Diffusive mesh relaxation in ALE finite element numerical simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dube, E.I.
1996-06-01
The theory for a diffusive mesh relaxation algorithm is developed for use in three-dimensional Arbitary Lagrange/Eulerian (ALE) finite element simulation techniques. This mesh relaxer is derived by a variational principle for an unstructured 3D grid using finite elements, and incorporates hourglass controls in the numerical implementation. The diffusive coefficients are based on the geometric properties of the existing mesh, and are chosen so as to allow for a smooth grid that retains the general shape of the original mesh. The diffusive mesh relaxation algorithm is then applied to an ALE code system, and results from several test cases are discussed.
Zeng, X.; Scovazzi, G.
2016-06-01
We present a monolithic arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) finite element method for computing highly transient flows with strong shocks. We use a variational multiscale (VMS) approach to stabilize a piecewise-linear Galerkin formulation of the equations of compressible flows, and an entropy artificial viscosity to capture strong solution discontinuities. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of VMS methods for highly transient shock flows, an area of research for which the VMS literature is extremely scarce. In addition, the proposed monolithic ALE method is an alternative to the more commonly used Lagrangian+remap methods, in which, at each time step, a Lagrangian computation is followed by mesh smoothing and remap (conservative solution interpolation). Lagrangian+remap methods are the methods of choice in shock hydrodynamics computations because they provide nearly optimal mesh resolution in proximity of shock fronts. However, Lagrangian+remap methods are not well suited for imposing inflow and outflow boundary conditions. These issues offer an additional motivation for the proposed approach, in which we first perform the mesh motion, and then the flow computations using the monolithic ALE framework. The proposed method is second-order accurate and stable, as demonstrated by extensive numerical examples in two and three space dimensions.
Extension of ALE methodology to unstructured conical meshes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hoch Philippe
2011-11-01
Full Text Available We propose a bi-dimensional finite volume extension of a continuous ALE method on unstructured cells whose edges are parameterized by rational quadratic Bezier curves. For each edge, the control point possess a weight that permits to represent any conic (see for example [LIGACH] and thanks to [WAGUSEDE,WAGU], we are able to compute the exact area of our cells. We then give an extension of scheme for remapping step based on volume fluxing [MARSHA] and self-intersection flux [ALE2DHAL]. For the rezoning phase, we propose a three step process based on moving nodes, followed by control point and weight re-adjustment. Finally, for the hydrodynamic step, we present the GLACE scheme [GLACE] extension (at first-order on conic cell using the same formalism. We only propose some preliminary first-order simulations for each steps: Remap, Pure Lagrangian and finally ALE (rezoning and remapping. Nous proposons une extension volumes finis bi-dimensionnelle d’une méthode ALE continue sur des cellules non structurées dont les bords sont paramétrés par des courbes de Bézier quadratiques rationnelles. Pour chaque arête, le point de contrôle possède un poids qui permet de représenter n’importe quelle conique [LIGACH] et grâce à [WAGUSEDE,WAGU], nous pouvons calculer l’aire exacte de nos cellules. Pour la phase de remapping, on donne l’extension de deux schéma, l’un basé sur le calcul de flux de volumes [MARSHA] et l’autre par flux avec auto-intersection [ALE2DHAL]. Pour la phase de lissage de maillage, nous proposons un processus en trois étapes basées sur le déplacement des noeuds, suivi de celui des points de contrôle puis finalement du rajustement du poids. Enfin, pour la phase hydrodynamique, on présente l’extension du schéma GLACE [GLACE] (à l’ordre un sur les cellules coniques en utilisant le même formalisme. Nous montrons seulement des simulations préliminairesl’ordre 1 sur chaque tape : Remap, Lagrange pur et ALE
Hydrodynamic simulations on a moving Voronoi mesh
Springel, Volker
2011-01-01
At the heart of any method for computational fluid dynamics lies the question of how the simulated fluid should be discretized. Traditionally, a fixed Eulerian mesh is often employed for this purpose, which in modern schemes may also be adaptively refined during a calculation. Particle-based methods on the other hand discretize the mass instead of the volume, yielding an approximately Lagrangian approach. It is also possible to achieve Lagrangian behavior in mesh-based methods if the mesh is allowed to move with the flow. However, such approaches have often been fraught with substantial problems related to the development of irregularity in the mesh topology. Here we describe a novel scheme that eliminates these weaknesses. It is based on a moving unstructured mesh defined by the Voronoi tessellation of a set of discrete points. The mesh is used to solve the hyperbolic conservation laws of ideal hydrodynamics with a finite volume approach, based on a second-order Godunov scheme with an exact Riemann solver. A...
A Polar Discrete Ordinate Radiation Transport Method for 2D ALE Meshes in HYDRA
Chang, Britton; Marinak, Marty; Weber, Chris; Peterson, Luc
2016-10-01
The Polar Discrete Ordinate Radiation Transport Method in HYDRA has been extended to handle general 2D r-z meshes. Previously the method was only for orthogonal 2D meshes. The new method can be employed with the ALE methodology for managing mesh motion that is used to simulate Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities on NIF capsule implosions. The results of an examination of this kind will be compared to those obtained by the corresponding diffusion method. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Particle Mesh Hydrodynamics for Astrophysics Simulations
Chatelain, Philippe; Cottet, Georges-Henri; Koumoutsakos, Petros
We present a particle method for the simulation of three dimensional compressible hydrodynamics based on a hybrid Particle-Mesh discretization of the governing equations. The method is rooted on the regularization of particle locations as in remeshed Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (rSPH). The rSPH method was recently introduced to remedy problems associated with the distortion of computational elements in SPH, by periodically re-initializing the particle positions and by using high order interpolation kernels. In the PMH formulation, the particles solely handle the convective part of the compressible Euler equations. The particle quantities are then interpolated onto a mesh, where the pressure terms are computed. PMH, like SPH, is free of the convection CFL condition while at the same time it is more efficient as derivatives are computed on a mesh rather than particle-particle interactions. PMH does not detract from the adaptive character of SPH and allows for control of its accuracy. We present simulations of a benchmark astrophysics problem demonstrating the capabilities of this approach.
Magneto Hydrodynamic Simulations of a Magnetic Flux Compression Generator Using ALE3D
2017-07-13
ARL-TR-8055 ● JULY 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Magneto-Hydrodynamic Simulations of a Magnetic Flux Compression Generator...Simulations of a Magnetic Flux Compression Generator Using ALE3D by George B Vunni Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL... a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1
A multi-dimensional finite volume cell-centered direct ALE solver for hydrodynamics
Clair, G.; Ghidaglia, J.-M.; Perlat, J.-P.
2016-12-01
In this paper we describe a second order multi-dimensional scheme, belonging to the class of direct Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) methods, for the solution of non-linear hyperbolic systems of conservation law. The scheme is constructed upon a cell-centered explicit Lagrangian solver completed with an edge-based upwinded formulation of the numerical fluxes, computed from the MUSCL-Hancock method, to obtain a full ALE formulation. Numerical fluxes depend on nodal grid velocities which are either set or computed to avoid most of the mesh problems typically encountered in purely Lagrangian simulations. In order to assess the robustness of the scheme, most results proposed in this paper have been obtained by computing the grid velocities as a fraction of the Lagrangian nodal velocities, the ratio being set before running the test case. The last part of the paper describes preliminary results about the triple point test case run in the ALE framework by computing the grid velocities with the fully adaptive Large Eddy Limitation (L.E.L.) method proposed in [1]. Such a method automatically computes the grid velocities at each node defining the mesh from the local characteristics of the flow. We eventually discuss the advantages and the drawback of the coupling.
Three Dimensional Hydrodynamic Model With Multiquadtree Meshes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. P. Vanegas
2008-01-01
Full Text Available This study presents a three dimensional model for the transport of conservative contaminants, which can be used for bodies of water which are affected by winds and/or tides. The model solves the equation of mass transport, based on results obtained using a hydrodynamic model for shallow waters that works in a finite volume scheme and a type of hierarchical grid, called multi-quadtree, which is adaptable to the bathymetry. To solve the vertical coordinates, the coordinate z is transformed into a sigma (σ coordinate, thus allowing the same number of layers in the vertical, regardless of depth. This hydrodynamic model is validated using two cases: a long wave propagated in a channel of variable width and bottom and wind action in a rectangular basin. Finally, the results obtained are presented for a hypothetical single port outfall in the bay of Campeche, México. The model developed here is both quick and easy to use and is efficient when compared with models presented by other authors since it uses adaptable grids which allow detailed solutions to be obtained for areas of interest such as coastlines and the area around an outfall.
Hydrodynamical Adaptive Mesh Refinement Simulations of Disk Galaxies
Gibson, Brad K; Sanchez-Blazquez, Patricia; Teyssier, Romain; House, Elisa L; Brook, Chris B; Kawata, Daisuke
2008-01-01
To date, fully cosmological hydrodynamic disk simulations to redshift zero have only been undertaken with particle-based codes, such as GADGET, Gasoline, or GCD+. In light of the (supposed) limitations of traditional implementations of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), or at the very least, their respective idiosyncrasies, it is important to explore complementary approaches to the SPH paradigm to galaxy formation. We present the first high-resolution cosmological disk simulations to redshift zero using an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR)-based hydrodynamical code, in this case, RAMSES. We analyse the temporal and spatial evolution of the simulated stellar disks' vertical heating, velocity ellipsoids, stellar populations, vertical and radial abundance gradients (gas and stars), assembly/infall histories, warps/lopsideness, disk edges/truncations (gas and stars), ISM physics implementations, and compare and contrast these properties with our sample of cosmological SPH disks, generated with GCD+. These prelim...
Hydrodynamic parameters of mesh fillers relevant to miniature regenerative cryocoolers
Landrum, E. C.; Conrad, T. J.; Ghiaasiaan, S. M.; Kirkconnell, Carl S.
2010-06-01
Directional hydrodynamic parameters of two fine-mesh porous materials that are suitable for miniature regenerative cryocoolers were studied under steady and oscillating flows of helium. These materials included stacked discs of #635 stainless steel (wire diameter of 20.3 μm) and #325 phosphor bronze (wire diameter of 35.6 μm) wire mesh screens, which are among the commercially available fillers for use in small-scale regenerators and heat exchangers, respectively. Experiments were performed in test sections in which pressure variations across these fillers, in the axial and lateral (radial) directions, were measured under steady and oscillatory flows. The directional permeability and Forchheimer's inertial coefficient were then obtained by using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)-assisted method. The oscillatory flow experiments covered a frequency range of 50-200 Hz. The results confirmed the importance of anisotropy in the mesh screen fillers, and indicated differences between the directional hydrodynamic resistance parameters for steady and oscillating flow regimes.
Moving mesh cosmology: the hydrodynamics of galaxy formation
Sijacki, Debora; Keres, Dusan; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars
2011-01-01
We present a detailed comparison between the well-known SPH code GADGET and the new moving-mesh code AREPO on a number of hydrodynamical test problems. Through a variety of numerical experiments we establish a clear link between test problems and systematic numerical effects seen in cosmological simulations of galaxy formation. Our tests demonstrate deficiencies of the SPH method in several sectors. These accuracy problems not only manifest themselves in idealized hydrodynamical tests, but also propagate to more realistic simulation setups of galaxy formation, ultimately affecting gas properties in the full cosmological framework, as highlighted in papers by Vogelsberger et al. (2011) and Keres et al. (2011). We find that an inadequate treatment of fluid instabilities in GADGET suppresses entropy generation by mixing, underestimates vorticity generation in curved shocks and prevents efficient gas stripping from infalling substructures. In idealized tests of inside-out disk formation, the convergence rate of g...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Najjar, F M; Solberg, J; White, D
2008-04-17
A verification test suite has been assessed with primary focus on low reynolds number flow of liquid metals. This is representative of the interface between the armature and rail in gun applications. The computational multiphysics framework, ALE3D, is used. The main objective of the current study is to provide guidance and gain confidence in the results obtained with ALE3D. A verification test suite based on 2-D cases is proposed and includes the lid-driven cavity and the Couette flow are investigated. The hydro and thermal fields are assumed to be steady and laminar in nature. Results are compared with analytical solutions and previously published data. Mesh resolution studies are performed along with various models for the equation of state.
Spherical geodesic mesh generation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fung, Jimmy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kenamond, Mark Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Burton, Donald E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Shashkov, Mikhail Jurievich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-02-27
In ALE simulations with moving meshes, mesh topology has a direct influence on feature representation and code robustness. In three-dimensional simulations, modeling spherical volumes and features is particularly challenging for a hydrodynamics code. Calculations on traditional spherical meshes (such as spin meshes) often lead to errors and symmetry breaking. Although the underlying differencing scheme may be modified to rectify this, the differencing scheme may not be accessible. This work documents the use of spherical geodesic meshes to mitigate solution-mesh coupling. These meshes are generated notionally by connecting geodesic surface meshes to produce triangular-prismatic volume meshes. This mesh topology is fundamentally different from traditional mesh topologies and displays superior qualities such as topological symmetry. This work describes the geodesic mesh topology as well as motivating demonstrations with the FLAG hydrocode.
E pur si muove: Galiliean-invariant cosmological hydrodynamical simulations on a moving mesh
Springel, Volker
2009-01-01
Hydrodynamic cosmological simulations at present usually employ either the Lagrangian SPH technique, or Eulerian hydrodynamics on a Cartesian mesh with adaptive mesh refinement. Both of these methods have disadvantages that negatively impact their accuracy in certain situations. We here propose a novel scheme which largely eliminates these weaknesses. It is based on a moving unstructured mesh defined by the Voronoi tessellation of a set of discrete points. The mesh is used to solve the hyperbolic conservation laws of ideal hydrodynamics with a finite volume approach, based on a second-order unsplit Godunov scheme with an exact Riemann solver. The mesh-generating points can in principle be moved arbitrarily. If they are chosen to be stationary, the scheme is equivalent to an ordinary Eulerian method with second order accuracy. If they instead move with the velocity of the local flow, one obtains a Lagrangian formulation of hydrodynamics that does not suffer from the mesh distortion limitations inherent in othe...
RAM: a Relativistic Adaptive Mesh Refinement Hydrodynamics Code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Wei-Qun; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; MacFadyen, Andrew I.; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study
2005-06-06
The authors have developed a new computer code, RAM, to solve the conservative equations of special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) on parallel computers. They have implemented a characteristic-wise, finite difference, weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme using the full characteristic decomposition of the SRHD equations to achieve fifth-order accuracy in space. For time integration they use the method of lines with a third-order total variation diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme. They have also implemented fourth and fifth order Runge-Kutta time integration schemes for comparison. The implementation of AMR and parallelization is based on the FLASH code. RAM is modular and includes the capability to easily swap hydrodynamics solvers, reconstruction methods and physics modules. In addition to WENO they have implemented a finite volume module with the piecewise parabolic method (PPM) for reconstruction and the modified Marquina approximate Riemann solver to work with TVD Runge-Kutta time integration. They examine the difficulty of accurately simulating shear flows in numerical relativistic hydrodynamics codes. They show that under-resolved simulations of simple test problems with transverse velocity components produce incorrect results and demonstrate the ability of RAM to correctly solve these problems. RAM has been tested in one, two and three dimensions and in Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinates. they have demonstrated fifth-order accuracy for WENO in one and two dimensions and performed detailed comparison with other schemes for which they show significantly lower convergence rates. Extensive testing is presented demonstrating the ability of RAM to address challenging open questions in relativistic astrophysics.
Paardekooper, S.-J.
2017-08-01
We present a new method for numerical hydrodynamics which uses a multidimensional generalization of the Roe solver and operates on an unstructured triangular mesh. The main advantage over traditional methods based on Riemann solvers, which commonly use one-dimensional flux estimates as building blocks for a multidimensional integration, is its inherently multidimensional nature, and as a consequence its ability to recognize multidimensional stationary states that are not hydrostatic. A second novelty is the focus on graphics processing units (GPUs). By tailoring the algorithms specifically to GPUs, we are able to get speedups of 100-250 compared to a desktop machine. We compare the multidimensional upwind scheme to a traditional, dimensionally split implementation of the Roe solver on several test problems, and we find that the new method significantly outperforms the Roe solver in almost all cases. This comes with increased computational costs per time-step, which makes the new method approximately a factor of 2 slower than a dimensionally split scheme acting on a structured grid.
Coupling Magnetic Fields and ALE Hydrodynamics for 3D Simulations of MFCG's
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
White, D; Rieben, R; Wallin, B
2006-09-20
We review the development of a full 3D multiphysics code for the simulation of explosively driven Magnetic Flux Compression Generators (MFCG) and related pulse power devices. In a typical MFCG the device is seeded with an initial electric current and the device is then detonated. The detonation compresses the magnetic field and amplifies the current. This is a multiphysics problem in that detonation kinetics, electromagnetic diffusion and induction, material deformation, and thermal effects are all important. This is a tightly coupled problem in that the different physical quantities have comparable spatial and temporal variation, and hence should be solved simultaneously on the same computational mesh.
RICH: Open-source Hydrodynamic Simulation on a Moving Voronoi Mesh
Yalinewich, Almog; Steinberg, Elad; Sari, Re'em
2015-02-01
We present here RICH, a state-of-the-art two-dimensional hydrodynamic code based on Godunov’s method, on an unstructured moving mesh (the acronym stands for Racah Institute Computational Hydrodynamics). This code is largely based on the code AREPO. It differs from AREPO in the interpolation and time-advancement schemeS as well as a novel parallelization scheme based on Voronoi tessellation. Using our code, we study the pros and cons of a moving mesh (in comparison to a static mesh). We also compare its accuracy to other codes. Specifically, we show that our implementation of external sources and time-advancement scheme is more accurate and robust than is AREPO when the mesh is allowed to move. We performed a parameter study of the cell rounding mechanism (Lloyd iterations) and its effects. We find that in most cases a moving mesh gives better results than a static mesh, but it is not universally true. In the case where matter moves in one way and a sound wave is traveling in the other way (such that relative to the grid the wave is not moving) a static mesh gives better results than a moving mesh. We perform an analytic analysis for finite difference schemes that reveals that a Lagrangian simulation is better than a Eulerian simulation in the case of a highly supersonic flow. Moreover, we show that Voronoi-based moving mesh schemes suffer from an error, which is resolution independent, due to inconsistencies between the flux calculation and the change in the area of a cell. Our code is publicly available as open source and designed in an object-oriented, user-friendly way that facilitates incorporation of new algorithms and physical processes.
Dynamic mesh refinement for discrete models of jet electro-hydrodynamics
Lauricella, Marco; Pisignano, Dario; Succi, Sauro
2015-01-01
Nowadays, several models of unidimensional fluid jets exploit discrete element methods. In some cases, as for models aiming at describing the electrospinning nanofabrication process of polymer fibers, discrete element methods suffer a non constant resolution of the jet representation. We develop a dynamic mesh-refinement method for the numerical study of the electro-hydrodynamic behavior of charged jets using discrete element methods. To this purpose, we import ideas and techniques from the string method originally developed in the framework of free-energy landscape simulations. The mesh-refined discrete element method is demonstrated for the case of electrospinning applications.
Enzo+Moray: Radiation Hydrodynamics Adaptive Mesh Refinement Simulations with Adaptive Ray Tracing
Wise, John H
2010-01-01
We describe a photon-conserving radiative transfer algorithm, using a spatially-adaptive ray tracing scheme, and its parallel implementation into the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) cosmological hydrodynamics code, Enzo. By coupling the solver with the energy equation and non-equilibrium chemistry network, our radiation hydrodynamics framework can be utilised to study a broad range of astrophysical problems, such as stellar and black hole (BH) feedback. Inaccuracies can arise from large timesteps and poor sampling, therefore we devised an adaptive time-stepping scheme and a fast approximation of the optically-thin radiation field with multiple sources. We test the method with several radiative transfer and radiation hydrodynamics tests that are given in Iliev et al. (2006, 2009). We further test our method with more dynamical situations, for example, the propagation of an ionisation front through a Rayleigh-Taylor instability, time-varying luminosities, and collimated radiation. The test suite also includes an...
A new class of accurate, mesh-free hydrodynamic simulation methods
Hopkins, Philip F.
2015-06-01
We present two new Lagrangian methods for hydrodynamics, in a systematic comparison with moving-mesh, smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), and stationary (non-moving) grid methods. The new methods are designed to simultaneously capture advantages of both SPH and grid-based/adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) schemes. They are based on a kernel discretization of the volume coupled to a high-order matrix gradient estimator and a Riemann solver acting over the volume `overlap'. We implement and test a parallel, second-order version of the method with self-gravity and cosmological integration, in the code GIZMO:1 this maintains exact mass, energy and momentum conservation; exhibits superior angular momentum conservation compared to all other methods we study; does not require `artificial diffusion' terms; and allows the fluid elements to move with the flow, so resolution is automatically adaptive. We consider a large suite of test problems, and find that on all problems the new methods appear competitive with moving-mesh schemes, with some advantages (particularly in angular momentum conservation), at the cost of enhanced noise. The new methods have many advantages versus SPH: proper convergence, good capturing of fluid-mixing instabilities, dramatically reduced `particle noise' and numerical viscosity, more accurate sub-sonic flow evolution, and sharp shock-capturing. Advantages versus non-moving meshes include: automatic adaptivity, dramatically reduced advection errors and numerical overmixing, velocity-independent errors, accurate coupling to gravity, good angular momentum conservation and elimination of `grid alignment' effects. We can, for example, follow hundreds of orbits of gaseous discs, while AMR and SPH methods break down in a few orbits. However, fixed meshes minimize `grid noise'. These differences are important for a range of astrophysical problems.
GIZMO: A New Class of Accurate, Mesh-Free Hydrodynamic Simulation Methods
Hopkins, Philip F
2014-01-01
We present and study two new Lagrangian numerical methods for solving the equations of hydrodynamics, in a systematic comparison with moving-mesh, SPH, and non-moving grid methods. The new methods are designed to capture many advantages of both smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and grid-based or adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) schemes. They are based on a kernel discretization of the volume coupled to a high-order matrix gradient estimator and a Riemann solver acting over the volume 'overlap.' We implement and test a parallel, second-order version of the method with coupled self-gravity & cosmological integration, in the code GIZMO: this maintains exact mass, energy and momentum conservation; exhibits superior angular momentum conservation compared to all other methods we study; does not require 'artificial diffusion' terms; and allows fluid elements to move with the flow so resolution is automatically adaptive. We consider a large suite of test problems, and find that on all problems the new methods a...
ENZO+MORAY: radiation hydrodynamics adaptive mesh refinement simulations with adaptive ray tracing
Wise, John H.; Abel, Tom
2011-07-01
We describe a photon-conserving radiative transfer algorithm, using a spatially-adaptive ray-tracing scheme, and its parallel implementation into the adaptive mesh refinement cosmological hydrodynamics code ENZO. By coupling the solver with the energy equation and non-equilibrium chemistry network, our radiation hydrodynamics framework can be utilized to study a broad range of astrophysical problems, such as stellar and black hole feedback. Inaccuracies can arise from large time-steps and poor sampling; therefore, we devised an adaptive time-stepping scheme and a fast approximation of the optically-thin radiation field with multiple sources. We test the method with several radiative transfer and radiation hydrodynamics tests that are given in Iliev et al. We further test our method with more dynamical situations, for example, the propagation of an ionization front through a Rayleigh-Taylor instability, time-varying luminosities and collimated radiation. The test suite also includes an expanding H II region in a magnetized medium, utilizing the newly implemented magnetohydrodynamics module in ENZO. This method linearly scales with the number of point sources and number of grid cells. Our implementation is scalable to 512 processors on distributed memory machines and can include the radiation pressure and secondary ionizations from X-ray radiation. It is included in the newest public release of ENZO.
Multigroup radiation hydrodynamics with flux-limited diffusion and adaptive mesh refinement
González, Matthias; Commerçon, Benoît; Masson, Jacques
2015-01-01
Radiative transfer plays a key role in the star formation process. Due to a high computational cost, radiation-hydrodynamics simulations performed up to now have mainly been carried out in the grey approximation. In recent years, multi-frequency radiation-hydrodynamics models have started to emerge, in an attempt to better account for the large variations of opacities as a function of frequency. We wish to develop an efficient multigroup algorithm for the adaptive mesh refinement code RAMSES which is suited to heavy proto-stellar collapse calculations. Due to prohibitive timestep constraints of an explicit radiative transfer method, we constructed a time-implicit solver based on a stabilised bi-conjugate gradient algorithm, and implemented it in RAMSES under the flux-limited diffusion approximation. We present a series of tests which demonstrate the high performance of our scheme in dealing with frequency-dependent radiation-hydrodynamic flows. We also present a preliminary simulation of a three-dimensional p...
Hydrodynamic moving-mesh simulations of the common envelope phase in binary stellar systems
Ohlmann, Sebastian T; Pakmor, Ruediger; Springel, Volker
2015-01-01
The common envelope (CE) phase is an important stage in binary stellar evolution. It is needed to explain many close binary stellar systems, such as cataclysmic variables, Type Ia supernova progenitors, or X-ray binaries. To form the resulting close binary, the initial orbit has to shrink, thereby transferring energy to the primary giant's envelope that is hence ejected. The details of this interaction, however, are still not understood. Here, we present new hydrodynamic simulations of the dynamical spiral-in forming a CE system. We apply the moving-mesh code AREPO to follow the interaction of a $1M_\\odot$ compact star with a $2M_\\odot$ red giant possessing a $0.4M_\\odot$ core. The nearly Lagrangian scheme combines advantages of smoothed particle hydrodynamics and traditional grid-based hydrodynamic codes and allows us to capture also small flow features at high spatial resolution. Our simulations reproduce the initial transfer of energy and angular momentum from the binary core to the envelope by spiral shoc...
Donmez, Orhan
We present a general procedure to solve the General Relativistic Hydrodynamical (GRH) equations with Adaptive-Mesh Refinement (AMR) and model of an accretion disk around a black hole. To do this, the GRH equations are written in a conservative form to exploit their hyperbolic character. The numerical solutions of the general relativistic hydrodynamic equations is done by High Resolution Shock Capturing schemes (HRSC), specifically designed to solve non-linear hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. These schemes depend on the characteristic information of the system. We use Marquina fluxes with MUSCL left and right states to solve GRH equations. First, we carry out different test problems with uniform and AMR grids on the special relativistic hydrodynamics equations to verify the second order convergence of the code in 1D, 2 D and 3D. Second, we solve the GRH equations and use the general relativistic test problems to compare the numerical solutions with analytic ones. In order to this, we couple the flux part of general relativistic hydrodynamic equation with a source part using Strang splitting. The coupling of the GRH equations is carried out in a treatment which gives second order accurate solutions in space and time. The test problems examined include shock tubes, geodesic flows, and circular motion of particle around the black hole. Finally, we apply this code to the accretion disk problems around the black hole using the Schwarzschild metric at the background of the computational domain. We find spiral shocks on the accretion disk. They are observationally expected results. We also examine the star-disk interaction near a massive black hole. We find that when stars are grounded down or a hole is punched on the accretion disk, they create shock waves which destroy the accretion disk.
Relativistic Flows Using Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Structured Mesh Refinement. I. Hydrodynamics
Wang, Peng; Zhang, Weiqun
2007-01-01
Astrophysical relativistic flow problems require high resolution three-dimensional numerical simulations. In this paper, we describe a new parallel three-dimensional code for simulations of special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) using both spatially and temporally structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). We used method of lines to discrete SRHD equations spatially and used a total variation diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme for time integration. For spatial reconstruction, we have implemented piecewise linear method (PLM), piecewise parabolic method (PPM), third order convex essentially non-oscillatory (CENO) and third and fifth order weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) schemes. Flux is computed using either direct flux reconstruction or approximate Riemann solvers including HLL, modified Marquina flux, local Lax-Friedrichs flux formulas and HLLC. The AMR part of the code is built on top of the cosmological Eulerian AMR code {\\sl enzo}, which uses the Berger-Colella AMR algorithm and is parall...
Galaxy mergers on a moving mesh: a comparison with smoothed-particle hydrodynamics
Hayward, Christopher C; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars; Vogelsberger, Mark
2013-01-01
Galaxy mergers have been investigated for decades using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), but recent work highlighting inaccuracies inherent in the traditional SPH technique calls into question the reliability of previous studies. We explore this issue by comparing a suite of Gadget-3 SPH simulations of idealised (i.e., non-cosmological) isolated discs and galaxy mergers with otherwise identical calculations performed using the moving-mesh code Arepo. When black hole (BH) accretion and active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback are not included, the star formation histories (SFHs) obtained from the two codes agree well. When BHs are included, the code- and resolution-dependent variations in the SFHs are more significant, but the agreement is still good, and the stellar mass formed over the course of a simulation is robust to variations in the numerical method. During a merger, the gas morphology and phase structure are initially similar prior to the starburst phase. However, once a hot gaseous halo has forme...
Donmez, O
2004-01-01
In this paper, the general procedure to solve the General Relativistic Hydrodynamical(GRH) equations with Adaptive-Mesh Refinement (AMR) is presented. In order to achieve, the GRH equations are written in the conservation form to exploit their hyperbolic character. The numerical solutions of general relativistic hydrodynamic equations are done by High Resolution Shock Capturing schemes (HRSC), specifically designed to solve non-linear hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. These schemes depend on the characteristic information of the system. The Marquina fluxes with MUSCL left and right states are used to solve GRH equations. First, different test problems with uniform and AMR grids on the special relativistic hydrodynamics equations are carried out to verify the second order convergence of the code in 1D, 2D and 3D. Results from uniform and AMR grid are compared. It is found that adaptive grid does a better job when the number of resolution is increased. Second, the general relativistic hydrodynamical equa...
A high order special relativistic hydrodynamic code with space-time adaptive mesh refinement
Zanotti, Olindo
2013-01-01
We present a high order one-step ADER-WENO finite volume scheme with space-time adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) for the solution of the special relativistic hydrodynamics equations. By adopting a local discontinuous Galerkin predictor method, a high order one-step time discretization is obtained, with no need for Runge-Kutta sub-steps. This turns out to be particularly advantageous in combination with space-time adaptive mesh refinement, which has been implemented following a "cell-by-cell" approach. As in existing second order AMR methods, also the present higher order AMR algorithm features time-accurate local time stepping (LTS), where grids on different spatial refinement levels are allowed to use different time steps. We also compare two different Riemann solvers for the computation of the numerical fluxes at the cell interfaces. The new scheme has been validated over a sample of numerical test problems in one, two and three spatial dimensions, exploring its ability in resolving the propagation of relativ...
De Corato, M.; Slot, J. J. M.; Hütter, M.; D'Avino, G.; Maffettone, P. L.; Hulsen, M. A.
2016-07-01
In this paper, we present a finite element implementation of fluctuating hydrodynamics with a moving boundary fitted mesh for treating the suspended particles. The thermal fluctuations are incorporated into the continuum equations using the Landau and Lifshitz approach [1]. The proposed implementation fulfills the fluctuation-dissipation theorem exactly at the discrete level. Since we restrict the equations to the creeping flow case, this takes the form of a relation between the diffusion coefficient matrix and friction matrix both at the particle and nodal level of the finite elements. Brownian motion of arbitrarily shaped particles in complex confinements can be considered within the present formulation. A multi-step time integration scheme is developed to correctly capture the drift term required in the stochastic differential equation (SDE) describing the evolution of the positions of the particles. The proposed approach is validated by simulating the Brownian motion of a sphere between two parallel plates and the motion of a spherical particle in a cylindrical cavity. The time integration algorithm and the fluctuating hydrodynamics implementation are then applied to study the diffusion and the equilibrium probability distribution of a confined circle under an external harmonic potential.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Corato, M., E-mail: marco.decorato@unina.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale, Università di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Slot, J.J.M., E-mail: j.j.m.slot@tue.nl [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Hütter, M., E-mail: m.huetter@tue.nl [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); D' Avino, G., E-mail: gadavino@unina.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale, Università di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Maffettone, P.L., E-mail: pierluca.maffettone@unina.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale, Università di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Hulsen, M.A., E-mail: m.a.hulsen@tue.nl [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)
2016-07-01
In this paper, we present a finite element implementation of fluctuating hydrodynamics with a moving boundary fitted mesh for treating the suspended particles. The thermal fluctuations are incorporated into the continuum equations using the Landau and Lifshitz approach [1]. The proposed implementation fulfills the fluctuation–dissipation theorem exactly at the discrete level. Since we restrict the equations to the creeping flow case, this takes the form of a relation between the diffusion coefficient matrix and friction matrix both at the particle and nodal level of the finite elements. Brownian motion of arbitrarily shaped particles in complex confinements can be considered within the present formulation. A multi-step time integration scheme is developed to correctly capture the drift term required in the stochastic differential equation (SDE) describing the evolution of the positions of the particles. The proposed approach is validated by simulating the Brownian motion of a sphere between two parallel plates and the motion of a spherical particle in a cylindrical cavity. The time integration algorithm and the fluctuating hydrodynamics implementation are then applied to study the diffusion and the equilibrium probability distribution of a confined circle under an external harmonic potential.
De Colle, Fabio; Lopez-Camara, Diego; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico
2011-01-01
We report on the development of Mezcal-SRHD, a new adaptive mesh refinement, special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) code, developed with the aim of studying the highly relativistic flows in Gamma-Ray Burst sources. The SRHD equations are solved using finite volume conservative solvers. The correct implementation of the algorithms is verified by one-dimensional (1D) shock tube and multidimensional tests. The code is then applied to study the propagation of 1D spherical impulsive blast waves expanding in a stratified medium with $\\rho \\propto r^{-k}$, bridging between the relativistic and Newtonian phases, as well as to a two-dimensional (2D) cylindrically symmetric impulsive jet propagating in a constant density medium. It is shown that the deceleration to non-relativistic speeds in one-dimension occurs on scales significantly larger than the Sedov length. This transition is further delayed with respect to the Sedov length as the degree of stratification of the ambient medium is increased. This result, toge...
Relativistic Flows Using Spatial And Temporal Adaptive Structured Mesh Refinement. I. Hydrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Peng; Abel, Tom; Zhang, Weiqun; /KIPAC, Menlo Park
2007-04-02
Astrophysical relativistic flow problems require high resolution three-dimensional numerical simulations. In this paper, we describe a new parallel three-dimensional code for simulations of special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) using both spatially and temporally structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). We used method of lines to discrete SRHD equations spatially and used a total variation diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme for time integration. For spatial reconstruction, we have implemented piecewise linear method (PLM), piecewise parabolic method (PPM), third order convex essentially non-oscillatory (CENO) and third and fifth order weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) schemes. Flux is computed using either direct flux reconstruction or approximate Riemann solvers including HLL, modified Marquina flux, local Lax-Friedrichs flux formulas and HLLC. The AMR part of the code is built on top of the cosmological Eulerian AMR code enzo, which uses the Berger-Colella AMR algorithm and is parallel with dynamical load balancing using the widely available Message Passing Interface library. We discuss the coupling of the AMR framework with the relativistic solvers and show its performance on eleven test problems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Colle, Fabio; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico [Astronomy and Astrophysics Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Granot, Jonathan [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Lopez-Camara, Diego, E-mail: fabio@ucolick.org [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ap. 70-543, 04510 D.F. (Mexico)
2012-02-20
We report on the development of Mezcal-SRHD, a new adaptive mesh refinement, special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) code, developed with the aim of studying the highly relativistic flows in gamma-ray burst sources. The SRHD equations are solved using finite-volume conservative solvers, with second-order interpolation in space and time. The correct implementation of the algorithms is verified by one-dimensional (1D) and multi-dimensional tests. The code is then applied to study the propagation of 1D spherical impulsive blast waves expanding in a stratified medium with {rho}{proportional_to}r{sup -k}, bridging between the relativistic and Newtonian phases (which are described by the Blandford-McKee and Sedov-Taylor self-similar solutions, respectively), as well as to a two-dimensional (2D) cylindrically symmetric impulsive jet propagating in a constant density medium. It is shown that the deceleration to nonrelativistic speeds in one dimension occurs on scales significantly larger than the Sedov length. This transition is further delayed with respect to the Sedov length as the degree of stratification of the ambient medium is increased. This result, together with the scaling of position, Lorentz factor, and the shock velocity as a function of time and shock radius, is explained here using a simple analytical model based on energy conservation. The method used for calculating the afterglow radiation by post-processing the results of the simulations is described in detail. The light curves computed using the results of 1D numerical simulations during the relativistic stage correctly reproduce those calculated assuming the self-similar Blandford-McKee solution for the evolution of the flow. The jet dynamics from our 2D simulations and the resulting afterglow light curves, including the jet break, are in good agreement with those presented in previous works. Finally, we show how the details of the dynamics critically depend on properly resolving the structure of the
De Colle, Fabio; Granot, Jonathan; López-Cámara, Diego; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico
2012-02-01
We report on the development of Mezcal-SRHD, a new adaptive mesh refinement, special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) code, developed with the aim of studying the highly relativistic flows in gamma-ray burst sources. The SRHD equations are solved using finite-volume conservative solvers, with second-order interpolation in space and time. The correct implementation of the algorithms is verified by one-dimensional (1D) and multi-dimensional tests. The code is then applied to study the propagation of 1D spherical impulsive blast waves expanding in a stratified medium with ρvpropr -k , bridging between the relativistic and Newtonian phases (which are described by the Blandford-McKee and Sedov-Taylor self-similar solutions, respectively), as well as to a two-dimensional (2D) cylindrically symmetric impulsive jet propagating in a constant density medium. It is shown that the deceleration to nonrelativistic speeds in one dimension occurs on scales significantly larger than the Sedov length. This transition is further delayed with respect to the Sedov length as the degree of stratification of the ambient medium is increased. This result, together with the scaling of position, Lorentz factor, and the shock velocity as a function of time and shock radius, is explained here using a simple analytical model based on energy conservation. The method used for calculating the afterglow radiation by post-processing the results of the simulations is described in detail. The light curves computed using the results of 1D numerical simulations during the relativistic stage correctly reproduce those calculated assuming the self-similar Blandford-McKee solution for the evolution of the flow. The jet dynamics from our 2D simulations and the resulting afterglow light curves, including the jet break, are in good agreement with those presented in previous works. Finally, we show how the details of the dynamics critically depend on properly resolving the structure of the relativistic flow.
A Predictive Model of Fragmentation using Adaptive Mesh Refinement and a Hierarchical Material Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koniges, A E; Masters, N D; Fisher, A C; Anderson, R W; Eder, D C; Benson, D; Kaiser, T B; Gunney, B T; Wang, P; Maddox, B R; Hansen, J F; Kalantar, D H; Dixit, P; Jarmakani, H; Meyers, M A
2009-03-03
Fragmentation is a fundamental material process that naturally spans spatial scales from microscopic to macroscopic. We developed a mathematical framework using an innovative combination of hierarchical material modeling (HMM) and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to connect the continuum to microstructural regimes. This framework has been implemented in a new multi-physics, multi-scale, 3D simulation code, NIF ALE-AMR. New multi-material volume fraction and interface reconstruction algorithms were developed for this new code, which is leading the world effort in hydrodynamic simulations that combine AMR with ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) techniques. The interface reconstruction algorithm is also used to produce fragments following material failure. In general, the material strength and failure models have history vector components that must be advected along with other properties of the mesh during remap stage of the ALE hydrodynamics. The fragmentation models are validated against an electromagnetically driven expanding ring experiment and dedicated laser-based fragmentation experiments conducted at the Jupiter Laser Facility. As part of the exit plan, the NIF ALE-AMR code was applied to a number of fragmentation problems of interest to the National Ignition Facility (NIF). One example shows the added benefit of multi-material ALE-AMR that relaxes the requirement that material boundaries must be along mesh boundaries.
Gurson's Model: ALE Formulation and Strain Localization
da Cunda, Luiz A. B.; Creus, Guillermo J.
2007-05-01
This paper presents a brief review of Gurson's damage model, employed to describes the strength degradation in ductile metals submitted to large plastic deformations. The damage model is applied using finite elements and an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation (ALE), to ensure a better quality to the finite elements mesh. The study of the combined application of ALE and Gurson approach to damage modeling and strain localization is the object of this paper.
Dönmez, Orhan
2004-09-01
In this paper, the general procedure to solve the general relativistic hydrodynamical (GRH) equations with adaptive-mesh refinement (AMR) is presented. In order to achieve, the GRH equations are written in the conservation form to exploit their hyperbolic character. The numerical solutions of GRH equations are obtained by high resolution shock Capturing schemes (HRSC), specifically designed to solve nonlinear hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. These schemes depend on the characteristic information of the system. The Marquina fluxes with MUSCL left and right states are used to solve GRH equations. First, different test problems with uniform and AMR grids on the special relativistic hydrodynamics equations are carried out to verify the second-order convergence of the code in one, two and three dimensions. Results from uniform and AMR grid are compared. It is found that adaptive grid does a better job when the number of resolution is increased. Second, the GRH equations are tested using two different test problems which are Geodesic flow and Circular motion of particle In order to do this, the flux part of GRH equations is coupled with source part using Strang splitting. The coupling of the GRH equations is carried out in a treatment which gives second order accurate solutions in space and time.
Mesh-free modelling of liquid crystals using modified smoothed particle hydrodynamics
Yakutovich, Mikhail; Care, Chris; Newton, CJP; Cleaver, Doug
2010-01-01
We present a generalisation of the Modified Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics simulation technique capable of simulating static and dynamic liquid crystalline behaviour. This generalisation is then implemented in the context of the Qian-Sheng description of nematodynamics. To test the method, we first use it to simulate switching in both a Freedericksz setup and a chiral hybrid aligned nematic\\ud cell. In both cases, the results obtained give excellent agreement with previously published results....
Hydrodynamic mechanism behind the suppression of vortex-induced vibration with permeable meshes
Assi, Gustavo R. S.; Cicolin, Murilo M.; Freire, Cesar M.
2016-11-01
Vortex-induced vibration (VIV) induces resonant vibrations on elastic bluff bodies when exposed to a flow. A VIV suppressor called "ventilated trousers" (VT) - consisting of a flexible net with tens of bobbins fitted every other node - has been developed as a commercial solution. Only a few experiments in the literature have evaluated the effectiveness of the VT, but very little is know about the underlying mechanism behind the suppression. Experiments have been carried out in a water channel with models of circular cylinders fitted with three different permeable meshes. VIV response and drag were obtained for models free to oscillate in the cross-flow direction with low mass and damping (Re = 5 , 000 to 25,000). All meshes achieved an average 50% reduction of the peak amplitude and reduced the mean drag when compared to that of a bare cylinder. PIV visualization of the wake revealed that the VT produced a much longer vortex-formation length, thus explaining its enhanced efficiency in suppressing VIV and reducing drag. The geometry and distribution of the bobbins proved to be important parameters. PIV also revealed the rich three-dimensional flow structures created by the bobbins that disrupt the formation of a coherent vortex wake. FAPESP 11/00205-6, 14/50279-4; CNPq 306917/2015-7.
Mesh-free modeling of liquid crystals using modified smoothed particle hydrodynamics.
Yakutovich, M V; Care, C M; Newton, C J P; Cleaver, D J
2010-10-01
We present a generalization of the modified smooth particle hydrodynamics simulation technique capable of simulating static and dynamic liquid crystalline behavior. This generalization is then implemented in the context of the Qian-Sheng description of nematodynamics. To test the method, we first use it to simulate switching in both a Fréedericksz setup and a chiral hybrid aligned nematic cell. In both cases, the results obtained give excellent agreement with previously published results. We then apply the technique in a three-dimensional simulation of the switching dynamics of the post aligned bistable nematic device.
Commercon, Benoit; Audit, Edouard; Hennebelle, Patrick; Chabrier, Gilles
2011-01-01
Radiative transfer has a strong impact on the collapse and the fragmentation of prestellar dense cores. We present the radiation-hydrodynamics solver we designed for the RAMSES code. The method is designed for astrophysical purposes, and in particular for protostellar collapse. We present the solver, using the co-moving frame to evaluate the radiative quantities. We use the popular flux limited diffusion approximation, under the grey approximation (one group of photon). The solver is based on the second-order Godunov scheme of RAMSES for its hyperbolic part, and on an implicit scheme for the radiation diffusion and the coupling between radiation and matter. We report in details our methodology to integrate the RHD solver into RAMSES. We test successfully the method against several conventional tests. For validation in 3D, we perform calculations of the collapse of an isolated 1 M_sun prestellar dense core, without rotation. We compare successfully the results with previous studies using different models for r...
Shock finding on a moving-mesh: II. Hydrodynamic shocks in the Illustris universe
Schaal, Kevin; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Pfrommer, Christoph; Nelson, Dylan; Vogelsberger, Mark; Genel, Shy; Pillepich, Annalisa; Sijacki, Debora; Hernquist, Lars
2016-01-01
Hydrodynamical shocks are a manifestation of the non-linearity of the Euler equations and play a fundamental role in cosmological gas dynamics. In this work, we identify and analyse shocks in the Illustris simulation, and contrast the results with those of non-radiative runs. We show that simulations with more comprehensive physical models of galaxy formation pose new challenges for shock finding algorithms due to radiative cooling and star forming processes, prompting us to develop a number of methodology improvements that robustly suppress spurious shock detections. We find in Illustris a total shock surface area which is about 1.4 times larger at the present epoch compared to non-radiative runs, and an energy dissipation rate at shocks which is higher by a factor of around 7. Remarkably, shocks with Mach numbers above and below $\\mathcal{M} \\approx 10$ contribute about equally to the total dissipation across cosmic time. This is in strong contrast to non-radiative simulations, and we demonstrate that a lar...
Shock finding on a moving-mesh - II. Hydrodynamic shocks in the Illustris universe
Schaal, Kevin; Springel, Volker; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Pfrommer, Christoph; Nelson, Dylan; Vogelsberger, Mark; Genel, Shy; Pillepich, Annalisa; Sijacki, Debora; Hernquist, Lars
2016-10-01
Hydrodynamical shocks are a manifestation of the non-linearity of the Euler equations and play a fundamental role in cosmological gas dynamics. In this work, we identify and analyse shocks in the Illustris simulation, and contrast the results with those of non-radiative runs. We show that simulations with more comprehensive physical models of galaxy formation pose new challenges for shock finding algorithms due to radiative cooling and star-forming processes, prompting us to develop a number of methodology improvements. We find in Illustris a total shock surface area which is about 1.4 times larger at the present epoch compared to non-radiative runs, and an energy dissipation rate at shocks which is higher by a factor of around 7. Remarkably, shocks with Mach numbers above and below mathcal {M}≈ 10 contribute about equally to the total dissipation across cosmic time. This is in sharp contrast to non-radiative simulations, and we demonstrate that a large part of the difference arises due to strong black hole radio-mode feedback in Illustris. We also provide an overview of the large diversity of shock morphologies, which includes complex networks of halo-internal shocks, shocks on to cosmic sheets, feedback shocks due to black holes and galactic winds, as well as ubiquitous accretion shocks. In high-redshift systems more massive than 1012 M⊙, we discover the existence of a double accretion shock pattern in haloes. They are created when gas streams along filaments without being shocked at the outer accretion shock, but then forms a second, roughly spherical accretion shock further inside.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bernard-Champmartin Aude
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In a prior work [CEMRACS10], a curvilinear bi-dimensional finite volume extension of Lagrangian centered schemes GLACE [GLACE] on unstructured cells, whose edges are parameterized by rational quadratic Bézier curves was proposed and we showed numerical results for this scheme. Now, we extend the EUCCLHYD scheme [EUCCLHYD] to these cells. To simulate flows with evolving large deformations, we write a formalism allowing the time evolution of the conic parameter. As an example, this allows an edge changing from an ellipse segment to a hyperbolic one. In this framework, we consider the case of a mesh whose edges are circle segments with non fixed centers. We show that this formalism extends also the previous work [GLACE CIRCLE] (which is equivalent to [CEMRACS10] when conic edges are all circles. This is a necessary first step toward general conical deformation. Dans un travail précédent [CEMRACS10], une extension volume fini bi-dimensionnelle curviligne du schéma Lagrangien centré GLACE [GLACE] sur des cellules non structurées dont les bords sont paramétrés par des courbes de Bézier quadratiques rationnelles a été proposée. Maintenant, nous proposons une extension du schéma EUCCLHYD [EUCCLHYD] à ce type de cellules et pour lequel nous montrons quelques résultats numériques. Pour pouvoir suivre un écoulement subissant de grandes variations de forme, nous écrivons un formalisme qui permet l’évolution en temps du paramètre de chaque conique. Ainsi, un bord de maille peut d’un segment d’ellipse devenir en cours de calcul un segment d’hyperbole. Dans ce cadre, nous considérons le cas particulier d’un maillage dont les bords de cellules sont des arcs de cercle avec des centres non fixes. Nous montrons que ce formalisme constitue également une extension directe d’un travail précédent [GLACE CIRCLE] (qui équivaut à [CEMRACS10] dans le cas où les bords coniques sont tous des cercles. Ce résultat constitue une
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Koniges Alice
2013-11-01
Full Text Available The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment II (NDCX II is an induction accelerator planned for initial commissioning in 2012. The final design calls for a 3 MeV, Li+ ion beam, delivered in a bunch with characteristic pulse duration of 1 ns, and transverse dimension of order 1 mm. The NDCX II will be used in studies of material in the warm dense matter (WDM regime, and ion beam/hydrodynamic coupling experiments relevant to heavy ion based inertial fusion energy. We discuss recent efforts to adapt the 3D ALE-AMR code to model WDM experiments on NDCX II. The code, which combines Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE hydrodynamics with Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR, has physics models that include ion deposition, radiation hydrodynamics, thermal diffusion, anisotropic material strength with material time history, and advanced models for fragmentation. Experiments at NDCX-II will explore the process of bubble and droplet formation (two-phase expansion of superheated metal solids using ion beams. Experiments at higher temperatures will explore equation of state and heavy ion fusion beam-to-target energy coupling efficiency. Ion beams allow precise control of local beam energy deposition providing uniform volumetric heating on a timescale shorter than that of hydrodynamic expansion. We also briefly discuss the effects of the move to exascale computing and related computational changes on general modeling codes in fusion.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fisher, A. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bailey, D. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kaiser, T. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Eder, D. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gunney, B. T. N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Masters, N. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Koniges, A. E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Anderson, R. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2015-02-01
Here, we present a novel method for the solution of the diffusion equation on a composite AMR mesh. This approach is suitable for including diffusion based physics modules to hydrocodes that support ALE and AMR capabilities. To illustrate, we proffer our implementations of diffusion based radiation transport and heat conduction in a hydrocode called ALE-AMR. Numerical experiments conducted with the diffusion solver and associated physics packages yield 2nd order convergence in the L_{2} norm.
Zhao, Xujun; Hernandez-Ortiz, Juan; Karpeyev, Dmitry; de Pablo, Juan; Smith, Barry
In this work, we present an efficient parallel particle-in-mesh method for Brownian Dynamics simulations of many-particle systems confined in micro- and nano-fluidic devices. A general geometry Ewald-like method (GGEM) combined with finite element method is used to account for the hydrodynamic interaction. A fast parallel Krylov-type iterative solver with hybrid preconditioning techniques is developed for solving the large sparse systems of equations arising from finite element discretization of the Stokes equations. In addition, the current computer code is developed based on PETSc, a scalable library of numerical algorithms developed at Argonne, SLEPc - Scalable Library for Eigenvalue Problem Computations, and libMesh, a finite element library for numerical solution of PDEs built on top of PETSc, which allows for direct simulation of large scale systems with arbitrary confined geometries. This scheme is applied to Brownian dynamics simulations of flowing confined polymer solutions and colloidal dispersions in micro-fluid channels. The effects of hydrodynamics interactions and geometric confinement on the migration phenomena are illustrated.
Second order multidimensional sign-preserving remapping for ALE methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hill, Ryan N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Szmelter, J. [LOUGHBOROUGH UNIV.
2010-12-15
A second-order conservative sign-preserving remapping scheme for Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) methods is developed utilising concepts of the Multidimensional Positive Definite Advection Transport Algorithm (MPDATA). The algorithm is inherently multidimensional, and so does not introduce splitting errors. The remapping is implemented in a two-dimensional, finite element ALE solver employing staggered quadrilateral meshes. The MPDATA remapping uses a finite volume discretization developed for volume coordinates. It is applied for the remapping of density and internal energy arranged as cell centered, and velocity as nodal, dependent variables. In the paper, the advection of scalar fields is examined first for test cases with prescribed mesh movement. A direct comparison of MPDATA with the performance of the van Leer MUSCL scheme indicates advantages of a multidimensional approach. Furthermore, distinctly different performance between basic MPDATA and the infinite gauge option is illustrated using benchmarks involving transport of a sign changing velocity field. Further development extends the application of MPDATA remapping to the full ALE solver with a staggered mesh arrangement for density, internal energy and momentum using volume coordinates. At present, two options of the algorithm - basic and infinite gauge - are implemented. To ensure a meaningful assessment, an identical Lagrangian solver and computational mesh update routines are used with either MPDATA or van Leer MUSCL remapping. The evaluation places particular focus on the abilities of both schemes to accurately model multidimensional problems. Theoretical considerations are supported with numerical examples. In addition to the prescribed mesh movement cases for advection of scalars, the demonstrations include two-dimensional Eulerian and ALE flow simulations on quadrilateral meshes with both fixed and variable timestep control. The key comparisons include the standard test cases of Sod and Noh
Climent Roca, Salvador; Farreres de la Morena, Xavier
1996-01-01
Por el presente trabajo se describe el desarrollo de un núcleo de gramática del español en HPSG implementada en ALE. La gramática incluye una solución destinada a evitar la proliferación de entradas léxicas causada por la polisemia estructural del verbo. A partir de ello, se examinan las capacidades de ALE y de una aproximación ortodoxa a HPSG para el procesamiento del lenguaje natural. A core of a grammar of Spanish in HPSG including a solution to deal with verbal subcategorisation altern...
Hoch, Jannis; van Beek, Rens; Winsemius, Hessel; Bierkens, Marc
2017-04-01
In recent years, losses due to riverine inundations have been increasing due to growth of both population and asset values in floodplain areas as well as changes in river regimes. As global flood risk will even increase in the future, it is paramount for the scientific community to provide sound flood hazard, exposure, and vulnerability estimates for improved flood risk management. Since inundations are a large-scale hazard, two main requirements for modelling efforts can be formulated. First, large-scale models need to be applied to capture the spatial correlation of flood events in neighbouring river basins, and second, modelling approaches need to be able to simulate future climate conditions and the resulting hydrologic response. Both requirements can be met by employing global hydrologic models (GHM). Obtaining the required information from GHM at a locally relevant resolution, however, remains a major research challenge. For instance, the coarse spatial resolution of such models hampers a detailed representation of channel and floodplain geometry, and simplistic routing schemes implemented often fail to capture discharge dynamics. In addition to other current approaches trying to overcome these issues, Hoch et al. (2016, in review) applied a spatially explicit coupling scheme between the global hydrologic model PCR-GLOBWB and the hydrodynamic model Delft3D Flexible Mesh. Two main features are central to this study. First, the water balance computations were performed by PCR-GLOBWB, while the routing was explicitly performed by FM solving the full shallow water equations. Results indeed showed that such a spatial coupling approach can simulate discharge more accurately than both models stand-alone. Second, the model domain was schematized by a flexible mesh which allows for smaller grids for areas such as channel and floodplain areas while preserving coarser spatial resolution in more remote areas. As a result, computational costs can be strongly reduced
Zimmer, Peter C.; McGraw, J. T.; Gimmestad, G. G.; Roberts, D.; Stewart, J.; Smith, J.; Fitch, J.
