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Sample records for mesa-oasis valley phase

  1. Predicted Geology of the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley Phase II Drilling Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley (PM-OV) Phase II drilling will occur within an area that encompasses approximately 117 square kilometers (45 square miles) near the center of the Phase I PM-OV hydrostratigraphic framework model area. The majority of the investigation area lies within dissected volcanic terrain between Pahute Mesa on the north and Timber Mountain on the south. This area consists of a complex distribution of volcanic tuff and lava of generally rhyolitic composition erupted from nearby calderas and related vents. Several large buried volcanic structural features control the distribution of volcanic units in the investigation area. The Area 20 caldera, including its structural margin and associated caldera collapse collar, underlies the northeastern portion of the investigation area. The southern half of the investigation area lies within the northwestern portion of the Timber Mountain caldera complex, including portions of the caldera moat and resurgent dome. Another significant structural feature in the area is the west-northwest-trending Northern Timber Mountain moat structural zone, which bisects the northern portion of the investigation area and forms a structural bench. The proposed wells of the UGTA Phase II drilling initiative can be grouped into four generalized volcanic structural domains based on the stratigraphic distribution and structural position of the volcanic rocks in the upper 1,000 meters (3,300 feet) of the crust, a depth that represents the approximate planned total depths of the proposed wells

  2. Analysis of Well ER-EC-2a Testing, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-2a during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-2a Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  3. Analysis of well ER-18-2 testing, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley FY 2000 testing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-18-2 during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-18-2 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  4. Analysis of Well ER-EC-7 Testing, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-7 during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program was documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-7 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  5. Analysis of Well ER-EC-8 testing, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley FY 2000 testing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-8 during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-8 Data Report for development and Hydraulic Testing.

  6. Analysis of Well ER-EC-4 Testing, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-4 during the Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-4 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  7. Analysis of Well ER-EC-5 Testing, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-5 during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-5 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  8. Analysis of Well ER-EC-6 Testing, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-6 during the Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-6 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  9. Analysis of Well ER-EC-1 Testing, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-1 during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-1 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  10. Geochemical and Isotopic Interpretations of Groundwater Flow in the Oasis Valley Flow System, Southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Benedict, F.C. Jr.; Rose, T.P.; Hershey, R.L.; Paces, J.B.; Peterman, Z.E.; Farnham, I.M.; Johannesson, K.H.; Singh, A.K.; Stetzenbach, K.J.; Hudson, G.B.; Kenneally, J.M.; Eaton, G.F.; Smith, D.K.

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a geochemical investigation of the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley groundwater flow system in southwestern Nevada. It is intended to provide geochemical data and interpretations in support of flow and contaminant transport modeling for the Western and Central Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Units

  11. Valley Topological Phases in Bilayer Sonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiuyang; Qiu, Chunyin; Deng, Weiyin; Huang, Xueqin; Li, Feng; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Shuqi; Liu, Zhengyou

    2018-03-01

    Recently, the topological physics in artificial crystals for classical waves has become an emerging research area. In this Letter, we propose a unique bilayer design of sonic crystals that are constructed by two layers of coupled hexagonal array of triangular scatterers. Assisted by the additional layer degree of freedom, a rich topological phase diagram is achieved by simply rotating scatterers in both layers. Under a unified theoretical framework, two kinds of valley-projected topological acoustic insulators are distinguished analytically, i.e., the layer-mixed and layer-polarized topological valley Hall phases, respectively. The theory is evidently confirmed by our numerical and experimental observations of the nontrivial edge states that propagate along the interfaces separating different topological phases. Various applications such as sound communications in integrated devices can be anticipated by the intriguing acoustic edge states enriched by the layer information.

  12. Valley polarized quantum Hall effect and topological insulator phase transitions in silicene

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    encountered for graphene, in particular the zero band gap and weak spin orbit interaction. We demonstrate a valley polarized quantum Hall effect and topological insulator phase transitions. We use the Kubo formalism to discuss the Hall conductivity and address

  13. Durability testing with West Valley borosilicate glass composition- Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, P.B.; Finger, S.M.; Barkatt, A.A.; Pegg, I.L.; Feng, X.; Freeborn, W.P.

    1988-06-01

    This report presents the research performed by the Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) during FY 1987 in support of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) nuclear waste vitrification process. A principal objective of this work is the optimization of the glass composition be used for the vitrification of the liquid high-level waste generated at West Valley during nuclear fuel reprocessing. This report discusses (1) the experimental investigations to optimize the reference glass composition (the current leading candidates are WVCM-50 and ATM-10) for the WVDP vitrification process; (2) the systematic experimental investigation performed to determine the effects of compositional variations in WVCM-50 and WV-205 reference glasses on their viscosity and durability (including initial results of long-term leach tests of WVCM-50 under repository conditions); (3) the development of short-time and predictive leach tests; (4) the development of a process model for the West Valley vitrification process which predicts the range of glass compositions which may be encountered during normal operations and the effects of deviations in process control parameters; and (5) the development of product models for predicting the durability and viscosity of nuclear waste glasses

  14. Quantum spin/valley Hall effect and topological insulator phase transitions in silicene

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.

    2013-04-26

    We present a theoretical realization of quantum spin and quantum valley Hall effects in silicene. We show that combination of an electric field and intrinsic spin-orbit interaction leads to quantum phase transitions at the charge neutrality point. This phase transition from a two dimensional topological insulator to a trivial insulating state is accompanied by a quenching of the quantum spin Hall effect and the onset of a quantum valley Hall effect, providing a tool to experimentally tune the topological state of silicene. In contrast to graphene and other conventional topological insulators, the proposed effects in silicene are accessible to experiments.

  15. Quantum spin/valley Hall effect and topological insulator phase transitions in silicene

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.; Manchon, Aurelien; Sabeeh, K.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    We present a theoretical realization of quantum spin and quantum valley Hall effects in silicene. We show that combination of an electric field and intrinsic spin-orbit interaction leads to quantum phase transitions at the charge neutrality point. This phase transition from a two dimensional topological insulator to a trivial insulating state is accompanied by a quenching of the quantum spin Hall effect and the onset of a quantum valley Hall effect, providing a tool to experimentally tune the topological state of silicene. In contrast to graphene and other conventional topological insulators, the proposed effects in silicene are accessible to experiments.

  16. Large magnetoresistance dips and perfect spin-valley filter induced by topological phase transitions in silicene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prarokijjak, Worasak; Soodchomshom, Bumned

    2018-04-01

    Spin-valley transport and magnetoresistance are investigated in silicene-based N/TB/N/TB/N junction where N and TB are normal silicene and topological barriers. The topological phase transitions in TB's are controlled by electric, exchange fields and circularly polarized light. As a result, we find that by applying electric and exchange fields, four groups of spin-valley currents are perfectly filtered, directly induced by topological phase transitions. Control of currents, carried by single, double and triple channels of spin-valley electrons in silicene junction, may be achievable by adjusting magnitudes of electric, exchange fields and circularly polarized light. We may identify that the key factor behind the spin-valley current filtered at the transition points may be due to zero and non-zero Chern numbers. Electrons that are allowed to transport at the transition points must obey zero-Chern number which is equivalent to zero mass and zero-Berry's curvature, while electrons with non-zero Chern number are perfectly suppressed. Very large magnetoresistance dips are found directly induced by topological phase transition points. Our study also discusses the effect of spin-valley dependent Hall conductivity at the transition points on ballistic transport and reveals the potential of silicene as a topological material for spin-valleytronics.

  17. Valley polarized quantum Hall effect and topological insulator phase transitions in silicene

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.

    2013-01-25

    The electronic properties of silicene are distinct from both the conventional two dimensional electron gas and the famous graphene due to strong spin orbit interaction and the buckled structure. Silicene has the potential to overcome limitations encountered for graphene, in particular the zero band gap and weak spin orbit interaction. We demonstrate a valley polarized quantum Hall effect and topological insulator phase transitions. We use the Kubo formalism to discuss the Hall conductivity and address the longitudinal conductivity for elastic impurity scattering in the first Born approximation. We show that the combination of an electric field with intrinsic spin orbit interaction leads to quantum phase transitions at the charge neutrality point, providing a tool to experimentally tune the topological state. Silicene constitutes a model system for exploring the spin and valley physics not accessible in graphene due to the small spin orbit interaction.

  18. Phase II, Title I engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Monument Valley site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    An engineering assessment was made of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the Monument Valley millsite in Arizona. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals residing nearby, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the tailings on the site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The sparse population and relatively low radiation levels yield minimal immediate environmental impact; hence, the two alternative actions presented are directed towards restricting access to the site and returning the windblown tailings to the pile and stabilizing the pile. Both options include remedial action costs for offsite locations where tailings have been placed. Cost estimates for the two options are $585,000 and $1,165,000

  19. Phase III Drilling Operations at the Long Valley Exploratory Well (LVF 51-20)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.

    1999-06-01

    During July-September, 1998, a jointly funded drilling operation deepened the Long Valley Exploratory Well from 7178 feet to 9832 feet. This was the third major drilling phase of a project that began in 1989, but had sporadic progress because of discontinuities in tiding. Support for Phase III came from the California Energy Commission (CEC), the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP), the US Geological Survey (USGS), and DOE. Each of these agencies had a somewhat different agenda: the CEC wants to evaluate the energy potential (specifically energy extraction from magma) of Long Valley Caldera; the ICDP is studying the evolution and other characteristics of young, silicic calderas; the USGS will use this hole as an observatory in their Volcano Hazards program; and the DOE, through Sandia, has an opportunity to test new geothermal tools and techniques in a realistic field environment. This report gives a description of the equipment used in drilling and testing; a narrative of the drilling operations; compiled daily drilling reports; cost information on the project; and a brief summary of engineering results related to equipment performance and energy potential. Detailed description of the scientific results will appear in publications by the USGS and other researchers.

  20. Phase 1 Characterization sampling and analysis plan West Valley demonstration project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R. L. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-06-30

    The Phase 1 Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan (CSAP) provides details about environmental data collection that will be taking place to support Phase 1 decommissioning activities described in the Phase 1 Decommissioning Plan for the West Valley Demonstration Project, Revision 2 (Phase I DP; DOE 2009). The four primary purposes of CSAP data collection are: (1) pre-design data collection, (2) remedial support, (3) post-remediation status documentation, and (4) Phase 2 decision-making support. Data collection to support these four main objectives is organized into two distinct data collection efforts. The first is data collection that will take place prior to the initiation of significant Phase 1 decommissioning activities (e.g., the Waste Management Area [WMA] 1 and WMA 2 excavations). The second is data collection that will occur during and immediately after environmental remediation in support of remediation activities. Both data collection efforts have a set of well-defined objectives that encompass the data needs of the four main CSAP data collection purposes detailed in the CSAP. The main body of the CSAP describes the overall data collection strategies that will be used to satisfy data collection objectives. The details of pre-remediation data collection are organized by WMA. The CSAP contains an appendix for each WMA that describes the details of WMA-specific pre-remediation data collection activities. The CSAP is intended to expand upon the data collection requirements identified in the Phase 1 Decommissioning Plan. The CSAP is intended to tightly integrate with the Phase 1 Final Status Survey Plan (FSSP). Data collection described by the CSAP is consistent with the FSSP where appropriate and to the extent possible.

  1. Completion Report for Well ER-20-4 Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-04-30

    Well ER-20-4 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in August and September 2010 as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of the well was to investigate the possibility of radionuclide transport from up-gradient underground nuclear tests conducted in central Pahute Mesa. This well also provided detailed hydrogeologic information in the Tertiary volcanic section that will help reduce uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model.

  2. X-Ray Amorphous Phases in Antarctica Dry Valley Soils: Insight into Aqueous Alteration Processes on Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Rampe, E. B.; Golden, D. C.; Quinn, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    The Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) instrument onboard the Mars Curiosity rover has detected abundant amounts (approx. 25-30 weight percentage) of X-ray amorphous materials in a windblown deposit (Rocknest) and in a sedimentary mudstone (Cumberland and John Klein) in Gale crater, Mars. On Earth, X-ray amorphous components are common in soils and sediments, but usually not as abundant as detected in Gale crater. One hypothesis for the abundant X-ray amorphous materials on Mars is limited interaction of liquid water with surface materials, kinetically inhibiting maturation to more crystalline phases. The objective of this study was to characterize the chemistry and mineralogy of soils formed in the Antarctica Dry Valleys, one of the driest locations on Earth. Two soils were characterized from different elevations, including a low elevation, coastal, subxerous soil in Taylor Valley and a high elevation, ultraxerous soil in University Valley. A variety of techniques were used to characterize materials from each soil horizon, including Rietveld analysis of X-ray diffraction data. For Taylor Valley soil, the X-ray amorphous component ranged from about 4 weight percentage in the upper horizon to as high as 15 weight percentage in the lowest horizon just above the permafrost layer. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that the presence of short-range ordered (SRO) smectite was the most likely candidate for the X-ray amorphous materials in the Taylor Valley soils. The SRO smectite is likely an aqueous alteration product of mica inherited from granitic materials during glaciation of Taylor Valley. The drier University Valley soils had lower X-ray amorphous contents of about 5 weight percentage in the lowest horizon. The X-ray amorphous materials in University Valley are attributed to nanoparticles of TiO2 and possibly amorphous SiO2. The high abundance of X-ray amorphous materials in Taylor Valley is surprising for one of the driest places on Earth. These materials

  3. Geology and sinkhole development of the Hagerstown valley : phase II : [research summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to map the western half of the Hagerstown Valley to : determine the distribution of karst features relative to bedrock geologic units using a : global positioning system (GPS).

  4. Geology and sinkhole development of the Hagerstown Valley : phase II summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    As a part of this study, karst areas of the Hagerstown, Mason Dixon, Williamsport, Clear Spring, and Hedgesville : quadrangles (western half of the Hagerstown Valley) were mapped in detail to determine the distribution of karst : features relative to...

  5. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Monument Valley site, Monument Valley, Arizona. A summary of the Phase II, Title I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the Monument Valley millsite in Arizona. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals residing nearby, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the tailings on the site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The sparse population and relatively low radiation levels yield minimal immediate environmental impact; hence, the two alternative actions presented are directed towards restricting access to the site (Options I and II), and returning the windblown tailings to the pile and stabilizing the pile with 2 ft of cover material (Option II). Both options include remedial action costs for offsite locations where tailings have been placed. Cost estimates for the two options are $585,000 and $1,165,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium is not economically feasible

  6. Phase I Inspection Report. National Dam Safety Program. Round Valley South Dam, Hunterdon County, New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    defined by the Recommended Guidelines for Safety Inspection of Dams. .M • wwM •^^^nmifgnmmmm’m •PH J.I.I MPU C. Hazard Classification - The...Conservation and Economic Development, August 1958. 3) Contract RV-1, State of New Jersey Department of Conservation and Economic Development...FIGURE 4 iymmmmr STATE OF NEW JERSEY DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION AND ECONOMIC DEVFl OtVNKM OF WATNt FOUCY «MO mm 1 ROUND VALLEY RESERVOIR

  7. Factors controlling sedimentation in the Toruń-Eberswalde ice-marginal valley during the Pomeranian phase of the Weichselian glaciation: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisarska-Jamroży Małgorzata

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the Pleistocene the Scandinavian ice sheet drained huge quantities of sediment-laden meltwaters. These meltwaters supplied ice-marginal valleys that formed parallel to the front of the ice sheet. Not without significance was the supply of ice-marginal valleys from extraglacial rivers in the south. Moreover, periglacial conditions during and after sedimentation in ice-marginal valleys, the morphology of valley bedrocks, and erosion of older sediments played important roles in the depositional scenarios, and in the mineralogical composition of the sediments. The mechanisms that controlled the supply and deposition in ice-marginal valleys were analysed on the basis of a Pleistocene ice-marginal valley that was supplied by northern and southern source areas in the immediate vicinity. Investigations were conducted in one of the largest ice-marginal valleys of the Polish-German lowlands, i.e., the Toruń-Eberswalde ice-marginal valley, in sandurs (Drawa and Gwda supplied sediments and waters from the north into this valley, and on extraglacial river terraces (pre-Noteć and pre-Warta rivers, formed simultaneously with the sandurs and ice-marginal valley (Pomeranian phase of Weichselian glaciation supplied sediments and waters from the south into this valley. A much debated question is how similar, or different, depositional processes and sediments were that contributed to the formation of the Toruń-Eberswalde ice-marginal valley, and whether or not it is possible to differentiate mostly rapidly aggraded sandur sediments from ice-marginal valley sediments. Another question addresses the contribution of extraglacial feeding of the Toruń-Eberswalde ice-marginal valley. These matters were addressed by a wide range of analyses: sediment texture and structure, architectural elements of sediments, frequency of sedimentary successions, heavy-mineral analysis (both transparent and opaque heavy minerals, analysis of rounding and frosting of quartz

  8. Evaluation of sinkhole occurrence in the Valley and Ridge Province, East Tennessee: Phase 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, J.G.; Tanner, J.M.

    1987-11-01

    Data from a reconnaissance-type inventory of sinkhole occurrence and from more detailed inventories in selected areas were used to determine regional density and frequency of sinkhole occurrence in the Valley and Ridge Province, Tennessee. The overall database consisted of 333 sinkholes of which 211, or 63 percent of the total, were classified as induced. Almost all induced sinkholes resulted from construction activities, such as grading, ditching, and impoundment of water. Extrapolation of data to provide estimates of regional sinkhole density necessitated adjustment of the reconnaissance inventory. Adjustment factors were calculated by comparing reconnaissance inventories from selected areas with those obtained from detailed inventories in the same areas. The number of sinkholes in the detailed inventories was 5 and 8.5 times greater than the number in the reconnaissance inventories

  9. Regional inventory of karst activity in the Valley and Ridge Province, eastern Tennessee: Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, J.G.; Tanner, J.M.

    1987-09-01

    A data collection form was developed for use in compiling information in the inventory. Information sources included files on subsidence, state and county highway departments, county agents and executives, soil conservation service representative, etc. Data obtained included location, date of occurrence, number of subsidence features at the reported site, size, topographic setting, geologic setting, and probable causative factors. The regional inventory obtained information on over 300 historic subsidence events at more than 200 sites in East Tennessee. Areas having the greatest areal density of active subsidence include Hamblen, Jefferson, and Loudon Counties. Reported subsidence events occurred between 1945 and 1986. The Knox Group dolomites account for about two-thirds of all reported sinkholes in the inventory. Most of the karst activity occurs in valleys or flat areas. In cases where causative factors could be established, the combination of surface water drainage alteration or impoundment combined with soil disturbance associated with construction activity were most often precursors to subsidence. 54 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Structural evolution of the virgin spring phase of the amargosa chaos, Death Valley, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Samuel Robert

    The Amargosa Chaos and Fault of Death Valley are complex features that play important roles in various tectonic models. Some recent models claim the fault is a regional detachment accommodating 80 km of NW-directed transport that produced the Chaos in its hangingwall. I offer an alternative interpretation: the chaos is a product of multiphase deformation that likely spanned the late Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The Amargosa Fault represents just one of six deformation events. The accompanying map (supplemental file) shows the cross-cutting relationships among fault populations: (D1) 25% north-northwest directed shortening across an imbricate thrust and tight fold system; (D2) E-SE extension on five normal faults; (D3) extension-related folding, which folded the D2 faults; (D4) normal-oblique slip on the Amargosa Fault; (D5) E-W extension on domino faults; (D6) extension on the Black Mountains Frontal Fault. The D2 faults, not the Amargosa, created the enigmatic attenuation observed in the Chaos.

  11. Phase 1 report on the Bear Creek Valley treatability study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    Bear Creek Valley (BCV) is located within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation and encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes associated with past operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The BCV Remedial Investigation determined that disposal of wastes at the S-3 Site, Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG) has caused contamination of both deep and shallow groundwater. The primary contaminants include uranium, nitrate, and VOCs, although other metals such as aluminum, magnesium, and cadmium persist. The BCV feasibility study will describe several remedial options for this area, including both in situ and ex situ treatment of groundwater. This Treatability Study Phase 1 Report describes the results of preliminary screening of treatment technologies that may be applied within BCV. Four activities were undertaken in Phase 1: field characterization, laboratory screening of potential sorbents, laboratory testing of zero valent iron products, and field screening of three biological treatment systems. Each of these activities is described fully in technical memos attached in Appendices A through G

  12. Beaver Valley Unit 1, United States of America, 2007. Annex III. Description of Selected Open Phase Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    On 27 Nov. 2007, during a non-routine walkdown of the off-site switchyard to investigate line voltage differences, the licensee discovered that the Phase A conductor of a 138 kV off-site power circuit of the Beaver Valley Power Station Unit 1 had broken off in the switchyard. This break occurred between the off-site feeder breaker and the line running on-site to the A train system station service transformer, located inside the site security fence. The terminal broke on the switchyard side of a revenue-metering current transformer/voltage transformer installed in 2006 to track the station’s power usage through this line. During normal power operation, no appreciable current goes through this 138 kV line because the unit generator normally powers the station buses (loads). The licensee determined that the break on the 138 kV Phase A had occurred 26 days earlier and, therefore, had not been restored within 72 h as required by technical specifications.

  13. Phase 1 report on the Bear Creek Valley treatability study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    Bear Creek Valley (BCV) is located within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation and encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes associated with past operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The BCV Remedial Investigation determined that disposal of wastes at the S-3 Site, Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG) has caused contamination of both deep and shallow groundwater. The primary contaminants include uranium, nitrate, and VOCs, although other metals such as aluminum, magnesium, and cadmium persist. The BCV feasibility study will describe several remedial options for this area, including both in situ and ex situ treatment of groundwater. This Treatability Study Phase 1 Report describes the results of preliminary screening of treatment technologies that may be applied within BCV. Four activities were undertaken in Phase 1: field characterization, laboratory screening of potential sorbents, laboratory testing of zero valent iron products, and field screening of three biological treatment systems. Each of these activities is described fully in technical memos attached in Appendices A through G.

  14. From the Mountains to the Valleys: Theorizing Gender in Sport through McIntosh's Interactive Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, David L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper uses Peggy McIntosh's (1983) interactive phase typology as a descriptive model within which to characterize contemporary sport with respect to certain gender issues, accepting gender as dynamically and culturally constituted. The paper discusses possibilities for transforming sport by enhancing the appreciation of sport and enriching…

  15. Reverse-phase phosphoproteome analysis of signaling pathways induced by Rift valley fever virus in human small airway epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taissia G Popova

    Full Text Available Rift valley fever virus (RVFV infection is an emerging zoonotic disease endemic in many countries of sub-Saharan Africa and in Egypt. In this study we show that human small airway epithelial cells are highly susceptible to RVFV virulent strain ZH-501 and the attenuated strain MP-12. We used the reverse-phase protein arrays technology to identify phosphoprotein signaling pathways modulated during infection of cultured airway epithelium. ZH-501 infection induced activation of MAP kinases (p38, JNK and ERK and downstream transcriptional factors [STAT1 (Y701, ATF2 (T69/71, MSK1 (S360 and CREB (S133]. NF-κB phosphorylation was also increased. Activation of p53 (S15, S46 correlated with the increased levels of cleaved effector caspase-3, -6 and -7, indicating activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. RVFV infection downregulated phosphorylation of a major anti-apoptotic regulator of survival pathways, AKT (S473, along with phosphorylation of FOX 01/03 (T24/31 which controls cell cycle arrest downstream from AKT. Consistent with this, the level of apoptosis inhibitor XIAP was decreased. However, the intrinsic apoptotic pathway marker, caspase-9, demonstrated only a marginal activation accompanied by an increased level of the inhibitor of apoptosome formation, HSP27. Concentration of the autophagy marker, LC3B, which often accompanies the pro-survival signaling, was decreased. Cumulatively, our analysis of RVFV infection in lung epithelium indicated a viral strategy directed toward the control of cell apoptosis through a number of transcriptional factors. Analyses of MP-12 titers in challenged cells in the presence of MAPK inhibitors indicated that activation of p38 represents a protective cell response while ERK activation controls viral replication.

  16. Phase 2 environmental site assessment SW corner of plan 954 GV, block 7 : Main Street, Turner Valley, AB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinson, E.; Harvey, K.; Brooks, N.; Burton, K.; Reinson, K.; Cropley, K.

    2010-05-01

    This document described the second phase of an environmental site assessment (ESA) at a parking lot in front of the Flare and Derrik on Main Street in Turner Valley, Alberta. The objective of this ESA was to confirm the presence of any substances of concern. The site has been occupied by an outdoor ice rink, and there is pipeline right-of-way along the east portion of the site. There is also an abandoned crude oil pipeline along the east portion of the property and an abandoned natural gas pipeline on the west side of the property. This ESA investigated the impact of the pipelines, the underground storage tanks on the adjacent sites, and the oil and gas lease on the adjacent site. Seven exploratory testholes were drilled and 3 monitoring wells were installed. The study involved soil inspection and field VOC measurements every 60 centimeters, or as required. Groundwater sampling and surveying was also performed. Groundwater and soil samples were analyzed for hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), salinity and metals. All the results for soil were below Tier 1 guidelines. There appeared to be a layer of clay fill which had some hydrocarbons, PAHs and barium present, but they were below the applicable criteria. In terms of groundwater, PAHs and selenium exceeded the Tier 1 guidelines in monitoring well no. 4 (MW4). In another well, manganese exceeded the Tier 1 guidelines. Copper exceeded the Tier 1 guidelines in all three wells. All the results were below the Tier 2 guidelines in all 3 wells with the exception of carcinogenic PAHs (B(a)P TPE) in MW4. Due to the minor presence of hydrocarbons (below criteria) located in the surficial soil layer, Ballast Environmental Consultants recommended that an environmental professional be present during the excavation and that further soil samples be taken from the suspect layer to confirm all the soils in the area of the library are below the applicable criteria. refs., tabs., figs.

  17. Phase 2 environmental site assessment SW corner of plan 954 GV, block 7 : Main Street, Turner Valley, AB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinson, E.; Harvey, K.; Brooks, N.; Burton, K.; Reinson, K.; Cropley, K. [Ballast Environmental Consultants Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    This document described the second phase of an environmental site assessment (ESA) at a parking lot in front of the Flare and Derrik on Main Street in Turner Valley, Alberta. The objective of this ESA was to confirm the presence of any substances of concern. The site has been occupied by an outdoor ice rink, and there is pipeline right-of-way along the east portion of the site. There is also an abandoned crude oil pipeline along the east portion of the property and an abandoned natural gas pipeline on the west side of the property. This ESA investigated the impact of the pipelines, the underground storage tanks on the adjacent sites, and the oil and gas lease on the adjacent site. Seven exploratory testholes were drilled and 3 monitoring wells were installed. The study involved soil inspection and field VOC measurements every 60 centimeters, or as required. Groundwater sampling and surveying was also performed. Groundwater and soil samples were analyzed for hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), salinity and metals. All the results for soil were below Tier 1 guidelines. There appeared to be a layer of clay fill which had some hydrocarbons, PAHs and barium present, but they were below the applicable criteria. In terms of groundwater, PAHs and selenium exceeded the Tier 1 guidelines in monitoring well no. 4 (MW4). In another well, manganese exceeded the Tier 1 guidelines. Copper exceeded the Tier 1 guidelines in all three wells. All the results were below the Tier 2 guidelines in all 3 wells with the exception of carcinogenic PAHs (B(a)P TPE) in MW4. Due to the minor presence of hydrocarbons (below criteria) located in the surficial soil layer, Ballast Environmental Consultants recommended that an environmental professional be present during the excavation and that further soil samples be taken from the suspect layer to confirm all the soils in the area of the library are below the applicable criteria. refs., tabs., figs.

  18. Data management implementation plan for the Bear Creek Valley treatability study phase 2 hydraulic performance testing, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The overall objective of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study is to provide site-specific data defining potential treatment technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. The ultimate goal of this effort is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium, technetium, nitrate, and several metals from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. This project, the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Phase 2 hydraulic performance testing, directly supports the Bear Creek Valley Feasibility Study. Specific project objectives include (1) installing monitoring and extraction wells, (2) installing a groundwater extraction trench, (3) performing pumping tests of the extraction wells and trench, (4) determining hydraulic gradients, and (5) collecting water quality parameters. The primary purpose of environmental data management is to provide a system for generating and maintaining technically defensible data. To meet current regulatory requirements for the Environmental Restoration Program, complete documentation of the information flow must be established. To do so, each step in the data management process (collection, management, storage, and analysis) must be adequately planned and documented. This document will serve to identify data management procedures, expected data types and flow, and roles and responsibilities for all data management activities associated with this project

  19. Surface complexation modeling for predicting solid phase arsenic concentrations in the sediments of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer, Arkansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.S.U.; Davis, R.K.; Steele, K.F.; Kim, B.; Hays, P.D.; Kresse, T.M.; Fazio, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The potential health impact of As in drinking water supply systems in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in the state of Arkansas, USA is significant. In this context it is important to understand the occurrence, distribution and mobilization of As in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer. Application of surface complexation models (SCMs) to predict the sorption behavior of As and hydrous Fe oxides (HFO) in the laboratory has increased in the last decade. However, the application of SCMs to predict the sorption of As in natural sediments has not often been reported, and such applications are greatly constrained by the lack of site-specific model parameters. Attempts have been made to use SCMs considering a component additivity (CA) approach which accounts for relative abundances of pure phases in natural sediments, followed by the addition of SCM parameters individually for each phase. Although few reliable and internally consistent sorption databases related to HFO exist, the use of SCMs using laboratory-derived sorption databases to predict the mobility of As in natural sediments has increased. This study is an attempt to evaluate the ability of the SCMs using the geochemical code PHREEQC to predict solid phase As in the sediments of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in Arkansas. The SCM option of the double-layer model (DLM) was simulated using ferrihydrite and goethite as sorbents quantified from chemical extractions, calculated surface-site densities, published surface properties, and published laboratory-derived sorption constants for the sorbents. The model results are satisfactory for shallow wells (10.6. m below ground surface), where the redox condition is relatively oxic or mildly suboxic. However, for the deep alluvial aquifer (21-36.6. m below ground surface) where the redox condition is suboxic to anoxic, the model results are unsatisfactory. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Assessment of the feasibility of studying the potential health effects of the West Valley Solidification Project. Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matanoski, G.M.

    The activities at West Valley involve potential exposure to ionizing radiation. The health effects from radiation are well known and the projected levels of exposure in this situation are so low as to pose no known health hazard in the community. In such a situation it is not reasonable to propose an expensive, comprehensive and physically invasive screening program for the public unless one could justify the benefits. This report describes a feasible population-based surveillance or disease monitoring system which could be implemented in the West Valley area in order to assess the relevance of any changes in incidence of disease which might be attributable to radiation. The proposed plan is both practical and inexpensive. It would anticipate any potential changes in the health status of the population and provide a means to objectively interpret such changes before major concerns develop

  1. Symmetry protected topological charge in symmetry broken phase: Spin-Chern, spin-valley-Chern and mirror-Chern numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezawa, Motohiko

    2014-01-01

    The Chern number is a genuine topological number. On the other hand, a symmetry protected topological (SPT) charge is a topological number only when a symmetry exists. We propose a formula for the SPT charge as a derivative of the Chern number in terms of the Green function in such a way that it is valid and related to the associated Hall current even when the symmetry is broken. We estimate the amount of deviation from the quantized value as a function of the strength of the broken symmetry. We present two examples. First, we consider Dirac electrons with the spin–orbit coupling on honeycomb lattice, where the SPT charges are given by the spin-Chern, valley-Chern and spin-valley-Chern numbers. Though the spin-Chern charge is not quantized in the presence of the Rashba coupling, the deviation is estimated to be 10 −7 in the case of silicene, a silicon cousin of graphene. Second, we analyze the effect of the mirror-symmetry breaking of the mirror-Chern number in a thin-film of topological crystalline insulator.

  2. The influence of south Foehn on the ozone distribution in the Alpine Rhine valley - results from the MAP field phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, K.; Maurer, H.; Rau, G. [Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics, Vienna (AT)] (and others)

    2001-07-01

    During the Mesoscale Alpine Programme (MAP) special observation period (SOP) between 7 September and 15 November 1999, ground-based and airborne measurements have been conducted in the Rhine valley south of the Lake of Constance to investigate the unstationary aspects of Foehn and related phenomena, like the impact of Foehn on the ozone concentrations in the valley. Foehn events occurred with above-average frequency and high diversity. Foehn induced ozone peaks in October and November are found to be much lower than the September Foehn case of the period. An inversion layer in the lake area with ozone concentrations below 10ppb often shields the monitoring stations from the Foehn air aloft. Trajectory calculations for the Foehn period between 19 and 24 October 1999 reveal that the Foehn air originated from below 1 to 1.5km above the Po Basin and the Mediterranean Sea. Tethered balloon soundings in the source area south of the Alps, ozone measurements at the mountain station Jungfraujoch (3580m a.s.l.) and airborne measurements across the Alpine crests reveal that the ozone levels found in the Foehn air correspond to the concentrations just above the mixing height in the Po Basin and are transported across the Alpine crest within the lowest flow layer. (author)

  3. Sampling and analysis plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study is intended to provide site-specific data defining potential treatment technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. This project directly supports Alternative 5 of the base action in the BCV Feasibility Study, and indirectly supports other alternatives through proof of concept. In that role, the ultimate goal is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium and nitrate from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. A secondary goal is the concurrent removal of technetium and several metals that impact ecological risk. This project is intended to produce hydraulic and treatment performance data required to design the treatment system to reach those goals. This project will also generate information that can be applied at other facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation. This report is the sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for the field work component of Phase II of the BCV Treatability Study. Field work for this phase of the BCV Treatability Study consists of media testing. In-field continuous flow tests will be conducted over an extended time period (5 weeks) to generate data on long-term treatment effects on potential treatment media including sorbents and zero valent iron, over 28 weeks for constructed wetlands treatment, and over 24 weeks for algal mats treatment. The SAP addresses environmental sampling at the S-3 Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be taken from groundwater, effluent from test columns, effluent from an algal mat reactor, and effluent from a pilot-scale wetlands. This plan will be implemented as part of the BCV Phase II Treatability Study Best Management Practices Plan and in conjunction with the BCV Phase II Treatability Study Health and Safety Plan and the BCV Phase II Treatability Study Waste Management Plan

  4. Dependence on Solar Phase Angle and Grain Size of the Spectral Reflectance of the Railroad Valley Playa for GOSAT/GOSAT-2 Vicarious Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, T.; Matsunaga, T.

    2017-12-01

    GOSAT and the next generation GOSAT-2 satellites estimate the concentration of greenhouse gasses, and distribution of aerosol and cloud to observe solar light reflection and radiation from surface and atmosphere of the Earth. Precise information of the surface and the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) are required for the estimation because the surface reflectance of solar light varies with the observation geometry and the surface condition. The purpose of this study is to search an appropriate BRDF model of the GOSAT calibration site (Railroad Valley playa). In 2017, JAXA, NIES, and NASA/OCO-2 teams collaboratively performed 9th vicarious experiments by the simultaneous observation with GOSAT, OCO-2, and ground-based equipment (Kuze et al., 2014) at the Railroad Valley from June 25 to 30. We performed the BRDF measurement to observe solar light reflection by varying with observed angles using a spectroradiometer (FieldSpec4, ASD Inc.) mounted on a one-axis goniometer. The surface sand was shifted to several sizes of grain (75, 125, 250, 500, and 1000 μm), which was measured for the limited area of 5mm diameter with a collimating lens (74-UV, OceanOptics). The BRDF parameters for the observed reflectance were determined by the least squares fitting with the free parameters of a single scattering albedo and an asymmetric factor (Hapke, 2012) for the ultraviolet to near infrared wavelength bands of GOSAT. The resulting value of the single scattering albedo increased with decreasing the grain size of the sands. The observed reflectance of the fine grain sands (below 250 μm) is not varied with observed phase angles (solar incident light - surface sand - detector) as a Lambertian reflectance, but the spectra of coarse grain sands (above 500 μm) are varied with the observation angles. Therefore, a priori information of the target surface such as grain size is required for the determination of the precise reflectance of the target.

