic therapy of tumors * meso-tetrakis-phenylporphyrin * liposomal drug delivery Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 4.375, year: 2003

  18. An efficient solvent-free synthesis of meso-substituted dipyrromethanes using SnCl2•2H2O catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabeer Ahmed Shaikh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Highly rapid and simple methodology has been developed for the quantitative synthesis of meso-substituted dipyrromethanes from lowest pyrrole/aldehyde ratio. The method was carried out by using SnCl2•2H2O as a catalyst under solvent free condition. The method is environmentally friendly, easy to workup, and gives excellent yield of the products.

  19. Sonochemical synthesis and photocatalytic activity of meso- and macro-porous TiO2 for oxidation of toluene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Liu; Yan Li; Wang Yuntao; Xie Lei; Zheng Jie; Li Xingguo

    2008-01-01

    Meso-and macro-porous TiO 2 were synthesized by ultrasonic induced solvothermal method. Octadecylamine as a soft template was used to direct the formation of porous structure. The as-prepared porous TiO 2 was characterized by low angle and wide angle X-ray diffraction, N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherms and BET surface area. The energy influence of ultrasound and heat and concentration of nitric acid for post extraction on formation of porous structure were investigated. The photocatalytic activities of TiO 2 were investigated by degrading toluene gas under UV light. The results revealed that proper energy facilitates the formation of porous structure and too low concentration of nitric acid cannot extract template from pores. The photocatalytic activities of TiO 2 with porous structure are higher than those of nonporous ones

  20. pH-controlled self-assembling of meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin-chitosan complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Synytsya, A.; Synytsya, Andriy.; Blafková, P.; Ederová, J.; Spěváček, Jiří; Slepička, P.; Král, V.; Volka, K.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 5 (2009), s. 1067-1076 ISSN 1525-7797 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/05/0273 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN400480701; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN200100801; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN200200651; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/02/0420 Program:KA; KA; KA; LC; GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : self-assembling * meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin- chitosan complex * spectroscopy Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.502, year: 2009