2007-12-01
ALE (Astronomical LIDAR for Extinction) is deployed at the University of New Mexico's (UNM) Campus Observatory in Albuquerque, NM. It has begun a year-long testing phase prior deployment at McDonald Observatory in support of the CCD/Transit Instrument II (CTI-II). ALE is designed to produce a high-precision measurement of atmospheric absorption and scattering above the observatory site every ten minutes of every moderately clear night. LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) is the VIS/UV/IR analog of radar, using a laser, telescope and time-gated photodetector instead of a radio transmitter, dish and receiver. In the case of ALE -- an elastic backscatter LIDAR -- 20ns-long, eye-safe laser pulses are launched 2500 times per second from a 0.32m transmitting telescope co-mounted with a 50mm short-range receiver on an alt-az mounted 0.67m long-range receiver. Photons from the laser pulse are scattered and absorbed as the pulse propagates through the atmosphere, a portion of which are scattered into the field of view of the short- and long-range receiver telescopes and detected by a photomultiplier. The properties of a given volume of atmosphere along the LIDAR path are inferred from both the altitude-resolved backscatter signal as well as the attenuation of backscatter signal from altitudes above it. We present ALE profiles from the commissioning phase and demonstrate some of the astronomically interesting atmospheric information that can be gleaned from these data, including, but not limited to, total line-of-sight extinction. This project is funded by NSF Grant 0421087.
Zhao, Qiang; Dong, Zhiwei
2016-11-01
We have developed two-dimensional Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) code which is used to study the physical processes, the plasma absorption, the crater profile, and the temperature distribution on metallic target and below the surface. The ALE method overcomes problems with Lagrangian moving mesh distortion by mesh smoothing and conservative quantities remapping from Lagrangian mesh to smoothed one. The results of numerical simulation of pulsed laser ablation are presented. The study presents particular interest for the analysis of experimental results obtained during pulsed laser ablation.
Extended ALE Method for fluid-structure interaction problems with large structural displacements
Basting, Steffen; Quaini, Annalisa; Čanić, Sunčica; Glowinski, Roland
2017-02-01
Standard Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) methods for the simulation of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems fail due to excessive mesh deformations when the structural displacement is large. We propose a method that successfully deals with this problem, keeping the same mesh connectivity while enforcing mesh alignment with the structure. The proposed Extended ALE Method relies on a variational mesh optimization technique, where mesh alignment with the structure is achieved via a constraint. This gives rise to a constrained optimization problem for mesh optimization, which is solved whenever the mesh quality deteriorates. The performance of the proposed Extended ALE Method is demonstrated on a series of numerical examples involving 2D FSI problems with large displacements. Two-way coupling between the fluid and structure is considered in all the examples. The FSI problems are solved using either a Dirichlet-Neumann algorithm, or a Robin-Neumann algorithm. The Dirichlet-Neumann algorithm is enhanced by an adaptive relaxation procedure based on Aitken's acceleration. We show that the proposed method has excellent performance in problems with large displacements, and that it agrees well with a standard ALE method in problems with mild displacement.
ALE-AMR: A new 3D multi-physics code for modeling laser/target effects
Koniges, A. E.; Masters, N. D.; Fisher, A. C.; Anderson, R. W.; Eder, D. C.; Kaiser, T. B.; Bailey, D. S.; Gunney, B.; Wang, P.; Brown, B.; Fisher, K.; Hansen, F.; Maddox, B. R.; Benson, D. J.; Meyers, M.; Geille, A.
2010-08-01
We have developed a new 3D multi-physics multi-material code, ALE-AMR, for modeling laser/target effects including debris/shrapnel generation. The code combines Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) hydrodynamics with Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) to connect the continuum to microstructural regimes. The code is unique in its ability to model hot radiating plasmas and cold fragmenting solids. New numerical techniques were developed for many of the physics packages to work efficiency on a dynamically moving and adapting mesh. A flexible strength/failure framework allows for pluggable material models. Material history arrays are used to store persistent data required by the material models, for instance, the level of accumulated damage or the evolving yield stress in J2 plasticity models. We model ductile metals as well as brittle materials such as Si, Be, and B4C. We use interface reconstruction based on volume fractions of the material components within mixed zones and reconstruct interfaces as needed. This interface reconstruction model is also used for void coalescence and fragmentation. The AMR framework allows for hierarchical material modeling (HMM) with different material models at different levels of refinement. Laser rays are propagated through a virtual composite mesh consisting of the finest resolution representation of the modeled space. A new 2nd order accurate diffusion solver has been implemented for the thermal conduction and radiation transport packages. The code is validated using laser and x-ray driven spall experiments in the US and France. We present an overview of the code and simulation results.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Margraf, J
2012-06-12
This report primarily concerns the use of two massively parallel finite element codes originally written and maintained at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. ALE3D is an explicit hydrodynamics code commonly employed to simulate wave propagation from high energy scenarios and the resulting interaction with nearby structures. This coupled response ensures that a structure is accurately applied with a blast loading varying both in space and time. Figure 1 illustrates the radial outward propagation of a pressure wave due to a center detonated spherical explosive originating from the lower left. The radial symmetry seen in this scenario is lost when instead a cylindrocal charge is detonated. Figure 2 indicates that a stronger, faster traveling pressure wave occurs in the direction of the normal axis to the cylinder. The ALE3D name is derived because of the use of arbitrary-Lagrange-Eulerian elements in which the mesh is allowed to advect; a process through which the mesh is modified to alleviate tanlging and general mesh distortion often cuased by high energy scenarios. The counterpart to an advecting element is a Lagrange element, whose mesh moves with the material. Ideally all structural components are kept Lagrange as long as possible to preserve accuracy of material variables and minimize advection related errors. Advection leads to mixed zoning, so using structural Lagrange elements also improves the visualization when post processing the results. A simplified representation of the advection process is shown in Figure 3. First the mesh is distorted due to material motion during the Lagrange step. The mesh is then shifted to an idealized and less distorted state to prevent irregular zones caused by the Lagrange motion. Lastly, the state variables are remapped to the elements of the newly constructed mesh. Note that Figure 3 represents a purely Eulerian mesh relaxation because the mesh is relocated back to the pre-Lagrange position. This is the case when the
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
J. Chen; Y.X. Wang; W.P. Dong; X.Y. Ruan
2004-01-01
Based on the characteristics of 3D bulk forming process, the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE)formulation-based FEM is studied, and a prediction-correction ALE-based FEM is proposed which integrates the advantages of precisely predicting the boundary configuration of the deformed material, and of efficiently avoiding hexahedron remeshing processes. The key idea of the prediction-correction ALE FEM is elaborated in detail. Accordingly, the strategy of mesh quality control, one of the key enabling techniques for the 3D bulk forming process numerical simulation by the prediction-correction ALE FEM is carefully investigated, and the algorithm for hexahedral element refinement is formulated based on the mesh distortion energy.
A Dynamically Adaptive Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Method for Hydrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anderson, R W; Pember, R B; Elliott, N S
2002-10-19
A new method that combines staggered grid Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) techniques with structured local adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) has been developed for solution of the Euler equations. The novel components of the combined ALE-AMR method hinge upon the integration of traditional AMR techniques with both staggered grid Lagrangian operators as well as elliptic relaxation operators on moving, deforming mesh hierarchies. Numerical examples demonstrate the utility of the method in performing detailed three-dimensional shock-driven instability calculations.
A Dynamically Adaptive Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Method for Hydrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anderson, R W; Pember, R B; Elliott, N S
2004-01-28
A new method that combines staggered grid Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) techniques with structured local adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) has been developed for solution of the Euler equations. The novel components of the combined ALE-AMR method hinge upon the integration of traditional AMR techniques with both staggered grid Lagrangian operators as well as elliptic relaxation operators on moving, deforming mesh hierarchies. Numerical examples demonstrate the utility of the method in performing detailed three-dimensional shock-driven instability calculations.
BODY OF JOGET ALE-ALE AS CAPITAL OF RESISTANCE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Salman Alfarisi
2014-08-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to understand how the phenomenon of the dancing body art Ale - ale. This art appears in the middle of the Sasak , Lombok , 1999. The three elements of this art , the music , song , and dance reflects the idea of resistance against the establishment . Demolition of the single truth Tuan Guru and cultural as the dominant group in society Sasak looked at the expression of dance dancing . Therefore , to understand the dimensions of the dancing resistance used qualitative - interpretative methods research design paradigm of cultural studies . The theory used is critical social theory , such as social practice theory of Bourdieu , Derrida deconstruction theory , and postmodern aesthetics in addition . Data acquisition is done by in-depth interviews , observation paratisipatoris , and documentation . An important finding of this study include first , dancing body memerlihatkan wealth dimensional art Ale - ale resistance due to the body , dancing can liberate ourselves from the reality of their urgency , urgency both in economic and social dimensions is constructed by an elite group of Sasak community . In this context , the body dancing is not only a personal expression of dancing , but also can be a practice arena power of dominant groups in society Sasak , namely Mr. Guru and culture . Second , not only the dancing body can be seen as a mere aesthetic expression but as a form of battle between the marginalized groups dancing with the dominant group , namely Mr. Master in religious and cultural problems in the context of culture
ALE-Phase-field simulations of floating particles
Yue, Pengtao
2015-11-01
In this talk, we will present a hybrid Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian(ALE)-Phase-Field method for the direct numerical simulation of multiphase flows where fluid interfaces, moving rigid particles, and moving contact lines coexist. Practical applications include Pickering emulsions, froth flotation, and biolocomotion at fluid interface. An ALE algorithm based on the finite element method and an adaptive moving mesh is used to track the moving boundaries of rigid particles. A phase-field method based on the same moving mesh is used to capture the fluid interfaces; meanwhile, the Cahn-Hilliard diffusion automatically takes care of the stress singularity at the moving contact line when a fluid interface intersects a solid surface. To fully resolve the diffuse interface, mesh is locally refined at the fluid interface. All the governing equations, i.e., equations for fluids, interfaces, and particles, are solved implicitly in a unified variational framework. In the end we will present some recent results on the water entry problem and the capillary interaction between floating particles (a.k.a. the Cheerios effect), with a focus on the effect of contact-line dynamics.
An Invariant-Preserving ALE Method for Solids under Extreme Conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sambasivan, Shiv Kumar [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Christon, Mark A [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-07-17
We are proposing a fundamentally new approach to ALE methods for solids undergoing large deformation due to extreme loading conditions. Our approach is based on a physically-motivated and mathematically rigorous construction of the underlying Lagrangian method, vector/tensor reconstruction, remapping, and interface reconstruction. It is transformational because it deviates dramatically from traditionally accepted ALE methods and provides the following set of unique attributes: (1) a three-dimensional, finite volume, cell-centered ALE framework with advanced hypo-/hyper-elasto-plastic constitutive theories for solids; (2) a new physically and mathematically consistent reconstruction method for vector/tensor fields; (3) advanced invariant-preserving remapping algorithm for vector/tensor quantities; (4) moment-of-fluid (MoF) interface reconstruction technique for multi-material problems with solids undergoing large deformations. This work brings together many new concepts, that in combination with emergent cell-centered Lagrangian hydrodynamics methods will produce a cutting-edge ALE capability and define a new state-of-the-art. Many ideas in this work are new, completely unexplored, and hence high risk. The proposed research and the resulting algorithms will be of immediate use in Eulerian, Lagrangian and ALE codes under the ASC program at the lab. In addition, the research on invariant preserving reconstruction/remap of tensor quantities is of direct interest to ongoing CASL and climate modeling efforts at LANL. The application space impacted by this work includes Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), Z-pinch, munition-target interactions, geological impact dynamics, shock processing of powders and shaped charges. The ALE framework will also provide a suitable test-bed for rapid development and assessment of hypo-/hyper-elasto-plastic constitutive theories. Today, there are no invariant-preserving ALE algorithms for treating solids with large deformations. Therefore
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Durand, A.
1996-10-10
In this thesis, we are interested in the modeling of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in 2-D moving domains with hybrid meshes. This work, far from being restricted to these equations, could be generalized to any other convection-diffusion system written in conservative vector form. After having described the mathematical equations and elaborated on finite volume (FV) methods, numerical schemes and various meshes, we have selected the Galerkin FV method. This method consists in locating the unknowns at the mesh nodes, then in solving the convective terms by means of VF method - quasi 1-D by edge approximation - and the diffusive terms by means of the finite element (FE) method - P{sub 1} for the triangular and Q{sub 1} for the quadrilateral. The equivalence between the Galerkin FV method and a mass-lumped FE method for temporal terms allows the construction of a new control volume constructed by means of medians. Then, show its interest in comparison to the classical control volume constructed by means of medians. Then first-order in comparison to the classical control volume constructed bu means of medians. Then, the first-order Roe scheme and its extension to second-order by the MUSCL method are detailed Emphasis is laid on two calculations oF the Gradient integral. Numerous numerical tests as well as the comparison with another code validate the approach. In particular, we show that triangular meshes lead to less precise results compared to quadrilateral meshes in certain cases. Afterward, we switch to the dimensionless Navier-Stokes equations and we describe a simplified (Bubnov)-Galerkin FE method in the case of the quadrilaterals. The newly deduced computer code is validated bu the means of a vortex convection-diffusion for different Reynolds numbers. This test shows that only highly viscous flows give rise to equivalent solutions for both meshes. (author)
Time-Discrete Higher-Order ALE Formulations: Stability
Bonito, Andrea
2013-01-01
Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formulations deal with PDEs on deformable domains upon extending the domain velocity from the boundary into the bulk with the purpose of keeping mesh regularity. This arbitrary extension has no effect on the stability of the PDE but may influence that of a discrete scheme. We examine this critical issue for higher-order time stepping without space discretization. We propose time-discrete discontinuous Galerkin (dG) numerical schemes of any order for a time-dependent advection-diffusion-model problem in moving domains, and study their stability properties. The analysis hinges on the validity of the Reynold\\'s identity for dG. Exploiting the variational structure and assuming exact integration, we prove that our conservative and nonconservative dG schemes are equivalent and unconditionally stable. The same results remain true for piecewise polynomial ALE maps of any degree and suitable quadrature that guarantees the validity of the Reynold\\'s identity. This approach generalizes the so-called geometric conservation law to higher-order methods. We also prove that simpler Runge-Kutta-Radau methods of any order are conditionally stable, that is, subject to a mild ALE constraint on the time steps. Numerical experiments corroborate and complement our theoretical results. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2015-01-01
Mesh generation and visualization software based on the CGAL library. Folder content: drawmesh Visualize slices of the mesh (surface/volumetric) as wireframe on top of an image (3D). drawsurf Visualize surfaces of the mesh (surface/volumetric). img2mesh Convert isosurface in image to volumetric...
Gill, S P D; Gibson, B K; Flynn, C; Ibata, R A; Lewis, G F; Gill, Stuart P.D.; Knebe, Alexander; Gibson, Brad K.; Flynn, Chris; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Lewis, Geraint F.
2002-01-01
An adaptive multi grid approach to simulating the formation of structure from collisionless dark matter is described. MLAPM (Multi-Level Adaptive Particle Mesh) is one of the most efficient serial codes available on the cosmological 'market' today. As part of Swinburne University's role in the development of the Square Kilometer Array, we are implementing hydrodynamics, feedback, and radiative transfer within the MLAPM adaptive mesh, in order to simulate baryonic processes relevant to the interstellar and intergalactic media at high redshift. We will outline our progress to date in applying the existing MLAPM to a study of the decay of satellite galaxies within massive host potentials.
Jackson, Karen E.; Fuchs, Yvonne T.
2008-01-01
Simulation of multi-terrain impact has been identified as an important research area for improved prediction of rotorcraft crashworthiness within the NASA Subsonic Rotary Wing Aeronautics Program on Rotorcraft Crashworthiness. As part of this effort, two vertical drop tests were conducted of a 5-ft-diameter composite fuselage section into water. For the first test, the fuselage section was impacted in a baseline configuration without energy absorbers. For the second test, the fuselage section was retrofitted with a composite honeycomb energy absorber. Both tests were conducted at a nominal velocity of 25-ft/s. A detailed finite element model was developed to represent each test article and water impact was simulated using both Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) and Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) approaches in LS-DYNA, a nonlinear, explicit transient dynamic finite element code. Analytical predictions were correlated with experimental data for both test configurations. In addition, studies were performed to evaluate the influence of mesh density on test-analysis correlation.
A general higher-order remap algorithm for ALE calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chiravalle, Vincent P [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2011-01-05
A numerical technique for solving the equations of fluid dynamics with arbitrary mesh motion is presented. The three phases of the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) methodology are outlined: the Lagrangian phase, grid relaxation phase and remap phase. The Lagrangian phase follows a well known approach from the HEMP code; in addition the strain rate andflow divergence are calculated in a consistent manner according to Margolin. A donor cell method from the SALE code forms the basis of the remap step, but unlike SALE a higher order correction based on monotone gradients is also added to the remap. Four test problems were explored to evaluate the fidelity of these numerical techniques, as implemented in a simple test code, written in the C programming language, called Cercion. Novel cell-centered data structures are used in Cercion to reduce the complexity of the programming and maximize the efficiency of memory usage. The locations of the shock and contact discontinuity in the Riemann shock tube problem are well captured. Cercion demonstrates a high degree of symmetry when calculating the Sedov blast wave solution, with a peak density at the shock front that is similar to the value determined by the RAGE code. For a flyer plate test problem both Cercion and FLAG give virtually the same velocity temporal profile at the target-vacuum interface. When calculating a cylindrical implosion of a steel shell, Cercion and FLAG agree well and the Cercion results are insensitive to the use of ALE.
A Cell-Centered Multiphase ALE Scheme With Structural Coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dunn, Timothy Alan [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)
2012-04-16
A novel computational scheme has been developed for simulating compressible multiphase flows interacting with solid structures. The multiphase fluid is computed using a Godunov-type finite-volume method. This has been extended to allow computations on moving meshes using a direct arbitrary-Eulerian- Lagrangian (ALE) scheme. The method has been implemented within a Lagrangian hydrocode, which allows modeling the interaction with Lagrangian structural regions. Although the above scheme is general enough for use on many applications, the ultimate goal of the research is the simulation of heterogeneous energetic material, such as explosives or propellants. The method is powerful enough for application to all stages of the problem, including the initial burning of the material, the propagation of blast waves, and interaction with surrounding structures. The method has been tested on a number of canonical multiphase tests as well as fluid-structure interaction problems.
Modeling Three-Dimensional Shock Initiation of PBX 9501 in ALE3D
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leininger, L; Springer, H K; Mace, J; Mas, E
2008-07-08
A recent SMIS (Specific Munitions Impact Scenario) experimental series performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory has provided 3-dimensional shock initiation behavior of the HMX-based heterogeneous high explosive, PBX 9501. A series of finite element impact calculations have been performed in the ALE3D [1] hydrodynamic code and compared to the SMIS results to validate and study code predictions. These SMIS tests used a powder gun to shoot scaled NATO standard fragments into a cylinder of PBX 9501, which has a PMMA case and a steel impact cover. This SMIS real-world shot scenario creates a unique test-bed because (1) SMIS tests facilitate the investigation of 3D Shock to Detonation Transition (SDT) within the context of a considerable suite of diagnostics, and (2) many of the fragments arrive at the impact plate off-center and at an angle of impact. A particular goal of these model validation experiments is to demonstrate the predictive capability of the ALE3D implementation of the Tarver-Lee Ignition and Growth reactive flow model [2] within a fully 3-dimensional regime of SDT. The 3-dimensional Arbitrary Lagrange Eulerian (ALE) hydrodynamic model in ALE3D applies the Ignition and Growth (I&G) reactive flow model with PBX 9501 parameters derived from historical 1-dimensional experimental data. The model includes the off-center and angle of impact variations seen in the experiments. Qualitatively, the ALE3D I&G calculations reproduce observed 'Go/No-Go' 3D Shock to Detonation Transition (SDT) reaction in the explosive, as well as the case expansion recorded by a high-speed optical camera. Quantitatively, the calculations show good agreement with the shock time of arrival at internal and external diagnostic pins. This exercise demonstrates the utility of the Ignition and Growth model applied for the response of heterogeneous high explosives in the SDT regime.
Ren, Xiaodong; Xu, Kun; Shyy, Wei
2016-07-01
This paper presents a multi-dimensional high-order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method in an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation to simulate flows over variable domains with moving and deforming meshes. It is an extension of the gas-kinetic DG method proposed by the authors for static domains (X. Ren et al., 2015 [22]). A moving mesh gas kinetic DG method is proposed for both inviscid and viscous flow computations. A flux integration method across a translating and deforming cell interface has been constructed. Differently from the previous ALE-type gas kinetic method with piecewise constant mesh velocity at each cell interface within each time step, the mesh velocity variation inside a cell and the mesh moving and rotating at a cell interface have been accounted for in the finite element framework. As a result, the current scheme is applicable for any kind of mesh movement, such as translation, rotation, and deformation. The accuracy and robustness of the scheme have been improved significantly in the oscillating airfoil calculations. All computations are conducted in a physical domain rather than in a reference domain, and the basis functions move with the grid movement. Therefore, the numerical scheme can preserve the uniform flow automatically, and satisfy the geometric conservation law (GCL). The numerical accuracy can be maintained even for a largely moving and deforming mesh. Several test cases are presented to demonstrate the performance of the gas-kinetic DG-ALE method.
ALE simulation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anbarlooei, H.R. [Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mazaheri, K. [Univ. of Tarbiyat Modares, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Tehran, (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: Kiumars@modares.ac.ir; Bidabadi, M. [Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2004-07-01
This paper investigates the use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) technique for the simulation of a single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability. A compatible Lagrangian algorithm is used on a simply connected quadrilateral grid in Lagrangian Phase. This algorithm includes subzonal pressures, which are used to control spurious grid motion, and an edge centered artificial viscosity. We use Reference Jacobians optimization based rezone algorithm in the rezoning phase of ALE method. Also a second order sign preserving method is used for remapping. To force monotonocity in remapping phase a Repair algorithm is used. Finally, for remapping of nodal variables we used a second order transformer to transfer these data to cell centers. It is shown that the usage of these algorithms for an ALE method can improve the simulation of a single mode Rayleigh-Taylor Instability. (author)
The moving mesh code Shadowfax
Vandenbroucke, Bert
2016-01-01
We introduce the moving mesh code Shadowfax, which can be used to evolve a mixture of gas, subject to the laws of hydrodynamics and gravity, and any collisionless fluid only subject to gravity, such as cold dark matter or stars. The code is written in C++ and its source code is made available to the scientific community under the GNU Affero General Public License. We outline the algorithm and the design of our implementation, and demonstrate its validity through the results of a set of basic test problems, which are also part of the public version. We also compare Shadowfax with a number of other publicly available codes using different hydrodynamical integration schemes, illustrating the advantages and disadvantages of the moving mesh technique.
The moving mesh code SHADOWFAX
Vandenbroucke, B.; De Rijcke, S.
2016-07-01
We introduce the moving mesh code SHADOWFAX, which can be used to evolve a mixture of gas, subject to the laws of hydrodynamics and gravity, and any collisionless fluid only subject to gravity, such as cold dark matter or stars. The code is written in C++ and its source code is made available to the scientific community under the GNU Affero General Public Licence. We outline the algorithm and the design of our implementation, and demonstrate its validity through the results of a set of basic test problems, which are also part of the public version. We also compare SHADOWFAX with a number of other publicly available codes using different hydrodynamical integration schemes, illustrating the advantages and disadvantages of the moving mesh technique.
Reactive Flow Modeling of Liquid Explosives via ALE3D/Cheetah Simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuo, I W; Bastea, S; Fried, L E
2010-03-10
We carried out reactive flow simulations of liquid explosives such as nitromethane using the hydrodynamic code ALE3D coupled with equations of state and reaction kinetics modeled by the thermochemical code Cheetah. The simulation set-up was chosen to mimic cylinder experiments. For pure unconfined nitromethane we find that the failure diameter and detonation velocity dependence on charge diameter are in agreement with available experimental results. Such simulations are likely to be useful for determining detonability and failure behavior for a wide range of experimental conditions and explosive compounds.
Dietary ALEs are a risk to human health--NOT!
Baynes, John W
2007-09-01
Advanced lipoxidation end-products (ALEs) are formed by reaction of protein with lipid-derived reactive peroxyl and carbonyl compounds produced during food processing and cooking. There is concern that ALEs may induce damage in the gastrointestinal tract, affecting gut health, or enter the body and promote vascular inflammation and tissue damage. However, there is no direct evidence that ALE-proteins are a source of damage in the intestines or that they are transported into the circulation and cause pathology. Modification of proteins by ALEs impedes their digestion, and reactive ALEs released by gastrointestinal proteases would react with proteins or peptides in the gut, limiting their absorption. There are also potent enzymatic mechanisms for detoxifying ALEs or their precursors prior to their entry into the circulation. If ALEs gain access to the circulation, a battery of protective enzymes in tissue provides a second level of defense. These enzymes may be induced in intestinal epithelia and liver by low doses of ALEs, and adaptive responses would provide enhanced protection against future exposure to ALEs. Overall, except in persons with compromised organ function, e. g., vascular, hepatic, or renal diseases, there is little evidence that food ALEs will have any significant pathological effects.
Anaerobic digestion of pot-ale
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mosey, F.E.
1990-12-01
In the production of whisky, the fermented wash is distilled twice and each bushel of grain yields about 15.5 gallons of pot-ale, 6.0 gallons of spent lees and 2.7 gallons of proof spirit. Disposal of pot-ale, the strong residue from the first distillation, containing all the non-volatile and unfermented components of the wash, will always be difficult. Anaerobic digestion provides a possible option. By destroying most of the biodegradable solids and converting them to biogas, it provides an intermediate effluent which conventional treatment technology can purify to river discharge standards. Pilot-scale trials confirm that pot-ale can be treated by anaerobic digestion. The most severe problems are the high purification efficiencies required to achieve UK river discharge standards and the quality and settling properties of the biological sludges produced. To achieved these standards, the design and operation of the entire treatment chain is dominated by the need to capture and concentrate suspended solids (SS) produced by the biological fermentations. Overall performance targets are 99.95% removal of biological oxygen demand (BOD), 99% removal of ammonia and a surplus sludge production of less than 20% of the incoming flow. (author).
Modeling The Shock Initiation of PBX-9501 in ALE3D
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leininger, L; Springer, H K; Mace, J; Mas, E
2008-07-01
The SMIS (Specific Munitions Impact Scenario) experimental series performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory has determined the 3-dimensional shock initiation behavior of the HMX-based heterogeneous high explosive, PBX 9501. A series of finite element impact calculations have been performed in the ALE3D [1] hydrodynamic code and compared to the SMIS results to validate the code predictions. The SMIS tests use a powder gun to shoot scaled NATO standard fragments at a cylinder of PBX 9501, which has a PMMA case and a steel impact cover. The SMIS real-world shot scenario creates a unique test-bed because many of the fragments arrive at the impact plate off-center and at an angle of impact. The goal of this model validation experiments is to demonstrate the predictive capability of the Tarver-Lee Ignition and Growth (I&G) reactive flow model [2] in this fully 3-dimensional regime of Shock to Detonation Transition (SDT). The 3-dimensional Arbitrary Lagrange Eulerian hydrodynamic model in ALE3D applies the Ignition and Growth (I&G) reactive flow model with PBX 9501 parameters derived from historical 1-dimensional experimental data. The model includes the off-center and angle of impact variations seen in the experiments. Qualitatively, the ALE3D I&G calculations accurately reproduce the 'Go/No-Go' threshold of the Shock to Detonation Transition (SDT) reaction in the explosive, as well as the case expansion recorded by a high-speed optical camera. Quantitatively, the calculations show good agreement with the shock time of arrival at internal and external diagnostic pins. This exercise demonstrates the utility of the Ignition and Growth model applied in a predictive fashion for the response of heterogeneous high explosives in the SDT regime.
Relativistic Hydrodynamics with Wavelets
DeBuhr, Jackson; Anderson, Matthew; Neilsen, David; Hirschmann, Eric W
2015-01-01
Methods to solve the relativistic hydrodynamic equations are a key computational kernel in a large number of astrophysics simulations and are crucial to understanding the electromagnetic signals that originate from the merger of astrophysical compact objects. Because of the many physical length scales present when simulating such mergers, these methods must be highly adaptive and capable of automatically resolving numerous localized features and instabilities that emerge throughout the computational domain across many temporal scales. While this has been historically accomplished with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) based methods, alternatives based on wavelet bases and the wavelet transformation have recently achieved significant success in adaptive representation for advanced engineering applications. This work presents a new method for the integration of the relativistic hydrodynamic equations using iterated interpolating wavelets and introduces a highly adaptive implementation for multidimensional simulati...
Barral, N.; Olivier, G.; Alauzet, F.
2017-02-01
Anisotropic metric-based mesh adaptation has proved its efficiency to reduce the CPU time of steady and unsteady simulations while improving their accuracy. However, its extension to time-dependent problems with body-fitted moving geometries is far from straightforward. This paper establishes a well-founded framework for multiscale mesh adaptation of unsteady problems with moving boundaries. This framework is based on a novel space-time analysis of the interpolation error, within the continuous mesh theory. An optimal metric field, called ALE metric field, is derived, which takes into account the movement of the mesh during the adaptation. Based on this analysis, the global fixed-point adaptation algorithm for time-dependent simulations is extended to moving boundary problems, within the range of body-fitted moving meshes and ALE simulations. Finally, three dimensional adaptive simulations with moving boundaries are presented to validate the proposed approach.
Instantons on ALE spaces and orbifold partitions
Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Sułkowski, Piotr
2008-03-01
We consider Script N = 4 theories on ALE spaces of Ak-1 type. As is well known, their partition functions coincide with Ak-1 affine characters. We show that these partition functions are equal to the generating functions of some peculiar classes of partitions which we introduce under the name 'orbifold partitions'. These orbifold partitions turn out to be related to the generalized Frobenius partitions introduced by G. E. Andrews some years ago. We relate the orbifold partitions to the blended partitions and interpret explicitly in terms of a free fermion system.
Instantons on ALE spaces and orbifold partitions
Dijkgraaf, Robbert
2008-01-01
We consider N=4 theories on ALE spaces of $A_{k-1}$ type. As is well known, their partition functions coincide with $A_{k-1}$ affine characters. We show that these partition functions are equal to the generating functions of some peculiar classes of partitions which we introduce under the name 'orbifold partitions'. These orbifold partitions turn out to be related to the generalized Frobenius partitions introduced by G. E. Andrews some years ago. We relate the orbifold partitions to the blended partitions and interpret explicitly in terms of a free fermion system.
The LOCAL attack: Cryptanalysis of the authenticated encryption scheme ALE
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Khovratovich, Dmitry; Rechberger, Christian
2014-01-01
We show how to produce a forged (ciphertext, tag) pair for the scheme ALE with data and time complexity of 2102 ALE encryptions of short messages and the same number of authentication attempts. We use a differential attack based on a local collision, which exploits the availability of extracted...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Busche, M J
2000-08-11
This document describes the software developed for use in calculating K, the 4th order parameter tensor used in ALE3D's anisotropic plasticity model. The multi-scale modeling method developed for this calculation begins with orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) data. The program OIMA3D characterizes the sizes and crystal orientation of the grains found in this data and then determines element orientations for a representative 3D mesh. A shell script, MAKEJOBS, then creates the necessary files to run six ALE3D simulations using this mesh. The results of these simulations are then read by SVD{_}K, a Matlab script, and K is calculated from this information.
... Prosthetics Hernia Surgical Mesh Implants Hernia Surgical Mesh Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... majority of tissue used to produce these mesh implants are from a pig (porcine) or cow (bovine) ...
Urogynecologic Surgical Mesh Implants
... Prosthetics Urogynecologic Surgical Mesh Implants Urogynecologic Surgical Mesh Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... majority of tissue used to produce these mesh implants are from a pig (porcine) or cow (bovine). ...
SULEC: Benchmarking a new ALE finite-element code
Buiter, S.; Ellis, S.
2012-04-01
We have developed a 2-D/3-D arbitrary lagrangian-eulerian (ALE) finite-element code, SULEC, based on known techniques from literature. SULEC is successful in tackling many of the problems faced by numerical models of lithosphere and mantle processes, such as the combination of viscous, elastic, and plastic rheologies, the presence of a free surface, the contrast in viscosity between lithosphere and the underlying asthenosphere, and the occurrence of large deformations including viscous flow and offset on shear zones. The aim of our presentation is (1) to describe SULEC, and (2) to present a set of analytical and numerical benchmarks that we use to continuously test our code. SULEC solves the incompressible momentum equation coupled with the energy equation. It uses a structured mesh that is built of quadrilateral or brick elements that can vary in size in all dimensions, allowing to achieve high resolutions where required. The elements are either linear in velocity with constant pressure, or quadratic in velocity with linear pressure. An accurate pressure field is obtained through an iterative penalty (Uzawa) formulation. Material properties are carried on tracer particles that are advected through the Eulerian mesh. Shear elasticity is implemented following the approach of Moresi et al. [J. Comp. Phys. 184, 2003], brittle materials deform following a Drucker-Prager criterion, and viscous flow is by temperature- and pressure-dependent power-law creep. The top boundary of our models is a true free surface (with free surface stabilisation) on which simple surface processes models may be imposed. We use a set of benchmarks that test viscous, viscoelastic, elastic and plastic deformation, temperature advection and conduction, free surface behaviour, and pressure computation. Part of our benchmark set is automated allowing easy testing of new code versions. Examples include Poiseuille flow, Couette flow, Stokes flow, relaxation of viscous topography, viscous pure shear
A Two-Dimensional MagnetoHydrodynamics Scheme for General Unstructured Grids
Livne, E; Burrows, A; Meakin, C A; Livne, Eli; Dessart, Luc; Burrows, Adam; Meakin, Casey A.
2007-01-01
We report a new finite-difference scheme for two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations, with and without rotation, in unstructured grids with quadrilateral cells. The new scheme is implemented within the code VULCAN/2D, which already includes radiation-hydrodynamics in various approximations and can be used with arbitrarily moving meshes (ALE). The MHD scheme, which consists of cell-centered magnetic field variables, preserves the nodal finite difference representation of $div(\\bB)$ by construction, and therefore any initially divergence-free field remains divergence-free through the simulation. In this paper, we describe the new scheme in detail and present comparisons of VULCAN/2D results with those of the code ZEUS/2D for several one-dimensional and two-dimensional test problems. The code now enables two-dimensional simulations of the collapse and explosion of the rotating, magnetic cores of massive stars. Moreover, it can be used to simulate the very wide variety of astrophysical problems for...
Improvements to SOIL: An Eulerian hydrodynamics code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davis, C.G.
1988-04-01
Possible improvements to SOIL, an Eulerian hydrodynamics code that can do coupled radiation diffusion and strength of materials, are presented in this report. Our research is based on the inspection of other Eulerian codes and theoretical reports on hydrodynamics. Several conclusions from the present study suggest that some improvements are in order, such as second-order advection, adaptive meshes, and speedup of the code by vectorization and/or multitasking. 29 refs., 2 figs.
Guerdoux, Simon; Fourment, Lionel
2007-05-01
An Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formulation is developed to simulate the different stages of the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process with the FORGE3® F.E. software. A splitting method is utilized: a) the material velocity/pressure and temperature fields are calculated, b) the mesh velocity is derived from the domain boundary evolution and an adaptive refinement criterion provided by error estimation, c) P1 and P0 variables are remapped. Different velocity computation and remap techniques have been investigated, providing significant improvement with respect to more standard approaches. The proposed ALE formulation is applied to FSW simulation. Steady state welding, but also transient phases are simulated, showing good robustness and accuracy of the developed formulation. Friction parameters are identified for an Eulerian steady state simulation by comparison with experimental results. Void formation can be simulated. Simulations of the transient plunge and welding phases help to better understand the deposition process that occurs at the trailing edge of the probe. Flexibility and robustness of the model finally allows investigating the influence of new tooling designs on the deposition process.
Missing Yang-Mills instantons on ALE spaces
Hartnoll, S A; Hartnoll, Sean A.; Portugues, Ruben
2002-01-01
We derive an expression for the dimension of the moduli space of SU(n) $k$-instantons on an r-centred ALE metric in terms of the triple $(n,k,r)$. It is shown that if $k \\bmod r > n$ then no $k$-instantons exist. This implies that the corresponding Higgs branch of vacua representing marginally bound D$p$-D$(p+4)$ branes on an ALE background is zero dimensional.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Greene, Patrick T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schofield, Samuel P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nourgaliev, Robert [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2016-06-21
A new mesh smoothing method designed to cluster mesh cells near a dynamically evolving interface is presented. The method is based on weighted condition number mesh relaxation with the weight function being computed from a level set representation of the interface. The weight function is expressed as a Taylor series based discontinuous Galerkin projection, which makes the computation of the derivatives of the weight function needed during the condition number optimization process a trivial matter. For cases when a level set is not available, a fast method for generating a low-order level set from discrete cell-centered elds, such as a volume fraction or index function, is provided. Results show that the low-order level set works equally well for the weight function as the actual level set. Meshes generated for a number of interface geometries are presented, including cases with multiple level sets. Dynamic cases for moving interfaces are presented to demonstrate the method's potential usefulness to arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) methods.
Luciano, Rezzolla
2013-01-01
Relativistic hydrodynamics is a very successful theoretical framework to describe the dynamics of matter from scales as small as those of colliding elementary particles, up to the largest scales in the universe. This book provides an up-to-date, lively, and approachable introduction to the mathematical formalism, numerical techniques, and applications of relativistic hydrodynamics. The topic is typically covered either by very formal or by very phenomenological books, but is instead presented here in a form that will be appreciated both by students and researchers in the field. The topics covered in the book are the results of work carried out over the last 40 years, which can be found in rather technical research articles with dissimilar notations and styles. The book is not just a collection of scattered information, but a well-organized description of relativistic hydrodynamics, from the basic principles of statistical kinetic theory, down to the technical aspects of numerical methods devised for the solut...
Quantum Cohomology and Quantum Hydrodynamics from Supersymmetric Quiver Gauge Theories
Bonelli, Giulio; Tanzini, Alessandro; Vasko, Petr
2015-01-01
We study the connection between N = 2 supersymmetric gauge theories, quantum cohomology and quantum integrable systems of hydrodynamic type. We consider gauge theories on ALE spaces of A and D-type and discuss how they describe the quantum cohomology of the corresponding Nakajima's quiver varieties. We also discuss how the exact evaluation of local BPS observables in the gauge theory can be used to calculate the spectrum of quantum Hamiltonians of spin Calogero integrable systems and spin Intermediate Long Wave hydrodynamics. This is explicitly obtained by a Bethe Ansatz Equation provided by the quiver gauge theory in terms of its adjacency matrix.
Quantum cohomology and quantum hydrodynamics from supersymmetric quiver gauge theories
Bonelli, Giulio; Sciarappa, Antonio; Tanzini, Alessandro; Vasko, Petr
2016-11-01
We study the connection between N = 2 supersymmetric gauge theories, quantum cohomology and quantum integrable systems of hydrodynamic type. We consider gauge theories on ALE spaces of A and D-type and discuss how they describe the quantum cohomology of the corresponding Nakajima's quiver varieties. We also discuss how the exact evaluation of local BPS observables in the gauge theory can be used to calculate the spectrum of quantum Hamiltonians of spin Calogero integrable systems and spin Intermediate Long Wave hydrodynamics. This is explicitly obtained by a Bethe Ansatz Equation provided by the quiver gauge theory in terms of its adjacency matrix.
ALE and Fluid Structure Interaction for Sloshing Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z Ozdemir
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Liquid containment tanks are, generally, subjected to large deformationsunder severe earthquake conditions due to coupling forces between tankand the contained liquid. The accurate description of these forces is vital inorder to diminish or eliminate the potential risk of tank failure during anearthquake. Yet, analytical formulations derived for the seismic analysis ofliquid storage tanks are not capable to capture the complex fluid-structureeffects since they include many assumptions and simplifications not onlyfor the behavior of fluid and structure but also for the external excitation. Onthe other hand, an appropriate numerical method allows us to cope withlarge displacements of free surface of the fluid, high deformations of thestructure and correctly predicts the hydrodynamic forces due to thehigh-speed impacts of sloshing liquid on a tank wall and roof. For thispurpose, a new coupling algorithm based on the penalty formulation offinite element method which computes the coupling forces at the fluidstructureinterface is developed in this paper. This algorithm is constructedon a two superimposed mesh systems which are a fixed or moving ALEmesh for fluid and a deformable Lagrangian mesh for structure. The fluid isrepresented by Navier-Stokes equations and coupled system is solvedusing an explicit time integration scheme. In order to verify the analysiscapability of coupling algorithm for tank problems, numerical method isapplied for the analyses of a rigid rectangular tank under harmonicexcitation and a flexible cylindrical tank subjected to earthquake motionand numerical results are compared with existing analytical andexperimental results. Strong correlation between reference solution andnumerical results is obtained in terms of sloshing wave height.
Milne-Thomson, L M
2011-01-01
This classic exposition of the mathematical theory of fluid motion is applicable to both hydrodynamics and aerodynamics. Based on vector methods and notation with their natural consequence in two dimensions - the complex variable - it offers more than 600 exercises and nearly 400 diagrams. Prerequisites include a knowledge of elementary calculus. 1968 edition.
Bonneau, Dominique; Souchet, Dominique
2014-01-01
This Series provides the necessary elements to the development and validation of numerical prediction models for hydrodynamic bearings. This book describes the rheological models and the equations of lubrication. It also presents the numerical approaches used to solve the above equations by finite differences, finite volumes and finite elements methods.
Lafrance, Pierre
1978-01-01
Explores in a non-mathematical treatment some of the hydrodynamical phenomena and forces that affect the operation of ships, especially at high speeds. Discusses the major components of ship resistance such as the different types of drags and ways to reduce them and how to apply those principles for the hovercraft. (GA)
Planet-disc interaction on a freely moving mesh
Munoz, Diego J; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars
2014-01-01
General-purpose, moving-mesh schemes for hydrodynamics have opened the possibility of combining the accuracy of grid-based numerical methods with the flexibility and automatic resolution adaptivity of particle-based methods. Due to their supersonic nature, Keplerian accretion discs are in principle a very attractive system for applying such freely moving mesh techniques. However, the high degree of symmetry of simple accretion disc models can be difficult to capture accurately by these methods, due to the generation of geometric grid noise and associated numerical diffusion, which is absent in polar grids. To explore these and other issues, in this work we study the idealized problem of two-dimensional planet-disc interaction with the moving-mesh code AREPO. We explore the hydrodynamic evolution of discs with planets through a series of numerical experiments that vary the planet mass, the disc viscosity and the mesh resolution, and compare the resulting surface density, vortensity field and tidal torque with ...
Pei Ping; YURY N. PETRENKO
2015-01-01
A Mesh network simulation framework which provides a powerful and concise modeling chain for a network structure will be introduce in this report. Mesh networks has a special topologic structure. The paper investigates a message transfer in wireless mesh network simulation and how does it works in cellular network simulation. Finally the experimental result gave us the information that mesh networks have different principle in transmission way with cellular networks in transmission, and multi...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castor, J I
2003-10-16
The discipline of radiation hydrodynamics is the branch of hydrodynamics in which the moving fluid absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation, and in so doing modifies its dynamical behavior. That is, the net gain or loss of energy by parcels of the fluid material through absorption or emission of radiation are sufficient to change the pressure of the material, and therefore change its motion; alternatively, the net momentum exchange between radiation and matter may alter the motion of the matter directly. Ignoring the radiation contributions to energy and momentum will give a wrong prediction of the hydrodynamic motion when the correct description is radiation hydrodynamics. Of course, there are circumstances when a large quantity of radiation is present, yet can be ignored without causing the model to be in error. This happens when radiation from an exterior source streams through the problem, but the latter is so transparent that the energy and momentum coupling is negligible. Everything we say about radiation hydrodynamics applies equally well to neutrinos and photons (apart from the Einstein relations, specific to bosons), but in almost every area of astrophysics neutrino hydrodynamics is ignored, simply because the systems are exceedingly transparent to neutrinos, even though the energy flux in neutrinos may be substantial. Another place where we can do ''radiation hydrodynamics'' without using any sophisticated theory is deep within stars or other bodies, where the material is so opaque to the radiation that the mean free path of photons is entirely negligible compared with the size of the system, the distance over which any fluid quantity varies, and so on. In this case we can suppose that the radiation is in equilibrium with the matter locally, and its energy, pressure and momentum can be lumped in with those of the rest of the fluid. That is, it is no more necessary to distinguish photons from atoms, nuclei and electrons, than it is
Mesh generation in archipelagos
Terwisscha van Scheltinga, A.; Myers, P.G.; Pietrzak, J.D.
2012-01-01
A new mesh size field is presented that is specifically designed for efficient meshing of highly irregular oceanic domains: archipelagos. The new approach is based on the standard mesh size field that uses the proximity to the nearest coastline. Here, the proximities to the two nearest coastlines
Su, Xiaohui; Cao, Yuanwei; Zhao, Yong
2016-06-01
In this paper, an unstructured mesh Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) incompressible flow solver is developed to investigate the aerodynamics of insect hovering flight. The proposed finite-volume ALE Navier-Stokes solver is based on the artificial compressibility method (ACM) with a high-resolution method of characteristics-based scheme on unstructured grids. The present ALE model is validated and assessed through flow passing over an oscillating cylinder. Good agreements with experimental results and other numerical solutions are obtained, which demonstrates the accuracy and the capability of the present model. The lift generation mechanisms of 2D wing in hovering motion, including wake capture, delayed stall, rapid pitch, as well as clap and fling are then studied and illustrated using the current ALE model. Moreover, the optimized angular amplitude in symmetry model, 45°, is firstly reported in details using averaged lift and the energy power method. Besides, the lift generation of complete cyclic clap and fling motion, which is simulated by few researchers using the ALE method due to large deformation, is studied and clarified for the first time. The present ALE model is found to be a useful tool to investigate lift force generation mechanism for insect wing flight.
An ALE Finite Element Approach for Two-Phase Flow with Phase Change
Gros, Erik; Anjos, Gustavo; Thome, John; Ltcm Team; Gesar Team
2016-11-01
In this work, two-phase flow with phase change is investigated through the Finite Element Method (FEM) in the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) framework. The equations are discretized on an unstructured mesh where the interface between the phases is explicitly defined as a sub-set of the mesh. The two-phase interface position is described by a set of interconnected nodes which ensures a sharp representation of the boundary, including the role of the surface tension. The methodology proposed for computing the curvature leads to very accurate results with moderate programming effort and computational costs. Such a methodology can be employed to study accurately many two-phase flow and heat transfer problems in industry such as oil extraction and refinement, design of refrigeration systems, modelling of microfluidic and biological systems and efficient cooling of electronics for computational purposes. The latter is the principal aim of the present research. The numerical results are discussed and compared to analytical solutions and reference results, thereby revealing the capability of the proposed methodology as a platform for the study of two-phase flow with phase change.
Lauga, Eric
2015-01-01
Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass, and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micron scale. In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically-complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, we review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; Dyre, Jeppe C.; Daivis, Peter J.;
2011-01-01
We show by nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations that the Navier-Stokes equation does not correctly describe water flow in a nanoscale geometry. It is argued that this failure reflects the fact that the coupling between the intrinsic rotational and translational degrees of freedom becomes...... important for nanoflows. The coupling is correctly accounted for by the extended Navier-Stokes equations that include the intrinsic angular momentum as an independent hydrodynamic degree of freedom. © 2011 American Physical Society....
Finite element mesh generation
Lo, Daniel SH
2014-01-01
Highlights the Progression of Meshing Technologies and Their ApplicationsFinite Element Mesh Generation provides a concise and comprehensive guide to the application of finite element mesh generation over 2D domains, curved surfaces, and 3D space. Organised according to the geometry and dimension of the problem domains, it develops from the basic meshing algorithms to the most advanced schemes to deal with problems with specific requirements such as boundary conformity, adaptive and anisotropic elements, shape qualities, and mesh optimization. It sets out the fundamentals of popular techniques
Don't Panic! Closed String Tachyons in ALE Spacetimes
Adams, A; Silverstein, E
2001-01-01
We consider closed string tachyons localized at the fixed points of noncompact nonsupersymmetric orbifolds. We argue that tachyon condensation drives these orbifolds to flat space or supersymmetric ALE spaces. The decay proceeds via an expanding shell of dilaton gradients and curvature which interpolates between two regions of distinct angular geometry. The string coupling remains weak throughout. For small tachyon VEVs, evidence comes from quiver theories on D-branes probes, in which deformations by twisted couplings smoothly connect non-supersymmetric orbifolds to supersymmetric orbifolds of reduced order. For large tachyon VEVs, evidence comes from worldsheet RG flow and spacetime gravity. For $\\IC^2/\\IZ_n$, we exhibit infinite sequences of transitions producing SUSY ALE spaces via twisted closed string condensation from non-supersymmetric ALE spaces. In a $T$-dual description this provides a mechanism for creating NS5-branes via {\\it closed} string tachyon condensation similar to the creation of D-branes ...
ASPECTE ISTORIOGRAFICE ALE SLAVOFILILOR DESPRE BASARABIA RUSEASCĂ
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nadia CRISTEA
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Istoria Basarabiei secolului al XIX-lea cu aspectele ei lingvistice, legislative, naționale, habitatul și specificul ei distinctiv, format din mai multe etnii, a fost oglindită în numeroase lucrări ale autorilor ruși. Am desprins din mulțimea scrierilor aspectele anunțate în lucrarile reprezentanților curentului slavofil. Unii dintre ei au vizitat Basarabia rusească din curiozitate, alții fiind în misiune, unii au scris din cele studiate sau auzite. Interesant este că scrierile lor fac casă comună cu ideologia timpului, formulată prin drepturile slavilor asupra acestui teritoriu anexat la 1812. Concepțiile lor sunt inerente timpului și locului istoric, dezlipite din realitatea Imperiului Rus, a panslavismului și a ortodoxiei protectoare.THE HISTORIOGRAPHICAL ASPECTS OF THE SLAVOPHILES ABOUT BESSARABIA UNDER THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE The History of the 19th centuryBessarabiawith its linguistic, legislative and national aspects, the habitat and its distinctive peculiarities that were formed by a large number of ethnicities, was reflected in a lot of works of the Russian writers. From this amount of written works I have selected some aspects that can be found in the writings of the Slavophil intellectual movement representatives. The majority of the personalities mentioned above visitedBessarabiawhen it was under the Soviet occupation, the reasons being quite different: some did it out of curiosity, others - being on a mission, while a lot of them wrote their studies based on the information they had learned or heard. An interesting fact that can be noticed in their works is the ideology of time, expressed through the Slavs’ rights for this territory, which was annexed in 1812. Their concepts are inherent to time and historical space, taken from the reality of the Russian Empire, Pan-Slavism and Protective Orthodoxy.
Algorithm refinement for fluctuating hydrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Williams, Sarah A.; Bell, John B.; Garcia, Alejandro L.
2007-07-03
This paper introduces an adaptive mesh and algorithmrefinement method for fluctuating hydrodynamics. This particle-continuumhybrid simulates the dynamics of a compressible fluid with thermalfluctuations. The particle algorithm is direct simulation Monte Carlo(DSMC), a molecular-level scheme based on the Boltzmann equation. Thecontinuum algorithm is based on the Landau-Lifshitz Navier-Stokes (LLNS)equations, which incorporate thermal fluctuations into macroscopichydrodynamics by using stochastic fluxes. It uses a recently-developedsolver for LLNS, based on third-order Runge-Kutta. We present numericaltests of systems in and out of equilibrium, including time-dependentsystems, and demonstrate dynamic adaptive refinement by the computationof a moving shock wave. Mean system behavior and second moment statisticsof our simulations match theoretical values and benchmarks well. We findthat particular attention should be paid to the spectrum of the flux atthe interface between the particle and continuum methods, specificallyfor the non-hydrodynamic (kinetic) time scales.
Disruptive Innovation in Numerical Hydrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Waltz, Jacob I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-09-06
We propose the research and development of a high-fidelity hydrodynamic algorithm for tetrahedral meshes that will lead to a disruptive innovation in the numerical modeling of Laboratory problems. Our proposed innovation has the potential to reduce turnaround time by orders of magnitude relative to Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) codes; reduce simulation setup costs by millions of dollars per year; and effectively leverage Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) and future Exascale computing hardware. If successful, this work will lead to a dramatic leap forward in the Laboratory's quest for a predictive simulation capability.
A 3D moving mesh Finite Element Method for two-phase flows
Anjos, G. R.; Borhani, N.; Mangiavacchi, N.; Thome, J. R.
2014-08-01
A 3D ALE Finite Element Method is developed to study two-phase flow phenomena using a new discretization method to compute the surface tension forces. The computational method is based on the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation (ALE) and the Finite Element Method (FEM), creating a two-phase method with an improved model for the liquid-gas interface. An adaptive mesh update procedure is also proposed for effective management of the mesh to remove, add and repair elements, since the computational mesh nodes move according to the flow. The ALE description explicitly defines the two-phase interface position by a set of interconnected nodes which ensures a sharp representation of the boundary, including the role of the surface tension. The proposed methodology for computing the curvature leads to accurate results with moderate programming effort and computational cost. Static and dynamic tests have been carried out to validate the method and the results have compared well to analytical solutions and experimental results found in the literature, demonstrating that the new proposed methodology provides good accuracy to describe the interfacial forces and bubble dynamics. This paper focuses on the description of the proposed methodology, with particular emphasis on the discretization of the surface tension force, the new remeshing technique, and the validation results. Additionally, a microchannel simulation in complex geometry is presented for two elongated bubbles.
The alternatives for pot-ale disposal. [Evaporation by waste heat recovery and anaerobic digestion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marriott, S. (UKAEA Harwell Lab. (UK). Energy Technology Div.)
1990-01-01
Pot-ale is a by-product of whisky distilling and when concentrated by evaporation can be sold as cattle feed. Examples of energy savings achieved by recovering waste heat from distilleries and using this waste heat to evaporate the water from the pot-ale are described. Another option for pot-ale disposal is anaerobic digestion to biogas. (UK).
Jeon, Sangyong
2015-01-01
We give a pedagogical review of relativistic hydrodynamics relevant to relativistic heavy ion collisions. Topics discussed include linear response theory derivation of 2nd order viscous hydrodynamics including the Kubo formulas, kinetic theory derivation of 2nd order viscous hydrodynamics, anisotropic hydrodynamics and a brief review of numerical algorithms. Emphasis is given to the theory of hydrodynamics rather than phenomenology.
2015-01-01
With the advances in mobile computing technologies and the growth of the Net, mobile mesh networks are going through a set of important evolutionary steps. In this paper, we survey architectural aspects of mobile mesh networks and their use cases and deployment models. Also, we survey challenging areas of mobile mesh networks and describe our vision of promising mobile services. This paper presents a basic introductory material for Masters of Open Information Technologies Lab, interested in m...
Cheng, Siu-Wing; Shewchuk, Jonathan
2013-01-01
Written by authors at the forefront of modern algorithms research, Delaunay Mesh Generation demonstrates the power and versatility of Delaunay meshers in tackling complex geometric domains ranging from polyhedra with internal boundaries to piecewise smooth surfaces. Covering both volume and surface meshes, the authors fully explain how and why these meshing algorithms work.The book is one of the first to integrate a vast amount of cutting-edge material on Delaunay triangulations. It begins with introducing the problem of mesh generation and describing algorithms for constructing Delaunay trian
Renilson, Martin
2015-01-01
This book adopts a practical approach and presents recent research together with applications in real submarine design and operation. Topics covered include hydrostatics, manoeuvring, resistance and propulsion of submarines. The author briefly reviews basic concepts in ship hydrodynamics and goes on to show how they are applied to submarines, including a look at the use of physical model experiments. The issues associated with manoeuvring in both the horizontal and vertical planes are explained, and readers will discover suggested criteria for stability, along with rudder and hydroplane effectiveness. The book includes a section on appendage design which includes information on sail design, different arrangements of bow planes and alternative stern configurations. Other themes explored in this book include hydro-acoustic performance, the components of resistance and the effect of hull shape. Readers will value the author’s applied experience as well as the empirical expressions that are presented for use a...