  5. Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... valley fever. These fungi are commonly found in soil in specific regions. The fungi's spores can be stirred into the air by ... species have a complex life cycle. In the soil, they grow as a mold with long filaments that break off into airborne ...

  6. Health and air quality 2005 : phase 2 : valuation of health impacts from air quality in the Lower Fraser Valley airshed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furberg, M.; Preston, K. [RWDI West Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Sawyer, D. [Marbek Resource Consultants Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Brauer, M. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). School of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene; Hanvelt, R. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Health Care and Epidemiology

    2005-07-15

    This study provided estimates the health benefits and costs associated with specified changes in ambient air concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and ozone in the Lower Fraser Valley (LFV). Estimates were developed on a regional level. The study focused on PM and ozone, as current air quality monitoring data and scientific findings have indicated that these are the air contaminants of greatest concern in the region. Known air quality health outcome relationships were applied in a spreadsheet model to predict changes in health outcomes associated with 6 ambient air quality scenarios for 3 sub-regions within the LFV airshed. Concentration response functions based on epidemiological studies were used to estimate the number of health events associated with changes in air quality. For each scenario, the model calculated the expected number of the following health outcomes: mortality; chronic bronchitis; respiratory hospital admissions; cardiac hospital admissions; emergency room visits; child acute bronchitis; restricted activity days; asthma symptom days; minor restricted activity days and acute respiratory symptom days. The model also produced the dollar value of the health outcomes. A dollar metric was used so that the health outcomes could be aggregated and compared with other air quality management actions such the costs of improving ambient air quality. Results indicated that improving ambient air quality in the LFV will produce valued and socially desirable benefits, including reduced mortality and morbidity. The measures contemplated by decision-makers to maintain and improve air quality in the LFV will trigger benefits that are likely to be significant. 101 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs.

  7. SMART - IWRM : Integrated Water Resources Management in the Lower Jordan Rift Valley; Project Report Phase I (KIT Scientific Reports ; 7597)

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Leif; Hötzl, Heinz [Hrsg.

    2011-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the large scale Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) research program SMART at the Lower Jordan River Basin which aims at local implementation, knowledge & capacity building. The focus of the first phase is placed on decentralised wastewater treatment and reuse, water quality including emerging pollutants, management and modelling of groundwater systems, artificial recharge, socio-economic frameworks, a transboundary database and decision support tools.

  8. Best management practices plan for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is currently under a Federal Agreement to define soil and groundwater contamination and develop remedies to protect human health and the environment. The western end of the site is known to have a former nitric acid disposal pit that has been remediated and capped. Remedial investigation data indicate this pit was a source of nitrate, uranium, technetium, and other metals contamination in groundwater. The downgradient receptor of this contamination includes Bear Creek and its tributaries. A feasibility study is under way to develop a remedy to prevent further contaminant migration to this receptor. To support the feasibility study, the treatability study is being completed to examine groundwater treatment at the S-3 site. This document serves as the top-level command medium for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study and, as such, will be the primary resource for management and implementation of field activities. Many of the details and standard operating procedures referred to herein can be found in other Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), documents. Several supporting documents specific to this project are also cited. These include the Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP), the Health and Safety Plan (HASP), and the Waste Management Plan (WMP)

  9. Sampling and analysis plan for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study is intended to provide site-specific data defining potential treatment technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. This project directly supports Alternative 5 of the base action in the BCV Feasibility Study and indirectly supports other alternatives through proof of concept. In that role, the ultimate goal is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium and nitrate from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. A secondary goal is the concurrent removal of technetium and several metals that affect ecological risk. This project is intended to produce hydraulic and treatment performance data required to design the treatment system to reach those goals. This project will also generate information that can be applied at other facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation. This report is the sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for the field work component of Phase II of the BCV Treatability Study. Field work for this phase of the BCV Treatability Study consists of environmental and media testing. The SAP addresses environmental sampling at the S-3 Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be taken from groundwater, surface water, seeps, effluent from test columns, effluent from an algal mat reactor, and effluent from a pilot-scale wetland. Groundwater, surface water, and seeps will be monitored continuously for field parameters and sampled for analytical parameters during pump tests conducted periodically during the investigation. In-field continuous flow tests will be conducted over an extended time period (5 weeks) to generate data on long-term treatment effects on potential treatment effects on potential treatment media including sorbents and zero valent iron, over 28 weeks for constructed wetlands treatment, and over 24 weeks for algal mats treatment

  10. Spin- and valley-dependent electrical conductivity of ferromagnetic group-IV 2D sheets in the topological insulator phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoi, Bui Dinh; Yarmohammadi, Mohsen; Mirabbaszadeh, Kavoos; Habibiyan, Hamidreza

    2018-03-01

    In this work, based on the Kubo-Greenwood formalism and the k . p Hamiltonian model, the impact of Rashba spin-orbit coupling on electronic band structure and electrical conductivity of spin-up and spin-down subbands in counterparts of graphene, including silicene, stanene, and germanene nanosheets has been studied. When Rashba coupling is considered, the effective mass of Dirac fermions decreases significantly and no significant change is caused by this coupling for the subband gaps. All these nanosheets are found to be in topological insulator quantum phase at low staggered on-site potentials due to the applied perpendicular external electric field. We point out that the electrical conductivity of germanene increases gradually with Rashab coupling, while silicene and stanene have some fluctuations due to their smaller Fermi velocity. Furthermore, some critical temperatures with the same electrical conductivity values for jumping to the higher energy levels are observed at various Rashba coupling strengths. For all structures, a broad peak appears at low temperatures in electrical conductivity curves corresponding to the large entropy of systems when the thermal energy reaches to the difference between the energy states. Finally, we have reported that silicene has the larger has the larger electrical conductivity than two others.

  11. Geohydrology of Big Bear Valley, California: phase 1--geologic framework, recharge, and preliminary assessment of the source and age of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Brandt, Justin; Christensen, Allen H.; Flint, Alan L.; Hevesi, Joseph A.; Jachens, Robert; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Martin, Peter; Sneed, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    The Big Bear Valley, located in the San Bernardino Mountains of southern California, has increased in population in recent years. Most of the water supply for the area is pumped from the alluvial deposits that form the Big Bear Valley groundwater basin. This study was conducted to better understand the thickness and structure of the groundwater basin in order to estimate the quantity and distribution of natural recharge to Big Bear Valley. A gravity survey was used to estimate the thickness of the alluvial deposits that form the Big Bear Valley groundwater basin. This determined that the alluvial deposits reach a maximum thickness of 1,500 to 2,000 feet beneath the center of Big Bear Lake and the area between Big Bear and Baldwin Lakes, and decrease to less than 500 feet thick beneath the eastern end of Big Bear Lake. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) was used to measure pumping-induced land subsidence and to locate structures, such as faults, that could affect groundwater movement. The measurements indicated small amounts of land deformation (uplift and subsidence) in the area between Big Bear Lake and Baldwin Lake, the area near the city of Big Bear Lake, and the area near Sugarloaf, California. Both the gravity and InSAR measurements indicated the possible presence of subsurface faults in subbasins between Big Bear and Baldwin Lakes, but additional data are required for confirmation. The distribution and quantity of groundwater recharge in the area were evaluated by using a regional water-balance model (Basin Characterization Model, or BCM) and a daily rainfall-runoff model (INFILv3). The BCM calculated spatially distributed potential recharge in the study area of approximately 12,700 acre-feet per year (acre-ft/yr) of potential in-place recharge and 30,800 acre-ft/yr of potential runoff. Using the assumption that only 10 percent of the runoff becomes recharge, this approach indicated there is approximately 15,800 acre-ft/yr of total recharge in

  12. Valley polarization in bismuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauque, Benoit

    2013-03-01

    The electronic structure of certain crystal lattices can contain multiple degenerate valleys for their charge carriers to occupy. The principal challenge in the development of valleytronics is to lift the valley degeneracy of charge carriers in a controlled way. In bulk semi-metallic bismuth, the Fermi surface includes three cigar-shaped electron valleys lying almost perpendicular to the high symmetry axis known as the trigonal axis. The in-plane mass anisotropy of each valley exceeds 200 as a consequence of Dirac dispersion, which drastically reduces the effective mass along two out of the three orientations. According to our recent study of angle-dependent magnetoresistance in bismuth, a flow of Dirac electrons along the trigonal axis is extremely sensitive to the orientation of in-plane magnetic field. Thus, a rotatable magnetic field can be used as a valley valve to tune the contribution of each valley to the total conductivity. As a consequence of a unique combination of high mobility and extreme mass anisotropy in bismuth, the effect is visible even at room temperature in a magnetic field of 1 T. Thus, a modest magnetic field can be used as a valley valve in bismuth. The results of our recent investigation of angle-dependent magnetoresistance in other semi-metals and doped semiconductors suggest that a rotating magnetic field can behave as a valley valve in a multi-valley system with sizeable mass anisotropy.

  13. Greening Turner Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byfield, M.

    2010-01-01

    This article discussed remedial activities undertaken in the Turner Valley. Remedial action in the valley must satisfy the financial concerns of engineers and investors as well as the environmental concerns of residents and regulators. Natural gas production in the Turner Valley began in 1914. The production practices were harmful and wasteful. Soil and water pollution was not considered a problem until recently. The impacts of cumulative effects and other pollution hazards are now being considered as part of many oil and gas environmental management programs. Companies know it is cheaper and safer to prevent pollutants from being released, and more efficient to clean them up quickly. Oil and gas companies are also committed to remediating historical problems. Several factors have simplified remediation plans in the Turner Valley. Area real estate values are now among the highest in Alberta. While the valley residents are generally friendly to the petroleum industry, strong communication with all stakeholders in the region is needed. 1 fig.

  14. Health and safety plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety (H&S) concerns and requirements for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be collected from effluent following treatment tests of extraction columns, algal mats, and mature wetlands supplied by surface water locations and existing groundwater monitoring well locations. The project Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. It is the responsibility of the project managers, field manager, and site health and safety officer (SHSO) to determine that the requirements of this HASP are sufficiently protective. If it is determined that the requirements of this HASP are not sufficiently protective, a field change order(s) (FCO) will be prepared. FCOs will include a completed job hazard analysis or similar worksheet to ensure complete hazard assessment. FCOs must be approved by the Environmental Management and Enrichment Facilities (EMEF) project manager, EMEF H&S manager, subcontractor project or field manager, and subcontractor H&S representative. As a minimum, FCOs will be prepared if additional tasks will be performed or if contaminant exposure is anticipated.

  15. Waste management plan for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    This Waste Management Plant (WMP) for the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study addresses waste management requirements for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The study is intended to produce treatment performance data required to design a treatment system for contaminated groundwater. The treatability study will consist of an evaluation of various treatment media including: continuous column tests, with up to six columns being employed to evaluate the performance of different media in the treatment of groundwater; an evaluation of the denitrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of a wetland system; and the long-term denitrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of algal mats. The Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) covers the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. The Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety concerns and requirements for the proposed sampling activities. This WMP identifies the types and estimates the volumes of various wastes that may be generated during the proposed treatability studies. The approach to managing waste outlined in this WMP emphasizes: (1) management of the waste generated in a manner that is protective of human health and the environment; (2) minimization of waste generation, thereby reducing unnecessary costs and usage of limited permitted storage and disposal capacities; and (3) compliance with federal, state, and site requirements. Prior sampling at the site has detected organic, radioactive, and metals contamination in groundwater and surface water. Proposed field operations are not expected to result in worker exposures greater than applicable exposure or action limits

  16. Health and safety plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety (H ampersand S) concerns and requirements for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be collected from effluent following treatment tests of extraction columns, algal mats, and mature wetlands supplied by surface water locations and existing groundwater monitoring well locations. The project Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. It is the responsibility of the project managers, field manager, and site health and safety officer (SHSO) to determine that the requirements of this HASP are sufficiently protective. If it is determined that the requirements of this HASP are not sufficiently protective, a field change order(s) (FCO) will be prepared. FCOs will include a completed job hazard analysis or similar worksheet to ensure complete hazard assessment. FCOs must be approved by the Environmental Management and Enrichment Facilities (EMEF) project manager, EMEF H ampersand S manager, subcontractor project or field manager, and subcontractor H ampersand S representative. As a minimum, FCOs will be prepared if additional tasks will be performed or if contaminant exposure is anticipated

  17. Waste management plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley Treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This Waste Management Plan (WMP) for the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study addresses waste management requirements for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The study is intended to produce treatment performance data required to design a treatment system for contaminated groundwater. The treatability study will consist of an evaluation of various treatment media including continuous column tests, with up to six columns being employed to evaluate the performance of different media in the treatment of groundwater; an evaluation of the dentrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of a wetland system; and the long-term dentrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of algal mats. Additionally, the treatability study involves installation of a trench and incline well to evaluate and assess hydraulic impacts of pumping groundwater. The Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) covers the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. The Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety concerns and requirements for the proposed sampling activities. This WMP identifies the types and estimates the volumes of various wastes that may be generated during the proposed treatability studies. The approach to managing waste outlined in this WMP emphasizes the following points: (1) management of the waste generated in a manner that is protective of human health and the environment; (2) minimization of waste generation, thereby reducing unnecessary costs and usage of limited permitted storage and disposal capacities; and (3) compliance with federal, state, and site requirements. Prior sampling at the site has detected organic, radioactive, and metals contamination in groundwater and surface water. Proposed field operations are not expected to result in worker exposures greater than applicable exposure or action limits

  18. Characterisation of heavy metal-bearing phases in stream sediments of the Meza River Valley, Slovenia, by means of SEM/EDS analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miler, M; Gosar, M

    2010-01-01

    Stream sediment reflects the rock structure of the catchment area, its geochemical characteristics and possible recent contamination upstream of the sampling point and thus, it is most frequently used in geochemical researches of heavy metal pollution. Stream sediment samples were collected along the Mez'a River and its tributaries and the Drava River, located in the NNE part of Slovenia. Previous geochemical studies have shown that these sediments are heavily polluted with heavy metals as a consequence of past mining of Pb-Zn ore and steelworks activities. Conventional geochemical analyses (ICP-MS, AAS, etc.) provided limited information on mineralogy, morphology and sources of heavy metal-bearing phases therefore SEM/EDS was utilized. Several problems were confronted with during EDS analysis, which are related to identification and quantification of light elements, identification of elements due to peak overlaps and quantification of spectra from unpolished samples. These problems were successfully dealt with. SEM/EDS enabled successful identification of heavy metal-bearing phases in stream sediments. Ore mineral phases, such as cerussite, sphalerite, smithsonite and galena, different heavy metal-bearing Fe-alloys, Fe-oxides and spherical particles and common rock-forming and accessory mineral phases, such as barite, rutile, ilmenite, zircon and monazite, were identified using solely SEM/EDS. These results were used for subsequent geochemical interpretation and source apportionment of heavy metals, according to associations of different heavy metal-bearing phases. Heavy metal-bearing phases were arranged by their source and genesis into three groups, denoted as geogenic/technogenic, technogenic and geogenic.

  19. Characterisation of heavy metal-bearing phases in stream sediments of the Meža River Valley, Slovenia, by means of SEM/EDS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miler, M.; Gosar, M.

    2010-02-01

    Stream sediment reflects the rock structure of the catchment area, its geochemical characteristics and possible recent contamination upstream of the sampling point and thus, it is most frequently used in geochemical researches of heavy metal pollution. Stream sediment samples were collected along the Meža River and its tributaries and the Drava River, located in the NNE part of Slovenia. Previous geochemical studies have shown that these sediments are heavily polluted with heavy metals as a consequence of past mining of Pb-Zn ore and steelworks activities. Conventional geochemical analyses (ICP-MS, AAS, etc.) provided limited information on mineralogy, morphology and sources of heavy metal-bearing phases therefore SEM/EDS was utilized. Several problems were confronted with during EDS analysis, which are related to identification and quantification of light elements, identification of elements due to peak overlaps and quantification of spectra from unpolished samples. These problems were successfully dealt with. SEM/EDS enabled successful identification of heavy metal-bearing phases in stream sediments. Ore mineral phases, such as cerussite, sphalerite, smithsonite and galena, different heavy metal-bearing Fe-alloys, Fe-oxides and spherical particles and common rock-forming and accessory mineral phases, such as barite, rutile, ilmenite, zircon and monazite, were identified using solely SEM/EDS. These results were used for subsequent geochemical interpretation and source apportionment of heavy metals, according to associations of different heavy metal-bearing phases. Heavy metal-bearing phases were arranged by their source and genesis into three groups, denoted as geogenic/technogenic, technogenic and geogenic.

  20. Best management practices plan for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant site is currently under a Federal Facilities Agreement to define soil and groundwater contamination and develop remedies to protect human health and the environment. The western end of the site is known to have a former nitric acid disposal pit that has been remediated and capped. Remedial investigation data indicate this pit was a source of nitrate, uranium, technetium, and other metals contamination in groundwater. The downgradient receptor of this contamination includes Bear Creek and its tributaries. A feasibility study is underway to develop a remedy to prevent further contaminant migration to this receptor. To support the feasibility study, a treatability study is being completed to examine groundwater treatment at the S-3 site. This document serves as the top level command medium for Phase II and as such will be the primary resource for management and implementation of field activities. Many of the details and standard operating procedures referred within this document can be found in other Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (Energy Systems) documents. Several supporting documents specific to this project are also cited. These include the Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP), the Health and Safety Plan (HASP), and the Waste Management Plan (WMP). Section 1 describes the results of Phase I efforts. Section 2 describes the objectives of Phase II. Section 3 provides details of field testing. Section 4 addresses the HASP. Section 5 describes the SAP. Section 6 introduces the WMP. Environmental compliance issues are discussed in Section 7, and sediment and erosion control is addressed in Section 8. Information about the project team is provided in Section 9

  1. Nematic and Valley Ordering in Anisotropic Quantum Hall Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswaran, S. A.; Abanin, D. A.; Kivelson, S. A.; Sondhi, S. L.

    2010-03-01

    We consider a multi-valley two dimensional electron system in the quantum Hall effect (QHE) regime. We focus on QHE states that arise due to spontaneous breaking of the valley symmetry by the Coulomb interactions. We show that the anisotropy of the Fermi surface in each valley, which is generally present in such systems, favors states where all the electrons reside in one of the valleys. In a clean system, the valley ordering occurs via a finite temperature Ising-like phase transition, which, owing to the Fermi surface anisotropy, is accompanied by the onset of nematic order. In a disordered system, domains of opposite polarization are formed, and therefore long-range valley order is destroyed, however, the resulting state is still compressible. We discuss the transport properties in ordered and disordered regimes, and point out the possible relation of our results to recent experiments in AlAs [1]. [1] Y. P. Shkolnikov, S. Misra, N. C. Bishop, E. P. De Poortere, and M. Shayegan, Observation of Quantum Hall ``Valley Skyrmions", Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 068809 (2005)[2] D.A. Abanin, S.A. Parameswaran, S.A. Kivelson and S.L. Sondhi, Nematic and Valley Ordering in Anisotropic Quantum Hall Systems, to be published.

  2. Breathing Valley Fever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-04

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch in the California Department of Public Health, discusses Valley Fever.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/5/2014.

  3. Treatability study on the Bear Creek Valley characterization area at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Phase II work plan for S-3 site contaminated groundwater interception--in-field media evaluation and groundwater capture methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    A treatability study is being conducted to support implementation:of early actions at the S-3 Site in the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Characterization Area (CA). The objectives of the early actions Will be (1) to reduce concentrations of uranium and nitrate in Bear Creek and (2) to reduce contaminants of concern in North Tributary (NT)-1 and NT-2. The BCV CA is located within the US DOE's Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. Hazardous and radioactive materials from the Y-12 Plant operations were, disposed of at various sites within BCV. Groundwater and surface water in the BCV CA have been contaminated. The remedial investigation (RI) for the BCV CA identified that the greatest mass flux of contaminants from the various sources migrates via groundwater at the source and discharges to surface water in Bear Creek and its tributaries. In the RI, the combined discharge from the S-3 Site and the Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY) was identified as accounting for 75% of the cancer risk and more than 80% of the chemical toxicity to Potential downgradient human receptors. In addition, the S-3 Site has caused degradation of surface water quality in upper Bear Creek and two of its tributaries. The BCV CA treatability study focuses on capture and treatment of shallow groundwater before it discharges to tributary waters. The objectives Of treatment of this groundwater are (1) to reduce the concentrations of uranium and nitrate in NT-1 and Bear Creek such that the concentrations of these chemicals in surface water and groundwater are reduced to acceptable levels, (2) to reduce the concentrations of nitrate and metals, and reduce the overall concentration of total dissolved solids; and (3) to hydraulically contain the plume of contaminated, groundwater that is moving in bedrock in the Nolichucky Shale such that the rate of contaminant discharge will be reduced in the long term. The objective of Phase II is to produce conceptual designs for treatment system configurations

  4. Spin-valley splitting of electron beam in graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Song

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We study spatial separation of the four degenerate spin-valley components of an electron beam in a EuO-induced and top-gated ferromagnetic/pristine/strained graphene structure. We show that, in a full resonant tunneling regime for all beam components, the formation of standing waves can lead sudden phase jumps ∼−π and giant lateral Goos-Hänchen shifts as large as the transverse beam width, while the interplay of the spin and valley imaginary wave vectors in the modulated regions can lead differences of resonant angles for the four spin-valley flavors, manifesting a spin-valley beam splitting effect. The splitting effect is found to be controllable by the gating and strain.

  5. 77 FR 33237 - Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National Park, Inyo... an Environmental Impact Statement for the Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan, Death Valley... analysis process for the Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan for Death Valley [[Page 33238...

  6. The California Valley grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.; Schoenherr, Allan A.

    1990-01-01

    Grasslands are distributed throughout California from Oregon to Baja California Norte and from the coast to the desert (Brown 1982) (Figure 1). This review will focus on the dominant formation in cismontane California, a community referred to as Valley Grassland (Munz 1959). Today, Valley Grassland is dominated by non-native annual grasses in genera such as Avena (wild oat), Bromus (brome grass), and Hordeum (barley), and is often referred to as the California annual grassland. On localized sites, native perennial bunchgrasses such as Stipa pultra (purple needle grass) may dominate and such sites are interpreted to be remnants of the pristine valley grassland. In northwestern California a floristically distinct formation of the Valley Grassland, known as Coast Prairie (Munz 1959) or Northern Coastal Grassland (Holland and Keil 1989) is recognized. The dominant grasses include many native perennial bunchgrasses in genera such as Agrostis, Calamagrostis, Danthonia, Deschampsia, Festuca, Koeleria and Poa (Heady et al. 1977). Non-native annuals do not dominate, but on some sites non-native perennials like Anthoxanthum odoratum may colonize the native grassland (Foin and Hektner 1986). Elevationally, California's grasslands extend from sea level to at leas 1500 m. The upper boundary is vague because montane grassland formations are commonly referred to as meadows; a community which Munz (1959) does not recognize. Holland and Keil (1989) describe the montane meadow as an azonal community; that is, a community restricted not so much to a particular climatic zone but rather controlled by substrate characteristics. They consider poor soil-drainage an over-riding factor in the development of montane meadows and, in contrast to grasslands, meadows often remain green through the summer drought. Floristically, meadows are composed of graminoids; Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and rhizomatous grasses such as Agropyron (wheat grass). Some bunchgrasses, such as Muhlenbergia rigens, are

  7. Rift Valley Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Amy

    2017-06-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe veterinary disease of livestock that also causes moderate to severe illness in people. The life cycle of RVF is complex and involves mosquitoes, livestock, people, and the environment. RVF virus is transmitted from either mosquitoes or farm animals to humans, but is generally not transmitted from person to person. People can develop different diseases after infection, including febrile illness, ocular disease, hemorrhagic fever, or encephalitis. There is a significant risk for emergence of RVF into new locations, which would affect human health and livestock industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of Water Security in Kathmandu Valley before and after Water Transfer from another Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Bhesh Raj Thapa; Hiroshi Ishidaira; Vishnu Prasad Pandey; Tilak Mohan Bhandari; Narendra Man Shakya

    2018-01-01

    Kathmandu Upatyaka Khanepani Limited (KUKL) has planned to harness water from outside the valley from Melamchi as an inter-basin project to supply water inside the ring road (core valley area) of the Kathmandu Valley (KV). The project, called the “Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP)”, is expected to have its first phase completed by the end of September 2018 and its second phase completed by the end of 2023 to supply 170 MLD (million liters a day) through the first phase and an additional 34...

  9. Aburra Valley: Quo vadis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermelin, Michel

    2008-01-01

    These paper intents a brief description of the evolution that characterised natural risk prevention in the area surrounding the city of Medellin, Colombia, called the Aburra Valley. Both the lithological and structural composition of the Valle and its topographic and climatic conditions contribute to the abundance of destructive natural phenomena as earthquakes, slope movements, flash floods and, in a lower proportion, to floods. The population increase, which reaches now 3.5 millions inhabitants and the frequent occupation of sites exposed to natural hazards have resulted in numerous disasters. At present two entities called SIMPAD and DAPARD work on risk prevention, on city and department scale respectively. The amount of knowledge about physical environment is considered to be insufficient, together with regulations which should direct land use in accordance to restrictions related to natural hazards. Several seminars on this topic have already been carried out and the organisers of the present one, destined to commemorate the twentieth anniversary of the Villatina disaster, should make the decision to meet each two years. Furthermore, the creation of a permanent commission dedicated to study past events, to foster information broadcasting and to seek a better knowledge of the Aburra Valley, should be considered

  10. Valley development on Hawaiian volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, V.R.; Gulick, V.C.

    1987-01-01

    Work in progress on Hawaiian drainage evolution indicates an important potential for understanding drainage development on Mars. Similar to Mars, the Hawaiian valleys were initiated by surface runoff, subsequently enlarged by groundwater sapping, and eventually stabilized as aquifers were depleted. Quantitative geomorphic measurements were used to evaluate the following factors in Hawaiian drainage evolution: climate, stream processes, and time. In comparing regions of similar climate, drainage density shows a general increase with the age of the volcani island. With age and climate held constant, sapping dominated valleys, in contrast to runoff-dominated valleys, display the following: lower drainage densities, higher ratios of valley floor width to valley height, and more positive profile concavities. Studies of stream junction angles indicate increasing junction angles with time on the drier leeward sides of the major islands. The quantitative geomorphic studies and earlier field work yielded important insights for Martian geomorphology. The importance of ash mantling in controlling infiltration on Hawaii also seems to apply to Mars. The Hawaiian valley also have implications for the valley networks of Martian heavily cratered terrains

  11. The Drentsche Aa valley system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, W. de.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis is composed of five papers concerned with Late Quaternary geology and geomorphology of the Aa valley system. The correlation and chronostratigraphic position of the layers have been established by radiocarbon dating. (Auth.)

  12. Energy Band Gap Dependence of Valley Polarization of the Hexagonal Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalamkari, Kazu; Tatsumi, Yuki; Saito, Riichiro

    2018-02-01

    The origin of valley polarization of the hexagonal lattice is analytically discussed by tight binding method as a function of energy band gap. When the energy gap decreases to zero, the intensity of optical absorption becomes sharp as a function of k near the K (or K') point in the hexagonal Brillouin zone, while the peak intensity at the K (or K') point keeps constant with decreasing the energy gap. When the dipole vector as a function of k can have both real and imaginary parts that are perpendicular to each other in the k space, the valley polarization occurs. When the dipole vector has only real values by selecting a proper phase of wave functions, the valley polarization does not occur. The degree of the valley polarization may show a discrete change that can be relaxed to a continuous change of the degree of valley polarization when we consider the life time of photo-excited carrier.

  13. Hydrogeologic Framework and Ground Water in Basin-Fill Deposits of the Diamond Valley Flow System, Central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumbusch, Mary L.; Plume, Russell W.

    2006-01-01

    The Diamond Valley flow system, an area of about 3,120 square miles in central Nevada, consists of five hydrographic areas: Monitor, Antelope, Kobeh, and Diamond Valleys and Stevens Basin. Although these five areas are in a remote part of Nevada, local government officials and citizens are concerned that the water resources of the flow system eventually could be further developed for irrigation or mining purposes or potentially for municipal use outside the study area. In order to better understand the flow system, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Eureka, Lander, and Nye Counties and the Nevada Division of Water Resources, is conducting a multi-phase study of the flow system. The principal aquifers of the Diamond Valley flow system are in basin-fill deposits that occupy structural basins comprised of carbonate rocks, siliciclastic sedimentary rocks, igneous intrusive rocks, and volcanic rocks. Carbonate rocks also function as aquifers, but their extent and interconnections with basin-fill aquifers are poorly understood. Ground-water flow in southern Monitor Valley is from the valley margins toward the valley axis and then northward to a large area of discharge by evapotranspiration (ET) that is formed south of a group of unnamed hills near the center of the valley. Ground-water flow from northern Monitor Valley, Antelope Valley, and northern and western parts of Kobeh Valley converges to an area of ground-water discharge by ET in central and eastern Kobeh Valley. Prior to irrigation development in the 1960s, ground-water flow in Diamond Valley was from valley margins toward the valley axis and then northward to a large discharge area at the north end of the valley. Stevens Basin is a small upland basin with internal drainage and is not connected with other parts of the flow system. After 40 years of irrigation pumping, a large area of ground-water decline has developed in southern Diamond Valley around the irrigated area. In this part of Diamond

  14. Budgets and chemical characterization of groundwater for the Diamond Valley flow system, central Nevada, 2011–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, David L.; Mayers, C. Justin; Garcia, C. Amanda; Buto, Susan G.; Huntington, Jena M.

    2016-07-29

    The Diamond Valley flow system consists of six hydraulically connected hydrographic areas in central Nevada. The general down-gradient order of the areas are southern and northern Monitor Valleys, Antelope Valley, Kobeh Valley, Stevens Basin, and Diamond Valley. Groundwater flow in the Diamond Valley flow system terminates at a large playa in the northern part of Diamond Valley. Concerns relating to continued water-resources development of the flow system resulted in a phased hydrologic investigation that began in 2005 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Eureka County. This report presents the culmination of the phased investigation to increase understanding of the groundwater resources of the basin-fill aquifers in the Diamond Valley flow system through evaluations of groundwater chemistry and budgets. Groundwater chemistry was characterized using major ions and stable isotopes from groundwater and precipitation samples. Groundwater budgets accounted for all inflows, outflows, and changes in storage, and were developed for pre-development (pre-1950) and recent (average annual 2011–12) conditions. Major budget components include groundwater discharge by evapotranspiration and groundwater withdrawals; groundwater recharge by precipitation, and interbasin flow; and storage change.

  15. Quantum Hall Valley Nematics: From Field Theories to Microscopic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswaran, Siddharth

    The interplay between quantum Hall ordering and spontaneously broken ``internal'' symmetries in two-dimensional electron systems with spin or pseudospin degrees of freedom gives rise to a variety of interesting phenomena, including novel phases, phase transitions, and topological excitations. I will discuss a theory of broken-symmetry quantum Hall states, applicable to a class of multivalley systems, where the symmetry at issue is a point-group element that combines a spatial rotation with a permutation of valley indices. I will explore its ramifications for the phase diagram of a variety of experimental systems, such as AlAs and Si quantum wells and the surface states of bismuth. I will also discuss unconventional transport phenomena in these phases in the presence of quenched randomness, and the possible mechanisms of selection between degenerate broken-symmetry phases in clean systems. I acknowledge support from NSF DMR-1455366.

  16. Better building of valley fills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chironis, N.P.

    1980-03-01

    Current US regulations for building valley fills or head of hollow fills to hold excess spoil resulting from contour mining are meeting with considerable opposition, particularly from operators in steep-slope areas. An alternative method has been submitted to the Office of Surface Mining by Virgina. Known as the zoned concept method, it has already been used successfully in building water-holding dams and coal refuse embankments on sloping terrain. The ways in which drainage and seepage are managed are described.

  17. Direct measurement of discrete valley and orbital quantum numbers in bilayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, B M; Li, J I A; Zibrov, A A; Wang, L; Taniguchi, T; Watanabe, K; Hone, J; Dean, C R; Zaletel, M; Ashoori, R C; Young, A F

    2017-10-16

    The high magnetic field electronic structure of bilayer graphene is enhanced by the spin, valley isospin, and an accidental orbital degeneracy, leading to a complex phase diagram of broken symmetry states. Here, we present a technique for measuring the layer-resolved charge density, from which we directly determine the valley and orbital polarization within the zero energy Landau level. Layer polarization evolves in discrete steps across 32 electric field-tuned phase transitions between states of different valley, spin, and orbital order, including previously unobserved orbitally polarized states stabilized by skew interlayer hopping. We fit our data to a model that captures both single-particle and interaction-induced anisotropies, providing a complete picture of this correlated electron system. The resulting roadmap to symmetry breaking paves the way for deterministic engineering of fractional quantum Hall states, while our layer-resolved technique is readily extendable to other two-dimensional materials where layer polarization maps to the valley or spin quantum numbers.The phase diagram of bilayer graphene at high magnetic fields has been an outstanding question, with orders possibly between multiple internal quantum degrees of freedom. Here, Hunt et al. report the measurement of the valley and orbital order, allowing them to directly reconstruct the phase diagram.

  18. Hillslope failure and paraglacial reworking of sediments in response to glacier retreat, Fox Valley, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Samuel T.; Fuller, Ian C.; Anderson, Brian; Tate, Rosie

    2017-04-01

    Climate and glacier fluctuations influence sediment supply to glacier forelands, which in turn influences down-valley hazards to infrastructure and tourism within glacier forelands. At Fox Glacier, one of New Zealand's most iconic and popular glaciers, rapid retreat has initiated a range of hillslope and valley floor responses, that present a cascade of hazards and changes that need to be carefully managed. Fox Glacier has retreated many kilometres historically, with 2.6 km of retreat since the mid-20th century, and a phase of rapid retreat of 50-340 m per year since 2009. To study the system response to past and ongoing glacial retreat at the Fox valley, morphological changes are being observed using time-lapse photography and the annual collection of high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) and orthophoto mosaics. The DEMs are being produced using Structure from Motion photogrammetry from UAV/RPAS and helicopter platforms, and are being used, along with manual ground surveying, to produce ground surface change models (DoDs; DEMs of Difference) and sediment budgets for the valley. Results from time-lapse photography and DoDs show that glacial retreat has initiated destabilisation and (mostly chronic) mass movement of surficial glacial sediments on the valley slopes near the glacier terminus. Alluvial fans farther down valley are actively growing, reworking glacial and landslide sediments from tributary catchments. These paraglacial sediments being delivered to the proglacial river from the glacier terminus and alluvial fans are driving aggradation of the valley floor of decimetres to metres per year and maintaining a highly dynamic braid plain. Valley floor changes also include the melting of buried dead ice, which are causing localised subsidence at the carpark and one of the alluvial fans. The unstable slopes and active debris fans, aggrading and highly active river channel, ground subsidence, add to the spectacle but also the hazards of the Fox valley

  19. California's restless giant: the Long Valley Caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Marcaida, Mae

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have monitored geologic unrest in the Long Valley, California, area since 1980. In that year, following a swarm of strong earthquakes, they discovered that the central part of the Long Valley Caldera had begun actively rising. Unrest in the area persists today. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to provide the public and civil authorities with current information on the volcanic hazard at Long Valley and is prepared to give timely warnings of any impending eruption.

  20. Small martian valleys: Pristine and degraded morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, V.R.; Partridge, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    The equatorial heavily cratered uplands of Mars are dissected by two classes of small valleys that are intimately associated in compound networks. Pristine valleys with steep valley walls preferentially occupy downstream portions of compound basins. Degraded valleys with eroded walls are laterally more extensive and have higher drainage densities than pristine valleys. Morphometric and crater-counting studies indicate that relatively dense drainage networks were emplaced on Mars during the heavy bombardment about 4.0 b.y. ago. Over a period of approximately 10 8 years, these networks were degraded and subsequently invaded by headwardly extending pristine valleys. The pristine valleys locally reactivated the compound networks, probably through sapping processes dependent upon high water tables. Fluvial activity in the heavily cratered uplands generally ceased approximately 3.8--3.9 b.y. ago, coincident with the rapid decline in cratering rates. The relict compound valleys on Mars are morphometrically distinct from most terrestrial drainage systems. The differences might be caused by a Martian valley formation episode characterized by hyperaridity, by inadequate time for network growth, by very permeable rock types, or by a combination of factors

  1. EPA Region 1 - Valley Depth in Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raster of the Depth in meters of EPA-delimited Valleys in Region 1.Valleys (areas that are lower than their neighbors) were extracted from a Digital Elevation Model (USGS, 30m) by finding the local average elevation, subtracting the actual elevation from the average, and selecting areas where the actual elevation was below the average. The landscape was sampled at seven scales (circles of 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 16, and 22 km radius) to take into account the diversity of valley shapes and sizes. Areas selected in at least four scales were designated as valleys.

  2. Topological valley transport of plate-mode waves in a homogenous thin plate with periodic stubbed surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiu-Jiu Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study for exotic topological effects of sound has attracted uprising interests in fundamental physics and practical applications. Based on the concept of valley pseudospin, we demonstrate the topological valley transport of plate-mode waves in a homogenous thin plate with periodic stubbed surface, where a deterministic two-fold Dirac degeneracy is form by two plate modes. We show that the topological property can be controlled by the height of stubs deposited on the plate. By adjusting the relative heights of adjacent stubs, the valley vortex chirality and band inversion are induced, giving rise to a phononic analog of valley Hall phase transition. We further numerically demonstrate the valley states of plate-mode waves with robust topological protection. Our results provide a new route to design unconventional elastic topological insulators and will significantly broaden its practical application in the engineering field.

  3. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Cane Valley, Arizona. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site in Cane Valley near Monument Valley, Arizona. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has relocated and stabilized this site's tailings and other contaminated material in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project that evaluates potential health and environmental risks. It will help determine the approach required to address contaminated ground water at the site

  4. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Cane Valley, Arizona. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site in Cane Valley near Monument Valley, Arizona. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has relocated and stabilized this site`s tailings and other contaminated material in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project that evaluates potential health and environmental risks. It will help determine the approach required to address contaminated ground water at the site.

  5. A landscape scale valley confinement algorithm: Delineating unconfined valley bottoms for geomorphic, aquatic, and riparian applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Nagel; John M. Buffington; Sharon L. Parkes; Seth Wenger; Jaime R. Goode

    2014-01-01

    Valley confinement is an important landscape characteristic linked to aquatic habitat, riparian diversity, and geomorphic processes. This report describes a GIS program called the Valley Confinement Algorithm (VCA), which identifies unconfined valleys in montane landscapes. The algorithm uses nationally available digital elevation models (DEMs) at 10-30 m resolution to...

  6. West Valley Demonstration Project, West Valley, New York: Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Under the West Valley Demonstration Project Act, Public Law 96-368, liquid high-level radioactive waste stored at the Western New York Nuclear Services Center, West Valley, New York, that resulted from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing operations conducted between 1966 and 1972, is to be solidified in borosilicate glass and transported to a federal repository for geologic disposal. A major milestone was reached in May 1988 when the Project began reducing the volume of the liquid high-level waste. By the end of 1988, approximately 15 percent of the initial inventory had been processed into two waste streams. The decontaminated low-level liquid waste is being solidified in cement. The high-level waste stream is being stored in an underground tank pending its incorporation into borosilicate glass. Four tests of the waste glass melter system were completed. These tests confirmed equipment operability, control system reliability, and provided samples of waste glass for durability testing. In mid-1988, the Department validated an integrated cost and schedule plan for activities required to complete the production of the waste borosilicate glass. Design of the radioactive Vitrification Facility continued

  7. The Pocatello Valley, Idaho, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A. M.; Langer, C.J.; Bucknam, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    A Richter magnitude 6.3 earthquake occurred at 8:31 p.m mountain daylight time on March 27, 1975, near the Utah-Idaho border in Pocatello Valley. The epicenter of the main shock was located at 42.094° N, 112.478° W, and had a focal depth of 5.5 km. This earthquake was the largest in the continental United States since the destructive San Fernando earthquake of February 1971. The main shock was preceded by a magnitude 4.5 foreshock on March 26. 

  8. Radwaste challenge at Beaver Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Duquesne Light Company met the problem of accumulating low-level radioactive waste at its Beaver Valley nuclear plant with an aggressive program to reduce the quantity of contaminated material and demonstrate that the plant was improving its radiological protection. There was also an economic incentive to reduce low-level wastes. The imaginative campaign involved workers in the reduction effort through training and the adoption of practical approaches to reducing the amount of material exposed to radiation that include sorting trash by radiation level and a compacting system. 4 figures

  9. The Owens Valley Millimeter Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padin, S.; Scott, S.L.; Woody, D.P.; Scoville, N.Z.; Seling, T.V.

    1991-01-01

    The telescopes and signal processing systems of the Owens Valley Millimeter Array are considered, and improvements in the sensitivity and stability of the instrument are characterized. The instrument can be applied to map sources in the 85 to 115 GHz and 218 to 265 GHz bands with a resolution of about 1 arcsec in the higher frequency band. The operation of the array is fully automated. The current scientific programs for the array encompass high-resolution imaging of protoplanetary/protostellar disk structures, observations of molecular cloud complexes associated with spiral structure in nearby galaxies, and observations of molecular structures in the nuclei of spiral and luminous IRAS galaxies. 9 refs

  10. Valley-dependent band structure and valley polarization in periodically modulated graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei-Tao

    2016-08-01

    The valley-dependent energy band and transport property of graphene under a periodic magnetic-strained field are studied, where the time-reversal symmetry is broken and the valley degeneracy is lifted. The considered superlattice is composed of two different barriers, providing more degrees of freedom for engineering the electronic structure. The electrons near the K and K' valleys are dominated by different effective superlattices. It is found that the energy bands for both valleys are symmetric with respect to ky=-(AM+ξ AS) /4 under the symmetric superlattices. More finite-energy Dirac points, more prominent collimation behavior, and new crossing points are found for K' valley. The degenerate miniband near the K valley splits into two subminibands and produces a new band gap under the asymmetric superlattices. The velocity for the K' valley is greatly renormalized compared with the K valley, and so we can achieve a finite velocity for the K valley while the velocity for the K' valley is zero. Especially, the miniband and band gap could be manipulated independently, leading to an increase of the conductance. The characteristics of the band structure are reflected in the transmission spectra. The Dirac points and the crossing points appear as pronounced peaks in transmission. A remarkable valley polarization is obtained which is robust to the disorder and can be controlled by the strain, the period, and the voltage.

  11. Sustainable agricultural development in inland valleys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, S.J.

    2018-01-01

    The inland valley in Africa are common landscapes that have favorable conditions for agricultural production. Compared to the surrounding uplands they are characterized by a relatively high and secure water availability and high soil fertility levels. Inland valleys thus have a high agricultural

  12. Valley dependent transport in graphene L junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K. S.

    2018-05-01

    We studied the valley dependent transport in graphene L junctions connecting an armchair lead and a zigzag lead. The junction can be used in valleytronic devices and circuits. Electrons injected from the armchair lead into the junction is not valley polarized, but they can become valley polarized in the zigzag lead. There are Fermi energies, where the current in the zigzag lead is highly valley polarized and the junction is an efficient generator of valley polarized current. The features of the valley polarized current depend sensitively on the widths of the two leads, as well as the number of dimers in the armchair lead, because this number has a sensitive effect on the band structure of the armchair lead. When an external potential is applied to the junction, the energy range with high valley polarization is enlarged enhancing its function as a generator of highly valley polarized current. The scaling behavior found in other graphene devices is also found in L junctions, which means that the results presented here can be extended to junctions with larger dimensions after appropriate scaling of the energy.

  13. Beaver assisted river valley formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Cherie J.; Cooper, D.J.; Baker, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how beaver dams affect key ecosystem processes, including pattern and process of sediment deposition, the composition and spatial pattern of vegetation, and nutrient loading and processing. We provide new evidence for the formation of heterogeneous beaver meadows on riverine system floodplains and terraces where dynamic flows are capable of breaching in-channel beaver dams. Our data show a 1.7-m high beaver dam triggered overbank flooding that drowned vegetation in areas deeply flooded, deposited nutrient-rich sediment in a spatially heterogeneous pattern on the floodplain and terrace, and scoured soils in other areas. The site quickly de-watered following the dam breach by high stream flows, protecting the deposited sediment from future re-mobilization by overbank floods. Bare sediment either exposed by scouring or deposited by the beaver flood was quickly colonized by a spatially heterogeneous plant community, forming a beaver meadow. Many willow and some aspen seedlings established in the more heavily disturbed areas, suggesting the site may succeed to a willow carr plant community suitable for future beaver re-occupation. We expand existing theory beyond the beaver pond to include terraces within valleys. This more fully explains how beavers can help drive the formation of alluvial valleys and their complex vegetation patterns as was first postulated by Ruedemann and Schoonmaker in 1938. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Recursive stochastic effects in valley hybrid inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Laurence Perreault; Vennin, Vincent; Brandenberger, Robert

    2013-10-01

    Hybrid inflation is a two-field model where inflation ends because of a tachyonic instability, the duration of which is determined by stochastic effects and has important observational implications. Making use of the recursive approach to the stochastic formalism presented in [L. P. Levasseur, preceding article, Phys. Rev. D 88, 083537 (2013)], these effects are consistently computed. Through an analysis of backreaction, this method is shown to converge in the valley but points toward an (expected) instability in the waterfall. It is further shown that the quasistationarity of the auxiliary field distribution breaks down in the case of a short-lived waterfall. We find that the typical dispersion of the waterfall field at the critical point is then diminished, thus increasing the duration of the waterfall phase and jeopardizing the possibility of a short transition. Finally, we find that stochastic effects worsen the blue tilt of the curvature perturbations by an O(1) factor when compared with the usual slow-roll contribution.

  15. pep-up: a review of the umgeni valley pro.ject evaluation process

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evaluation process at the Umgeni Valle~ Project is.described. Its evolution, background and ... mental Education circles in Southern Africa. The ... t? the percei~ed need for evaluation of the Umgen1 Valley ProJect. ... This group, insisting that they were facilitating .... Phase : An integrated summary of all fielc and working ...

  16. Hidden Valley Search at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Verducci, M

    2011-01-01

    A number of extensions of the Standard Model result in neutral and weakly-coupled particles that decay to multi hadrons or multi leptons with macroscopic decay lengths. These particles with decay paths that can be comparable with ATLAS detector dimensions represent, from an experimental point of view, a challenge both for the trigger and for the reconstruction capabilities of the ATLAS detector. We will present a set of signature driven triggers for the ATLAS detector that target such displaced decays and evaluate their performances for some benchmark models and describe analysis strategies and limits on the production of such long-lived particles. A first estimation of the Hidden Valley trigger rates has been evaluated with 6 pb-1 of data collected at ATLAS during the data taking of 2010.

  17. Valley-filtered edge states and quantum valley Hall effect in gated bilayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-Long; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Jun

    2017-05-10

    Electron edge states in gated bilayer graphene in the quantum valley Hall (QVH) effect regime can carry both charge and valley currents. We show that an interlayer potential splits the zero-energy level and opens a bulk gap, yielding counter-propagating edge modes with different valleys. A rich variety of valley current states can be obtained by tuning the applied boundary potential and lead to the QVH effect, as well as to the unbalanced QVH effect. A method to individually manipulate the edge states by the boundary potentials is proposed.

  18. Vegetation - San Felipe Valley [ds172

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This Vegetation Map of the San Felipe Valley Wildlife Area in San Diego County, California is based on vegetation samples collected in the field in 2002 and 2005 and...

  19. Babesiosis in Lower Hudson Valley, New York

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast discusses a study about an increase in babesiosis in the Lower Hudson Valley of New York state. Dr. Julie Joseph, Assistant Professor of Medicine at New York Medical College, shares details of this study.

  20. Meie mees Silicon Valleys / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 5. dets. lk. 4. Peaminister Andrus Ansip avas Eesti Ettevõtluse Sihtasutuse esinduse Silicon Valley pealinnas San Joses. Vt. samas: Ränioru kliima on tehnoloogiasõbralik; Andrus Viirg

  1. Meie ingel Silicon Valleys / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2008-01-01

    Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse esinduse töölepanekust USAs Silicon Valleys räägib esinduse juht Andrus Viirg. Vt. ka: Eestlasi leidub San Franciscos omajagu; Muljetavaldav karjäär; USAga ammune tuttav

  2. Burrowing Owl - Palo Verde Valley [ds197

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These burrowing owl observations were collected during the spring and early summer of 1976 in the Palo Verde Valley, eastern Riverside County, California. This is an...

  3. Electrical valley filtering in transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tzu-Chi; Chou, Mei-Yin; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2018-03-01

    This work investigates the feasibility of electrical valley filtering for holes in transition metal dichalcogenides. We look specifically into the scheme that utilizes a potential barrier to produce valley-dependent tunneling rates, and perform the study with both a k .p -based analytic method and a recursive Green's function-based numerical method. The study yields the transmission coefficient as a function of incident energy and transverse wave vector, for holes going through lateral quantum barriers oriented in either armchair or zigzag directions, in both homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. The main findings are the following: (1) The tunneling current valley polarization increases with increasing barrier width or height; (2) both the valley-orbit interaction and band structure warping contribute to valley-dependent tunneling, with the former contribution being manifest in structures with asymmetric potential barriers, and the latter being orientation dependent and reaching maximum for transmission in the armchair direction; and (3) for transmission ˜0.1 , a tunneling current valley polarization of the order of 10 % can be achieved.

  4. Valleytronics and phase transition in silicene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aftab, Tayyaba, E-mail: tayyaba.agha@gmail.com

    2017-03-11

    Highlights: • Energy shift in the Dirac points depending strongly on proximity exchange term. • Berry curvature is non-zero and valley dependent in silicene. • Orbital magnetic moments are opposite for each valley and tunable. • Charge carriers are polarized depending on valley and spin degree of freedom. • Interplay of electric field and spin orbit interaction causes phase transition. - Abstract: Magnetic and transport properties of silicene in the presence of perpendicular electromagnetic fields and a ferromagnetic material are studied. It is shown that for small exchange field, the magnetic moment associated with each valley is opposite for the other and it gives a shift in band energy, by a Zeeman-like coupling term. Thus opening a new horizon for valley–orbit coupling. Magnetic proximity effect is seen to adjust the spintronics of each valley. Valley polarization is calculated using the semi classical formulation of electron dynamics. It can be modified and measured due to its contribution in Hall conductivity. Quantum phase transitions are observed in silicene, providing a tool to control the topological state experimentally. The strong dependence of the physical properties on valley degree of freedom is an important step towards valleytronics.

  5. Shallow Sedimentary Structure of the Brahmaputra Valley Constraint from Receiver Functions Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Sowrav; Chopra, Sumer; Baruah, Santanu; Singh, Upendra K.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, receiver functions from ten Broadband seismograph stations on Cenozoic sediment formations of Brahmaputra valley and its neighboring region in northeastern part of India are determined. Receiver function traces from this region show delay in peak by 1-2.5 s and associated minor peaks with the direct P-phase peak. Based on such observation, we try to image sedimentary structure of the Brahmaputra valley plain, adjacent Shillong plateau and Himalayan foredeep region. An adapted hybrid global waveform inversion technique has been applied to extract sedimentary basin structure beneath each site. The sedimentary cover of the basin is about 0.5-6.5 km thick across the valley, 0.5-1.0 km on Shillong plateau and 2.0-5.0 km in nearby foredeep region. We have found that sedimentary thickness increases from SW to NE along the Brahmaputra valley and towards the Eastern Himalayan syntaxes. The estimated sediment thickness and S wave velocity structure agree well with the results of previous active source, gravity, and deep borehole studies carried out in this region. The thick crustal low velocity sediment cover in Brahmaputra valley is expected to amplify ground motions during earthquakes and therefore important for seismic hazard assessment of the region.

  6. Topological Valley Transport in Two-dimensional Honeycomb Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Jiang, Hua; Hang, Zhi Hong

    2018-01-25

    Two-dimensional photonic crystals, in analogy to AB/BA stacking bilayer graphene in electronic system, are studied. Inequivalent valleys in the momentum space for photons can be manipulated by simply engineering diameters of cylinders in a honeycomb lattice. The inequivalent valleys in photonic crystal are selectively excited by a designed optical chiral source and bulk valley polarizations are visualized. Unidirectional valley interface states are proved to exist on a domain wall connecting two photonic crystals with different valley Chern numbers. With the similar optical vortex index, interface states can couple with bulk valley polarizations and thus valley filter and valley coupler can be designed. Our simple dielectric PC scheme can help to exploit the valley degree of freedom for future optical devices.

  7. Christmas Valley Renewable Energy Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Mar, Robert [Oregon Department of Energy, Salem, OR (United States)

    2017-05-22

    In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. The Oregon Military Department (Military) acquired a large parcel of land located in south central Oregon. The land was previously owned by the US Air Force and developed for an Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Transmitter Facility, located about 10 miles east of the town of Christmas Valley. The Military is investigating a number of uses for the site, including Research and Development (R&D) laboratory, emergency response, military operations, developing renewable energy and related educational programs. One of the key potential uses would be for a large scale solar photovoltaic power plant. This is an attractive use because the site has excellent solar exposure; an existing strong electrical interconnection to the power grid; and a secure location at a moderate cost per acre. The project objectives include: 1. Site evaluation 2. Research and Development (R&D) facility analysis 3. Utility interconnection studies and agreements 4. Additional on-site renewable energy resources analysis 5. Community education, outreach and mitigation 6. Renewable energy and emergency readiness training program for veterans

  8. Resistivity structure and geochemistry of the Jigokudani Valley hydrothermal system, Mt. Tateyama, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Kaori; Kanda, Wataru; Tanbo, Toshiya; Ohba, Takeshi; Ogawa, Yasuo; Takakura, Shinichi; Nogami, Kenji; Ushioda, Masashi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Saito, Zenshiro; Matsunaga, Yasuo

    2016-10-01

    This study clarifies the hydrothermal system of Jigokudani Valley near Mt. Tateyama volcano in Japan by using a combination of audio-frequency magnetotelluric (AMT) survey and hot-spring water analysis in order to assess the potential of future phreatic eruptions in the area. Repeated phreatic eruptions in the area about 40,000 years ago produced the current valley morphology, which is now an active solfatara field dotted with hot springs and fumaroles indicative of a well-developed hydrothermal system. The three-dimensional (3D) resistivity structure of the hydrothermal system was modeled by using the results of an AMT survey conducted at 25 locations across the valley in 2013-2014. The model suggests the presence of a near-surface highly conductive layer of falling largely on a mixing line between magmatic fluids and local meteoric water (LMW). The geochemical analysis suggests that the hydrothermal system includes a two-phase zone of vapor-liquid. A comparison of the resistivity structure and the geochemically inferred structure suggests that a hydrothermal reservoir is present at a depth of approximately 500 m, from which hot-spring water differentiates into the three observed types. The two-phase zone appears to be located immediately beneath the cap rock structure. These findings suggest that the hydrothermal system of Jigokudani Valley exhibits a number of factors that could trigger a future phreatic eruption.

  9. Analysis of Mining-induced Valley Closure Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Mitra, R.; Oh, J.; Hebblewhite, B.

    2016-05-01

    Valley closure movements have been observed for decades in Australia and overseas when underground mining occurred beneath or in close proximity to valleys and other forms of irregular topographies. Valley closure is defined as the inward movements of the valley sides towards the valley centreline. Due to the complexity of the local geology and the interplay between several geological, topographical and mining factors, the underlying mechanisms that actually cause this behaviour are not completely understood. A comprehensive programme of numerical modelling investigations has been carried out to further evaluate and quantify the influence of a number of these mining and geological factors and their inter-relationships. The factors investigated in this paper include longwall positional factors, horizontal stress, panel width, depth of cover and geological structures around the valley. It is found that mining in a series passing beneath the valley dramatically increases valley closure, and mining parallel to valley induces much more closure than other mining orientations. The redistribution of horizontal stress and influence of mining activity have also been recognised as important factors promoting valley closure, and the effect of geological structure around the valley is found to be relatively small. This paper provides further insight into both the valley closure mechanisms and how these mechanisms should be considered in valley closure prediction models.

  10. Mars Ascent Vehicle Reaction Control System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During this Phase I NASA program, Valley Tech Systems (VTS) will develop an innovative solid Reaction Control System (RCS) architecture concept design that can...

  11. The lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the proceedings of a workshop on the Lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley that was held in conjunction with the CRP on The Use of Isotope Techniques in Lake Dynamics Investigations. The paper presents a review of the geological, hydrogeological and physical limnological setting of the lakes in the Jordan Rift Valley, Lake Hula, Lake Kinneret and the Dead Sea. This is complemented by a description of the isotope hydrology of the system that includes the use of a wide range of isotopes: oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium, carbon-14, carbon-13, chlorine isotopes, boron-11 and helium-3/4. Environmental isotope aspects of the salt balances of the lakes, their palaeolimnology and biogeochemical tracers are also presented. The scope of application of isotopic tracers is very broad and provides a clear insight into many aspects of the physical, chemical and biological limnology of the Rift Valley Lakes. (author)

  12. A new Proposal to Mexico Valley Zonification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Estrella, H. C.; Yussim, S.; Lomnitz, C.

    2004-12-01

    The effects of the Michoacan earthquake (19th September, 1985, Mw 8.1) in Mexico City caused a significant change in the political, social and scientific history, as it was considered the worst seismic disaster ever lived in Mexico. Since then, numerous efforts have been made to understand and determine the parameters that caused the special features registered. One of these efforts had began on 1960 with the work by Marsal and Masari, who published the Mexico Valley seismological and geotechnical zonification (1969), based on gravimetric and shallow borehole data. In this work, we present a revision of the studies that proposed the zonification, a description of the valley geology, and basing on it we propose a new zonification for Mexico Valley.

  13. Geologic summary of the Owens Valley drilling project, Owens and Rose Valleys, Inyo County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaer, D.W.

    1981-07-01

    The Owens Valley Drilling Project consists of eight drill holes located in southwest Inyo County, California, having an aggregate depth of 19,205 feet (5853 m). Project holes penetrated the Coso Formation of upper Pliocene or early Pleistocene age and the Owens Lake sand and lakebed units of the same age. The project objective was to improve the reliability of uranium-potential-resource estimates assigned to the Coso Formation in the Owens Valley region. Uranium-potential-resource estimates for this area in $100 per pound U 3 O 8 forward-cost-category material have been estimatd to be 16,954 tons (15,384 metric tons). This estimate is based partly on project drilling results. Within the Owens Valley project area, the Coso Formation was encountered only in the Rose Valley region, and for this reason Rose Valley is considered to be the only portion of the project area favorable for economically sized uranium deposits. The sequence of sediments contained in the Owens Valley basin is considered to be largely equivalent but lithologically dissimilar to the Coso Formation of Haiwee Ridge and Rose Valley. The most important factor in the concentration of significant amounts of uranium in the rock units investigated appears to be the availability of reducing agents. Significant amounts of reductants (pyrite) were found in the Coso Formation. No organic debris was noted. Many small, disconnected uranium occurrences, 100 to 500 ppM U 3 O 8 , were encountered in several of the holes

  14. Groundwater quality in Coachella Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Coachella Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Coachella study area is approximately 820 square miles (2,124 square kilometers) and includes the Coachella Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Coachella Valley has an arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The runoff from the surrounding mountains drains to rivers that flow east and south out of the study area to the Salton Sea. Land use in the study area is approximately 67 percent (%) natural, 21% agricultural, and 12% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban areas are the cities of Indio and Palm Springs (2010 populations of 76,000 and 44,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Coachella Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Coachella Valley are completed to depths between 490 and 900 feet (149 to 274 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 260 to 510 feet (79 to 155 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to

  15. Direct measurement of exciton valley coherence in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Kai; Moody, Galan; Wu, Fengcheng; Dass, Chandriker Kavir; Xu, Lixiang; Chen, Chang Hsiao; Sun, Liuyang; Li, Ming-yang; Li, Lain-Jong; MacDonald, Allan H.; Li, Xiaoqin

    2016-01-01

    In crystals, energy band extrema in momentum space can be identified by a valley index. The internal quantum degree of freedom associated with valley pseudospin indices can act as a useful information carrier, analogous to electronic charge

  16. Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope System Theory of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, George R.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this learning module is to enable learners to describe how the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) system functions in support of Apple Valley Science and Technology Center's (AVSTC) client schools' radio astronomy activities.

  17. Mechanical control over valley magnetotransport in strained graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ning, E-mail: maning@stu.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, MOE Key Laboratory of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Department of Applied Physics, MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhang, Shengli, E-mail: zhangsl@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu, Daqing, E-mail: liudq@cczu.edu.cn [School of Mathematics and Physics, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China)

    2016-05-06

    Recent experiments report that the graphene exhibits Landau levels (LLs) that form in the presence of a uniform strain pseudomagnetic field with magnitudes up to hundreds of tesla. We further reveal that the strain removes the valley degeneracy in LLs, and leads to a significant valley polarization with inversion symmetry broken. This accordingly gives rise to the well separated valley Hall plateaus and Shubnikov–de Haas oscillations. These effects are absent in strainless graphene, and can be used to generate and detect valley polarization by mechanical means, forming the basis for the new paradigm “valleytronics” applications. - Highlights: • We explore the mechanical strain effects on the valley magnetotransport in graphene. • We analytically derive the dc collisional and Hall conductivities under strain. • The strain removes the valley degeneracy in Landau levels. • The strain causes a significant valley polarization with inversion symmetry broken. • The strain leads to the well separated valley Hall and Shubnikov–de Haas effects.

  18. The Health Valley: Global Entrepreneurial Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuis, Benoit

    2014-12-01

    In the space of a decade, the Lake Geneva region has become the Health Valley, a world-class laboratory for discovering and developing healthcare of the future. Through visionary individuals and thanks to exceptional infrastructure this region has become one of the most dynamic in the field of innovation, including leading scientific research and exceptional actors for the commercialization of academic innovation to industrial applications that will improve the lives of patients and their families. Here follows the chronicle of a spectacular expansion into the Health Valley.

  19. Solar energy innovation and Silicon Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-03-01

    The growth of the U. S. and global solar energy industry depends on a strong relationship between science and engineering innovation, manufacturing, and cycles of policy design and advancement. The mixture of the academic and industrial engine of innovation that is Silicon Valley, and the strong suite of environmental policies for which California is a leader work together to both drive the solar energy industry, and keep Silicon Valley competitive as China, Europe and other area of solar energy strength continue to build their clean energy sectors.

  20. Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Coachella Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ICF Kaiser

    1999-05-20

    Southern California's Coachella Valley became a Clean Cities region in 1996. Since then, they've made great strides. SunLine Transit, the regional public transit provider, was the first transit provider to replace its entire fleet with compressed natural gas buses. They've also built the foundation for a nationally recognized model in the clean air movement, by partnering with Southern California Gas Company to install a refueling station and developing a curriculum for AFV maintenance with the College of the Desert. Today the valley is home to more than 275 AFVs and 15 refueling stations.

  1. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.27 Lime Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley...

  2. An example of Alaknanda valley, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014) have been best explained by the geometry .... flows through narrow valley confined by the steep valley slopes. ... valley (figure 3b) which opens up around Srina- ... Method. 4.1 Drainage basin and stream network. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) helps in extracting ... was processed to fill the pits or sinks, and to obtain.

  3. Hydraulic characterization of volcanic rocks in Pahute Mesa using an integrated analysis of 16 multiple-well aquifer tests, Nevada National Security Site, 2009–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C. Amanda; Jackson, Tracie R.; Halford, Keith J.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Damar, Nancy A.; Fenelon, Joseph M.; Reiner, Steven R.

    2017-01-20

    An improved understanding of groundwater flow and radionuclide migration downgradient from underground nuclear-testing areas at Pahute Mesa, Nevada National Security Site, requires accurate subsurface hydraulic characterization. To improve conceptual models of flow and transport in the complex hydrogeologic system beneath Pahute Mesa, the U.S. Geological Survey characterized bulk hydraulic properties of volcanic rocks using an integrated analysis of 16 multiple-well aquifer tests. Single-well aquifer-test analyses provided transmissivity estimates at pumped wells. Transmissivity estimates ranged from less than 1 to about 100,000 square feet per day in Pahute Mesa and the vicinity. Drawdown from multiple-well aquifer testing was estimated and distinguished from natural fluctuations in more than 200 pumping and observation wells using analytical water-level models. Drawdown was detected at distances greater than 3 miles from pumping wells and propagated across hydrostratigraphic units and major structures, indicating that neither faults nor structural blocks noticeably impede or divert groundwater flow in the study area.Consistent hydraulic properties were estimated by simultaneously interpreting drawdown from the 16 multiple-well aquifer tests with an integrated groundwater-flow model composed of 11 well-site models—1 for each aquifer test site. Hydraulic properties were distributed across volcanic rocks with the Phase II Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley Hydrostratigraphic Framework Model. Estimated hydraulic-conductivity distributions spanned more than two orders of magnitude in hydrostratigraphic units. Overlapping hydraulic conductivity ranges among units indicated that most Phase II Hydrostratigraphic Framework Model units were not hydraulically distinct. Simulated total transmissivity ranged from 1,600 to 68,000 square feet per day for all pumping wells analyzed. High-transmissivity zones exceeding 10,000 square feet per day exist near caldera margins and extend

  4. Testing of the West Valley Vitrification Facility transfer cart control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliwell, J.W.; Bradley, E.C.

    1995-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed and tested the control system for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Facility transfer cart. The transfer cart will transfer canisters of vitrified high-level waste remotely within the Vitrification Facility. The control system operates the cart under battery power by wireless control. The equipment includes cart-mounted control electronics, battery charger, control pendants, engineer's console, and facility antennas. Testing was performed in several phases of development: (1) prototype equipment was built and tested during design, (2) board-level testing was then performed at ORNL during fabrication, and (3) system-level testing was then performed by ORNL at the fabrication subcontractor's facility for the completed cart system. These tests verified (1) the performance of the cart relative to design requirements and (2) operation of various built-in cart features. The final phase of testing is planned to be conducted during installation at the West Valley Vitrification Facility

  5. Babesiosis in Lower Hudson Valley, New York

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-12

    This podcast discusses a study about an increase in babesiosis in the Lower Hudson Valley of New York state. Dr. Julie Joseph, Assistant Professor of Medicine at New York Medical College, shares details of this study.  Created: 5/12/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/23/2011.

  6. Rift Valley Fever, Mayotte, 2007–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giry, Claude; Gabrie, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Pettinelli, François; Collet, Louis; D’Ortenzio, Eric; Renault, Philippe; Pierre, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    After the 2006–2007 epidemic wave of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in East Africa and its circulation in the Comoros, laboratory case-finding of RVF was conducted in Mayotte from September 2007 through May 2008. Ten recent human RVF cases were detected, which confirms the indigenous transmission of RFV virus in Mayotte. PMID:19331733

  7. SADF EARLYIRON AGE EXCAVATIONS IN THETUGELA VALLEY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effect of the high flanking ridges of the Tugela. Valley. The high ... fire. Police intervention and the Bhengu superior- ity in numbers brought an end to the fights just prior to the ..... The tail and three legs of the reptile are miss- ing . . ~C£.'.':.-:".

  8. Potential hydrologic characterization wells in Amargosa Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyles, B.; Mihevc, T.

    1994-09-01

    More than 500 domestic, agricultural, and monitoring wells were identified in the Amargosa Valley. From this list, 80 wells were identified as potential hydrologic characterization wells, in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Test Area/Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (UGTA/RIFS). Previous hydrogeologic studies have shown that groundwater flow in the basin is complex and that aquifers may have little lateral continuity. Wells located more than 10 km or so from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) boundary may yield data that are difficult to correlate to sources from the NTS. Also, monitoring well locations should be chosen within the guidelines of a hydrologic conceptual model and monitoring plan. Since these do not exist at this time, recompletion recommendations will be restricted to wells relatively close (approximately 20 km) to the NTS boundary. Recompletion recommendations were made for two abandoned agricultural irrigation wells near the town of Amargosa Valley (previously Lathrop Wells), for two abandoned wildcat oil wells about 10 km southwest of Amargosa Valley, and for Test Well 5 (TW-5), about 10 km east of Amargosa Valley

  9. Geomorphological hazards in Swat valley, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, A.

    1999-01-01

    This study attempts to describe, interpret and analyze, in depth, the varied geomorphological hazards and their impacts prevailing in the swat valley locate in the northern hilly and mountainous regions of Pakistan. The hills and mountains re zones of high geomorphological activity with rapid rates of weathering, active tectonic activities, abundant precipitation, rapid runoff and heavy sediment transport. Due to the varied topography, lithology, steep slope, erodible soil, heavy winter snowfall and intensive rainfall in the spring and summer seasons, several kinds of geomorphological hazards, such as geomorphic gravitational hazards, Fluvial hazards, Glacial hazards, Geo tectonic hazards, are occurring frequently in swat valley. Amongst them, geomorphic gravitational hazards, such as rock fall rock slide, debris slide mud flow avalanches, are major hazards in mountains and hills while fluvial hazards and sedimentation are mainly confined to the alluvial plain and lowlands of the valley. The Getechtonic hazards, on the other hand, have wide spread distribution in the valley the magnitude and occurrence of each king of hazard is thus, varied according to intensity of process and physical geographic environment. This paper discusses the type distribution and damage due to the various geomorphological hazards and their reduction treatments. The study would to be of particular importance and interest to both natural and social scientists, as well as planner, environmentalists and decision-makers for successful developmental interventions in the region. (author)

  10. Antelope Valley Community College District Education Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmyer, Joe

    An analysis is provided of a proposal to the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges by the Antelope Valley Community College District (AVCCD) to develop an education center in Palmdale to accommodate rapid growth. First, pros and cons are discussed for the following major options: (1) increase utilization and/or expand the…

  11. Ecological Researches in the Yagnob Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razykov, Z.A.; Yunusov, M.M.; Bezzubov, N.I.; Murtazaev, Kh.; Fajzullaev, B.G.