2011-11-01
triangles in two dimensions and tetrahedra ( tets ) in three dimensions. There are many other ways to discretize a region using unstructured meshes, but this...The boundary points associated with the airfoil surface were moved, but all of the interior points remained stationary , which resulted in a mesh
An Adaptive Mesh Algorithm: Mapping the Mesh Variables
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scannapieco, Anthony J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-07-25
Both thermodynamic and kinematic variables must be mapped. The kinematic variables are defined on a separate kinematic mesh; it is the duel mesh to the thermodynamic mesh. The map of the kinematic variables is done by calculating the contributions of kinematic variables on the old thermodynamic mesh, mapping the kinematic variable contributions onto the new thermodynamic mesh and then synthesizing the mapped kinematic variables on the new kinematic mesh. In this document the map of the thermodynamic variables will be described.
Adaptive mesh refinement for shocks and material interfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dai, William Wenlong [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-01-01
There are three kinds of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) in structured meshes. Block-based AMR sometimes over refines meshes. Cell-based AMR treats cells cell by cell and thus loses the advantage of the nature of structured meshes. Patch-based AMR is intended to combine advantages of block- and cell-based AMR, i.e., the nature of structured meshes and sharp regions of refinement. But, patch-based AMR has its own difficulties. For example, patch-based AMR typically cannot preserve symmetries of physics problems. In this paper, we will present an approach for a patch-based AMR for hydrodynamics simulations. The approach consists of clustering, symmetry preserving, mesh continuity, flux correction, communications, management of patches, and load balance. The special features of this patch-based AMR include symmetry preserving, efficiency of refinement across shock fronts and material interfaces, special implementation of flux correction, and patch management in parallel computing environments. To demonstrate the capability of the AMR framework, we will show both two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations with many levels of refinement.
Water Penetration through a Superhydrophobic Mesh During a Drop Impact.
Ryu, Seunggeol; Sen, Prosenjit; Nam, Youngsuk; Lee, Choongyeop
2017-01-06
When a water drop impacts a mesh having submillimeter pores, a part of the drop penetrates through the mesh if the impact velocity is sufficiently large. Here we show that different surface wettability, i.e., hydrophobicity and superhydrophobicity, leads to different water penetration dynamics on a mesh during drop impact. We show, despite the water repellence of a superhydrophobic surface, that water can penetrate a superhydrophobic mesh more easily (i.e., at a lower impact velocity) over a hydrophobic mesh via a penetration mechanism unique to a superhydrophobic mesh. On a superhydrophobic mesh, the water penetration can occur during the drop recoil stage, which appears at a lower impact velocity than the critical impact velocity for water penetration right upon impact. We propose that this unique water penetration on a superhydrophobic mesh can be attributed to the combination of the hydrodynamic focusing and the momentum transfer from the water drop when it is about to bounce off the surface, at which point the water drop retrieves most of its kinetic energy due to the negligible friction on superhydrophobic surfaces.
Moving Mesh Cosmology: Properties of Gas Disks
Torrey, Paul; Sijacki, Debora; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars
2011-01-01
We compare the structural properties of galaxies formed in cosmological simulations using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code GADGET with those using the moving-mesh code AREPO. Both codes employ identical gravity solvers and the same sub-resolution physics but use very different methods to track the hydrodynamic evolution of gas. This permits us to isolate the effects of the hydro solver on the formation and evolution of galactic disks. In a matching sample of GADGET and AREPO haloes we fit simulated gas disks with exponential profiles. We find that the cold gas disks formed using AREPO have systematically larger disk scale lengths and higher specific angular momenta than their GADGET counterparts. The reason for these differences is rooted in the inaccuracies of the SPH solver and calls for a reassessment of commonly adopted feedback prescriptions in cosmological simulations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skarp, J.; Anttila, E.; Rautiainen, A.; Suntola, T. (Microchemistry Ltd., Espoo (Finland))
1992-01-01
Atomic Layer Epitaxy, ALE, has been applied to grow CdS/CdTe-thin film solar cells. ALE offers the possibility of growing both CdS and CdTe in a single process and tailoring the interface of CdS and CdTe. The thickness of CdS was varied and the optimum was found to be in the range of 50-100 nm with good heterojunction performance and CdTe-crystallinity leading to excellent photovoltaic properties. The structures with thinner CdS layers suffered low open circuit voltage but on the other hand with thicker CdS the short circuit current was limited by the absorption of CdS. (author)
Held, Gilbert
2005-01-01
Wireless mesh networking is a new technology that has the potential to revolutionize how we access the Internet and communicate with co-workers and friends. Wireless Mesh Networks examines the concept and explores its advantages over existing technologies. This book explores existing and future applications, and examines how some of the networking protocols operate.The text offers a detailed analysis of the significant problems affecting wireless mesh networking, including network scale issues, security, and radio frequency interference, and suggests actual and potential solutions for each pro
A LAGUERRE VORONOI BASED SCHEME FOR MESHING PARTICLE SYSTEMS.
Bajaj, Chandrajit
2005-06-01
We present Laguerre Voronoi based subdivision algorithms for the quadrilateral and hexahedral meshing of particle systems within a bounded region in two and three dimensions, respectively. Particles are smooth functions over circular or spherical domains. The algorithm first breaks the bounded region containing the particles into Voronoi cells that are then subsequently decomposed into an initial quadrilateral or an initial hexahedral scaffold conforming to individual particles. The scaffolds are subsequently refined via applications of recursive subdivision (splitting and averaging rules). Our choice of averaging rules yield a particle conforming quadrilateral/hexahedral mesh, of good quality, along with being smooth and differentiable in the limit. Extensions of the basic scheme to dynamic re-meshing in the case of addition, deletion, and moving particles are also discussed. Motivating applications of the use of these static and dynamic meshes for particle systems include the mechanics of epoxy/glass composite materials, bio-molecular force field calculations, and gas hydrodynamics simulations in cosmology.
Oger, G.; Marrone, S.; Le Touzé, D.; de Leffe, M.
2016-05-01
This paper addresses the accuracy of the weakly-compressible SPH method. Interpolation defects due to the presence of anisotropic particle structures inherent to the Lagrangian character of the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method are highlighted. To avoid the appearance of these structures which are detrimental to the quality of the simulations, a specific transport velocity is introduced and its inclusion within an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formalism is described. Unlike most of existing particle disordering/shifting methods, this formalism avoids the formation of these anisotropic structures while a full consistency with the original Euler or Navier-Stokes equations is maintained. The gain in accuracy, convergence and numerical diffusion of this formalism is shown and discussed through its application to various challenging test cases.
Regional and local tectonics at Erta Ale caldera, Afar (Ethiopia)
Acocella, Valerio
2006-10-01
Erta Ale volcano lies along the on-shore Red Sea Rift (northern Afar, Ethiopia), separating the Nubia and Danakil plates. Erta Ale has a NNW-SSE elongated caldera, with a subvertical rim scarp, hosting a lava lake. Structural field work was aimed at defining the deformation pattern around the caldera. The caldera consists of along-rim and across-rim structures, resulting from local and regional (maximum extension ˜NE-SW) stress fields, respectively. These structures cross-cut each other at high angles, suggesting that the two stress fields remain distinct, each prevailing during rifting or caldera collapse. The local along-rim extensional fractures are gravity-driven structures that formed due to the retreat of the caldera wall after collapse, and are confined to the region of caldera subsidence. The across-rim structures are mainly located to the N and S of the caldera, where they form rift zones each accommodating a similar amount of extension (˜6.3 m), but displaying different trends and extension directions. Analogue models of interacting fractures are consistent with the Southern Rift being representative of the regional fault kinematics, while the Northern Rift is a local perturbation, resulting from the interaction between two right-stepping rift segments along the Erta Ale Range.
Mesh implants: An overview of crucial mesh parameters
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lei-Ming; Zhu; Philipp; Schuster; Uwe; Klinge
2015-01-01
Hernia repair is one of the most frequently performed surgical interventions that use mesh implants. This article evaluates crucial mesh parameters to facilitate selection of the most appropriate mesh implant, considering raw materials, mesh composition, structure parameters and mechanical parameters. A literature review was performed using the Pub Med database. The most important mesh parameters in the selection of a mesh implant are the raw material, structural parameters and mechanical parameters, which should match the physiological conditions. The structural parameters, especially the porosity, are the most important predictors of the biocompatibility performance of synthetic meshes. Meshes with large pores exhibit less inflammatory infiltrate, connective tissue and scar bridging, which allows increased soft tissue ingrowth. The raw material and combination of raw materials of the used mesh, including potential coatings and textile design, strongly impact the inflammatory reaction to the mesh. Synthetic meshes made from innovative polymers combined with surface coating have been demonstrated to exhibit advantageous behavior in specialized fields. Monofilament, largepore synthetic meshes exhibit advantages. The value of mesh classification based on mesh weight seems to be overestimated. Mechanical properties of meshes, such as anisotropy/isotropy, elasticity and tensile strength, are crucial parameters for predicting mesh performance after implantation.
Botsch, Mario; Pauly, Mark; Alliez, Pierre; Levy, Bruno
2010-01-01
Geometry processing, or mesh processing, is a fast-growing area of research that uses concepts from applied mathematics, computer science, and engineering to design efficient algorithms for the acquisition, reconstruction, analysis, manipulation, simulation, and transmission of complex 3D models. Applications of geometry processing algorithms already cover a wide range of areas from multimedia, entertainment, and classical computer-aided design, to biomedical computing, reverse engineering, and scientific computing. Over the last several years, triangle meshes have become increasingly popular,
Geometrically Consistent Mesh Modification
Bonito, A.
2010-01-01
A new paradigm of adaptivity is to execute refinement, coarsening, and smoothing of meshes on manifolds with incomplete information about their geometry and yet preserve position and curvature accuracy. We refer to this collectively as geometrically consistent (GC) mesh modification. We discuss the concept of discrete GC, show the failure of naive approaches, and propose and analyze a simple algorithm that is GC and accuracy preserving. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dawes, Alan Sidney [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Malone, Christopher M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Shashkov, Mikhail Jurievich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-07-07
In this report a number of new verification test problems for multimaterial diffusion will be shown. Using them we will show that homogenization of multimaterial cells in either Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) or Eulerian simulations can lead to errors in the energy flow at the interfaces. Results will be presented that show that significant improvements and predictive capability can be gained by using either a surrogate supermesh, such as Thin Mesh in FLAG, or the emerging method based on Static Condensation.
La estructura algebraica del espacio de señales unidimensionales
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marlio Paredes
2005-01-01
Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe la estructura matemática del espacio de señales unidimensionales usado en el procesamiento de señales. Se muestra cómo este espacio admite estructura de álgebra y se presentan varios de los operadores que actúan sobre el espacio que son usados en el procesamiento de señales. Particularmente se muestra que las matrices de todos estos operadores son matrices circulantes.
Particle hydrodynamics with tessellation techniques
Hess, S
2009-01-01
Lagrangian smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is a well-established approach to model fluids in astrophysical problems, thanks to its geometric flexibility and ability to automatically adjust the spatial resolution to the clumping of matter. However, a number of recent studies have emphasized inaccuracies of SPH in the treatment of fluid instabilities. The origin of these numerical problems can be traced back to spurious surface effects across contact discontinuities, and to SPH's inherent prevention of mixing at the particle level. We here investigate a new fluid particle model where the density estimate is carried out with the help of an auxiliary mesh constructed as the Voronoi tessellation of the simulation particles instead of an adaptive smoothing kernel. This Voronoi-based approach improves the ability of the scheme to represent sharp contact discontinuities. We show that this eliminates spurious surface tension effects present in SPH and that play a role in suppressing certain fluid instabilities. ...
Flower structures in the Ales coal basin - structural implications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Genna, A.; Debriette, P.J. (Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, Orleans (France). Dept. de Geologie)
1994-04-07
The presence of flower structures in the Stephanian Ales (coal) basin has led the authors propose a new formation model for the basin, based on reverse strike-slip movement along N-S to NW-SE striking basement faults. This model confirms, through structural arguments, the recent questioning of the traditional explanation of the basin structure as thrust sheets. Such compressive strike-slip structures are not taken into account by the model of late Hercynian crustal extension in the French Massif Central.
Grid and Zone Selection for AMR and ALE Schemes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jameson, L; Johnson, J; Bihari, B; Eliason, D; Peyser, T
2002-09-11
Numerical algorithms are based fundamentally on polynomial interpolation. In regions of the computational domain where a low order polynomial fits the data well one will find small errors in the computed quantities. Therefore, in order to design robust methods for grid selection for AMR schemes or zone selection for ALE schemes, one needs some information on the local polynomial structure of the fields being computed. We provide here algorithms and software for selecting zones based on local estimates of polynomial interpolation error. The algorithms are based on multiresolution and wavelet analysis.
Documentation for MeshKit - Reactor Geometry (&mesh) Generator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jain, Rajeev [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mahadevan, Vijay [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
2015-09-30
This report gives documentation for using MeshKit’s Reactor Geometry (and mesh) Generator (RGG) GUI and also briefly documents other algorithms and tools available in MeshKit. RGG is a program designed to aid in modeling and meshing of complex/large hexagonal and rectilinear reactor cores. RGG uses Argonne’s SIGMA interfaces, Qt and VTK to produce an intuitive user interface. By integrating a 3D view of the reactor with the meshing tools and combining them into one user interface, RGG streamlines the task of preparing a simulation mesh and enables real-time feedback that reduces accidental scripting mistakes that could waste hours of meshing. RGG interfaces with MeshKit tools to consolidate the meshing process, meaning that going from model to mesh is as easy as a button click. This report is designed to explain RGG v 2.0 interface and provide users with the knowledge and skills to pilot RGG successfully. Brief documentation of MeshKit source code, tools and other algorithms available are also presented for developers to extend and add new algorithms to MeshKit. RGG tools work in serial and parallel and have been used to model complex reactor core models consisting of conical pins, load pads, several thousands of axially varying material properties of instrumentation pins and other interstices meshes.
Testing hydrodynamics schemes in galaxy disc simulations
Few, C. G.; Dobbs, C.; Pettitt, A.; Konstandin, L.
2016-08-01
We examine how three fundamentally different numerical hydrodynamics codes follow the evolution of an isothermal galactic disc with an external spiral potential. We compare an adaptive mesh refinement code (RAMSES), a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (SPHNG), and a volume-discretized mesh-less code (GIZMO). Using standard refinement criteria, we find that RAMSES produces a disc that is less vertically concentrated and does not reach such high densities as the SPHNG or GIZMO runs. The gas surface density in the spiral arms increases at a lower rate for the RAMSES simulations compared to the other codes. There is also a greater degree of substructure in the SPHNG and GIZMO runs and secondary spiral arms are more pronounced. By resolving the Jeans length with a greater number of grid cells, we achieve more similar results to the Lagrangian codes used in this study. Other alterations to the refinement scheme (adding extra levels of refinement and refining based on local density gradients) are less successful in reducing the disparity between RAMSES and SPHNG/GIZMO. Although more similar, SPHNG displays different density distributions and vertical mass profiles to all modes of GIZMO (including the smoothed particle hydrodynamics version). This suggests differences also arise which are not intrinsic to the particular method but rather due to its implementation. The discrepancies between codes (in particular, the densities reached in the spiral arms) could potentially result in differences in the locations and time-scales for gravitational collapse, and therefore impact star formation activity in more complex galaxy disc simulations.
Accurate, Meshless Methods for Magneto-Hydrodynamics
Hopkins, Philip F
2016-01-01
Recently, we developed a pair of meshless finite-volume Lagrangian methods for hydrodynamics: the 'meshless finite mass' (MFM) and 'meshless finite volume' (MFV) methods. These capture advantages of both smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and adaptive mesh-refinement (AMR) schemes. Here, we extend these to include ideal magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD). The MHD equations are second-order consistent and conservative. We augment these with a divergence-cleaning scheme, which maintains div*B~0 to high accuracy. We implement these in the code GIZMO, together with a state-of-the-art implementation of SPH MHD. In every one of a large suite of test problems, the new methods are competitive with moving-mesh and AMR schemes using constrained transport (CT) to ensure div*B=0. They are able to correctly capture the growth and structure of the magneto-rotational instability (MRI), MHD turbulence, and the launching of magnetic jets, in some cases converging more rapidly than AMR codes. Compared to SPH, the MFM/MFV methods e...
Analysing Interlanguage Stages ALEs Pass through in the Acquisition of the Simple Past Tense
Mourssi, Anwar
2012-01-01
Building on previous studies of cross-linguistic influence (CLI) on SLA, and principled criteria for confirming its existence in L2 data, an empirical study was run on 74 Arab learners of English (ALEs). A detailed analysis was made of interlanguage stages of the simple past tense forms in 222 written texts produced by ALEs in the classroom…
Vistoli, G; De Maddis, D; Cipak, A; Zarkovic, N; Carini, M; Aldini, G
2013-08-01
Advanced lipoxidation end products (ALEs) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have a pathogenetic role in the development and progression of different oxidative-based diseases including diabetes, atherosclerosis, and neurological disorders. AGEs and ALEs represent a quite complex class of compounds that are formed by different mechanisms, by heterogeneous precursors and that can be formed either exogenously or endogenously. There is a wide interest in AGEs and ALEs involving different aspects of research which are essentially focused on set-up and application of analytical strategies (1) to identify, characterize, and quantify AGEs and ALEs in different pathophysiological conditions; (2) to elucidate the molecular basis of their biological effects; and (3) to discover compounds able to inhibit AGEs/ALEs damaging effects not only as biological tools aimed at validating AGEs/ALEs as drug target, but also as promising drugs. All the above-mentioned research stages require a clear picture of the chemical formation of AGEs/ALEs but this is not simple, due to the complex and heterogeneous pathways, involving different precursors and mechanisms. In view of this intricate scenario, the aim of the present review is to group the main AGEs and ALEs and to describe, for each of them, the precursors and mechanisms of formation.
Enzo: An Adaptive Mesh Refinement Code for Astrophysics
The Enzo Collaboration; Bryan, Greg L.; Norman, Michael L.; O'Shea, Brian W.; Abel, Tom; Wise, John H.; Turk, Matthew J.; Reynolds, Daniel R.; Collins, David C.; Wang, Peng; Skillman, Samuel W.; Smith, Britton; Harkness, Robert P.; Bordner, James; Kim, Ji-Hoon
2013-01-01
This paper describes the open-source code Enzo, which uses block-structured adaptive mesh refinement to provide high spatial and temporal resolution for modeling astrophysical fluid flows. The code is Cartesian, can be run in 1, 2, and 3 dimensions, and supports a wide variety of physics including hydrodynamics, ideal and non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics, N-body dynamics (and, more broadly, self-gravity of fluids and particles), primordial gas chemistry, optically-thin radiative cooling of prim...
Isotopic Implicit Surface Meshing
Boissonnat, Jean-Daniel; Cohen-Steiner, David; Vegter, Gert
2004-01-01
This paper addresses the problem of piecewise linear approximation of implicit surfaces. We first give a criterion ensuring that the zero-set of a smooth function and the one of a piecewise linear approximation of it are isotopic. Then, we deduce from this criterion an implicit surface meshing algor
Turbulent convection in the Sun: modeling in unstructured meshes
Olshevsky, Vyacheslav; Ham, Frank
2014-01-01
We adopted an unstructured hydrodynamical solver CharLES to the problem of global convection in the Sun. With the aim to investigate the properties of solar turbulent convection and reproduce differential rotation pattern. We performed simulations in two spherical shells, with 1.3 and 10 million cells. In the first, coarse mesh, the solution does not reproduce realistic convection, and is dominated by numerical effects. In the second mesh, thermal conduction leads to cooling of bottom layers, that could not be compensated by solar irradiance. More simulations in the 10M cells mesh should be performed to investigate the influence of transport coefficients and numerical effects. Our estimate of the code performance suggests, that realistic simulations in even finer grids could be performed for reasonable computational cost.
Advanced Automatic Hexahedral Mesh Generation from Surface Quad Meshes
Kremer, Michael; Bommes, David; Lim, Isaak; Kobbelt, Leif
2013-01-01
International audience; A purely topological approach for the generation of hexahedral meshes from quadrilateral surface meshes of genus zero has been proposed by M. MÃ¼ller-Hannemann: in a first stage, the input surface mesh is reduced to a single hexahedron by successively eliminating loops from the dual graph of the quad mesh; in the second stage, the hexahedral mesh is constructed by extruding a layer of hexahedra for each dual loop from the first stage in reverse elimination order. In th...
White Dwarf Mergers on Adaptive Meshes I. Methodology and Code Verification
Katz, Max P; Calder, Alan C; Swesty, F Douglas; Almgren, Ann S; Zhang, Weiqun
2015-01-01
The Type Ia supernova progenitor problem is one of the most perplexing and exciting problems in astrophysics, requiring detailed numerical modeling to complement observations of these explosions. One possible progenitor that has merited recent theoretical attention is the white dwarf merger scenario, which has the potential to naturally explain many of the observed characteristics of Type Ia supernovae. To date there have been relatively few self-consistent simulations of merging white dwarf systems using mesh-based hydrodynamics. This is the first paper in a series describing simulations of these systems using a hydrodynamics code with adaptive mesh refinement. In this paper we describe our numerical methodology and discuss our implementation in the compressible hydrodynamics code CASTRO, which solves the Euler equations, and the Poisson equation for self-gravity, and couples the gravitational and rotation forces to the hydrodynamics. Standard techniques for coupling gravitation and rotation forces to the hy...
Efficient Packet Forwarding in Mesh Network
Soumen Kanrar
2012-01-01
Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) is a multi hop low cost, with easy maintenance robust network providing reliable service coverage. WMNs consist of mesh routers and mesh clients. In this architecture, while static mesh routers form the wireless backbone, mesh clients access the network through mesh routers as well as directly meshing with each other. Different from traditional wireless networks, WMN is dynamically self-organized and self-configured. In other words, the nodes in the mesh network au...
Tang, Zhao; Wei, Qingshan; Wei, Alexander
2011-12-01
Metal-mesh lithography (MML) is a practical hybrid of microcontact printing and capillary force lithography that can be applied over millimeter-sized areas with a high level of uniformity. MML can be achieved by blotting various inks onto substrates through thin copper grids, relying on preferential wetting and capillary interactions between template and substrate for pattern replication. The resulting mesh patterns, which are inverted relative to those produced by stenciling or serigraphy, can be reproduced with low micrometer resolution. MML can be combined with other surface chemistry and lift-off methods to create functional microarrays for diverse applications, such as periodic islands of gold nanorods and patterned corrals for fibroblast cell cultures.
Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diachin, L; Hornung, R; Plassmann, P; WIssink, A
2005-03-04
As large-scale, parallel computers have become more widely available and numerical models and algorithms have advanced, the range of physical phenomena that can be simulated has expanded dramatically. Many important science and engineering problems exhibit solutions with localized behavior where highly-detailed salient features or large gradients appear in certain regions which are separated by much larger regions where the solution is smooth. Examples include chemically-reacting flows with radiative heat transfer, high Reynolds number flows interacting with solid objects, and combustion problems where the flame front is essentially a two-dimensional sheet occupying a small part of a three-dimensional domain. Modeling such problems numerically requires approximating the governing partial differential equations on a discrete domain, or grid. Grid spacing is an important factor in determining the accuracy and cost of a computation. A fine grid may be needed to resolve key local features while a much coarser grid may suffice elsewhere. Employing a fine grid everywhere may be inefficient at best and, at worst, may make an adequately resolved simulation impractical. Moreover, the location and resolution of fine grid required for an accurate solution is a dynamic property of a problem's transient features and may not be known a priori. Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is a technique that can be used with both structured and unstructured meshes to adjust local grid spacing dynamically to capture solution features with an appropriate degree of resolution. Thus, computational resources can be focused where and when they are needed most to efficiently achieve an accurate solution without incurring the cost of a globally-fine grid. Figure 1.1 shows two example computations using AMR; on the left is a structured mesh calculation of a impulsively-sheared contact surface and on the right is the fuselage and volume discretization of an RAH-66 Comanche helicopter [35]. Note the
The Montana ALE (Autonomous Lunar Excavator) Systems Engineering Report
Hull, Bethanne J.
2012-01-01
On May 2 1-26, 20 12, the third annual NASA Lunabotics Mining Competition will be held at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. This event brings together student teams from universities around the world to compete in an engineering challenge. Each team must design, build and operate a robotic excavator that can collect artificial lunar soil and deposit it at a target location. Montana State University, Bozeman, is one of the institutions selected to field a team this year. This paper will summarize the goals of MSU's lunar excavator project, known as the Autonomous Lunar Explorer (ALE), along with the engineering process that the MSU team is using to fulfill these goals, according to NASA's systems engineering guidelines.
NUMERICAL PREDICTION OF SUBMARINE HYDRODYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS USING CFD SIMULATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PAN Yu-cun; ZHANG Huai-xin; ZHOU Qi-dou
2012-01-01
The submarine Hydrodynamic coefficients are predicted by numerical simulations.Steady and unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations are carried out to numerically simulate the oblique towing experiment and the Planar Motion Mechanism (PMM) experiment performed on the SUBOFF submarine model.The dynamic mesh method is adopted to simulate the maneuvering motions of pure heaving,pure swaying,pure pitching and pure yawing.The hydrodynamic forces and moments acting on the maneuvering submarine are obtained.Consequently,by analyzing these results,the hydrodynamic coefficients of the submarine maneuvering motions can be determined.The computational results are verified by comparison with experimental data,which show that this method can be used to estimate the hydrodynamic derivatives of a fully appended submarine.
Perspective și probleme ale teoriei prototipului
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dirk Geeraerts
2016-08-01
Full Text Available În paralel cu cercetările întreprinse asupra aplicării teoriei prototipului la chestiuni privind schimbarea semantică (concretizate, în cele din urmă, în apariția monografiei mele din 1997, Diachronic Prototype Semantics [Semantica diacronică a prototipului], mi-am îndreptat în cîteva rînduri atenția asupra clarificării teoretice a noțiunii de prototipicitate ca atare (și a noțiunii înrudite de polisemie. În acest articol încerc să introduc o oarecare sistematicitate în multiplele utilizări ale noțiunii de „prototipicitate”, trasând o distincție între două axe de clasificare încrucișată. În primul rînd, disting între două fenomene structurale cruciale ce stau la baza efectelor prototipicității: flexibilitatea (adică absența unor granițe și demarcații precise și saliența (adică diferențele de dominanță structurală. În al doilea rînd, sugerez că ambele fenomene de prototipicitate pot fi identificate la un nivel intensional (nivelul definițiilor și la un nivel extensional (nivelul referenților. Clasificarea încrucișată realizată în acord cu cele două axe evidențiază patru tipuri principale de efecte ale prototipicității.
Thermal imaging of Erta 'Ale active lava lake (Ethiopia)
Spampinato, L.; Oppenheimer, C.; Calvari, S.; Cannata, A.; Montalto, P.
2009-04-01
Active lava lakes represent the uppermost portion of a volume of convective magma exposed to the atmosphere, and provide open windows on magma dynamics within shallow reservoirs. Erta ‘Ale volcano located within the Danakil Depression in Ethiopia, hosts one of the few permanent convecting lava lakes, active at least since the last century. We report here the main features of Erta ‘Ale lake surface investigated using a hand-held infrared thermal camera between 11 and 12 November 2006. In both days, the lake surface was mainly characterized by efficient magma circulation reflecting in the formation of well-marked incandescent cracks and wide crust plates. These crossed the lake from the upwelling to the downwelling margin with mean speeds ranging between 0.01 and 0.15 m s-1. Hot spots opened eventually in the middle of crust plates and/or along cracks. These produced explosive activity lasting commonly between ~10 and 200 sec. Apparent temperatures at cracks ranged between ~700 and 1070˚C, and between ~300 and 500˚C at crust plates. Radiant power output of the lake varied between ~45 and 76 MW according to the superficial activity and continuous resurfacing of the lake. Time series analysis of the radiant power output data reveals cyclicity with a period of ~10 min. The combination of visual and thermal observations with apparent mean temperatures and convection rates allows us to interpret these signals as the periodic release of hot overpressured gas bubbles at the lake surface.
Mesh Algorithms for PDE with Sieve I: Mesh Distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthew G. Knepley
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We have developed a new programming framework, called Sieve, to support parallel numerical partial differential equation(s (PDE algorithms operating over distributed meshes. We have also developed a reference implementation of Sieve in C++ as a library of generic algorithms operating on distributed containers conforming to the Sieve interface. Sieve makes instances of the incidence relation, or arrows, the conceptual first-class objects represented in the containers. Further, generic algorithms acting on this arrow container are systematically used to provide natural geometric operations on the topology and also, through duality, on the data. Finally, coverings and duality are used to encode not only individual meshes, but all types of hierarchies underlying PDE data structures, including multigrid and mesh partitions. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of the framework, we show how the mesh partition data can be represented and manipulated using the same fundamental mechanisms used to represent meshes. We present the complete description of an algorithm to encode a mesh partition and then distribute a mesh, which is independent of the mesh dimension, element shape, or embedding. Moreover, data associated with the mesh can be similarly distributed with exactly the same algorithm. The use of a high level of abstraction within the Sieve leads to several benefits in terms of code reuse, simplicity, and extensibility. We discuss these benefits and compare our approach to other existing mesh libraries.
Elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication
Dowson, D; Hopkins, D W
1977-01-01
Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication deals with the mechanism of elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication, that is, the lubrication regime in operation over the small areas where machine components are in nominal point or line contact. The lubrication of rigid contacts is discussed, along with the effects of high pressure on the lubricant and bounding solids. The governing equations for the solution of elasto-hydrodynamic problems are presented.Comprised of 13 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication and representation of contacts by cylinders, followed by a discussio
Elementary classical hydrodynamics
Chirgwin, B H; Langford, W J; Maxwell, E A; Plumpton, C
1967-01-01
Elementary Classical Hydrodynamics deals with the fundamental principles of elementary classical hydrodynamics, with emphasis on the mechanics of inviscid fluids. Topics covered by this book include direct use of the equations of hydrodynamics, potential flows, two-dimensional fluid motion, waves in liquids, and compressible flows. Some general theorems such as Bernoulli's equation are also considered. This book is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental principles of fluid hydrodynamics, with emphasis on ways of studying the motion of a fluid. Basic c
Análisis y procesado de señales multicanal procedentes de sensores industriales
García Cantalapiedra, Adrián
2017-01-01
Este Trabajo de Fin de Máster se centra en el estudio y elaboración de técnicas para facilitar la detección de irregularidades presentes en unas determinadas piezas industriales, a partir de señales temporales adquiridas con diferentes tipos de sensores. Dichas señales presentan correlación en los momentos en los cuales hay eventos a detectar, y por lo tanto buscaremos el beneficio de buscar información multicanal entre las señales disponibles. Una de las principales dificultades a las que...
Tratamiento digital de señales. Problemas y ejercicios resueltos
Soria Olivas, Emilio; Martínez Sober, Marcelino; Francés Villora, José Vicente; Camps Valls, Gustavo
2003-01-01
El documento es un libro de problemas y ejercicios de Tratamiento Digital de Señales. Este libro publicado por Prentice-Hall en 2003, se ofrece actualmente como recurso de acceso abierto tras su descatalogación. En él se ofrecen ejemplos de problemas y ejercicios resueltos de Tratamiento Digital de Señales, a los que previamente se introduce la base teórica suficiente como para seguir el desarrollo del texto. El contenido es el siguiente: Señales y sistemas en tiempo discreto; Análisis frecue...
Simulating Small-Scale Experiments of In-Tunnel Airblast Using STUN and ALE3D
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neuscamman, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glenn, Lewis [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schebler, Gregory [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McMichael, Larry [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glascoe, Lee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2011-09-12
This report details continuing validation efforts for the Sphere and Tunnel (STUN) and ALE3D codes. STUN has been validated previously for blast propagation through tunnels using several sets of experimental data with varying charge sizes and tunnel configurations, including the MARVEL nuclear driven shock tube experiment (Glenn, 2001). The DHS-funded STUNTool version is compared to experimental data and the LLNL ALE3D hydrocode. In this particular study, we compare the performance of the STUN and ALE3D codes in modeling an in-tunnel airblast to experimental results obtained by Lunderman and Ohrt in a series of small-scale high explosive experiments (1997).
ALE3D: An Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Multi-Physics Code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Noble, Charles R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Anderson, Andrew T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Barton, Nathan R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bramwell, Jamie A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Capps, Arlie [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chang, Michael H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chou, Jin J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dawson, David M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Diana, Emily R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dunn, Timothy A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Faux, Douglas R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fisher, Aaron C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Greene, Patrick T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Heinz, Ines [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kanarska, Yuliya [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Khairallah, Saad A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Liu, Benjamin T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Margraf, Jon D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nichols, Albert L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nourgaliev, Robert N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Puso, Michael A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reus, James F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Robinson, Peter B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shestakov, Alek I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Solberg, Jerome M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Taller, Daniel [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tsuji, Paul H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); White, Christopher A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); White, Jeremy L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2017-05-23
ALE3D is a multi-physics numerical simulation software tool utilizing arbitrary-Lagrangian- Eulerian (ALE) techniques. The code is written to address both two-dimensional (2D plane and axisymmetric) and three-dimensional (3D) physics and engineering problems using a hybrid finite element and finite volume formulation to model fluid and elastic-plastic response of materials on an unstructured grid. As shown in Figure 1, ALE3D is a single code that integrates many physical phenomena.
Greene, Patrick T.; Schofield, Samuel P.; Nourgaliev, Robert
2017-04-01
A new mesh smoothing method designed to cluster cells near a dynamically evolving interface is presented. The method is based on weighted condition number mesh relaxation with the weight function computed from a level set representation of the interface. The weight function is expressed as a Taylor series based discontinuous Galerkin projection, which makes the computation of the derivatives of the weight function needed during the condition number optimization process a trivial matter. For cases when a level set is not available, a fast method for generating a low-order level set from discrete cell-centered fields, such as a volume fraction or index function, is provided. Results show that the low-order level set works equally well as the actual level set for mesh smoothing. Meshes generated for a number of interface geometries are presented, including cases with multiple level sets. Dynamic cases with moving interfaces show the new method is capable of maintaining a desired resolution near the interface with an acceptable number of relaxation iterations per time step, which demonstrates the method's potential to be used as a mesh relaxer for arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) methods.
Parallel Block Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement on Graphics Processing Units
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beckingsale, D. A. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Aldermaston (United Kingdom); Gaudin, W. P. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Aldermaston (United Kingdom); Hornung, R. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gunney, B. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gamblin, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Herdman, J. A. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Aldermaston (United Kingdom); Jarvis, S. A. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Aldermaston (United Kingdom)
2014-11-17
Block-structured adaptive mesh refinement is a technique that can be used when solving partial differential equations to reduce the number of zones necessary to achieve the required accuracy in areas of interest. These areas (shock fronts, material interfaces, etc.) are recursively covered with finer mesh patches that are grouped into a hierarchy of refinement levels. Despite the potential for large savings in computational requirements and memory usage without a corresponding reduction in accuracy, AMR adds overhead in managing the mesh hierarchy, adding complex communication and data movement requirements to a simulation. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a native GPU-based AMR library, including: the classes used to manage data on a mesh patch, the routines used for transferring data between GPUs on different nodes, and the data-parallel operators developed to coarsen and refine mesh data. We validate the performance and accuracy of our implementation using three test problems and two architectures: an eight-node cluster, and over four thousand nodes of Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Titan supercomputer. Our GPU-based AMR hydrodynamics code performs up to 4.87× faster than the CPU-based implementation, and has been scaled to over four thousand GPUs using a combination of MPI and CUDA.
h-Refinement for simple corner balance scheme of SN transport equation on distorted meshes
Yang, Rong; Yuan, Guangwei
2016-11-01
The transport sweep algorithm is a common method for solving discrete ordinate transport equation, but it breaks down once a concave cell appears in spatial meshes. To deal with this issue a local h-refinement for simple corner balance (SCB) scheme of SN transport equation on arbitrary quadrilateral meshes is presented in this paper by using a new subcell partition. It follows that a hybrid mesh with both triangle and quadrilateral cells is generated, and the geometric quality of these cells improves, especially it is ensured that all cells become convex. Combining with the original SCB scheme, an adaptive transfer algorithm based on the hybrid mesh is constructed. Numerical experiments are presented to verify the utility and accuracy of the new algorithm, especially for some application problems such as radiation transport coupled with Lagrangian hydrodynamic flow. The results show that it performs well on extremely distorted meshes with concave cells, on which the original SCB scheme does not work.
AbuAlSaud, Moataz
2012-07-01
The purpose of this thesis is to solve unsteady two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations for a moving mesh using implicit explicit (IMEX) Runge- Kutta scheme. The moving mesh is implemented in the equations using Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formulation. The inviscid part of the equation is explicitly solved using second-order Godunov method, whereas the viscous part is calculated implicitly. We simulate subsonic compressible flow over static NACA-0012 airfoil at different angle of attacks. Finally, the moving mesh is examined via oscillating the airfoil between angle of attack = 0 and = 20 harmonically. It is observed that the numerical solution matches the experimental and numerical results in the literature to within 20%.
CUVÂNT DE INCEPUT. COORDONATELE ACTUALE ALE GEOGRAFIEI (I
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pompei COCEAN
2007-09-01
Full Text Available Există, în evoluţia fiecărei ştiinţe, momente de graţie şi de incertitudine, de afirmare explozivă şi de meandrare dezinvoltă sinonimă stagnării sau, nu rareori, chiar unor intervale de criză. Perioadele efervescente urmează, fără excepţie, inovaţiei în domeniu, lansării unor noi teorii şi paradigme, a conturării unor noi direcţii de investigaţie, a introducerii unor metode şi tehnologii mai eficiente, prin intermediul cărora vechile obstacole sunt, de regulă, depăşite. Sinusoida evolutivă ţinteşte însă mereu frontiera necunoscutului, aşa cum sugestiv o exprima fondatorul Biospeologiei, marele savant Emil Racoviţă, la Întâiul Congres al Naturaliştilor din România, Cluj, 1928: «Oricât de cotit ar fi în aparenţă drumul omenirii, până acum direcţia a fost tot înainte şi nu înapoi, înainte spre o organizare socială tot mai raţională şi spre o colaborare generală tot mai paşnică.» Privind cu detaşare şi imparţialitate starea actuală a ştiinţei celor patru învelişuri terestre, Geografia, constatăm, fără nici o tăgadă, că ea se află într-un moment prielnic, fast, al devenirii sale, când orizonturile afirmării îi sunt dezmărginite, iar importanţa sa socială se amplifică. Însăşi slujitorii săi au încetat să se mai întrebe, retoric, „ce este Geografia” preferând să combată cu succes în arena dezideratelor atât de incitante ale ramurilor şi subramurilor acesteia. Astfel, constatăm cu nedisimulată satisfacţie deschiderea ştiinţei noastre spre un domeniu nou, cu numeroase valenţe aplicative, cel al dezvoltării regionale. Un domeniu de interferenţă, de imbricare a mai multor ştiinţe, pe câmpul căruia geografii, arhitecţii, economiştii, inginerii sau sociologii se întâlnesc frecvent, colaborând sau dimpotrivă, antrenându-se într-o concurenţă acerbă. Domeniu în vogă, sintagma ce-l defineşte fiind omniprezentă în vocabularul
Moving mesh cosmology: tracing cosmological gas accretion
Nelson, Dylan; Genel, Shy; Sijacki, Debora; Keres, Dusan; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars; 10.1093/mnras/sts595
2013-01-01
We investigate the nature of gas accretion onto haloes and galaxies at z=2 using cosmological hydrodynamic simulations run with the moving mesh code AREPO. Implementing a Monte Carlo tracer particle scheme to determine the origin and thermodynamic history of accreting gas, we make quantitative comparisons to an otherwise identical simulation run with the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code GADGET-3. Contrasting these two numerical approaches, we find significant physical differences in the thermodynamic history of accreted gas in haloes above 10^10.5 solar masses. In agreement with previous work, GADGET simulations show a cold fraction near unity for galaxies forming in massive haloes, implying that only a small percentage of accreted gas heats to an appreciable fraction of the virial temperature during accretion. The same galaxies in AREPO show a much lower cold fraction, <20% in haloes above 10^11 solar masses. This results from a hot gas accretion rate which, at this same halo mass, is an order o...
Adaptive Mesh Fluid Simulations on GPU
Wang, Peng; Kaehler, Ralf
2009-01-01
We describe an implementation of compressible inviscid fluid solvers with block-structured adaptive mesh refinement on Graphics Processing Units using NVIDIA's CUDA. We show that a class of high resolution shock capturing schemes can be mapped naturally on this architecture. Using the method of lines approach with the second order total variation diminishing Runge-Kutta time integration scheme, piecewise linear reconstruction, and a Harten-Lax-van Leer Riemann solver, we achieve an overall speedup of approximately 10 times faster execution on one graphics card as compared to a single core on the host computer. We attain this speedup in uniform grid runs as well as in problems with deep AMR hierarchies. Our framework can readily be applied to more general systems of conservation laws and extended to higher order shock capturing schemes. This is shown directly by an implementation of a magneto-hydrodynamic solver and comparing its performance to the pure hydrodynamic case. Finally, we also combined our CUDA par...
toolkit computational mesh conceptual model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baur, David G.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Cochran, William K.; Williams, Alan B.; Sjaardema, Gregory D.
2010-03-01
The Sierra Toolkit computational mesh is a software library intended to support massively parallel multi-physics computations on dynamically changing unstructured meshes. This domain of intended use is inherently complex due to distributed memory parallelism, parallel scalability, heterogeneity of physics, heterogeneous discretization of an unstructured mesh, and runtime adaptation of the mesh. Management of this inherent complexity begins with a conceptual analysis and modeling of this domain of intended use; i.e., development of a domain model. The Sierra Toolkit computational mesh software library is designed and implemented based upon this domain model. Software developers using, maintaining, or extending the Sierra Toolkit computational mesh library must be familiar with the concepts/domain model presented in this report.
Quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics
Alqahtani, Mubarak
2016-01-01
We study an azimuthally-symmetric boost-invariant quark-gluon plasma using quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics including the effects of both shear and bulk viscosities. We compare results obtained using the quasiparticle method with the standard anisotropic hydrodynamics and viscous hydrodynamics. We consider the predictions of the three methods for the differential particle spectra and mean transverse momentum. We find that the three methods agree for small shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, $\\eta/s$, but show differences at large $\\eta/s$. Additionally, we find that the standard anisotropic hydrodynamics method shows suppressed production at low transverse-momentum compared to the other two methods, and the bulk-viscous correction can drive the primordial particle spectra negative at large $p_T$ in viscous hydrodynamics.
Sibeyn, J.; Rao, P; Juurlink, B.
1996-01-01
Algorithms for performing gossiping on one- and higher dimensional meshes are presented. As a routing model, we assume the practically important worm-hole routing. For one-dimensional arrays and rings, we give a novel lower bound and an asymptotically optimal gossiping algorithm for all choices of the parameters involved. For two-dimensional meshes and tori, several simple algorithms composed of one-dimensional phases are presented. For an important range of packet and mesh sizes it gives cle...
An Adaptive Mesh Algorithm: Mesh Structure and Generation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scannapieco, Anthony J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-06-21
The purpose of Adaptive Mesh Refinement is to minimize spatial errors over the computational space not to minimize the number of computational elements. The additional result of the technique is that it may reduce the number of computational elements needed to retain a given level of spatial accuracy. Adaptive mesh refinement is a computational technique used to dynamically select, over a region of space, a set of computational elements designed to minimize spatial error in the computational model of a physical process. The fundamental idea is to increase the mesh resolution in regions where the physical variables are represented by a broad spectrum of modes in k-space, hence increasing the effective global spectral coverage of those physical variables. In addition, the selection of the spatially distributed elements is done dynamically by cyclically adjusting the mesh to follow the spectral evolution of the system. Over the years three types of AMR schemes have evolved; block, patch and locally refined AMR. In block and patch AMR logical blocks of various grid sizes are overlaid to span the physical space of interest, whereas in locally refined AMR no logical blocks are employed but locally nested mesh levels are used to span the physical space. The distinction between block and patch AMR is that in block AMR the original blocks refine and coarsen entirely in time, whereas in patch AMR the patches change location and zone size with time. The type of AMR described herein is a locally refi ned AMR. In the algorithm described, at any point in physical space only one zone exists at whatever level of mesh that is appropriate for that physical location. The dynamic creation of a locally refi ned computational mesh is made practical by a judicious selection of mesh rules. With these rules the mesh is evolved via a mesh potential designed to concentrate the nest mesh in regions where the physics is modally dense, and coarsen zones in regions where the physics is modally
Synthesized Optimization of Triangular Mesh
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HU Wenqiang; YANG Wenyu
2006-01-01
Triangular mesh is often used to describe geometric object as computed model in digital manufacture, thus the mesh model with both uniform triangular shape and excellent geometric shape is expected. But in fact, the optimization of triangular shape often is contrary with that of geometric shape. In this paper, one synthesized optimizing algorithm is presented through subdividing triangles to achieve the trade-off solution between the geometric and triangular shape optimization of mesh model. The result mesh with uniform triangular shape and excellent topology are obtained.
Surface meshing with curvature convergence
Li, Huibin
2014-06-01
Surface meshing plays a fundamental role in graphics and visualization. Many geometric processing tasks involve solving geometric PDEs on meshes. The numerical stability, convergence rates and approximation errors are largely determined by the mesh qualities. In practice, Delaunay refinement algorithms offer satisfactory solutions to high quality mesh generations. The theoretical proofs for volume based and surface based Delaunay refinement algorithms have been established, but those for conformal parameterization based ones remain wide open. This work focuses on the curvature measure convergence for the conformal parameterization based Delaunay refinement algorithms. Given a metric surface, the proposed approach triangulates its conformal uniformization domain by the planar Delaunay refinement algorithms, and produces a high quality mesh. We give explicit estimates for the Hausdorff distance, the normal deviation, and the differences in curvature measures between the surface and the mesh. In contrast to the conventional results based on volumetric Delaunay refinement, our stronger estimates are independent of the mesh structure and directly guarantee the convergence of curvature measures. Meanwhile, our result on Gaussian curvature measure is intrinsic to the Riemannian metric and independent of the embedding. In practice, our meshing algorithm is much easier to implement and much more efficient. The experimental results verified our theoretical results and demonstrated the efficiency of the meshing algorithm. © 2014 IEEE.
Advanced life events (ALEs) that impede aging-in-place among seniors.
Lindquist, Lee A; Ramirez-Zohfeld, Vanessa; Sunkara, Priya; Forcucci, Chris; Campbell, Dianne; Mitzen, Phyllis; Cameron, Kenzie A
2016-01-01
Despite the wishes of many seniors to age-in-place in their own homes, critical events occur that impede their ability to do so. A gap exists as to what these advanced life events (ALEs) entail and the planning that older adults perceive is necessary. The purpose of this study was to identify seniors' perceptions and planning toward ALEs that may impact their ability to remain in their own home. We conducted focus groups with 68 seniors, age ≥65 years (mean age 73.8 years), living in the community (rural, urban, and suburban), using open-ended questions about perceptions of future heath events, needs, and planning. Three investigators coded transcriptions using constant comparative analysis to identify emerging themes, with disagreements resolved via consensus. Subjects identified five ALEs that impacted their ability to remain at home: (1) Hospitalizations, (2) Falls, (3) Dementia, (4) Spousal Loss, and (5) Home Upkeep Issues. While recognizing that ALEs frequently occur, many subjects reported a lack of planning for ALEs and perceived that these ALEs would not happen to them. Themes for the rationale behind the lack of planning emerged as: uncertainty in future, being too healthy/too sick, offspring influences, denial/procrastination, pride, feeling overwhelmed, and financial concerns. Subjects expressed reliance on offspring for navigating future ALEs, although many had not communicated their needs with their offspring. Overcoming the reasons for not planning for ALEs is crucial, as being prepared for future home needs provides seniors a voice in their care while engaging key supporters (e.g., offspring).
Mesh Algorithms for PDE with Sieve I: Mesh Distribution
Knepley, Matthew G
2009-01-01
We have developed a new programming framework, called Sieve, to support parallel numerical PDE algorithms operating over distributed meshes. We have also developed a reference implementation of Sieve in C++ as a library of generic algorithms operating on distributed containers conforming to the Sieve interface. Sieve makes instances of the incidence relation, or \\emph{arrows}, the conceptual first-class objects represented in the containers. Further, generic algorithms acting on this arrow container are systematically used to provide natural geometric operations on the topology and also, through duality, on the data. Finally, coverings and duality are used to encode not only individual meshes, but all types of hierarchies underlying PDE data structures, including multigrid and mesh partitions. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of the framework, we show how the mesh partition data can be represented and manipulated using the same fundamental mechanisms used to represent meshes. We present the complete des...
A Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics approach for poroelasticity
Osorno, Maria; Steeb, Holger
2016-04-01
Within the framework of the SHynergie project we look to investigate hydraulic fracturing and crack evolving in poroelastic media. We model biphasic media assuming incompressible solid grain and incompressible pore liquid. Modeling evolving fractures and fracture networks in elastic and poroelastic media by mesh-based numerical approaches, like X-FEM, is especially in 3-dim a challenging task. Therefore, we propose a meshless particle method for fractured media based on the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) approach. SPH is a meshless Lagrangian method highly suitable for the simulation of large deformations including free surfaces and/or interfaces. Within the SPH method, the computational domain is discretized with particles, avoiding the computational expenses of meshing. Our SPH solution is implemented in a parallel computational framework, which allows to simulate large domains more representative of the scale of our study cases. Our implementation is carefully validated against classical mesh-based approaches and compared with classical solutions for consolidation problems. Furthermore, we discuss fracture initiation and propagation in poroelastic rocks at the reservoir scale.
Prevention of Adhesion to Prosthetic Mesh
van ’t Riet, Martijne; de Vos van Steenwijk, Peggy J.; Bonthuis, Fred; Marquet, Richard L.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Jeekel, Johannes; Bonjer, H. Jaap
2003-01-01
Objective To assess whether use of antiadhesive liquids or coatings could prevent adhesion formation to prosthetic mesh. Summary Background Data Incisional hernia repair frequently involves the use of prosthetic mesh. However, concern exists about development of adhesions between viscera and the mesh, predisposing to intestinal obstruction or enterocutaneous fistulas. Methods In 91 rats, a defect in the muscular abdominal wall was created, and mesh was fixed intraperitoneally to cover the defect. Rats were divided in five groups: polypropylene mesh only (control group), addition of Sepracoat or Icodextrin solution to polypropylene mesh, Sepramesh (polypropylene mesh with Seprafilm coating), and Parietex composite mesh (polyester mesh with collagen coating). Seven and 30 days postoperatively, adhesions were assessed and wound healing was studied by microscopy. Results Intraperitoneal placement of polypropylene mesh was followed by bowel adhesions to the mesh in 50% of the cases. A mean of 74% of the mesh surface was covered by adhesions after 7 days, and 48% after 30 days. Administration of Sepracoat or Icodextrin solution had no influence on adhesion formation. Coated meshes (Sepramesh and Parietex composite mesh) had no bowel adhesions. Sepramesh was associated with a significant reduction of the mesh surface covered by adhesions after 7 and 30 days. Infection was more prevalent with Parietex composite mesh, with concurrent increased mesh surface covered by adhesions after 30 days (78%). Conclusions Sepramesh significantly reduced mesh surface covered by adhesions and prevented bowel adhesion to the mesh. Parietex composite mesh prevented bowel adhesions as well but increased infection rates in the current model. PMID:12496539
Risk Factors for Mesh Exposure after Transvaginal Mesh Surgery
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ke Niu; Yong-Xian Lu; Wen-Jie Shen; Ying-Hui Zhang; Wen-Ying Wang
2016-01-01
Background:Mesh exposure after surgery continues to be a clinical challenge for urogynecological surgeons.The purpose of this study was to explore the risk factors for polypropylene (PP) mesh exposure after transvaginal mesh (TVM) surgery.Methods:This study included 195 patients with advanced pelvic organ prolapse (POP),who underwent TVM from January 2004to December 2012 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Chinese PLA General Hospital.Clinical data were evaluated including patient's demography,TVM type,concomitant procedures,operation time,blood loss,postoperative morbidity,and mesh exposure.Mesh exposure was identified through postoperative vaginal examination.Statistical analysis was performed to identify risk factors for mesh exposure.Results:Two-hundred and nine transvaginal PP meshes were placed,including 194 in the anterior wall and 15 in the posterior wall.Concomitant tension-free vaginal tape was performed in 61 cases.The mean follow-up time was 35.1 ± 23.6 months.PP mesh exposure was identified in 32 cases (16.4％),with 31 in the anterior wall and 1 in the posterior wall.Significant difference was found in operating time and concomitant procedures between exposed and nonexposed groups (F =7.443,P =0.007;F =4.307,P =0.039,respectively).Binary logistic regression revealed that the number of concomitant procedures and operation time were risk factors for mesh exposure (P =0.001,P =0.043).Conclusion:Concomitant procedures and increased operating time increase the risk for postoperative mesh exposure in patients undergoing TVM surgery for POP.
Field temperature measurements at Erta'Ale Lava Lake, Ethiopia
Burgi, Pierre-Yves; Caillet, Marc; Haefeli, Steven
2002-06-01
The shield volcano Erta'Ale, situated in the Danakil Depression, Ethiopia, is known for its active lava lake. In February 2001, our team visited this lake, located inside an 80-m-deep pit, to perform field temperature measurements. The distribution and variation of temperature inside the lake were obtained on the basis of infrared radiation measurements performed from the rim of the pit and from the lake shores. The crust temperature was also determined from the lake shores with a thermocouple to calibrate the pyrometer. We estimated an emissivity of the basalt of 0.74 from this experiment. Through the application of the Stefan-Boltzmann law, we then obtained an estimate of the total radiative heat flux, constrained by pyrometer measurements of the pit, and visual observations of the lake activity. Taking into account the atmospheric convective heat flux, the convected magma mass flux needed to balance the energy budget was subsequently derived and found to represent between 510 and 580 kg s-1. The surface circulation of this mass flux was also analyzed through motion processing techniques applied to video images of the lake. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00445-002-0224-3.
Parameterization for fitting triangular mesh
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIN Hongwei; WANG Guojin; LIU Ligang; BAO Hujun
2006-01-01
In recent years, with the development of 3D data acquisition equipments, the study on reverse engineering has become more and more important. However, the existing methods for parameterization can hardly ensure that the parametric domain is rectangular, and the parametric curve grid is regular. In order to overcome these limitations, we present a novel method for parameterization of triangular meshes in this paper. The basic idea is twofold: first, because the isotherms in the steady temperature do not intersect with each other, and are distributed uniformly, no singularity (fold-over) exists in the parameterization; second, a 3D harmonic equation is solved by the finite element method to obtain the steady temperature field on a 2D triangular mesh surface with four boundaries. Therefore, our proposed method avoids the embarrassment that it is impossible to solve the 2D quasi-harmonic equation on the 2D triangular mesh without the parametric values at mesh vertices. Furthermore, the isotherms on the temperature field are taken as a set of iso-parametric curves on the triangular mesh surface. The other set of iso-parametric curves can be obtained by connecting the points with the same chord-length on the isotherms sequentially. The obtained parametric curve grid is regular, and distributed uniformly, and can map the triangular mesh surface to the unit square domain with boundaries of mesh surface to boundaries of parametric domain, which ensures that the triangular mesh surface or point cloud can be fitted with the NURBS surface.
Guaranteed-Quality Triangular Meshes
1989-04-01
Defense Ad, : ed Research P: jects Pgency or the U.S- Gower ment° iI Guaranteed-Quality Triangular Meshes DTIC ELECTE L. Paul Chew* JUL 1419891 TR 89-983 S... Wittchen , M. S. Shephard, K. R. Grice, and M. A. Yerry, Robust, geometrically based, automatic two-dimensional mesh generation, International Journal for
An Improved Moving Mesh Algorithm
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
we consider an iterative algorithm of mesh optimization for finite element solution, and give an improved moving mesh strategy that reduces rapidly the complexity and cost of solving variational problems.A numerical result is presented for a 2-dimensional problem by the improved algorithm.