    2002-01-01

    The article dwells on the resents of the estimation of the ecology surroundings of the Yagnob Valley. The researches included appraisal of radiation background, determination of the amount of heavy and radioactive elements in soil, bottom sedimentations, ashes in plants, water in rivers and wells. Designing on the premise of the researches implemented the ecology surrounding are estimated as propitious man's habitation. (Authors)

  12. 27 CFR 9.174 - Yadkin Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Yadkin Valley...-Salem, N.C.; VA; Tenn. (1953, Limited Revision 1962), and, (2) Charlotte, North Carolina; South Carolina... North Carolina within Wilkes, Surry, Yadkin and portions of Stokes, Forsyth, Davidson, and Davie...

  13. 27 CFR 9.41 - Lancaster Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lancaster Valley. 9.41 Section 9.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... through the town of Gap and along Mine Ridge to the 76°07′30″ west longitude line in Paradise Township. (9...

  14. NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU 366)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; Nikolich, George; Campbell, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 366, Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites Contamination Area (CA) during precipitation runoff events.

  15. College in Paradise! (Paradise Valley Shopping Mall).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolland, Lucile B.

    Rio Salado Community College (RSCC), a non-campus college within the Maricopa Community College District, offers hundreds of day, late afternoon, and evening classes at locations throughout the county. The Paradise Valley community had always participated heavily in the evening classes offered by RSCC at local high schools. In fall 1982, an effort…

  16. Temperature profiles from Salt Valley, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, J. H.; Lachenbruch, A. H.; Smith, E. P.

    Temperature profiles were obtained in the nine drilled wells as part of a thermal study of the Salt Valley anticline, Paradox Basin, Utha. Thermal conductivities were also measured on 10 samples judged to be representative of the rocks encountered in the deepest hole. The temperature profiles and thermal conductivities are presented, together with preliminary interpretive remarks and suggestions for additional work.

  17. Poultry Slaughter facility Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan focuses on the establishment of a slaughterhouse, one of the essential elements of a sustainable and profitable poultry meat value chain. There is a growing demand for poultry meat in the Zambezi Valley, and currently a large part of the consumed broilers comes from other parts of

  18. Business plan Hatchery Facility Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan focuses on the establishment of a hatchery, one of the essential elements of a sustainable and profitable poultry meat value chain. There is a growing demand for poultry meat in the Zambezi Valley, and currently a large part of the consumed broilers comes from other parts of the

  19. Eco-Hydrological Modelling of Stream Valleys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ole

    a flow reduction in the order of 20 % in a natural spring, whereas no effect could be measured in neither short nor deep piezometers in the river valley 50 m from the spring. Problems of measuring effects of pumping are partly caused by disturbances from natural water level fluctuations. In this aspect...

  20. The geochemistry of groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley: The impact of the Rift Valley brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, E.; Vengosh, A.; Gavrieli, I.; Marie, Amarisa; Bullen, T.D.; Mayer, B.; Polak, A.; Shavit, U.

    2007-01-01

    The chemical composition of groundwater in the Jordan Valley, along the section between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, is investigated in order to evaluate the origin of the groundwater resources and, in particular, to elucidate the role of deep brines on the chemical composition of the regional groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley. Samples were collected from shallow groundwater in research boreholes on two sites in the northern and southern parts of the Jordan Valley, adjacent to the Jordan River. Data is also compiled from previous published studies. Geochemical data (e.g., Br/Cl, Na/Cl and SO4/Cl ratios) and B, O, Sr and S isotopic compositions are used to define groundwater groups, to map their distribution in the Jordan valley, and to evaluate their origin. The combined geochemical tools enabled the delineation of three major sources of solutes that differentially affect the quality of groundwater in the Jordan Valley: (1) flow and mixing with hypersaline brines with high Br/Cl (>2 ?? 10-3) and low Na/Cl (shallow saline groundwaters influenced by brine mixing exhibit a north-south variation in their Br/Cl and Na/Cl ratios. This chemical trend was observed also in hypersaline brines in the Jordan valley, which suggests a local mixing process between the water bodies. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A valley-filtering switch based on strained graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Feng; Ma, Yanling; Zhang, Ying-Tao

    2011-09-28

    We investigate valley-dependent transport through a graphene sheet modulated by both the substrate strain and the fringe field of two parallel ferromagnetic metal (FM) stripes. When the magnetizations of the two FM stripes are switched from the parallel to the antiparallel alignment, the total conductance, valley polarization and valley conductance excess change greatly over a wide range of Fermi energy, which results from the dependence of the valley-related transmission suppression on the polarity configuration of inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Thus the proposed structure exhibits the significant features of a valley-filtering switch and a magnetoresistance device.

  2. A valley-filtering switch based on strained graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Feng; Ma Yanling; Zhang Yingtao

    2011-01-01

    We investigate valley-dependent transport through a graphene sheet modulated by both the substrate strain and the fringe field of two parallel ferromagnetic metal (FM) stripes. When the magnetizations of the two FM stripes are switched from the parallel to the antiparallel alignment, the total conductance, valley polarization and valley conductance excess change greatly over a wide range of Fermi energy, which results from the dependence of the valley-related transmission suppression on the polarity configuration of inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Thus the proposed structure exhibits the significant features of a valley-filtering switch and a magnetoresistance device. (paper)

  3. Terrestrial Cosmogenic-Nuclide Dating of Alluvial Fans in Death Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machette, Michael N.; Slate, Janet L.; Phillips, Fred M.

    2008-01-01

    We have used terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides (TCN) to establish the age of some of the most extensive Quaternary alluvial fans in Death Valley, California. These intermediate-age alluvial fans are most extensive on the western side of the valley, where tectonic deformation is considerably less pronounced than on the eastern side of the valley. These fans are characterized by a relatively smooth, densely packed desert pavement formed by well-varnished (blackened) clasts. These surfaces have been mapped as the Q2 gravel by previous workers and as unit Qai (intermediate age) by us. However, the intermediate-age gravels probably contain multiple subunits, as evidenced by slight differences in morphologic expression, soil formation, and inset geomorphic relations. The TCN technique used herein sums the cosmogenic 36Cl in approximately 2.5-meter-deep profiles through soil and host alluvium, thus avoiding some of the problems associated with the more typical surface-exposure dating of boulders or smaller clasts. Our TCN 36Cl dating of 12 depth profiles indicates that these intermediate-age (Qai) alluvial fans range from about 100 to 40 kilo-annum (ka), with a mean age of about 70 ka. An alternative interpretation is that alluvial unit Qai was deposited in two discrete episodes from 90 to 80 ka and from 60 to 50 ka, before and after MIS (marine oxygen-isotope stage) 4 (respectively). Without an intermediate-age unit, such as MIS 4 lake deposits, we can neither disprove nor prove that Qai was deposited in two discrete intervals or over a longer range of time. Thus, in Death Valley, alluvial unit Qai largely brackets MIS 4, which is not associated with a deep phase of Lake Manly. These Qai fans extend to elevations of about -46 meters (150 feet below sea level) and have not been transgressed by Lake Manly, suggesting that MIS 4 or MIS 2 lakes were rather shallow in Death Valley, perhaps because they lacked inflow from surface runoff of the Sierra Nevada drainages through

  4. Geological, geochemical and isotopic characteristics of the Archaean Kaap Valley pluton, Barberton mountain land, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, L.J.; Barton, J.M. Jr.; Kable, E.J.D.; Wallace, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Kaap Valley pluton consists predominantly of a homogeneous weakly foliated, hornblende-bearing tonalite. It is among the oldest granitoid bodies yet recognized in the environs of the Barberton greenstone belt, yielding 207 Pb/ 206 Pb mineral ages of about 3300 Ma and a Rb-Sr whole rock isochron age of about 3500 Ma. The Kaap Valley pluton is distinctive in many respects. Whereas all other gneiss plutons in the area are characterized by a trondhjemitic bulk composition with mafic mineralogies dominated by biotite, the Kaap Valley pluton is tonalitic in bulk composition with hornblende (plus minus minor biotite) as its major mafic phase. In this paper, the results of a detailed geological, geochemical and Pb-isotopic study of the Kaap Valley pluton are presented. Questions relating to the origin of the body are considered, with an emphasis on the formation of a tonalitic magma which is more mafic than those typically encountered in the region. Although exposure does not permit a detailed structural study of the gneiss pluton consideration is given to its mode of emplacement

  5. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley uranium mill tailings site Cane Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the Monument Valley UMTRA Project site near Cane Valley, Arizona, was completed in 1994. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Adverse ecological and agricultural effects may also result from exposure to contaminated ground water. For example, livestock should not be watered with contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site investigations will be used to determine a compliance strategy to comply with the UMTRA ground water standards

  6. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley uranium mill tailings site Cane Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the Monument Valley UMTRA Project site near Cane Valley, Arizona, was completed in 1994. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Adverse ecological and agricultural effects may also result from exposure to contaminated ground water. For example, livestock should not be watered with contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site investigations will be used to determine a compliance strategy to comply with the UMTRA ground water standards.

  7. Completion Report for Well ER-20-7: Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-04-28

    Well ER-20-7 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in June 2009 as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of the well was to further investigate migration of radionuclides from the nearby, up-gradient TYBO and BENHAM underground nuclear tests, which originally was discovered at Well Cluster ER-20-5. This well also provided detailed hydrogeologic information in the Tertiary volcanic section that will reduce uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model. The main 44.45-centimeter hole was drilled to a depth of 681.8 meters and cased with 33.97-centimeter casing to 671.7 meters. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.12 centimeters, and the well was drilled to total depth of 894.9 meters. The completion string, set to the depth of 890.0 meters, consists of 14.13-centimeter stainless-steel casing hanging from 19.37-centimeter carbon-steel casing. The 14.13-centimeter stainless-steel casing has one continuous slotted interval open to the Topopah Spring aquifer. Data collected during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3.0 meters, sidewall core samples from 20 depth intervals, various geophysical logs, water quality (primarily tritium) measurements, and water level measurements. The well penetrated 894.9 meters of Tertiary volcanic rock, including two saturated welded-tuff aquifers. A fluid level measurement was obtained during open-hole geophysical well logging for the upper, Tiva Canyon, aquifer at the depth of 615.7 meters on June 19, 2009. The fluid level measured in the open hole on June 27, 2009,after the total depth was reached and the upper aquifer was cased off, was also at the depth of 615.7 meters. Preliminary field measurements indicated 1

  8. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment: Science and Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotamarthi, VR

    2010-06-21

    emissions; and dust. The extended AMF deployment will enable measurements under different regimes of the climate and aerosol abundance—in the wet monsoon period with low aerosol loading; in the dry, hot summer with aerosols dispersed throughout the atmospheric column; and in the cool, dry winter with aerosols confined mostly to the boundary later and mid-troposphere. Each regime, in addition, has its own distinct radiative and atmospheric dynamic drivers. The aircraft operational phase will assist in characterizing the aerosols at times when they have been observed to be at the highest concentrations. A number of agencies in India will collaborate with the proposed field study and provide support in terms of planning, aircraft measurements, and surface sites. The high concentration of aerosols in the upper Ganges Valley, together with hypotheses involving several possible mechanisms with direct impacts on the hydrologic cycle of the region, gives us a unique opportunity to generate data sets that will be useful both in understanding the processes at work and in providing answers regarding the effects of aerosols on climate in a region where the perturbation is the highest.

  9. Groundwater quality in the Antelope Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Antelope Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Antelope study area is approximately 1,600 square miles (4,144 square kilometers) and includes the Antelope Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Antelope Valley has an arid climate and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff from the surrounding mountains draining towards dry lakebeds in the lower parts of the valley. Land use in the study area is approximately 68 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland and grassland), 24% agricultural, and 8% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban areas are the cities of Palmdale and Lancaster (2010 populations of 152,000 and 156,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Antelope Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Antelope Valley are completed to depths between 360 and 700 feet (110 to 213 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 180 to 350 feet (55 to 107 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation and sewer and septic

  10. Groundwater quality in the Owens Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Owens Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Owens study area is approximately 1,030 square miles (2,668 square kilometers) and includes the Owens Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Owens Valley has a semiarid to arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff primarily from the Sierra Nevada draining east to the Owens River, which flows south to Owens Lake dry lakebed at the southern end of the valley. Beginning in the early 1900s, the City of Los Angeles began diverting the flow of the Owens River to the Los Angeles Aqueduct, resulting in the evaporation of Owens Lake and the formation of the current Owens Lake dry lakebed. Land use in the study area is approximately 94 percent (%) natural, 5% agricultural, and 1% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban area is the city of Bishop (2010 population of 4,000). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to the Owens Lake dry lakebed. The primary aquifers in Owens Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database

  11. Microscopic Identification of Prokaryotes in Modern and Ancient Halite, Saline Valley and Death Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Brian A.; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Timofeeff, Michael N.

    2009-06-01

    Primary fluid inclusions in halite crystallized in Saline Valley, California, in 1980, 2004-2005, and 2007, contain rod- and coccoid-shaped microparticles the same size and morphology as archaea and bacteria living in modern brines. Primary fluid inclusions from a well-dated (0-100,000 years), 90 m long salt core from Badwater Basin, Death Valley, California, also contain microparticles, here interpreted as halophilic and halotolerant prokaryotes. Prokaryotes are distinguished from crystals on the basis of morphology, optical properties (birefringence), and uniformity of size. Electron micrographs of microparticles from filtered modern brine (Saline Valley), dissolved modern halite crystals (Saline Valley), and dissolved ancient halite crystals (Death Valley) support in situ microscopic observations that prokaryotes are present in fluid inclusions in ancient halite. In the Death Valley salt core, prokaryotes in fluid inclusions occur almost exclusively in halite precipitated in perennial saline lakes 10,000 to 35,000 years ago. This suggests that trapping and preservation of prokaryotes in fluid inclusions is influenced by the surface environment in which the halite originally precipitated. In all cases, prokaryotes in fluid inclusions in halite from the Death Valley salt core are miniaturized (<1 μm diameter cocci, <2.5 μm long, very rare rod shapes), which supports interpretations that the prokaryotes are indigenous to the halite and starvation survival may be the normal response of some prokaryotes to entrapment in fluid inclusions for millennia. These results reinforce the view that fluid inclusions in halite and possibly other evaporites are important repositories of microbial life and should be carefully examined in the search for ancient microorganisms on Earth, Mars, and elsewhere in the Solar System.

  12. Very high geothermal gradient in near surface of the Whataroa Valley adjacent to the Alpine Fault: topographic driving forces and permeable mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, P.; Sutherland, R.; Townend, J.; Coussens, J.; Capova, L.

    2015-12-01

    The first phase of the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP-1B) yielded a geothermal gradient of 62.6 ± 2.1 °C/km from a depth of 126 m where it intersected the Alpine Fault principal slip surface beneath Gaunt Creek (Sutherland et al. 2012). Ambient fluid pressures in DFDP-2B at Whataroa River were 8-10% above hydrostatic and a geothermal gradient of >130°C/km was determined, the geothermal gradient being considerably higher than we had predicted previously. 3D coupled thermal/fluid flow models have been generated of the Whataroa Valley and the DFDP-2 drill site. Modelling confirms that the following features, present in the Whataroa Valley, are a requirement for a geothermal gradient of >130°C/km at a depth of 1km beneath the valley; high topography, permeability on the order of 10-15 m2 in both the mountains and beneath the valleys to depths of > 1km below the valley floor, and abundant fluid. The high permeability and large topographic driving force leads to abundant meteoric water flowing downward through the mountains, hitting the permeability barrier of the Alpine Fault and being pushed upward into the valleys. The high geothermal gradient of the DFDP-2B borehole implies that the valleys also have a very high permeability which is likely a result of rock damage along the Alpine Fault.

  13. Ward Valley transfer stalled by Babbitt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt announced on November 24 that he would not authorize the land transfer for the proposed low-level waste disposal site at Ward Valley, California, until a legal challenge to the facility's license and environmental impact statement is resolved. Even if the matter is resolved quickly, there exists the possibility that yet another hearing will be held on the project, even though state courts in California have stated flatly that no such hearings are required

  14. Ward Valley transfer stalled by Babbitt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt announced on November 24 that he would not authorize the land transfer for the proposed low-level waste disposal site at Ward Valley, California, until a legal challenge to the facility's license and environmental impact statement is resolved. Even if the matter is resolved quickly, there exists the possibility that yet another hearing will be held on the project, even though state courts in California have stated flatly that no such hearings are required.

  15. Geologic Results from the Long Valley Exploratory Well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, Vicki S.; Eichelberger, John C.; Keskinen, Mary J.; Layer, Paul W.

    1992-03-24

    As a deep well in the center of a major Quaternary caldera, the Long Valley Exploratory Well (LVEW) provides a new perspective on the relationship between hydrothermal circulation and a large crustal magma chamber. It also provides an important test of models for the subsurface structure of active continental calderas. Results will impact geothermal exploration, assessment, and management of the Long Valley resource and should be applicable to other igneous-related geothermal systems. Our task is to use the cuttings and core from LVEW to interpret the evolution of the central caldera region, with emphasis on evidence of current hydrothermal conditions and circulation. LVEW has reached a depth of 2313 m, passing through post-caldera extrusives and the intracaldera Bishop Tuff to bottom in the Mt. Morrison roof pendant of the Sierran basement. The base of the section of Quaternary volcanic rocks related to Long Valley Caldera was encountered at 1800 m of which 1178 m is Bishop Tuff. The lithologies sampled generally support the classic view of large intercontinental calderas as piston-cylinder-like structures. In this model, the roof of the huge magma chamber, like an ill-fitting piston, broke and sank 2 km along a ring fracture system that simultaneously and explosively leaked magma as Bishop Tuff. Results from LVEW which support this model are the presence of intact basement at depth at the center of the caldera, the presence of a thick Bishop Tuff section, and textural evidence that the tuff encountered is not near-vent despite its central caldera location. An unexpected observation was the presence of rhyolite intrusions within the tuff with a cumulative apparent thickness in excess of 300 m. Chemical analyses indicate that these are high-silica, high-barium rhyolites. Preliminary {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar analyses determined an age of 626 {+-} 38 ka (this paper). These observations would indicate that the intrusions belong to the early post-collapse episode of

  16. Ground water in Dale Valley, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Allan D.

    1979-01-01

    Dale Valley is a broad valley segment, enlarged by glacial erosion, at the headwaters of Little Tonawanda Creek near Warsaw , New York. A thin, shallow alluvial aquifer immediately underlies the valley floor but is little used. A deeper gravel aquifer, buried beneath many feet of lake deposits, is tapped by several industrial wells. A finite-difference digital model treated the deep aquifer as two-dimensional with recharge and discharge through a confining layer. It was calibrated by simulating (1) natural conditions, (2) an 18-day aquifer test, and (3) 91 days of well-field operation. Streamflow records and model simulations suggest that in moderately wet years such as 1974, a demand of 750 gallons per minute could be met by withdrawal from the creek and from the aquifer without excessive drawdown at production wells or existing domestic wells. With reasonable but unverified model adjustments to simulate an unusually dry year, the model predicts that a demand of 600 gallons per minute could be met from the same sources. Water high in chloride has migrated from bedrock into parts of the deep aquifer. Industrial pumpage, faults in the bedrock, and the natural flow system may be responsible. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Valley- and spin-polarized oscillatory magneto-optical absorption in monolayer MoS2 quantum rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, D.; Villegas-Lelovsky, L.; Soler, M. A. G.; Qu, Fanyao

    2018-03-01

    Besides optical valley selectivity, strong spin-orbit interaction along with Berry curvature effects also leads to unconventional valley- and spin-polarized Landau levels in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) under a perpendicular magnetic field. We find that these unique properties are inherited to the magneto-optical absorption spectrum of the TMDC quantum rings (QRs). In addition, it is robust against variation of the magnetic flux and of the QR geometry. In stark contrast to the monolayer bulk material, the MoS2 QRs manifest themselves in both the optical valley selectivity and unprecedented size tunability of the frequency of the light absorbed. We also find that when the magnetic field setup is changed, the phase transition from Aharonov-Bohm (AB) quantum interference to aperiodic oscillation of magneto-optical absorption spectrum takes place. The exciton spectrum in a realistic finite thickness MoS2 QR is also discussed.

  18. Nucleation and growth of new particles in Po Valley, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hamed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol number distribution measurements are reported at San Pietro Capofiume (SPC station (44°39' N, 11°37' E for the time period 2002–2005. The station is located in Po Valley, the largest industrial, trading and agricultural area in Italy with a high population density. New particle formation was studied based on observations of the particle size distribution, meteorological and gas phase parameters. The nucleation events were classified according to the event clarity based on the particle number concentrations, and the particle formation and growth rates. Out of a total of 769 operational days from 2002 to 2005 clear events were detected on 36% of the days whilst 33% are clearly non-event days. The event frequency was high during spring and summer months with maximum values in May and July, whereas lower frequency was observed in winter and autumn months. The average particle formation and growth rates were estimated as ~6 cm−3 s−1 and ~7 nm h−1, respectively. Such high growth and formation rates are typical for polluted areas. Temperature, wind speed, solar radiation, SO2 and O3 concentrations were on average higher on nucleation days than on non-event days, whereas relative and absolute humidity and NO2 concentration were lower; however, seasonal differences were observed. Backtrajectory analysis suggests that during majority of nucleation event days, the air masses originate from northern to eastern directions. We also study previously developed nucleation event correlations with environmental variables and show that they predict Po Valley nucleation events with variable success.

  19. New approaches to dust mitigation in the Antelope Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farber, R.J.; Kim, B.M.; Grantz, D.A.; Vaughn, D.L.; Zink, T.; Skadberg, K.; Cowherd, C.; Grelinger, M.A.; Campbell, R.; De Salvio, A.; VanCuren, T.; Bort, J.

    1999-07-01

    The arid deserts of the southwestern US experience a frequent dust problem which can lead to PM10 violations. Blowing dust is also one of the major air quality problems of the arid deserts. From 1992 through the present, a group of research scientists have been investigating new techniques for mitigating the windblown dust in the Mojave Desert and more specifically the Antelope Valley near Palmdale and Lancaster, CA. This paper summarizes the progress made toward dust suppression in the Antelope Valley during the initial research phase from 1992 through 1996. During this period, there were both successes and failures. Stabilizing disturbed desert lands in a water-starved environment is challenging. The initial attempts focused on revegetation of native plants by seedings. There were mixed results depending on both the magnitude and timing of the rainfall. Various types of windfences were also erected and their effectiveness was studied using BSNE's. In the present program, the objectives have been broadened to include mitigating dust from all types of disturbed lands, not only abandoned farmlands. Techniques include new approaches to revegetation using seedlings, varying water treatments and soil amendments. An array of chemical suppressants are also being evaluated for cost-effectiveness as a function of longevity. Various geometries of wind fences have also been erected in blow sand areas and are being evaluated for cost-effectiveness using an interesting evaluation scheme. This portion of the paper provides a progress report of these latest dust mitigation techniques. This current research program is due to conclude about 2002. The end product of this decade research program will be a cookbook of dust mitigation solutions for various users including regulatory agencies, the USDA NRCS, farmers and construction interests.

  20. Geomorphic investigation of the Late-Quaternary landforms in the southern Zanskar Valley, NW Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shubhra; Hussain, Aadil; Mishra, Amit K.; Lone, Aasif; Solanki, Tarun; Khan, Mohammad Khatib

    2018-02-01

    The Suru, Doda and Zanskar river valleys in the semi-arid region of Southern Zanskar Ranges (SZR) preserve a rich repository of the glacial and fluvial landforms, alluvial fans, and lacustrine deposits. Based on detailed field observations, geomorphic mapping and limited optical ages, we suggest four glaciations of decreasing magnitude in the SZR. The oldest Southern Zanskar Glaciation Stage (SZS-4) is inferred from glacially polished bedrock and tillite pinnacles. The SZS-4 is ascribed to the Marine Isotopic Stage (MIS)-4/3. The subsequent SZS-3 is represented by obliterated and dissected moraines, and is assigned to MIS-2/Last Glacial Maximum. The multiple recessional moraines of SZS-2 glaciation are assigned the early to mid Holocene age whereas, the youngest SZS-1 moraines were deposited during the Little Ice Age. We suggest that during the SZS-2 glaciation, the Drang-Drung glacier shifted its course from Suru Valley (west) to the Doda Valley (east). The study area has preserved three generations of outwash gravel terraces, which broadly correlate with the phases of deglaciation associated with SZS-3, 2, and 1. The alluvial fan aggradation, lacustrine sedimentation, and loess deposition occurred during the mid-to-late Holocene. We suggest that glaciation was driven by a combination of the mid-latitude westerlies and the Indian Summer Monsoon during periods of cooler temperature, while phases of deglaciation occurred during enhanced temperature.

  1. Virgin Valley opal district, Humboldt County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staatz, Mortimer Hay; Bauer, Herman L.

    1951-01-01

    The Virgin Valley opal district, Humboldt County, Nevada, is near the Oregon-Nevada border in the Sheldon Game Refuge. Nineteen claims owned by Jack and Toni Crane were examined, sampled, and tested radiometrically for uranium. Numerous discontinuous layers of opal are interbedded with a gently-dipping series of vitric tuff and ash which is at least 300 ft thick. The tuff and ash are capped by a dark, vesicular basalt in the eastern part of the area and by a thin layer of terrace qravels in the area along the west side of Virgin Valley. Silicification of the ash and tuff has produced a rock that ranges from partly opalized rock that resembles silicified shale to completely altered rock that is entirely translucent, and consists of massive, brown and pale-green opal. Carnotite, the only identified uranium mineral, occurs as fracture coatings or fine layers in the opal; in places, no uranium minerals are visible in the radioactive opal. The opal layers are irregular in extent and thickness. The exposed length of the layers ranges from 8 to 1, 200 ft or more, and the thickness of the layers ranges from 0. 1 to 3. 9 ft. The uranium content of each opal layer, and of different parts of the same layer, differs widely. On the east side of Virgin Valley four of the seven observed opal layers, nos. 3, 4, 5, and 7, are more radioactive than the average; and the uranium content ranges from 0. 002 to 0. 12 percent. Two samples, taken 5 ft apart across opal layer no. 7, contained 0. 003 and 0. -049 percent uranium. On the west side of the valley only four of the fifteen observed opal layers, nos; 9, , 10, 14, and 15, are more radioactive than the average; and the uranium content ranges from 0. 004 to 0. 047 percent. Material of the highest grade was found in a small discontinuous layer of pale-green opal (no. 4) on the east side of Virgin Valley. The grade of this layer ranged from 0. 027 to 0. 12 percent uranium.

  2. Valley and spin thermoelectric transport in ferromagnetic silicene junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping Niu, Zhi; Dong, Shihao

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the valley and spin resolved thermoelectric transport in a normal/ferromagnetic/normal silicene junction. Due to the coupling between the valley and spin degrees of freedom, thermally induced pure valley and spin currents can be demonstrated. The magnitude and sign of these currents can be manipulated by adjusting the ferromagnetic exchange field and local external electric field, thus the currents are controllable. We also find fully valley and/or spin polarized currents. Similar to the currents, owing to the band structure symmetry, tunable pure spin and/or valley thermopowers with zero charge counterpart are generated. The results obtained here suggest a feasible way of generating a pure valley (spin) current and thermopower in silicene

  3. Valley-orbit hybrid states in Si quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, John; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S. N.

    2013-03-01

    The conduction band for electrons in layered Si nanostructures oriented along (001) has two low-lying valleys. Most theoretical treatments assume that these valleys are decoupled from the long-wavelength physics of electron confinement. In this work, we show that even a minimal amount of disorder (a single atomic step at the quantum well interface) is sufficient to mix valley states and electron orbitals, causing a significant distortion of the long-wavelength electron envelope. For physically realistic electric fields and dot sizes, this valley-orbit coupling impacts all electronic states in Si quantum dots, implying that one must always consider valley-orbit hybrid states, rather than distinct valley and orbital degrees of freedom. We discuss the ramifications of our results on silicon quantum dot qubits. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-08-1-0482) and NSF (DMR-0805045).

  4. Valley Hall effect and Nernst effect in strain engineered graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhi Ping; Yao, Jian-ming

    2018-04-01

    We theoretically predict the existence of tunneling valley Hall effect and Nernst effect in the normal/strain/normal graphene junctions, where a strained graphene is sandwiched by two normal graphene electrodes. By applying an electric bias a pure transverse valley Hall current with longitudinal charge current is generated. If the system is driven by a temperature bias, a valley Nernst effect is observed, where a pure transverse valley current without charge current propagates. Furthermore, the transverse valley current can be modulated by the Fermi energy and crystallographic orientation. When the magnetic field is further considered, we obtain a fully valley-polarized current. It is expected these features may be helpful in the design of the controllable valleytronic devices.

  5. Seasonal reversal at Miryang Eoreumgol (Ice Valley), Korea: observation and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Hi-Ryong; Tanaka, Hiroshi L.; Choi, Pom-Yong; Kim, Do-Woo

    2011-12-01

    We investigate an anomalous phenomenon evident in the Miryang Eoreumgol (Ice Valley), Korea: The wind and water are cold during summer and warm during winter, and ice formation does not occur in winter but in summer. We have initiated observations and investigations into the origin of heat sources particularly with regard to the mechanism of ice formation in summer. Previous theories, e.g., concerning underground gravity currents, water evaporation, diurnal and seasonal respirations of the talus, effects of ground heat, radiation and topography, etc., are considered. After a calculation of heat sources, we propose two new concepts—a repetitious heat separation mechanism and a positive feedback mechanism of cold air generation—to demonstrate that the heat mechanism of the seasonal reversal of the ice valley may be controlled by the use of the phase change between ice and water vapor with only a small amount of additional unknown energy.

  6. Induced dynamic nonlinear ground response at Gamer Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Z.; Bodin, P.; Langston, C.A.; Pearce, F.; Gomberg, J.; Johnson, P.A.; Menq, F.-Y.; Brackman, T.

    2008-01-01

    We present results from a prototype experiment in which we actively induce, observe, and quantify in situ nonlinear sediment response in the near surface. This experiment was part of a suite of experiments conducted during August 2004 in Garner Valley, California, using a large mobile shaker truck from the Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) facility. We deployed a dense accelerometer array within meters of the mobile shaker truck to replicate a controlled, laboratory-style soil dynamics experiment in order to observe wave-amplitude-dependent sediment properties. Ground motion exceeding 1g acceleration was produced near the shaker truck. The wave field was dominated by Rayleigh surface waves and ground motions were strong enough to produce observable nonlinear changes in wave velocity. We found that as the force load of the shaker increased, the Rayleigh-wave phase velocity decreased by as much as ???30% at the highest frequencies used (up to 30 Hz). Phase velocity dispersion curves were inverted for S-wave velocity as a function of depth using a simple isotropic elastic model to estimate the depth dependence of changes to the velocity structure. The greatest change in velocity occurred nearest the surface, within the upper 4 m. These estimated S-wave velocity values were used with estimates of surface strain to compare with laboratory-based shear modulus reduction measurements from the same site. Our results suggest that it may be possible to characterize nonlinear soil properties in situ using a noninvasive field technique.

  7. MX Siting Investigation. Gravity Survey - Sevier Desert Valley, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-24

    Cheyenne, Wyoming. DMAHTC reduces the data to Simple Bouguer Anomaly (see Section A1.4, Appendix Al.0). The Defense Mapping Agency Aerospace Center...Desert Valley, Utah ......... 2 2 Topographic Setting - Sevier Desert Valley, Utah . 3 LIST OF DRAWINGS Drawing Number 1 Complete Bouguer Anomaly...gravity stations were distributed throughout the valley at an approxi- mate interval of 1.4 miles (2.3 km). Drawing 1 is a Complete Bouguer Anomaly

  8. Disorder-dependent valley properties in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Tran, Kha

    2017-07-19

    We investigate the effect of disorder on exciton valley polarization and valley coherence in monolayer WSe2. By analyzing the polarization properties of photoluminescence, the valley coherence (VC) and valley polarization (VP) are quantified across the inhomogeneously broadened exciton resonance. We find that disorder plays a critical role in the exciton VC, while affecting VP less. For different monolayer samples with disorder characterized by their Stokes shift (SS), VC decreases in samples with higher SS while VP does not follow a simple trend. These two methods consistently demonstrate that VC as defined by the degree of linearly polarized photoluminescence is more sensitive to disorder, motivating further theoretical studies.

  9. Surface slip during large Owens Valley earthquakes

    KAUST Repository

    Haddon, E. K.; Amos, C. B.; Zielke, Olaf; Jayko, A. S.; Burgmann, R.

    2016-01-01

    The 1872 Owens Valley earthquake is the third largest known historical earthquake in California. Relatively sparse field data and a complex rupture trace, however, inhibited attempts to fully resolve the slip distribution and reconcile the total moment release. We present a new, comprehensive record of surface slip based on lidar and field investigation, documenting 162 new measurements of laterally and vertically displaced landforms for 1872 and prehistoric Owens Valley earthquakes. Our lidar analysis uses a newly developed analytical tool to measure fault slip based on cross-correlation of sublinear topographic features and to produce a uniquely shaped probability density function (PDF) for each measurement. Stacking PDFs along strike to form cumulative offset probability distribution plots (COPDs) highlights common values corresponding to single and multiple-event displacements. Lateral offsets for 1872 vary systematically from approximate to 1.0 to 6.0 m and average 3.31.1 m (2 sigma). Vertical offsets are predominantly east-down between approximate to 0.1 and 2.4 m, with a mean of 0.80.5 m. The average lateral-to-vertical ratio compiled at specific sites is approximate to 6:1. Summing displacements across subparallel, overlapping rupture traces implies a maximum of 7-11 m and net average of 4.41.5 m, corresponding to a geologic M-w approximate to 7.5 for the 1872 event. We attribute progressively higher-offset lateral COPD peaks at 7.12.0 m, 12.8 +/- 1.5 m, and 16.6 +/- 1.4 m to three earlier large surface ruptures. Evaluating cumulative displacements in context with previously dated landforms in Owens Valley suggests relatively modest rates of fault slip, averaging between approximate to 0.6 and 1.6 mm/yr (1 sigma) over the late Quaternary.

  10. Surface slip during large Owens Valley earthquakes

    KAUST Repository

    Haddon, E. K.

    2016-01-10

    The 1872 Owens Valley earthquake is the third largest known historical earthquake in California. Relatively sparse field data and a complex rupture trace, however, inhibited attempts to fully resolve the slip distribution and reconcile the total moment release. We present a new, comprehensive record of surface slip based on lidar and field investigation, documenting 162 new measurements of laterally and vertically displaced landforms for 1872 and prehistoric Owens Valley earthquakes. Our lidar analysis uses a newly developed analytical tool to measure fault slip based on cross-correlation of sublinear topographic features and to produce a uniquely shaped probability density function (PDF) for each measurement. Stacking PDFs along strike to form cumulative offset probability distribution plots (COPDs) highlights common values corresponding to single and multiple-event displacements. Lateral offsets for 1872 vary systematically from approximate to 1.0 to 6.0 m and average 3.31.1 m (2 sigma). Vertical offsets are predominantly east-down between approximate to 0.1 and 2.4 m, with a mean of 0.80.5 m. The average lateral-to-vertical ratio compiled at specific sites is approximate to 6:1. Summing displacements across subparallel, overlapping rupture traces implies a maximum of 7-11 m and net average of 4.41.5 m, corresponding to a geologic M-w approximate to 7.5 for the 1872 event. We attribute progressively higher-offset lateral COPD peaks at 7.12.0 m, 12.8 +/- 1.5 m, and 16.6 +/- 1.4 m to three earlier large surface ruptures. Evaluating cumulative displacements in context with previously dated landforms in Owens Valley suggests relatively modest rates of fault slip, averaging between approximate to 0.6 and 1.6 mm/yr (1 sigma) over the late Quaternary.