DEVELOPMENT OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL HYDRODYNAMIC AND WATER QUALITY MODEL FOR HUANGPU RIVER
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xu Zu-xin; Yin Hai-long
2003-01-01
Based on numerical computation model RMA2 and RMA4 with open source code, finite element meshes representing the study domain are created, then the finite element hydrodynamic and water quality model for Huangpu River is developed and calibrated, and the simulation results are analyzed. This developed hydrodynamic and water quality model is used to analyze the influence of discharged wastewater from planning Wastwater Treatment Plant (WWTP) on Huangpu River's water quality.
Adaptive and Unstructured Mesh Cleaving
Bronson, Jonathan R.; Sastry, Shankar P.; Levine, Joshua A.; Whitaker, Ross T.
2015-01-01
We propose a new strategy for boundary conforming meshing that decouples the problem of building tetrahedra of proper size and shape from the problem of conforming to complex, non-manifold boundaries. This approach is motivated by the observation that while several methods exist for adaptive tetrahedral meshing, they typically have difficulty at geometric boundaries. The proposed strategy avoids this conflict by extracting the boundary conforming constraint into a secondary step. We first build a background mesh having a desired set of tetrahedral properties, and then use a generalized stenciling method to divide, or “cleave”, these elements to get a set of conforming tetrahedra, while limiting the impacts cleaving has on element quality. In developing this new framework, we make several technical contributions including a new method for building graded tetrahedral meshes as well as a generalization of the isosurface stuffing and lattice cleaving algorithms to unstructured background meshes. PMID:26137171
Oz, Yaron
2015-01-01
This chapter describes how the AdS/CFT correspondence (the Holographic Principle) relates field theory hydrodynamics to perturbations of black hole (brane) gravitational backgrounds. The hydrodynamics framework is first presented from the field theory point of view, after which the dual gravitational description is outlined, first for relativistic fluids and then for the nonrelativistic case. Further details of the fluid/gravity correspondence are then discussed, including the bulk geometry and the dynamics of the black hole horizon.
Greene, Patrick; Schofield, Sam; Nourgaliev, Robert
2016-11-01
A new mesh smoothing method designed to cluster cells near a dynamically evolving interface is presented. The method is based on weighted condition number mesh relaxation with the weight function being computed from a level set representation of the interface. The weight function is expressed as a Taylor series based discontinuous Galerkin (DG) projection, which makes the computation of the derivatives of the weight function needed during the condition number optimization process a trivial matter. For cases when a level set is not available, a fast method for generating a low-order level set from discrete cell-centered fields, such as a volume fraction or index function, is provided. Results show that the low-order level set works equally well for the weight function as the actual level set. The method retains the excellent smoothing capabilities of condition number relaxation, while providing a method for clustering mesh cells near regions of interest. Dynamic cases for moving interfaces are presented to demonstrate the method's potential usefulness as a mesh relaxer for arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) methods. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Anisotropic Diffusion in Mesh-Free Numerical Magnetohydrodynamics
Hopkins, Philip F
2016-01-01
We extend recently-developed mesh-free Lagrangian methods for numerical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) to arbitrary anisotropic diffusion equations, including: passive scalar diffusion, Spitzer-Braginskii conduction and viscosity, cosmic ray diffusion/streaming, anisotropic radiation transport, non-ideal MHD (Ohmic resistivity, ambipolar diffusion, the Hall effect), and turbulent 'eddy diffusion.' We study these as implemented in the code GIZMO for both new meshless finite-volume Godunov schemes (MFM/MFV) as well as smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH). We show the MFM/MFV methods are accurate and stable even with noisy fields and irregular particle arrangements, and recover the correct behavior even in arbitrarily anisotropic cases. They are competitive with state-of-the-art AMR/moving-mesh methods, and can correctly treat anisotropic diffusion-driven instabilities (e.g. the MTI and HBI, Hall MRI). We also develop a new scheme for stabilizing anisotropic tensor-valued fluxes with high-order gradient estimators ...
Constructing stable 3D hydrodynamical models of giant stars
Ohlmann, Sebastian T; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Springel, Volker
2016-01-01
Hydrodynamical simulations of stellar interactions require stable models of stars as initial conditions. Such initial models, however, are difficult to construct for giant stars because of the wide range in spatial scales of the hydrostatic equilibrium and in dynamical timescales between the core and the envelope of the giant. They are needed for, e.g., modeling the common envelope phase where a giant envelope encompasses both the giant core and a companion star. Here, we present a new method of approximating and reconstructing giant profiles from a stellar evolution code to produce stable models for multi-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations. We determine typical stellar stratification profiles with the 1D stellar evolution code MESA. After an appropriate mapping, hydrodynamical simulations are conducted using the moving-mesh code AREPO. The giant profiles are approximated by replacing the core of the giant with a point mass and by constructing a suitable continuation of the profile to the center. Differen...
Benoit, Commercon; Romain, Teyssier
2014-01-01
Implicit solvers present strong limitations when used on supercomputing facilities and in particular for adaptive mesh-refinement codes. We present a new method for implicit adaptive time-stepping on adaptive mesh refinement-grids and implementing it in the radiation hydrodynamics solver we designed for the RAMSES code for astrophysical purposes and, more particularly, for protostellar collapse. We briefly recall the radiation hydrodynamics equations and the adaptive time-stepping methodology used for hydrodynamical solvers. We then introduce the different types of boundary conditions (Dirichlet, Neumann, and Robin) that are used at the interface between levels and present our implementation of the new method in the RAMSES code. The method is tested against classical diffusion and radiation hydrodynamics tests, after which we present an application for protostellar collapse. We show that using Dirichlet boundary conditions at level interfaces is a good compromise between robustness and accuracy and that it ca...
Streaming Compression of Hexahedral Meshes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Isenburg, M; Courbet, C
2010-02-03
We describe a method for streaming compression of hexahedral meshes. Given an interleaved stream of vertices and hexahedral our coder incrementally compresses the mesh in the presented order. Our coder is extremely memory efficient when the input stream documents when vertices are referenced for the last time (i.e. when it contains topological finalization tags). Our coder then continuously releases and reuses data structures that no longer contribute to compressing the remainder of the stream. This means in practice that our coder has only a small fraction of the whole mesh in memory at any time. We can therefore compress very large meshes - even meshes that do not file in memory. Compared to traditional, non-streaming approaches that load the entire mesh and globally reorder it during compression, our algorithm trades a less compact compressed representation for significant gains in speed, memory, and I/O efficiency. For example, on the 456k hexahedra 'blade' mesh, our coder is twice as fast and uses 88 times less memory (only 3.1 MB) with the compressed file increasing about 3% in size. We also present the first scheme for predictive compression of properties associated with hexahedral cells.
Mesh Adaptation and Shape Optimization on Unstructured Meshes Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR CRM proposes to implement the entropy adjoint method for solution adaptive mesh refinement into the Loci/CHEM unstructured flow solver. The scheme will...
Collisionless Stellar Hydrodynamics as an Efficient Alternative to N-body Methods
Mitchell, Nigel L; Hensler, Gerhard
2012-01-01
For simulations that deal only with dark matter or stellar systems, the conventional N-body technique is fast, memory efficient, and relatively simple to implement. However when including the effects of gas physics, mesh codes are at a distinct disadvantage compared to SPH. Whilst implementing the N-body approach into SPH codes is fairly trivial, the particle-mesh technique used in mesh codes to couple collisionless stars and dark matter to the gas on the mesh, has a series of significant scientific and technical limitations. These include spurious entropy generation resulting from discreteness effects, poor load balancing and increased communication overhead which spoil the excellent scaling in massively parallel grid codes. We propose the use of the collisionless Boltzmann moment equations as a means to model collisionless material as a fluid on the mesh, implementing it into the massively parallel FLASH AMR code. This approach, which we term "collisionless stellar hydrodynamics" enables us to do away with ...
Nanowire mesh solar fuels generator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Peidong; Chan, Candace; Sun, Jianwei; Liu, Bin
2016-05-24
This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to a nanowire mesh solar fuels generator. In one aspect, a nanowire mesh solar fuels generator includes (1) a photoanode configured to perform water oxidation and (2) a photocathode configured to perform water reduction. The photocathode is in electrical contact with the photoanode. The photoanode may include a high surface area network of photoanode nanowires. The photocathode may include a high surface area network of photocathode nanowires. In some embodiments, the nanowire mesh solar fuels generator may include an ion conductive polymer infiltrating the photoanode and the photocathode in the region where the photocathode is in electrical contact with the photoanode.
A Hybrid Advection Scheme for Conserving Angular Momentum on a Refined Cartesian Mesh
Byerly, Zachary D; Tohline, Joel E; Marcello, Dominic C
2014-01-01
We test a new "hybrid" scheme for simulating dynamical fluid flows in which cylindrical components of the momentum are advected across a rotating Cartesian coordinate mesh. This hybrid scheme allows us to conserve angular momentum to machine precision while capitalizing on the advantages offered by a Cartesian mesh, such as a straightforward implementation of mesh refinement. Our test focuses on measuring the real and imaginary parts of the eigenfrequency of unstable axisymmetric modes that naturally arise in massless polytropic tori having a range of different aspect ratios, and quantifying the uncertainty in these measurements. Our measured eigenfrequencies show good agreement with the results obtained from the linear stability analysis of Kojima (1986) and from nonlinear hydrodynamic simulations performed on a cylindrical coordinate mesh by Woodward et al. (1994). When compared against results conducted with a traditional Cartesian advection scheme, the hybrid scheme achieves qualitative convergence at the...
Mersiline mesh in premaxillary augmentation.
Foda, Hossam M T
2005-01-01
Premaxillary retrusion may distort the aesthetic appearance of the columella, lip, and nasal tip. This defect is characteristically seen in, but not limited to, patients with cleft lip nasal deformity. This study investigated 60 patients presenting with premaxillary deficiencies in which Mersiline mesh was used to augment the premaxilla. All the cases had surgery using the external rhinoplasty technique. Two methods of augmentation with Mersiline mesh were used: the Mersiline roll technique, for the cases with central symmetric deficiencies, and the Mersiline packing technique, for the cases with asymmetric deficiencies. Premaxillary augmentation with Mersiline mesh proved to be simple technically, easy to perform, and not associated with any complications. Periodic follow-up evaluation for a mean period of 32 months (range, 12-98 months) showed that an adequate degree of premaxillary augmentation was maintained with no clinically detectable resorption of the mesh implant.
GENERATION OF IRREGULAR HEXAGONAL MESHES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vlasov Aleksandr Nikolaevich
2012-07-01
Decomposition is performed in a constructive way and, as option, it involves meshless representation. Further, this mapping method is used to generate the calculation mesh. In this paper, the authors analyze different cases of mapping onto simply connected and bi-connected canonical domains. They represent forward and backward mapping techniques. Their potential application for generation of nonuniform meshes within the framework of the asymptotic homogenization theory is also performed to assess and project effective characteristics of heterogeneous materials (composites.
Anisotropic hydrodynamics -- basic concepts
Florkowski, Wojciech; Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Strickland, Michael
2013-01-01
Due to the rapid longitudinal expansion of the quark-gluon plasma created in relativistic heavy ion collisions, potentially large local rest frame momentum-space anisotropies are generated. The magnitude of these momentum-space anisotropies can be so large as to violate the central assumption of canonical viscous hydrodynamical treatments which linearize around an isotropic background. In order to better describe the early-time dynamics of the quark gluon plasma, one can consider instead expanding around a locally anisotropic background which results in a dynamical framework called anisotropic hydrodynamics. In this proceedings contribution we review the basic concepts of the anisotropic hydrodynamics framework presenting viewpoints from both the phenomenological and microscopic points of view.
Time-discrete higher order ALE formulations: a priori error analysis
Bonito, Andrea
2013-03-16
We derive optimal a priori error estimates for discontinuous Galerkin (dG) time discrete schemes of any order applied to an advection-diffusion model defined on moving domains and written in the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) framework. Our estimates hold without any restrictions on the time steps for dG with exact integration or Reynolds\\' quadrature. They involve a mild restriction on the time steps for the practical Runge-Kutta-Radau methods of any order. The key ingredients are the stability results shown earlier in Bonito et al. (Time-discrete higher order ALE formulations: stability, 2013) along with a novel ALE projection. Numerical experiments illustrate and complement our theoretical results. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Image-driven mesh optimization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lindstrom, P; Turk, G
2001-01-05
We describe a method of improving the appearance of a low vertex count mesh in a manner that is guided by rendered images of the original, detailed mesh. This approach is motivated by the fact that greedy simplification methods often yield meshes that are poorer than what can be represented with a given number of vertices. Our approach relies on edge swaps and vertex teleports to alter the mesh connectivity, and uses the downhill simplex method to simultaneously improve vertex positions and surface attributes. Note that this is not a simplification method--the vertex count remains the same throughout the optimization. At all stages of the optimization the changes are guided by a metric that measures the differences between rendered versions of the original model and the low vertex count mesh. This method creates meshes that are geometrically faithful to the original model. Moreover, the method takes into account more subtle aspects of a model such as surface shading or whether cracks are visible between two interpenetrating parts of the model.
Dispersive hydrodynamics: Preface
Biondini, G.; El, G. A.; Hoefer, M. A.; Miller, P. D.
2016-10-01
This Special Issue on Dispersive Hydrodynamics is dedicated to the memory and work of G.B. Whitham who was one of the pioneers in this field of physical applied mathematics. Some of the papers appearing here are related to work reported on at the workshop "Dispersive Hydrodynamics: The Mathematics of Dispersive Shock Waves and Applications" held in May 2015 at the Banff International Research Station. This Preface provides a broad overview of the field and summaries of the various contributions to the Special Issue, placing them in a unified context.
Method and system for mesh network embedded devices
Wang, Ray (Inventor)
2009-01-01
A method and system for managing mesh network devices. A mesh network device with integrated features creates an N-way mesh network with a full mesh network topology or a partial mesh network topology.
Procesado digital de señales mediante circuitos integrados reconfigurables.
Artetxe Querejeta, Itsaso
2015-01-01
El procesado digital de señales en tiempo real requiere en algunos casos el desarrollo de hardware específico de alta velocidad. Con este fin se propone el diseño de una arquitectura, su especificación usando un lenguaje de descripción del hardware (VHDL) y su verificación experimental sobre un circuito integrado de tipo FPGA. Se propone en concreto la implementación de un filtro FIR y su aplicación a señales de audio.
User Manual for the PROTEUS Mesh Tools
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smith, Micheal A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shemon, Emily R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
2015-06-01
This report describes the various mesh tools that are provided with the PROTEUS code giving both descriptions of the input and output. In many cases the examples are provided with a regression test of the mesh tools. The most important mesh tools for any user to consider using are the MT_MeshToMesh.x and the MT_RadialLattice.x codes. The former allows the conversion between most mesh types handled by PROTEUS while the second allows the merging of multiple (assembly) meshes into a radial structured grid. Note that the mesh generation process is recursive in nature and that each input specific for a given mesh tool (such as .axial or .merge) can be used as “mesh” input for any of the mesh tools discussed in this manual.
First Light with ALES: A 2-5 Micron Adaptive Optics Integral Field Spectrograph for the LBT
Skemer, Andrew J; Montoya, Manny; Skrutskie, Michael F; Leisenring, Jarron; Durney, Oli; Woodward, Charles E; Wilson, John; Nelson, Matt; Bailey, Vanessa; Defrere, Denis; Stone, Jordan
2015-01-01
Integral field spectrographs are an important technology for exoplanet imaging, due to their ability to take spectra in a high-contrast environment, and improve planet detection sensitivity through spectral differential imaging. ALES is the first integral field spectrograph capable of imaging exoplanets from 3-5$\\mu$m, and will extend our ability to characterize self-luminous exoplanets into a wavelength range where they peak in brightness. ALES is installed inside LBTI/LMIRcam on the Large Binocular Telescope, taking advantage of existing AO systems, camera optics, and a HAWAII-2RG detector. The new optics that comprise ALES are a Keplerian magnifier, a silicon lenslet array with diffraction suppressing pinholes, a direct vision prism, and calibration optics. All of these components are installed in filter wheels making ALES a completely modular design. ALES saw first light at the LBT in June 2015.
Mesh refinement strategy for optimal control problems
Paiva, Luis Tiago; Fontes, Fernando,
2013-01-01
International audience; Direct methods are becoming the most used technique to solve nonlinear optimal control problems. Regular time meshes having equidistant spacing are frequently used. However, in some cases these meshes cannot cope accurately with nonlinear behavior. One way to improve the solution is to select a new mesh with a greater number of nodes. Another way, involves adaptive mesh refinement. In this case, the mesh nodes have non equidistant spacing which allow a non uniform node...
Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic Simulator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2016-10-05
This code is a highly modular framework for developing smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations running on parallel platforms. The compartmentalization of the code allows for rapid development of new SPH applications and modifications of existing algorithms. The compartmentalization also allows changes in one part of the code used by many applications to instantly be made available to all applications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Franci Gabrovsek
2008-01-01
Full Text Available From a hydrological point of view, active caves are a series of connected conduits which drain water through an aquifer. Water tends to choose the easiest way through the system but different geological and morphological barriers act as flow restrictions. The number and characteristics of restrictions depends on the particular speleogenetic environment, which is a function of geological, geomorphological, climatological and hydrological settings. Such a variety and heterogeneity of underground systems has presented a challenge for human understanding for many centuries. Access to many underground passages, theoretical knowledge and recent methods (modeling, water pressure-resistant dataloggers, precise sensors etc. give us the opportunity to get better insight into the hydrodynamic aspect of caves. In our work we tried to approach underground hydrodynamics from both theoretical and practical points of view. We present some theoretical background of open surface and pressurized flow in underground rivers and present results of some possible scenarios. Moreover, two case studies from the Ljubljanica river basin are presented in more detail: the cave system between Planinsko polje and Ljubljansko barje, and the cave system between Bloško polje and Cerkniško polje. The approach and methodology in each case is somewhat different, as the aims were different at the beginning of exploration. However, they both deal with temporal and spatial hydrodynamics of underground waters. In the case of Bloško polje-Cerkniško polje system we also explain the feedback loop between hydrodynamics and Holocene speleogenesis.
Hydrodynamics of the Dirac spectrum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Yizhuang, E-mail: yizhuang.liu@stonybrook.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Warchoł, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.warchol@uj.edu.pl [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, PL-30348 Krakow (Poland); Zahed, Ismail, E-mail: ismail.zahed@stonybrook.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States)
2016-02-10
We discuss a hydrodynamical description of the eigenvalues of the Dirac spectrum in even dimensions in the vacuum and in the large N (volume) limit. The linearized hydrodynamics supports sound waves. The hydrodynamical relaxation of the eigenvalues is captured by a hydrodynamical (tunneling) minimum configuration which follows from a pertinent form of Euler equation. The relaxation from a phase of unbroken chiral symmetry to a phase of broken chiral symmetry occurs over a time set by the speed of sound.
WHITE DWARF MERGERS ON ADAPTIVE MESHES. I. METHODOLOGY AND CODE VERIFICATION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Katz, Max P.; Zingale, Michael; Calder, Alan C.; Swesty, F. Douglas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 11794-3800 (United States); Almgren, Ann S.; Zhang, Weiqun [Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2016-03-10
The Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) progenitor problem is one of the most perplexing and exciting problems in astrophysics, requiring detailed numerical modeling to complement observations of these explosions. One possible progenitor that has merited recent theoretical attention is the white dwarf (WD) merger scenario, which has the potential to naturally explain many of the observed characteristics of SNe Ia. To date there have been relatively few self-consistent simulations of merging WD systems using mesh-based hydrodynamics. This is the first paper in a series describing simulations of these systems using a hydrodynamics code with adaptive mesh refinement. In this paper we describe our numerical methodology and discuss our implementation in the compressible hydrodynamics code CASTRO, which solves the Euler equations, and the Poisson equation for self-gravity, and couples the gravitational and rotation forces to the hydrodynamics. Standard techniques for coupling gravitation and rotation forces to the hydrodynamics do not adequately conserve the total energy of the system for our problem, but recent advances in the literature allow progress and we discuss our implementation here. We present a set of test problems demonstrating the extent to which our software sufficiently models a system where large amounts of mass are advected on the computational domain over long timescales. Future papers in this series will describe our treatment of the initial conditions of these systems and will examine the early phases of the merger to determine its viability for triggering a thermonuclear detonation.
Connectivity editing for quadrilateral meshes
Peng, Chihan
2011-12-12
We propose new connectivity editing operations for quadrilateral meshes with the unique ability to explicitly control the location, orientation, type, and number of the irregular vertices (valence not equal to four) in the mesh while preserving sharp edges. We provide theoretical analysis on what editing operations are possible and impossible and introduce three fundamental operations to move and re-orient a pair of irregular vertices. We argue that our editing operations are fundamental, because they only change the quad mesh in the smallest possible region and involve the fewest irregular vertices (i.e., two). The irregular vertex movement operations are supplemented by operations for the splitting, merging, canceling, and aligning of irregular vertices. We explain how the proposed highlevel operations are realized through graph-level editing operations such as quad collapses, edge flips, and edge splits. The utility of these mesh editing operations are demonstrated by improving the connectivity of quad meshes generated from state-of-art quadrangulation techniques. © 2011 ACM.
Connectivity editing for quadrilateral meshes
Peng, Chihan
2011-12-01
We propose new connectivity editing operations for quadrilateral meshes with the unique ability to explicitly control the location, orientation, type, and number of the irregular vertices (valence not equal to four) in the mesh while preserving sharp edges. We provide theoretical analysis on what editing operations are possible and impossible and introduce three fundamental operations to move and re-orient a pair of irregular vertices. We argue that our editing operations are fundamental, because they only change the quad mesh in the smallest possible region and involve the fewest irregular vertices (i.e., two). The irregular vertex movement operations are supplemented by operations for the splitting, merging, canceling, and aligning of irregular vertices. We explain how the proposed high-level operations are realized through graph-level editing operations such as quad collapses, edge flips, and edge splits. The utility of these mesh editing operations are demonstrated by improving the connectivity of quad meshes generated from state-of-art quadrangulation techniques.
Mesh Router Nodes placement in Rural Wireless Mesh Networks
Ebongue, Jean Louis Fendji Kedieng; Thron, Christopher; Nlong, Jean Michel
2015-01-01
The problem of placement of mesh router nodes in Wireless Mesh Networks is known to be a NP hard problem. In this paper, the problem is addressed under a constraint of network model tied to rural regions where we usually observe low density and sparse population. We consider the area to cover as decomposed into a set of elementary areas which can be required or optional in terms of coverage and where a node can be placed or not. We propose an effective algorithm to ensure the coverage. This a...
Testing Hydrodynamics Schemes in Galaxy Disc Simulations
Few, C G; Pettitt, A; Konstandin, L
2016-01-01
We examine how three fundamentally different numerical hydrodynamics codes follow the evolution of an isothermal galactic disc with an external spiral potential. We compare an adaptive mesh refinement code (RAMSES), a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (sphNG), and a volume-discretised meshless code (GIZMO). Using standard refinement criteria, we find that RAMSES produces a disc that is less vertically concentrated and does not reach such high densities as the sphNG or GIZMO runs. The gas surface density in the spiral arms increases at a lower rate for the RAMSES simulations compared to the other codes. There is also a greater degree of substructure in the sphNG and GIZMO runs and secondary spiral arms are more pronounced. By resolving the Jeans' length with a greater number of grid cells we achieve more similar results to the Lagrangian codes used in this study. Other alterations to the refinement scheme (adding extra levels of refinement and refining based on local density gradients) are less successful i...
A novel partitioning method for block-structured adaptive meshes
Fu, Lin; Litvinov, Sergej; Hu, Xiangyu Y.; Adams, Nikolaus A.
2017-07-01
We propose a novel partitioning method for block-structured adaptive meshes utilizing the meshless Lagrangian particle concept. With the observation that an optimum partitioning has high analogy to the relaxation of a multi-phase fluid to steady state, physically motivated model equations are developed to characterize the background mesh topology and are solved by multi-phase smoothed-particle hydrodynamics. In contrast to well established partitioning approaches, all optimization objectives are implicitly incorporated and achieved during the particle relaxation to stationary state. Distinct partitioning sub-domains are represented by colored particles and separated by a sharp interface with a surface tension model. In order to obtain the particle relaxation, special viscous and skin friction models, coupled with a tailored time integration algorithm are proposed. Numerical experiments show that the present method has several important properties: generation of approximately equal-sized partitions without dependence on the mesh-element type, optimized interface communication between distinct partitioning sub-domains, continuous domain decomposition which is physically localized and implicitly incremental. Therefore it is particularly suitable for load-balancing of high-performance CFD simulations.
A novel partitioning method for block-structured adaptive meshes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fu, Lin, E-mail: lin.fu@tum.de; Litvinov, Sergej, E-mail: sergej.litvinov@aer.mw.tum.de; Hu, Xiangyu Y., E-mail: xiangyu.hu@tum.de; Adams, Nikolaus A., E-mail: nikolaus.adams@tum.de
2017-07-15
We propose a novel partitioning method for block-structured adaptive meshes utilizing the meshless Lagrangian particle concept. With the observation that an optimum partitioning has high analogy to the relaxation of a multi-phase fluid to steady state, physically motivated model equations are developed to characterize the background mesh topology and are solved by multi-phase smoothed-particle hydrodynamics. In contrast to well established partitioning approaches, all optimization objectives are implicitly incorporated and achieved during the particle relaxation to stationary state. Distinct partitioning sub-domains are represented by colored particles and separated by a sharp interface with a surface tension model. In order to obtain the particle relaxation, special viscous and skin friction models, coupled with a tailored time integration algorithm are proposed. Numerical experiments show that the present method has several important properties: generation of approximately equal-sized partitions without dependence on the mesh-element type, optimized interface communication between distinct partitioning sub-domains, continuous domain decomposition which is physically localized and implicitly incremental. Therefore it is particularly suitable for load-balancing of high-performance CFD simulations.
Efficient Packet Forwarding in Mesh Network
Kanrar, Soumen
2012-01-01
Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) is a multi hop low cost, with easy maintenance robust network providing reliable service coverage. WMNs consist of mesh routers and mesh clients. In this architecture, while static mesh routers form the wireless backbone, mesh clients access the network through mesh routers as well as directly meshing with each other. Different from traditional wireless networks, WMN is dynamically self-organized and self-configured. In other words, the nodes in the mesh network automatically establish and maintain network connectivity. Over the years researchers have worked, to reduce the redundancy in broadcasting packet in the mesh network in the wireless domain for providing reliable service coverage, the source node deserves to broadcast or flood the control packets. The redundant control packet consumes the bandwidth of the wireless medium and significantly reduces the average throughput and consequently reduces the overall system performance. In this paper I study the optimization problem in...
On Linear Spaces of Polyhedral Meshes.
Poranne, Roi; Chen, Renjie; Gotsman, Craig
2015-05-01
Polyhedral meshes (PM)-meshes having planar faces-have enjoyed a rise in popularity in recent years due to their importance in architectural and industrial design. However, they are also notoriously difficult to generate and manipulate. Previous methods start with a smooth surface and then apply elaborate meshing schemes to create polyhedral meshes approximating the surface. In this paper, we describe a reverse approach: given the topology of a mesh, we explore the space of possible planar meshes having that topology. Our approach is based on a complete characterization of the maximal linear spaces of polyhedral meshes contained in the curved manifold of polyhedral meshes with a given topology. We show that these linear spaces can be described as nullspaces of differential operators, much like harmonic functions are nullspaces of the Laplacian operator. An analysis of this operator provides tools for global and local design of a polyhedral mesh, which fully expose the geometric possibilities and limitations of the given topology.
Free surface modeling of contacting solid metal flows employing the ALE formulation
Stelt, van der A.A.; Bor, T.C.; Geijselaers, H.J.M.; Akkerman, R.; Huetink, J.; Merklein, M.; Hagenah, H.
2012-01-01
In this paper, a numerical problem with contacting solid metal flows is presented and solved with an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) finite element method. The problem consists of two domains which mechanically interact with each other. For this simulation a new free surface boundary condition i
Scalability of Hydrodynamic Simulations
Tang, Shikui
2009-01-01
Many hydrodynamic processes can be studied in a way that is scalable over a vastly relevant physical parameter space. We systematically examine this scalability, which has so far only briefly discussed in astrophysical literature. We show how the scalability is limited by various constraints imposed by physical processes and initial conditions. Using supernova remnants in different environments and evolutionary phases as application examples, we demonstrate the use of the scaling as a powerful tool to explore the interdependence among relevant parameters, based on a minimum set of simulations. In particular, we devise a scaling scheme that can be used to adaptively generate numerous seed remnants and plant them into 3D hydrodynamic simulations of the supernova-dominated interstellar medium.
Burst Mechanisms in Hydrodynamics
Knobloch, E
1999-01-01
Different mechanisms believed to be responsible for the generation of bursts in hydrodynamical systems are reviewed and a new mechanism capable of generating regular or irregular bursts of large dynamic range near threshold is described. The new mechanism is present in the interaction between oscillatory modes of odd and even parity in systems of large but finite aspect ratio, and provides an explanation for the bursting behavior observed in binary fluid convection. Additional applications of the new mechanism are proposed.
Relativistic cosmological hydrodynamics
Hwang, J
1997-01-01
We investigate the relativistic cosmological hydrodynamic perturbations. We present the general large scale solutions of the perturbation variables valid for the general sign of three space curvature, the cosmological constant, and generally evolving background equation of state. The large scale evolution is characterized by a conserved gauge invariant quantity which is the same as a perturbed potential (or three-space curvature) in the comoving gauge.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wienke, B.R.; O' Dell, R.D.
1976-12-01
ESECT and EMAP are subroutines which provide a computer algorithm for mapping arbitrary meshes onto rectangular meshes in cylindrical (r,z) geometry. Input consists of the lines defining the rectangular mesh and the coordinates of the arbitrary mesh, which are assumed to be joined by straight lines. Output consists of the intersection volumes with designation of common mesh zones. The ESECT and EMAP routines do not comprise a ''free-standing'' code but, instead, are intended for inclusion in existing codes for which one mesh structure (typically Lagrangian) needs to be mapped onto an Eulerian mesh. Such mappings are of interest in coupled hydrodynamic and neutronic calculations. Exact expressions for the volumes of rotation (about z-axis) generated by the planar mesh intersection areas are used. Intersection points of the two meshes are computed and mapped onto corresponding regions on the rectangular mesh. Intersection points with the same regional indices are recorded into multilaterals, and the multilaterals are triangulated to facilitate computation of the intersection volumes. Dimension statements within ESECT/EMAP presently allow for rectangular and arbitrary meshes of 10k and 3.6k grid points. Scaling of all arrays to suit individual applications is easily effected. Computations of intersection volumes generated by overlapping 10k rectangular and 2.2k radial meshes require an average of 18 s computer time, while computation times for the same meshes scaled by a factor of /sup 1///sub 4/ in number of grid points average 3 s on the CDC 7600. Generally, cases of small cell rectangular meshes overlaid on large cell arbitrary meshes require the longer running times. 10 figures, 2 tables.
Hydrodynamics of insect spermatozoa
Pak, On Shun; Lauga, Eric
2010-11-01
Microorganism motility plays important roles in many biological processes including reproduction. Many microorganisms propel themselves by propagating traveling waves along their flagella. Depending on the species, propagation of planar waves (e.g. Ceratium) and helical waves (e.g. Trichomonas) were observed in eukaryotic flagellar motion, and hydrodynamic models for both were proposed in the past. However, the motility of insect spermatozoa remains largely unexplored. An interesting morphological feature of such cells, first observed in Tenebrio molitor and Bacillus rossius, is the double helical deformation pattern along the flagella, which is characterized by the presence of two superimposed helical flagellar waves (one with a large amplitude and low frequency, and the other with a small amplitude and high frequency). Here we present the first hydrodynamic investigation of the locomotion of insect spermatozoa. The swimming kinematics, trajectories and hydrodynamic efficiency of the swimmer are computed based on the prescribed double helical deformation pattern. We then compare our theoretical predictions with experimental measurements, and explore the dependence of the swimming performance on the geometric and dynamical parameters.
Hydrodynamics of fossil fishes.
Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert
2014-08-07
From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms.
Multi-Dimensional, Compressible Viscous Flow on a Moving Voronoi Mesh
Muñoz, Diego; Marcus, Robert; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hernquist, Lars
2012-01-01
Numerous formulations of finite volume schemes for the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations exist, but in the majority of cases they have been developed for structured and stationary meshes. In many applications, more flexible mesh geometries that can dynamically adjust to the problem at hand and move with the flow in a (quasi) Lagrangian fashion would, however, be highly desirable, as this can allow a significant reduction of advection errors and an accurate realization of curved and moving boundary conditions. Here we describe a novel formulation of viscous continuum hydrodynamics that solves the equations of motion on a Voronoi mesh created by a set of mesh-generating points. The points can move in an arbitrary manner, but the most natural motion is that given by the fluid velocity itself, such that the mesh dynamically adjusts to the flow. Owing to the mathematical properties of the Voronoi tessellation, pathological mesh-twisting effects are avoided. Our implementation considers the full Navier-Stokes equat...
Lanzarini, Laura Cristina; Hasperué, Waldo; Estrebou, César Armando; Ronchetti, Franco; Villa Monte, Augusto; Aquino, Germán Osvaldo; Quiroga, Facundo; Rojas, Luis; Jimbo Santana, Patricia
2015-01-01
Esta línea de investigación se centra en el estudio y desarrollo de Sistemas Inteligentes basados en Redes Neuronales Artificiales aplicadas al Procesamiento de Señales Temporales y a la Minería de Datos. Con respecto al Procesamiento de Señales Temporales, el énfasis está puesto en el reconocimiento de acciones humanas con el objetivo de mejorar la interfaz hombre/máquina y en el reconocimiento de señales oculares como herramienta de ayuda al diagnóstico médico semi-automático de alteraci...
A moving mesh unstaggered constrained transport scheme for magnetohydrodynamics
Mocz, Philip; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Springel, Volker; Vogelsberger, Mark; Marinacci, Federico; Hernquist, Lars
2016-11-01
We present a constrained transport (CT) algorithm for solving the 3D ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations on a moving mesh, which maintains the divergence-free condition on the magnetic field to machine-precision. Our CT scheme uses an unstructured representation of the magnetic vector potential, making the numerical method simple and computationally efficient. The scheme is implemented in the moving mesh code AREPO. We demonstrate the performance of the approach with simulations of driven MHD turbulence, a magnetized disc galaxy, and a cosmological volume with primordial magnetic field. We compare the outcomes of these experiments to those obtained with a previously implemented Powell divergence-cleaning scheme. While CT and the Powell technique yield similar results in idealized test problems, some differences are seen in situations more representative of astrophysical flows. In the turbulence simulations, the Powell cleaning scheme artificially grows the mean magnetic field, while CT maintains this conserved quantity of ideal MHD. In the disc simulation, CT gives slower magnetic field growth rate and saturates to equipartition between the turbulent kinetic energy and magnetic energy, whereas Powell cleaning produces a dynamically dominant magnetic field. Such difference has been observed in adaptive-mesh refinement codes with CT and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics codes with divergence-cleaning. In the cosmological simulation, both approaches give similar magnetic amplification, but Powell exhibits more cell-level noise. CT methods in general are more accurate than divergence-cleaning techniques, and, when coupled to a moving mesh can exploit the advantages of automatic spatial/temporal adaptivity and reduced advection errors, allowing for improved astrophysical MHD simulations.
Inching toward 'push-button' meshing
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
James Masters
2015-01-01
While "push-button" meshing remains an elusive goal, advances in 2015 have brought the technology to the point where meshes can be constructed with relative ease when appropriate surfaces are available...
The hydrodynamics of galaxy formation on Kiloparsec scales
Norman, Michael L.; Anninos, Wenbo Yuan; Centrella, Joan
1993-01-01
Two dimensional numerical simulations of Zeldovich pancake fragmentation in a dark matter dominated universe were carried out to study the hydrodynamical and gravitational effects on the formation of structures such as protogalaxies. Preliminary results were given in Yuan, Centrella and, Norman (1991). Here we report a more exhaustive study to determine the sensitivity of protogalaxies to input parameters. The numerical code we used for the simulations combines the hydrodynamical code ZEUS-2D (Stone and Norman, 1992) which was modified to include the expansion of the universe and radiative cooling of the gas with a particle-mesh code which follows the motion of dark matter particles. The resulting hybrid code is able to handle highly nonuniform grids which we utilized to obtain a high resolution (much greater than 1 kpc) in the dense region of the pancake.
Particle Collection Efficiency for Nylon Mesh Screens
Cena, Lorenzo G.; Ku, Bon-Ki; Peters, Thomas M.
2011-01-01
Mesh screens composed of nylon fibers leave minimal residual ash and produce no significant spectral interference when ashed for spectrometric examination. These characteristics make nylon mesh screens attractive as a collection substrate for nanoparticles. A theoretical single-fiber efficiency expression developed for wire-mesh screens was evaluated for estimating the collection efficiency of submicrometer particles for nylon mesh screens. Pressure drop across the screens, the effect of part...
6th International Meshing Roundtable '97
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
White, D.
1997-09-01
The goal of the 6th International Meshing Roundtable is to bring together researchers and developers from industry, academia, and government labs in a stimulating, open environment for the exchange of technical information related to the meshing process. In the pas~ the Roundtable has enjoyed significant participation born each of these groups from a wide variety of countries. The Roundtable will consist of technical presentations from contributed papers and abstracts, two invited speakers, and two invited panels of experts discussing topics related to the development and use of automatic mesh generation tools. In addition, this year we will feature a "Bring Your Best Mesh" competition and poster session to encourage discussion and participation from a wide variety of mesh generation tool users. The schedule and evening social events are designed to provide numerous opportunities for informal dialog. A proceedings will be published by Sandia National Laboratories and distributed at the Roundtable. In addition, papers of exceptionally high quaIity will be submitted to a special issue of the International Journal of Computational Geometry and Applications. Papers and one page abstracts were sought that present original results on the meshing process. Potential topics include but are got limited to: Unstructured triangular and tetrahedral mesh generation Unstructured quadrilateral and hexahedral mesh generation Automated blocking and structured mesh generation Mixed element meshing Surface mesh generation Geometry decomposition and clean-up techniques Geometry modification techniques related to meshing Adaptive mesh refinement and mesh quality control Mesh visualization Special purpose meshing algorithms for particular applications Theoretical or novel ideas with practical potential Technical presentations from industrial researchers.
2010-10-01
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mesh size. 300.110 Section 300.110... Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.110 Mesh size. (a) The use of pelagic and bottom trawls having the mesh size in any part of a trawl less than indicated is prohibited for any directed fishing for the...
Markov Random Fields on Triangle Meshes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Vedrana; Aanæs, Henrik; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas
2010-01-01
mesh edges according to a feature detecting prior. Since we should not smooth across a sharp feature, we use edge labels to control the vertex process. In a Bayesian framework, MRF priors are combined with the likelihood function related to the mesh formation method. The output of our algorithm...... is a piecewise smooth mesh with explicit labelling of edges belonging to the sharp features....
Mesh network achieve its fuction on Linux
Pei Ping; PETRENKO Y.N.
2015-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a Mesh network protocol evaluation and development. It has a special protocol. We could easily understand the Linux operation principles which are in use in mesh network. In addition to our comprehension, we describe the graph which shows package routing way. At last according to testing we prove that Mesh protocol AODV satisfy Linux platform performance requirements.
The mesh network protocol evaluation and development
Pei Ping; PETRENKO Y.N.
2015-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a Mesh network protocol evaluation and development. It has a special protocol. We could easily to understand that how different protocols are used in mesh network. In addition to our comprehension, Multi – hop routing protocol could provide robustness and load balancing to communication in wireless mesh networks.
Constructing stable 3D hydrodynamical models of giant stars
Ohlmann, Sebastian T.; Röpke, Friedrich K.; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Springel, Volker
2017-02-01
Hydrodynamical simulations of stellar interactions require stable models of stars as initial conditions. Such initial models, however, are difficult to construct for giant stars because of the wide range in spatial scales of the hydrostatic equilibrium and in dynamical timescales between the core and the envelope of the giant. They are needed for, e.g., modeling the common envelope phase where a giant envelope encompasses both the giant core and a companion star. Here, we present a new method of approximating and reconstructing giant profiles from a stellar evolution code to produce stable models for multi-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations. We determine typical stellar stratification profiles with the one-dimensional stellar evolution code mesa. After an appropriate mapping, hydrodynamical simulations are conducted using the moving-mesh code arepo. The giant profiles are approximated by replacing the core of the giant with a point mass and by constructing a suitable continuation of the profile to the center. Different reconstruction methods are tested that can specifically control the convective behaviour of the model. After mapping to a grid, a relaxation procedure that includes damping of spurious velocities yields stable models in three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations. Initially convectively stable configurations lead to stable hydrodynamical models while for stratifications that are convectively unstable in the stellar evolution code, simulations recover the convective behaviour of the initial model and show large convective plumes with Mach numbers up to 0.8. Examples are shown for a 2 M⊙ red giant and a 0.67 M⊙ asymptotic giant branch star. A detailed analysis shows that the improved method reliably provides stable models of giant envelopes that can be used as initial conditions for subsequent hydrodynamical simulations of stellar interactions involving giant stars.
User Manual for the PROTEUS Mesh Tools
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smith, Micheal A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shemon, Emily R [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
2016-09-19
PROTEUS is built around a finite element representation of the geometry for visualization. In addition, the PROTEUS-SN solver was built to solve the even-parity transport equation on a finite element mesh provided as input. Similarly, PROTEUS-MOC and PROTEUS-NEMO were built to apply the method of characteristics on unstructured finite element meshes. Given the complexity of real world problems, experience has shown that using commercial mesh generator to create rather simple input geometries is overly complex and slow. As a consequence, significant effort has been put into place to create multiple codes that help assist in the mesh generation and manipulation. There are three input means to create a mesh in PROTEUS: UFMESH, GRID, and NEMESH. At present, the UFMESH is a simple way to generate two-dimensional Cartesian and hexagonal fuel assembly geometries. The UFmesh input allows for simple assembly mesh generation while the GRID input allows the generation of Cartesian, hexagonal, and regular triangular structured grid geometry options. The NEMESH is a way for the user to create their own mesh or convert another mesh file format into a PROTEUS input format. Given that one has an input mesh format acceptable for PROTEUS, we have constructed several tools which allow further mesh and geometry construction (i.e. mesh extrusion and merging). This report describes the various mesh tools that are provided with the PROTEUS code giving both descriptions of the input and output. In many cases the examples are provided with a regression test of the mesh tools. The most important mesh tools for any user to consider using are the MT_MeshToMesh.x and the MT_RadialLattice.x codes. The former allows the conversion between most mesh types handled by PROTEUS while the second allows the merging of multiple (assembly) meshes into a radial structured grid. Note that the mesh generation process is recursive in nature and that each input specific for a given mesh tool (such as .axial
Foundations of radiation hydrodynamics
Mihalas, Dimitri
1999-01-01
Radiation hydrodynamics is a broad subject that cuts across many disciplines in physics and astronomy: fluid dynamics, thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, kinetic theory, and radiative transfer, among others. The theory developed in this book by two specialists in the field can be applied to the study of such diverse astrophysical phenomena as stellar winds, supernova explosions, and the initial phases of cosmic expansion, as well as the physics of laser fusion and reentry vehicles. As such, it provides students with the basic tools for research on radiating flows.Largely self-contained,
Goodwin, J A; Finlayson, J M; Low, E W
2001-06-01
Pot ale from a pilot-scale malt whisky distillery was treated using a mesophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) digester. Stable operation was observed at organic loading rates (OLRs) of 5.46 kg COD/m3 day or less when the pot ale was diluted with tap water. Digester failure occurred when undiluted pot ale was used, even though OLR was less than 5 kg COD/m3 day. Overall performance was worse than that observed previously when UASB digesters were used to treat pot ale from a different source supplemented with trace elements. A substantial proportion of effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD) was present as volatile fatty acids (VFA), particularly during periods of reactor stress, indicating that overall performance was limited by the rate of VFA conversion. Wastewater alkalinity rose during digestion. The sludge which developed in the reactor was flocculent but did not form compact granules.
Modelo analítico de generación de señales para sistemas radio sobre fibra
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Gustavo Adolfo Puerto-Leguizamón; Carlos Arturo Suárez-Fajardo
2014-01-01
... de señales proclives de se r usadas en sistemas de radio sobre fibra para el transporte de información . En estos sistemas las portadoras de radiofrecuencia se transp ortan como subportadoras de canal...
Molecular hydrodynamics from memory kernels
Lesnicki, Dominika; Carof, Antoine; Rotenberg, Benjamin
2016-01-01
The memory kernel for a tagged particle in a fluid, computed from molecular dynamics simulations, decays algebraically as $t^{-3/2}$. We show how the hydrodynamic Basset-Boussinesq force naturally emerges from this long-time tail and generalize the concept of hydrodynamic added mass. This mass term is negative in the present case of a molecular solute, at odds with incompressible hydrodynamics predictions. We finally discuss the various contributions to the friction, the associated time scales and the cross-over between the molecular and hydrodynamic regimes upon increasing the solute radius.
The optimization of high resolution topographic data for 1D hydrodynamic models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ales, Ronovsky, E-mail: ales.ronovsky@vsb.cz; Michal, Podhoranyi [IT4Innovations National Supercomputing Center, VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, Studentská 6231/1B, 708 33 Ostrava (Czech Republic)
2016-06-08
The main focus of our research presented in this paper is to optimize and use high resolution topographical data (HRTD) for hydrological modelling. Optimization of HRTD is done by generating adaptive mesh by measuring distance of coarse mesh and the surface of the dataset and adapting the mesh from the perspective of keeping the geometry as close to initial resolution as possible. Technique described in this paper enables computation of very accurate 1-D hydrodynamic models. In the paper, we use HEC-RAS software as a solver. For comparison, we have chosen the amount of generated cells/grid elements (in whole discretization domain and selected cross sections) with respect to preservation of the accuracy of the computational domain. Generation of the mesh for hydrodynamic modelling is strongly reliant on domain size and domain resolution. Topographical dataset used in this paper was created using LiDAR method and it captures 5.9km long section of a catchment of the river Olše. We studied crucial changes in topography for generated mesh. Assessment was done by commonly used statistical and visualization methods.
Mamy, Laurent; Letouzey, Vincent; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Garric, Xavier; Gondry, Jean; Mares, Pierre; De Tayrac, Renaud
2010-01-01
International audience; INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to evaluate a link between mesh infection and shrinkage. METHODS: Twenty-eight Wistar rats were implanted with synthetic meshes that were either non-absorbable (polypropylene (PP), n = 14) or absorbable (poly (D: ,L: -lactic acid) (PLA94), n = 14). A validated animal incisionnal abdominal hernia model of mesh infection was used. Fourteen meshes (n = 7 PLA94 and n = 7 PP meshes) were infected intraoperatively with 1...
Confined helium on Lagrange meshes
Baye, Daniel
2015-01-01
The Lagrange-mesh method has the simplicity of a calculation on a mesh and can have the accuracy of a variational method. It is applied to the study of a confined helium atom. Two types of confinement are considered. Soft confinements by potentials are studied in perimetric coordinates. Hard confinement in impenetrable spherical cavities is studied in a system of rescaled perimetric coordinates varying in [0,1] intervals. Energies and mean values of the distances between electrons and between an electron and the helium nucleus are calculated. A high accuracy of 11 to 15 significant figures is obtained with small computing times. Pressures acting on the confined atom are also computed. For sphere radii smaller than 1, their relative accuracies are better than $10^{-10}$. For larger radii up to 10, they progressively decrease to $10^{-3}$, still improving the best literature results.
21st International Meshing Roundtable
Weill, Jean-Christophe
2013-01-01
This volume contains the articles presented at the 21st International Meshing Roundtable (IMR) organized, in part, by Sandia National Laboratories and was held on October 7–10, 2012 in San Jose, CA, USA. The first IMR was held in 1992, and the conference series has been held annually since. Each year the IMR brings together researchers, developers, and application experts in a variety of disciplines, from all over the world, to present and discuss ideas on mesh generation and related topics. The technical papers in this volume present theoretical and novel ideas and algorithms with practical potential, as well as technical applications in science and engineering, geometric modeling, computer graphics, and visualization.
On the flexibility of Kokotsakis meshes
Karpenkov, Oleg
2008-01-01
In this paper we study geometric, algebraic, and computational aspects of flexibility and infinitesimal flexibility of Kokotsakis meshes. A Kokotsakis mesh is a mesh that consists of a face in the middle and a certain band of faces attached to the middle face by its perimeter. In particular any 3x3-mesh made of quadrangles is a Kokotsakis mesh. We express the infinitesimal flexibility condition in terms of Ceva and Menelaus theorems. Further we study semi-algebraic properties of the set of fl...
Hydrodynamics of pronuclear migration
Nazockdast, Ehssan; Needleman, Daniel; Shelley, Michael
2014-11-01
Microtubule (MT) filaments play a key role in many processes involved in cell devision including spindle formation, chromosome segregation, and pronuclear positioning. We present a direct numerical technique to simulate MT dynamics in such processes. Our method includes hydrodynamically mediated interactions between MTs and other cytoskeletal objects, using singularity methods for Stokes flow. Long-ranged many-body hydrodynamic interactions are computed using a highly efficient and scalable fast multipole method, enabling the simulation of thousands of MTs. Our simulation method also takes into account the flexibility of MTs using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory as well as their dynamic instability. Using this technique, we simulate pronuclear migration in single-celled Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Two different positioning mechanisms, based on the interactions of MTs with the motor proteins and the cell cortex, are explored: cytoplasmic pulling and cortical pushing. We find that although the pronuclear complex migrates towards the center of the cell in both models, the generated cytoplasmic flows are fundamentally different. This suggest that cytoplasmic flow visualization during pronuclear migration can be utilized to differentiate between the two mechanisms.
The Energetic Implications of the Time Discretisation in Implementations of the A.L.E. Equations
Childs, S J
2000-01-01
A class of A.L.E. time discretisations which inherit key energetic properties (nonlinear dissipation in the absence of forcing and long-term stability under conditions of time dependent loading), irrespective of the time increment employed, is established in this work. These properties are intrinsic to real flows and the conventional Navier-Stokes equations. A description of an incompressible, Newtonian fluid, which reconciles the differences between the various schools of A.L.E. thought in the literature is derived for the purposes of this investigation. The issue of whether these equations automatically inherit the afore mentioned energetic properties must first be resolved. In this way natural notions of nonlinear, exponential-type dissipation in the absence of forcing and long-term stability under conditions of time dependent loading are also formulated. The findings of this analysis have profound consequences for the use of certain classes of finite difference schemes in the context of deforming referenc...
Ground deformation near Gada ‘Ale Volcano, Afar, observed by radar interferometry
Amelung, Falk; Oppenheimer, Clive; Segall, P.; Zebker, H.
2000-10-01
Radar interferometric measurements of ground-surface displacement using ERS data show a change in radar range, corresponding to up to 12 cm of subsidence near Gada ‘Ale volcano in northern Afar, Ethiopia, that occurred between June 1993 and May 1996. This is the area of lowest topography within the Danakil Depression (-126 m). Geodetic inverse modeling and geological evidence suggest a volcanic origin of the observed deformation; it was probably caused by a combined process of magma withdrawal from a larger reservoir and normal faulting. There is no evidence of subaerial eruption. This is the only identifiable deformation event during June 1993-October 1997 in the 80 km long Erta ‘Ale volcanic range, indicating surprising inactivity elsewhere in the range.
Image meshing via hierarchical optimization
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hao XIE; Ruo-feng TONG‡
2016-01-01
Vector graphic, as a kind of geometric representation of raster images, has many advantages, e.g., defi nition independence and editing facility. A popular way to convert raster images into vector graphics is image meshing, the aim of which is to fi nd a mesh to represent an image as faithfully as possible. For traditional meshing algorithms, the crux of the problem resides mainly in the high non-linearity and non-smoothness of the objective, which makes it diﬃcult to fi nd a desirable optimal solution. To ameliorate this situation, we present a hierarchical optimization algorithm solving the problem from coarser levels to fi ner ones, providing initialization for each level with its coarser ascent. To further simplify the problem, the original non-convex problem is converted to a linear least squares one, and thus becomes convex, which makes the problem much easier to solve. A dictionary learning framework is used to combine geometry and topology elegantly. Then an alternating scheme is employed to solve both parts. Experiments show that our algorithm runs fast and achieves better results than existing ones for most images.
Image meshing via hierarchical optimization＊
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hao XIE; Ruo-feng TONGS
2016-01-01
Vector graphic, as a kind of geometric representation of raster images, has many advantages, e.g., definition independence and editing facility. A popular way to convert raster images into vector graphics is image meshing, the aim of which is to find a mesh to represent an image as faithfully as possible. For traditional meshing algorithms, the crux of the problem resides mainly in the high non-linearity and non-smoothness of the objective, which makes it difficult to find a desirable optimal solution. To ameliorate this situation, we present a hierarchical optimization algorithm solving the problem from coarser levels to finer ones, providing initialization for each level with its coarser ascent. To further simplify the problem, the original non-convex problem is converted to a linear least squares one, and thus becomes convex, which makes the problem much easier to solve. A dictionary learning framework is used to combine geometry and topology elegantly. Then an alternating scheme is employed to solve both parts. Experiments show that our algorithm runs fast and achieves better results than existing ones for most images.
Soto, Dan; Le Helloco, Antoine; Clanet, Cristophe; Quere, David; Varanasi, Kripa
2016-11-01
A drop thrown against a mesh can pass through its holes if impacting with enough inertia. As a result, although part of the droplet may remain on one side of the sieve, the rest will end up grated through the other side. This inexpensive method to break up millimetric droplets into micrometric ones may be of particular interest in a wide variety of applications: enhancing evaporation of droplets launched from the top of an evaporative cooling tower or preventing drift of pesticides sprayed above crops by increasing their initial size and atomizing them at the very last moment with a mesh. In order to understand how much liquid will be grated we propose in this presentation to start first by studying a simpler situation: a drop impacting a plate pierced with a single off centered hole. The study of the role of natural parameters such as the radius drop and speed or the hole position, size and thickness allows us to discuss then the more general situation of a plate pierced with multiple holes: the mesh.
Distribution of Intertidal Organisms in the Shores of Teluk Aling, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
Ahmad, Omar; FANG, TAY PEI; YAHYA, KHAIRUN
2011-01-01
Distribution of intertidal organisms were analysed at the sandy and rocky shores of Teluk Aling, Pulau Pinang during the spring tides on August 4 and September 11, 2007. Four higher taxa were recorded at the sandy shore including Polychaeta, Crustacea, Mollusca and Echinodermata with the highest abundance by phylum Mollusca: 89.4%. The species found to be the most abundant was the button snail, Umbonium vestiarum at the sandy shore during both sampling periods with the highest abundance measu...
Adaptive mesh generation for image registration and segmentation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fogtmann, Mads; Larsen, Rasmus
2013-01-01
This paper deals with the problem of generating quality tetrahedral meshes for image registration. From an initial coarse mesh the approach matches the mesh to the image volume by combining red-green subdivision and mesh evolution through mesh-to-image matching regularized with a mesh quality...
Dynamic mesh for TCAD modeling with ECORCE
Michez, A.; Boch, J.; Touboul, A.; Saigné, F.
2016-08-01
Mesh generation for TCAD modeling is challenging. Because densities of carriers can change by several orders of magnitude in thin areas, a significant change of the solution can be observed for two very similar meshes. The mesh must be defined at best to minimize this change. To address this issue, a criterion based on polynomial interpolation on adjacent nodes is proposed that adjusts accurately the mesh to the gradients of Degrees of Freedom. Furthermore, a dynamic mesh that follows changes of DF in DC and transient mode is a powerful tool for TCAD users. But, in transient modeling, adding nodes to a mesh induces oscillations in the solution that appears as spikes at the current collected at the contacts. This paper proposes two schemes that solve this problem. Examples show that using these techniques, the dynamic mesh generator of the TCAD tool ECORCE handle semiconductors devices in DC and transient mode.