  11. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley Site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevalated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching; Treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovery is economically unattractive.

  12. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley Site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevalated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching; Treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovery is economically unattractive

  13. 78 FR 59840 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ...] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District... of plan. * * * * * (c) * * * (428) * * * (i) * * * (B) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...) * * * (i) * * * (B) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 431.1, ``Sulfur Content of...

  14. 78 FR 45114 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) portion of the California State... for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). The Antelope Valley Air Pollution...

  15. The uncanny valley in games and animation

    CERN Document Server

    Tinwell, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Advances in technology have enabled animators and video game designers to design increasingly realistic, human-like characters in animation and games. Although it was intended that this increased realism would allow viewers to appreciate the emotional state of characters, research has shown that audiences often have a negative reaction as the human likeness of a character increases. This phenomenon, known as the Uncanny Valley, has become a benchmark for measuring if a character is believably realistic and authentically human like. This book is an essential guide on how to overcome the Uncanny

  16. Neuroimaging Features of San Luis Valley Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T. Whitehead

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-month-old Hispanic female with a history of double-outlet right ventricle and developmental delay in the setting of recombinant chromosome 8 syndrome was referred for neurologic imaging. Brain MR revealed multiple abnormalities primarily affecting midline structures, including commissural dysgenesis, vermian and brainstem hypoplasia/dysplasia, an interhypothalamic adhesion, and an epidermoid between the frontal lobes that enlarged over time. Spine MR demonstrated hypoplastic C1 and C2 posterior elements, scoliosis, and a borderline low conus medullaris position. Presented herein is the first illustration of neuroimaging findings from a patient with San Luis Valley syndrome.

  17. Medicinal plants of Usherai valley, Dir, NWFP, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazarat, A.; Shah, J.; Ahmad, S.; Nasir, M.; Jan, A.K.; Skindar

    2010-01-01

    This research is based on the results of an ethno-botanical research conducted in Usherai Valley. The main objective was to enlist the wealth of medicinal plants. In total 50 species, belonging to 32 families of wild herbs, shrubs and trees were found to be used as medicinal plants by the inhabitants in the valley. (author)

  18. Esophageal cancer in north rift valley of western Kenya | Wakhisi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esophageal cancer in north rift valley of western Kenya. ... Our finding also contrast with an earlier reported study that indicated that Rift Valley is a low prevalence area for this type of cancer. The mean age ... This may lead to identification of molecular biomarkers to be used in future for the early detection of this neoplasm.

  19. 27 CFR 9.208 - Snake River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Snake River Valley. 9.208... Snake River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snake River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snake River Valley” is a term of viticultural...

  20. Rift Valley fever potential mosquito vectors and their infection status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonotic disease. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) has been isolated from more than 40 species of mosquitoes from eight genera. This study was conducted to determine the abundance of potential mosquito vectors and their RVFV infection status in Ngorongoro ...

  1. Some Environmental Issues of Inland Valleys: A Case Study | Asiam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study concluded that inland valleys can be real environmental liability because produce from such valleys can be polluted and hence can be a source of social conflict particularly when they fringe mineral concessions as the adverse impacts could be unfortunately attributed to mining activity and similar land uses.

  2. West Valley Reprocessing Plant. Safety analysis plant, supplement 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Supplement 18 contains the following additions to Appendix II--5.0 Geology and Seismology: Section 12 ''Seismic Investigations for Spent Fuel Reprocessing Facility at West Valley, New York,'' October 20, 1975, and Section 13 ''Earthquake Return Period Analysis at West Valley, New York, for Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc.'' November 5, 1975

  3. Salts in the dry valleys of Antartica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Presley, B. J.; Hatfield, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Dry Valleys of Antarctica are examples of polar deserts which are rare geological features on the Earth. Such deserts typically have high salinities associated with their closed-basin waters and on many surficial materials throughout them. In order to examine the possible sources for the salts observed in association with the soils in the Dry Valleys. The chloride and bromide concentrations of the water leachates from 58 soils and core samples were measured. The Cl/Br ratio for seawater is 289 and ratios measured for most of the 58 soils studied (greater than 85% of the soils studied) was larger than the seawater ratio (ratios typically were greater than 1000 and ranged up to 50,000). The enrichment in Cl relative to Br is strong evidence that the alts present within the soils were derived from seawater during ordinary evaporation processes, and not from the deposition of Cl and Br from aerosols or from rock weathering as has often been suggested.

  4. West Valley waste removal system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janicek, G.P.

    1981-04-01

    This study addresses the specific task of removing high-level wastes from underground tanks at Western New York Nuclear Center and delivering them to an onsite waste solidification plant. It begins with a review of the design and construction features of the waste storage tanks pertinent to the waste removal task with particular emphasis on the unique and complex tank internals which severely complicate the task of removal. It follows with a review of tank cleaning techniques used and under study at both Hanford and Savannah River and previous studies proposing the use of these techniques at West Valley. It concludes from these reviews that existing techniques are not directly transferable to West Valley and that a new approach is required utilizing selected feature and attributes from existing methodology. The study also concludes, from an investigation of the constraints imposed by the processing facility, that waste removal will be intermittent, requiring batch transfer over the anticipated 3 years of processing operations. Based on these reviews and conclusions, the study proposes that the acid waste be processed first and that one of the 15,000-gallon acid tanks then be used for batch feeding the neutralized waste. The proposed system would employ commercially available pumping equipment to transfer the wastes from the batch tank to processing via existing process piping. A commercially available mixed-flow pump and eight turbine pumps would homogenize the neutralized waste in conjunction with eight custom-fabricated sluicers for periodic transfer to the batch tank

  5. Hoopa Valley Small Scale Hydroelectric Feasibility Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis Miller

    2009-03-22

    This study considered assessing the feasibility of developing small scale hydro-electric power from seven major tributaries within the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation of Northern California (http://www.hoopa-nsn.gov/). This study pursued the assessment of seven major tributaries of the Reservation that flow into the Trinity River. The feasibility of hydropower on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has real potential for development and many alternative options for project locations, designs, operations and financing. In order to realize this opportunity further will require at least 2-3 years of intense data collection focusing on stream flow measurements at multiple locations in order to quantify real power potential. This also includes on the ground stream gradient surveys, road access planning and grid connectivity to PG&E for sale of electricity. Imperative to this effort is the need for negotiations between the Hoopa Tribal Council and PG&E to take place in order to finalize the power rate the Tribe will receive through any wholesale agreement that utilizes the alternative energy generated on the Reservation.

  6. 1982 environmental-monitoring program report for the West Valley Demonstration Project site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    This report is prepared and submitted in accordance with the requirements of DOE Order 5484.1 and presents environmental monitoring program data collected at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) site from February 26, 1982, through December 31, 1982. The WVDP objective is to solidify approximately 600,000 gallons of high-level liquid radioactive waste stored at the former Nuclear Fuel Services reprocessing facility at West Valley, New York. Nuclear Fuel Services conducted an environmental monitoring program in accordance with Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements which were appropriate for shutdown maintenance operations conducted at the site. That program was embraced by West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNS) at the time of transition (February 26, 1982) and will be modified to provide a comprehensive monitoring program in preparation for waste solidification operations scheduled for startup in June 1988. As such, the data presented in this report is considered preoperational in nature in accordance with DOE Order 5484.1, Chapter III, Paragraph 1. The environmental monitoring program planned for the operating phase of the project will be fully implemented by fiscal year 1985 and will provide at least two years of preoperational data prior to startup

  7. Valley current characterization of high current density resonant tunnelling diodes for terahertz-wave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, K. J. P.; Stevens, B. J.; Baba, R.; Wada, O.; Mukai, T.; Hogg, R. A.

    2017-10-01

    We report valley current characterisation of high current density InGaAs/AlAs/InP resonant tunnelling diodes (RTDs) grown by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) for THz emission, with a view to investigate the origin of the valley current and optimize device performance. By applying a dual-pass fabrication technique, we are able to measure the RTD I-V characteristic for different perimeter/area ratios, which uniquely allows us to investigate the contribution of leakage current to the valley current and its effect on the PVCR from a single device. Temperature dependent (20 - 300 K) characteristics for a device are critically analysed and the effect of temperature on the maximum extractable power (PMAX) and the negative differential conductance (NDC) of the device is investigated. By performing theoretical modelling, we are able to explore the effect of typical variations in structural composition during the growth process on the tunnelling properties of the device, and hence the device performance.

  8. Experimental data developed to support the selection of a treatment process for West Valley alkaline supernatant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, L.A.; Holton, L.K.; Myers, T.R.; Richardson, G.M.; Wise, B.M.

    1984-01-01

    At the request of West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has studied alternative treatment processes for the alkaline PUREX waste presently being stored in Tank 8D2 at West Valley, New York. Five tasks were completed during FY 1983: (1) simulation and characterization of the alkaline supernatant and sludge from the tank. The radiochemical and chemical distributions between the aqueous and solid phase were determined, and the efficiency of washing sludge with water to remove ions such as Na/sup +/ and SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ was investigated; (2) evaluation of a sodium tetraphenylboron (Na-TPB) precipitation process to recover cesium (Cs) and a sodium titanate (Na-TiA) sorption process to recover strontium (Sr) and plutonium (Pu) from the West Valley Alkaline supernatant. These processes were previously developed and tested at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant; (3) evaluation of an organic cation-exchange resin (Duolite CS-100) to recover Cs and Pu from the alkaline supernatant followed by an organic macroreticular cation exchange resin (Amberlite IRC-718) to recover Sr; (4) evaluation of an inorganic ion exchanger (Linde Ionsiv IE-95) to recover Cs, Sr, and Pu from the alkaline supernatant; and (5) evaluation of Dowex-1,X8 organic anion exchange resin to recover technetium (Tc) from alkaline supernatant. The findings of these tasks are reported. 21 references, 36 figures, 34 tables.

  9. Chemistry and Mineralogy of Antarctica Dry Valley Soils: Implications for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J. E.; Golden, D. C.; Graff, T. G.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Douglas, S.; Kounaves, S. P.; McKay, C. P.; Tamppari, L, K.; Smith, P. H.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADV) comprise the largest ice-free region of Antarctica. Precipitation almost always occurs as snow, relative humidity is frequently low, and mean annual temperatures are about -20 C. The ADV soils have previously been categorized into three soil moisture regimes: subxerous, xerous and ultraxerous, based on elevation and climate influences. The subxerous regime is predominately a coastal zone soil, and has the highest average temperature and precipitation, while the ultraxerous regime occurs at high elevation (>1000 m) and have very low temperature and precipitation. The amounts and types of salts present in the soils vary between regions. The nature, origin and significance of salts in the ADV have been previously investigated. Substantial work has focused on soil formation in the ADVs, however, little work has focused on the mineralogy of secondary alteration phases. The dominant weathering process in the ADV region is physical weathering, however, chemical weathering has been well documented. The objective of this study was to characterize the chemistry and mineralogy, including the alteration mineralogy, of soils from two sites, a subxerous soil in Taylor Valley, and an ultraxerous soil in University Valley. The style of aqueous alteration in the ADVs may have implications for pedogenic processes on Mars.

  10. Agricultural Influences on Cache Valley, Utah Air Quality During a Wintertime Inversion Episode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Several of northern Utah's intermountain valleys are classified as non-attainment for fine particulate matter. Past data indicate that ammonium nitrate is the major contributor to fine particles and that the gas phase ammonia concentrations are among the highest in the United States. During the 2017 Utah Winter Fine Particulate Study, USDA brought a suite of online and real-time measurement methods to sample particulate matter and potential gaseous precursors from agricultural emissions in the Cache Valley. Instruments were co-located at the State of Utah monitoring site in Smithfield, Utah from January 21st through February 12th, 2017. A Scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) acquired size distributions of particles from 10 nm - 10 μm in 5-min intervals. A URG ambient ion monitor (AIM) gave hourly concentrations for gas and particulate ions and a Chromatotec Trsmedor gas chromatograph obtained 10 minute measurements of gaseous sulfur species. High ammonia concentrations were detected at the Smithfield site with concentrations above 100 ppb at times, indicating a significant influence from agriculture at the sampling site. Ammonia is not the only agricultural emission elevated in Cache Valley during winter, as reduced sulfur gas concentrations of up to 20 ppb were also detected. Dimethylsulfide was the major sulfur-containing gaseous species. Analysis indicates that particle growth and particle nucleation events were both observed by the SMPS. Relationships between gas and particulate concentrations and correlations between the two will be discussed.

  11. Pupillary Responses to Robotic and Human Emotions: The Uncanny Valley and Media Equation Confirmed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Reuten

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Physiological responses during human–robots interaction are useful alternatives to subjective measures of uncanny feelings for nearly humanlike robots (uncanny valley and comparable emotional responses between humans and robots (media equation. However, no studies have employed the easily accessible measure of pupillometry to confirm the uncanny valley and media equation hypotheses, evidence in favor of the existence of these hypotheses in interaction with emotional robots is scarce, and previous studies have not controlled for low level image statistics across robot appearances. We therefore recorded pupil size of 40 participants that viewed and rated pictures of robotic and human faces that expressed a variety of basic emotions. The robotic faces varied along the dimension of human likeness from cartoonish to humanlike. We strictly controlled for confounding factors by removing backgrounds, hair, and color, and by equalizing low level image statistics. After the presentation phase, participants indicated to what extent the robots appeared uncanny and humanlike, and whether they could imagine social interaction with the robots in real life situations. The results show that robots rated as nearly humanlike scored higher on uncanniness, scored lower on imagined social interaction, evoked weaker pupil dilations, and their emotional expressions were more difficult to recognize. Pupils dilated most strongly to negative expressions and the pattern of pupil responses across emotions was highly similar between robot and human stimuli. These results highlight the usefulness of pupillometry in emotion studies and robot design by confirming the uncanny valley and media equation hypotheses.

  12. Four newly recorded species of Dryopteridaceae from Kashmir valley, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAKOOR AHMAD MIR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mir SA, Mishra AK, Reshi ZA, Sharma MP. 2014. Four newly recorded species of Dryopteridaceae from Kashmir valley, India. Biodiversitas 15: 6-11. Habitat diversity, elevation, cloud cover, rainfall, seasonal and temperature variations have created many ideal sites for the luxuriant growth of pteridophytes in the Kashmir valley, yet all the regions of the valley have not been surveyed. In Kashmir valley the family Dryopteridaceae is represented by 31 species. During the recent extensive field surveys of Shopian district four more species viz., Dryopteris caroli-hopei Fraser-Jenkins, Dryopteris blanfordii subsp. nigrosquamosa (Ching Fraser-Jenkins, Dryopteris pulvinulifera (Bedd. Kuntze and Polystichum Nepalense (Spreng C. Chr. have been recorded for the first time from the valley. The taxonomic description, synonyms, distribution and photographs of each species are given in this article.

  13. The quasi-steady state of the valley wind system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juerg eSchmidli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quasi-steady-state limit of the diurnal valley wind system is investigated overidealized three-dimensional topography. Although this limit is rarely attained inreality due to ever-changing forcings, the investigation of this limit canprovide valuable insight, in particular on the mass and heat fluxes associatedwith the along-valley wind. We derive a scaling relation for the quasi-steady-state along-valleymass flux as a function of valley geometry, valley size, atmospheric stratification,and surface sensible heat flux forcing. The scaling relation is tested by comparisonwith the mass flux diagnosed from numerical simulations of the valleywind system. Good agreement is found. The results also provide insight into the relationbetween surface friction and the strength of the along-valley pressure gradient.

  14. Hypogene caves of the central Appalachian Shenandoah Valley in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Daniel H.; Orndorff, Wil

    2017-01-01

    Several caves in the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia show evidence for early hypogenic conduit development with later-enhanced solution under partly confined phreatic conditions guided by geologic structures. Many (but not all) of these caves have been subsequently invaded by surface waters as a result of erosion and exhumation. Those not so affected are relict phreatic caves, bearing no relation to modern drainage patterns. Field and petrographic evidence shows that carbonate rocks hosting certain relict phreatic caves were dolomitized and/or silicified by early hydrothermal fluid migration in zones that served to locally enhance rock porosity, thus providing preferential pathways for later solution by groundwater flow, and making the surrounding bedrock more resistant to surficial weathering to result in caves that reside within isolated hills on the land surface. Features suggesting that deep phreatic processes dominated the development of these relict caves include (1) cave passage morphologies indicative of ascending fluids, (2) cave plans of irregular pattern, reflecting early maze or anastomosing development, (3) a general lack of cave breakdown and cave streams or cave stream deposits, and (4) calcite wall and pool coatings within isolated caves intersecting the local water table, and within unroofed caves at topographic locations elevated well above the local base level. Episodes of deep karstification were likely separated by long periods of geologic time, encompassing multiple phases of sedimentary fill and excavation within caves, and reflect a complex history of deep fluid migration that set the stage for later shallow speleogenesis that continues today.

  15. Water resources of Parowan Valley, Iron County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Thomas M.

    2017-08-29

    Parowan Valley, in Iron County, Utah, covers about 160 square miles west of the Red Cliffs and includes the towns of Parowan, Paragonah, and Summit. The valley is a structural depression formed by northwest-trending faults and is, essentially, a closed surface-water basin although a small part of the valley at the southwestern end drains into the adjacent Cedar Valley. Groundwater occurs in and has been developed mainly from the unconsolidated basin-fill aquifer. Long-term downward trends in groundwater levels have been documented by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since the mid-1950s. The water resources of Parowan Valley were assessed during 2012 to 2014 with an emphasis on refining the understanding of the groundwater and surface-water systems and updating the groundwater budget.Surface-water discharge of five perennial mountain streams that enter Parowan Valley was measured from 2013 to 2014. The total annual surface-water discharge of the five streams during 2013 to 2014 was about 18,000 acre-feet (acre-ft) compared to the average annual streamflow of about 22,000 acre-ft from USGS streamgages operated on the three largest of these streams from the 1940s to the 1980s. The largest stream, Parowan Creek, contributes more than 50 percent of the annual surface-water discharge to the valley, with smaller amounts contributed by Red, Summit, Little, and Cottonwood Creeks.Average annual recharge to the Parowan Valley groundwater system was estimated to be about 25,000 acre-ft from 1994 to 2013. Nearly all recharge occurs as direct infiltration of snowmelt and rainfall on the Markagunt Plateau east of the valley. Smaller amounts of recharge occur as infiltration of streamflow and unconsumed irrigation water near the east side of the valley on alluvial fans associated with mountain streams at the foot of the Red Cliffs. Subsurface flow from the mountain block to the east of the valley is a significant source of groundwater recharge to the basin-fill aquifer

  16. Surface slip during large Owens Valley earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddon, E.K.; Amos, C.B.; Zielke, O.; Jayko, Angela S.; Burgmann, R.

    2016-01-01

    The 1872 Owens Valley earthquake is the third largest known historical earthquake in California. Relatively sparse field data and a complex rupture trace, however, inhibited attempts to fully resolve the slip distribution and reconcile the total moment release. We present a new, comprehensive record of surface slip based on lidar and field investigation, documenting 162 new measurements of laterally and vertically displaced landforms for 1872 and prehistoric Owens Valley earthquakes. Our lidar analysis uses a newly developed analytical tool to measure fault slip based on cross-correlation of sublinear topographic features and to produce a uniquely shaped probability density function (PDF) for each measurement. Stacking PDFs along strike to form cumulative offset probability distribution plots (COPDs) highlights common values corresponding to single and multiple-event displacements. Lateral offsets for 1872 vary systematically from ∼1.0 to 6.0 m and average 3.3 ± 1.1 m (2σ). Vertical offsets are predominantly east-down between ∼0.1 and 2.4 m, with a mean of 0.8 ± 0.5 m. The average lateral-to-vertical ratio compiled at specific sites is ∼6:1. Summing displacements across subparallel, overlapping rupture traces implies a maximum of 7–11 m and net average of 4.4 ± 1.5 m, corresponding to a geologic Mw ∼7.5 for the 1872 event. We attribute progressively higher-offset lateral COPD peaks at 7.1 ± 2.0 m, 12.8 ± 1.5 m, and 16.6 ± 1.4 m to three earlier large surface ruptures. Evaluating cumulative displacements in context with previously dated landforms in Owens Valley suggests relatively modest rates of fault slip, averaging between ∼0.6 and 1.6 mm/yr (1σ) over the late Quaternary.

  17. Compact cluster growth on the half-plane: forest fires in a valley

    CERN Document Server

    Kearney, M J

    2003-01-01

    A two-parameter model on a directed lattice is introduced to represent the growth and spread of clusters on the half-plane. The model exhibits a phase transition in the compact directed percolation universality class between a state where clusters are finite with probability one and a state where clusters are infinite with non-zero probability. In the finite regime, exact expressions are given for the mean perimeter length and area of the generated clusters for a variety of different boundary conditions. An illustrative example is considered, namely a forest fire spreading before a prevailing wind along the floor and sides of an idealized valley.

  18. The carbon stable isotope biogeochemistry of streams, Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, W.B.; Leslie, D.L.; Harmon, R.S.; Neumann, K.; Welch, K.A.; Bisson, K.M.; McKnight, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► δ 13 C-DIC reported from McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, streams. ► Stream water δ 13 C PDB values range −9.4‰ to +5.1‰, largely inorganic in character. ► Atmospheric exchange is the dominant control on δ 13 C-DIC. - Abstract: The McMurdo Dry Valleys region of Antarctica is the largest ice-free region on the continent. This study reports the first C stable isotope measurements for dissolved inorganic C present in ephemeral streams in four dry valleys that flow for four to twelve weeks during the austral summer. One of these valleys, Taylor Valley, has been the focus of the McMurdo Dry Valleys Long-Term Ecological Research (MCM-LTER) program since 1993. Within Taylor Valley, numerous ephemeral streams deliver water to three perennially ice-covered, closed-basin lakes: Lake Fryxell, Lake Hoare, and Lake Bonney. The Onyx River in the Wright Valley, the longest river in Antarctica, flows for 40 km from the Wright Lower Glacier and Lake Brownworth at the foot of the glacier to Lake Vanda. Streamflow in the McMurdo Dry Valley streams is produced primarily from glacial melt, as there is no overland flow. However, hyporheic zone exchange can be a major hydrogeochemical process in these streams. Depending on landscape position, these streams vary in gradient, channel substrate, biomass abundance, and hyporheic zone extent. This study sampled streams from Taylor, Wright, Garwood, and Miers Valleys and conducted diurnal sampling of two streams of different character in Taylor Valley. In addition, transect sampling was undertaken of the Onyx River in Wright Valley. The δ 13 C PDB values from these streams span a range of greater than 14‰, from −9.4‰ to +5.1‰, with the majority of samples falling between −3‰ and +2‰, suggesting that the C stable isotope composition of dissolved C in McMurdo Dry Valley streams is largely inorganic in character. Because there are no vascular plants on this landscape and no groundwater input to these

  19. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching, treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be more than $500/lb of U 3 O 8 by heap leach or conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is economically unattractive

  20. Land use in the northern Coachella Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, J. B.; Bowden, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    Satellite imagery has proved to have great utility for monitoring land use change and as a data source for regional planning. In California, open space desert resources are under severe pressure to serve as a source for recreational gratification to individuals living in the heavily populated southern coastal plain. Concern for these sensitive arid environments has been expressed by both federal and state agencies. The northern half of the Coachella Valley has historically served as a focal point for weekend recreational activity and second homes. Since demand in this area has remained high, land use change from rural to urban residential has been occurring continuously since 1968. This area of rapid change is an ideal site to illustrate the utility of satellite imagery as a data source for planning information, and has served as the areal focus of this investigation.

  1. Israeli Infotech Migrants in Silicon Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Gold

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior to the 1980s, Israel’s national ideology discouraged emigration and entrepreneurship among its citizens. Yet, by the late 1990s, Israeli emigrants were one of the leading immigrant nationalities in Silicon Valley. Drawing on interviews, fieldwork, a literature review, and perusal of social media, I explore the origins of Israeli involvement in high-tech activities and the extensive linkages between Israeli emigrants and the Israeli high-tech industry. I also summarize the patterns of communal cooperation that permit emigrant families to maintain an Israel-oriented way of life in suburban communities south of San Francisco, and I compare these patterns with those of Indians, a nationality engaged in the same pursuit. I conclude by considering the impact of infotech involvement on Israeli immigrants and on the U.S. economy.

  2. Elk Valley Coal innovation paving the way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.; Ednie, H.; Weldon, H.

    2006-09-15

    Elk Valley Coal maintains performance optimization across its six metallurgical coal operations. Performance, personnel issues, and training are discussed. Programmes at Fording River, Greenhills, and Coal Mountain are described. Fording River is implementing new computer systems and high-speed wireless networks. The pit control system and the equipment maintenance and remote maintenance programmes are being improved. The Glider Kit program to rebuild major equipment is described. Safety and productivity measures at Greenhills include testing and evaluation of innovations such as the Drilling and Blasting System (DABS), a payload monitor on a shovel, and two GPS-based systems. Blasting methods, a timing study that examines wall stability, fragmentation simulation, and the Six Mine structure at Coal Mountain are described. 5 photos.

  3. Hydrogeological reconnaissance study: Dyfi Valley, Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendining, S.J.

    1981-10-01

    This report describes work carried out for the Department of the Environment as part of its research programme into radioactive waste management. It presents an account of a hydrogeological reconnaissance study in the Dyfi Valley area of Central Wales. Initially the purposes of such a study are given and the assumptions used in deriving parameters such as flow volume, path length and transit time in areas of massive fractured rocks are described. Using these assumptions with geological, topographic and hydrometeorological data the potential ranges in properties such as bulk hydraulic conductivity, path lengths, hydraulic gradients and volumes of groundwater flow have been determined. These ranges have been used to estimate solute transport model parameters. The limitations and usefulness of the reconnaissance study in planning research and siting exploratory boreholes in the Dyfi area are discussed. (author)

  4. Functional ecology of an Antarctic Dry Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yuki; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Pointing, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys are the largest ice-free region in Antarctica and are critically at risk from climate change. The terrestrial landscape is dominated by oligotrophic mineral soils and extensive exposed rocky surfaces where biota are largely restricted to microbial communities, although their ability to perform the majority of geobiological processes has remained largely uncharacterized. Here, we identified functional traits that drive microbial survival and community assembly, using a metagenomic approach with GeoChip-based functional gene arrays to establish metabolic capabilities in communities inhabiting soil and rock surface niches in McKelvey Valley. Major pathways in primary metabolism were identified, indicating significant plasticity in autotrophic, heterotrophic, and diazotrophic strategies supporting microbial communities. This represents a major advance beyond biodiversity surveys in that we have now identified how putative functional ecology drives microbial community assembly. Significant differences were apparent between open soil, hypolithic, chasmoendolithic, and cryptoendolithic communities. A suite of previously unappreciated Antarctic microbial stress response pathways, thermal, osmotic, and nutrient limitation responses were identified and related to environmental stressors, offering tangible clues to the mechanisms behind the enduring success of microorganisms in this seemingly inhospitable terrain. Rocky substrates exposed to larger fluctuations in environmental stress supported greater functional diversity in stress-response pathways than soils. Soils comprised a unique reservoir of genes involved in transformation of organic hydrocarbons and lignin-like degradative pathways. This has major implications for the evolutionary origin of the organisms, turnover of recalcitrant substrates in Antarctic soils, and predicting future responses to anthropogenic pollution. PMID:23671121

  5. Direct measurement of exciton valley coherence in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Kai

    2016-02-29

    In crystals, energy band extrema in momentum space can be identified by a valley index. The internal quantum degree of freedom associated with valley pseudospin indices can act as a useful information carrier, analogous to electronic charge or spin. Interest in valleytronics has been revived in recent years following the discovery of atomically thin materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides. However, the valley coherence time—a crucial quantity for valley pseudospin manipulation—is difficult to directly probe. In this work, we use two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy to resonantly generate and detect valley coherence of excitons (Coulomb-bound electron–hole pairs) in monolayer WSe2 (refs ,). The imposed valley coherence persists for approximately one hundred femtoseconds. We propose that the electron–hole exchange interaction provides an important decoherence mechanism in addition to exciton population recombination. This work provides critical insight into the requirements and strategies for optical manipulation of the valley pseudospin for future valleytronics applications.

  6. Valley-chiral quantum Hall state in graphene superlattice structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H. Y.; Tao, W. W.; Wang, J.; Cui, Y. H.; Xu, N.; Huang, B. B.; Luo, G. X.; Hao, Y. H.

    2016-05-01

    We theoretically investigate the quantum Hall effect in a graphene superlattice (GS) system, in which the two valleys of graphene are coupled together. In the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field, an ordinary quantum Hall effect is found with the sequence σxy=ν e^2/h(ν=0,+/-1,+/-2,\\cdots) . At the zeroth Hall platform, a valley-chiral Hall state stemming from the single K or K' valley is found and it is localized only on one sample boundary contributing to the longitudinal conductance but not to the Hall conductivity. Our findings may shed light on the graphene-based valleytronics applications.

  7. Groundwater availability of the Central Valley Aquifer, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, Claudia C.

    2009-01-01

    California's Central Valley covers about 20,000 square miles and is one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. More than 250 different crops are grown in the Central Valley with an estimated value of $17 billion per year. This irrigated agriculture relies heavily on surface-water diversions and groundwater pumpage. Approximately one-sixth of the Nation's irrigated land is in the Central Valley, and about one-fifth of the Nation's groundwater demand is supplied from its aquifers. The Central Valley also is rapidly becoming an important area for California's expanding urban population. Since 1980, the population of the Central Valley has nearly doubled from 2 million to 3.8 million people. The Census Bureau projects that the Central Valley's population will increase to 6 million people by 2020. This surge in population has increased the competition for water resources within the Central Valley and statewide, which likely will be exacerbated by anticipated reductions in deliveries of Colorado River water to southern California. In response to this competition for water, a number of water-related issues have gained prominence: conservation of agricultural land, conjunctive use, artificial recharge, hydrologic implications of land-use change, and effects of climate variability. To provide information to stakeholders addressing these issues, the USGS Groundwater Resources Program made a detailed assessment of groundwater availability of the Central Valley aquifer system, that includes: (1) the present status of groundwater resources; (2) how these resources have changed over time; and (3) tools to assess system responses to stresses from future human uses and climate variability and change. This effort builds on previous investigations, such as the USGS Central Valley Regional Aquifer System and Analysis (CV-RASA) project and several other groundwater studies in the Valley completed by Federal, State and local agencies at differing scales. The

  8. Results of the flowmeter-injection test in the Long Valley Exploratory Well (Phase II), Long Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, R.H.; Sorey, M.L.; Jacobson, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    Bayboro Harbor and the Port of St. Petersburg, Florida, form a manmade basin adjacent to Tampa Bay that may supply turbid water to the bay and subsequently affect light penetration in water in the bay. To address concerns about the nature and extent of this potential problem, resuspension of bottom sediments, sedimentation, and tributary storm discharge in the basin were studied. Study results indicated that tidal currents, wind waves, and seiche motions do not resuspend bottom sediments. The maneuvering of a cruise ship in the port resuspended bottom sediments, but these sediments settled within 2 hours. Tidal currents and wave action were not large enough o prevent the resuspended sediments from settling in the basin. Analysis of bathymetric surveys of the port made in 1981, 1986, 1987, and 1989 indicates that the cruise ship has deepened the port along its route and that the displaced sediment has been deposited elsewhere within the port. The storm discharge from two tributaries and the effect of tributary storm runoff on the water quality of the harbor were studied during a storm on November 9, 1989. Booker Creek, which drains an urban watershed, was stratified with a thin layer of turbid freshwater flowing into the harbor over a layer of less turbid saltwater. Salt Creek, which primarily drains Lake Maggiore, was only partially stratified and was less turbid. The turbid water from the creeks increased the turbidity only slightly in the harbor, probably because of mixing with less turbid water and particle settling. Thus, the basin provides mixing and settling, which diminish and eliminate the potentially adverse effect on Tampa Bay from tributary storm runoff and large vessel traffic in the basin.

  9. 76 FR 18542 - Copper Valley Electric Association; Notice of Scoping Document 2 and Soliciting Scoping Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13124-002] Copper Valley.... Applicant: Copper Valley Electric Association (Copper Valley) d. Name of Project: Allison Creek Project. e.... 791(a)-825(r). g. Applicant Contact: Robert A. Wilkinson, CEO, Copper Valley Electric Association, P.O...

  10. The Ohio River Valley CO2 Storage Project AEP Mountaineer Plan, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2009-01-07

    This report includes an evaluation of deep rock formations with the objective of providing practical maps, data, and some of the issues considered for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage projects in the Ohio River Valley. Injection and storage of CO{sub 2} into deep rock formations represents a feasible option for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from coal-burning power plants concentrated along the Ohio River Valley area. This study is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), American Electric Power (AEP), BP, Ohio Coal Development Office, Schlumberger, and Battelle along with its Pacific Northwest Division. An extensive program of drilling, sampling, and testing of a deep well combined with a seismic survey was used to characterize the local and regional geologic features at AEP's 1300-megawatt (MW) Mountaineer Power Plant. Site characterization information has been used as part of a systematic design feasibility assessment for a first-of-a-kind integrated capture and storage facility at an existing coal-fired power plant in the Ohio River Valley region--an area with a large concentration of power plants and other emission sources. Subsurface characterization data have been used for reservoir simulations and to support the review of the issues relating to injection, monitoring, strategy, risk assessment, and regulatory permitting. The high-sulfur coal samples from the region have been tested in a capture test facility to evaluate and optimize basic design for a small-scale capture system and eventually to prepare a detailed design for a capture, local transport, and injection facility. The Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} Storage Project was conducted in phases with the ultimate objectives of demonstrating both the technical aspects of CO{sub 2} storage and the testing, logistical, regulatory, and outreach issues related to conducting such a project at a large point source under realistic constraints. The site

  11. Historical Population Structure of Central Valley Steelhead and Its Alteration by Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven T. Lindley

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Effective conservation and recovery planning for Central Valley steelhead requires an understanding of historical population structure. We describe the historical structure of the Central Valley steelhead evolutionarily significant unit using a multi-phase modeling approach. In the first phase, we identify stream reaches possibly suitable for steelhead spawning and rearing using a habitat model based on environmental envelopes (stream discharge, gradient, and temperature that takes a digital elevation model and climate data as inputs. We identified 151 patches of potentially suitable habitat with more than 10 km of stream habitat, with a total of 25,500 km of suitable habitat. We then measured the distances among habitat patches, and clustered together patches within 35 km of each other into 81 distinct habitat patches. Groups of fish using these 81 patches are hypothesized to be (or to have been independent populations for recovery planning purposes. Consideration of climate and elevation differences among the 81 habitat areas suggests that there are at least four major subdivisions within the Central Valley steelhead ESU that correspond to geographic regions defined by the Sacramento River basin, Suisun Bay area tributaries, San Joaquin tributaries draining the Sierra Nevada, and lower-elevation streams draining to the Buena Vista and Tulare basins, upstream of the San Joaquin River. Of these, it appears that the Sacramento River basin was the main source of steelhead production. Presently, impassable dams block access to 80% of historically available habitat, and block access to all historical spawning habitat for about 38% of the historical populations of steelhead.