SHARP/PRONGHORN Interoperability: Mesh Generation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Avery Bingham; Javier Ortensi
2012-09-01
Progress toward collaboration between the SHARP and MOOSE computational frameworks has been demonstrated through sharing of mesh generation and ensuring mesh compatibility of both tools with MeshKit. MeshKit was used to build a three-dimensional, full-core very high temperature reactor (VHTR) reactor geometry with 120-degree symmetry, which was used to solve a neutron diffusion critical eigenvalue problem in PRONGHORN. PRONGHORN is an application of MOOSE that is capable of solving coupled neutron diffusion, heat conduction, and homogenized flow problems. The results were compared to a solution found on a 120-degree, reflected, three-dimensional VHTR mesh geometry generated by PRONGHORN. The ability to exchange compatible mesh geometries between the two codes is instrumental for future collaboration and interoperability. The results were found to be in good agreement between the two meshes, thus demonstrating the compatibility of the SHARP and MOOSE frameworks. This outcome makes future collaboration possible.
Cluster parallel rendering based on encoded mesh
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIN Ai-hong; XIONG Hua; PENG Hao-yu; LIU Zhen; SHI Jiao-ying
2006-01-01
Use of compressed mesh in parallel rendering architecture is still an unexplored area, the main challenge of which is to partition and sort the encoded mesh in compression-domain. This paper presents a mesh compression scheme PRMC (Parallel Rendering based Mesh Compression) supplying encoded meshes that can be partitioned and sorted in parallel rendering system even in encoded-domain. First, we segment the mesh into submeshes and clip the submeshes' boundary into Runs, and then piecewise compress the submeshes and Runs respectively. With the help of several auxiliary index tables, compressed submeshes and Runs can serve as rendering primitives in parallel rendering system. Based on PRMC, we design and implement a parallel rendering architecture. Compared with uncompressed representation, experimental results showed that PRMC meshes applied in cluster parallel rendering system can dramatically reduce the communication requirement.
Nassiri, Ali; Vivek, Anupam; Abke, Tim; Liu, Bert; Lee, Taeseon; Daehn, Glenn
2017-06-01
Numerical simulations of high-velocity impact welding are extremely challenging due to the coupled physics and highly dynamic nature of the process. Thus, conventional mesh-based numerical methodologies are not able to accurately model the process owing to the excessive mesh distortion close to the interface of two welded materials. A simulation platform was developed using smoothed particle hydrodynamics, implemented in a parallel architecture on a supercomputer. Then, the numerical simulations were compared to experimental tests conducted by vaporizing foil actuator welding. The close correspondence of the experiment and modeling in terms of interface characteristics allows the prediction of local temperature and strain distributions, which are not easily measured.
Xu, Wenbin; Rivalta, Eleonora; Li, Xing
2017-10-01
Understanding the magmatic systems beneath rift volcanoes provides insights into the deeper processes associated with rift architecture and development. At the slow spreading Erta Ale segment (Afar, Ethiopia) transition from continental rifting to seafloor spreading is ongoing on land. A lava lake has been documented since the twentieth century at the summit of the Erta Ale volcano and acts as an indicator of the pressure of its magma reservoir. However, the structure of the plumbing system of the volcano feeding such persistent active lava lake and the mechanisms controlling the architecture of magma storage remain unclear. Here, we combine high-resolution satellite optical imagery and radar interferometry (InSAR) to infer the shape, location and orientation of the conduits feeding the 2017 Erta Ale eruption. We show that the lava lake was rooted in a vertical dike-shaped reservoir that had been inflating prior to the eruption. The magma was subsequently transferred into a shallower feeder dike. We also find a shallow, horizontal magma lens elongated along axis inflating beneath the volcano during the later period of the eruption. Edifice stress modeling suggests the hydraulically connected system of horizontal and vertical thin magmatic bodies able to open and close are arranged spatially according to stresses induced by loading and unloading due to topographic changes. Our combined approach may provide new constraints on the organization of magma plumbing systems beneath volcanoes in continental and marine settings.
Control de brazo electrónico usando señales electromiográficas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jorge Andrés García-Pinzón
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Los trabajos enfocados en la extracción de patrones en señales electromiográficas (SEMG han venido creciendo debido a sus múltiples aplicaciones. En este artículo se presenta una aplicación en la cual se implementa un sistema electrónico para el registro de las SEMG de la extremidad superior en un sujeto, con el fin de controlar de forma remota un brazo electrónico. Se realizó una etapa de preprocesamiento de las señales registradas, para eliminar información poco relevante, y reconocimiento de zonas de interés; enseguida se extraen los patrones y se clasifican. Las técnicas utilizadas fueron: análisis wavelet (AW, análisis de componentes principales (ACP, transformada de fourier (TF, transformada del coseno discreta (TDC, energía, máquinas de soporte vectorial (MSV o SVM y redes neuronales (RNA. En este artículo se demuestra que la metodología planteada permite realizar un proceso de clasificación con un rendimiento superior al 95%. Se registraron más de 4000 señales.
Microbial diversity and metabolite composition of Belgian red-brown acidic ales.
Snauwaert, Isabel; Roels, Sanne P; Van Nieuwerburg, Filip; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter
2016-03-16
Belgian red-brown acidic ales are sour and alcoholic fermented beers, which are produced by mixed-culture fermentation and blending. The brews are aged in oak barrels for about two years, after which mature beer is blended with young, non-aged beer to obtain the end-products. The present study evaluated the microbial community diversity of Belgian red-brown acidic ales at the end of the maturation phase of three subsequent brews of three different breweries. The microbial diversity was compared with the metabolite composition of the brews at the end of the maturation phase. Therefore, mature brew samples were subjected to 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (bacteria) and the internal transcribed spacer region (yeasts) and a broad range of metabolites was quantified. The most important microbial species present in the Belgian red-brown acidic ales investigated were Pediococcus damnosus, Dekkera bruxellensis, and Acetobacter pasteurianus. In addition, this culture-independent analysis revealed operational taxonomic units that were assigned to an unclassified fungal community member, Candida, and Lactobacillus. The main metabolites present in the brew samples were L-lactic acid, D-lactic acid, and ethanol, whereas acetic acid was produced in lower quantities. The most prevailing aroma compounds were ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate, which might be of impact on the aroma of the end-products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ENZO: AN ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT CODE FOR ASTROPHYSICS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bryan, Greg L.; Turk, Matthew J. [Columbia University, Department of Astronomy, New York, NY 10025 (United States); Norman, Michael L.; Bordner, James; Xu, Hao; Kritsuk, Alexei G. [CASS, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093-0424 (United States); O' Shea, Brian W.; Smith, Britton [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Abel, Tom; Wang, Peng; Skillman, Samuel W. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Wise, John H. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 837 State Street, Atlanta, GA (United States); Reynolds, Daniel R. [Department of Mathematics, Southern Methodist University, Box 750156, Dallas, TX 75205-0156 (United States); Collins, David C. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Harkness, Robert P. [NICS, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Kim, Ji-hoon [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Kuhlen, Michael [Theoretical Astrophysics Center, University of California Berkeley, Hearst Field Annex, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Goldbaum, Nathan [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Hummels, Cameron [Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Tasker, Elizabeth [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Kita-10 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Collaboration: Enzo Collaboration; and others
2014-04-01
This paper describes the open-source code Enzo, which uses block-structured adaptive mesh refinement to provide high spatial and temporal resolution for modeling astrophysical fluid flows. The code is Cartesian, can be run in one, two, and three dimensions, and supports a wide variety of physics including hydrodynamics, ideal and non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics, N-body dynamics (and, more broadly, self-gravity of fluids and particles), primordial gas chemistry, optically thin radiative cooling of primordial and metal-enriched plasmas (as well as some optically-thick cooling models), radiation transport, cosmological expansion, and models for star formation and feedback in a cosmological context. In addition to explaining the algorithms implemented, we present solutions for a wide range of test problems, demonstrate the code's parallel performance, and discuss the Enzo collaboration's code development methodology.
3D unstructured mesh discontinuous finite element hydro
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prasad, M.K.; Kershaw, D.S.; Shaw, M.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)
1995-07-01
The authors present detailed features of the ICF3D hydrodynamics code used for inertial fusion simulations. This code is intended to be a state-of-the-art upgrade of the well-known fluid code, LASNEX. ICF3D employs discontinuous finite elements on a discrete unstructured mesh consisting of a variety of 3D polyhedra including tetrahedra, prisms, and hexahedra. The authors discussed details of how the ROE-averaged second-order convection was applied on the discrete elements, and how the C++ coding interface has helped to simplify implementing the many physics and numerics modules within the code package. The author emphasized the virtues of object-oriented design in large scale projects such as ICF3D.
Enzo: An Adaptive Mesh Refinement Code for Astrophysics
Bryan, Greg L; O'Shea, Brian W; Abel, Tom; Wise, John H; Turk, Matthew J; Reynolds, Daniel R; Collins, David C; Wang, Peng; Skillman, Samuel W; Smith, Britton; Harkness, Robert P; Bordner, James; Kim, Ji-hoon; Kuhlen, Michael; Xu, Hao; Goldbaum, Nathan; Hummels, Cameron; Kritsuk, Alexei G; Tasker, Elizabeth; Skory, Stephen; Simpson, Christine M; Hahn, Oliver; Oishi, Jeffrey S; So, Geoffrey C; Zhao, Fen; Cen, Renyue; Li, Yuan
2013-01-01
This paper describes the open-source code Enzo, which uses block-structured adaptive mesh refinement to provide high spatial and temporal resolution for modeling astrophysical fluid flows. The code is Cartesian, can be run in 1, 2, and 3 dimensions, and supports a wide variety of physics including hydrodynamics, ideal and non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics, N-body dynamics (and, more broadly, self-gravity of fluids and particles), primordial gas chemistry, optically-thin radiative cooling of primordial and metal-enriched plasmas (as well as some optically-thick cooling models), radiation transport, cosmological expansion, and models for star formation and feedback in a cosmological context. In addition to explaining the algorithms implemented, we present solutions for a wide range of test problems, demonstrate the code's parallel performance, and discuss the Enzo collaboration's code development methodology.
Moving mesh cosmology: properties of neutral hydrogen in absorption
Bird, Simeon; Sijacki, Debora; Zaldarriaga, Matias; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars
2012-01-01
We examine the distribution of neutral hydrogen in cosmological simulations carried out with the new moving-mesh code AREPO and compare it with the corresponding GADGET simulations based on the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) technique. The two codes use identical gravity solvers and baryonic physics implementations, but very different methods for solving the Euler equations, allowing us to assess how numerical effects associated with the hydro-solver impact the results of simulations. Here we focus on an analysis of the neutral gas, as detected in quasar absorption lines. We find that the high column density regime probed by Damped Lyman-alpha (DLA) and Lyman Limit Systems (LLS) exhibits significant differences between the codes. GADGET produces spurious artefacts in large halos in the form of gaseous clumps, boosting the LLS cross-section. Furthermore, it forms halos with denser central baryonic cores than AREPO, which leads to a substantially greater DLA cross-section from smaller halos. AREPO thus p...
Simulating cosmic ray physics on a moving mesh
,
2016-01-01
We discuss new methods to integrate the cosmic ray (CR) evolution equations coupled to magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) on an unstructured moving mesh, as realised in the massively parallel AREPO code for cosmological simulations. We account for diffusive shock acceleration of CRs at resolved shocks and at supernova remnants in the interstellar medium (ISM), and follow the advective CR transport within the magnetised plasma, as well as anisotropic diffusive transport of CRs along the local magnetic field. CR losses are included in terms of Coulomb and hadronic interactions with the thermal plasma. We demonstrate the accuracy of our formalism for CR acceleration at shocks through simulations of plane-parallel shock tubes that are compared to newly derived exact solutions of the Riemann shock tube problem with CR acceleration. We find that the increased compressibility of the post-shock plasma due to the produced CRs decreases the shock speed. However, CR acceleration at spherically expanding blast waves does not si...
Fluctuations in Relativistic Causal Hydrodynamics
Kumar, Avdhesh; Mishra, Ananta P
2013-01-01
The formalism to calculate the hydrodynamics fluctuation using the quasi-stationary fluctuation theory of Onsager to the relativistic Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics is already known. In this work we calculate hydrodynamic fluctuations in relativistic causal theory of Muller, Israel and Stewart and other related causal hydrodynamic theories. We show that expressions for the Onsager coefficients and the correlation functions have form similar to the ones obtained by using Navier-Stokes equation. However, temporal evolution of the correlation functions obtained using MIS and the other causal theories can be significantly different than the correlation functions obtained using the Navier-Stokes equation. Finally, as an illustrative example, we explicitly plot the correlation functions obtained using the causal-hydrodynamics theories and compare them with correlation functions obtained by earlier authors using the expanding boost-invariant (Bjorken) flows.
Gradient expansion for anisotropic hydrodynamics
Florkowski, Wojciech; Spaliński, Michał
2016-01-01
We compute the gradient expansion for anisotropic hydrodynamics. The results are compared with the corresponding expansion of the underlying kinetic-theory model with the collision term treated in the relaxation time approximation. We find that a recent formulation of anisotropic hydrodynamics based on an anisotropic matching principle yields the first three terms of the gradient expansion in agreement with those obtained for the kinetic theory. This gives further support for this particular hydrodynamic model as a good approximation of the kinetic-theory approach. We further find that the gradient expansion of anisotropic hydrodynamics is an asymptotic series, and the singularities of the analytic continuation of its Borel transform indicate the presence of non-hydrodynamic modes.
Lifshitz Superfluid Hydrodynamics
Chapman, Shira; Oz, Yaron
2014-01-01
We construct the first order hydrodynamics of quantum critical points with Lifshitz scaling and a spontaneously broken symmetry. The fluid is described by a combination of two flows, a normal component that carries entropy and a super-flow which has zero viscosity and carries no entropy. We analyze the new transport effects allowed by the lack of boost invariance and constrain them by the local second law of thermodynamics. Imposing time-reversal invariance, we find eight new parity even transport coefficients. The formulation is applicable, in general, to any superfluid/superconductor with an explicit breaking of boost symmetry, in particular to high $T_c$ superconductors. We discuss possible experimental signatures.
Hydrodynamics of Ship Propellers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Breslin, John P.; Andersen, Poul
This book deals with flows over propellers operating behind ships, and the hydrodynamic forces and moments which the propeller generates on the shaft and on the ship hull.The first part of the text is devoted to fundamentals of the flow about hydrofoil sections (with and without cavitation......) and about wings. It then treats propellers in uniform flow, first via advanced actuator disc modelling, and then using lifting-line theory. Pragmatic guidance is given for design and evaluation of performance, including the use of computer modelling.The second part covers the development of unsteady forces...... arising from operation in non-uniform hull wakes. First, by a number of simplifications, various aspects of the problem are dealt with separately until the full problem of a non-cavitating, wide-bladed propeller in a wake is treated by a new and completely developed theory. Next, the complicated problem...
Hydrodynamic effects on coalescence.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dimiduk, Thomas G.; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Grillet, Anne Mary; Baer, Thomas A.; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Loewenberg, Michael (Yale University, New Haven, CT); Gorby, Allen D.; Brooks, Carlton, F.
2006-10-01
The goal of this project was to design, build and test novel diagnostics to probe the effect of hydrodynamic forces on coalescence dynamics. Our investigation focused on how a drop coalesces onto a flat surface which is analogous to two drops coalescing, but more amenable to precise experimental measurements. We designed and built a flow cell to create an axisymmetric compression flow which brings a drop onto a flat surface. A computer-controlled system manipulates the flow to steer the drop and maintain a symmetric flow. Particle image velocimetry was performed to confirm that the control system was delivering a well conditioned flow. To examine the dynamics of the coalescence, we implemented an interferometry capability to measure the drainage of the thin film between the drop and the surface during the coalescence process. A semi-automated analysis routine was developed which converts the dynamic interferogram series into drop shape evolution data.
Balla, Andrea; Quaresima, Silvia; Smolarek, Sebastian; Shalaby, Mostafa; Missori, Giulia; Sileri, Pierpaolo
2017-04-01
This review reports the incidence of mesh-related erosion after ventral mesh rectopexy to determine whether any difference exists in the erosion rate between synthetic and biological mesh. A systematic search of the MEDLINE and the Ovid databases was conducted to identify suitable articles published between 2004 and 2015. The search strategy capture terms were laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy, laparoscopic anterior rectopexy, robotic ventral rectopexy, and robotic anterior rectopexy. Eight studies (3,956 patients) were included in this review. Of those patients, 3,517 patients underwent laparoscopic ventral rectopexy (LVR) using synthetic mesh and 439 using biological mesh. Sixty-six erosions were observed with synthetic mesh (26 rectal, 32 vaginal, 8 recto-vaginal fistulae) and one (perineal erosion) with biological mesh. The synthetic and the biological mesh-related erosion rates were 1.87% and 0.22%, respectively. The time between rectopexy and diagnosis of mesh erosion ranged from 1.7 to 124 months. No mesh-related mortalities were reported. The incidence of mesh-related erosion after LVR is low and is more common after the placement of synthetic mesh. The use of biological mesh for LVR seems to be a safer option; however, large, multicenter, randomized, control trials with long follow-ups are required if a definitive answer is to be obtained.
Hydrodynamics of sediment threshold
Ali, Sk Zeeshan; Dey, Subhasish
2016-07-01
A novel hydrodynamic model for the threshold of cohesionless sediment particle motion under a steady unidirectional streamflow is presented. The hydrodynamic forces (drag and lift) acting on a solitary sediment particle resting over a closely packed bed formed by the identical sediment particles are the primary motivating forces. The drag force comprises of the form drag and form induced drag. The lift force includes the Saffman lift, Magnus lift, centrifugal lift, and turbulent lift. The points of action of the force system are appropriately obtained, for the first time, from the basics of micro-mechanics. The sediment threshold is envisioned as the rolling mode, which is the plausible mode to initiate a particle motion on the bed. The moment balance of the force system on the solitary particle about the pivoting point of rolling yields the governing equation. The conditions of sediment threshold under the hydraulically smooth, transitional, and rough flow regimes are examined. The effects of velocity fluctuations are addressed by applying the statistical theory of turbulence. This study shows that for a hindrance coefficient of 0.3, the threshold curve (threshold Shields parameter versus shear Reynolds number) has an excellent agreement with the experimental data of uniform sediments. However, most of the experimental data are bounded by the upper and lower limiting threshold curves, corresponding to the hindrance coefficients of 0.2 and 0.4, respectively. The threshold curve of this study is compared with those of previous researchers. The present model also agrees satisfactorily with the experimental data of nonuniform sediments.
Elastodynamic analysis of a gear pump. Part II: Meshing phenomena and simulation results
Mucchi, E.; Dalpiaz, G.; Rivola, A.
2010-10-01
A non-linear lumped kineto-elastodynamic model for the prediction of the dynamic behaviour of external gear pumps is presented. It takes into account the most important phenomena involved in the operation of this kind of machines. Two main sources of noise and vibration can be considered: pressure and gear meshing. Fluid pressure distribution on gears, which is time-varying, is computed and included as a resultant external force and torque acting on the gears. Parametric excitations due to time-varying meshing stiffness, the tooth profile errors (obtained by a metrological analysis), the backlash effects between meshing teeth, the lubricant squeeze and the possibility of tooth contact on both lines of action were also included. Finally, the torsional stiffness and damping of the driving shaft and the non-linear behaviour of the hydrodynamic journal bearings were also taken into account. Model validation was carried out on the basis of experimental data concerning case accelerations and force reactions. The model can be used in order to analyse the pump dynamic behaviour and to identify the effects of modifications in design and operation parameters, in terms of vibration and dynamic forces. Part I is devoted to the calculation of the gear eccentricity in the steady-state condition as result of the balancing between mean pressure loads, mean meshing force and bearing reactions, while in Part II the meshing phenomena are fully explained and the main simulation results are presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jennings Jason
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Laparoscopic inguinal herniorraphy via a transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP approach using Polypropylene Mesh (Mesh and staples is an accepted technique. Mesh induces a localised inflammatory response that may extend to, and involve, adjacent abdominal and pelvic viscera such as the appendix. We present an interesting case of suspected Mesh-induced appendicitis treated successfully with laparoscopic appendicectomy, without Mesh removal, in an elderly gentleman who presented with symptoms and signs of acute appendicitis 18 months after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. Possible mechanisms for Mesh-induced appendicitis are briefly discussed.
PPM A highly efficient parallel particle mesh library for the simulation of continuum systems
Sbalzarini, I. F.; Walther, J. H.; Bergdorf, M.; Hieber, S. E.; Kotsalis, E. M.; Koumoutsakos, P.
2006-07-01
This paper presents a highly efficient parallel particle-mesh (PPM) library, based on a unifying particle formulation for the simulation of continuous systems. In this formulation, the grid-free character of particle methods is relaxed by the introduction of a mesh for the reinitialization of the particles, the computation of the field equations, and the discretization of differential operators. The present utilization of the mesh does not detract from the adaptivity, the efficient handling of complex geometries, the minimal dissipation, and the good stability properties of particle methods. The coexistence of meshes and particles, allows for the development of a consistent and adaptive numerical method, but it presents a set of challenging parallelization issues that have hindered in the past the broader use of particle methods. The present library solves the key parallelization issues involving particle-mesh interpolations and the balancing of processor particle loading, using a novel adaptive tree for mixed domain decompositions along with a coloring scheme for the particle-mesh interpolation. The high parallel efficiency of the library is demonstrated in a series of benchmark tests on distributed memory and on a shared-memory vector architecture. The modularity of the method is shown by a range of simulations, from compressible vortex rings using a novel formulation of smooth particle hydrodynamics, to simulations of diffusion in real biological cell organelles. The present library enables large scale simulations of diverse physical problems using adaptive particle methods and provides a computational tool that is a viable alternative to mesh-based methods.
An effective quadrilateral mesh adaptation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
KHATTRI Sanjay Kumar
2006-01-01
Accuracy of a simulation strongly depends on the grid quality. Here, quality means orthogonality at the boundaries and quasi-orthogonality within the critical regions, smoothness, bounded aspect ratios and solution adaptive behaviour. It is not recommended to refine the parts of the domain where the solution shows little variation. It is desired to concentrate grid points and cells in the part of the domain where the solution shows strong gradients or variations. We present a simple, effective and computationally efficient approach for quadrilateral mesh adaptation. Several numerical examples are presented for supporting our claim.
Bluetooth Low Energy Mesh Networks: A Survey.
Darroudi, Seyed Mahdi; Gomez, Carles
2017-06-22
Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) has gained significant momentum. However, the original design of BLE focused on star topology networking, which limits network coverage range and precludes end-to-end path diversity. In contrast, other competing technologies overcome such constraints by supporting the mesh network topology. For these reasons, academia, industry, and standards development organizations have been designing solutions to enable BLE mesh networks. Nevertheless, the literature lacks a consolidated view on this emerging area. This paper comprehensively surveys state of the art BLE mesh networking. We first provide a taxonomy of BLE mesh network solutions. We then review the solutions, describing the variety of approaches that leverage existing BLE functionality to enable BLE mesh networks. We identify crucial aspects of BLE mesh network solutions and discuss their advantages and drawbacks. Finally, we highlight currently open issues.
Mesh networking optimized for robotic teleoperation
Hart, Abraham; Pezeshkian, Narek; Nguyen, Hoa
2012-06-01
Mesh networks for robot teleoperation pose different challenges than those associated with traditional mesh networks. Unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) are mobile and operate in constantly changing and uncontrollable environments. Building a mesh network to work well under these harsh conditions presents a unique challenge. The Manually Deployed Communication Relay (MDCR) mesh networking system extends the range of and provides non-line-of-sight (NLOS) communications for tactical and explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) robots currently in theater. It supports multiple mesh nodes, robots acting as nodes, and works with all Internet Protocol (IP)-based robotic systems. Under MDCR, the performance of different routing protocols and route selection metrics were compared resulting in a modified version of the Babel mesh networking protocol. This paper discusses this and other topics encountered during development and testing of the MDCR system.
MPDATA error estimator for mesh adaptivity
Szmelter, Joanna; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.
2006-04-01
In multidimensional positive definite advection transport algorithm (MPDATA) the leading error as well as the first- and second-order solutions are known explicitly by design. This property is employed to construct refinement indicators for mesh adaptivity. Recent progress with the edge-based formulation of MPDATA facilitates the use of the method in an unstructured-mesh environment. In particular, the edge-based data structure allows for flow solvers to operate on arbitrary hybrid meshes, thereby lending itself to implementations of various mesh adaptivity techniques. A novel unstructured-mesh nonoscillatory forward-in-time (NFT) solver for compressible Euler equations is used to illustrate the benefits of adaptive remeshing as well as mesh movement and enrichment for the efficacy of MPDATA-based flow solvers. Validation against benchmark test cases demonstrates robustness and accuracy of the approach.
Bluetooth Low Energy Mesh Networks: A Survey
Darroudi, Seyed Mahdi; Gomez, Carles
2017-01-01
Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) has gained significant momentum. However, the original design of BLE focused on star topology networking, which limits network coverage range and precludes end-to-end path diversity. In contrast, other competing technologies overcome such constraints by supporting the mesh network topology. For these reasons, academia, industry, and standards development organizations have been designing solutions to enable BLE mesh networks. Nevertheless, the literature lacks a consolidated view on this emerging area. This paper comprehensively surveys state of the art BLE mesh networking. We first provide a taxonomy of BLE mesh network solutions. We then review the solutions, describing the variety of approaches that leverage existing BLE functionality to enable BLE mesh networks. We identify crucial aspects of BLE mesh network solutions and discuss their advantages and drawbacks. Finally, we highlight currently open issues. PMID:28640183
Application of CHAD hydrodynamics to shock-wave problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trease, H.E.; O`Rourke, P.J.; Sahota, M.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)
1997-12-31
CHAD is the latest in a sequence of continually evolving computer codes written to effectively utilize massively parallel computer architectures and the latest grid generators for unstructured meshes. Its applications range from automotive design issues such as in-cylinder and manifold flows of internal combustion engines, vehicle aerodynamics, underhood cooling and passenger compartment heating, ventilation, and air conditioning to shock hydrodynamics and materials modeling. CHAD solves the full unsteady Navier-Stoke equations with the k-epsilon turbulence model in three space dimensions. The code has four major features that distinguish it from the earlier KIVA code, also developed at Los Alamos. First, it is based on a node-centered, finite-volume method in which, like finite element methods, all fluid variables are located at computational nodes. The computational mesh efficiently and accurately handles all element shapes ranging from tetrahedra to hexahedra. Second, it is written in standard Fortran 90 and relies on automatic domain decomposition and a universal communication library written in standard C and MPI for unstructured grids to effectively exploit distributed-memory parallel architectures. Thus the code is fully portable to a variety of computing platforms such as uniprocessor workstations, symmetric multiprocessors, clusters of workstations, and massively parallel platforms. Third, CHAD utilizes a variable explicit/implicit upwind method for convection that improves computational efficiency in flows that have large velocity Courant number variations due to velocity of mesh size variations. Fourth, CHAD is designed to also simulate shock hydrodynamics involving multimaterial anisotropic behavior under high shear. The authors will discuss CHAD capabilities and show several sample calculations showing the strengths and weaknesses of CHAD.
Recent development of hydrodynamic modeling
Hirano, Tetsufumi
2014-09-01
In this talk, I give an overview of recent development in hydrodynamic modeling of high-energy nuclear collisions. First, I briefly discuss about current situation of hydrodynamic modeling by showing results from the integrated dynamical approach in which Monte-Carlo calculation of initial conditions, quark-gluon fluid dynamics and hadronic cascading are combined. In particular, I focus on rescattering effects of strange hadrons on final observables. Next I highlight three topics in recent development in hydrodynamic modeling. These include (1) medium response to jet propagation in di-jet asymmetric events, (2) causal hydrodynamic fluctuation and its application to Bjorken expansion and (3) chiral magnetic wave from anomalous hydrodynamic simulations. (1) Recent CMS data suggest the existence of QGP response to propagation of jets. To investigate this phenomenon, we solve hydrodynamic equations with source term which exhibits deposition of energy and momentum from jets. We find a large number of low momentum particles are emitted at large angle from jet axis. This gives a novel interpretation of the CMS data. (2) It has been claimed that a matter created even in p-p/p-A collisions may behave like a fluid. However, fluctuation effects would be important in such a small system. We formulate relativistic fluctuating hydrodynamics and apply it to Bjorken expansion. We found the final multiplicity fluctuates around the mean value even if initial condition is fixed. This effect is relatively important in peripheral A-A collisions and p-p/p-A collisions. (3) Anomalous transport of the quark-gluon fluid is predicted when extremely high magnetic field is applied. We investigate this possibility by solving anomalous hydrodynamic equations. We found the difference of the elliptic flow parameter between positive and negative particles appears due to the chiral magnetic wave. Finally, I provide some personal perspective of hydrodynamic modeling of high energy nuclear collisions
Probleme noi (şi vechi ale învăţământului biblioteconomic şi ale bibliotecilor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ionel Enache
2013-01-01
Full Text Available De peste 20 de ani învățământul românesc se confruntă cu aceleași probleme: subfinanțarea, nemotivarea, birocrația, instabilitatea legislativă, scăderea interesului tinerilor față de învățământul universitar. Aceleași probleme au și bibliotecile. La care se adaugă lipsa managerilor de profesie, necunoaşterea metodelor şi a tehnicilor managementului, ale marketingului, nerespectarea principiilor organizării ergonomice a muncii, absența normativelor de muncă sau lipsa unor metodologii pentru recrutarea, selecţia, încadrarea, promovarea şi evaluarea performanţelor personalului și multe altele.
Cholla: 3D GPU-based hydrodynamics code for astrophysical simulation
Schneider, Evan E.; Robertson, Brant E.
2016-07-01
Cholla (Computational Hydrodynamics On ParaLLel Architectures) models the Euler equations on a static mesh and evolves the fluid properties of thousands of cells simultaneously using GPUs. It can update over ten million cells per GPU-second while using an exact Riemann solver and PPM reconstruction, allowing computation of astrophysical simulations with physically interesting grid resolutions (>256^3) on a single device; calculations can be extended onto multiple devices with nearly ideal scaling beyond 64 GPUs.
CASTRO: A New Compressible Astrophysical Solver. I. Hydrodynamics and Self-Gravity
Almgren, A S; Bell, J B; Day, M S; Howell, L H; Joggerst, C C; Lijewski, M J; Nonaka, A; Singer, M; Zingale, M
2010-01-01
We present a new code, CASTRO, that solves the multicomponent compressible hydrodynamic equations for astrophysical flows including self-gravity, nuclear reactions and radiation. CASTRO uses an Eulerian grid and incorporates adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). Our approach to AMR uses a nested hierarchy of logically-rectangular grids with simultaneous refinement in both space and time. The radiation component of CASTRO will be described in detail in the next paper, Part II, of this series.
Unstructured Polyhedral Mesh Thermal Radiation Diffusion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Palmer, T.S.; Zika, M.R.; Madsen, N.K.
2000-07-27
Unstructured mesh particle transport and diffusion methods are gaining wider acceptance as mesh generation, scientific visualization and linear solvers improve. This paper describes an algorithm that is currently being used in the KULL code at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to solve the radiative transfer equations. The algorithm employs a point-centered diffusion discretization on arbitrary polyhedral meshes in 3D. We present the results of a few test problems to illustrate the capabilities of the radiation diffusion module.
Delaunay triangulation and computational fluid dynamics meshes
Posenau, Mary-Anne K.; Mount, David M.
1992-01-01
In aerospace computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations, the Delaunay triangulation of suitable quadrilateral meshes can lead to unsuitable triangulated meshes. Here, we present case studies which illustrate the limitations of using structured grid generation methods which produce points in a curvilinear coordinate system for subsequent triangulations for CFD applications. We discuss conditions under which meshes of quadrilateral elements may not produce a Delaunay triangulation suitable for CFD calculations, particularly with regard to high aspect ratio, skewed quadrilateral elements.
Special Relativistic Hydrodynamics with Gravitation
Hwang, Jai-chan; Noh, Hyerim
2016-12-01
Special relativistic hydrodynamics with weak gravity has hitherto been unknown in the literature. Whether such an asymmetric combination is possible has been unclear. Here, the hydrodynamic equations with Poisson-type gravity, considering fully relativistic velocity and pressure under the weak gravity and the action-at-a-distance limit, are consistently derived from Einstein’s theory of general relativity. An analysis is made in the maximal slicing, where the Poisson’s equation becomes much simpler than our previous study in the zero-shear gauge. Also presented is the hydrodynamic equations in the first post-Newtonian approximation, now under the general hypersurface condition. Our formulation includes the anisotropic stress.
Special relativistic hydrodynamics with gravitation
Hwang, Jai-chan
2016-01-01
The special relativistic hydrodynamics with weak gravity is hitherto unknown in the literature. Whether such an asymmetric combination is possible was unclear. Here, the hydrodynamic equations with Poisson-type gravity considering fully relativistic velocity and pressure under the weak gravity and the action-at-a-distance limit are consistently derived from Einstein's general relativity. Analysis is made in the maximal slicing where the Poisson's equation becomes much simpler than our previous study in the zero-shear gauge. Also presented is the hydrodynamic equations in the first post-Newtonian approximation, now under the {\\it general} hypersurface condition. Our formulation includes the anisotropic stress.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dr. S. A. Parsa
Full Text Available Making harmony among language functions of story characters with their character types, is one of the characteristics and advantages of modern and successful story writing. In traditional storied literature in Iran (prose and verse, this point is not considered important and story characters, generally, tell in narrator or writers way of speaking and since there is the narrators statement, they are not the representativeness of their class and character type. Not paying attention to this subject, causes disorder in either making supposition of reality or personifying, which are both important principals of story telling. This study, identifies the story of " Noon Val Ghalam" of Jalal- Ale- Ahmad who is a contemporary writer aspect. The methodology is qualitative, and data collection is based on content–analysis and document- analysis. As Ale- Ahmad was one of the Iranian contemporary writers and was familiar with western and Iranian writers, he was expected that the language and way of describing story characters he made, be based on the social class. But this study, by stating different proofs, shows that, this writer ignores the relationship necessary for language functions and character type among characters in the story and because of the imposition of his knowledge, statement and political and social view, the independence of the protagonists in his story is not well-concidered. The inflection of political and social thoughts of each writer among his works, is not a shortfall by it self, but representing of speeches in protagonists, in the way which is not in harmony with their characters, lowering the importance of then is based or an instrument for specific social and political representatives. This action not only shows the character. The specific characters, but also disorders the processing of one important issue in story conversation. Since in each language people from different social groups, use almost the same vocabularies that
Design of electrospinning mesh devices
Russo, Giuseppina; Peters, Gerrit W. M.; Solberg, Ramon H. M.; Vittoria, Vittoria
2012-07-01
This paper describes the features of new membranes that can act as local biomedical devices owing to their peculiar shape in the form of mesh structure. These materials are designed to provide significant effects to reduce local inflammations and improve the tissue regeneration. Lamellar Hydrotalcite loaded with Diclofenac Sodium (HTLc-DIK) was homogenously dispersed inside a polymeric matrix of Poly-caprolactone (PCL) to manufacture membranes by electrospinning technique. The experimental procedure and the criteria employed have shown to be extremely effective at increasing potentiality and related applications. The employed technique has proved to be very useful to manufacture polymeric fibers with diameters in the range of nano-micro scale. In this work a dedicated collector based on a proprietary technology of IME Technologies and Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e) was used. It allowed to obtain devices with a macro shape of a 3D-mesh. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) highlights a very interesting texture of the electrospun fibers. They show a lamellar morphology that is only slightly modified by the inclusion of the interclay embedded in the devices to control the drug release phenomena.
Conformal refinement of unstructured quadrilateral meshes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garmella, Rao [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
We present a multilevel adaptive refinement technique for unstructured quadrilateral meshes in which the mesh is kept conformal at all times. This means that the refined mesh, like the original, is formed of only quadrilateral elements that intersect strictly along edges or at vertices, i.e., vertices of one quadrilateral element do not lie in an edge of another quadrilateral. Elements are refined using templates based on 1:3 refinement of edges. We demonstrate that by careful design of the refinement and coarsening strategy, we can maintain high quality elements in the refined mesh. We demonstrate the method on a number of examples with dynamically changing refinement regions.
MOAB : a mesh-oriented database.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tautges, Timothy James; Ernst, Corey; Stimpson, Clint; Meyers, Ray J.; Merkley, Karl
2004-04-01
A finite element mesh is used to decompose a continuous domain into a discretized representation. The finite element method solves PDEs on this mesh by modeling complex functions as a set of simple basis functions with coefficients at mesh vertices and prescribed continuity between elements. The mesh is one of the fundamental types of data linking the various tools in the FEA process (mesh generation, analysis, visualization, etc.). Thus, the representation of mesh data and operations on those data play a very important role in FEA-based simulations. MOAB is a component for representing and evaluating mesh data. MOAB can store structured and unstructured mesh, consisting of elements in the finite element 'zoo'. The functional interface to MOAB is simple yet powerful, allowing the representation of many types of metadata commonly found on the mesh. MOAB is optimized for efficiency in space and time, based on access to mesh in chunks rather than through individual entities, while also versatile enough to support individual entity access. The MOAB data model consists of a mesh interface instance, mesh entities (vertices and elements), sets, and tags. Entities are addressed through handles rather than pointers, to allow the underlying representation of an entity to change without changing the handle to that entity. Sets are arbitrary groupings of mesh entities and other sets. Sets also support parent/child relationships as a relation distinct from sets containing other sets. The directed-graph provided by set parent/child relationships is useful for modeling topological relations from a geometric model or other metadata. Tags are named data which can be assigned to the mesh as a whole, individual entities, or sets. Tags are a mechanism for attaching data to individual entities and sets are a mechanism for describing relations between entities; the combination of these two mechanisms is a powerful yet simple interface for representing metadata or application
Bosonization and quantum hydrodynamics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Girish S Setlur
2006-03-01
It is shown that it is possible to bosonize fermions in any number of dimensions using the hydrodynamic variables, namely the velocity potential and density. The slow part of the Fermi field is defined irrespective of dimensionality and the commutators of this field with currents and densities are exponentiated using the velocity potential as conjugate to the density. An action in terms of these canonical bosonic variables is proposed that reproduces the correct current and density correlations. This formalism in one dimension is shown to be equivalent to the Tomonaga-Luttinger approach as it leads to the same propagator and exponents. We compute the one-particle properties of a spinless homogeneous Fermi system in two spatial dimensions with long-range gauge interactions and highlight the metal-insulator transition in the system. A general formula for the generating function of density correlations is derived that is valid beyond the random phase approximation. Finally, we write down a formula for the annihilation operator in momentum space directly in terms of number conserving products of Fermi fields.
Engineering Hydrodynamic AUV Hulls
Allen, J.
2016-12-01
AUV stands for autonomous underwater vehicle. AUVs are used in oceanography and are similar to gliders. MBARIs AUVs as well as other AUVs map the ocean floor which is very important. They also measure physical characteristics of the water, such as temperature and salinity. My science fair project for 4th grade was a STEM activity in which I built and tested 3 different AUV bodies. I wanted to find out which design was the most hydrodynamic. I tested three different lengths of AUV hulls to see which AUV would glide the farthest. The first was 6 inches. The second was 12 inches and the third was 18 inches. I used clay for the nosecone and cut a ruler into two and made it the fin. Each AUV used the same nosecone and fin. I tested all three designs in a pool. I used biomimicry to create my hypothesis. When I was researching I found that long slim animals swim fastest. So, my hypothesis is the longer AUV will glide farthest. In the end I was right. The longer AUV did glide the farthest.
Black Widow Pulsar radiation hydrodynamics simulation using Castro: Methodology
Barrios Sazo, Maria; Zingale, Michael; Zhang, Weiqun
2017-01-01
A black widow pulsar (BWP) is a millisecond pulsar in a tight binary system with a low mass star. The fast rotating pulsar emits intense radiation, which injects energy and ablates the companion star. Observation of the ablation is seen as pulsar eclipses caused by a larger object than the companion star Roche lobe. This phenomenon is attributed to a cloud surrounding the evaporating star. We will present the methodology for modeling the interaction between the radiation coming from the pulsar and the companion star using the radiation hydrodynamics code Castro. Castro is an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code that solves the compressible hydrodynamic equations for astrophysical flows with simultaneous refinement in space and time. The code also includes self-gravity, nuclear reactions and radiation. We are employing the gray-radiation solver, which uses a mixed-frame formulation of radiation hydrodynamics under the flux-limited diffusion approximation. In our setup, we are modeling the companion star with the radiation field as a boundary condition, coming from one side of the domain. In addition to a model setup in 2-d axisymmetry, we also have a 3-d setup, which is more physical given the nature of the system considering the companion is facing the pulsar on one side. We discuss the progress of our calculations, first results, and future work.The work at Stony Brook was supported by DOE/Office of Nuclear Physics grant DE-FG02-87ER40317
Calibrating an updated smoothed particle hydrodynamics scheme within gcd+
Kawata, D.; Okamoto, T.; Gibson, B. K.; Barnes, D. J.; Cen, R.
2013-01-01
We adapt a modern scheme of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) to our tree N-body/SPH galactic chemodynamics code gcd+. The applied scheme includes implementations of the artificial viscosity switch and artificial thermal conductivity proposed by Morris & Monaghan, Rosswog & Price and Price to model discontinuities and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities more accurately. We first present hydrodynamics test simulations and contrast the results to runs undertaken without artificial viscosity switch or thermal conduction. In addition, we also explore the different levels of smoothing by adopting larger or smaller smoothing lengths, i.e. a larger or smaller number of neighbour particles, Nnb. We demonstrate that the new version of gcd+ is capable of modelling Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities to a similar level as the mesh code, athena. From the Gresho vortex, point-like explosion and self-similar collapse tests, we conclude that setting the smoothing length to keep Nnb as high as ˜58 is preferable to adopting smaller smoothing lengths. We present our optimized parameter sets from the hydrodynamics tests.
Do you see what I see? Optical morphology and visual capability of ‘disco’ clams (Ctenoides ales
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lindsey F. Dougherty
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The ‘disco’ clam Ctenoides ales (Finlay, 1927 is a marine bivalve that has a unique, vivid flashing display that is a result of light scattering by silica nanospheres and rapid mantle movement. The eyes of C. ales were examined to determine their visual capabilities and whether the clams can see the flashing of conspecifics. Similar to the congener C. scaber, C. ales exhibits an off-response (shadow reflex and an on-response (light reflex. In field observations, a shadow caused a significant increase in flash rate from a mean of 3.9 Hz to 4.7 Hz (P=0.0016. In laboratory trials, a looming stimulus, which increased light intensity, caused a significant increase in flash rate from a median of 1.8 Hz to 2.2 Hz (P=0.0001. Morphological analysis of the eyes of C. ales revealed coarsely-packed photoreceptors lacking sophisticated structure, resulting in visual resolution that is likely too low to detect the flashing of conspecifics. As the eyes of C. ales are incapable of perceiving conspecific flashing, it is likely that their vision is instead used to detect predators.
Reciprocal relations in dissipationless hydrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Melnikovsky, L. A., E-mail: leva@kapitza.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems (Russian Federation)
2014-12-15
Hidden symmetry in dissipationless terms of arbitrary hydrodynamics equations is recognized. We demonstrate that all fluxes are generated by a single function and derive conventional Euler equations using the proposed formalism.
Relativistic Hydrodynamics on Graphic Cards
Gerhard, Jochen; Bleicher, Marcus
2012-01-01
We show how to accelerate relativistic hydrodynamics simulations using graphic cards (graphic processing units, GPUs). These improvements are of highest relevance e.g. to the field of high-energetic nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC where (ideal and dissipative) relativistic hydrodynamics is used to calculate the evolution of hot and dense QCD matter. The results reported here are based on the Sharp And Smooth Transport Algorithm (SHASTA), which is employed in many hydrodynamical models and hybrid simulation packages, e.g. the Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics model (UrQMD). We have redesigned the SHASTA using the OpenCL computing framework to work on accelerators like graphic processing units (GPUs) as well as on multi-core processors. With the redesign of the algorithm the hydrodynamic calculations have been accelerated by a factor 160 allowing for event-by-event calculations and better statistics in hybrid calculations.
Gradient expansion for anisotropic hydrodynamics
Florkowski, Wojciech; Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Spaliński, Michał
2016-12-01
We compute the gradient expansion for anisotropic hydrodynamics. The results are compared with the corresponding expansion of the underlying kinetic-theory model with the collision term treated in the relaxation time approximation. We find that a recent formulation of anisotropic hydrodynamics based on an anisotropic matching principle yields the first three terms of the gradient expansion in agreement with those obtained for the kinetic theory. This gives further support for this particular hydrodynamic model as a good approximation of the kinetic-theory approach. We further find that the gradient expansion of anisotropic hydrodynamics is an asymptotic series, and the singularities of the analytic continuation of its Borel transform indicate the presence of nonhydrodynamic modes.
Mesh Exposure and Associated Risk Factors in Women Undergoing Transvaginal Prolapse Repair with Mesh
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elizabeth A. Frankman
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Objective. To determine frequency, rate, and risk factors associated with mesh exposure in women undergoing transvaginal prolapse repair with polypropylene mesh. Methods. Retrospective chart review was performed for all women who underwent Prolift Pelvic Floor Repair System (Gynecare, Somerville, NJ between September 2005 and September 2008. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify risk factors for mesh exposure. Results. 201 women underwent Prolift. Mesh exposure occurred in 12% (24/201. Median time to mesh exposure was 62 days (range: 10–372. When mesh was placed in the anterior compartment, the frequency of mesh exposure was higher than that when mesh was placed in the posterior compartment (8.7% versus 2.9%, P=0.04. Independent risk factors for mesh exposure were diabetes (AOR = 7.7, 95% CI 1.6–37.6; P=0.01 and surgeon (AOR = 7.3, 95% CI 1.9–28.6; P=0.004. Conclusion. Women with diabetes have a 7-fold increased risk for mesh exposure after transvaginal prolapse repair using Prolift. The variable rate of mesh exposure amongst surgeons may be related to technique. The anterior vaginal wall may be at higher risk of mesh exposure as compared to the posterior vaginal wall.
Tensile Behaviour of Welded Wire Mesh and Hexagonal Metal Mesh for Ferrocement Application
Tanawade, A. G.; Modhera, C. D.
2017-08-01
Tension tests were conducted on welded mesh and hexagonal Metal mesh. Welded Mesh is available in the market in different sizes. The two types are analysed viz. Ø 2.3 mm and Ø 2.7 mm welded mesh, having opening size 31.75 mm × 31.75 mm and 25.4 mm × 25.4 mm respectively. Tensile strength test was performed on samples of welded mesh in three different orientations namely 0°, 30° and 45° degrees with the loading axis and hexagonal Metal mesh of Ø 0.7 mm, having opening 19.05 × 19.05 mm. Experimental tests were conducted on samples of these meshes. The objective of this study was to investigate the behaviour of the welded mesh and hexagonal Metal mesh. The result shows that the tension load carrying capacity of welded mesh of Ø 2.7 mm of 0° orientation is good as compared to Ø2.3 mm mesh and ductility of hexagonal Metal mesh is good in behaviour.
An introduction to astrophysical hydrodynamics
Shore, Steven N
1992-01-01
This book is an introduction to astrophysical hydrodynamics for both astronomy and physics students. It provides a comprehensive and unified view of the general problems associated with fluids in a cosmic context, with a discussion of fluid dynamics and plasma physics. It is the only book on hydrodynamics that addresses the astrophysical context. Researchers and students will find this work to be an exceptional reference. Contents include chapters on irrotational and rotational flows, turbulence, magnetohydrodynamics, and instabilities.
Proyecto de un centro de cerveza ale artesanal de trigo en Cuéllar (Segovia)
García Sanz, Simón
2016-01-01
En el presente trabajo fin de grado se redacta el proyecto para la creación de un centro de elaboración de cerveza ale de trigo artesanal en la localidad de Cuéllar (Segovia). Para todo ello se emplean los 5 documentos oficiales en los que se muestra todas las observaciones, instalaciones, estudios, planos y demás documentación para la correcta ejecución del mismo. Grado en Ingeniería de las Industrias Agrarias y Alimentarias
Filtro paso bajo discreto de operación directa sobre señales PWM
López Batres, Sergio
2010-01-01
Este proyecto aborda la construcción y diseño de un filtro de paso bajo que opera sobre señales moduladas en anchura de impulsos (PWM). Utiliza componentes analógicos y un microprocesador que efectúa el control del sistema. Su función es servir de atenuador de los armónicos en amplificadores de clase D que podrían usarse en sistemas de audio, sin necesidad de un filtro paso bajo analógico de orden elevado. Ingeniería Técnica en Electrónica
El uso de señales en el análisis de coyuntura
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eduardo Espinoza
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Resumen El análisis y seguimiento de la coyuntura económica resultan ser unas de las principales tareas de las autoridades monetarias y organismos internacionales, de tal manera que las herramientas inherentes a esta tarea deben ser utilizadas en forma apropiada y tener una correcta interpretación. Dentro de este contexto el uso de señales extraídas del comportamiento de las series económicas resulta frecuente en los diversos análisis de coyuntura realizados por los bancos centrales de Centroamérica y República Dominicana. Este documento somete a revisión las principales señales utilizadas en los informes de esos análisis, comparando las ventajas en el uso de tasas de variación mensual, interanual, acumulada, anualizada, entre otras. Todo esto en preámbulo a la recomendación sobre las señales adecuadas para el seguimiento de dos variables fundamentales en la coyuntura económica: los precios y la producción. Palabras Claves: Análisis de coyuntura, extracción de señales, tasas de crecimiento interanual, tasa de crecimiento anualizado. Abstract Analysis and monitoring of any economic situation are the primary tasks of monetary authorities and international organizations and, as such, the tools inherent to this task require appropriate use and interpretation. With this context in mind, the use of extracted behavioral signs in an economic series is common in several conjunctive analyses performed by the central banks in Central America and the Dominican Republic. This document is subject to review of the main signals used in these reports comparing, for example, the advantages in using monthly, inter-annual, cumulative or annualized rates of change, among others. All this is in the preamble to the final recommendation of the appropriate signals to the monitoring of two key variables in the economic conjuncture: prices and production. Keywords: conjuncture analysis, signal extraction, interannual growth rates, annualized growth
Forced folding in a salty basin: Gada'-Ale in the Afar
Rafflin, Victoria; Hetherington, Rachel; Hagos, Miruts; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin
2017-04-01
The Gada'-Ale Volcano in the Danakil Depression of Ethiopia is a curious shield-like, or flat dome-like volcanic centre in the Afar Rift. It has several fissure eruptions seen on its mid and lower flanks. It has an even more curious ring structure on its western side that has been interpreted as a salt diapir. The complex lies the central part of the basin where there are 1-2 km thick salt deposits. The area was active in 1990's (Amelung et al 2000) with no eruptive activity, but a possible intrusion. There was also an intrusion north of Gada'-Ale at Dallol in 2005 (Nobile et al 2012). Using Google Earth imagery, we have mapped the volcano, and note that: a) the main edifice has a thin skin of lava lying light coloured rock; b) that these thin deposits are sliding down the flank of volcano, and thrusting at the base. In doing so, they are breaking into detached plates. The light colour of the deposits, and the ability of the rock to slide on them suggest that are salt; Fractures on and around the volcano form curved patterns, around raised areas with several km diameter. These could be surface expressions of shallow sills. Putting the observations together with the known geology of adjacent centres like Dallol and Alu, we suggest that Gada'-Ale is a forced fold, created over a sill that has either bulged into a laccolith, or risen as a saucer-shaped sill. The upraised salt has caused the thin veneer of volcanics to slide off. That there are eruptive fissures on Gada'-Ale, and possible sill intrusions around the base suggests that the centre lies over a complex of sills that have gradually intruded and bulged the structure to its present level. Eruptions have contribute only a small amount to the whole topography of the edifice. We hope to visit the volcano in March and will being hot-off-the press details back to the EGU!
Feistauer, Miloslav; Kučera, Václav; Prokopová, Jaroslav; Horáček, Jaromír
2010-09-01
The aim of this work is the simulation of viscous compressible flows in human vocal folds during phonation. The computational domain is a bounded subset of IR2, whose geometry mimics the shape of the human larynx. During phonation, parts of the solid impermeable walls are moving in a prescribed manner, thus simulating the opening and closing of the vocal chords. As the governing equations we take the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in ALE form. Space semidiscretization is carried out by the discontinuous Galerkin method combined with a linearized semi-implicit approach. Numerical experiments are performed with the resulting scheme.
Deposition of HgTe by electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy (EC-ALE)
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Venkatasamy, V
2006-04-01
Full Text Available and Received 17 November 2005; received in revised 0022-0728/$ - see front matter � 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.jelechem.2006.02.006 l atomic layer epitaxy (EC-ALE) n Jayaraju a, Stephen M. Cox b, Mathe a, John L. Stickney a... (1983). [7] N.H. Karam, R.G. Wolfson, I.B. Bhat, H. Ehsani, S.K. Ghandhi, Thin Solid Films 225 (1993) 261. [8] M.A.M. Seyam, A. Elfalaky, Vacuum 57 (2000) 31–41. [9] C. Janowitz, N. Orlowski, R. Manzke, Z. Golacki, J. Alloy. Compd. 328 (2001) 84...
Proyecto de un centro de cerveza ale artesanal de trigo en Cuéllar (Segovia)
García Sanz, Simón
2016-01-01
En el presente trabajo fin de grado se redacta el proyecto para la creación de un centro de elaboración de cerveza ale de trigo artesanal en la localidad de Cuéllar (Segovia). Para todo ello se emplean los 5 documentos oficiales en los que se muestra todas las observaciones, instalaciones, estudios, planos y demás documentación para la correcta ejecución del mismo. Grado en Ingeniería de las Industrias Agrarias y Alimentarias
Slurry bubble column hydrodynamics
Rados, Novica
Slurry bubble column reactors are presently used for a wide range of reactions in both chemical and biochemical industry. The successful design and scale up of slurry bubble column reactors require a complete understanding of multiphase fluid dynamics, i.e. phase mixing, heat and mass transport characteristics. The primary objective of this thesis is to improve presently limited understanding of the gas-liquid-solid slurry bubble column hydrodynamics. The effect of superficial gas velocity (8 to 45 cm/s), pressure (0.1 to 1.0 MPa) and solids loading (20 and 35 wt.%) on the time-averaged solids velocity and turbulent parameter profiles has been studied using Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT). To accomplish this, CARPT technique has been significantly improved for the measurements in highly attenuating systems, such as high pressure, high solids loading stainless steel slurry bubble column. At a similar set of operational conditions time-averaged gas and solids holdup profiles have been evaluated using the developed Computed Tomography (CT)/Overall gas holdup procedure. This procedure is based on the combination of the CT scans and the overall gas holdup measurements. The procedure assumes constant solids loading in the radial direction and axially invariant cross-sectionally averaged gas holdup. The obtained experimental holdup, velocity and turbulent parameters data are correlated and compared with the existing low superficial gas velocities and atmospheric pressure CARPT/CT gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid slurry data. The obtained solids axial velocity radial profiles are compared with the predictions of the one dimensional (1-D) liquid/slurry recirculation phenomenological model. The obtained solids loading axial profiles are compared with the predictions of the Sedimentation and Dispersion Model (SDM). The overall gas holdup values, gas holdup radial profiles, solids loading axial profiles, solids axial velocity radial profiles and solids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sezar Gülbaz
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The land development and increase in urbanization in a watershed affect water quantityand water quality. On one hand, urbanization provokes the adjustment of geomorphicstructure of the streams, ultimately raises peak flow rate which causes flood; on theother hand, it diminishes water quality which results in an increase in Total SuspendedSolid (TSS. Consequently, sediment accumulation in downstream of urban areas isobserved which is not preferred for longer life of dams. In order to overcome thesediment accumulation problem in dams, the amount of TSS in streams and inwatersheds should be taken under control. Low Impact Development (LID is a BestManagement Practice (BMP which may be used for this purpose. It is a land planningand engineering design method which is applied in managing storm water runoff inorder to reduce flooding as well as simultaneously improve water quality. LID includestechniques to predict suspended solid loads in surface runoff generated over imperviousurban surfaces. In this study, the impact of LID-BMPs on surface runoff and TSS isinvestigated by employing a calibrated hydrodynamic model for Sazlidere Watershedwhich is located in Istanbul, Turkey. For this purpose, a calibrated hydrodynamicmodel was developed by using Environmental Protection Agency Storm WaterManagement Model (EPA SWMM. For model calibration and validation, we set up arain gauge and a flow meter into the field and obtain rainfall and flow rate data. Andthen, we select several LID types such as retention basins, vegetative swales andpermeable pavement and we obtain their influence on peak flow rate and pollutantbuildup and washoff for TSS. Consequently, we observe the possible effects ofLID on surface runoff and TSS in Sazlidere Watershed.
Numerical Prediction of Hydrodynamic Forces on A Ship Passing Through A Lock
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王宏志; 邹早建
2014-01-01
While passing through a lock, a ship usually undergoes a steady forward motion at low speed. Owing to the size restriction of lock chamber, the shallow water and bank effects on the hydrodynamic forces acting on the ship may be remarkable, which may have an adverse effect on navigation safety. However, the complicated hydrodynamics is not yet fully understood. This paper focuses on the hydrodynamic forces acting on a ship passing through a lock. The unsteady viscous flow and hydrodynamic forces are calculated by applying an unsteady RANS code with a RNG k-εturbulence model. User-defined function (UDF) is compiled to define the ship motion. Meanwhile, the grid regeneration is dealt with by using the dynamic mesh method and sliding interface technique. Numerical study is carried out for a bulk carrier ship passing through the Pierre Vandamme Lock in Zeebrugge at the model scale. The proposed method is validated by comparing the numerical results with the data of captive model tests. By analyzing the numerical results obtained at different speeds, water depths and eccentricities, the influences of speed, water depth and eccentricity on the hydrodynamic forces are illustrated. The numerical method proposed in this paper can qualitatively predict the ship-lock hydrodynamic interaction. It can provide certain guidance on the manoeuvring and control of ships passing through a lock.
Adaptive mesh refinement in titanium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Colella, Phillip; Wen, Tong
2005-01-21
In this paper, we evaluate Titanium's usability as a high-level parallel programming language through a case study, where we implement a subset of Chombo's functionality in Titanium. Chombo is a software package applying the Adaptive Mesh Refinement methodology to numerical Partial Differential Equations at the production level. In Chombo, the library approach is used to parallel programming (C++ and Fortran, with MPI), whereas Titanium is a Java dialect designed for high-performance scientific computing. The performance of our implementation is studied and compared with that of Chombo in solving Poisson's equation based on two grid configurations from a real application. Also provided are the counts of lines of code from both sides.
Mesh refinement strategy for optimal control problems
Paiva, L. T.; Fontes, F. A. C. C.
2013-10-01
Direct methods are becoming the most used technique to solve nonlinear optimal control problems. Regular time meshes having equidistant spacing are frequently used. However, in some cases these meshes cannot cope accurately with nonlinear behavior. One way to improve the solution is to select a new mesh with a greater number of nodes. Another way, involves adaptive mesh refinement. In this case, the mesh nodes have non equidistant spacing which allow a non uniform nodes collocation. In the method presented in this paper, a time mesh refinement strategy based on the local error is developed. After computing a solution in a coarse mesh, the local error is evaluated, which gives information about the subintervals of time domain where refinement is needed. This procedure is repeated until the local error reaches a user-specified threshold. The technique is applied to solve the car-like vehicle problem aiming minimum consumption. The approach developed in this paper leads to results with greater accuracy and yet with lower overall computational time as compared to using a time meshes having equidistant spacing.
7th International Meshing Roundtable '98
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eldred, T.J.
1998-10-01
The goal of the 7th International Meshing Roundtable is to bring together researchers and developers from industry, academia, and government labs in a stimulating, open environment for the exchange of technical information related to the meshing process. In the past, the Roundtable has enjoyed significant participation from each of these groups from a wide variety of countries.
Laparoscopic Pelvic Floor Repair Using Polypropylene Mesh
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shih-Shien Weng
2008-09-01
Conclusion: Laparoscopic pelvic floor repair using a single piece of polypropylene mesh combined with uterosacral ligament suspension appears to be a feasible procedure for the treatment of advanced vaginal vault prolapse and enterocele. Fewer mesh erosions and postoperative pain syndromes were seen in patients who had no previous pelvic floor reconstructive surgery.
A first computational framework for integrated hydrologic-hydrodynamic inundation modelling
Hoch, Jannis; Baart, Fedor; Neal, Jeffrey; van Beek, Rens; Winsemius, Hessel; Bates, Paul; Bierkens, Marc
2017-04-01
To provide detailed flood hazard and risk estimates for current and future conditions, advanced modelling approaches are required. Currently, many approaches are however built upon specific hydrologic or hydrodynamic model routines. By applying these routines in stand-alone mode important processes cannot accurately be described. For instance, global hydrologic models (GHM) run at coarse spatial resolution which does not identify locally relevant flood hazard information. Moreover, hydrologic models generally focus on correct computations of water balances, but employ less sophisticated routing schemes such as the kinematic wave approximation. Hydrodynamic models, on the other side, excel in the computations of open water flow dynamics, but are highly dependent on specific runoff or observed discharge for their input. In most cases hydrodynamic models are forced by applying discharge at the boundaries and thus cannot account for water sources within the model domain. Thus, discharge and inundation dynamics at reaches not fed by upstream boundaries cannot be modelled. In a recent study, Hoch et al. (HESS, 2017) coupled the GHM PCR-GLOBWB with the hydrodynamic model Delft3D Flexible Mesh. A core element of this study was that both models were connected on a cell-by-cell basis which allows for direct hydrologic forcing within the hydrodynamic model domain. The means for such model coupling is the Basic Model Interface (BMI) which provides a set of functions to directly access model variables. Model results showed that discharge simulations can profit from model coupling as their accuracy is higher compared to stand-alone runs. Model results of a coupled simulation clearly depend on the quality of the individual models. Depending on purpose, location or simply the models at hand, it would be worthwhile to allow a wider range of models to be coupled. As a first step, we present a framework which allows coupling of PCR-GLOBWB to both Delft3D Flexible Mesh and LISFLOOD
Survey of Multi-Material Closure Models in 1D Lagrangian Hydrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maeng, Jungyeoul Brad [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hyde, David Andrew Bulloch [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-07-28
Accurately treating the coupled sub-cell thermodynamics of computational cells containing multiple materials is an inevitable problem in hydrodynamics simulations, whether due to initial configurations or evolutions of the materials and computational mesh. When solving the hydrodynamics equations within a multi-material cell, we make the assumption of a single velocity field for the entire computational domain, which necessitates the addition of a closure model to attempt to resolve the behavior of the multi-material cells’ constituents. In conjunction with a 1D Lagrangian hydrodynamics code, we present a variety of both the popular as well as more recently proposed multi-material closure models and survey their performances across a spectrum of examples. We consider standard verification tests as well as practical examples using combinations of fluid, solid, and composite constituents within multi-material mixtures. Our survey provides insights into the advantages and disadvantages of various multi-material closure models in different problem configurations.
Cholla : A New Massively-Parallel Hydrodynamics Code For Astrophysical Simulation
Schneider, Evan E
2014-01-01
We present Cholla (Computational Hydrodynamics On ParaLLel Architectures), a new three-dimensional hydrodynamics code that harnesses the power of graphics processing units (GPUs) to accelerate astrophysical simulations. Cholla models the Euler equations on a static mesh using state-of-the-art techniques, including the unsplit Corner Transport Upwind (CTU) algorithm, a variety of exact and approximate Riemann solvers, and multiple spatial reconstruction techniques including the piecewise parabolic method (PPM). Cholla performs all hydrodynamical calculations in a massively-parallel manner, using GPUs to evolve the fluid properties of thousands of cells simultaneously while leaving the power of central processing units (CPUs) available for modeling additional physics. On current hardware, Cholla can update more than ten million cells per GPU-second while using an exact Riemann solver and PPM reconstruction with the CTU algorithm. Owing to the massively-parallel architecture of GPUs and the design of the Cholla ...
A comparison of tetrahedral mesh improvement techniques
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Freitag, L.A.; Ollivier-Gooch, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Mathematics and Computer Science Div.
1996-12-01
Automatic mesh generation and adaptive refinement methods for complex three-dimensional domains have proven to be very successful tools for the efficient solution of complex applications problems. These methods can, however, produce poorly shaped elements that cause the numerical solution to be less accurate and more difficult to compute. Fortunately, the shape of the elements can be improved through several mechanisms, including face-swapping techniques that change local connectivity and optimization-based mesh smoothing methods that adjust grid point location. The authors consider several criteria for each of these two methods and compare the quality of several meshes obtained by using different combinations of swapping and smoothing. Computational experiments show that swapping is critical to the improvement of general mesh quality and that optimization-based smoothing is highly effective in eliminating very small and very large angles. The highest quality meshes are obtained by using a combination of swapping and smoothing techniques.
Characteristics of Mesh Wave Impedance in FDTD Non-Uniform Mesh
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
REN Wu; LIU Bo; GAO Ben-qing
2005-01-01
In order to increase the evaluating precision of mesh reflection wave, the mesh wave impedance(MWI) is extended to the non-uniform mesh in 1-D and 2-D cases for the first time on the basis of the Yee's positional relation for electromagnetic field components. Lots of characteristics are obtained for different mesh sizes and frequencies. Then the reflection coefficient caused by the non-uniform mesh can be calculated according to the theory of equivalent transmission line. By comparing it with that calculated by MWI in the uniform mesh, it is found that the evaluating error can be largely reduced and is in good agreement with that directly computed by FDTD method. And this extension of MWI can be used in the error analysis of complex mesh.
Update on Development of Mesh Generation Algorithms in MeshKit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jain, Rajeev [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vanderzee, Evan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mahadevan, Vijay [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
2015-09-30
MeshKit uses a graph-based design for coding all its meshing algorithms, which includes the Reactor Geometry (and mesh) Generation (RGG) algorithms. This report highlights the developmental updates of all the algorithms, results and future work. Parallel versions of algorithms, documentation and performance results are reported. RGG GUI design was updated to incorporate new features requested by the users; boundary layer generation and parallel RGG support were added to the GUI. Key contributions to the release, upgrade and maintenance of other SIGMA1 libraries (CGM and MOAB) were made. Several fundamental meshing algorithms for creating a robust parallel meshing pipeline in MeshKit are under development. Results and current status of automated, open-source and high quality nuclear reactor assembly mesh generation algorithms such as trimesher, quadmesher, interval matching and multi-sweeper are reported.
The hydrodynamics of colloidal gelation.
Varga, Zsigmond; Wang, Gang; Swan, James
2015-12-14
Colloidal gels are formed during arrested phase separation. Sub-micron, mutually attractive particles aggregate to form a system spanning network with high interfacial area, far from equilibrium. Models for microstructural evolution during colloidal gelation have often struggled to match experimental results with long standing questions regarding the role of hydrodynamic interactions. In nearly all models, these interactions are neglected entirely. In the present work, we report simulations of gelation with and without hydrodynamic interactions between the suspended particles executed in HOOMD-blue. The disparities between these simulations are striking and mirror the experimental-theoretical mismatch in the literature. The hydrodynamic simulations agree with experimental observations, however. We explore a simple model of the competing transport processes in gelation that anticipates these disparities, and conclude that hydrodynamic forces are essential. Near the gel boundary, there exists a competition between compaction of individual aggregates which suppresses gelation and coagulation of aggregates which enhances it. The time scale for compaction is mildly slowed by hydrodynamic interactions, while the time scale for coagulation is greatly accelerated. This enhancement to coagulation leads to a shift in the gel boundary to lower strengths of attraction and lower particle concentrations when compared to models that neglect hydrodynamic interactions. Away from the gel boundary, differences in the nearest neighbor distribution and fractal dimension persist within gels produced by both simulation methods. This result necessitates a fundamental rethinking of how dynamic, discrete element models for gelation kinetics are developed as well as how collective hydrodynamic interactions influence the arrest of attractive colloidal dispersions.
Selection of finite-element mesh parameters in modeling the growth of hydraulic fracturing cracks
Kurguzov, V. D.
2016-12-01
The effect of the mesh geometry on the accuracy of solutions obtained by the finite-element method for problems of linear fracture mechanics is investigated. The guidelines have been formulated for constructing an optimum mesh for several routine problems involving elements with linear and quadratic approximation of displacements. The accuracy of finite-element solutions is estimated based on the degree of the difference between the calculated stress-intensity factor (SIF) and its value obtained analytically. In problems of hydrofracturing of oil-bearing formation, the pump-in pressure of injected water produces a distributed load on crack flanks as opposed to standard fracture mechanics problems that have analytical solutions, where a load is applied to the external boundaries of the computational region and the cracks themselves are kept free from stresses. Some model pressure profiles, as well as pressure profiles taken from real hydrodynamic computations, have been considered. Computer models of cracks with allowance for the pre-stressed state, fracture toughness, and elastic properties of materials are developed in the MSC.Marc 2012 finite-element analysis software. The Irwin force criterion is used as a criterion of brittle fracture and the SIFs are computed using the Cherepanov-Rice invariant J-integral. The process of crack propagation in a linearly elastic isotropic body is described in terms of the elastic energy release rate G and modeled using the VCCT (Virtual Crack Closure Technique) approach. It has been found that the solution accuracy is sensitive to the mesh configuration. Several parameters that are decisive in constructing effective finite-element meshes, namely, the minimum element size, the distance between mesh nodes in the vicinity of a crack tip, and the ratio of the height of an element to its length, have been established. It has been shown that a mesh that consists of only small elements does not improve the accuracy of the solution.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Knap, J; McClelland, M A; Maienschein, J L; Howard, W M; Nichols, A L; deHaven, M R; Strand, O T
2006-06-22
We describe the results of a Scaled-Thermal-Explosion-eXperiment (STEX) for LX-10 (94.7 % HMX, 5.3 % Viton A) confined in an AerMet 100 (iron-cobalt-nickel alloy) tube with reinforced end caps. The experimental measurements are compared with predictions of an Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE3D) computer model. ALE3D is a three-dimensional multi-physics computer code capable of solving coupled equations describing thermal, mechanical and chemical behavior of materials. In particular, we focus on the processes linked to fracture and fragmentation of the AerMet tube driven by the LX-10 deflagration.
Automatic Mesh Generation of Hybrid Mesh on Valves in Multiple Positions in Feedline Systems
Ross, Douglass H.; Ito, Yasushi; Dorothy, Fredric W.; Shih, Alan M.; Peugeot, John
2010-01-01
Fluid flow simulations through a valve often require evaluation of the valve in multiple opening positions. A mesh has to be generated for the valve for each position and compounding. The problem is the fact that the valve is typically part of a larger feedline system. In this paper, we propose to develop a system to create meshes for feedline systems with parametrically controlled valve openings. Herein we outline two approaches to generate the meshes for a valve in a feedline system at multiple positions. There are two issues that must be addressed. The first is the creation of the mesh on the valve for multiple positions. The second is the generation of the mesh for the total feedline system including the valve. For generation of the mesh on the valve, we will describe the use of topology matching and mesh generation parameter transfer. For generation of the total feedline system, we will describe two solutions that we have implemented. In both cases the valve is treated as a component in the feedline system. In the first method the geometry of the valve in the feedline system is replaced with a valve at a different opening position. Geometry is created to connect the valve to the feedline system. Then topology for the valve is created and the portion of the topology for the valve is topology matched to the standard valve in a different position. The mesh generation parameters are transferred and then the volume mesh for the whole feedline system is generated. The second method enables the user to generate the volume mesh on the valve in multiple open positions external to the feedline system, to insert it into the volume mesh of the feedline system, and to reduce the amount of computer time required for mesh generation because only two small volume meshes connecting the valve to the feedline mesh need to be updated.
ALE3D Model Predictions and Experimental Analysis of the Cookoff Response of Comp B*
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maienschein, J L; McClelland, M A; Wardell, J F; Reaugh, J E; Nichols, A L; Tran, T D
2003-11-24
ALE3D simulations are presented for the thermal explosion of Comp B (RDX,TNT) in a Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment (STEX). Candidate models and numerical strategies are being tested using the ALE3D code which simulates the coupled thermal, mechanical, and chemical behavior during heating, ignition, and explosion. The mechanical behavior of the solid constituents is represented by a Steinberg-Guinan model while polynomial and gamma-law expressions are used for the equation of state of the solid and gas species, respectively. A gamma-law model is employed for the air in gaps, and a mixed material model is used for the interface between air and explosive. A three-step chemical kinetics model is used for each of the RDX and TNT reaction sequences during the heating and ignition phases, and a pressure-dependent deflagration model is employed during the rapid expansion. Parameters for the three-step kinetics model are specified using measurements of the One-Dimensional-Time-to-Explosion (ODTX), while measurements for burn rate are employed to determine parameters in the burn front model. We compare model predictions to measurements for temperature fields, ignition temperature, and tube wall strain during the heating, ignition, and explosive phases.
History of the pharmacies in the town of Aleşd, Bihor county.
Paşca, Manuela Bianca; Gîtea, Daniela; Moisa, Corina
2013-01-01
In 1848 pharmacist Horváth Mihály established the first pharmacy in Aleşd, called Speranţa (Remény). Following the brief history of this pharmacy we will notice that in 1874 the pharmacy comes into the possession of Kocsiss József. In 1906 the personal rights of the pharmacy are transcribed to Kocsiss Béla, and since 1938 the his son, Kocsiss Dezső, pharmacist, became the new owner. In 1949 the pharmacy was nationalized and became the property of the Pharmaceutical Office Oradea, the pharmacy got the name Farmacia nr. 22 of Aleşd, and continued its activity throughout the whole communist period. Starting with the year 1991 it entered into private system as Angefarm, as the property of Mermeze Gheorghe, pharmacist, and from 2003 until now works under the name Vitalogy 3, as the property of Ghitea Sorin. A second pharmacy, Sfântul Anton was founded in 1937 by pharmacist Herceg Dobreanu Atena, which however had no continuity during the communist period.
The impact of different ale brewer’s yeast strains on the proteome of immature beer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berner, Torben Sune; Jacobsen, Susanne; Arneborg, Nils
2013-01-01
BACKGROUND: It is well known that brewer’s yeast affects the taste and aroma of beer. However, the influence of brewer’s yeast on the protein composition of beer is currently unknown. In this study, changes of the proteome of immature beer, i.e. beer that has not been matured after fermentation, ...... was present in beer brewed with KVL011, while lacking in WLP001 beer.......BACKGROUND: It is well known that brewer’s yeast affects the taste and aroma of beer. However, the influence of brewer’s yeast on the protein composition of beer is currently unknown. In this study, changes of the proteome of immature beer, i.e. beer that has not been matured after fermentation......, by ale brewer’s yeast strains with different abilities to degrade fermentable sugars were investigated. RESULTS: Beers were fermented from standard hopped wort (13° Plato) using two ale brewer’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) strains with different attenuation degrees. Both immature beers had the same...
ALE Meta-Analysis of Schizophrenics Performing the N-Back Task
Harrell, Zachary
2010-10-01
MRI/fMRI has already proven itself as a valuable tool in the diagnosis and treatment of many illnesses of the brain, including cognitive problems. By exploiting the differences in magnetic susceptibility between oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin, fMRI can measure blood flow in various regions of interest within the brain. This can determine the level of brain activity in relation to motor or cognitive functions and provide a metric for tissue damage or illness symptoms. Structural imaging techniques have shown lesions or deficiencies in tissue volumes in schizophrenics corresponding to areas primarily in the frontal and temporal lobes. These areas are currently known to be involved in working memory and attention, which many schizophrenics have trouble with. The ALE (Activation Likelihood Estimation) Meta-Analysis is able to statistically determine the significance of brain area activations based on the post-hoc combination of multiple studies. This process is useful for giving a general model of brain function in relation to a particular task designed to engage the affected areas (such as working memory for the n-back task). The advantages of the ALE Meta-Analysis include elimination of single subject anomalies, elimination of false/extremely weak activations, and verification of function/location hypotheses.
Un «thoracatus» imperial en Los Bañales (Uncastillo, Zaragoza
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luis ROMERO NOVELLA
2014-06-01
Full Text Available El presente trabajo informa sobre el hallazgo de un conjunto de fragmentos escultóricos recuperados en contexto de amortización secundario en el foro de la ciudad romana de Los Bañales (Uncastillo, Zaragoza durante el verano de 2013. Este conjunto de piezas realizadas en mármol de Carrara incluye la parte inferior y central de una coraza profusamente decorada con escenas de spolia hostium, así como las piernas y zona de la cintura de una estatua junto a otros elementos pertenecientes a la misma –hombro, mano y fragmentos de las pterykes y del paludamentum–. Se plantea la probable adscripción de los fragmentos presentados a una única thoracata imperial probablemente –a juzgar por diversos detalles iconográficos de la coraza y formales del resto de la pieza– de fecha domicianea. Además se pone a la thoracata en relación con lo que sabemos de este singular municipio flavio del convento Cesaraugustano planteando, incluso, una hipótesis sobre la ubicación primaria del monumento en una de las scholae del pórtico occidental del foro de Los Bañales.
Parameterization of wind turbine impacts on hydrodynamics and sediment transport
Rivier, Aurélie; Bennis, Anne-Claire; Pinon, Grégory; Magar, Vanesa; Gross, Markus
2016-10-01
Monopile foundations of offshore wind turbines modify the hydrodynamics and sediment transport at local and regional scales. The aim of this work is to assess these modifications and to parameterize them in a regional model. In the present study, this is achieved through a regional circulation model, coupled with a sediment transport module, using two approaches. One approach is to explicitly model the monopiles in the mesh as dry cells, and the other is to parameterize them by adding a drag force term to the momentum and turbulence equations. Idealised cases are run using hydrodynamical conditions and sediment grain sizes typical from the area located off Courseulles-sur-Mer (Normandy, France), where an offshore windfarm is under planning, to assess the capacity of the model to reproduce the effect of the monopile on the environment. Then, the model is applied to a real configuration on an area including the future offshore windfarm of Courseulles-sur-Mer. Four monopiles are represented in the model using both approaches, and modifications of the hydrodynamics and sediment transport are assessed over a tidal cycle. In relation to local hydrodynamic effects, it is observed that currents increase at the side of the monopile and decrease in front of and downstream of the monopile. In relation to sediment transport effect, the results show that resuspension and erosion occur around the monopile in locations where the current speed increases due to the monopile presence, and sediments deposit downstream where the bed shear stress is lower. During the tidal cycle, wakes downstream of the monopile reach the following monopile and modify the velocity magnitude and suspended sediment concentration patterns around the second monopile.
Parameterization of wind turbine impacts on hydrodynamics and sediment transport
Rivier, Aurélie; Bennis, Anne-Claire; Pinon, Grégory; Magar, Vanesa; Gross, Markus
2016-09-01
Monopile foundations of offshore wind turbines modify the hydrodynamics and sediment transport at local and regional scales. The aim of this work is to assess these modifications and to parameterize them in a regional model. In the present study, this is achieved through a regional circulation model, coupled with a sediment transport module, using two approaches. One approach is to explicitly model the monopiles in the mesh as dry cells, and the other is to parameterize them by adding a drag force term to the momentum and turbulence equations. Idealised cases are run using hydrodynamical conditions and sediment grain sizes typical from the area located off Courseulles-sur-Mer (Normandy, France), where an offshore windfarm is under planning, to assess the capacity of the model to reproduce the effect of the monopile on the environment. Then, the model is applied to a real configuration on an area including the future offshore windfarm of Courseulles-sur-Mer. Four monopiles are represented in the model using both approaches, and modifications of the hydrodynamics and sediment transport are assessed over a tidal cycle. In relation to local hydrodynamic effects, it is observed that currents increase at the side of the monopile and decrease in front of and downstream of the monopile. In relation to sediment transport effect, the results show that resuspension and erosion occur around the monopile in locations where the current speed increases due to the monopile presence, and sediments deposit downstream where the bed shear stress is lower. During the tidal cycle, wakes downstream of the monopile reach the following monopile and modify the velocity magnitude and suspended sediment concentration patterns around the second monopile.
Numerical modeling of hydrodynamic in southwestern Johor, Malaysia
Jusoh, Wan Hasliza Wan; Tangang, Fredolin; Juneng, Liew; Hamid, Mohd. Radzi Abdul
2014-09-01
Tanjung Piai located at the southwest of Johor, Malaysia faces severe erosion since a few decades ago. Considering the condition in this particular area, understanding of its hydrodynamic behaviour should be clearly explained. Thus, a numerical modelling has been applied in this study in order to investigate the hydrodynamic of current flow along the study area. Hydrodynamic study was carried out by applying a numerical modelling of MIKE 21 software based on flexible mesh grids. The model generally described the current flow pattern in the study area corresponding to the several flows from surrounding water regime which are Malacca Strait, Singapore Strait and Java Sea. The interaction of various water flows in the area of Tanjung Piai which is located in the middle part of the meeting of the currents to have a very complicated hydrodynamic conditions. The study area generally experienced two tidal phase in a day as the water flows is greatly influenced by the adjacent water flow from Malacca and Singapore Straits. During first tidal cycle, the most dominant flow is influenced by a single water flow which is Malacca Strait for both ebbing and flooding event. The current velocity was generally higher during this first tidal phase particularly at the tips of Tanjung Piai where severe erosion is spotted. However, the second tidal phase gives different stress to the study area as the flow is relatively dominated by both Malacca and Singapore Straits. During this phase, the meeting of current from both straits can be discovered near to the Tanjung Piai as this occurrence makes relatively slower current velocity around the study area. Basically, the numerical modelling result in this study can be considered as basic information in describing the condition of study area as it would be very useful for extensive study especially the study of sediment transport and morphological processes in the coastal area.
PowderSim: Lagrangian Discrete and Mesh-Free Continuum Simulation Code for Cohesive Soils
Johnson, Scott; Walton, Otis; Settgast, Randolph
2013-01-01
PowderSim is a calculation tool that combines a discrete-element method (DEM) module, including calibrated interparticle-interaction relationships, with a mesh-free, continuum, SPH (smoothed-particle hydrodynamics) based module that utilizes enhanced, calibrated, constitutive models capable of mimicking both large deformations and the flow behavior of regolith simulants and lunar regolith under conditions anticipated during in situ resource utilization (ISRU) operations. The major innovation introduced in PowderSim is to use a mesh-free method (SPH-based) with a calibrated and slightly modified critical-state soil mechanics constitutive model to extend the ability of the simulation tool to also address full-scale engineering systems in the continuum sense. The PowderSim software maintains the ability to address particle-scale problems, like size segregation, in selected regions with a traditional DEM module, which has improved contact physics and electrostatic interaction models.
Numerical Simulation of Cavitation for 3-D ALE15 Hydrofoil%三维ALE15翼型空化流动数值模拟
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
谭磊; 曹树良; 王玉明; 祝宝山
2012-01-01
The phase transformation in cavitation flow field was calculated by the full cavitation model considering the pressure and velocity turbulent fluctuation of the fluid, as well as the influence of noncondensable gas based on the homogeneous flow assumption. The turbulence viscosity coefficient was modified by the density function. A computation model and calculation method was proposed for the steady cavitation. The steady cavitation flow field of ALE 15 hydrofoil was numerical simulated for the cavitation numbers of 2, 3 by using the computation model and calculation method according to the conditions in the experiment- The calculated velocity distributions on different profiles agreed well with the experiment data, which validated the reliability of this computation model and calculation method. The velocity far away from the hydrofoil section was close to the velocity in the main flow region, and gradually decreased along the flow direction for the reason that the cavity acted as an obstacle. There is a large vortex zone in the cavity rear, and the velocity near the hydrofoil section is negative, both caused by the re-entrant jet.%在均相流假设下,考虑流体压力和速度湍流脉动、不可凝结性气体的影响,采用完全空化模型计算空化流场的相变,引入密度函数对RNGk-ε湍流模型的湍流粘性系数进行修正,提出了一种空化流动的数值模型和计算方法.根据试验条件给定的参数,采用提出的数值模型和计算方法,数值模拟了空化数为2.3时ALE15翼型定常空化流动.计算得到的不同剖面速度分布与试验数据吻合较好,验证了该数值模型和计算方法的一致性.不同剖面上,远离翼型表面的速度与主流区速度接近,沿着流动方向,远离翼型表面的速度逐渐减小,这与空泡形成的阻碍有关.空泡尾部出现较大的漩涡区,靠近翼型表面的速度为负值,这与反向射流的作用有关.
Quadratically consistent projection from particles to mesh
Duque, Daniel
2016-01-01
The advantage of particle Lagrangian methods in computational fluid dynamics is that advection is accurately modeled. However, this complicates the calculation of space derivatives. If a mesh is employed, it must be updated at each time step. On the other hand, fixed mesh, Eulerian, formulations benefit from the mesh being defined at the beginning of the simulation, but feature non-linear advection terms. It therefore seems natural to combine the two approaches, using a fixed mesh to perform calculations related to space derivatives, and using the particles to advect the information with time. The idea of combining Lagrangian particles and a fixed mesh goes back to Particle-in-Cell methods, and is here considered within the context of the finite element method (FEM) for the fixed mesh, and the particle FEM (pFEM) for the particles. Our results, in agreement with recent works, show that interpolation ("projection") errors, especially from particles to mesh, are the culprits of slow convergence of the method if...
A mesh-free mechanical model of the upper gastrointestinal system.
Gastélum, Alfonso; Mosso, Jose L; Delmas, Patrice; Márquez, Jorge
2008-01-01
Realistic behavior in Computer Simulation of biological system (e.g. humans organs) is essential to 3D modeling in medicine. In order to improve realistic responses of 3D organ model it is essential to use mechanical models that can deal with multiple objects internal and external interactions in a reasonable time frame. We will apply the Smooth Particles Hydrodynamics (SPH) to model the esophagus and the stomach, thus constructing a physical background for interaction. We used a multilayer model of particles related to a single triangle mesh. Each particle layers represent distinct biological tissues of the esophagus and the stomach.
A comparison of cosmological hydrodynamic codes
Kang, Hyesung; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Cen, Renyue; Ryu, Dongsu; Hernquist, Lars; Evrard, August E.; Bryan, Greg L.; Norman, Michael L.
1994-01-01
We present a detailed comparison of the simulation results of various hydrodynamic codes. Starting with identical initial conditions based on the cold dark matter scenario for the growth of structure, with parameters h = 0.5 Omega = Omega(sub b) = 1, and sigma(sub 8) = 1, we integrate from redshift z = 20 to z = O to determine the physical state within a representative volume of size L(exp 3) where L = 64 h(exp -1) Mpc. Five indenpendent codes are compared: three of them Eulerian mesh-based and two variants of the smooth particle hydrodynamics 'SPH' Lagrangian approach. The Eulerian codes were run at N(exp 3) = (32(exp 3), 64(exp 3), 128(exp 3), and 256(exp 3)) cells, the SPH codes at N(exp 3) = 32(exp 3) and 64(exp 3) particles. Results were then rebinned to a 16(exp 3) grid with the exception that the rebinned data should converge, by all techniques, to a common and correct result as N approaches infinity. We find that global averages of various physical quantities do, as expected, tend to converge in the rebinned model, but that uncertainites in even primitive quantities such as (T), (rho(exp 2))(exp 1/2) persists at the 3%-17% level achieve comparable and satisfactory accuracy for comparable computer time in their treatment of the high-density, high-temeprature regions as measured in the rebinned data; the variance among the five codes (at highest resolution) for the mean temperature (as weighted by rho(exp 2) is only 4.5%. Examined at high resolution we suspect that the density resolution is better in the SPH codes and the thermal accuracy in low-density regions better in the Eulerian codes. In the low-density, low-temperature regions the SPH codes have poor accuracy due to statiscal effects, and the Jameson code gives the temperatures which are too high, due to overuse of artificial viscosity in these high Mach number regions. Overall the comparison allows us to better estimate errors; it points to ways of improving this current generation ofhydrodynamic
Zhang, Fang
2011-02-01
Mesh current collectors made of stainless steel (SS) can be integrated into microbial fuel cell (MFC) cathodes constructed of a reactive carbon black and Pt catalyst mixture and a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) diffusion layer. It is shown here that the mesh properties of these cathodes can significantly affect performance. Cathodes made from the coarsest mesh (30-mesh) achieved the highest maximum power of 1616 ± 25 mW m-2 (normalized to cathode projected surface area; 47.1 ± 0.7 W m-3 based on liquid volume), while the finest mesh (120-mesh) had the lowest power density (599 ± 57 mW m-2). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that charge transfer and diffusion resistances decreased with increasing mesh opening size. In MFC tests, the cathode performance was primarily limited by reaction kinetics, and not mass transfer. Oxygen permeability increased with mesh opening size, accounting for the decreased diffusion resistance. At higher current densities, diffusion became a limiting factor, especially for fine mesh with low oxygen transfer coefficients. These results demonstrate the critical nature of the mesh size used for constructing MFC cathodes. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Recent progress in anisotropic hydrodynamics
Strickland, Michael
2016-01-01
The quark-gluon plasma created in a relativistic heavy-ion collisions possesses a sizable pressure anisotropy in the local rest frame at very early times after the initial nuclear impact and this anisotropy only slowly relaxes as the system evolves. In a kinetic theory picture, this translates into the existence of sizable momentum-space anisotropies in the underlying partonic distribution functions, . In such cases, it is better to reorganize the hydrodynamical expansion by taking into account momentum-space anisotropies at leading-order in the expansion instead of as a perturbative correction to an isotropic distribution. The resulting anisotropic hydrodynamics framework has been shown to more accurately describe the dynamics of rapidly expanding systems such as the quark-gluon plasma. In this proceedings contribution, I review the basic ideas of anisotropic hydrodynamics, recent progress, and present a few preliminary phenomenological predictions for identified particle spectra and elliptic flow.
Numerical Hydrodynamics in Special Relativity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martí José Maria
2003-01-01
Full Text Available This review is concerned with a discussion of numerical methods for the solution of the equations of special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD. Particular emphasis is put on a comprehensive review of the application of high-resolution shock-capturing methods in SRHD. Results of a set of demanding test bench simulations obtained with different numerical SRHD methods are compared. Three applications (astrophysical jets, gamma-ray bursts and heavy ion collisions of relativistic flows are discussed. An evaluation of various SRHD methods is presented, and future developments in SRHD are analyzed involving extension to general relativistic hydrodynamics and relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics. The review further provides FORTRAN programs to compute the exact solution of a 1D relativistic Riemann problem with zero and nonzero tangential velocities, and to simulate 1D relativistic flows in Cartesian Eulerian coordinates using the exact SRHD Riemann solver and PPM reconstruction.
Comparative hydrodynamics of bacterial polymorphism
Spagnolie, Saverio E
2011-01-01
Most bacteria swim through fluids by rotating helical flagella which can take one of twelve distinct polymorphic shapes. The most common helical waveform is the "normal" form, used during forward swimming runs. To shed light on the prevalence of the normal form in locomotion, we gather all available experimental measurements of the various polymorphic forms and compute their intrinsic hydrodynamic efficiencies. The normal helical form is found to be the most hydrodynamically efficient of the twelve polymorphic forms by a significant margin - a conclusion valid for both the peritrichous and polar flagellar families, and robust to a change in the effective flagellum diameter or length. The hydrodynamic optimality of the normal polymorph suggests that, although energetic costs of locomotion are small for bacteria, fluid mechanical forces may have played a significant role in the evolution of the flagellum.
Quantum Plasmas An Hydrodynamic Approach
Haas, Fernando
2011-01-01
This book provides an overview of the basic concepts and new methods in the emerging scientific area known as quantum plasmas. In the near future, quantum effects in plasmas will be unavoidable, particularly in high density scenarios such as those in the next-generation intense laser-solid density plasma experiment or in compact astrophysics objects. Currently, plasmas are in the forefront of many intriguing questions around the transition from microscopic to macroscopic modeling of charged particle systems. Quantum Plasmas: an Hydrodynamic Approach is devoted to the quantum hydrodynamic model paradigm, which, unlike straight quantum kinetic theory, is much more amenable to investigate the nonlinear realm of quantum plasmas. The reader will have a step-by-step construction of the quantum hydrodynamic method applied to plasmas. The book is intended for specialists in classical plasma physics interested in methods of quantum plasma theory, as well as scientists interested in common aspects of two major areas of...
HYDRODYNAMIC INTERACTIONS BETWEEN TWO BODIES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
On the basis of model tests, potential flow theory, and viscous Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method, the hydrodynamic interactions between two underwater bodies were investigated to determine the influencing factors, changing rule, interaction mechanism, and appropriate methods describing them. Some special phenomena were discovered in two series of near-wall interaction experiments. The mathematical model and predicting methods were presented for interacting forces near wall, and the calculation results agreed well with the experimental ones. From the comparisons among numerical results with respect to nonviscosity, numerical results with respect to viscosity, and measured results, data on the influence of viscosity on hydrodynamic interactions were obtained. For hydrodynamic interaction related to multi-body unsteady motions with six degrees of freedom that is difficult to simulate in tests, numerical predictions of unsteady interacting forces were given.
Hydrodynamic shocks in microroller suspensions
Delmotte, Blaise; Driscoll, Michelle; Chaikin, Paul; Donev, Aleksandar
2017-09-01
We combine experiments, large-scale simulations, and continuum models to study the emergence of coherent structures in a suspension of magnetically driven microrollers sedimented near a floor. Collective hydrodynamic effects are predominant in this system, leading to strong density-velocity coupling. We characterize a uniform suspension and show that density waves propagate freely in all directions in a dispersive fashion. When sharp density gradients are introduced in the suspension, we observe the formation of a shock. Unlike Burgers' shocklike structures observed in other active and driven confined hydrodynamic systems, the shock front in our system has a well-defined finite width and moves rapidly compared to the mean suspension velocity. We introduce a continuum model demonstrating that the finite width of the front is due to far-field nonlocal hydrodynamic interactions and governed by a geometric parameter, the average particle height above the floor.
Numerical Hydrodynamics in Special Relativity.
Martí, José Maria; Müller, Ewald
2003-01-01
This review is concerned with a discussion of numerical methods for the solution of the equations of special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD). Particular emphasis is put on a comprehensive review of the application of high-resolution shock-capturing methods in SRHD. Results of a set of demanding test bench simulations obtained with different numerical SRHD methods are compared. Three applications (astrophysical jets, gamma-ray bursts and heavy ion collisions) of relativistic flows are discussed. An evaluation of various SRHD methods is presented, and future developments in SRHD are analyzed involving extension to general relativistic hydrodynamics and relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics. The review further provides FORTRAN programs to compute the exact solution of a 1D relativistic Riemann problem with zero and nonzero tangential velocities, and to simulate 1D relativistic flows in Cartesian Eulerian coordinates using the exact SRHD Riemann solver and PPM reconstruction.
H(curl) Auxiliary Mesh Preconditioning
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kolev, T V; Pasciak, J E; Vassilevski, P S
2006-08-31
This paper analyzes a two-level preconditioning scheme for H(curl) bilinear forms. The scheme utilizes an auxiliary problem on a related mesh that is more amenable for constructing optimal order multigrid methods. More specifically, we analyze the case when the auxiliary mesh only approximately covers the original domain. The latter assumption is important since it allows for easy construction of nested multilevel spaces on regular auxiliary meshes. Numerical experiments in both two and three space dimensions illustrate the optimal performance of the method.
Engagement of Metal Debris into Gear Mesh
handschuh, Robert F.; Krantz, Timothy L.
2010-01-01
A series of bench-top experiments was conducted to determine the effects of metallic debris being dragged through meshing gear teeth. A test rig that is typically used to conduct contact fatigue experiments was used for these tests. Several sizes of drill material, shim stock and pieces of gear teeth were introduced and then driven through the meshing region. The level of torque required to drive the "chip" through the gear mesh was measured. From the data gathered, chip size sufficient to jam the mechanism can be determined.
Application of mesh network radios to UGS
Calcutt, Wade; Jones, Barry; Roeder, Brent
2008-04-01
During the past five years McQ has been actively pursuing integrating and applying wireless mesh network radios as a communications solution for unattended ground sensor (UGS) systems. This effort has been rewarded with limited levels of success and has ultimately resulted in a corporate position regarding the use of mesh network radios for UGS systems. A discussion into the background of the effort, the challenges of implementing commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) mesh radios with UGSs, the tradeoffs involved, and an overview of the future direction is presented.
Mesh Optimization for Ground Vehicle Aerodynamics
Adrian Gaylard; Essam F Abo-Serie; Nor Elyana Ahmad
2010-01-01
Mesh optimization strategy for estimating accurate drag of a ground vehicle is proposed based on examining the effect of different mesh parameters. The optimized mesh parameters were selected using design of experiment (DOE) method to be able to work in a...
Rigidity Constraints for Large Mesh Deformation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yong Zhao; Xin-Guo Liu; Qun-Sheng Peng; Hu-Jun Bao
2009-01-01
It is a challenging problem of surface-based deformation to avoid apparent volumetric distortions around largely deformed areas. In this paper, we propose a new rigidity constraint for gradient domain mesh deformation to address this problem. Intuitively the proposed constraint can be regarded as several small cubes defined by the mesh vertices through mean value coordinates. The user interactively specifies the cubes in the regions which are prone to volumetric distortions, and the rigidity constraints could make the mesh behave like a solid object during deformation. The experimental results demonstrate that our constraint is intuitive, easy to use and very effective.
SURFACE MESH PARAMETERIZATION WITH NATURAL BOUNDARY
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ye Ming; Zhu Xiaofeng; Wang Chengtao
2003-01-01
Using the projected curve of surface mesh boundary as parameter domain border, linear mapping parameterization with natural boundary is realized. A fast algorithm for least squares fitting plane of vertices in the mesh boundary is proposed. After the mesh boundary is projected onto the fitting plane, low-pass filtering is adopted to eliminate crossovers, sharp corners and cavities in the projected curve and convert it into an eligible convex parameter domain boundary. In order to facilitate quantitative evaluations of parameterization schemes, three distortion-measuring formulae are presented.
Anisotropic hydrodynamics: Motivation and methodology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Strickland, Michael
2014-06-15
In this proceedings contribution I review recent progress in our understanding of the bulk dynamics of relativistic systems that possess potentially large local rest frame momentum-space anisotropies. In order to deal with these momentum-space anisotropies, a reorganization of relativistic viscous hydrodynamics can be made around an anisotropic background, and the resulting dynamical framework has been dubbed “anisotropic hydrodynamics”. I also discuss expectations for the degree of momentum-space anisotropy of the quark–gluon plasma generated in relativistic heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC from second-order viscous hydrodynamics, strong-coupling approaches, and weak-coupling approaches.
Hydrodynamics of oceans and atmospheres
Eckart, Carl
1960-01-01
Hydrodynamics of Oceans and Atmospheres is a systematic account of the hydrodynamics of oceans and atmospheres. Topics covered range from the thermodynamic functions of an ideal gas and the thermodynamic coefficients for water to steady motions, the isothermal atmosphere, the thermocline, and the thermosphere. Perturbation equations, field equations, residual equations, and a general theory of rays are also presented. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic equations and their solutions, with the aim of illustrating the laws of dynamics. The nonlinear
Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena
Neuzil, C.E.
1995-01-01
So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author
An explicit-implicit solution of the hydrodynamic and radiation equations
Sahota, Manjit S.
A solution of the coupled radiation-hydrodynamic equations on a median mesh is presented for a transient, three-dimensional, compressible, multimaterial, free-Lagrangian code. The code uses fixed-mass particles surrounded by median Lagrangian cells. These cells are free to change connectivity, which ensures accuracy in the differencing of equations and allows the code to handle extreme distortions. All calculations are done on a median Lagrangian mesh that is constructed from the Delaunay tetrahedral mesh using the Voronoi connection algorithm. Because each tetrahedron volume is shared equally by the four mass points (computational cells) located at the tetrahedron vertices, calculations are done at a tetrahedron level for enhanced computational efficiency, and the rate-of-change data are subsequently accumulated at mass points from these tetrahedral contributions. The hydrodynamic part of the calculations is done using an explicit time-advancement technique, and the radiation calculations are done using a hybrid explicit-implicit time-advancement scheme in the equilibrium-diffusion limit. An explicit solution of the radiation-diffusion equation is obtained for cells that meet the current time-step criterion imposed by the hydrodynamic solution, and a fully implicit point-relaxation solution is obtained elsewhere without defining an inversion matrix. The approach has a distinct advantage over the conventional matrix-inversion approaches, because defining such a matrix for an unstructured grid is both cumbersome and computationally intensive. The new algorithm runs >20 times faster than a matrix-solver approach using the conjugate-gradient technique, and is easily parallelizable on the Cray family of supercomputers. With the new algorithm, the radiation-diffusion part of the calculation runs about twice as fast as the hydrodynamic part of the calculation. The code conserves mass, momentum, and energy exactly, except in some pathological situations.
A Numerical Study on Hydrodynamic Interactions between Dynamic Positioning Thrusters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jin, Doo Hwa; Lee, Sang Wook [University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)
2017-06-15
In this study, we conducted computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for the unsteady hydrodynamic interaction of multiple thrusters by solving Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. A commercial CFD software, STAR-CCM+ was used for all simulations by employing a ducted thruster model with combination of a propeller and No. 19a duct. A sliding mesh technique was used to treat dynamic motion of propeller rotation and non-conformal hexahedral grid system was considered. Four different combinations in tilting and azimuth angles of the thrusters were considered to investigate the effects on the propulsion performance. We could find that thruster-hull and thruster-thruster interactions has significant effect on propulsion performance and further study will be required for the optimal configurations with the best tilting and relative azimuth angle between thrusters.
2009-01-01
Küsimusele vastavad: Tallinna Ülikooli Kasvatusteaduste Instituudi eri- ja sotsiaalpedagoogika osakonna juhataja Ene Mägi, Tallinna Haridusameti üldhariduse osakonna peaspetsialist Urve Raudsepp-Alt, Krabi põhikooli direktor Ale Sprenk, Põlva Maavalitsuse haridus-, kultuuri- ja sotsiaalosakonna juhataja Peeter Aas
2009-01-01
Küsimusele vastavad: Tallinna Ülikooli Kasvatusteaduste Instituudi eri- ja sotsiaalpedagoogika osakonna juhataja Ene Mägi, Tallinna Haridusameti üldhariduse osakonna peaspetsialist Urve Raudsepp-Alt, Krabi põhikooli direktor Ale Sprenk, Põlva Maavalitsuse haridus-, kultuuri- ja sotsiaalosakonna juhataja Peeter Aas
2008-01-01
Küsimusele vastavad Krabi põhikooli direktor, õpilaskodu mõtte algataja Ale Sprenk, Kasari põhikooli direktor Karin Saare, haridus- ja teadusministeeriumi üldharidusosakonna peaekspert Merike Mändla, riigikogu liige, endine haridusminister Mailis Reps ja Otepää gümnaasiumi direktor Aivo Meema
Assignment of fields from particles to mesh
Duque, Daniel
2016-01-01
In Computational Fluid Dynamics there have been many attempts to combine the power of a fixed mesh on which to carry out spatial calculations with that of a set of particles that moves following the velocity field. These ideas indeed go back to Particle-in-Cell methods, proposed about 60 years ago. Of course, some procedure is needed to transfer field information between particles and mesh. There are many possible choices for this "assignment", or "projection". Several requirements may guide this choice. Two well-known ones are conservativity and stability, which apply to volume integrals of the fields. An additional one is here considered: preservation of information. This means that mesh interpolation, followed by mesh assignment, should leave the field values invariant. The resulting methods are termed "mass" assignments due to their strong similarities with the Finite Element Method. We test several procedures, including the well-known FLIP, on three scenarios: simple 1D convection, 2D convection of Zales...
Shape space exploration of constrained meshes
Yang, Yongliang
2011-01-01
We present a general computational framework to locally characterize any shape space of meshes implicitly prescribed by a collection of non-linear constraints. We computationally access such manifolds, typically of high dimension and co-dimension, through first and second order approximants, namely tangent spaces and quadratically parameterized osculant surfaces. Exploration and navigation of desirable subspaces of the shape space with regard to application specific quality measures are enabled using approximants that are intrinsic to the underlying manifold and directly computable in the parameter space of the osculant surface. We demonstrate our framework on shape spaces of planar quad (PQ) meshes, where each mesh face is constrained to be (nearly) planar, and circular meshes, where each face has a circumcircle. We evaluate our framework for navigation and design exploration on a variety of inputs, while keeping context specific properties such as fairness, proximity to a reference surface, etc.
LR: Compact connectivity representation for triangle meshes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gurung, T; Luffel, M; Lindstrom, P; Rossignac, J
2011-01-28
We propose LR (Laced Ring) - a simple data structure for representing the connectivity of manifold triangle meshes. LR provides the option to store on average either 1.08 references per triangle or 26.2 bits per triangle. Its construction, from an input mesh that supports constant-time adjacency queries, has linear space and time complexity, and involves ordering most vertices along a nearly-Hamiltonian cycle. LR is best suited for applications that process meshes with fixed connectivity, as any changes to the connectivity require the data structure to be rebuilt. We provide an implementation of the set of standard random-access, constant-time operators for traversing a mesh, and show that LR often saves both space and traversal time over competing representations.
Shape space exploration of constrained meshes
Yang, Yongliang
2011-12-12
We present a general computational framework to locally characterize any shape space of meshes implicitly prescribed by a collection of non-linear constraints. We computationally access such manifolds, typically of high dimension and co-dimension, through first and second order approximants, namely tangent spaces and quadratically parameterized osculant surfaces. Exploration and navigation of desirable subspaces of the shape space with regard to application specific quality measures are enabled using approximants that are intrinsic to the underlying manifold and directly computable in the parameter space of the osculant surface. We demonstrate our framework on shape spaces of planar quad (PQ) meshes, where each mesh face is constrained to be (nearly) planar, and circular meshes, where each face has a circumcircle. We evaluate our framework for navigation and design exploration on a variety of inputs, while keeping context specific properties such as fairness, proximity to a reference surface, etc. © 2011 ACM.
Spacetime Meshing for Discontinuous Galerkin Methods
Thite, Shripad Vidyadhar
2008-01-01
Spacetime discontinuous Galerkin (SDG) finite element methods are used to solve such PDEs involving space and time variables arising from wave propagation phenomena in important applications in science and engineering. To support an accurate and efficient solution procedure using SDG methods and to exploit the flexibility of these methods, we give a meshing algorithm to construct an unstructured simplicial spacetime mesh over an arbitrary simplicial space domain. Our algorithm is the first spacetime meshing algorithm suitable for efficient solution of nonlinear phenomena in anisotropic media using novel discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods for implicit solutions directly in spacetime. Given a triangulated d-dimensional Euclidean space domain M (a simplicial complex) and initial conditions of the underlying hyperbolic spacetime PDE, we construct an unstructured simplicial mesh of the (d+1)-dimensional spacetime domain M x [0,infinity). Our algorithm uses a near-optimal number of spacetime elements, ea...
Metal Mesh Filters for Terahertz Receivers Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The technical objective of this SBIR program is to develop and demonstrate metal mesh filters for use in NASA's low noise receivers for terahertz astronomy and...
Adaptive sampling for mesh spectrum editing
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Xiang-jun; ZHANG Hong-xin; BAO Hu-jun
2006-01-01
A mesh editing framework is presented in this paper, which integrates Free-Form Deformation (FFD) and geometry signal processing. By using simplified model from original mesh, the editing task can be accomplished with a few operations. We take the deformation of the proxy and the position coordinates of the mesh models as geometry signal. Wavelet analysis is employed to separate local detail information gracefully. The crucial innovation of this paper is a new adaptive regular sampling approach for our signal analysis based editing framework. In our approach, an original mesh is resampled and then refined iteratively which reflects optimization of our proposed spectrum preserving energy. As an extension of our spectrum editing scheme,the editing principle is applied to geometry details transferring, which brings satisfying results.
Mesh Processing in Medical Image Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
The following topics are dealt with: mesh processing; medical image analysis; interactive freeform modeling; statistical shape analysis; clinical CT images; statistical surface recovery; automated segmentation; cerebral aneurysms; and real-time particle-based representation....
Obtuse triangle suppression in anisotropic meshes
Sun, Feng
2011-12-01
Anisotropic triangle meshes are used for efficient approximation of surfaces and flow data in finite element analysis, and in these applications it is desirable to have as few obtuse triangles as possible to reduce the discretization error. We present a variational approach to suppressing obtuse triangles in anisotropic meshes. Specifically, we introduce a hexagonal Minkowski metric, which is sensitive to triangle orientation, to give a new formulation of the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) method. Furthermore, we prove several relevant properties of the CVT method with the newly introduced metric. Experiments show that our algorithm produces anisotropic meshes with much fewer obtuse triangles than using existing methods while maintaining mesh anisotropy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Removal of line artifacts on mesh boundary in computer generated hologram by mesh phase matching.
Park, Jae-Hyeung; Yeom, Han-Ju; Kim, Hee-Jae; Zhang, HuiJun; Li, BoNi; Ji, Yeong-Min; Kim, Sang-Hoo
2015-03-23
Mesh-based computer generated hologram enables realistic and efficient representation of three-dimensional scene. However, the dark line artifacts on the boundary between neighboring meshes are frequently observed, degrading the quality of the reconstruction. In this paper, we propose a simple technique to remove the dark line artifacts by matching the phase on the boundary of neighboring meshes. The feasibility of the proposed method is confirmed by the numerical and optical reconstruction of the generated hologram.
MHD simulations on an unstructured mesh
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Strauss, H.R. [New York Univ., NY (United States); Park, W.; Belova, E.; Fu, G.Y. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Longcope, D.W. [Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States); Sugiyama, L.E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)
1998-12-31
Two reasons for using an unstructured computational mesh are adaptivity, and alignment with arbitrarily shaped boundaries. Two codes which use finite element discretization on an unstructured mesh are described. FEM3D solves 2D and 3D RMHD using an adaptive grid. MH3D++, which incorporates methods of FEM3D into the MH3D generalized MHD code, can be used with shaped boundaries, which might be 3D.
Mesh Processing in Medical Image Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
The following topics are dealt with: mesh processing; medical image analysis; interactive freeform modeling; statistical shape analysis; clinical CT images; statistical surface recovery; automated segmentation; cerebral aneurysms; and real-time particle-based representation.......The following topics are dealt with: mesh processing; medical image analysis; interactive freeform modeling; statistical shape analysis; clinical CT images; statistical surface recovery; automated segmentation; cerebral aneurysms; and real-time particle-based representation....
Vector field processing on triangle meshes
De Goes, Fernando; Desbrun, Mathieu; Tong, Yiying
2015-01-01
While scalar fields on surfaces have been staples of geometry processing, the use of tangent vector fields has steadily grown in geometry processing over the last two decades: they are crucial to encoding directions and sizing on surfaces as commonly required in tasks such as texture synthesis, non-photorealistic rendering, digital grooming, and meshing. There are, however, a variety of discrete representations of tangent vector fields on triangle meshes, and each approach offers different tr...
Hydrodynamics of a quark droplet
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjerrum-Bohr, Johan J.; Mishustin, Igor N.; Døssing, Thomas
2012-01-01
We present a simple model of a multi-quark droplet evolution based on the hydrodynamical description. This model includes collective expansion of the droplet, effects of the vacuum pressure and surface tension. The hadron emission from the droplet is described following Weisskopf's statistical...
Numerical Hydrodynamics in General Relativity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Font José A.