  12. Enhanced toxicity of aerosol in fog conditions in the Po Valley, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decesari, Stefano; Sowlat, Mohammad Hossein; Hasheminassab, Sina; Sandrini, Silvia; Gilardoni, Stefania; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Fuzzi, Sandro; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2017-06-01

    While numerous studies have demonstrated the association between outdoor exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects, the actual chemical species responsible for PM toxicological properties remain a subject of investigation. We provide here reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity data for PM samples collected at a rural site in the Po Valley, Italy, during the fog season (i.e., November-March). We show that the intrinsic ROS activity of Po Valley PM, which is mainly composed of biomass burning and secondary aerosols, is comparable to that of traffic-related particles in urban areas. The airborne concentration of PM components responsible for the ROS activity decreases in fog conditions, when water-soluble species are scavenged within the droplets. Due to this partitioning effect of fog, the measured ROS activity of fog water was contributed mainly by water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and secondary inorganic ions rather than by transition metals. We found that the intrinsic ROS activity of fog droplets is even greater (> 2.5 times) than that of the PM on which droplets are formed, indicating that redox-active compounds are not only scavenged from the particulate phase, but are also produced within the droplets. Therefore, even if fog formation exerts a scavenging effect on PM mass and redox-active compounds, the aqueous-phase formation of reactive secondary organic compounds can eventually enhance ROS activity of PM when fog evaporates. These findings, based on a case study during a field campaign in November 2015, indicate that a significant portion of airborne toxicity in the Po Valley is largely produced by environmental conditions (fog formation and fog processing) and not simply by the emission and transport of pollutants.

  13. California's Central Valley Groundwater Study: A Powerful New Tool to Assess Water Resources in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, Claudia C.; Hanson, Randall T.; Belitz, Kenneth; Rogers, Laurel

    2009-01-01

    Competition for water resources is growing throughout California, particularly in the Central Valley. Since 1980, the Central Valley's population has nearly doubled to 3.8 million people. It is expected to increase to 6 million by 2020. Statewide population growth, anticipated reductions in Colorado River water deliveries, drought, and the ecological crisis in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta have created an intense demand for water. Tools and information can be used to help manage the Central Valley aquifer system, an important State and national resource.

  14. Water-quality assessment of the Rio Grande Valley, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas; occurrence and distribution of selected pesticides and nutrients at selected surface-water sites in the Mesilla Valley, 1994-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, D.F.

    1996-01-01

    The Rio Grande Valley study unit of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program conducted a two-phase synoptic study of the occurrence and distribution of pesticides and nutrients in the surface water of the Mesilla Valley, New Mexico and Texas. Phase one, conducted in April-May 1994 during the high-flow irrigation season, consisted of a 6-week time- series sampling event during which 17 water-column samples were collected at 3 main-stem sites on the Rio Grande and a synoptic irrigation-run sampling event during which 19 water-column samples were collected at 7 main-stem sites, 10 drain sites, and 2 sites at the discharges of wastewater-treatment plants. Three samples are included in both the time-series and irrigation-run events. Phase two, conducted in January 1995 during the low-flow non-irrigation season, consisted of a non-irrigation synoptic sampling event during which 18 water-column samples were collected at seven main-stem sites, nine drain sites, and two sites at the discharges of wastewater-treatment plants and a bed- material sampling event during which 6 bed-material samples were collected at six sites near the mouths of drains that discharge to the Rio Grande. The 51 water-column samples were analyzed for 78 pesticides and metabolites and 8 nutrients along with other constituents. The six bed-material samples were analyzed for 21 pesticides and metabolites, gross polychlorinated biphenyls, and gross polychlorinated naphthalenes. The presence of dissolved pesticides in the surface water of the Mesilla Valley is erratic. A total of 100 detections of 17 different pesticides were detected in 44 of the water-column samples. As many as 38 percent of these detections may be attributed to pesticide use upstream from the valley or to nonagricultural pesticide use within the valley. There were 29 detections of 10 different pesticides in 17 samples during the irrigation run and 41 detections of 13 pesticides in 16 samples during the non

  15. Gravity and magnetic data of Midway Valley, southwest Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, D.A.; Langenheim, V.E.; Sikora, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed gravity and ground magnetic data collected along five traverses across Midway Valley on the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain in southwest Nevada are described. These data were collected as part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of proposed surface facilities for a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Geophysical data show that Midway Valley is bounded by large gravity and magnetic anomalies associated with the Bow Ridge and Paintbrush Canyon faults, on the west side of Exile Hill and on the west flank of Fran Ridge, respectively. In addition, Midway Valley itself is characterized by a number of small-amplitude anomalies that probably reflect small-scale faulting beneath Midway Valley

  16. Sutter Buttes-the lone volcano in California's Great Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausback, Brain P.; Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Clynne, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The volcanic spires of the Sutter Buttes tower 2,000 feet above the farms and fields of California's Great Valley, just 50 miles north-northwest of Sacramento and 11 miles northwest of Yuba City. The only volcano within the valley, the Buttes consist of a central core of volcanic domes surrounded by a large apron of fragmental volcanic debris. Eruptions at the Sutter Buttes occurred in early Pleistocene time, 1.6 to 1.4 million years ago. The Sutter Buttes are not part of the Cascade Range of volcanoes to the north, but instead are related to the volcanoes in the Coast Ranges to the west in the vicinity of Clear Lake, Napa Valley, and Sonoma Valley.

  17. San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Research Center (SAHERC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At the San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Center, located at the University of California-Davis, researchers will investigate the properties of particles that...

  18. 27 CFR 9.119 - Middle Rio Grande Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Middle Rio Grande Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is... 1979. (24) Veguita, N. Mex. (1952), revised 1979. (25) Wind Mesa, N. Mex. (1952), revised 1967. (c...

  19. Chinook Critical Habitat, Central Valley - NOAA [ds125

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer depicts areas designated for Chinook Critical Habitat as well as habitat type and quality in the Central Valley Spring-run Evolutionary Significant Unit...

  20. Comparison of access to medicines between Klang Valley and East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    income of USD1/person/day) between urbanised Klang Valley and rural East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: A semi-structured interview was conducted with caregivers to determine demographics, access to medicines, knowledge, ...

  1. West Valley Reprocessing Plant. Safety analysis report, supplement 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Supplement No. 21 contains responses to USNRC questions on quality assurance contained in USNRC letter to NFS dated January 22, 1976, revised pages for the safety analysis report, and Appendix IX ''Quality Assurance Manual--West Valley Construction Projects.''

  2. Chinook Critical Habitat, Central Valley - NOAA [ds125

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This layer depicts areas designated for Chinook Critical Habitat as well as habitat type and quality in the Central Valley Spring-run Evolutionary Significant Unit...

  3. Steelhead Critical Habitat, Central Valley - NOAA [ds123

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This layer depicts areas designated for Steelhead Critical Habitat as well as habitat type and quality in the California Central Valley Evolutionary Significant Unit...

  4. 1 characteristics, classification and management of inland valley

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE AKINNAGBE

    adopting the rice culture, or adopting a system of shallow drain-ditches with mound-tillage to ... Keywords: Inland valley soils, Drainage, Tillage, Soil management and conservation, Crop ..... This indicates that much of rainwater runs off.

  5. Bird Use of Imperial Valley Crops [ds427

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Agriculture crops in the Imperial Valley of California provide valuable habitat for many resident and migratory birds and are a very important component of the...

  6. Comparison of sampling techniques for Rift Valley Fever virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    time for trapping potential vectors for Rift Valley Fever virus. ..... Krockel, U., Rose, A., Eiras, A.E. & Geier, M. (2006) New tools for surveillance of adult yellow fever ... baited trapping systems for sampling outdoor mosquito populations in ...

  7. 27 CFR 9.66 - Russian River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Springs map. (22) Proceed 4.8 miles north-northwest along Mark West Springs Road, which becomes Porter Creek Road, to its intersection with Franz Valley Road, a light-duty road to the north of Porter Creek...

  8. An Evaluation of Mesoscale Model Predictions of Down-Valley and Canyon Flows and Their Consequences Using Doppler Lidar Measurements During VTMX 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, Jerome D.; Darby, Lisa S.

    2004-01-01

    A mesoscale model, a Lagrangian particle dispersion model, and extensive Doppler lidar wind measurements during the VTMX 2000 field campaign were used to examine converging flows over the Salt Lake Valley and their effect on vertical mixing of tracers at night and during the morning transition period. The simulated wind components were transformed into radial velocities to make a direct comparison with about 1.3 million Doppler lidar data points and critically evaluate, using correlation coefficients, the spatial variations in the simulated wind fields aloft. The mesoscale model captured reasonably well the general features of the observed circulations including the daytime up-valley flow, the nighttime slope, canyon, and down-valley flows, and the convergence of the flows over the valley. When there were errors in the simulated wind fields, they were usually associated with the timing, structure, or strength of specific flows. Simulated outflows from canyons along the Wasatch Mountains propagated over the valley and converged with the down-valley flow, but the advance and retreat of these simulated flows was often out of phase with the lidar measurements. While the flow reversal during the evening transition period produced rising motions over much of the valley atmosphere in the absence of significant ambient winds, average vertical velocities became close to zero as the down-valley flow developed. Still, vertical velocities between 5 and 15 cm s-1 occurred where down-slope, canyon and down-valley flows converged and vertical velocities greater than 50 cm s-1 were produced by hydraulic jumps at the base of the canyons. The presence of strong ambient winds resulted in smaller average rising motions during the evening transition period and larger average vertical velocities after that. A fraction of the tracer released at the surface was transported up to the height of the surrounding mountains; however, higher concentrations were produced aloft for evening s

  9. Vitrification process equipment design for the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, C.C.; Drosjack, W.P.

    1988-10-01

    The vitrification process and equipment design is nearing completion for the West Valley Project. This report provides the basis and current status for the design of the major vessels and equipment within the West Valley Vitrification Plant. A review of the function and key design features of the equipment is also provided. The major subsystems described include the feed preparation and delivery systems, the melter, the canister handling systems, and the process off-gas system. 11 refs., 33 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Proximity to citrus influences Pierce's disease in Temecula Valley vineyards

    OpenAIRE

    Perring, Thomas M.; Farrar, Charles A.; Blua, Matthew

    2001-01-01

    Pierce's disease has caused extensive losses to grapes in the Temecula Valley. The primary vector of Pierce's disease in the region is the glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), which has been found in large numbers in citrus trees. We examined the role of citrus in the Temecula Valley Pierce's disease epidemic and found that citrus groves have influenced the incidence and severity of Pierce's disease in grapes. Because GWSS inhabit citrus in large numbers, California grape growers should take ad...

  11. Seismicity related to geothermal development in Dixie Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryall, A.S.; Vetter, U.R.

    1982-07-08

    A ten-station seismic network was operated in and around the Dixie Valley area from January 1980 to November 1981; three of these stations are still in operation. Data from the Dixie Valley network were analyzed through 30 Jun 1981, and results of analysis were compared with analysis of somewhat larger events for the period 1970-1979. The seismic cycle in the Western Great Basic, the geologic structural setting, and the instrumentation are also described.

  12. Reconstruction of the MSRs in-situ at Beaver Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarden, A.; Tam, C.W.; Deahna, S.T.; McFeaters, C.V.

    1992-01-01

    The Moisture Separator Reheaters (MSRs) have been problem components at Beaver Valley 1 pressurized water reactor since the plant started up 16 years ago, many of the problems encountered being widespread in the nuclear industry. In 1991, Duquesne Light rebuilt the Beaver Valley 1 MSRs and in 1992 did the same at unit 2. The reconstruction projects have proved cost effective with short payback times and significant improvements in station performance. (Author)

  13. Cryostratigraphy and sedimentology of high-Arctic fjord-valleys

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Graham Lewis

    2018-01-01

    Fjord-valleys, as sediment-filled palaeofjords, are characteristic of formerly glaciated mountainous coastal areas. High-Arctic fjord-valleys commonly host permafrost, but are poorly accessible and hence have drawn relatively little research. The research presented in this thesis combines the methods of cryostratigraphy, clastic sedimentology, sequence stratigraphy, geomorphology and geochronology to investigate the sedimentary infilling, permafrost formation and late Quaternary landscape dev...

  14. Makran Mountain Range, Indus River Valley, Pakistan, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The enormous geologic pressures exerted by continental drift can be very well illustrated by the long northward curving parallel folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Range of Pakistan (27.0N, 66.0E). As a result of the collision of the northward bound Indian sub-continent into the Asian Continent, the east/west parallel range has been bent in a great northward arc and forming the Indus River valley at the interface of the collision.

  15. Why do European companies have Innovation Hubs in Silicon Valley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Andreas; Brem, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Innovation hubs are gaining high attention in recent years, especially from European companies. Silicon Valley has been deemed as one of the most attractive and successful environments for establishing innovation hubs. This article highlights examples of companies from Europe that made the step...... to California—namely, Volkswagen, Swisscom, BMW, Axel Springer, Munich Re, and Innogy SE (RWE Group). Based on these companies’ experiences, recommendations are given on how companies might approach a setup in Silicon Valley for long-term success....

  16. 3D View of Death Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This 3-D perspective view looking north over Death Valley, California, was produced by draping ASTER nighttime thermal infrared data over topographic data from the US Geological Survey. The ASTER data were acquired April 7, 2000 with the multi-spectral thermal infrared channels, and cover an area of 60 by 80 km (37 by 50 miles). Bands 13, 12, and 10 are displayed in red, green and blue respectively. The data have been computer enhanced to exaggerate the color variations that highlight differences in types of surface materials. Salt deposits on the floor of Death Valley appear in shades of yellow, green, purple, and pink, indicating presence of carbonate, sulfate, and chloride minerals. The Panamint Mtns. to the west, and the Black Mtns. to the east, are made up of sedimentary limestones, sandstones, shales, and metamorphic rocks. The bright red areas are dominated by the mineral quartz, such as is found in sandstones; green areas are limestones. In the lower center part of the image is Badwater, the lowest point in North America.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide

  17. Palaeodemography of the Nasca valley: reconstruction of the human ecology in the southern Peruvian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drusini, A G; Carrara, N; Orefici, G; Rippa Bonati, M

    2001-01-01

    This study is based on skeletons and mummies belonging to 582 individuals excavated at sites of Pueblo Viejo, Cahuachi, Estaqueria and Atarco in the Nasca valley, South Coast of Peru. Archaeological evidence distinguishes three cultural phases: Nasca (400 BC-550 AD), Wari (600-1100 AD) and Chincha (1100-1412 AD). Since the Chincha human remains were too exiguous (27 individuals), only Nasca and Wari were considered. For the Nasca population, sex ratio was 113 men to 100 women (53% of males); for the Wari population, sex ratio was 117 men to 100 women (54% of males). The palaeodemographic data show that the infant mortality rate was 33@1000 for Nasca and 105@1000 for Wari. Life expectancy was 38-43 years for Nasca and 31-36 years for Wari. Death percentages in all the age groups increased from Nasca to Wari phase. ANOVA and t-test for paired comparison were applied in order to examine if dental and bone ages were statistically different. Long bones and teeth showed an allometric development, and the age estimated from the tooth formation and eruption was generally higher than the age estimated from the maximum lengths of long bones. The anthropological study of the Nasca valley skeletal populations confirmed the archaeological hypothesis of worse conditions of the Wari population in comparison with the previous Nasca people.

  18. Quaternary glaciation of the Tashkurgan Valley, Southeast Pamir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Lewis A.; Chen, Jie; Hedrick, Kathyrn A.; Caffee, Marc W.; Robinson, Alexander C.; Schoenbohm, Lindsay M.; Yuan, Zhaode; Li, Wenqiao; Imrecke, Daniel B.; Liu, Jinfeng

    2012-07-01

    The Quaternary glacial history of Tashkurgan valley, in the transition between the Pamir and Karakoram, in Xinjiang Province, China was examined using remote sensing, field mapping, geomorphic analysis of landforms and sediments, and 10Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating. Moraines were assigned to four glacial stages: 1) the Dabudaer glacial stage that dates to the penultimate glacial cycle and/or earlier, and may represent one or more glaciations; 2) the Tashkurgan glacial stage that dates to early last glacial, most likely Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 4; 3) the Hangdi glacial stage that dates to MIS 2, possibly early MIS 2; and 4) the Kuzigun glacial stage that dates to the MIS 2, possibly the global Last Glacial Maximum, and is younger than the Hangdi glacial stage. Younger moraines and rock glaciers are present at the heads of tributary valleys; but these were inaccessible because they are located close to politically sensitive borders with Pakistan, Afghanistan and Tajikistan. Glaciers during the Dabudaer glacial stage advanced into the central part of the Tashkurgan valley. During the Tashkurgan glacial stages, glaciers advanced several kilometers beyond the mouths of the tributary valleys into the Tashkurgan valley. Glaciers during the Hangdi and Kuzigun glacial stages advanced just beyond the mouths of the tributary valleys. Glaciation in this part of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen is likely strongly controlled by northern hemisphere climate oscillations, although a monsoonal influence on glaciation cannot be ruled out entirely.

  19. Geothermal resource assessment of western San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharakis, Ted G.; Pearl, Richard Howard; Ringrose, Charles D.

    1983-01-01

    The Colorado Geological Survey initiated and carried out a fully integrated assessment program of the geothermal resource potential of the western San Luis Valley during 1979 and 1980. The San Luis Valley is a large intermontane basin located in southcentral Colorado. While thermal springs and wells are found throughout the Valley, the only thermal waters found along the western part of the Valley are found at Shaw Warm Springs which is a relatively unused spring located approximately 6 miles (9.66 km) north of Del Norte, Colorado. The waters at Shaws Warm Spring have a temperature of 86 F (30 C), a discharge of 40 gallons per minute and contain approximately 408 mg/l of total dissolved solids. The assessment program carried out din the western San Luis Valley consisted of: soil mercury geochemical surveys; geothermal gradient drilling; and dipole-dipole electrical resistivity traverses, Schlumberger soundings, Audio-magnetotelluric surveys, telluric surveys, and time-domain electro-magnetic soundings and seismic surveys. Shaw Warm Springs appears to be the only source of thermal waters along the western side of the Valley. From the various investigations conducted the springs appear to be fault controlled and is very limited in extent. Based on best evidence presently available estimates are presented on the size and extent of Shaw Warm Springs thermal system. It is estimated that this could have an areal extent of 0.63 sq. miles (1.62 sq. km) and contain 0.0148 Q's of heat energy.

  20. Ventilation potential during the emissions survey in Toluca Valley, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Angulo, A.; Peralta, O.; Jurado, O. E.; Ortinez, A.; Grutter de la Mora, M.; Rivera, C.; Gutierrez, W.; Gonzalez, E.

    2017-12-01

    During the late-spring early-summer measurements of emissions and pollutants were carried out during a survey campaign at four different locations within the Toluca Valley. The current emissions inventory typically estimates the generation of pollutants based on pre-estimated values representing an entire sector function of their activities. However, those factors are not always based direct measurements. The emissions from the Toluca Valley are rather large and they could affect the air quality of Mexico City Valley. The air masses interchange between those two valleys is not very well understood; however, based on the measurements obtained during the 3 months campaign we looked carefully at the daily variability of the wind finding a clear signal for mountain-valley breeze. The ventilation coefficient is estimated and the correlations with the concentrations at the 4 locations and in a far away station in Mexico City are addressed in this work. Finally, we discuss the implication of the ventilation capacity in air quality for the system of Valleys that include Mexico City.

  1. Antifan activism as a response to MTV's The Valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethan Jones

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available MTV has launched several reality TV shows in the United Kingdom, but one, The Valleys (2012–14, about youth moving from the South Wales Valleys to Cardiff, has received much criticism. Grassroots criticism of the show arose, and a Valleys-centric campaign, The Valleys Are Here, took direct action. I adopt Jonathan Gray's definition of antifans to complicate ideas of fan activism. I utilize comments and posts made on the Valleys Are Here Twitter feed and Facebook account, as well as the organization's Web site, to examine the ways in which they encourage activism among antifans of the series. I pay particular attention to activist calls for MTV to be held accountable for its positioning of Wales and the Valleys, and to how it encourages participation among varied groups of people whose common denominator is their dislike of the series. Fan activism is not exclusive to people who consider themselves fans, and notions of fan activism can be complicated by drawing in antifans.

  2. Valley-selective optical Stark effect probed by Kerr rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMountain, Trevor; Bergeron, Hadallia; Balla, Itamar; Stanev, Teodor K.; Hersam, Mark C.; Stern, Nathaniel P.

    2018-01-01

    The ability to monitor and control distinct states is at the heart of emerging quantum technologies. The valley pseudospin in transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) monolayers is a promising degree of freedom for such control, with the optical Stark effect allowing for valley-selective manipulation of energy levels in WS2 and WSe2 using ultrafast optical pulses. Despite these advances, understanding of valley-sensitive optical Stark shifts in TMDCs has been limited by reflectance-based detection methods where the signal is small and prone to background effects. More sensitive polarization-based spectroscopy is required to better probe ultrafast Stark shifts for all-optical manipulation of valley energy levels. Here, we show time-resolved Kerr rotation to be a more sensitive probe of the valley-selective optical Stark effect in monolayer TMDCs. Compared to the established time-resolved reflectance methods, Kerr rotation is less sensitive to background effects. Kerr rotation provides a fivefold improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of the Stark effect optical signal and a more precise estimate of the energy shift. This increased sensitivity allows for observation of an optical Stark shift in monolayer MoS2 that exhibits both valley and energy selectivity, demonstrating the promise of this method for investigating this effect in other layered materials and heterostructures.

  3. Application of heat-flow techniques to geothermal energy exploration, Leach Hot Springs area, Grass Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sass, J.H.; Ziagos, J.P.; Wollenberg, H.A.; Munroe, R.J.; di Somma, D.E.; Lachenbruch, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    A total of 82 holes ranging in depth from 18 to 400 meters were drilled for thermal and hydrologic studies in a 200 km/sup 2/ area of Grass Valley, Nevada, near Leach Hot Springs. Outside the immediate area of Leach Hot Springs, heat flow ranges from 1 to 6.5 hfu with a mean of 2.4 hfu (1 hfu = 10/sup -6/ cal cm/sup 2/ s/sup -1/ = 41.8 mWm/sup -2/). Within 2 km of the springs, conductive heat flow ranges between 1.6 and more than 70 hfu averaging 13.6 hfu. Besides the conspicuous thermal anomaly associated with the hot springs, two additional anomalies were identified. One is associated with faults bounding the western margin of the Tobin Range near Panther Canyon, and the other is near the middle of Grass Valley about 5 km SSW of Leach Hot Springs. The mid-valley anomaly appears to be caused by hydrothermal circulation in a bedrock horst beneath about 375 meters of impermeable valley sediments. If the convective and conductive heat discharge within 2 km of the Leach Hot Springs is averaged over the entire hydrologic system (including areas of recharge), the combined heat flux from this part of Grass Valley is about 3 hfu, consistent with the average regional conductive heat flow in the Battle Mountain High. The hydrothermal system can be interpreted as being in a stationary stable phase sustained by high regional heat flow, and no localized crustal heat sources (other than hydrothermal convection to depths of a few kilometers) need be invoked to explain the existence of Leach Hot Springs.

  4. Geologic and hydrologic research at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, West Valley, New York. Final report, August 1982-December 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albanese, J.R.; Anderson, S.L.; Fakundiny, R.H.; Potter, S.M.; Rogers, W.B.; Whitbeck, L.F.; LaFleur, R.G.; Boothroyd, J.C.; Timson, B.S.

    1984-06-01

    This report is the last in a series by the New York State Geological Survey on studies funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The report covers five important aspects of the geology and hydrology of the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, near West Valley, New York: geomorphology, stratigraphy, sedimentology, surface water, and radionuclide analyses. We reviewed past research on these subjects and present new data obtained in the final phase of NYSGS research at the site. Also presented are up-to-date summaries of the present knowledge of geomorphology and stratigraphy. The report contains a significant bibliography of previous West Valley studies. Appendices include a report on the Fall 1983 Drilling Project and the procedures used, history and prognosis of Cattaraugus Creek and tributaries down cutting, and bar modification and landslide processes of Buttermilk Valley. 100 references, 7 figures, 7 tables

  5. Higgs portal valleys, stability and inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ballesteros, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    The measured values of the Higgs and top quark masses imply that the Standard Model potential is very likely to be unstable at large Higgs values. This is particularly problematic during inflation, which sources large perturbations of the Higgs. The instability could be cured by a threshold effect induced by a scalar with a large vacuum expectation value and directly connected to the Standard Model through a Higgs portal coupling. However, we find that in a minimal model in which the scalar generates inflation, this mechanism does not stabilize the potential because the mass required for inflation is beyond the instability scale. This conclusion does not change if the Higgs has a direct weak coupling to the scalar curvature. On the other hand, if the potential is absolutely stable, successful inflation in agreement with current CMB data can occur along a valley of the potential with a Mexican hat profile. We revisit the stability conditions, independently of inflation, and clarify that the threshold effect ca...

  6. Flowers of Çoruh Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Çakmakçı

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Coruh valley has an important biological diversity in term of plants, flora-fauna, wildlife and ecosystems. These regions contain the landraces, wild and weedy relatives, other wild, herbaceous and flowering trees, herbaceous flowering plants, medicinal and aromatic and flowering and ornamental shrubs plants species which are especially economically important plant for floriculture, eco-tourism, botanical tourism and nature tourism. Many important medicinal and aromatic and ornamental plants species are found in this region and naturally grow. It is considered that Acantholimon, Achillea, Alkanna, Allium, Amygdalus, Angelica, Anemone, Anthemis, Arabis, Arctium, Artemisia, Asparagus, Asperula, Astragalus, Calamintha, Calendula, Calutea, Campanula, Capparis, Cardamine, Centaurea, Cephalanthera, Cephalaria, Chelidonium, Chenopodium, Chysanthemum, Colchicum, Consolida, Coriandrum, Cornus, Coronilla, Cerasus, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Crocus, Cyclamen, Dactylorhiza, Digitalis, Dianthus, Draba, Echinops, Equisetum, Ferula, Filipendula, Fritillaria, Fumaria, Gagea, Galanthus, Galium, Genista, Gentiana, Geranium, Geum, Gladiolus, Glychirrza, Helichrysum, Hesperis, Hypericum, İnula, İris, Isatis, Juniperus, Lilium, Linaria, Linum, lysimachia, Malus, Malva, Marrubium, Melissa, Mentha, Micromeria, Morina, Muscari, Mysotis, Narcissus, Neotchichatchewia, Nepeta, Onobrychis, Orchis, Ornithogalum, Origanum, Paeonia, Papaver, Pedicularis, Peganum, Phelypaea, Platanthera, Plantago, Pilosella, Pelargonium, Potentilla, Polygonum, Polygala, Primula, Punica, Prunus, Pyrus, Ranunculus, Rhamnus, Rhododendron, Rhus, Rosa, Rubia, Rubus, Rumex, Salvia, Sambucus, Satureja, Scilla, Scorzonera, Scutellaria, Sedum, Sempervivum, Sideritis, Sophora, Sorbus, Stachys, Tanecetum, Teucrium, Thymus, Trigonella, Tulipa, Tussilago, Uechtriitzia, Vaccinium, Verbascum, Verbena, Veronica, Viburnum and Ziziphora species commonly found in the region may be may be evaluated economically.

  7. Tennessee Valley Region: a year 2000 profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the potential radiological implications of nuclear facilities in the combined watersheds of the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, an area covering portions of 7 states of varied topography. The regional population in 1970 was about 4.6 million and is expected to increase to about 7 million by the year 2000. A 1973 projection estimated the installed electric generating capacity of the region to increase from a 1970 value of 45,000 megawatts to a total of 222,000 megawatts by the year 2000. In that year, about 144,000 megawatts were projected to be nuclear plants. The profile of the Tennessee Valley Region in the year 2000, as drawn from this report, contains the essential data for calculation of the radiological dose from operation of nuclear facilities in that year. Those calculations are reported in the companion document, DOE/ET-0064/2. Specifically, Volume I establishes the parameters describing where the people live, what they eat, the activities in which they engage, and the environmental surroundings that enable an evaluation of the potential radiation dose to the population. Airborne radionuclides from nuclear facilities in this zone may enter the study area and be deposited on the ground, on growing food, and on water surfaces. Consideration was not given to waterborne radionuclides external to the study region. 17 references

  8. Nuclear wastes at West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, R.K.; Rose, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    A two-tiered approach is proposed for separating questions of who manages nuclear wastes from who pays for the management. The proper role of the Federal government in the nuclear fuel cycle is explored in the historical context of the West Valley, New York reprocessing plant, which operated on a private basis from 1966 to 1972. The plant reprocessed 600 metric tons for fuel and produced 600,000 gallons of liquid high-level radioactive waste, most of which remains in a carbon steel tank waiting for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or some other agency to assume responsibility for it. A review of the plant's purposes, operations, and shutdown illustrates the difficulties of establising policies and rules for managing the wastes. Future use of the site will dictate the extent of decontamination and decommissioning that is needed, while legal and political issues of responsibility will also affect the rules. The case is made for conducting the cleanup as an experiment, using a prudent, rational, resolute, and charitable approach to taking necessary risks. A step-by-step process of decision and rule-making is proposed as an acknowledgement of the fact that all the answers are not known. ERDA is felt to be the best-suited for management, with guidelines formulated by the NRC. Financial responsibility could be divided between the National Science Foundation and Federal and state governments

  9. Tennessee Valley Region: a year 2000 profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the potential radiological implications of nuclear facilities in the combined watersheds of the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, an area covering portions of 7 states of varied topography. The regional population in 1970 was about 4.6 million and is expected to increase to about 7 million by the year 2000. A 1973 projection estimated the installed electric generating capacity of the region to increase from a 1970 value of 45,000 megawatts to a total of 222,000 megawatts by the year 2000. In that year, about 144,000 megawatts were projected to be nuclear plants. The profile of the Tennessee Valley Region in the year 2000, as drawn from this report, contains the essential data for calculation of the radiological dose from operation of nuclear facilities in that year. Those calculations are reported in the companion document, DOE/ET-0064/2. Specifically, Volume I establishes the parameters describing where the people live, what they eat, the activities in which they engage, and the environmental surroundings that enable an evaluation of the potential radiation dose to the population. Airborne radionuclides from nuclear facilities in this zone may enter the study area and be deposited on the ground, on growing food, and on water surfaces. Consideration was not given to waterborne radionuclides external to the study region. 17 references. (MCW)

  10. Gravity study of the Middle Aterno Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Nezza, Maria; di Filippo, Michele; Cesi, Claudio; Ferri, Fernando

    2010-05-01

    A gravity study was carried out to identify the geological and structural features of the Middle Aterno Valley, and intramontane depression in the central Appennines, which was targeted to assess the seismic hazard of the city of L'Aquila and surrounding areas, after the Abruzzo 2009 earthquake. Gravity anomalies have been used for the construction of a 3D model of the area, and gravity data for the construction of Bouguer and residual anomaly maps. These data, together with geological surface data allowed for the understanding of the Plio-quaternary tectonic setting of the basins. The study area has been differentiated into different domains with respect to structural and morphological features of different styles of faults. Geology and gravity data show that the local amplification phenomena are due to the fact that the historical center of L'Aquila was built on a coarse breccias (debris-flow deposits with decameter scale limestone blocks) overlying sandy and clayey lacustrine sediments. As these sediments have a low density, gravity prospecting very easily identifies them. Residual anomalies, showing a relative gravity low corresponding to the historical center of L'Aquila, and surrounding areas, indicated that these sediments are up to 250 m-thick. Gravity prospecting also revealed the uprooting of the reliefs which outcrop in the area of Coppito. These reliefs, practically outcrop in the middle of the basin. Here, the gravity anomalies are negative and not positive as would be expected from outcropping geological bedrock.

  11. SAR Imagery Applied to the Monitoring of Hyper-Saline Deposits: Death Valley Example (CA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasne, Yannick; Paillou, Philippe; Freeman, Anthony; Chapman, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The present study aims at understanding the influence of salinity on the dielectric constant of soils and then on the backscattering coeff cients recorded by airborne/spaceborne SAR systems. Based on dielectric measurements performed over hyper-saline deposits in Death Valley (CA), as well as laboratory electromagnetic characterization of salts and water mixtures, we used the dielectric constants as input parameters of analytical IEM simulations to model both the amplitude and phase behaviors of SAR signal at C, and L-bands. Our analytical simulations allow to reproduce specif c copolar signatures recorded in SAR data, corresponding to the Cottonball Basin saltpan. We also propose the copolar backscattering ratio and phase difference as indicators of moistened and salt-affected soils. More precisely, we show that these copolar indicators should allow to monitor the seasonal variations of the dielectric properties of saline deposits.

  12. The Holocene sedimentary history of the Kangerlussuaq Fjord-valley fill, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storms, Joep E.A.; de Winter, Ilja L.; Overeem, Irina

    2012-01-01

    valleys. Based on published and new land- and sea-based geophysical data, radiocarbon dates and geological observations we have characterized the infill and reconstructed the sedimentation history during the Holocene. Based on a revised sea level curve and data presented in this paper we defined three...... depocenters by a flood plain which transferred sediment from the GIS to the Keglen delta. Ongoing sea level fall due to glacio-isostastic uplift combined with a gradually cooler and dryer climate resulted in terrace formation along the Watson River flood plain. Around 4000 yr BP, the GIS margin reached its...... most landward location and began to advance to its present location. The final phase (Phase III; channels...

  13. Operating experience during high-level waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, P.J.; Elliott, D.I.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides a summary of operational experiences, component and system performance, and lessons learned associated with the operation of the Vitrification Facility (VF) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). The VF was designed to convert stored high-level radioactive waste (HLW) into a stable waste form (borosilicate glass) suitable for disposal in a federal repository. Following successful completion on nonradioactive test, HLW processing began in July 1995. Completion of Phase 1 of HLW processing was reached on 10 June 1998 and represented the processing of 9.32 million curies of cesium-137 (Cs-137) and strontium-90 (Sr-90) to fill 211 canisters with over 436,000 kilograms of glass. With approximately 85% of the total estimated curie content removed from underground waste storage tanks during Phase 1, subsequent operations will focus on removal of tank heel wastes

  14. The Role of Source Material in Basin Sedimentation, as Illustrated within Eureka Valley, Death Valley National Park, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, M. J.; Yin, A.; Rhodes, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Steep landscapes are known to provide sediment to sink regions, but often petrological factors can dominate basin sedimentation. Within Eureka Valley, in northwestern Death Valley National Park, normal faulting has exposed a steep cliff face on the western margin of the Last Chance range with four kilometers of vertical relief from the valley floor and an angle of repose of nearly 38 degrees. The cliff face is composed of Cambrian limestone and dolomite, including the Bonanza King, Carrara and Wood Canyon formations. Interacting with local normal faulting, these units preferentially break off the cliff face in coherent blocks, which result in landslide deposits rather than as finer grained material found within the basin. The valley is well known for a large sand dune, which derives its sediment from distal sources to the north, instead of from the adjacent Last Chance Range cliff face. During the Holocene, sediment is sourced primary from the northerly Willow Wash and Cucomungo canyon, a relatively small drainage (less than 80 km2) within the Sylvan Mountains. Within this drainage, the Jurassic quartz monzonite of Beer Creek is heavily fractured due to motion of the Fish Valley Lake - Death Valley fault zone. Thus, the quartz monzonite is more easily eroded than the well-consolidated limestone and dolomite that forms the Last Change Range cliff face. As well, the resultant eroded material is smaller grained, and thus more easily transported than the limestone. Consequently, this work highlights an excellent example of the strong influence that source material can have on basin sedimentation.

  15. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 4 (shallow groundwater in Bear Creek Valley) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The enactment of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976 and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to RCRA in 1984 created management requirements for hazardous waste fadities. The facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) were in the process of meeting the RCRA requirements when ORR was placed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCIA) National Priorities List (NPL) on November 21, 1989. Under RCRA, the actions typically follow the RCRA Facility Assessment (RIFA)/RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI)/Coffective Measures Study (CMS)/Corrective Measures Implementation process. Under CERCLA, the actions follow the Pre at sign ary Assessment/Site Investigation (PA/Sl) Remedial Investigation Feasibility Study (RI/FS)/Remedial Design/Remedial Action process. The development of this document will incorporate requirements under both RCRA and CERCIA into an RI Work Plan for the lint phase of characterization of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Operable Unit (OU) 4

  16. The valley method and its application to the instanton-induced phenomena in non-abelian gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoze, V.V.

    1991-06-01

    The semiclassical evaluation of the functional integral on non-Abelian gauge theories is generalized by means of the so-called valley method. The physically very important example of the valley, the instanton-anti-instanton field configuration, is discussed in details and its contributions to the physical quantities for zero-temperature and for thermal field theories are investigated. The high-energy behaviour of the total cross-section σ Δ F for electroweak fermion number violating two particles collisions is studied using the optical theorem approach. The calculation is done at energies below the sphaleron mass (E<10TeV) where it leads to the most complete result for σ Δ F known to date. Some estimations and a qualitative physical picture are discussed for energies above the sphaleron mass for the confinement and Higgs phases of the gauge theory. The effects of instanton-anti-instanton interactions are also studied in thermal QCD. (au)

  17. Optimal decentralized valley-filling charging strategy for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Kangkang; Xu, Liangfei; Ouyang, Minggao; Wang, Hewu; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu; Li, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An implementable charging strategy is developed for electric vehicles connected to a grid. • A two-dimensional pricing scheme is proposed to coordinate charging behaviors. • The strategy effectively works in decentralized way but achieves the systematic valley filling. • The strategy allows device-level charging autonomy, and does not require a bidirectional communication/control network. • The strategy can self-correct when confronted with adverse factors. - Abstract: Uncoordinated charging load of electric vehicles (EVs) increases the peak load of the power grid, thereby increasing the cost of electricity generation. The valley-filling charging scenario offers a cheaper alternative. This study proposes a novel decentralized valley-filling charging strategy, in which a day-ahead pricing scheme is designed by solving a minimum-cost optimization problem. The pricing scheme can be broadcasted to EV owners, and the individual charging behaviors can be indirectly coordinated. EV owners respond to the pricing scheme by autonomously optimizing their individual charge patterns. This device-level response induces a valley-filling effect in the grid at the system level. The proposed strategy offers three advantages: coordination (by the valley-filling effect), practicality (no requirement for a bidirectional communication/control network between the grid and EV owners), and autonomy (user control of EV charge patterns). The proposed strategy is validated in simulations of typical scenarios in Beijing, China. According to the results, the strategy (1) effectively achieves the valley-filling charging effect at 28% less generation cost than the uncoordinated charging strategy, (2) is robust to several potential affecters of the valley-filling effect, such as (system-level) inaccurate parameter estimation and (device-level) response capability and willingness (which cause less than 2% deviation in the minimal generation cost), and (3) is compatible with

  18. Topographic evolution of Yosemite Valley from Low Temperature Thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy-Lang, A.; Shuster, D. L.; Cuffey, K. M.; Fox, M.

    2014-12-01

    In this contribution, we interrogate the timing of km-scale topography development in the region around Yosemite Valley, California. Our goal is to determine when this spectacular glacial valley was carved, and how this might help address controversy surrounding the topographic evolution of the Sierra Nevada. At the scale of the range, two rival hypotheses are each supported by different datasets. Low-temperature thermochronology supports the idea that the range has been high-standing since the Cretaceous, whereas geomorphic evidence suggests that much of the elevation of the Sierra Nevada was attained during the Pliocene. Recent work by McPhillips and Brandon (2012) suggests instead that both ideas are valid, with the range losing much elevation during the Cenozoic, but regaining it during Miocene surface uplift.At the local scale, the classic study of Matthes (1930) determined that most of Yosemite Valley was excavated by the Sherwin-age glaciation that ended ~1 Ma. The consensus view is in agreement, although some argue that nearby comparable valleys comparable were carved long ago (e.g., House et al., 1998). If the Quaternary and younger glaciations were responsible for the bulk of the valley's >1 km depth, we might expect apatite (U-Th)/He ages at the valley floor to be histories at these locations, these data constrain patterns of valley topography development through time. We also supplement these data with zircon 4He/3He thermochronometry, which is a newly developed method that provides information on continuous cooling paths through ~120-220 °C. We will present both the apatite and zircon 4He/3He data and, in conjunction with thermo-kinematic modeling, discuss the ability and limitations of these data to test models of Sierra Nevada topography development through time. Matthes (1930) USGS Professional Paper House et al. (1998) Nature McPhillips and Brandon (2012) American Journal of Science

  19. Land Subsidence Caused by Groundwater Exploitation in Quetta Valley, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeebullah Kakar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Land subsidence is affecting several metropolitan cities in developing as well as developed countries around the world such as Nagoya (Japan, Shanghai (China, Venice (Italy and San Joaquin valley (United States. This phenomenon is attributed to natural as well as anthropogenic activities that include extensive groundwater withdrawals. Quetta is the largest city of Balochistan province in Pakistan. This valley is mostly dry and ground water is the major source for domestic and agricultural consumption. The unplanned use of ground water resources has led to the deterioration of water quality and quantity in the Quetta valley. Water shortage in the region was further aggravated by the drought during (1998-2004 that hit the area forcing people to migrate from rural to urban areas. Refugees from the war torn neighboring Afghanistan also contributed to rapid increase in population of Quetta valley that has increased from 0.26 million in 1975 to 3.0 million in 2016. The objective of this study was to measure the land subsidence in Quetta valley and identify the effects of groundwater withdrawals on land subsidence. To achieve this goal, data from five Global Positioning System (GPS stations were acquired and processed. Furthermore the groundwater decline data from 41 observation wells during 2010 to 2015 were calculated and compared with the land deformation. The results of this study revealed that the land of Quetta valley is subsiding from 30mm/y on the flanks to 120 mm/y in the central part. 1.5-5.0 m/y of groundwater level drop was recorded in the area where the rate of subsidence is highest. So the extensive groundwater withdrawals in Quetta valley is considered to be the driving force behind land subsidence.

  20. Evaluation of Water Security in Kathmandu Valley before and after Water Transfer from another Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhesh Raj Thapa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Kathmandu Upatyaka Khanepani Limited (KUKL has planned to harness water from outside the valley from Melamchi as an inter-basin project to supply water inside the ring road (core valley area of the Kathmandu Valley (KV. The project, called the “Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP”, is expected to have its first phase completed by the end of September 2018 and its second phase completed by the end of 2023 to supply 170 MLD (million liters a day through the first phase and an additional 340 MLD through the second phase. The area has recently faced a severe water deficit and KUKL’s existing infrastructure has had a limited capability, supplying only 19% of the water that is demanded in its service areas during the dry season and 31% during the wet season. In this context, this study aims to assess the temporal trends and spatial distribution of household water security index (WSI, defined as a ratio of supply to demand for domestic water use for basic human water requirements (50 L per capita per day (lpcd and economic growth (135 lpcd as demand in pre- and post-MWSP scenarios. For this purpose, data on water demand and supply with infrastructure were used to map the spatial distribution of WSI and per capita water supply using ArcMap. Results show a severe water insecurity condition in the year 2017 in all KUKL service areas (SAs, which is likely to improve after completion of the MWSP. It is likely that recent distribution network and strategies may lead to inequality in water distribution within the SAs. This can possibly be addressed by expanding existing distribution networks and redistributing potable water, which can serve an additional 1.21 million people in the area. Service providers may have to develop strategies to strengthen a set of measures including improving water supply infrastructures, optimizing water loss, harnessing additional water from hills, and managing water within and outside the KUKL SAs in the long run to cover

  1. Electromagnetic surveys to detect clay-rich sediment in the Rio Grande inner valley, Albuquerque area, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.; Sterling, Joseph M.

    2000-01-01

    Information on the presence of clay-rich layers in the inner-valley alluvium is essential for quantifying the amount of water transmitted between the Rio Grande and the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. This report describes a study that used electromagnetic surveys to provide this information. In the first phase of the study, electromagnetic soundings were made using time-domain and frequency-domain electro- magnetic methods. On the basis of these initial results, the time- domain method was judged ineffective because of cultural noise in the study area, so subsequent surveys were made using the frequency-domain method. For the second phase of the study, 31 frequency-domain electromagnetic surveys were conducted along the inner valley and parallel to the Rio Grande in the Albuquerque area in the spring and summer of 1997 to determine the presence of hydrologically significant clay-rich layers buried in the inner-valley alluvium. For this report, the 31 survey sections were combined into 10 composite sections for ease of interpretation. Terrain-conductivity data from the surveys were modeled using interpretation software to produce geoelectric cross sections along the survey lines. This modeling used lithologic logs from two wells installed near the survey lines: the Bosque South and Rio Bravo 5 wells. Because of cultural interference, location of the wells and soundings, complex stratigraphy, and difficulty interpreting lithology, such interpretation was inconclusive. Instead, a decision process based on modeling results was developed using vertical and horizontal dipole 40-meter intercoil spacing terrain-conductivity values. Values larger than or equal to 20 millisiemens per meter were interpreted to contain a hydrologically significant thickness of clay-rich sediment. Thus, clay-rich sediment was interpreted to underlie seven segments of the 10 composited survey lines, totaling at least 2,660 meters of the Rio Grande inner valley. The longest of these clay

  2. Systemic Inflammatory Load in Young and Old Ringdoves Is Modulated by Consumption of a Jerte Valley Cherry-Based Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Jonathan; Terrón, María del Pilar; Garrido, María; Barriga, Carmen; Paredes, Sergio Damián; Espino, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A chronic subclinical inflammatory status that coexists with immune dysfunction is commonly found in the elderly population. Consumption of foods rich in antioxidants (e.g., cherries) is an attractive strategy to reduce risk from chronic diseases. Based on previous studies showing the antioxidant effect of a Jerte Valley cherry derivative product in humans, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the intake of a Jerte Valley cherry-based beverage on inflammatory load in both young and old ringdoves (Streptopelia risoria). To this purpose, circulating levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines as well as serum levels of different acute-phase proteins were measured before and after a 10-day treatment with the Jerte Valley cherry-based beverage. Thus, the 10-day treatment with the cherry-based beverage modulated the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in both young and old ringdoves by down-regulating the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ) and up-regulating the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-2, and IL-10). Moreover, the 10-day treatment with the Jerte Valley cherry-based product reduced the levels of several proteins involved in acute-phase responses, such as C-reactive protein, haptoglobin, α2-macroglobulin, and serum amyloid P component. On the other hand, old birds showed imbalanced levels of inflammatory markers toward a pro-inflammatory status, thereby underlining the fact that aging is usually accompanied by systemic inflammation and inflammation-related chronic diseases. To sum up, the data suggest a potential health benefit by consuming the cherry-based beverage, especially in aged populations, through their anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:22846077

  3. Hydrological Modelling the Middle Magdalena Valley (Colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, M. C.; Duque, N.; Arboleda, P.; Guadagnini, A.; Riva, M.; Donado-Garzon, L. D.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrological distributed modeling is key point for a comprehensive assessment of the feedback between the dynamics of the hydrological cycle, climate conditions and land use. Such modeling results are markedly relevant in the fields of water resources management, natural hazards and oil and gas industry. Here, we employ TopModel (TOPography based hydrological MODEL) for the hydrological modeling of an area in the Middle Magdalena Valley (MMV), a tropical basin located in Colombia. This study is located over the intertropical convergence zone and is characterized by special meteorological conditions, with fast water fluxes over the year. It has been subject to significant land use changes, as a result of intense economical activities, i.e., and agriculture, energy and oil & gas production. The model employees a record of 12 years of daily precipitation and evapotranspiration data as inputs. Streamflow data monitored across the same time frame are used for model calibration. The latter is performed by considering data from 2000 to 2008. Model validation then relies on observations from 2009 to 2012. The robustness of our analyses is based on the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (values of this metric being 0.62 and 0.53, respectively for model calibration and validation). Our results reveal high water storage capacity in the soil, and a marked subsurface runoff, consistent with the characteristics of the soil types in the regions. A significant influence on runoff response of the basin to topographical factors represented in the model is evidenced. Our calibrated model provides relevant indications about recharge in the region, which is important to quantify the interaction between surface water and groundwater, specially during the dry season, which is more relevant in climate-change and climate-variability scenarios.

  4. Lung cancer in the Kashmir valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koul Parvaiz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lung cancer has been found to be the second commonest cancer according to a hospital-based data from Kashmir, India. However, no incidence studies are available. Objective: To ascertain the incidence of lung cancer in Kashmir. Materials and Methods: All newly histologically diagnosed cases of lung cancer seen in various hospital and private laboratories of the Kashmir valley were registered over a period of two years (January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2005. Also included were patients attending the various oncological service areas of the institute and those diagnosed from any other laboratory outside the state. The incidence rate was calculated using the January 2005 population as the reference population estimated using the census-based projected populations. Results: Four hundred and sixty-two incident cases of lung cancer were seen during the study period. The crude incidence rate, age standardized (world and truncated age adjusted (40-69 years, world incidence rates for lung cancer per 100 000 population were 4.01, 6.48 and 15.28 respectively (males 6.55, 10.09 and 23.94 respectively and females 1.19, 2.14 and 4.65. The age adjusted rates for males in district Srinagar was 19.34 per 100 000. One hundred and fifty nine (69.8% of the 221 had a history of Hukkah smoking. Conclusions: Even though Kashmir as a whole is a low incidence area for lung cancer (ASR of < 15, Srinagar district has the highest incidence of lung cancer among the males in Kashmir. The data presented is assumed to be the closest approximation to a population-based data registry and the geographical incidence maps of ICMR need appropriate updating

  5. Geohydrology of the Unconsolidated Valley-Fill Aquifer in the Meads Creek Valley, Schuyler and Steuben Counties, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.; Bugliosi, Edward F.; Reddy, James E.

    2008-01-01

    The Meads Creek valley encompasses 70 square miles of predominantly forested uplands in the upper Susquehanna River drainage basin. The valley, which was listed as a Priority Waterbody by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation in 2004, is prone to periodic flooding, mostly in its downstream end, where development is occurring most rapidly. Hydraulic characteristics of the unconsolidated valley-fill aquifer were evaluated, and seepage rates in losing and gaining tributaries were calculated or estimated, in an effort to delineate the aquifer geometry and identify the factors that contribute to flooding. Results indicated that (1) Meads Creek gained about 61 cubic feet of flow per second (about 6.0 cubic feet per second per mile of stream channel) from ground-water discharge and inflow from tributaries in its 10.2-mile reach between the northernmost and southernmost measurement sites; (2) major tributaries in the northern part of the valley are not significant sources of recharge to the aquifer; and (3) major tributaries in the central and southern part of the valley provide recharge to the aquifer. The ground-water portion of streamflow in Meads Creek (excluding tributary inflow) was 11.3 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) in the central part of the valley and 17.2 ft3/s in the southern part - a total of 28.5 ft3/s. Ground-water levels were measured in 29 wells finished in unconfined deposits for construction of a potentiometric-surface map to depict directions of ground-water flow within the valley. In general, ground water flows from the edges of the valley toward Meads Creek and ultimately discharges to it. The horizontal hydraulic gradient for the entire 12-mile-long aquifer averages about 30 feet per mile, whereas the gradient in the southern fourth of the valley averages about half that - about 17 feet per mile. A water budget for the aquifer indicated that 28 percent of recharge was derived from precipitation that falls on the aquifer, 32

  6. EPA Region 1 - Map Layers for Valley ID Tool (Hosted Feature Service)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Valley Service Feature Layer hosts spatial data for EPA Region 1's Valley Identification Tool. These layers contain attribute information added by EPA R1 GIS Center to help identify populated valleys:- Fac_2011NEI: Pollution sources selected from the National Emissions Inventory (EPA, 2011).- NE_Towns_PopValleys: New England Town polygons (courtesy USGS), with Population in Valleys and Population Density in Valleys calculated by EPA R1 GIS, from 2010 US Census blocks. - VT_E911: Vermont residences (courtesy VT Center for Geographic Information E-911).

  7. Glacial geology of the upper Wairau Valley, Marlborough, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCalpin, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Late Pleistocene glaciers in the upper Wairau Valley deposited four groups of moraines inferred to represent one Waimean ice advance, two Otiran ice advances, and an advance of early Aranuian age. The Waimean and early Otiran glaciers advanced into Tarndale Valley, deposited terminal moraines, and shed outwash down both the Alma River and Travellers Valley. The middle Otiran glacier terminated in northern Tarndale Valley and shed outwash from the southern part of its terminus down the Alma River. The north side of the terminus abutted a large ice-dammed lake in the Wairau Gorge, and fan-deltas graded to an old shore level at an elevation of 1040 m. Well-preserved moraines at the mouths of four glaciated tributaries may be middle Otiran recessional, or late Otiran terminal moraines. The latest ice advance extended 11 km down the upper Wairau Valley and deposited a subdued moraine at Island Gully. The composite chronology of the latest glacial advance based on 10 radiocarbon ages suggests it occurred between about 9.5 and 10.2 ka. This age span is similar to that of early Aranuian glacial advances dated by other workers in the Southern Alps, and may reflect Younger Dryas cooling. (author). 22 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Graphene valley pseudospin filter using an extended line defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunlycke, Daniel; White, Carter

    2011-03-01

    Although graphene exhibits excellent electron and thermal transport properties, it does not have an intrinsic band gap, required to use graphene as a replacement material for silicon and other semiconductors in conventional electronics. The band structure of graphene with its two cones near the Fermi level, however, offers opportunities to develop non-traditional applications. One such avenue is to exploit the valley degeneracy in graphene to develop valleytronics. A central component in valleytronics is the valley filter, just as the spin filter is central in spintronics. Herein, we present a two-dimensional valley filter based on scattering of electrons and holes off a recently observed extended line defect [Nat. Nanotech.5, 326 (2010)] within graphene. The transmission probability depends strongly on the valley pseudospin and the angle of incidence of the incident quasiparticles. Quasiparticles arriving at the line defect at a high angle of incidence lead to a valley polarization of the transmitted beam that is near 100 percent. This work was supported by ONR, directly and through NRL.

  9. BPA/Lower Valley transmission project. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    Bonneville Power Administration and Lower Valley Power and Light, Inc. propose to solve a voltage stability problem in the Jackson and Afton, Wyoming areas. Lower Valley buys electricity from BPA and then supplies it to the residences and businesses of the Jackson and Afton, Wyoming areas. BPA is considering five alternatives. For the Agency Proposed Action, BPA and Lower Valley would construct a new 115-kV line from BPA's Swan Valley Substation near Swan Valley in Bonneville County, Idaho about 58 km (36 miles) east to BPA's Teton Substation near Jackson in Teton County, Wyoming. The new line would be next to an existing 115-kV line. The Single-Circuit Line Alternative has all the components of the Agency Proposed Action except that the entire line would be supported by single-circuit wood pole H-frame structures. the Short Line Alternative has all the components of the Single-Circuit Line Alternative except it would only be half as long. BPA would also construct a new switching station near the existing right-of-way, west or north of Targhee Tap. Targhee Tap would then be removed. For the Static Var Compensation Alternative, BPA would install a Static Var Compensator (SVC) at Teton or Jackson Substation. An SVC is a group of electrical equipment placed at a substation to help control voltage on a transmission system. The No Action Alternative assumes that no new transmission line is built, and no other equipment is added to the transmission system

  10. West Valley facility spent fuel handling, storage, and shipping experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1990-11-01

    The result of a study on handling and shipping experience with spent fuel are described in this report. The study was performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The purpose of the study was to document the experience with handling and shipping of relatively old light-water reactor (LWR) fuel that has been in pool storage at the West Valley facility, which is at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center at West Valley, New York and operated by DOE. A subject of particular interest in the study was the behavior of corrosion product deposits (i.e., crud) deposits on spent LWR fuel after long-term pool storage; some evidence of crud loosening has been observed with fuel that was stored for extended periods at the West Valley facility and at other sites. Conclusions associated with the experience to date with old spent fuel that has been stored at the West Valley facility are presented. The conclusions are drawn from these subject areas: a general overview of the West Valley experience, handling of spent fuel, storing of spent fuel, rod consolidation, shipping of spent fuel, crud loosening, and visual inspection. A list of recommendations is provided. 61 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Valley-symmetric quasi-1D transport in ballistic graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hu-Jong

    We present our recent studies on gate-defined valley-symmetric one-dimensional (1D) carrier guiding in ballistic monolayer graphene and valley-symmetry-protected topological 1D transport in ballistic bilayer graphene. Successful carrier guiding was realized in ballistic monolayer graphene even in the absence of a band gap by inducing a high distinction ( more than two orders of magnitude) in the carrier density between the region of a quasi-1D channel and the rest of the top-gated regions. Conductance of a channel shows quantized values in units of 4e2/ h, suggesting that the valley symmetry is preserved. For the latter, the topological 1D conduction was realized between two closely arranged insulating regions with inverted band gaps, induced under a pair of split dual gating with polarities opposite to each other. The maximum conductance along the boundary channel showed 4e2/ h, again with the preserved valley symmetry. The 1D topological carrier guiding demonstrated in this study affords a promising route to robust valleytronic applications and sophisticated valley-associated functionalities based on 2D materials. This work was funded by the National Research Foundation of Korea.

  12. Urban Ecosystem Health in Kathmandu (Nepal) - Phase III | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The two earlier phases of this project (003320 and 101277) led to the creation or strengthening of 18 local stakeholder groups and resulted in a new Animal Slaughtering and Meat Inspection Act, modification of the Nepal Food Act, modification of the Garbage Disposal Act, revisions to the Kathmandu Valley Housing Plan ...

  13. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment near the boundary of the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamos, Christina L.; Christensen, Allen H.; Langenheim, Victoria

    2017-07-19

    The increasing demands on groundwater for water supply in desert areas in California and the western United States have resulted in the need to better understand groundwater sources, availability, and sustainability. This is true for a 650-square-mile area that encompasses the Antelope Valley, El Mirage Valley, and Upper Mojave River Valley groundwater basins, about 50 miles northeast of Los Angeles, California, in the western part of the Mojave Desert. These basins have been adjudicated to ensure that groundwater rights are allocated according to legal judgments. In an effort to assess if the boundary between the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins could be better defined, the U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative study in 2014 with the Mojave Water Agency to better understand the hydrogeology in the area and investigate potential controls on groundwater flow and availability, including basement topography.Recharge is sporadic and primarily from small ephemeral washes and streams that originate in the San Gabriel Mountains to the south; estimates range from about 400 to 1,940 acre-feet per year. Lateral underflow from adjacent basins has been considered minor in previous studies; underflow from the Antelope Valley to the El Mirage Valley groundwater basin has been estimated to be between 100 and 1,900 acre-feet per year. Groundwater discharge is primarily from pumping, mostly by municipal supply wells. Between October 2013 and September 2014, the municipal pumpage in the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins was reported to be about 800 and 2,080 acre-feet, respectively.This study was motivated by the results from a previously completed regional gravity study, which suggested a northeast-trending subsurface basement ridge and saddle approximately 3.5 miles west of the boundary between the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins that might influence groundwater flow. To better define potential basement

  14. Perceptual discrimination difficulty and familiarity in the Uncanny Valley: more like a "Happy Valley".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Marcus; Suter, Pascal; Jancke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    The Uncanny Valley Hypothesis (UVH) predicts that greater difficulty perceptually discriminating between categorically ambiguous human and humanlike characters (e.g., highly realistic robot) evokes negatively valenced (i.e., uncanny) affect. An ABX perceptual discrimination task and signal detection analysis was used to examine the profile of perceptual discrimination (PD) difficulty along the UVH' dimension of human likeness (DHL). This was represented using avatar-to-human morph continua. Rejecting the implicitly assumed profile of PD difficulty underlying the UVH' prediction, Experiment 1 showed that PD difficulty was reduced for categorically ambiguous faces but, notably, enhanced for human faces. Rejecting the UVH' predicted relationship between PD difficulty and negative affect (assessed in terms of the UVH' familiarity dimension), Experiment 2 demonstrated that greater PD difficulty correlates with more positively valenced affect. Critically, this effect was strongest for the ambiguous faces, suggesting a correlative relationship between PD difficulty and feelings of familiarity more consistent with the metaphor happy valley. This relationship is also consistent with a fluency amplification instead of the hitherto proposed hedonic fluency account of affect along the DHL. Experiment 3 found no evidence that the asymmetry in the profile of PD along the DHL is attributable to a differential processing bias (cf. other-race effect), i.e., processing avatars at a category level but human faces at an individual level. In conclusion, the present data for static faces show clear effects that, however, strongly challenge the UVH' implicitly assumed profile of PD difficulty along the DHL and the predicted relationship between this and feelings of familiarity.

  15. The Uncanny Valley and Nonverbal Communication in Virtual Characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinwell, Angela; Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Abdel Nabi, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of a current research project investigating the Uncanny Valley phenomenon in realistic, human-like virtual characters. !e research methods used in this Work include a retrospective of both empirical studies and philosophical writings on the Uncanny. No other...... research has explored the notion that realistic, human-like, virtual characters are regarded less favorably due to a perceived diminished degree of responsiveness in facial expression, specifically, nonverbal communication (NVC) in the upper face region. So far, this research project has provided the first...... empirical evidence to test the Uncanny Valley phenomenon in the domain of animated video game characters with speech, as opposed to just still, unresponsive images, as used in previous studies. Based on the results of these experiments, a conceptual framework of the Uncanny Valley in virtual characters has...

  16. Size effects in many-valley fluctuations in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, V.N.; Kochelap, V.A.

    1995-08-01

    We present the results of theoretical investigations of nonhomogeneous fluctuations in submicron active regions of many-valley semiconductors with equivalent valleys(Ge, Si-type), where the dimension 2d of the region is comparable to or less than the intervalley diffusion relaxation length L iv . It is shown that for arbitrary orientations of the valley axes (the crystal axes) with respect to lateral sample surfaces, the fluctuation spectra depend on the bias voltage applied to the layer in the region of weak nonheating electric fields. The new physical phenomenon is reported: the fluctuation spectra depend on the sample thickness, with 2d iv the suppression of fluctuations arises for fluctuation frequencies ω -1 iv , τ -1 iv is the characteristic intervalley relaxation time. (author). 43 refs, 5 figs

  17. Generation of valley-polarized electron beam in bilayer graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Changsoo

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method to produce valley-polarized electron beams using a bilayer graphene npn junction. By analyzing the transmission properties of electrons through the junction with zigzag interface in the presence of trigonal warping, we observe that there exist a range of incident energies and barrier heights in which transmitted electrons are well polarized and collimated. From this observation and by performing numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that valley-dependent electronic currents with nearly perfect polarization can be generated. We also show that the peak-to-peak separation angle between the polarized currents is tunable either by incident energy or by barrier height each of which is controlled by using top and back gate voltages. The results can be used for constructing an electron beam splitter to produce valley-polarized currents

  18. Generation of valley-polarized electron beam in bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changsoo

    2015-12-01

    We propose a method to produce valley-polarized electron beams using a bilayer graphene npn junction. By analyzing the transmission properties of electrons through the junction with zigzag interface in the presence of trigonal warping, we observe that there exist a range of incident energies and barrier heights in which transmitted electrons are well polarized and collimated. From this observation and by performing numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that valley-dependent electronic currents with nearly perfect polarization can be generated. We also show that the peak-to-peak separation angle between the polarized currents is tunable either by incident energy or by barrier height each of which is controlled by using top and back gate voltages. The results can be used for constructing an electron beam splitter to produce valley-polarized currents.

  19. Salinity and resource management in the Hunter Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creelman, R.A.; Cooke, R.; Simons, M. [RA Creelman & Associates (Australia)

    1995-08-01

    If excess water salinity is to be managed in the Hunter Valley, its causes and behaviour must be understood. Although Hunter Valley hydrology, hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry require further study, there is now enough information available to begin the development of both temporal and spatial models as valley management tools. Currently the Department of Water Resources is developing a model known as Integrated Water Quality and Quantity Model (IQQM). IQQM which includes a salinity module is essentially a surface water simulation model. It wll enable testing of alternate management and operation policies such as the salinity property rights trading scheme recently introduced by the EPA to manage salt release from coal mines and power stations. An overview is presented of the progress made to date on the salinity module for IQQM, and an outline is given of the geological and hydrogeochemical concepts that have been assembled to support the salinity module of IQQM. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Radiation processing of temperate fruits of Kashmir valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Peerzada R.; Meena, Raghuveer S.; Dar, Mohd A.; Wani, Ali M.

    2011-01-01

    Kashmir valley is famous for its temperate horticulture. Main temperate fruits grown commercially in the valley include apple, pear, peach, plum, cherry, strawberry and apricot. These fruits being perishable and susceptible to microbial spoilage, have a short shelf-life. The short shelf-life in an impediment in their transportation and marketing and results in huge losses. Study was carried out at NRL, Srinagar to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the keeping quality of most of these fruits. The effect of gamma irradiation alone and in combination with other techniques like controlled low temperature storage, edible polysaccharide coating and calcium chloride treatment was studied in detail. The results revealed that there is a great potential for the use of radiation in extending the storage life of most of the temperate fruits produced in the valley of Kashmir. (author)

  1. Topological induced valley polarization in bilayer graphene/Boron Nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Leonardo; Idrobo, Juan C.

    2015-03-01

    Novel electronic devices relay in our ability to control internal quantum degrees of freedom of the electron e.g., its spin. The valley number degree of freedom is a pseudospin that labels degenerate eigenstates at local maximum/minimum on the valence/conduction band. Valley polarization, that is, selective electronic localization in a momentum valley and its manipulation can be achieved by means of circular polarized light (CPL) in a system with strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC). In this talk, we will show theoretically that despite the fact that neither graphene or BN have a strong SOC, a bilayer of graphene on BN oriented at a twist angle has different absorption for right- and left- CPL. This induced polarization occurs due to band folding of the electronic bands, i.e., it has a topological origin. This research was supported EPN multidisciplinary grant and by DOE SUFD MSED.

  2. Rod consolidation at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1986-12-01

    A rod consolidation demonstration with irradiated pressurized water reactor fuel was recently conducted by personnel from Nuclear Assurance Corporation and West Valley Nuclear Services Company at the West Valley Demonstration Project in West Valley, New York. The rod consolidation demonstration involved pulling all of the fuel rods from six fuel Assemblies. In general, the rod pulling proceeded smoothly. The highest compaction ratio attained was 1:8:1. Among the total of 1074 fuel rods were some known degraded rods (they had collapsed cladding, a result of in-reactor fuel densification), but no rods were broken or dropped during the demonstration. One aim was to gather information on the effect of rod consolidation operations on the integrity of the fuel rods during subsequent handling and storage. Another goal was to collect information on the condition and handling of intact, damaged, and failed fuel that has been in storage for an extended period. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  3. Regolith transport in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putkonen, J.; Rosales, M.; Turpen, N.; Morgan, D.; Balco, G.; Donaldson, M.

    2007-01-01

    The stability of ground surface and preservation of landforms that record past events and environments is of great importance as the geologic and climatic history is evaluated in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica. Currently little is known about the regolith transport that tends to eradicate and confound this record and regolith transport is itself an environmental indicator. Based on analyses of repeat photographs, soil traps, and pebble transport distances, it was found that there is a large spatial variation in topographic diffusivities at least in the annual basis and that counter intuitively the highest topographic diffusivities are found in the alpine valleys that are located farther inland from the coast where the lowest topographic diffusivities were recorded. An average topographic diffusivity for the Dry Valleys was determined to be 10M-5–10-4 m2

  4. Estimating Vehicular Emission in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad Ghimire

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study estimate, the vehicular emission load for CO, CO2 , HCs, NOX, SO2, Dioxin/Furans, Particulate Matters (PM10, PM2.5, Black carbon and Organic Carbon by using emission factors and Global Warming Potentials (GWPs of the pollutants (CO2, NOX, BC and OC. For this purpose, data were collected through the video tape record (in 30 sites, questionnaire survey, field visit, and literatures review. The total estimated emission of Kathmandu Valley (KV was 7231053.12 ton/year. Of the total emission, CO2 emission was highest i.e., 91.01% followed by CO 5.03%, HC 0.96%, NOX 0.60%, PM10 0.18% and SO2 0.10%. Annually 529353.36 μg Toxic Equivalent (TEQ of Dioxin/Furan produced and directly disperse to the ambient environment. The total estimated PM2.5, BC and OC emission were 9649.40 ton/year, 1640.4 ton/year and 2894.82 ton/year. The total carbon equivalence of the combined emissions (CO2, NOX and BC for 100-years standard time horizon is 10579763.6 ton CO2-eq i.e., 2885390.07 ton carbon.CO2 alone will be responsible, for about 62% of the impacts for the next century from current emissions of CO2, NOX and BC. Of the total emission Heavy Duty Vehicles (HDV emits 50%, Light Duty Vehicles (LDV emits, 27%, 2-Wheelers emits 22% and 3-Wheeler (Tempo emits 1%. The total emission of all pollutants combined per vehicle together was estimated to be 5.46 ton/year which was estimated as 23.63, 10.35, 1.83 and 5.58 ton/year for HDV, LDV, 2-Wheelers and 3-Wheeler respectively. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i4.11742      International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-3, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2014Page: 133-146 

  5. Assessment of bilayer silicene to probe as quantum spin and valley Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Majeed Ur; Qiao, Zhenhua

    2018-02-01

    Silicene takes precedence over graphene due to its buckling type structure and strong spin orbit coupling. Motivated by these properties, we study the silicene bilayer in the presence of applied perpendicular electric field and intrinsic spin orbit coupling to probe as quantum spin/valley Hall effect. Using analytical approach, we calculate the spin Chern-number of bilayer silicene and then compare it with monolayer silicene. We reveal that bilayer silicene hosts double spin Chern-number as compared to single layer silicene and therefore accordingly has twice as many edge states in contrast to single layer silicene. In addition, we investigate the combined effect of intrinsic spin orbit coupling and the external electric field, we find that bilayer silicene, likewise single layer silicene, goes through a phase transitions from a quantum spin Hall state to a quantum valley Hall state when the strength of the applied electric field exceeds the intrinsic spin orbit coupling strength. We believe that the results and outcomes obtained for bilayer silicene are experimentally more accessible as compared to bilayer graphene, because of strong SO coupling in bilayer silicene.