2003-01-01
Full Text Available The current status of numerical solutions for the equations of ideal general relativistic hydrodynamics is reviewed. With respect to an earlier version of the article, the present update provides additional information on numerical schemes, and extends the discussion of astrophysical simulations in general relativistic hydrodynamics. Different formulations of the equations are presented, with special mention of conservative and hyperbolic formulations well-adapted to advanced numerical methods. A large sample of available numerical schemes is discussed, paying particular attention to solution procedures based on schemes exploiting the characteristic structure of the equations through linearized Riemann solvers. A comprehensive summary of astrophysical simulations in strong gravitational fields is presented. These include gravitational collapse, accretion onto black holes, and hydrodynamical evolutions of neutron stars. The material contained in these sections highlights the numerical challenges of various representative simulations. It also follows, to some extent, the chronological development of the field, concerning advances on the formulation of the gravitational field and hydrodynamic equations and the numerical methodology designed to solve them.
Anomalous hydrodynamics in two dimensions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Rabin Banerjee
2016-02-01
A new approach is presented to discuss two-dimensional hydrodynamics with gauge and gravitational anomalies. Exact constitutive relations for the stress tensor and charge current are obtained. Also, a connection between response parameters and anomaly coefficients is discussed. These are new results which, in the absence of the gauge sector, reproduce the results found by the gradient expansion approach.
Hydrodynamic Noise and Surface Compliance.
1982-09-08
Lighthill, 3,4 Ffowcs-Wiiliams, 5-7 and Morse and Ingard .8 Ffowcs-Williams’ 7 excellent review identifies five distinctly different theoretical...Williams, "Hydrodynamic Noise," Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics (Annual Reviews, Palo Alto, CA), vol. 1, 1969, pp. 197-222. 8. P. Morse and K. V. Ingard
Hydrodynamic slip in silicon nanochannels
Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G. P.
2016-03-01
Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were performed to better understand the hydrodynamic behavior of water flowing through silicon nanochannels. The water-silicon interaction potential was calibrated by means of size-independent molecular dynamics simulations of silicon wettability. The wettability of silicon was found to be dependent on the strength of the water-silicon interaction and the structure of the underlying surface. As a result, the anisotropy was found to be an important factor in the wettability of these types of crystalline solids. Using this premise as a fundamental starting point, the hydrodynamic slip in nanoconfined water was characterized using both equilibrium and nonequilibrium calculations of the slip length under low shear rate operating conditions. As was the case for the wettability analysis, the hydrodynamic slip was found to be dependent on the wetted solid surface atomic structure. Additionally, the interfacial water liquid structure was the most significant parameter to describe the hydrodynamic boundary condition. The calibration of the water-silicon interaction potential performed by matching the experimental contact angle of silicon led to the verification of the no-slip condition, experimentally reported for silicon nanochannels at low shear rates.
Unstructured Mesh Movement and Viscous Mesh Generation for CFD-Based Design Optimization Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovations proposed are twofold: 1) a robust unstructured mesh movement method able to handle isotropic (Euler), anisotropic (viscous), mixed element (hybrid)...
Mesh geometry impact on Micromegas performance with an Exchangeable Mesh prototype
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuger, F., E-mail: fabian.kuger@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Julius-Maximilians-Universität, Würzburg (Germany); Bianco, M.; Iengo, P. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Sekhniaidze, G. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Universita e INFN, Napoli (Italy); Veenhof, R. [Uludağ University, Bursa (Turkey); Wotschack, J. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)
2016-07-11
The reconstruction precision of gaseous detectors is limited by losses of primary electrons during signal formation. In addition to common gas related losses, like attachment, Micromegas suffer from electron absorption during its transition through the micro mesh. This study aims for a deepened understanding of electron losses and their dependency on the mesh geometry. It combines experimental results obtained with a novel designed Exchangeable Mesh Micromegas (ExMe) and advanced microscopic-tracking simulations (ANSYS and Garfield++) of electron drift and mesh transition.
Robust moving mesh algorithms for hybrid stretched meshes: Application to moving boundaries problems
Landry, Jonathan; Soulaïmani, Azzeddine; Luke, Edward; Ben Haj Ali, Amine
2016-12-01
A robust Mesh-Mover Algorithm (MMA) approach is designed to adapt meshes of moving boundaries problems. A new methodology is developed from the best combination of well-known algorithms in order to preserve the quality of initial meshes. In most situations, MMAs distribute mesh deformation while preserving a good mesh quality. However, invalid meshes are generated when the motion is complex and/or involves multiple bodies. After studying a few MMA limitations, we propose the following approach: use the Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) function to produce the displacement field, then apply the Geometric Element Transformation Method (GETMe) smoothing algorithms to improve the resulting mesh quality, and use an untangler to revert negative elements. The proposed approach has been proven efficient to adapt meshes for various realistic aerodynamic motions: a symmetric wing that has suffered large tip bending and twisting and the high-lift components of a swept wing that has moved to different flight stages. Finally, the fluid flow problem has been solved on meshes that have moved and they have produced results close to experimental ones. However, for situations where moving boundaries are too close to each other, more improvements need to be made or other approaches should be taken, such as an overset grid method.
Denner, Fabian; van Wachem, Berend G. M.
2015-10-01
Total variation diminishing (TVD) schemes are a widely applied group of monotonicity-preserving advection differencing schemes for partial differential equations in numerical heat transfer and computational fluid dynamics. These schemes are typically designed for one-dimensional problems or multidimensional problems on structured equidistant quadrilateral meshes. Practical applications, however, often involve complex geometries that cannot be represented by Cartesian meshes and, therefore, necessitate the application of unstructured meshes, which require a more sophisticated discretisation to account for their additional topological complexity. In principle, TVD schemes are applicable to unstructured meshes, however, not all the data required for TVD differencing is readily available on unstructured meshes, and the solution suffers from considerable numerical diffusion as a result of mesh skewness. In this article we analyse TVD differencing on unstructured three-dimensional meshes, focusing on the non-linearity of TVD differencing and the extrapolation of the virtual upwind node. Furthermore, we propose a novel monotonicity-preserving correction method for TVD schemes that significantly reduces numerical diffusion caused by mesh skewness. The presented numerical experiments demonstrate the importance of accounting for the non-linearity introduced by TVD differencing and of imposing carefully chosen limits on the extrapolated virtual upwind node, as well as the efficacy of the proposed method to correct mesh skewness.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergey V. Levich
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Background: Acute ischemic stroke is a leading cause of mortality, morbidity, long-term disability in industrialized countries. One of main parts of it pathogenesis is production of reactive oxygen species. The accumulation of them in neurons results in lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, DNA damage, and finally cell death. Thereby the search of novel drugs, that have antioxidant action and can be used to complex treatment of cerebral strokes is reasonable. It is known, that xanthine derivatives exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activity, including antioxidant. So that, the goal of this research was to study in vivo neuroprotective action of water-soluble derivative of 3-benzylxanthine morpholin-4-ium 3-benzylxanthinyl-8-methylthioacetate (Ale-15 compound in comparison with neuroprotector-antioxidant Mexidol. Methods: Experimental part was done on white Wistar rats of both sexes of 220-260 g weight. For assessment of neuroprotective action of compound we used a model of global incomplete cerebral ischemia, that was reproduced by bilateral common carotid arteries ligation. Results: It was studied an acute toxicity of Ale-15 compound, it influence on survival of laboratory animals, on progression of neuralgic deficit, on the content of adenylic nucleotides, on criteria of energy metabolism, on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and on oxidative modification of protein. Results of study showed, that injection of Ale-15 compound to animals with ischemic stroke intragastrically during 4 days positively reduced death rate and quantity of animals with serious neurologic symptoms. The main parts of Ale-15 cerebroprotective mechanism are antioxidant and anti-ischemic actions. Conclusions: The performed study revealed significant cerebroprotective features of Ale-15 compound in conditions of experimental cerebrovascular accident. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 705-710
Holle, Ann Van; Machado, Manuela D; Soares, Eduardo V
2012-02-01
Flocculation is an eco-friendly process of cell separation, which has been traditionally exploited by the brewing industry. Cell surface charge (CSC), cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) and the presence of active flocculins, during the growth of two (NCYC 1195 and NCYC 1214) ale brewing flocculent strains, belonging to the NewFlo phenotype, were examined. Ale strains, in exponential phase of growth, were not flocculent and did not present active flocculent lectins on the cell surface; in contrast, the same strains, in stationary phase of growth, were highly flocculent (>98%) and presented a hydrophobicity of approximately three to seven times higher than in exponential phase. No relationship between growth phase, flocculation and CSC was observed. For comparative purposes, a constitutively flocculent strain (S646-1B) and its isogenic non-flocculent strain (S646-8D) were also used. The treatment of ale brewing and S646-1B strains with pronase E originated a loss of flocculation and a strong reduction of CSH; S646-1B pronase E-treated cells displayed a similar CSH as the non-treated S646-8D cells. The treatment of the S646-8D strain with protease did not reduce CSH. In conclusion, the increase of CSH observed at the onset of flocculation of ale strains is a consequence of the presence of flocculins on the yeast cell surface and not the cause of yeast flocculation. CSH and CSC play a minor role in the auto-aggregation of the ale strains since the degree of flocculation is defined, primarily, by the presence of active flocculins on the yeast cell wall.
Discrete differential geometry: the nonplanar quadrilateral mesh.
Twining, Carole J; Marsland, Stephen
2012-06-01
We consider the problem of constructing a discrete differential geometry defined on nonplanar quadrilateral meshes. Physical models on discrete nonflat spaces are of inherent interest, as well as being used in applications such as computation for electromagnetism, fluid mechanics, and image analysis. However, the majority of analysis has focused on triangulated meshes. We consider two approaches: discretizing the tensor calculus, and a discrete mesh version of differential forms. While these two approaches are equivalent in the continuum, we show that this is not true in the discrete case. Nevertheless, we show that it is possible to construct mesh versions of the Levi-Civita connection (and hence the tensorial covariant derivative and the associated covariant exterior derivative), the torsion, and the curvature. We show how discrete analogs of the usual vector integral theorems are constructed in such a way that the appropriate conservation laws hold exactly on the mesh, rather than only as approximations to the continuum limit. We demonstrate the success of our method by constructing a mesh version of classical electromagnetism and discuss how our formalism could be used to deal with other physical models, such as fluids.
Hybrid Surface Mesh Adaptation for Climate Modeling
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ahmed Khamayseh; Valmor de Almeida; Glen Hansen
2008-01-01
Solution-driven mesh adaptation is becoming quite popular for spatial error control in the numerical simulation of complex computational physics applications, such as climate modeling. Typically, spatial adaptation is achieved by element subdivision (h adaptation) with a primary goal of resolving the local length scales of interest. A second, lesspopular method of spatial adaptivity is called "mesh motion" (r adaptation); the smooth repositioning of mesh node points aimed at resizing existing elements to capture the local length scales. This paper proposes an adaptation method based on a combination of both element subdivision and node point repositioning (rh adaptation). By combining these two methods using the notion of a mobility function, the proposed approach seeks to increase the flexibility and extensibility of mesh motion algorithms while providing a somewhat smoother transition between refined regions than is pro-duced by element subdivision alone. Further, in an attempt to support the requirements of a very general class of climate simulation applications, the proposed method is de-signed to accommodate unstructured, polygonal mesh topologies in addition to the most popular mesh types.
Automatic Scheme Selection for Toolkit Hex Meshing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
TAUTGES,TIMOTHY J.; WHITE,DAVID R.
1999-09-27
Current hexahedral mesh generation techniques rely on a set of meshing tools, which when combined with geometry decomposition leads to an adequate mesh generation process. Of these tools, sweeping tends to be the workhorse algorithm, accounting for at least 50% of most meshing applications. Constraints which must be met for a volume to be sweepable are derived, and it is proven that these constraints are necessary but not sufficient conditions for sweepability. This paper also describes a new algorithm for detecting extruded or sweepable geometries. This algorithm, based on these constraints, uses topological and local geometric information, and is more robust than feature recognition-based algorithms. A method for computing sweep dependencies in volume assemblies is also given. The auto sweep detect and sweep grouping algorithms have been used to reduce interactive user time required to generate all-hexahedral meshes by filtering out non-sweepable volumes needing further decomposition and by allowing concurrent meshing of independent sweep groups. Parts of the auto sweep detect algorithm have also been used to identify independent sweep paths, for use in volume-based interval assignment.
Ducruet, Julien; Rébénaque, Pierrick; Diserens, Serge; Kosińska-Cagnazzo, Agnieszka; Héritier, Isabelle; Andlauer, Wilfried
2017-07-01
Goji berries, traditionally used in Chinese medicine, are nowadays gaining popularity in the Western world. Efforts are made to enlarge the offer of goji containing foods. In this study, goji berries were added to ale type beer at different stages of the production process in order to develop a beverage with desirable sensory characteristic and high antioxidant capacity. The obtained beers differed significantly in terms of appearance, taste and antioxidant activity. Consumers preferred beers to which goji berries were added at the beginning of the brewing process. These beers were also characterized by lower turbidity, high color intensity, caramel- and coffee-like taste, high antioxidant activity and high content of bioactives such as rutin and 2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid. To conclude, an addition of goji berries to traditional brewing process creates a perspective to enlarge the range of goji containing foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
CATEDRA ŞTIINŢE ALE EDUCAŢIEI LA 60 DE ANI: FILE DIN ISTORIE
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Tatiana REPIDA
2015-12-01
Full Text Available În articol este prezentată succint istoria Catedrei Ştiinţe ale Educaţiei de la fondare în anul 1955 şi până în prezent: direcţiile principale de activitate, personalul didactic, activităţi noi apărute în cadrul catedrei şi perspectivele dezvoltării ei. EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES DEPARTMENT AT 60: FILLET HISTORYThe article gave a brief history is presented Sciences Education Department from its foundation in 1955 until the present: the main directions of activity, staff, emerging activities within the department and its further development prospects.
A Force-Based Grid Manipulator for ALE Calculations in a Lobe Pump
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
John Vande Voorde; Jan Vierendeels; Erik Dick
2003-01-01
In this paper, a time-dependant calculation of flow in a lobe pump is presented. Calculations are performed using the arbitrary Lagrangean Eulerean (ALE) method. A grid manipulator is needed to move the nodes between time steps. The used grid manipulator is based on the pseudo-force idea. This means that each node is fictitiously connected with its 8 neighbours via fictitious springs. The equilibrium of the resulting pseudo spring forces defines the altered position of the nodes. The grid manipulator was coupled with a commercial flow solver and the whole was tested on the flow through a three-lobe lobe pump. Results were obtained for a rotational speed of 460 rpm and incompressible silicon oil as fluid.
Señales entre hongos patógenos y plantas hospederas resistentes
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G. Camarena Gutiérrez
2001-01-01
Full Text Available Los hongos parásitos obligados obtienen sus nutrimentos de células vivas. Durante su ciclo de vida, se forman tres tipos de estructuras intracelulares (hifa de invasión, haustorio M y haustorio D y cada uno puede afectar de manera diferente la membrana de la célula huésped que le rodea, también cómo afectar otros componentes celulares. Cada estructura intracelular también previene que se disparen defensas no específicas de la planta por la actividad del hongo, posiblemente interfiriendo el sistema de señales más que la expresión de defensa.
Boscheri, Walter; Dumbser, Michael
2017-10-01
We present a new family of high order accurate fully discrete one-step Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element schemes on moving unstructured meshes for the solution of nonlinear hyperbolic PDE in multiple space dimensions, which may also include parabolic terms in order to model dissipative transport processes, like molecular viscosity or heat conduction. High order piecewise polynomials of degree N are adopted to represent the discrete solution at each time level and within each spatial control volume of the computational grid, while high order of accuracy in time is achieved by the ADER approach, making use of an element-local space-time Galerkin finite element predictor. A novel nodal solver algorithm based on the HLL flux is derived to compute the velocity for each nodal degree of freedom that describes the current mesh geometry. In our algorithm the spatial mesh configuration can be defined in two different ways: either by an isoparametric approach that generates curved control volumes, or by a piecewise linear decomposition of each spatial control volume into simplex sub-elements. Each technique generates a corresponding number of geometrical degrees of freedom needed to describe the current mesh configuration and which must be considered by the nodal solver for determining the grid velocity. The connection of the old mesh configuration at time tn with the new one at time t n + 1 provides the space-time control volumes on which the governing equations have to be integrated in order to obtain the time evolution of the discrete solution. Our numerical method belongs to the category of so-called direct Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) schemes, where a space-time conservation formulation of the governing PDE system is considered and which already takes into account the new grid geometry (including a possible rezoning step) directly during the computation of the numerical fluxes. We emphasize that our method is a moving mesh method, as opposed to total
ALE meta-analysis reveals dissociable networks for affective and discriminative aspects of touch.
Morrison, India
2016-04-01
Emotionally-laden tactile stimulation-such as a caress on the skin or the feel of velvet-may represent a functionally distinct domain of touch, underpinned by specific cortical pathways. In order to determine whether, and to what extent, cortical functional neuroanatomy supports a distinction between affective and discriminative touch, an activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta-analysis was performed. This meta-analysis statistically mapped reported functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activations from 17 published affective touch studies in which tactile stimulation was associated with positive subjective evaluation (n = 291, 34 experimental contrasts). A separate ALE meta-analysis mapped regions most likely to be activated by tactile stimulation during detection and discrimination tasks (n = 1,075, 91 experimental contrasts). These meta-analyses revealed dissociable regions for affective and discriminative touch, with posterior insula (PI) more likely to be activated for affective touch, and primary somatosensory cortices (SI) more likely to be activated for discriminative touch. Secondary somatosensory cortex had a high likelihood of engagement by both affective and discriminative touch. Further, meta-analytic connectivity (MCAM) analyses investigated network-level co-activation likelihoods independent of task or stimulus, across a range of domains and paradigms. Affective-related PI and discriminative-related SI regions co-activated with different networks, implicated in dissociable functions, but sharing somatosensory co-activations. Taken together, these meta-analytic findings suggest that affective and discriminative touch are dissociable both on the regional and network levels. However, their degree of shared activation likelihood in somatosensory cortices indicates that this dissociation reflects functional biases within tactile processing networks, rather than functionally and anatomically distinct pathways.
The impact of different ale brewer’s yeast strains on the proteome of immature beer
2013-01-01
Background It is well known that brewer’s yeast affects the taste and aroma of beer. However, the influence of brewer’s yeast on the protein composition of beer is currently unknown. In this study, changes of the proteome of immature beer, i.e. beer that has not been matured after fermentation, by ale brewer’s yeast strains with different abilities to degrade fermentable sugars were investigated. Results Beers were fermented from standard hopped wort (13° Plato) using two ale brewer’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) strains with different attenuation degrees. Both immature beers had the same alcohol and protein concentrations. Immature beer and unfermented wort proteins were analysed by 2-DE and compared in order to determine protein changes arising from fermentation. Distinct protein spots in the beer and wort proteomes were identified using Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and MS/MS and revealed common beer proteins, such as lipid transfer proteins (LTP1 and LTP2), protein Z and amylase-protease inhibitors. During fermentation, two protein spots, corresponding to LTP2, disappeared, while three protein spots were exclusively found in beer. These three proteins, all derived from yeast, were identified as cell wall associated proteins, that is Exg1 (an exo-β-1,3-glucanase), Bgl2 (an endo-β-1,2-glucanase), and Uth1 (a cell wall biogenesis protein). Conclusion Yeast strain dependent changes in the immature beer proteome were identified, i.e. Bgl2 was present in beer brewed with KVL011, while lacking in WLP001 beer. PMID:24079909
Modelo para predecir la respuesta del diodo zener ante señales impulsivas
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Julio Guillermo Zola
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Los diodos zener, son comúnmente utilizados como referencia de tensión por su confiabilidad y bajo costo. Sin embargo, poseen una amplia aplicación en protección de sistemas sensibles ante señales impulsivas de baja energía, (descargas electrostáticas o sobretensiones. Los modelos de SPICE para el zener resultan muy simples y no predicen correctamente su respuesta a estas señales. En este trabajo se desarrolla un modelo que adecua mejor esta respuesta, agregándose además una condición de funcionamiento límite para cuando el impulso posee una energía suficientemente elevada que deteriora su funcionamiento normal. Los resultados obtenidos por simulación, se verifican mediante medición en laboratorio.
Fire performance of basalt FRP mesh reinforced HPC thin plates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hulin, Thomas; Hodicky, Kamil; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup;
2013-01-01
An experimental program was carried out to investigate the influence of basalt FRP (BFRP) reinforcing mesh on the fire behaviour of thin high performance concrete (HPC) plates applied to sandwich elements. Samples with BFRP mesh were compared to samples with no mesh, samples with steel mesh...
Clearman, W. M.; Cha, J. S.; Ghiaasiaan, S. M.; Kirkconnell, C. S.
2008-03-01
The hydrodynamic parameters associated with steady longitudinal and lateral (radial) flow of helium in several widely-used pulse tube and Stirling cryocooler regenerator fillers were measured and correlated in this investigation. Pressure drops in test sections packed with regenerator fillers were experimentally measured. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of the regenerator test sections and their vicinities were developed and simulations were performed in which the regenerator test sections were modeled as porous media. By iterative repetition of the simulations, the longitudinal and radial permeability and Forchheimer inertial coefficients were determined such that they would lead to agreement between experimental measurements and the simulations. The regenerator fillers included 325 and 400 mesh stainless steel screens, stainless steel metal foam, sintered 400 mesh stainless steel screens, and a stack of micromachined perforated plates. The hydrodynamic response of the regenerator fillers were also correlated as friction factors. The results confirm that the aforementioned regenerator fillers are anisotropic.
Three-dimensional Hybrid Continuum-Atomistic Simulations for Multiscale Hydrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wijesinghe, S; Hornung, R; Garcia, A; Hadjiconstantinou, N
2004-04-15
We present an adaptive mesh and algorithmic refinement (AMAR) scheme for modeling multi-scale hydrodynamics. The AMAR approach extends standard conservative adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) algorithms by providing a robust flux-based method for coupling an atomistic fluid representation to a continuum model. The atomistic model is applied locally in regions where the continuum description is invalid or inaccurate, such as near strong flow gradients and at fluid interfaces, or when the continuum grid is refined to the molecular scale. The need for such ''hybrid'' methods arises from the fact that hydrodynamics modeled by continuum representations are often under-resolved or inaccurate while solutions generated using molecular resolution globally are not feasible. In the implementation described herein, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) provides an atomistic description of the flow and the compressible two-fluid Euler equations serve as our continuum-scale model. The AMR methodology provides local grid refinement while the algorithm refinement feature allows the transition to DSMC where needed. The continuum and atomistic representations are coupled by matching fluxes at the continuum-atomistic interfaces and by proper averaging and interpolation of data between scales. Our AMAR application code is implemented in C++ and is built upon the SAMRAI (Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement Application Infrastructure) framework developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. SAMRAI provides the parallel adaptive gridding algorithm and enables the coupling between the continuum and atomistic methods.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saeed Akram Malik
2013-05-01
Full Text Available In this study, a method for obtaining of hydrodynamic derivatives by numerically replicating the Planar Motion Mechanism (PMM tests of an axisymmetric submersible model is demonstrated. The numerical simulations of PMM tests are regarded as transient due to the movement of the model in the discretized computational domain thus causing mesh deformation. To accommodate the sway and yaw oscillation motions of the model, the entire computational domain is divided into three zones namely rotating, inner and outer zone. Multi-block structured grid is generated with finer resolution in the proximity of the model to capture the boundary-layer flows. Non-conformal fluid interfaces are used to connect the three zones. Commercial CFD Solver FLUENT is used to simulate the flow characteristics while the dynamic mesh capability included in the software is applied to handle the mesh deformation during the movement of the model. In order to verify the CFD method, 6:1 prolate spheroid is used as it can be idealized as an axisymmetric submersible model. The CFD results of added mass derivatives of the model show very close agreement when compared with the theoretical values. The present study is an attempt towards developing an economical CFD method for evaluating the hydrodynamic derivatives of submersible platforms such as submarines, torpedoes and autonomous underwater vehicles during early design stages.
Hydrodynamical Simulations of Colliding Jets: Modeling 3C 75
Molnar, S. M.; Schive, H.-Y.; Birkinshaw, M.; Chiueh, T.; Musoke, G.; Young, A. J.
2017-01-01
Radio observations suggest that 3C 75, located in the dumbbell shaped galaxy NGC 1128 at the center of Abell 400, hosts two colliding jets. Motivated by this source, we perform three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations using a modified version of the GPU-accelerated Adaptive-MEsh-Refinement hydrodynamical parallel code (GAMER) to study colliding extragalactic jets. We find that colliding jets can be cast into two categories: (1) bouncing jets, in which case the jets bounce off each other keeping their identities, and (2) merging jets, when only one jet emerges from the collision. Under some conditions the interaction causes the jets to break up into oscillating filaments of opposite helicity, with consequences for their downstream stability. When one jet is significantly faster than the other and the impact parameter is small, the jets merge; the faster jet takes over the slower one. In the case of merging jets, the oscillations of the filaments, in projection, may show a feature that resembles a double helix, similar to the radio image of 3C 75. Thus we interpret the morphology of 3C 75 as a consequence of the collision of two jets with distinctly different speeds at a small impact parameter, with the faster jet breaking up into two oscillating filaments.
CHOLLA: A New Massively Parallel Hydrodynamics Code for Astrophysical Simulation
Schneider, Evan E.; Robertson, Brant E.
2015-04-01
We present Computational Hydrodynamics On ParaLLel Architectures (Cholla ), a new three-dimensional hydrodynamics code that harnesses the power of graphics processing units (GPUs) to accelerate astrophysical simulations. Cholla models the Euler equations on a static mesh using state-of-the-art techniques, including the unsplit Corner Transport Upwind algorithm, a variety of exact and approximate Riemann solvers, and multiple spatial reconstruction techniques including the piecewise parabolic method (PPM). Using GPUs, Cholla evolves the fluid properties of thousands of cells simultaneously and can update over 10 million cells per GPU-second while using an exact Riemann solver and PPM reconstruction. Owing to the massively parallel architecture of GPUs and the design of the Cholla code, astrophysical simulations with physically interesting grid resolutions (≳2563) can easily be computed on a single device. We use the Message Passing Interface library to extend calculations onto multiple devices and demonstrate nearly ideal scaling beyond 64 GPUs. A suite of test problems highlights the physical accuracy of our modeling and provides a useful comparison to other codes. We then use Cholla to simulate the interaction of a shock wave with a gas cloud in the interstellar medium, showing that the evolution of the cloud is highly dependent on its density structure. We reconcile the computed mixing time of a turbulent cloud with a realistic density distribution destroyed by a strong shock with the existing analytic theory for spherical cloud destruction by describing the system in terms of its median gas density.
Numerical Study on Hydrodynamic Performance of Bionic Caudal Fin
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Kai Zhou
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this work, numerical simulations are conducted to reveal the hydrodynamic mechanism of caudal fin propulsion. In the modeling of a bionic caudal fin, a universal kinematics model with three degrees of freedom is adopted and the flexible deformation in the spanwise direction is considered. Navier-Stokes equations are used to solve the unsteady fluid flow and dynamic mesh method is applied to track the locomotion. The force coefficients, torque coefficient, and flow field characteristics are extracted and analyzed. Then the thrust efficiency is calculated. In order to verify validity and feasibility of the algorithm, hydrodynamic performance of flapping foil is analyzed. The present results of flapping foil compare well with those in experimental researches. After that, the influences of amplitude of angle of attack, amplitude of heave motion, Strouhal number, and spanwise flexibility are analyzed. The results show that, the performance can be improved by adjusting the motion and flexibility parameters. The spanwise flexibility of caudal fin can increase thrust force with high propulsive efficiency.
Adaptive Mesh Refinement in Reactive Transport Modeling of Subsurface Environments
Molins, S.; Day, M.; Trebotich, D.; Graves, D. T.
2015-12-01
Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is a numerical technique for locally adjusting the resolution of computational grids. AMR makes it possible to superimpose levels of finer grids on the global computational grid in an adaptive manner allowing for more accurate calculations locally. AMR codes rely on the fundamental concept that the solution can be computed in different regions of the domain with different spatial resolutions. AMR codes have been applied to a wide range of problem including (but not limited to): fully compressible hydrodynamics, astrophysical flows, cosmological applications, combustion, blood flow, heat transfer in nuclear reactors, and land ice and atmospheric models for climate. In subsurface applications, in particular, reactive transport modeling, AMR may be particularly useful in accurately capturing concentration gradients (hence, reaction rates) that develop in localized areas of the simulation domain. Accurate evaluation of reaction rates is critical in many subsurface applications. In this contribution, we will discuss recent applications that bring to bear AMR capabilities on reactive transport problems from the pore scale to the flood plain scale.
Multiple Staggered Mesh Ewald: Boosting the Accuracy of the Smooth Particle Mesh Ewald Method
Wang, Han; Fang, Jun
2016-01-01
The smooth particle mesh Ewald (SPME) method is the standard method for computing the electrostatic interactions in the molecular simulations. In this work, the multiple staggered mesh Ewald (MSME) method is proposed to boost the accuracy of the SPME method. Unlike the SPME that achieves higher accuracy by refining the mesh, the MSME improves the accuracy by averaging the standard SPME forces computed on, e.g. $M$, staggered meshes. We prove, from theoretical perspective, that the MSME is as accurate as the SPME, but uses $M^2$ times less mesh points in a certain parameter range. In the complementary parameter range, the MSME is as accurate as the SPME with twice of the interpolation order. The theoretical conclusions are numerically validated both by a uniform and uncorrelated charge system, and by a three-point-charge water system that is widely used as solvent for the bio-macromolecules.
Brain vascular and hydrodynamic physiology
Tasker, Robert C.
2013-01-01
Protecting the brain in vulnerable infants undergoing surgery is a central aspect of perioperative care. Understanding the link between blood flow, oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption leads to a more informed approach to bedside care. In some cases, we need to consider how high can we let the partial pressure of carbon dioxide go before we have concerns about risk of increased cerebral blood volume and change in intracranial hydrodynamics? Alternatively, in almost all such cases, we have to address the question of how low can we let the blood pressure drop before we should be concerned about brain perfusion? This review, provides a basic understanding of brain bioenergetics, hemodynamics, hydrodynamics, autoregulation and vascular homeostasis to changes in blood gases that is fundamental to our thinking about bedside care and monitoring. PMID:24331089
Hydrodynamic interactions in two dimensions
di Leonardo, R.; Keen, S.; Ianni, F.; Leach, J.; Padgett, M. J.; Ruocco, G.
2008-09-01
We measure hydrodynamic interactions between colloidal particles confined in a thin sheet of fluid. The reduced dimensionality, compared to a bulk fluid, increases dramatically the range of couplings. Using optical tweezers we force a two body system along the eigenmodes of the mobility tensor and find that eigenmobilities change logarithmically with particle separation. At a hundred radii distance, the mobilities for rigid and relative motions differ by a factor of 2, whereas in bulk fluids, they would be practically indistinguishable. A two dimensional counterpart of Oseen hydrodynamic tensor quantitatively reproduces the observed behavior, once the relevant boundary conditions are recognized. These results highlight the importance of dimensionality for transport and interactions in colloidal systems and proteins in biological membranes.
Hydrodynamics from Landau initial conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sen, Abhisek [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Gerhard, Jochen [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Germany; Torrieri, Giorgio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Física " Gleb Wataghin" (IFGW), Sao Paulo, Brazil; Read jr, Kenneth F. [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Wong, Cheuk-Yin [ORNL
2015-01-01
We investigate ideal hydrodynamic evolution, with Landau initial conditions, both in a semi-analytical 1+1D approach and in a numerical code incorporating event-by-event variation with many events and transverse density inhomogeneities. The object of the calculation is to test how fast would a Landau initial condition transition to a commonly used boost-invariant expansion. We show that the transition to boost-invariant flow occurs too late for realistic setups, with corrections of O (20 - 30%) expected at freezeout for most scenarios. Moreover, the deviation from boost-invariance is correlated with both transverse flow and elliptic flow, with the more highly transversely flowing regions also showing the most violation of boost invariance. Therefore, if longitudinal flow is not fully developed at the early stages of heavy ion collisions, 2+1 dimensional hydrodynamics is inadequate to extract transport coefficients of the quark-gluon plasma. Based on [1, 2
Non-boost-invariant dissipative hydrodynamics
Florkowski, Wojciech; Strickland, Michael; Tinti, Leonardo
2016-01-01
The one-dimensional non-boost-invariant evolution of the quark-gluon plasma, presumably produced during the early stages of heavy-ion collisions, is analyzed within the frameworks of viscous and anisotropic hydrodynamics. We neglect transverse dynamics and assume homogeneous conditions in the transverse plane but, differently from Bjorken expansion, we relax longitudinal boost invariance in order to study the rapidity dependence of various hydrodynamical observables. We compare the results obtained using several formulations of second-order viscous hydrodynamics with a recent approach to anisotropic hydrodynamics, which treats the large initial pressure anisotropy in a non-perturbative fashion. The results obtained with second-order viscous hydrodynamics depend on the particular choice of the second-order terms included, which suggests that the latter should be included in the most complete way. The results of anisotropic hydrodynamics and viscous hydrodynamics agree for the central hot part of the system, ho...
Conservative interpolation between general spherical meshes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Kritsikis
2015-06-01
Full Text Available An efficient, local, explicit, second-order, conservative interpolation algorithm between spherical meshes is presented. The cells composing the source and target meshes may be either spherical polygons or longitude–latitude quadrilaterals. Second-order accuracy is obtained by piecewise-linear finite volume reconstruction over the source mesh. Global conservation is achieved through the introduction of a supermesh, whose cells are all possible intersections of source and target cells. Areas and intersections are computed exactly to yield a geometrically exact method. The main efficiency bottleneck caused by the construction of the supermesh is overcome by adopting tree-based data structures and algorithms, from which the mesh connectivity can also be deduced efficiently. The theoretical second-order accuracy is verified using a smooth test function and pairs of meshes commonly used for atmospheric modelling. Experiments confirm that the most expensive operations, especially the supermesh construction, have O(NlogN computational cost. The method presented is meant to be incorporated in pre- or post-processing atmospheric modelling pipelines, or directly into models for flexible input/output. It could also serve as a basis for conservative coupling between model components, e.g. atmosphere and ocean.
Conservative interpolation between general spherical meshes
Kritsikis, Evaggelos; Aechtner, Matthias; Meurdesoif, Yann; Dubos, Thomas
2017-01-01
An efficient, local, explicit, second-order, conservative interpolation algorithm between spherical meshes is presented. The cells composing the source and target meshes may be either spherical polygons or latitude-longitude quadrilaterals. Second-order accuracy is obtained by piece-wise linear finite-volume reconstruction over the source mesh. Global conservation is achieved through the introduction of a supermesh, whose cells are all possible intersections of source and target cells. Areas and intersections are computed exactly to yield a geometrically exact method. The main efficiency bottleneck caused by the construction of the supermesh is overcome by adopting tree-based data structures and algorithms, from which the mesh connectivity can also be deduced efficiently.The theoretical second-order accuracy is verified using a smooth test function and pairs of meshes commonly used for atmospheric modelling. Experiments confirm that the most expensive operations, especially the supermesh construction, have O(NlogN) computational cost. The method presented is meant to be incorporated in pre- or post-processing atmospheric modelling pipelines, or directly into models for flexible input/output. It could also serve as a basis for conservative coupling between model components, e.g., atmosphere and ocean.
Hydrodynamics of catheter biofilm formation
Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar; Rodriguez-Perez, Daniel; Martinez-Escobar, Sergio; Fernandez-Barbero, Antonio
2009-01-01
A hydrodynamic model is proposed to describe one of the most critical problems in intensive medical care units: the formation of biofilms inside central venous catheters. The incorporation of approximate solutions for the flow-limited diffusion equation leads to the conclusion that biofilms grow on the internal catheter wall due to the counter-stream diffusion of blood through a very thin layer close to the wall. This biological deposition is the first necessary step for the subsequent bacteria colonization.
Soliton propagation in relativistic hydrodynamics
Fogaça, D A; 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2007.03.104
2013-01-01
We study the conditions for the formation and propagation of Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) solitons in nuclear matter. In a previous work we have derived a KdV equation from Euler and continuity equations in non-relativistic hydrodynamics. In the present contribution we extend our formalism to relativistic fluids. We present results for a given equation of state, which is based on quantum hadrodynamics (QHD).
Hydrodynamic Evolution of GRB Afterglow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of a relativistic fireball which decelerates as it sweeps up ambient matter. Not only the radiative and adiabatic cases, but also the realistic intermediate cases are calculated. We perform numerical calcula-tion for various ambient media and sizes of beaming expansion, and find that the deceleration radius R0 may play an important role for the hydrodynamic evolution of GRB afterglow.
Karipineni, Farah; Joshi, Priya; Parsikia, Afshin; Dhir, Teena; Joshi, Amit R T
2016-03-01
Laparoscopic-assisted ventral hernia repair (LAVHR) with mesh is well established as the preferred technique for hernia repair. We sought to determine whether primary fascial closure and/or overlap of the mesh reduced recurrence and/or complications. We conducted a retrospective review on 57 LAVHR patients using polyester composite mesh between August 2010 and July 2013. They were divided into mesh-only (nonclosure) and primary fascial closure with mesh (closure) groups. Patient demographics, prior surgical history, mesh overlap, complications, and recurrence rates were compared. Thirty-nine (68%) of 57 patients were in the closure group and 18 (32%) in the nonclosure group. Mean defect sizes were 15.5 and 22.5 cm(2), respectively. Participants were followed for a mean of 1.3 years [standard deviation (SD) = 0.7]. Recurrence rates were 2/39 (5.1%) in the closure group and 1/18 (5.6%) in the nonclosure group (P = 0.947). There were no major postoperative complications in the nonclosure group. The closure group experienced four (10.3%) complications. This was not a statistically significant difference (P = 0.159). The median mesh-to-hernia ratio for all repairs was 15.2 (surface area) and 3.9 (diameter). Median length of stay was 14.5 hours (1.7-99.3) for patients with nonclosure and 11.9 hours (6.9-90.3 hours) for patients with closure (P = 0.625). In conclusion, this is one of the largest series of LAVHR exclusively using polyester dual-sided mesh. Our recurrence rate was about 5 per cent. Significant mesh overlap is needed to achieve such low recurrence rates. Primary closure of hernias seems less important than adequate mesh overlap in preventing recurrence after LAVHR.
Recent progress in anisotropic hydrodynamics
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Strickland Michael
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The quark-gluon plasma created in a relativistic heavy-ion collisions possesses a sizable pressure anisotropy in the local rest frame at very early times after the initial nuclear impact and this anisotropy only slowly relaxes as the system evolves. In a kinetic theory picture, this translates into the existence of sizable momentum-space anisotropies in the underlying partonic distribution functions, 〈 pL2〉 ≪ 〈 pT2〉. In such cases, it is better to reorganize the hydrodynamical expansion by taking into account momentum-space anisotropies at leading-order in the expansion instead of as a perturbative correction to an isotropic distribution. The resulting anisotropic hydrodynamics framework has been shown to more accurately describe the dynamics of rapidly expanding systems such as the quark-gluon plasma. In this proceedings contribution, I review the basic ideas of anisotropic hydrodynamics, recent progress, and present a few preliminary phenomenological predictions for identified particle spectra and elliptic flow.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bottle casts from the ALE ANDRO DE HUMBOLDT in the coastal waters of California from 19 September 1971 to 26 September...
Connectivity editing for quad-dominant meshes
Peng, Chihan
2013-08-01
We propose a connectivity editing framework for quad-dominant meshes. In our framework, the user can edit the mesh connectivity to control the location, type, and number of irregular vertices (with more or fewer than four neighbors) and irregular faces (non-quads). We provide a theoretical analysis of the problem, discuss what edits are possible and impossible, and describe how to implement an editing framework that realizes all possible editing operations. In the results, we show example edits and illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of different strategies for quad-dominant mesh design. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
GRChombo: Numerical relativity with adaptive mesh refinement
Clough, Katy; Figueras, Pau; Finkel, Hal; Kunesch, Markus; Lim, Eugene A.; Tunyasuvunakool, Saran
2015-12-01
In this work, we introduce {\\mathtt{GRChombo}}: a new numerical relativity code which incorporates full adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) using block structured Berger-Rigoutsos grid generation. The code supports non-trivial ‘many-boxes-in-many-boxes’ mesh hierarchies and massive parallelism through the message passing interface. {\\mathtt{GRChombo}} evolves the Einstein equation using the standard BSSN formalism, with an option to turn on CCZ4 constraint damping if required. The AMR capability permits the study of a range of new physics which has previously been computationally infeasible in a full 3 + 1 setting, while also significantly simplifying the process of setting up the mesh for these problems. We show that {\\mathtt{GRChombo}} can stably and accurately evolve standard spacetimes such as binary black hole mergers and scalar collapses into black holes, demonstrate the performance characteristics of our code, and discuss various physics problems which stand to benefit from the AMR technique.
Retrofitting Masonry Walls with Carbon Mesh
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patrick Bischof
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Static-cyclic shear load tests and tensile tests on retrofitted masonry walls were conducted at UAS Fribourg for an evaluation of the newly developed retrofitting system, the S&P ARMO-System. This retrofitting system consists of a composite of carbon mesh embedded in a specially adapted high quality spray mortar. It can be applied with established construction techniques using traditional construction materials. The experimental study has shown that masonry walls reinforced by this retrofitting system reach a similar strength and a higher ductility than retrofits by means of bonded carbon fiber reinforced polymer sheets. Hence, the retrofitting system using carbon fiber meshes embedded in a high quality mortar constitutes a good option for static or seismic retrofits or reinforcements for masonry walls. However, the experimental studies also revealed that the mechanical anchorage of carbon mesh may be delicate depending on its design.
NASA Lewis Meshed VSAT Workshop meeting summary
Ivancic, William
1993-11-01
NASA Lewis Research Center's Space Electronics Division (SED) hosted a workshop to address specific topics related to future meshed very small-aperture terminal (VSAT) satellite communications networks. The ideas generated by this workshop will help to identify potential markets and focus technology development within the commercial satellite communications industry and NASA. The workshop resulted in recommendations concerning these principal points of interest: the window of opportunity for a meshed VSAT system; system availability; ground terminal antenna sizes; recommended multifrequency for time division multiple access (TDMA) uplink; a packet switch design concept for narrowband; and fault tolerance design concepts. This report presents a summary of group presentations and discussion associated with the technological, economic, and operational issues of meshed VSAT architectures that utilize processing satellites.
Mesh saliency with adaptive local patches
Nouri, Anass; Charrier, Christophe; Lézoray, Olivier
2015-03-01
3D object shapes (represented by meshes) include both areas that attract the visual attention of human observers and others less or not attractive at all. This visual attention depends on the degree of saliency exposed by these areas. In this paper, we propose a technique for detecting salient regions in meshes. To do so, we define a local surface descriptor based on local patches of adaptive size and filled with a local height field. The saliency of mesh vertices is then defined as its degree measure with edges weights computed from adaptive patch similarities. Our approach is compared to the state-of-the-art and presents competitive results. A study evaluating the influence of the parameters establishing this approach is also carried out. The strength and the stability of our approach with respect to noise and simplification are also studied.
Performance of a streaming mesh refinement algorithm.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thompson, David C.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre
2004-08-01
In SAND report 2004-1617, we outline a method for edge-based tetrahedral subdivision that does not rely on saving state or communication to produce compatible tetrahedralizations. This report analyzes the performance of the technique by characterizing (a) mesh quality, (b) execution time, and (c) traits of the algorithm that could affect quality or execution time differently for different meshes. It also details the method used to debug the several hundred subdivision templates that the algorithm relies upon. Mesh quality is on par with other similar refinement schemes and throughput on modern hardware can exceed 600,000 output tetrahedra per second. But if you want to understand the traits of the algorithm, you have to read the report!
The generation of hexahedral meshes for assembly geometries: A survey
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
TAUTGES,TIMOTHY J.
2000-02-14
The finite element method is being used today to model component assemblies in a wide variety of application areas, including structural mechanics, fluid simulations, and others. Generating hexahedral meshes for these assemblies usually requires the use of geometry decomposition, with different meshing algorithms applied to different regions. While the primary motivation for this approach remains the lack of an automatic, reliable all-hexahedral meshing algorithm, requirements in mesh quality and mesh configuration for typical analyses are also factors. For these reasons, this approach is also sometimes required when producing other types of unstructured meshes. This paper will review progress to date in automating many parts of the hex meshing process, which has halved the time to produce all-hex meshes for large assemblies. Particular issues which have been exposed due to this progress will also be discussed, along with their applicability to the general unstructured meshing problem.
Open preperitoneal groin hernia repair with mesh
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andresen, Kristoffer; Rosenberg, Jacob
2017-01-01
A systematic review was conducted and reported according to the PRISMA statement. PubMed, Cochrane library and Embase were searched systematically. Studies were included if they provided clinical data with more than 30 days follow up following repair of an inguinal hernia with an open preperitoneal mesh......Background For the repair of inguinal hernias, several surgical methods have been presented where the purpose is to place a mesh in the preperitoneal plane through an open access. The aim of this systematic review was to describe preperitoneal repairs with emphasis on the technique. Data sources...
Adaptive mesh refinement for storm surge
Mandli, Kyle T.
2014-03-01
An approach to utilizing adaptive mesh refinement algorithms for storm surge modeling is proposed. Currently numerical models exist that can resolve the details of coastal regions but are often too costly to be run in an ensemble forecasting framework without significant computing resources. The application of adaptive mesh refinement algorithms substantially lowers the computational cost of a storm surge model run while retaining much of the desired coastal resolution. The approach presented is implemented in the GeoClaw framework and compared to ADCIRC for Hurricane Ike along with observed tide gauge data and the computational cost of each model run. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Relativistic MHD with Adaptive Mesh Refinement
Anderson, M; Liebling, S L; Neilsen, D; Anderson, Matthew; Hirschmann, Eric; Liebling, Steven L.; Neilsen, David
2006-01-01
We solve the relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations using a finite difference Convex ENO method (CENO) in 3+1 dimensions within a distributed parallel adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) infrastructure. In flat space we examine a Balsara blast wave problem along with a spherical blast wave and a relativistic rotor test both with unigrid and AMR simulations. The AMR simulations substantially improve performance while reproducing the resolution equivalent unigrid simulation results. We also investigate the impact of hyperbolic divergence cleaning for the spherical blast wave and relativistic rotor. We include unigrid and mesh refinement parallel performance measurements for the spherical blast wave.
Laparoscopic rectocele repair using polyglactin mesh.
Lyons, T L; Winer, W K
1997-05-01
We assessed the efficacy of laparoscopic treatment of rectocele defect using a polyglactin mesh graft. From May 1, 1995, through September 30, 1995, we prospectively evaluated 20 women (age 38-74 yrs) undergoing pelvic floor reconstruction for symptomatic pelvic floor prolapse, with or without hysterectomy. Morbidity of the procedure was extremely low compared with standard transvaginal and transrectal approaches. Patients were followed at 3-month intervals for 1 year. Sixteen had resolution of symptoms. Laparoscopic application of polyglactin mesh for the repair of the rectocele defect is a viable option, although long-term follow-up is necessary.
Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Storm Surge
Mandli, Kyle T
2014-01-01
An approach to utilizing adaptive mesh refinement algorithms for storm surge modeling is proposed. Currently numerical models exist that can resolve the details of coastal regions but are often too costly to be run in an ensemble forecasting framework without significant computing resources. The application of adaptive mesh refinement algorithms substantially lowers the computational cost of a storm surge model run while retaining much of the desired coastal resolution. The approach presented is implemented in the \\geoclaw framework and compared to \\adcirc for Hurricane Ike along with observed tide gauge data and the computational cost of each model run.
Dispositivo de asistencia a discapacitados motores: switch controlado por señales electromiográficas
Haberman, Marcelo; Spinelli, Enrique Mario
2013-01-01
En el presente trabajo, se propone la utilización de señales de EMG. Estas señales tienen su origen en los potenciales eléctricos (potenciales de acción) que se desarrollan en las membranas de las fibras musculares al intentar contraer un músculo. La detección de una contracción muscular, por más débil que sea, permite establecer una vía de comunicación alternativa entre un usuario y su entorno. En este sentido, se ha desarrollo de un sistema completo que, a partir de la detección de una cont...
Dispositivo de asistencia a discapacitados motores: switch controlado por señales electromiográficas
Haberman, Marcelo; Spinelli, Enrique Mario
2013-01-01
En el presente trabajo, se propone la utilización de señales de EMG. Estas señales tienen su origen en los potenciales eléctricos (potenciales de acción) que se desarrollan en las membranas de las fibras musculares al intentar contraer un músculo. La detección de una contracción muscular, por más débil que sea, permite establecer una vía de comunicación alternativa entre un usuario y su entorno. En este sentido, se ha desarrollo de un sistema completo que, a partir de la detección de una cont...
STABILIREA PROPRIETĂŢILOR ACIDO-BAZICE ALE CĂRBUNILOR ACTIVI
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Raisa NASTAS
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Au fost precizate unele aspecte metodologice ale tehnicilor de titrare vizuală (metoda Boehm şi electrometrică (titrări alcalimetrice şi acidimetrice pentru stabilirea proprietăţilor acido-bazice ale adsorbanţilor carbonici. Pe suprafaţa cărbunilor activi obţinuţi prin metoda fizico-chimică predomină grupările funcţionale bazice, pentru determinarea conţinutului lor fiind recomandată metoda titrării conductometrice acidimetrice. De rând cu grupările bazice, pe suprafaţa acestor cărbuni există şi grupări funcţionale acide, pentru determinarea lor fiind recomandată metoda titrării pH-metrice indirecte. Pe suprafaţa cărbunilor activi obţinuţi prin metoda chimică predomină grupările funcţionale acide, pentru determinarea conţinutului lor fiind recomandă metoda titrării conductometrice alcalimetrice. Pentru determinarea grupărilor bazice pe suprafaţa acestor cărbuni se recomandă metoda titrării pH-metrice indirecte.EVALUATION OF ACTIVE CARBONS ACID-BASIC PROPERTIESThe methodological peculiarities of visual titration method (Boehm method and electrometric (alkalimetric and acidimetric titrations for researching of acid-basic properties of carbonaceous adsorbents have been specified. On the surface of active carbons obtained by physical-chemical method of activation the basic sites predominate being recommended acidimetric conductometric titration for their determination. Besides of such groups there are also acidic sites being recommended alkalimetric pH-metric back titration for their determination. On the surface of active carbons obtained by chemical activation the acidic groups predominate being recommended alkalimetric conductometric titration for their determination. Besides of such groups there are also basic sites being recommended acidimetric pH-metric back titration for their determination.
Entropy-limited hydrodynamics: a novel approach to relativistic hydrodynamics
Guercilena, Federico; Radice, David; Rezzolla, Luciano
2017-07-01
We present entropy-limited hydrodynamics (ELH): a new approach for the computation of numerical fluxes arising in the discretization of hyperbolic equations in conservation form. ELH is based on the hybridisation of an unfiltered high-order scheme with the first-order Lax-Friedrichs method. The activation of the low-order part of the scheme is driven by a measure of the locally generated entropy inspired by the artificial-viscosity method proposed by Guermond et al. (J. Comput. Phys. 230(11):4248-4267, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.jcp.2010.11.043). Here, we present ELH in the context of high-order finite-differencing methods and of the equations of general-relativistic hydrodynamics. We study the performance of ELH in a series of classical astrophysical tests in general relativity involving isolated, rotating and nonrotating neutron stars, and including a case of gravitational collapse to black hole. We present a detailed comparison of ELH with the fifth-order monotonicity preserving method MP5 (Suresh and Huynh in J. Comput. Phys. 136(1):83-99, 1997, doi: 10.1006/jcph.1997.5745), one of the most common high-order schemes currently employed in numerical-relativity simulations. We find that ELH achieves comparable and, in many of the cases studied here, better accuracy than more traditional methods at a fraction of the computational cost (up to {˜}50% speedup). Given its accuracy and its simplicity of implementation, ELH is a promising framework for the development of new special- and general-relativistic hydrodynamics codes well adapted for massively parallel supercomputers.
Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia
2017-01-01
Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequat...... predict how optimum filter mesh size increases with cell size in microbial filter feeders, a prediction that accords very well with observations. We expect our results to be of significance for small-scale biophysics and trait-based ecological modeling....
Effect of Coastal Waves on Hydrodynamics in One-Inlet Coastal Nador Lagoon, Morocco
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Jeyar Mohammed
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Nador lagoon is a coastal system connected to the sea through a narrow and shallow inlet; understanding its hydraulic performance is required for its design and operation. This paper investigates the hydrodynamic impacts of the whole lagoon due to tidal waves using a numerical approach. In this study we use a two-dimensional, depth-averaged hydrodynamic model based on so-called shallow water equations solved within triangular mesh by a developed efficient finite volume method. The method was calibrated and validated against observed data and applied to analyze and predict water levels, tidal currents, and wind effects within the lagoon. Two typical idealized scenarios were investigated: tide only and tide with wind forcing. The predicted sea surface elevations and current speeds have been presented during a typical tidal period and show correct physics in different scenarios.
ADQUISICIÓN Y PROCESAMIENTO DE SEÑALES EMG PARA CONTROLAR MOVIMIENTO DE UN BRAZO HIDRAULICO
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Jorge Andrés García Pinzon
2014-06-01
Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta el diseño e implementación de un sistema electrónico para el registro de las señales electromiográficas de la extremidad superior del sujeto (humano. Seguidamente al proceso de la implementación del sistema electrónico, en este trabajo se realiza una etapa de pre-procesamiento y procesamiento de las señales registradas, las técnicas utilizadas para éste fin son: análisis wavelet (AW, análisis de componentes principales (ACP, transformada de fourier (TF, transformada del coseno discreta (DCT, máquinas de soporte vectorial (SVM y redes neuronales artificiales (RNA; estas técnicas se usaron para eliminar información poco relevante, reconocer zonas de interés, extraer patrones en cada grupo de señales y clasificar una nueva señal que controle en forma precisa el movimiento que quiere ejecutar el sujeto con el brazo Hidráulico. Dentro de las técnicas de control de procesos Industriales se busca realizar una aplicación con el fin de poder hacer control a dos grados de libertad más el efector final del brazo hidráulico del laboratorio de automatización y mantenimiento de equipos industriales de la Universidad de Pamplona.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
R. KUMAR; M. BALASUBRAMANIAN
2015-01-01
The basic principle of friction welding is intermetallic bonding at the stage of super plasticity attained with self-generating heat due to friction and finishing at upset pressure. Now the dissimilar metal joints are especially popular in defense, aerospace, automobile, bio-medical, refinery and nuclear engineerings. In friction welding, some special alloys with dual phase are not joined successfully due to poor bonding strength. The alloy surfaces after bonding also have metallurgical changes in the line of interfacing. The reported research work in this area is scanty. Although the sound weld zone of direct bonding between Tie6Ale4V and SS304L was obtained though many trials, the joint was not successful. In this paper, the friction welding characteristics between Tie6Ale4V and SS304L into which pure oxygen free copper (OFC) was introduced as interlayer were investigated. BoxeBehnken design was used to minimize the number of experiments to be performed. The weld joint was analyzed for its mechanical strength. The highest tensile strength between Tie6Ale4V and SS304L between which pure copper was used as insert metal was acquired. Micro-structural analysis and elemental analysis were carried out by EDS, and the formation of intermetallic compound at the interface was identified by XRD analysis.
Esquema basado en Wavelet para la reducción de ruido online en señales industriales
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Antonio Cedeño Pozo
2014-07-01
Full Text Available En este trabajo se propone un esquema para la reducción de ruido gaussiano online basado en wavelet con ventanas deslizantes para ser utilizado en señales industriales. Este tipo de técnicas se utilizan cuando la señal debe ser tratada a medida que se obtienen las muestras, funcionalidad necesaria en aplicaciones con requerimientos de tiempo real, por ejemplo en sistemas SCADA. El algoritmo introducido en el presente trabajo se diferencia de algoritmos similares en que: en primer término utiliza una selección adaptativa del umbral basada en NeighShrink; adicionalmente reutiliza en lo posible los coeficientes wavelet calculados en pasos anteriores para el procesamiento de cada punto; finalmente utiliza la wavelet Haar en lugar de otros filtros de mayor complejidad computacional. Para la comprobación experimental del nuevo esquema se utilizó un conjunto de señales sintéticas introducido por Donoho y Marron, complementadas por señales adquiridas en procesos reales de plantas industriales. Las pruebas realizadas revelan que el algoritmo propuesto mejora la reducción de ruido online respecto a esquemas similares reportados anteriormente y es computacionalmente menos complejo.
MeshEZW: an image coder using mesh and finite elements
Landais, Thomas; Bonnaud, Laurent; Chassery, Jean-Marc
2003-08-01
In this paper, we present a new method to compress the information in an image, called MeshEZW. The proposed approach is based on the finite elements method, a mesh construction and a zerotree method. The zerotree method is an adaptive of the EZW algorithm with two new symbols for increasing the performance. These steps allow a progressive representation of the image by the automatic construction of a bitstream. The mesh structure is adapted to the image compression domain and is defined to allow video comrpession. The coder is described and some preliminary results are discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Eduardo Garcia Cotta
2010-01-01
Full Text Available O artigo analisa a estratégia utilizada pela ALE Combustíveis em uma operação desenhada para vender lubrificantes automotivos em sua rede de postos. O estudo avalia as alianças efetuadas com a Elf e posteriormente com a AC Delco, revelando as motivações, escolha dos parceiros, desenho do modelo de relacionamento, gestão das alianças e avaliação do modelo adotado, confrontando a experiência prática com as prescrições da literatura. O modelo adotado, denominado broker, caracteriza-se pela preservação da autonomia das marcas, com a ALE aportando sua estrutura e força de vendas, e o parceiro, a logística de reabastecimento e processamento de pedidos. O método do caso foi adotado como estratégia de pesquisa e o relato revela o acerto na escolha do modelo, porém falhas estratégicas na capacidade operacional e posicionamento do produto, na aliança com a Elf, e na relação de forças no canal, na aliança com a AC Delco, conduziram ao fracasso de ambas as tentativas.This paper analyses the strategy adopted by ALE Combustíveis, a Brazilian Company, in an operation designed to sell automotive lubricants at gas stations. This study reviews the alliances made with Elf and later with AC Delco, exposing ALE's motivations, partner selection, design of relationship model, alliance management and assessment of adopted model, confronting practical experience with prescriptions in the published literature. The model, named broker, is characterized by preservation of the brand's autonomy, with ALE contributing its structure and sales force, and its partner, in turn, the fuelling logistics and order processing. The case method was adopted as a research strategy and this report shows how successful the model selection proved, as well as the strategic blunders related to the operational capacity and product positioning, in the alliance with Elf, and in the forces of management interrelations within the channel, in the AC Delco alliance case
Annual Report: Hydrodynamics and Radiative Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
R. Paul Drake
2005-12-01
We report the ongoing work of our group in hydrodynamics and radiative hydrodynamics with astrophysical applications. During the period of the existing grant, we have carried out two types of experiments at the Omega laser. One set of experiments has studied radiatively collapsing shocks, obtaining high-quality scaling data using a backlit pinhole and obtaining the first (ever, anywhere) Thomson-scattering data from a radiative shock. Other experiments have studied the deeply nonlinear development of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability from complex initial conditions, obtaining the first (ever, anywhere) dual-axis radiographic data using backlit pinholes and ungated detectors. All these experiments have applications to astrophysics, discussed in the corresponding papers either in print or in preparation. We also have obtained preliminary radiographs of experimental targets using our x-ray source. The targets for the experiments have been assembled at Michigan, where we also prepare many of the simple components. The above activities, in addition to a variety of data analysis and design projects, provide good experience for graduate and undergraduates students. In the process of doing this research we have built a research group that uses such work to train junior scientists.
Mirror-type Boundary Condition in Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics
Marjani, A.; Edge, B. L.
2013-12-01
The main purpose of this study is to enhance the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method that can accurately simulate the hydrodynamic forces on a structure and can be used for determining efficient designs for wave energy devices. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics is a method used in various fields of study. Unlike the finite difference method (FDM), SPH is a Lagrangian mesh-free method in which each particle moves according to the property of the surrounding flow and governing conservation equations, and carries the properties of water such as density, pressure and mass. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics is recently applied to a wide range of fluid mechanics problems. Although it is known as a highly accurate model, slow performance in 3D interface is one of its drawbacks. Not only the computational time becomes very long but also the number of processors and required memory are not easily available. Practical applications deal with high Reynolds numbers that requires high resolution to achieve adequate accuracy. A large number of coastal engineering problems are geometrically symmetric; hence, as a solution, mirror boundary condition is introduced and applied to two different tests in this paper, one is the impact of solitary wave on a large circular cylinder and the other is the interaction of dam break wave and structure. Mirror boundary condition can either produce a remarkable speedup with the same number of processors or the same running time with less number of processors. Regarding the fact that SPH algorithm yields Np log(Np) particle interactions at each time step, reducing the number of particles by a factor of 2 decreases the total number of interactions by a factor greater than 2. In other words, the relation between computational time and the number of particles does not behave like a linear function. Results show that smaller number of particles results in fewer particle interactions and less communications between processors. We believe that this
Galaxy clusters as hydrodynamics laboratories
Roediger, Elke; Sheardown, Alexander; Fish, Thomas; ZuHone, John; Hunt, Matthew; Su, Yuanyuan; Kraft, Ralph P.; Nulsen, Paul; Forman, William R.; Churazov, Eugene; Randall, Scott W.; Jones, Christine; Machacek, Marie E.
2017-08-01
The intra-cluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters shows a wealth of hydrodynamical features that trace the growth of clusters via the infall of galaxies or smaller subclusters. Such hydrodynamical features include the wakes of the infalling objects as well as the interfaces between the host cluster’s ICM and the atmosphere of the infalling object. Furthermore, the cluster dynamics can be traced by merger shocks, bow shocks, and sloshing motions of the ICM.The characteristics of these dynamical features, e.g., the direction, length, brightness, and temperature of the galaxies' or subclusters' gas tails varies significantly between different objects. This could be due to either dynamical conditions or ICM transport coefficients such as viscosity and thermal conductivity. For example, the cool long gas tails of of some infalling galaxies and groups have been attributed to a substantial ICM viscosity suppressing mixing of the stripped galaxy or group gas with the hotter ambient ICM.Using hydrodynamical simulations of minor mergers we show, however, that these features can be explained naturally by the dynamical conditions of each particular galaxy or group infall. Specifically, we identify observable features to distinguish the first and second infall of a galaxy or group into its host cluster as well as characteristics during apocentre passage. Comparing our simulations with observations, we can explain several puzzling observations such as the long and cold tail of M86 in Virgo and the very long and tangentially oriented tail of the group LEDA 87445 in Hydra A.Using our simulations, we also assess the validity of the stagnation pressure method that is widely used to determine an infalling galaxy's velocity. We show that near pericentre passage the method gives reasonable results, but near apocentre it is not easily applicable.
Brewhouse-resident microbiota are responsible for multi-stage fermentation of American coolship ale.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicholas A Bokulich
Full Text Available American coolship ale (ACA is a type of spontaneously fermented beer that employs production methods similar to traditional Belgian lambic. In spite of its growing popularity in the American craft-brewing sector, the fermentation microbiology of ACA has not been previously described, and thus the interface between production methodology and microbial community structure is unexplored. Using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP, barcoded amplicon sequencing (BAS, quantitative PCR (qPCR and culture-dependent analysis, ACA fermentations were shown to follow a consistent fermentation progression, initially dominated by Enterobacteriaceae and a range of oxidative yeasts in the first month, then ceding to Saccharomyces spp. and Lactobacillales for the following year. After one year of fermentation, Brettanomyces bruxellensis was the dominant yeast population (occasionally accompanied by minor populations of Candida spp., Pichia spp., and other yeasts and Lactobacillales remained dominant, though various aerobic bacteria became more prevalent. This work demonstrates that ACA exhibits a conserved core microbial succession in absence of inoculation, supporting the role of a resident brewhouse microbiota. These findings establish this core microbial profile of spontaneous beer fermentations as a target for production control points and quality standards for these beers.
Teoria de la deteccion de señales (tds y caracteristicas de la memoria transitoria
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Paul Stephaneck
1987-01-01
Full Text Available Seis sujetos fueron sometidos a una tarea de memorización en la cual el sujeto conserva informaciones, recibe nuevos datos durante el intervalo de retención y elimina, al mismo tiempo, algunos aspectos antiguos de su memoria que se volvían inútiles. El material memorizado consistió en objetos abstractos que poseían varios atributos. Fueron establecidas dos condiciones experimentales. Condición V: numerosos atributos de pocos objetos. Condición U: un solo atrio buto de numerosos objetos. Los resultados obtenidos por la aplicación de la Teoría de la Detección de Señales (TDS muestran una leve superioridad del desempeño de los sujetos en la condición U. Reagrupando los datos se puede mostrar que el efecto principal en la degradación de la memoria se debe al número de aspectos conservados en la memoria en el momento de recordar
Spent Fuel Ratio Estimates from Numerical Models in ALE3D
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Margraf, J. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dunn, T. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2016-08-02
Potential threat of intentional sabotage of spent nuclear fuel storage facilities is of significant importance to national security. Paramount is the study of focused energy attacks on these materials and the potential release of aerosolized hazardous particulates into the environment. Depleted uranium oxide (DUO_{2}) is often chosen as a surrogate material for testing due to the unreasonable cost and safety demands for conducting full-scale tests with real spent nuclear fuel. To account for differences in mechanical response resulting in changes to particle distribution it is necessary to scale the DUO_{2} results to get a proper measure for spent fuel. This is accomplished with the spent fuel ratio (SFR), the ratio of respirable aerosol mass released due to identical damage conditions between a spent fuel and a surrogate material like depleted uranium oxide (DUO_{2}). A very limited number of full-scale experiments have been carried out to capture this data, and the oft-questioned validity of the results typically leads to overly-conservative risk estimates. In the present work, the ALE3D hydrocode is used to simulate DUO_{2} and spent nuclear fuel pellets impacted by metal jets. The results demonstrate an alternative approach to estimate the respirable release fraction of fragmented nuclear fuel.
Schroeter, Matthias L; Neumann, Jane
2011-01-01
To compare and dissociate the neural correlates of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), we combine and synthesize here recent comprehensive meta-analyses. Systematic and quantitative meta-analyses were conducted according to the QUOROM statement by calculating anatomical likelihood estimates (ALE). AD (n = 578) and the three subtypes of FTLD, frontotemporal dementia, semantic dementia (SD), and progressive non-fluent aphasia (n = 229), were compared in conjunction analyses, separately for atrophy and reductions in glucose metabolism. Atrophy coincided in the amygdala and hippocampal head in AD and the FTLD subtype SD. The other brain regions did not show any overlap between AD and FTLD subtypes for both atrophy and changes in glucose metabolism. For AD alone (n = 826), another conjunction analysis revealed a regional dissociation between atrophy and hypoperfusion/hypometabolism, whereby hypoperfusion and hypometabolism coincided in the angular/supramarginal gyrus and inferior precuneus/posterior cingulate gyrus. Our data together with other imaging studies suggest a specific dissociation of AD and FTLD if, beside atrophy, additional imaging markers in AD such as abnormally low parietal glucose utilization and perfusion are taken into account. Results support the incorporation of standardized imaging inclusion criteria into future diagnostic systems, which is crucial for early individual diagnosis and treatment in the future.
Lava lake surface characterization by thermal imaging: Erta 'Ale volcano (Ethiopia)
Spampinato, L.; Oppenheimer, C.; Calvari, S.; Cannata, A.; Montalto, P.
2008-12-01
Active lava lakes represent the exposed, uppermost part of convecting magma systems and provide windows into the dynamics of magma transport and degassing. Erta 'Ale volcano located within the Danakil Depression in Ethiopia hosts one of the few permanent convecting lava lakes, probably active for a century or more. We report here on the main features of the lava lake surface based on observations from an infrared thermal camera made on 11 November 2006. Efficient magma circulation was reflected in the sustained transport of the surface, which was composed of pronounced incandescent cracks that separated wide plates of cooler crust. These crossed the lake from the upwelling to the downwelling margin with mean speeds ranging between 0.01 and 0.15 m s-1. Hot spots eventually opened in the middle of crust plates and/or along cracks. These produced mild explosive activity lasting commonly between ˜10 and ˜200 s. Apparent temperatures of cracks ranged between ˜700 and 1070°C, and of crust between ˜300 and 500°C. Radiant power output of the lake varied between ˜45 and 76 MW according to the superficial activity and continuous resurfacing of the lake. Time series analysis of the radiant power output data reveals cyclicity with a period of ˜10 min. The combination of visual and thermal observations with apparent mean temperatures and convection rates allows us to interpret these signals as the periodic release of hot overpressured gas bubbles at the lake surface.
SIMULATION OF FLUID-SOLID INTERACTION ON WATER DITCHING OF AN AIRPLANE BY ALE METHOD
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUA Cheng; FANG Chao; CHENG Jin
2011-01-01
Ditching is considered as one of the important aspects of safety performances of airplanes.It is related primarily with the fluid-solid interaction,whose studies mainly depend on experiments at the present time.Numerical and analytical methods for fluid-solid interaction by using 3-D full scale airplane's model will reduce the dependence on the expensive model tests.Numerical studies can be used to estimate the safety of ditching and provide a reference for the crashworthiness design.This article proposes a 3-D dynamical structural model after the real shape of an airplane and an Arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) fluid-field model,to simulate the fluid-solid interactions caused by low speed ditching.The simulation is based on interaction computational methods,within LS-DYNA nonlinear finite-element code.The results of pressure distributions and accelerating time histories of the airplane's subfloor are discussed in the context of the safety of ditching,and the simulation results and the analytical methods are verified.
Natural hazards in the karst areas of the Viñales National Park, Cuba
Govea Blanco, Darlenys; Farfan Gonzalez, Hermes; Dias Guanche, Carlos; Parise, Mario; Ramirez, Robert
2010-05-01
Cuban karst is subject to several natural hazards, the great majority of which is hydro-meteorological in character: intense rainstorms, tropical cyclones, seawater inundation, etc. A further, serious problem is represented by droughts, that have become very severe during the recent years, due to longer persistence of the dry season. Beside these hazards, seismic shocks in the eastern part of the country, and mass movements in the mountain areas have also to be mentioned. In general, it has to be noted that both casualties and economic losses from natural disasters have slowly decreased during the last decades at Cuba. Viñales National Park, as many other natural landforms in the Cuban karst, has a great potential for development and exploitation in several different fields, from agriculture, to tourism and recreational activities. At these aims, it is necessary to preserve the natural landscape, its beauty and resources, and, at the same time, improve the quality of people living in these environments. In particular, to face the social changes at present occurring in the area is one of the most difficult task for those people that are in charge of land management and development. It has also to be remembered that "Valle de Viñales" has been included by UNESCO in the World Cultural Heritage List. The main scenarios of natural hazards in the Viñales National Park are described in this contribution, and analyzed by means of different methodologies. Flooded areas have been mapped in the field soon after the occurrence of an extreme event as the hurricane Ike, characterized by rainfall higher than 300 mm/day, and preceded only ten days before by hurricane Gustav, that discharged in the area an amount of 120 mm/day of rain. As a consequence of the temporal vicinity of the two events, the terranes were already highly saturated at the time of occurrence of hurricane Ike, which thus resulted to be one of the most extreme floods ever recorded in the area. Electrostatic
Drawing and writing: An ALE meta-analysis of sensorimotor activations.
Yuan, Ye; Brown, Steven
2015-08-01
Drawing and writing are the two major means of creating what are referred to as "images", namely visual patterns on flat surfaces. They share many sensorimotor processes related to visual guidance of hand movement, resulting in the formation of visual shapes associated with pictures and words. However, while the human capacity to draw is tens of thousands of years old, the capacity for writing is only a few thousand years old, and widespread literacy is quite recent. In order to compare the neural activations for drawing and writing, we conducted two activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analyses for these two bodies of neuroimaging literature. The results showed strong overlap in the activation profiles, especially in motor areas (motor cortex, frontal eye fields, supplementary motor area, cerebellum, putamen) and several parts of the posterior parietal cortex. A distinction was found in the left posterior parietal cortex, with drawing showing a preference for a ventral region and writing a dorsal region. These results demonstrate that drawing and writing employ the same basic sensorimotor networks but that some differences exist in parietal areas involved in spatial processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Framed sheaves on root stacks and supersymmetric gauge theories on ALE spaces
Bruzzo, Ugo; Sala, Francesco; Szabo, Richard J
2016-01-01
We develop a new approach to the study of supersymmetric gauge theories on ALE spaces using the theory of framed sheaves on root toric stacks, which illuminates relations with gauge theories on $\\mathbb{R}^4$ and with two-dimensional conformal field theory. We construct a stacky compactification of a minimal resolution $X_k$ of the $A_{k-1}$ toric singularity $\\mathbb{C}^2/\\mathbb{Z}_k$, which is a projective toric orbifold $\\mathscr{X}_k$ such that $\\mathscr{X}_k\\setminus X_k$ is a $\\mathbb{Z}_k$-gerbe. We construct moduli spaces of torsion free sheaves on $\\mathscr{X}_k$ which are framed along the compactification gerbe. We prove that this moduli space is a smooth quasi-projective variety, compute its dimension, and classify its fixed points under the natural induced toric action. We use this construction to compute the partition functions and correlators of chiral BPS operators for $\\mathcal{N}=2$ quiver gauge theories on $X_k$ with nontrivial holonomies at infinity. The partition functions are computed wi...
The neural basis of audiomotor entrainment: An ALE meta-analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Léa A. S. Chauvigné
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Synchronization of body movement to an acoustic rhythm is a major form of entrainment, such as occurs in dance. This is exemplified in experimental studies of finger tapping. Entrainment to a beat is contrasted with movement that is internally driven and is therefore self-paced. In order to examine brain areas important for entrainment to an acoustic beat, we meta-analyzed the functional neuroimaging literature on finger tapping (43 studies using activation likelihood estimation (ALE meta-analysis with a focus on the contrast between externally-paced and self-paced tapping. The results demonstrated a dissociation between two subcortical systems involved in timing, namely the cerebellum and the basal ganglia. Externally-paced tapping highlighted the importance of the spinocerebellum, most especially the vermis, which was not activated at all by self-paced tapping. In contrast, the basal ganglia, including the putamen and globus pallidus, were active during both types of tapping, but preferentially during self-paced tapping. These results suggest a central role for the spinocerebellum in audiomotor entrainment. We conclude with a theoretical discussion about the various forms of entrainment in humans and other animals.
Neurorachunkowość jako potencjalny, ale trudny kierunek rozwoju rachunkowości
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nelli Artienwicz
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Artykuł stanowi wprowadzenie w zagadnienia i wyniki nowego interdyscyplinarnego nurtu badawczego, jakim jest neurorachunkowość. Jej zaistnienie wiąże się z faktem wzrostu popularności badań nad procesami zachodzącymi w mózgu człowieka, czym zajmuje się szeroko pojęta neuronauka. Celem tego artykułu jest przedstawienie neurorachunkowości (neuroaccounting jako interdyscyplinarnego podejścia badawczego bazującego na neurobiologii i neurochemii, ale wyrastającego z eksperymentalnych nurtów rachunkowości behawioralnej. W pierwszej części opisano neuronaukę oraz jej odniesienia do nauk ekonomicznych. Następnie zaprezentowano neurorachunkowość jako nowy trend w ramach rachunkowości behawioralnej oparty na badaniach neuronalnych. W końcu dokonano przeglądu nielicznych badań w rachunkowości, w których wykorzystano odniesienia do procesów zachodzących w mózgu człowieka oraz oceniono perspektywy rozwoju podejścia neuronalnego w rachunkowości.
Bound-Preserving Reconstruction of Tensor Quantities for Remap in ALE Fluid Dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klima, Matej [Czech Technical Univ. in Prague, Praha (Czech Republic); Kucharik, MIlan [Czech Technical Univ. in Prague, Praha (Czech Republic); Shashkov, Mikhail Jurievich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Velechovsky, Jan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-01-06
We analyze several new and existing approaches for limiting tensor quantities in the context of deviatoric stress remapping in an ALE numerical simulation of elastic flow. Remapping and limiting of the tensor component-by-component is shown to violate radial symmetry of derived variables such as elastic energy or force. Therefore, we have extended the symmetry-preserving Vector Image Polygon algorithm, originally designed for limiting vector variables. This limiter constrains the vector (in our case a vector of independent tensor components) within the convex hull formed by the vectors from surrounding cells – an equivalent of the discrete maximum principle in scalar variables. We compare this method with a limiter designed specifically for deviatoric stress limiting which aims to constrain the J_{2} invariant that is proportional to the specific elastic energy and scale the tensor accordingly. We also propose a method which involves remapping and limiting the J_{2} invariant independently using known scalar techniques. The deviatoric stress tensor is then scaled to match this remapped invariant, which guarantees conservation in terms of elastic energy.
Steffen, W.; Koning, N.
2017-07-01
We demonstrate the potential for research and outreach of mixed polygon and hydrodynamic modeling and multi-waveband rendering in the interactive 3-D astrophysical virtual laboratory Shape. In 3-D special effects and animation software for the mass media, computer graphics techniques that mix polygon and numerical hydrodynamics have become common place. In astrophysics, however, interactive modeling with polygon structures has only become available with the software Shape. Numerical hydrodynamic simulations and their visualization are usually separate, while in Shape it is integrated with the polygon modeling approach that requires no programming by the user. With two generic examples, we demonstrate that research and outreach modeling can be achieved with techniques similar to those used in the media industry with the added capability for physical rendering at any wavelength band, yielding more realistic radiation modeling. Furthermore, we show how the hydrodynamics and the polygon mesh modeling can be mixed to achieve results that are superior to those obtained using either one of these modeling techniques alone.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王宏志; 邹早建
2014-01-01
A CFD method is used to numerically predict the hydrodynamic forces and moments acting on a ship passing through a lock with a constant speed. By solving the RANS equations in combination with the RNG k-e turbulence model, the unsteady viscous flow around the ship is simulated and the hydrodynamic forces and moments acting on the ship are calculated. UDF is com-piled to define the ship motion. Meanwhile, grid regeneration is dealt with by using the dynamic mesh method and sliding interface technique. Under the assumption of low ship speed, the effects of free surface elevation are neglected in the numerical simulation. A bulk carrier ship model is taken as an example for the numerical study. The numerical results are presented and compared with the available experimental results. By analyzing the numerical results obtained for locks with different configurations, the influences of approach wall configuration, lock configuration symmetry and lock chamber breadth on the hydrodynamic forces and moments are demonstrated. The numerical method applied in this paper can qualitatively predict the ship-lock hydrodynamic interaction and pro-vide certain guidance on lock design.
Constrained and joint inversion on unstructured meshes
Doetsch, J.; Jordi, C.; Rieckh, V.; Guenther, T.; Schmelzbach, C.
2015-12-01
Unstructured meshes allow for inclusion of arbitrary surface topography, complex acquisition geometry and undulating geological interfaces in the inversion of geophysical data. This flexibility opens new opportunities for coupling different geophysical and hydrological data sets in constrained and joint inversions. For example, incorporating geological interfaces that have been derived from high-resolution geophysical data (e.g., ground penetrating radar) can add geological constraints to inversions of electrical resistivity data. These constraints can be critical for a hydrogeological interpretation of the inversion results. For time-lapse inversions of geophysical data, constraints can be derived from hydrological point measurements in boreholes, but it is difficult to include these hard constraints in the inversion of electrical resistivity monitoring data. Especially mesh density and the regularization footprint around the hydrological point measurements are important for an improved inversion compared to the unconstrained case. With the help of synthetic and field examples, we analyze how regularization and coupling operators should be chosen for time-lapse inversions constrained by point measurements and for joint inversions of geophysical data in order to take full advantage of the flexibility of unstructured meshes. For the case of constraining to point measurements, it is important to choose a regularization operator that extends beyond the neighboring cells and the uncertainty in the point measurements needs to be accounted for. For joint inversion, the choice of the regularization depends on the expected subsurface heterogeneity and the cell size of the parameter mesh.
Hash functions and triangular mesh reconstruction*1
Hrádek, Jan; Kuchař, Martin; Skala, Václav
2003-07-01
Some applications use data formats (e.g. STL file format), where a set of triangles is used to represent the surface of a 3D object and it is necessary to reconstruct the triangular mesh with adjacency information. It is a lengthy process for large data sets as the time complexity of this process is O( N log N), where N is number of triangles. Triangular mesh reconstruction is a general problem and relevant algorithms can be used in GIS and DTM systems as well as in CAD/CAM systems. Many algorithms rely on space subdivision techniques while hash functions offer a more effective solution to the reconstruction problem. Hash data structures are widely used throughout the field of computer science. The hash table can be used to speed up the process of triangular mesh reconstruction but the speed strongly depends on hash function properties. Nevertheless the design or selection of the hash function for data sets with unknown properties is a serious problem. This paper describes a new hash function, presents the properties obtained for large data sets, and discusses validity of the reconstructed surface. Experimental results proved theoretical considerations and advantages of hash function use for mesh reconstruction.
Particle Collection Efficiency for Nylon Mesh Screens.
Cena, Lorenzo G; Ku, Bon-Ki; Peters, Thomas M
Mesh screens composed of nylon fibers leave minimal residual ash and produce no significant spectral interference when ashed for spectrometric examination. These characteristics make nylon mesh screens attractive as a collection substrate for nanoparticles. A theoretical single-fiber efficiency expression developed for wire-mesh screens was evaluated for estimating the collection efficiency of submicrometer particles for nylon mesh screens. Pressure drop across the screens, the effect of particle morphology (spherical and highly fractal) on collection efficiency and single-fiber efficiency were evaluated experimentally for three pore sizes (60, 100 and 180 μm) at three flow rates (2.5, 4 and 6 Lpm). The pressure drop across the screens was found to increase linearly with superficial velocity. The collection efficiency of the screens was found to vary by less than 4% regardless of particle morphology. Single-fiber efficiency calculated from experimental data was in good agreement with that estimated from theory for particles between 40 and 150 nm but deviated from theory for particles outside this size range. New coefficients for the single-fiber efficiency model were identified that minimized the sum of square error (SSE) between the values estimated with the model and those determined experimentally. Compared to the original theory, the SSE calculated using the modified theory was at least one order of magnitude lower for all screens and flow rates with the exception of the 60-μm pore screens at 2.5 Lpm, where the decrease was threefold.
Functionalized Nanofiber Meshes Enhance Immunosorbent Assays.
Hersey, Joseph S; Meller, Amit; Grinstaff, Mark W
2015-12-01
Three-dimensional substrates with high surface-to-volume ratios and subsequently large protein binding capacities are of interest for advanced immunosorbent assays utilizing integrated microfluidics and nanosensing elements. A library of bioactive and antifouling electrospun nanofiber substrates, which are composed of high-molecular-weight poly(oxanorbornene) derivatives, is described. Specifically, a set of copolymers are synthesized from three 7-oxanorbornene monomers to create a set of water insoluble copolymers with both biotin (bioactive) and triethylene glycol (TEG) (antifouling) functionality. Porous three-dimensional nanofiber meshes are electrospun from these copolymers with the ability to specifically bind streptavidin while minimizing the nonspecific binding of other proteins. Fluorescently labeled streptavidin is used to quantify the streptavidin binding capacity of each mesh type through confocal microscopy. A simplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is presented to assess the protein binding capabilities and detection limits of these nanofiber meshes under both static conditions (26 h) and flow conditions (1 h) for a model target protein (i.e., mouse IgG) using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) colorimetric assay. Bioactive and antifouling nanofiber meshes outperform traditional streptavidin-coated polystyrene plates under flow, validating their use in future advanced immunosorbent assays and their compatibility with microfluidic-based biosensors.
Mesh Optimization for Ground Vehicle Aerodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adrian Gaylard
2010-04-01
Full Text Available
Mesh optimization strategy for estimating accurate drag of a ground vehicle is proposed based on examining the effect of different mesh parameters. The optimized mesh parameters were selected using design of experiment (DOE method to be able to work in a limited memory environment and in a reasonable amount of time but without compromising the accuracy of results. The study was further extended to take into account the car model size effect. Three car model sizes have been investigated and compared with MIRA scale wind tunnel results. Parameters that lead to drag value closer to experiment with less memory and computational time have been identified. Scaling the optimized mesh size with the length of car model was successfully used to predict the drag of the other car sizes with reasonable accuracy. This investigation was carried out using STARCCM+ commercial software package, however the findings can be applied to any other CFD package.
Details of tetrahedral anisotropic mesh adaptation
Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjerg; Gorman, Gerard
2016-04-01
We have implemented tetrahedral anisotropic mesh adaptation using the local operations of coarsening, swapping, refinement and smoothing in MATLAB without the use of any for- N loops, i.e. the script is fully vectorised. In the process of doing so, we have made three observations related to details of the implementation: 1. restricting refinement to a single edge split per element not only simplifies the code, it also improves mesh quality, 2. face to edge swapping is unnecessary, and 3. optimising for the Vassilevski functional tends to give a little higher value for the mean condition number functional than optimising for the condition number functional directly. These observations have been made for a uniform and a radial shock metric field, both starting from a structured mesh in a cube. Finally, we compare two coarsening techniques and demonstrate the importance of applying smoothing in the mesh adaptation loop. The results pertain to a unit cube geometry, but we also show the effect of corners and edges by applying the implementation in a spherical geometry.
Drag reduction properties of superhydrophobic mesh pipes
Geraldi, Nicasio R.; Dodd, Linzi E.; Xu, Ben B.; Wells, Gary G.; Wood, David; Newton, Michael I.; McHale, Glen
2017-09-01
Even with the recent extensive study into superhydrophobic surfaces, the fabrication of such surfaces on the inside walls of a pipe remains challenging. In this work we report a convenient bi-layered pipe design using a thin superhydrophobic metallic mesh formed into a tube, supported inside another pipe. A flow system was constructed to test the fabricated bi-layer pipeline, which allowed for different constant flow rates of water to be passed through the pipe, whilst the differential pressure was measured, from which the drag coefficient (ƒ) and Reynolds numbers (Re) were calculated. Expected values of ƒ were found for smooth glass pipes for the Reynolds number (Re) range 750-10 000, in both the laminar and part of the turbulent regimes. Flow through plain meshes without the superhydrophobic coating were also measured over a similar range (750 superhydrophobic coating, ƒ was found for 4000 superhydrophobic mesh can support a plastron and provide a drag reduction compared to a plain mesh, however, the plastron is progressively destroyed with use and in particular at higher flow rates.
Performance Evaluation of Coded Meshed Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk;
2013-01-01
of the former to enhance the gains of the latter. We first motivate our work through measurements in WiFi mesh networks. Later, we compare state-of-the-art approaches, e.g., COPE, RLNC, to CORE. Our measurements show the higher reliability and throughput of CORE over other schemes, especially, for asymmetric...
Mesh Currents and Josephson Junction Arrays
1995-01-01
A simple but accurate mesh current analysis is performed on a XY model and on a SIMF model to derive the equations for a Josephson junction array. The equations obtained here turn out to be different from other equations already existing in the literature. Moreover, it is shown that the two models come from an unique hidden structure
Hydrodynamic characteristics of UASB bioreactors.
John, Siby; Tare, Vinod
2011-10-01
The hydrodynamic characteristics of UASB bioreactors operated under different organic loading and hydraulic loading rates were studied, using three laboratory scale models treating concocted sucrose wastewater. Residence time distribution (RTD) analysis using dispersion model and tanks-in-series model was directed towards the characterization of the fluid flow pattern in the reactors and correlation of the hydraulic regime with the biomass content and biogas production. Empty bed reactors followed a plug flow pattern and the flow pattern changed to a large dispersion mixing with biomass and gas production. Effect of increase in gas production on the overall hydraulics was insignificant.
Turbulence Models of Hydrodynamic Lubrication
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张直明; 王小静; 孙美丽
2003-01-01
The main theoretical turbulence models for application to hydrodynamic lubrication problems were briefly reviewed, and the course of their development and their fundamentals were explained. Predictions by these models on flow fields in turbulent Couette flows and shear-induced countercurrent flows were compared to existing measurements, and Zhang & Zhang' s combined k-ε model was shown to have surpassingly satisfactory results. The method of application of this combined k-ε model to high speed journal bearings and annular seals was summarized, and the predicted results were shown to be satisfactory by comparisons with existing experiments of journal bearings and annular seals.
Highly-anisotropic hydrodynamics for central collisions
Ryblewski, Radoslaw
2016-01-01
The framework of leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics is supplemented with realistic equation of state and self-consistent freeze-out prescription. The model is applied to central proton-nucleus collisions. The results are compared to those obtained within standard Israel-Stewart second-order viscous hydrodynamics. It is shown that the resulting hadron spectra are highly-sensitive to the hydrodynamic approach that has been used.
Oxidation and degradation of polypropylene transvaginal mesh.
Talley, Anne D; Rogers, Bridget R; Iakovlev, Vladimir; Dunn, Russell F; Guelcher, Scott A
2017-04-01
Polypropylene (PP) transvaginal mesh (TVM) repair for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) has shown promising short-term objective cure rates. However, life-altering complications have been associated with the placement of PP mesh for SUI repair. PP degradation as a result of the foreign body reaction (FBR) has been proposed as a contributing factor to mesh complications. We hypothesized that PP oxidizes under in vitro conditions simulating the FBR, resulting in degradation of the PP. Three PP mid-urethral slings from two commercial manufacturers were evaluated. Test specimens (n = 6) were incubated in oxidative medium for up to 5 weeks. Oxidation was assessed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and degradation was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). FTIR spectra of the slings revealed evidence of carbonyl and hydroxyl peaks after 5 weeks of incubation time, providing evidence of oxidation of PP. SEM images at 5 weeks showed evidence of surface degradation, including pitting and flaking. Thus, oxidation and degradation of PP pelvic mesh were evidenced by chemical and physical changes under simulated in vivo conditions. To assess changes in PP surface chemistry in vivo, fibers were recovered from PP mesh explanted from a single patient without formalin fixation, untreated (n = 5) or scraped (n = 5) to remove tissue, and analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Mechanical scraping removed adherent tissue, revealing an underlying layer of oxidized PP. These findings underscore the need for further research into the relative contribution of oxidative degradation to complications associated with PP-based TVM devices in larger cohorts of patients.
Wireless Mesh Network Routing Under Uncertain Demands
Wellons, Jonathan; Dai, Liang; Chang, Bin; Xue, Yuan
Traffic routing plays a critical role in determining the performance of a wireless mesh network. Recent research results usually fall into two ends of the spectrum. On one end are the heuristic routing algorithms, which are highly adaptive to the dynamic environments of wireless networks yet lack the analytical properties of how well the network performs globally. On the other end are the optimal routing algorithms that are derived from the optimization problem formulation of mesh network routing. They can usually claim analytical properties such as resource use optimality and throughput fairness. However, traffic demand is usually implicitly assumed as static and known a priori in these problem formulations. In contrast, recent studies of wireless network traces show that the traffic demand, even being aggregated at access points, is highly dynamic and hard to estimate. Thus, to apply the optimization-based routing solution in practice, one must take into account the dynamic and uncertain nature of wireless traffic demand. There are two basic approaches to address the traffic uncertainty in optimal mesh network routing (1) predictive routing that infers the traffic demand with maximum possibility based in its history and optimizes the routing strategy based on the predicted traffic demand and (2) oblivious routing that considers all the possible traffic demands and selects the routing strategy where the worst-case network performance could be optimized. This chapter provides an overview of the optimal routing strategies for wireless mesh networks with a focus on the above two strategies that explicitly consider the traffic uncertainty. It also identifies the key factors that affect the performance of each routing strategy and provides guidelines towards the strategy selection in mesh network routing under uncertain traffic demands.
The mesh-matching algorithm: an automatic 3D mesh generator for Finite element structures
Couteau, B; Lavallee, S; Payan, Yohan; Lavallee, St\\'{e}phane
2000-01-01
Several authors have employed Finite Element Analysis (FEA) for stress and strain analysis in orthopaedic biomechanics. Unfortunately, the use of three-dimensional models is time consuming and consequently the number of analysis to be performed is limited. The authors have investigated a new method allowing automatically 3D mesh generation for structures as complex as bone for example. This method called Mesh-Matching (M-M) algorithm generated automatically customized 3D meshes of bones from an already existing model. The M-M algorithm has been used to generate FE models of ten proximal human femora from an initial one which had been experimentally validated. The new meshes seemed to demonstrate satisfying results.
Randomized clinical trial of self-gripping mesh versus sutured mesh for Lichtenstein hernia repair
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jorgensen, L N; Sommer, T; Assaadzadeh, S;
2012-01-01
between the groups in postoperative complications (33·7 versus 40·4 per cent; P = 0·215), rate of recurrent hernia within 1 year (1·2 per cent in both groups) or quality of life. CONCLUSION: The avoidance of suture fixation using a self-gripping mesh was not accompanied by a reduction in chronic symptoms......BACKGROUND: Many patients develop discomfort after open repair of a groin hernia. It was hypothesized that suture fixation of the mesh is a cause of these symptoms. METHODS: This patient- and assessor-blinded randomized multicentre clinical trial compared a self-gripping mesh (Parietene Progrip......(®) ) and sutured mesh for open primary repair of uncomplicated inguinal hernia by the Lichtenstein technique. Patients were assessed before surgery, on the day of operation, and at 1 and 12 months after surgery. The primary endpoint was moderate or severe symptoms after 12 months, including a combination...
Moving mesh generation with a sequential approach for solving PDEs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
of physical and mesh equations suffers typically from long computation time due to highly nonlinear coupling between the two equations. Moreover, the extended system (physical and mesh equations) may be sensitive to the tuning parameters such as a temporal relaxation factor. It is therefore useful to design...... adaptive grid method (local refinement by adding/deleting the meshes at a discrete time level) as well as of efficiency for the dynamic adaptive grid method (or moving mesh method) where the number of meshes is not changed. For illustration, a phase change problem is solved with the decomposition algorithm.......In moving mesh methods, physical PDEs and a mesh equation derived from equidistribution of an error metrics (so-called the monitor function) are simultaneously solved and meshes are dynamically concentrated on steep regions (Lim et al., 2001). However, the simultaneous solution procedure...
CUBIT mesh generation environment. Volume 1: Users manual
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blacker, T.D.; Bohnhoff, W.J.; Edwards, T.L. [and others
1994-05-01
The CUBIT mesh generation environment is a two- and three-dimensional finite element mesh generation tool which is being developed to pursue the goal of robust and unattended mesh generation--effectively automating the generation of quadrilateral and hexahedral elements. It is a solid-modeler based preprocessor that meshes volume and surface solid models for finite element analysis. A combination of techniques including paving, mapping, sweeping, and various other algorithms being developed are available for discretizing the geometry into a finite element mesh. CUBIT also features boundary layer meshing specifically designed for fluid flow problems. Boundary conditions can be applied to the mesh through the geometry and appropriate files for analysis generated. CUBIT is specifically designed to reduce the time required to create all-quadrilateral and all-hexahedral meshes. This manual is designed to serve as a reference and guide to creating finite element models in the CUBIT environment.
On combining Laplacian and optimization-based mesh smoothing techniques
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Freitag, L.A.
1997-07-01
Local mesh smoothing algorithms have been shown to be effective in repairing distorted elements in automatically generated meshes. The simplest such algorithm is Laplacian smoothing, which moves grid points to the geometric center of incident vertices. Unfortunately, this method operates heuristically and can create invalid meshes or elements of worse quality than those contained in the original mesh. In contrast, optimization-based methods are designed to maximize some measure of mesh quality and are very effective at eliminating extremal angles in the mesh. These improvements come at a higher computational cost, however. In this article the author proposes three smoothing techniques that combine a smart variant of Laplacian smoothing with an optimization-based approach. Several numerical experiments are performed that compare the mesh quality and computational cost for each of the methods in two and three dimensions. The author finds that the combined approaches are very cost effective and yield high-quality meshes.
INCISIONAL HERNIA - ONLAY VS SUBLAY MESH HERNIOPLAS T Y
Ravi Kamal Kumar; Chandrakumar; Vijayalaxmi,; Thokala; Venkat Ramana
2015-01-01
BACKGROUND : Incisional hernia is a common surgical problem. Anatomical repair of hernia is now out of vogue. Polypropylene mesh repair has now become accepted. In open mesh repair of incisional hernia cases the site of placement of mesh is still debated. Some surgeo ns favour the onlay repair and others use sublay or retro - rectus plane for deployment of the mesh. AIM: The aim of the study is to examine the pros and cons of both the techniques and find the bett...
Explicit inverse distance weighting mesh motion for coupled problems
Witteveen, J.A.S.; Bijl, H.
2009-01-01
An explicit mesh motion algorithm based on inverse distance weighting interpolation is presented. The explicit formulation leads to a fast mesh motion algorithm and an easy implementation. In addition, the proposed point-by-point method is robust and flexible in case of large deformations, hanging nodes, and parallelization. Mesh quality results and CPU time comparisons are presented for triangular and hexahedral unstructured meshes in an airfoil flutter fluid-structure interaction problem.
Some open questions in hydrodynamics
Dyndal, Mateusz
2014-01-01
When speaking of unsolved problems in physics, this is surprising at first glance to discuss the case of fluid mechanics. However, there are many deep open questions that come with the theory of fluid mechanics. In this paper, we discuss some of them that we classify in two categories, the long term behavior of solutions of equations of hydrodynamics and the definition of initial (boundary) conditions. The first set of questions come with the non-relativistic theory based on the Navier-Stokes equations. Starting from smooth initial conditions, the purpose is to understand if solutions of Navier-Stokes equations remain smooth with the time evolution. Existence for just a finite time would imply the evolution of finite time singularities, which would have a major influence on the development of turbulent phenomena. The second set of questions come with the relativistic theory of hydrodynamics. There is an accumulating evidence that this theory may be relevant for the description of the medium created in high en...
On Reducing Delay in Mesh-Based P2P Streaming: A Mesh-Push Approach
Liu, Zheng; Xue, Kaiping; Hong, Peilin
The peer-assisted streaming paradigm has been widely employed to distribute live video data on the internet recently. In general, the mesh-based pull approach is more robust and efficient than the tree-based push approach. However, pull protocol brings about longer streaming delay, which is caused by the handshaking process of advertising buffer map message, sending request message and scheduling of the data block. In this paper, we propose a new approach, mesh-push, to address this issue. Different from the traditional pull approach, mesh-push implements block scheduling algorithm at sender side, where the block transmission is initiated by the sender rather than by the receiver. We first formulate the optimal upload bandwidth utilization problem, then present the mesh-push approach, in which a token protocol is designed to avoid block redundancy; a min-cost flow model is employed to derive the optimal scheduling for the push peer; and a push peer selection algorithm is introduced to reduce control overhead. Finally, we evaluate mesh-push through simulation, the results of which show mesh-push outperforms the pull scheduling in streaming delay, and achieves comparable delivery ratio at the same time.
A testing preocedure for the evaluation of directional mesh bias
Slobbe, A.T.; Hendriks, M.A.N.; Rots, J.G.
2013-01-01
This paper presents a dedicated numerical test that enables to assess the directional mesh bias of constitutive models in a systematic way. The test makes use of periodic boundary conditions, by which strain localization can be analyzed for different mesh alignments with preservation of mesh uniform
Multiphase flow of immiscible fluids on unstructured moving meshes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Erleben, Kenny; Bargteil, Adam
2012-01-01
In this paper, we present a method for animating multiphase flow of immiscible fluids using unstructured moving meshes. Our underlying discretization is an unstructured tetrahedral mesh, the deformable simplicial complex (DSC), that moves with the flow in a Lagrangian manner. Mesh optimization op...
21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. (a) Identification. A pacemaker polymeric mesh bag is an implanted device used to hold a...
To mesh or not to mesh: a review of pelvic organ reconstructive surgery
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dällenbach P
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Patrick Dällenbach Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Division of Gynecology, Urogynecology Unit, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland Abstract: Pelvic organ prolapse (POP is a major health issue with a lifetime risk of undergoing at least one surgical intervention estimated at close to 10%. In the 1990s, the risk of reoperation after primary standard vaginal procedure was estimated to be as high as 30% to 50%. In order to reduce the risk of relapse, gynecological surgeons started to use mesh implants in pelvic organ reconstructive surgery with the emergence of new complications. Recent studies have nevertheless shown that the risk of POP recurrence requiring reoperation is lower than previously estimated, being closer to 10% rather than 30%. The development of mesh surgery – actively promoted by the marketing industry – was tremendous during the past decade, and preceded any studies supporting its benefit for our patients. Randomized trials comparing the use of mesh to native tissue repair in POP surgery have now shown better anatomical but similar functional outcomes, and meshes are associated with more complications, in particular for transvaginal mesh implants. POP is not a life-threatening condition, but a functional problem that impairs quality of life for women. The old adage “primum non nocere” is particularly appropriate when dealing with this condition which requires no treatment when asymptomatic. It is currently admitted that a certain degree of POP is physiological with aging when situated above the landmark of the hymen. Treatment should be individualized and the use of mesh needs to be selective and appropriate. Mesh implants are probably an important tool in pelvic reconstructive surgery, but the ideal implant has yet to be found. The indications for its use still require caution and discernment. This review explores the reasons behind the introduction of mesh augmentation in POP surgery, and aims to
Aleš Erjavec (ur.: Aesthetic Revolutions and Twentieth Century Avant-Garde Movements
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Lev Kreft
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Knjiga Estetske revolucije in avantgardna gibanja dvajsetega stoletja je nastala pod uredniškim vodstvom Aleša Erjavca kot skupni projekt skupine specialistov, od katerih se je vsak posvetil enemu od izbranih avantgardnih gibanj – Sascha Bru (italijanski futurizem, John E. Bowlt (ruski konstruktivizem, Raymond Spiteri (nadrealizem; situacionizem, David Craven (mehiški muralizem, Tyrus Miller (neoavantgarda v Združenih državah Amerike in Miško Šuvaković (NSK. Vsaka od teh študij ima lastno interpretativno vrednost, obenem pa se vključuje v nov poskus uokvirjenja avantgardnih gibanj v pristop, ki ima sodobno teoretsko moč. Ta pristop in skupni okvir je razvil Aleš Erjavec v »Uvodu« in »Zaključku: Avantgarde, revolucije in estetika«. Potreba po novem pogledu na splošno izhaja iz empiričnega dejstva, da so avantgarde dvajsetega stoletja zdaj že zaključena zgodba ter da se s sodobnostjo in sodobno umetnostjo enaindvajsetega stoletja že kaže potreba po celovitejši in smiselni analizi celote tega za dvajseto stoletje značilnega pojava – tudi zaradi vprašanja, ali so avantgardna gibanja mogoča še naprej. Vendar je v izzivu, ki je potreboval tako ekipno raziskovanje, tudi povsem teoretski element. Če navedemo le tri najvidnejše teoretike avantgarde – Poggiolija, Bürgerja in Flakerja –, je Renato Poggioli sicer ponudil teorijo avantgarde, ki bi bila trajni pojav, vendar se je dejansko posvetil tistim iz prvega vala (1909–1930; Peter Bürger je temu istemu valu dal ime »historična avantgarda«, ker je bil prepričan, da je pripadala preteklosti in je neoavantgarda ne more nadaljevati; in le Aleksandar Flaker se je ukvarjal z vsemi tremi valovi avantgardnih gibanj (historična avantgarda, neoavantgarda, retrogarda – postsocialistična avantgarda in prispeval tudi pomembno razlikovanje med optimalno projekcijo (razvito iz pobude Jurija Lotmana, ki je značilna za umetniške avantgarde, za razliko od politi
PARADIGME ALE CUNOAŞTERII ISTORICE ŞI INTERPRETAREA ISTORIEI ÎN CONTEMPORANEITATE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dumitru DODUL
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Interpretarea istoriei în cadrul teoriilor clasice şi contemporane serveşte ca bază teoretică pentru a determina: problema de sensul istoriei; modelele de interpretare a procesului istoric; modelele de cunoştinţe istorice şi specificul obiectului de cunoştinţe istorice. Filosofia istoriei, care în epoca modernă a fost determinată de gândul istoric, este schimbată în contemporaneitate într-o orientare anistorică care se ocupă mai ales cu problema de interpretare şi comunicare, renunţarea la cultul raţiunii şi ideea progresului istoric şi susţinând, împreună cu hermeneutica, ideea de lipsă de obiectivitate a cunoaşterii istorice. Filosofia anistorică începe cu exponenţi ai filosofiei de viaţă, ai hermeneuticii filosofice şi se termină cu filosofia postmodernă. În acelaşi timp, rezultatele cercetărilor efectuate până în prezent nu oferă o imagine adecvată asupra particularităţilor de istorie şi filosofie a istoriei. Astfel, dezbaterile ştiinţifice au avut loc la cel mai înalt nivel de forumuri naţionale şi internaţionale organizate în conformitate cu provocările de la începutul secolului XXI, ale noii paradigme, care ar determina relaţia fundamentală dintre istorie şi om, dintre dezvoltarea realităţii istorice şi conştiinţa istorică. PARADIGMS THE HISTORICAL KNOWLEDGE AND INTERPRETATION OF HISTORY IN CONTEMPORARY AGEThe interpretation of history within the classical and contemporary theories serves as theoretical base to determine: the problem of the meaning of history; the models of interpretation of the historical process; the models of historical knowledge and the specific of the object of historical knowledge. The Philosophy of History, which in the Modern Age has been determined by the historicist thought, is changed in the contemporaneity into an ahistorical orientation dealing mostly with the problem of interpretation and communication, giving up the cult of reason and
Relativistic Hydrodynamics for Heavy-Ion Collisions
Ollitrault, Jean-Yves
2008-01-01
Relativistic hydrodynamics is essential to our current understanding of nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultrarelativistic energies (current experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, forthcoming experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider). This is an introduction to relativistic hydrodynamics for graduate students. It includes a detailed…
Hydrodynamic models of a Cepheid atmosphere
Karp, A. H.
1975-01-01
Instead of computing a large number of coarsely zoned hydrodynamic models covering the entire atmospheric instability strip, the author computed a single model as well as computer limitations allow. The implicit hydrodynamic code of Kutter and Sparks was modified to include radiative transfer effects in optically thin zones.
Hydrodynamic correlation functions in nematic liquid crystals
Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.; Carle, D.; Laidlaw, W.G.
1976-01-01
The result, recently discovered by Forster, that the strength factors of the nonpropagating modes in certain hydrodynamic correlation functions in nematic liquid crystals are not fully determined by the hydrodynamic matrix is reconsidered. Using time reversal and space inversion symmetry one finds t
Hydrodynamic Overview at Hot Quarks 2016
Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn
2016-01-01
This presents an overview of relativistic hydrodynamic modeling in heavy-ion collisions prepared for Hot Quarks 2016, at South Padre Island, TX, USA. The influence of the initial state and viscosity on various experimental observables are discussed. Specific problems that arise in the hydrodynamical modeling at the Beam Energy Scan are briefly discussed.
Measurement of the hydrodynamic resistance of microdroplets.
Jakiela, Slawomir
2016-10-07
Here, we demonstrate a novel method of measurement which determines precisely the hydrodynamic resistance of a droplet flowing through a channel. The obtained results show that the hydrodynamic resistance of a droplet in a microchannel achieves its maximum for lengths of the droplet ranging from 3w to 4w and that interactions between beads in a train exist.
Hydrodynamic correlation functions in nematic liquid crystals
Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.; Carle, D.; Laidlaw, W.G.
1976-01-01
The result, recently discovered by Forster, that the strength factors of the nonpropagating modes in certain hydrodynamic correlation functions in nematic liquid crystals are not fully determined by the hydrodynamic matrix is reconsidered. Using time reversal and space inversion symmetry one finds t
Identifying neural correlates of visual consciousness with ALE meta-analyses.
Bisenius, Sandrine; Trapp, Sabrina; Neumann, Jane; Schroeter, Matthias L
2015-11-15
Neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) have been a topic of study for nearly two decades. In functional imaging studies, several regions have been proposed to constitute possible candidates for NCC, but as of yet, no quantitative summary of the literature on NCC has been done. The question whether single (striate or extrastriate) regions or a network consisting of extrastriate areas that project directly to fronto-parietal regions are necessary and sufficient neural correlates for visual consciousness is still highly debated [e.g., Rees et al., 2002, Nat Rev. Neurosci 3, 261-270; Tong, 2003, Nat Rev. Neurosci 4, 219-229]. The aim of this work was to elucidate this issue and give a synopsis of the present state of the art by conducting systematic and quantitative meta-analyses across functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies using several standard paradigms for conscious visual perception. In these paradigms, consciousness is operationalized via perceptual changes, while the visual stimulus remains invariant. An activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis was performed, representing the best approach for voxel-wise meta-analyses to date. In addition to computing a meta-analysis across all paradigms, separate meta-analyses on bistable perception and masking paradigms were conducted to assess whether these paradigms show common or different NCC. For the overall meta-analysis, we found significant clusters of activation in inferior and middle occipital gyrus; fusiform gyrus; inferior temporal gyrus; caudate nucleus; insula; inferior, middle, and superior frontal gyri; precuneus; as well as in inferior and superior parietal lobules. These results suggest a subcortical-extrastriate-fronto-parietal network rather than a single region that constitutes the necessary NCC. The results of our exploratory paradigm-specific meta-analyses suggest that this subcortical-extrastriate-fronto-parietal network might be differentially activated as a function of the
Aliyazicioglu, Tolga; Yalti, Tunc; Kabaoglu, Burcak
2017-08-01
Approximately one fifth of patients suffer from inguinal pain after laparoscopic total extraperitoneal (TEP) inguinal hernia repair. There is existing literature suggesting that the staples used to fix the mesh can cause postoperative inguinal pain. In this study, we describe our experience with laparoscopic TEP inguinal hernia surgery using 3-dimensional mesh without mesh fixation, in our institution. A total of 300 patients who had undergone laparoscopic TEP inguinal hernia repair with 3-dimensional mesh in VKV American Hospital, Istanbul from November 2006 to November 2015 were studied retrospectively. Using the hospital's electronic archive, we studied patients' selected parameters, which are demographic features (age, sex), body mass index, hernia locations and types, duration of operations, preoperative and postoperative complications, duration of hospital stays, cost of surgery, need for analgesics, time elapsed until returning to daily activities and work. A total of 300 patients underwent laparoscopic TEP hernia repair of 437 inguinal hernias from November 2006 to November 2015. Of the 185 patients, 140 were symptomatic. Mean duration of follow-up was 48 months (range, 6 to 104 mo). The mean duration of surgery was 55 minutes for bilateral hernia repair, and 38 minutes for unilateral hernia repair. The mean duration of hospital stay was 0.9 day. There was no conversion to open surgery. In none of the cases the mesh was fixated with either staples or fibrin glue. Six patients (2%) developed seroma that were treated conservatively. One patient had inguinal hernia recurrence. One patient had preperitoneal hematoma. One patient operated due to indirect right-sided hernia developed right-sided hydrocele. One patient had wound dehiscence at the umbilical port entry site. Chronic pain developed postoperatively in 1 patient. Ileus developed in 1 patient. Laparoscopic TEP inguinal repair with 3-dimensional mesh without mesh fixation can be performed as safe as
Meshed split skin graft for extensive vitiligo
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Srinivas C
2004-05-01
Full Text Available A 30 year old female presented with generalized stable vitiligo involving large areas of the body. Since large areas were to be treated it was decided to do meshed split skin graft. A phototoxic blister over recipient site was induced by applying 8 MOP solution followed by exposure to UVA. The split skin graft was harvested from donor area by Padgett dermatome which was meshed by an ampligreffe to increase the size of the graft by 4 times. Significant pigmentation of the depigmented skin was seen after 5 months. This procedure helps to cover large recipient areas, when pigmented donor skin is limited with minimal risk of scarring. Phototoxic blister enables easy separation of epidermis thus saving time required for dermabrasion from recipient site.