  6. Technical Analysis of In-Valley Drainage Management Strategies for the Western San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Theresa S.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.

    2008-01-01

    The western San Joaquin Valley is one of the most productive farming areas in the United States, but salt-buildup in soils and shallow groundwater aquifers threatens this area?s productivity. Elevated selenium concentrations in soils and groundwater complicate drainage management and salt disposal. In this document, we evaluate constraints on drainage management and implications of various approaches to management considered in: *the San Luis Drainage Feature Re-Evaluation (SLDFRE) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (about 5,000 pages of documentation, including supporting technical reports and appendices); *recent conceptual plans put forward by the San Luis Unit (SLU) contractors (i.e., the SLU Plans) (about 6 pages of documentation); *approaches recommended by the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program (SJVDP) (1990a); and *other U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) models and analysis relevant to the western San Joaquin Valley. The alternatives developed in the SLDFRE EIS and other recently proposed drainage plans (refer to appendix A for details) differ from the strategies proposed by the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program (1990a). The Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) in March 2007 signed a record of decision for an in-valley disposal option that would retire 194,000 acres of land, build 1,900 acres of evaporation ponds, and develop a treatment system to remove salt and selenium from drainwater. The recently proposed SLU Plans emphasize pumping drainage to the surface, storing approximately 33% in agricultural water re-use areas, treating selenium through biotechnology, enhancing the evaporation of water to concentrate salt, and identifying ultimate storage facilities for the remaining approximately 67% of waste selenium and salt. The treatment sequence of reuse, reverse osmosis, selenium bio-treatment, and enhanced solar evaporation is unprecedented and untested at the scale needed to meet plan requirements. All drainage management strategies that have been proposed

  7. P-T-t-d History of the Lahul Valley, NW Indian Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieblas, A.; Leech, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Lahul Valley of NW India is located between the Zanskar Shear zone to the northwest and the Sangla detachment to the southeast. This region contains three east-trending, laterally-continuous tectonostratigraphic units separated by two major fault zones. To the south, low-grade metasediments of the Lesser Himalayan Sequence (LHS) are separated from high-grade crystalline rocks of the Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) by the north dipping Main Central Thrust (MCT). The northern extent of the GHS is separated from overlying low-grade sedimentary rocks of the Tethyan Himalayan Sequence (THS) along the north dipping South Tibetan Detachment System (STDS). There is controversy over the location and type of shear motion for the STDS in the ~50 km strip running through Lahul Valley where the STD is interpreted as a discrete fault, a dextral shear zone, and is unidentified in some areas along the trend of the STDS. This study focuses on understanding the pressure-temperature-time-deformation (P-T-t-d) evolution of THS and GHS rocks in Lahul Valley to better understand regional Cenozoic deformation and the location and role of the STDS in the extrusion of the GHS. Deformed granitics, migmatites, and leucogranites from the GHS contain a dominant mineralogy of Qz + Kfs + Pl + Bt + Ms ± Grt ± Ky ± St. Schists and phyllites from the THS contain a dominant mineralogy of Qz + Kfs + Pl + Bt + Ms ± Grt. Isochemical phase equilibria diagrams (pseudosections) are calculated in Perple_X using whole-rock chemistry data with solution models based on these mineral assemblages. Ti-in-quartz thermometry and the Fe-Mg exchange thermometry from garnet-biotite pairs used with mineral growth relationships constrain conditions during deformation and to establish P-T paths. U-Pb SHRIMP dating of zircon constrains peak metamorphic conditions and 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology of micas provide the cooling history along the valley and across the STDS. This multi-component approach to understand

  8. Fitness-valley crossing with generalized parent-offspring transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmond, Matthew M; Otto, Sarah P

    2015-11-01

    Simple and ubiquitous gene interactions create rugged fitness landscapes composed of coadapted gene complexes separated by "valleys" of low fitness. Crossing such fitness valleys allows a population to escape suboptimal local fitness peaks to become better adapted. This is the premise of Sewall Wright's shifting balance process. Here we generalize the theory of fitness-valley crossing in the two-locus, bi-allelic case by allowing bias in parent-offspring transmission. This generalization extends the existing mathematical framework to genetic systems with segregation distortion and uniparental inheritance. Our results are also flexible enough to provide insight into shifts between alternate stable states in cultural systems with "transmission valleys". Using a semi-deterministic analysis and a stochastic diffusion approximation, we focus on the limiting step in valley crossing: the first appearance of the genotype on the new fitness peak whose lineage will eventually fix. We then apply our results to specific cases of segregation distortion, uniparental inheritance, and cultural transmission. Segregation distortion favouring mutant alleles facilitates crossing most when recombination and mutation are rare, i.e., scenarios where crossing is otherwise unlikely. Interactions with more mutable genes (e.g., uniparental inherited cytoplasmic elements) substantially reduce crossing times. Despite component traits being passed on poorly in the previous cultural background, small advantages in the transmission of a new combination of cultural traits can greatly facilitate a cultural transition. While peak shifts are unlikely under many of the common assumptions of population genetic theory, relaxing some of these assumptions can promote fitness-valley crossing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Increased body mass of ducks wintering in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Yee, Julie L.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Loughman, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack the information needed to fully evaluate the biological effects of their habitat conservation programs. We studied body condition of dabbling ducks shot by hunters at public hunting areas throughout the Central Valley of California during 2006–2008 compared with condition of ducks from 1979 to 1993. These time periods coincide with habitat increases due to Central Valley Joint Venture conservation programs and changing agricultural practices; we modeled to ascertain whether body condition differed among waterfowl during these periods. Three dataset comparisons indicate that dabbling duck body mass was greater in 2006–2008 than earlier years and the increase was greater in the Sacramento Valley and Suisun Marsh than in the San Joaquin Valley, differed among species (mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], northern pintail [Anas acuta], America wigeon [Anas americana], green-winged teal [Anas crecca], and northern shoveler [Anas clypeata]), and was greater in ducks harvested late in the season. Change in body mass also varied by age–sex cohort and month for all 5 species and by September–January rainfall for all except green-winged teal. The random effect of year nested in period, and sometimes interacting with other factors, improved models in many cases. Results indicate that improved habitat conditions in the Central Valley have resulted in increased winter body mass of dabbling ducks, especially those that feed primarily on seeds, and this increase was greater in regions where area of post-harvest flooding of rice and other crops, and wetland area, has increased. Conservation programs that continue to promote post-harvest flooding and other agricultural practices that benefit wintering waterfowl and continue to restore and conserve wetlands would likely help maintain body condition of wintering dabbling ducks in the Central Valley of California.

  10. EPA Region 1 - Map Layers for Valley ID Tool (Hosted Feature Service)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Valley Service Feature Layer hosts spatial data for EPA Region 1's Valley Identification Tool. These layers contain attribute information added by EPA R1 GIS...

  11. 78 FR 21414 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are available for review... establish and administer an office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices...

  12. 75 FR 70020 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that shall ``* * * develop... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior ACTION: Notice of Availability. SUMMARY: The...

  13. 76 FR 12756 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that shall ``* * * develop... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The...

  14. 76 FR 54251 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... and administer an office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The...

  15. 77 FR 64544 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that shall ``develop criteria for... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The...

  16. 75 FR 38538 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... to establish and administer an office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The...

  17. 77 FR 2469 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District and Imperial... Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portions... Technology (RACT),'' adopted on February 23, 2010. * * * * * (G) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

  18. 77 FR 12526 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District and Mojave Desert Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District...

  19. 76 FR 5276 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the... protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental relations, Nitrogen dioxide...

  20. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2004. The report summarizes the environmental protection program at the West Valley Demonstration Project for CY 2004

  1. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO) and URS Group, Inc.

    2005-09-30

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2004. The report summarizes the environmental protection program at the West Valley Demonstration Project for CY 2004.

  2. 76 FR 52623 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... respiratory and cardiovascular disease, decreased lung function, visibility impairment, and damage to... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of...

  3. 75 FR 28509 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ..., aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular disease, decreased lung function, visibility impairment, and... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of...

  4. 76 FR 37044 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... premature mortality, aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular disease, decreased lung function... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of...

  5. Inca expansion and parasitism in the Lluta Valley: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoro Calogero

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of cultural change on parasitism has been a central goal in archaeoparasitology. The influence of civilization and the development of empires on parasitism has not been evaluated. Presented here is a preliminary analysis of the change in human parasitism associated with the Inca conquest of the Lluta Valley in Northern Chile. Changes in parasite prevalence are described. It can be seen that the change in life imposed on the inhabitants of the Lluta Valley by the Incas caused an increase in parasitism.

  6. Inca expansion and parasitism in the lluta valley: preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Calogero; Vinton, Sheila Dorsey; Reinhard, Karl J

    2003-01-01

    Assessing the impact of cultural change on parasitism has been a central goal in archaeoparasitology. The influence of civilization and the development of empires on parasitism has not been evaluated. Presented here is a preliminary analysis of the change in human parasitism associated with the Inca conquest of the Lluta Valley in Northern Chile. Changes in parasite prevalence are described. It can be seen that the change in life imposed on the inhabitants of the Lluta Valley by the Incas caused an increase in parasitism.

  7. Simulation of channel sandstone architecture in an incised valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frykman, P.; Johannessen, P.; Andsbjerg, J.

    1998-12-31

    The present report describes a geostatistical modelling study that is aimed at reflecting the architecture of the channel sandstones in an incised valley fill. The example used for this study is a part of the Middle Jurassic sandy succession of the Bryne Formation in the Danish central Graben. The succession consists mainly of fluvial sediments in the lower part, overlain by tidal influenced sediments, which again is overlain by shallow marine sediments. The modelling study has been performed on a sequence of incised valley sediments in the upper part of the Bryne Formation overlying fluvial sediments. (au) EFP-96. 19 refs.

  8. Summary Robert Noyce and the invention of Silicon Valley

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This work offers a summary of the book "THE MAN BEHIND THE MICROCHIP: Robert Noyce and the Invention of Silicon Valley""by Leslie Berlin.The Man behind the Microchip is Leslie Berlin's first book. This author is project historian for the Silicon Valley Archives, a division of the Stanford University Department of Special Collections. This book tells the story of a giant of the high-tech industry: the multimillionaire Bob Noyce. This co-founder of Fairchild Semiconductor and Intel co-invented the integrated circuit which became the electronic heart of every modern computer, automobile, advance

  9. Cleanup criteria for the West Valley demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrott, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is prescribing decontamination and decommissioning (cleanup) criteria for the West Valley Demonstration Project and the West Valley, New York, site. The site is contaminated with various forms of residual radioactive contamination and contains a wide variety of radioactive waste. The NRC is planning to issue cleanup criteria for public comment in Fall 1999. Due to the complexity of the site, and the newness of NRC's cleanup criteria policy, applying NRC's cleanup criteria to this site will be an original regulatory undertaking. (author)

  10. A skin test survey of valley fever in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrich, B E

    1989-01-01

    Results of a study of the prevalence of valley fever among 1128 residents of Tijuana, Baja California are presented. Children from primary and middle schools (n = 497) and adults from technical institutes and maquiladoras (assembly plants) were tested for reaction to both spherulin and coccidioidin during 1985-1986, and they completed a questionnaire containing 23 variables on their socio-environment. Place of residence was mapped. The population sampled is largely middle class. Discriminant analysis indicates the distribution of positive cases is not clustered, nor can it be correlated with geomorphic factors such as mesa tops, canyons, or valley bottoms.

  11. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report calendar year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1998 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  12. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None Available

    2000-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1999 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  13. Hydrogeology of the carbonate rocks of the Lebanon Valley, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisler, Harold

    1963-01-01

    The Lebanon Valley, which is part of the Great Valley in southeastern Pennsylvania, is underlain by carbonate rocks in the southern part and by shale in the northern part. The carbonate rocks consist of alternating beds of limestone and dolomite of Cambrian and Ordovician age. Although the beds generally dip to the south, progressively younger beds crop out to the north, because the rocks are overturned. The stratigraphic units, from oldest to youngest, are: the Buffalo Springs Formation, Snitz Creek, Schaefferstown, Millbach, and Richland Formations of the Conococheague Group; the Stonehenge, Rickenbach, Epler, and Ontelaunee Formations of the Beekmantown Group; and the Annville, Myerstown, and Hershey Limestones.

  14. Vitrification facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DesCamp, V.A.; McMahon, C.L.

    1996-07-01

    This report is a description of the West Valley Demonstration Project's vitrification facilities from the establishment of the West Valley, NY site as a federal and state cooperative project to the completion of all activities necessary to begin solidification of radioactive waste into glass by vitrification. Topics discussed in this report include the Project's background, high-level radioactive waste consolidation, vitrification process and component testing, facilities design and construction, waste/glass recipe development, integrated facility testing, and readiness activities for radioactive waste processing

  15. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1997 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  16. The World of Great Wines: The Douro Valley Experience

    OpenAIRE

    A. Oliveira-Brochado; R. Silva; C. Paulino

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to use an experiential view of wine tourism to develop a battery of items that can potentially capture the overall Douro Valley experience from the tourist’s perspective. The Douro Valley, a UNESCO World Heritage region located in Portugal, was the target of this study. The research took a mixed approach using both qualitative and quantitative designs. Firstly, we combine the literature review on service quality scales with a content analysis of five in-depth intervie...

  17. Geology and geomorphology of Bear Lake Valley and upper Bear River, Utah and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reheis, M.C.; Laabs, B.J.C.; Kaufman, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    levels have decreased from as high as 1830 m to 1806 m above sea level since the early Pleistocene due to episodic downcutting by the Bear River. The oldest exposed lacustrine sediments in Bear Lake Valley are probably of Pliocene age. Several high-lake phases during the early and middle Pleistocene were separated by episodes of fluvial incision. Threshold incision was not constant, however, because lake highstands of as much as 8 m above bedrock threshold level resulted from aggradation and possibly landsliding at least twice during the late-middle and late Pleistocene. Abandoned stream channels within the low-lying, fault-bounded region between Bear Lake and the modern Bear River show that Bear River progressively shifted northward during the Holocene. Several factors including faulting, location of the fluvial fan, and channel migration across the fluvial fan probably interacted to produce these changes in channel position. Late Quaternary slip rates on the east Bear Lake fault zone are estimated by using the water-level history of Bear Lake, assuming little or no displacement on dated deposits on the west side of the valley. Uplifted lacustrine deposits representing Pliocene to middle Pleistocene highstands of Bear Lake on the footwall block of the east Bear Lake fault zone provide dramatic evidence of long-term slip. Slip rates during the late Pleistocene increased from north to south along the east Bear Lake fault zone, consistent with the tectonic geomorphology. In addition, slip rates on the southern section of the fault zone have apparently decreased over the past 50 k.y. Copyright ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  18. Valley-polarized quantum transport generated by gauge fields in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Garcia, Jose H; Roche, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    We report on the possibility to simultaneously generate in graphene a bulk valley-polarized dissipative transport and a quantum valley Hall effect by combining strain-induced gauge fields and real magnetic fields. Such unique phenomenon results from a ‘resonance/anti-resonance’ effect driven by t...... Kubo transport methods combined with a valley projection scheme to access valley-dependent conductivities and show that the results are robust against disorder....

  19. Titan's fluvial valleys: Morphology, distribution, and spectral properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, M.H.; Jaumann, R.; Stephan, K.; Brown, R.H.; Buratti, B.J.; Clark, R.N.; Baines, K.H.; Nicholson, P.D.; Lorenz, R.D.; Soderblom, L.A.; Soderblom, J.M.; Sotin, Christophe; Barnes, J.W.; Nelson, R.

    2012-01-01

    Titan's fluvial channels have been investigated based on data obtained by the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) instrument and the Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard the Cassini spacecraft. In this paper, a database of fluvial features is created based on radar-SAR data aiming to unveil the distribution and the morphologic and spectral characteristics of valleys on Titan on a global scale. It will also study the spatial relations between fluvial valleys and Titan's geologic units and spectral surface units which have become accessible thanks to Cassini-VIMS data. Several distinct morphologic types of fluvial valleys can be discerned by SAR-images. Dendritic valley networks appear to have much in common with terrestrial dendritic systems owing to a hierarchical and tree-shaped arrangement of the tributaries which is indicative of an origin from precipitation. Dry valleys constitute another class of valleys resembling terrestrial wadis, an indication of episodic and strong flow events. Other valley types, such as putative canyons, cannot be correlated with rainfall based on their morphology alone, since it cannot be ruled out that they may have originated from volcanic/tectonic action or groundwater sapping. Highly developed and complex fluvial networks with channel lengths of up to 1200 km and widths of up to 10 km are concentrated only at a few locations whereas single valleys are scattered over all latitudes. Fluvial valleys are frequently found in mountainous areas. Some terrains, such as equatorial dune fields and undifferentiated plains at mid-latitudes, are almost entirely free of valleys. Spectrally, fluvial terrains are often characterized by a high reflectance in each of Titan's atmospheric windows, as most of them are located on Titan's bright 'continents'. Nevertheless, valleys are spatially associated with a surface unit appearing blue due to its higher reflection at 1.3??m in a VIMS false color RGB composite with R: 1.59/1.27??m, G: 2

  20. 75 FR 17756 - Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Blackstone River Valley National Heritage..., United States Code, that a meeting of the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage... the meeting to: Jan H. Reitsma, Executive Director, John H. Chafee, Blackstone River Valley National...

  1. 76 FR 56471 - Meeting of the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ...] Meeting of the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission AGENCY: National Heritage Corridor Commission, John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley, National Park Service... Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix, that the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National...

  2. 75 FR 48359 - Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Blackstone River Valley National Heritage..., United States Code, that a meeting of the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage..., Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission, One Depot Square, Woonsocket, RI 02895, Tel...

  3. 76 FR 38572 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) portion of the... approving with the dates that they were adopted by the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District...

  4. 75 FR 62137 - Notice of Public Meeting; Proposed Alluvial Valley Floor Coal Exchange Public Interest Factors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... exchange Federal coal deposits for Alluvial Valley Floor (AVF) fee coal pursuant to the Federal Land Policy...; MTM-99236] Notice of Public Meeting; Proposed Alluvial Valley Floor Coal Exchange Public Interest... Alluvial Valley Floor Environmental Assessment can be viewed on the BLM's Miles City Field Office Web page...

  5. 77 FR 42722 - Copper Valley Electric Association; Notice of Updated Environmental Analysis Preparation Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13124-002] Copper Valley...: Original License Application. b. Project No.: 13124-002. c. Applicant: Copper Valley Electric Association (Copper Valley). d. Name of Project: Allison Creek Project. e. Location: On the south side of Port Valdez...

  6. 75 FR 22775 - Copper Valley Electric Association; Notice of Scoping Meeting and Soliciting Scoping Comments for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13124-000] Copper Valley....: 13124-000. c. Applicant: Copper Valley Electric Association. d. Name of Project: Allison Lake Project. e.... 791(a)-825(r). g. Applicant Contact: Robert A. Wilkinson, CEO, Copper Valley Electric Association, P.O...

  7. 76 FR 45212 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... proposing to approve San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) Rule 3170... the environment. San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District SJVUAPCD is an extreme...

  8. Development and validation of a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) for assessing sugar consumption among adults in Klang Valley, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanita, Nik S; Norimah, A K; Abu Hanifah, S

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for assessing habitual added sugar consumption of adults in the Klang Valley. In the development phase, a 24-hour dietary recall (24-hr DR) was used to determine food items to be included into the FFQ among adults from three major ethnicities (n = 51). In the validation phase, the FFQ was further validated against a reference method which was a multiple-pass 24-hr DR among 125 adults in Klang Valley. The response rate for the latter phase was 96.1%. The semi-quantitative FFQ consisting of 64 food items was categorised into 10 food groups. The mean added sugar intake determined by the reference method was 44.2 +/- 20.2 g/day while that from the FFQ was 49.4 +/- 21.4 g/day. The difference in mean intake between the two methods was 5.2 g (95% CI = 2.6-7.9; SD = 14.9, p food groups ranged between 0.11 (cake and related foods) to 0.61 (self-prepared drinks), with most groups correlating significantly (p < 0.05). Cross-classification of subjects into quintiles of intake showed 47.2% of the subjects correctly classifying into the same quintile, 34.4% into adjacent quintiles while none were grossly misclassified. The Bland-Altman plot was concentrated in the y-axis range (-24.14 g to 34.8 g) with a mean of 5.22 g. This semi-quantitative FFQ provides a validated tool for estimating habitual intake of added sugar in the adult population of the Klang Valley.

  9. CRYOGENESIS AND GEODYNAMICS OF ICING VALLEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Alekseyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to local groundwater seeping and freezing in layers that accumulate over each other and create large ice clusters on the ground surface, specific conditions of energy and mass transfer are created in the atmosphere–soil–lithosphere system. In winter, the vertical temperature distribution curve is significantly deformed due to heat emission from the water layer above the ice cover during its freezing, and a thermocline is thus formed. Deformation of the temperature curve is gradually decreasing in size downward the profile and decays at the interface of frozen and thaw rocks. Values and numbers of temperature deviations from a 'normal' value depend on heat reserves of aufeis water and the number of water seeps/discharges at a given location. The production of the thermocline alters freezing conditions for underlying ground layers and changes the mechanism of ice saturation, thus leading to formation of two-layer ice-ground complexes (IGC. IGCs are drastically different from cryogenic formations in the neighbouring sections of the river valley. Based on genetic characteristics and the ratios of components in the surface and subsurface layers, seven types of aufeis IGCs are distinguished: massive-segregation, cement-basal, layered-segregation, basal-segregation, vacuum-filtration, pressure-injection, and fissure-vein. Annual processes of surface and subsurface icing and ice ablation are accompanied by highly hazardous geodynamic phenomena, such as winter flooding, layered water freezing, soil heaving/pingo, thermokarst and thermal erosion. Combined, these processes lead to rapid and often incidental reconfigurations of the surface and subsurface runoff channels, abrupt uplifting and subsiding of the ground surface, decompaction and 'shaking-up' of seasonally freezing/thawing rocks, thereby producing exceptionally unfavourable conditions for construction and operation of engineering structures.Formation and development of river networks are

  10. Holocene evolution of a drowned melt-water valley in the Danish Wadden Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørn Bjarke Torp; Svinth, Steffen; Bartholdy, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Cores from the salt marshes along the drowned melt-water valley of river Varde Å in the Danish Wadden Sea have been dated and analysed (litho- and biostratigraphically) to reconstruct the Holocene geomorphologic evolution and relative sea level history of the area. The analysed cores cover...... the total post-glacial transgression, and the reconstructed sea level curve represents the first unbroken curve of this kind from the Danish Wadden Sea, including all phases from the time where sea level first reached the Pleistocene substrate of the area. The sea level has been rising from - 12 m below...... the present level at c. 8400 cal yr BP, interrupted by two minor drops of sea level rise, and the Holocene sequence consists in most places of clay atop...

  11. Results of a seepage investigation at Bear Creek Valley, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, January through September 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.A.; Johnson, G.C.

    1996-01-01

    A seepage investigation was conducted of 4,600 acres of Bear Creek Valley southwest of the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for the period of January through September 1994. The data was collected to help the Y-12 Environmental Restoration Program develop a better understanding of ground-water and surface-water interactions, recharge and discharge relations, and ground-water flow patterns. The project was divided into three phases: a reconnaissance and mapping of seeps, springs, and stream-measurement sites; a high base flow seepage investigation; and a low base flow seepage investigation. This report describes the results of the investigation. It includes a map showing measurement site locations and tables that list the coordinates for each site and measurements of discharge, pH, specific conductance, temperature, and dissolved oxygen

  12. Subsurface and petroleum geology of the southwestern Santa Clara Valley ("Silicon Valley"), California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Richard G.; Jachens, Robert C.; Lillis, Paul G.; McLaughlin, Robert J.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Hostettler, Frances D.; McDougall, Kristin A.; Magoon, Leslie B.

    2002-01-01

    Gravity anomalies, historical records of exploratory oil wells and oil seeps, new organic-geochemical results, and new stratigraphic and structural data indicate the presence of a concealed, oil-bearing sedimentary basin beneath a highly urbanized part of the Santa Clara Valley, Calif. A conspicuous isostatic-gravity low that extends about 35 km from Palo Alto southeastward to near Los Gatos reflects an asymmetric, northwest-trending sedimentary basin comprising low-density strata, principally of Miocene age, that rest on higher-density rocks of Mesozoic and Paleogene(?) age. Both gravity and well data show that the low-density rocks thin gradually to the northeast over a distance of about 10 km. The thickest (approx 4 km thick) accumulation of low-density material occurs along the basin's steep southwestern margin, which may be controlled by buried, northeast-dipping normal faults that were active during the Miocene. Movement along these hypothetical normal faults may been contemporaneous (approx 17–14 Ma) with sedimentation and local dacitic and basaltic volcanism, possibly in response to crustal extension related to passage of the northwestward-migrating Mendocino triple junction. During the Pliocene and Quaternary, the normal faults and Miocene strata were overridden by Mesozoic rocks, including the Franciscan Complex, along northeastward-vergent reverse and thrust faults of the Berrocal, Shannon, and Monte Vista Fault zones. Movement along these fault zones was accompanied by folding and tilting of strata as young as Quaternary and by uplift of the modern Santa Cruz Mountains; the fault zones remain seismically active. We attribute the Pliocene and Quaternary reverse and thrust faulting, folding, and uplift to compression caused by local San Andreas Fault tectonics and regional transpression along the Pacific-North American Plate boundary. Near the southwestern margin of the Santa Clara Valley, as many as 20 exploratory oil wells were drilled between 1891

  13. Monitoring and evaluation of seasonal snow cover in Kashmir valley ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    89 to 2007–08) climatic conditions prevailed in both ranges of Kashmir valley. Region-wise ... effective use of snowmelt runoff models (Rango and Martinec ... J. Earth Syst. Sci. 118, No. ... of cloud cover can affect delineation of snow cover,.

  14. Society and Health in the Lower Rio Grande Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, William

    Shedding light on problems of mental health and illness that have baffled public health workers attempting to improve the health and welfare of Mexican Americans living in the lower Rio Grande Valley, this document reports the folk customs, social organization, medical practices, and beliefs of the Mexican American of this area. Chapters describe…

  15. Epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminthiasis of rift valley goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence, mean intensity, relative density of helminth species and the effects of environmental factors, sex and maturity of host on seasonal dynamics in relative density of helminthes ova in Rift Valley goats were investigated from July 1997 to June 1998. Ten nematode and three cestode species were identified.

  16. A DECADE FROM THE MAJOR LAYOFFS IN THE JIU VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOAN VALENTIN FULGER

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay is an overview of how the population of the largest coalfield of Romania Jiu Valley, the perceived major staff cuts in the mining industry, the solutions required for economic rehabilitation of the area and difficulties of everyday faced by residents of the region.

  17. Reporting on nuclear power: the Tennessee Valley case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapley, D.

    1977-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), by deciding to have 90 percent of its new generating capacity nuclear, has made the valley a testing ground for civilian nuclear power, but valley newspapers have not provided consumers with enough information on either the pros or cons. A 1975 Browns Ferry plant fire, the most serious in the history of the civilian nuclear industry, prompted some nuclear critics to question TVA's competence to plan and manage the program. Newspapers carried wire-service stories of the fire, while their editorials gave strong support to TVA and the effort to reopen the plant. Valley newspapers have traditionally favored TVA as a powerful economic and political force which has brought many benefits. Local pride in the Oak Ridge Laboratory and plant facilities and the Federal fast-breeder reactor project headquarters also enhanced the positive attitude of the press, which tended to report details but not question nuclear safety or TVA ability. Newspapers have also failed to question TVA's claims that rates will decline as nuclear plants begin operating. A review of relevant news stories during the 1975--1976 period addresses the press coverage and notes its failure to question whether power demands justify TVA's plant construction program. Knowledgeable consultants are available to provide information on the issues, while editors are advised to give comprehensive, critical coverage and avoid promotion

  18. Imperial Contradictions: Is the Valley a Watershed, Region, or Cyborg?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy, Alan P.

    2005-01-01

    Is California's Imperial Valley a watershed? If so, at what level and by what topographic logic? Is it a region? If so, at what level and by what geographic logic? Are its boundaries natural, political, or multivalent on different scales? In short, this essay looks at the special (re)production of environmental conditions within a cyborg world.…

  19. Herpetology of the American Madrean Archipelago and adjacent valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence L. C. Jones

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 110 species of amphibians (18 frogs and toads, and 1 salamander) and reptiles (47 snakes, 39 lizards, and 5 turtles) are known from the American Madrean Archipelago and adjacent valleys. The high diversity of the herpetofauna comes from a variety of factors, including a convergence of biotic communities representing deserts, grasslands, and mountains....

  20. A case study: Death Valley National Monument California-Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Hamson; Ristau Toni

    1979-01-01

    With passage of the Mining in the Parks Act (P.L. 94-429) in 1976, the National Park Service, Department of the Interior, was given the responsibility of preparing a report to Congress outlining the environmental consequences of mining on claims within Death Valley National Monument. In addition, the Secretary of the Interior is required to formulate a recommendation...

  1. Restoration of brook valley meadows in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootjans, A.P.; Bakker, J.P.; Jansen, A.J.M.; Kemmers, R.H.

    2002-01-01

    Until recently, restoration measures in Dutch brook valley meadows consisted of re-introducing traditional management techniques, such as mowing without fertilisation and low-intensity grazing. In the Netherlands, additional measures, such as rewetting and sod cutting, are now carried out on a large

  2. Business plan Seed potato programmes Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, F.; Saavedra Gonzalez, Y.R.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan has been prepared for local entrepreneurs who would like to expand/start their business portfolio and are looking for an opportunity of investment in the agricultural sector in the Zambezi Valley in Mozambique. We propose the creation of a seed potato programme for the red skinned

  3. Forest pathology and entomology at Fort Valley Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian W. Geils

    2008-01-01

    Forest pathology and entomology have been researched at Fort Valley Experimental Forest throughout its history. The pathogens and insects of particular interest are mistletoes, decay and canker fungi, rusts, bark beetles, and various defoliators. Studies on life history, biotic interactions, impacts, and control have been published and incorporated into silvicultural...

  4. Holocene flooding history of the Lower Tagus Valley (Portugal)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, G.-J.; Bohncke, S.J.P.; Schneider, H.; Kasse, C.; Coenraads-Nederveen, S.; Zuurbier, K.; Rozema, J.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper aims to reconstruct the Lower Tagus Valley flooding history for the last ca. 6500 a, to explore the suitability of pollen-based local vegetation development in supporting the reconstruction of flooding history, and to explain fluvial activity changes in terms of allogenic (climate,

  5. Radiation balance in a deep Colorado valley: ASCOT 84

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiteman, C.D.; Fritschen, L.J.; Simpson, J.R.; Orgill, M.M.

    1984-12-01

    Five surface energy budget stations were installed at four sites in a deep, narrow valley in western Colorado as part of the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) Study. Radiation balance data are presented from these stations for the clear day September 29, 1984. 3 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  6. Pathways to High-tech Valleys and Research Triangles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsink, W.; Dons, H.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon Valley and the industrial districts of Italy, where shared identity, superior skills, regional specialization and trust-based networking among local firms have produced dynamic and flexible ecosystems, are inspiring examples of the successful promotion of thriving technology and business

  7. Decontamination and decommissioning of the West Valley Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, H.F.; Keel, R.

    1986-11-01

    This report presents the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities at the West Valley Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant through September 1, 1986. The topics addressed are: D and D of areas for reuse by the Liquid Waste Treatment System (LWTS); D and D of areas for reuse as High Level Waste (HLW) canister storage; and technologies developed in D and D work

  8. Martian channels and valleys - Their characteristics, distribution, and age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M. H.; Clow, G. D.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution and ages of Martian channels and valleys, which are generally believed to have been cut by running water, are examined with particular emphasis on the small branching networks referred to as runoff channels or valley networks. Valleys at latitudes from 65 deg S to 65 deg N were surveyed on Viking images at resolutions between 125 and 300 m. Almost all of the valleys are found in the old cratered terrain, in areas characterized by high elevations, low albedos and low violet/red ratios. The networks are deduced to have formed early in the history of the planet, with a formation rate declining rapidly shortly after the decline of the cratering rate 3.9 billion years ago. Two types of outflow channels are distinguished: unconfined, in which broad swaths of terrain are scoured, and confined, in which flow is restricted to discrete channels. Both types start at local sources, and have formed episodically throughout Martian history. Fretted channels, found mainly in two latitude belts characterized by relatively rapid erosion along escarpments, are explained by the lateral enlargement of other channels by mass wasting.

  9. Characterization And Classification Of The Inland Valley Soils Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six profiles located in the inland valley soils of central Cross River State were studied. The surface horizon colour of the first four were either dark Grey or dark brown. The last two profiles were grey. All subsurface horizons were either greyish or brownish and highly mottled. The structure of all the profiles were either blocky ...

  10. Feasibility of target communities in a Dutch brook valley system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, AH; Bekker, RM

    As a reaction to the ongoing deterioration of nature conservation interest in The Netherlands, an offensive nature strategy was formulated in the 1990 Nature Policy Plan. In this Plan, target communities and target plant species are mentioned. For the 'Drentse A brook valley system', target

  11. Wat kunnen we in Nederland leren van Silicon Valley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. P. Ester

    2016-01-01

    De aantrekkingskracht van de hightech innovatieregio Silicon Valley, in de strook van pakweg 90 kilometer tussen San Francisco en San Jose, is groot. Een regio met de meeste startups ter wereld. En ook ons land wil de borst vooruit steken. Of dat gaat lukken is geen kwestie van copy & paste, maar

  12. HBO-I on tour in Silicon Valley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ir. Deny Smeets; Drs. Miranda W Valkenburg

    2005-01-01

    Wat is 'hot' en wat is 'not' in de ict? Dat was 'in a nutshell' de reden voor het HBO-I om een studiereis te maken naar het Mekka voor ict'ers: Silicon Valley. Voor VS-verhoudingen een klein gebied met relatief veel belangrijke ict-bedrijven: SUN, Intel, Oracle, Hewlett-Packard. En twee van de beste

  13. Opening remarks for the Fort Valley Centennial Celebration

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Sam Foster

    2008-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station recognizes and values the contributions of our scientists and collaborators for their work over the past century at Fort Valley Experimental Forest. With the help of our partners and collaborators, Rocky Mountain Research Station is working to improve coordination across its research Program Areas and Experimental Forests and Ranges...

  14. Opening remarks for the Fort Valley Centennial Celebration (P-53)

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Sam Foster

    2008-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station recognizes and values the contributions of our scientists and collaborators for their work over the past century at Fort Valley Experimental Forest. With the help of our partners and collaborators, Rocky Mountain Research Station is working to improve coordination across its research Program Areas and Experimental Forests and Ranges...

  15. Future of cluster developments : lessons from Energy Valley, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manickam, Anu

    2017-01-01

    The research explored how a Dutch energy cluster embedded within a larger context of European and global developments reflected complex dynamics due to changes in its context. The case study explored Energy Valley of the Netherlands, a peripheral region that meets the challenge of energy transition,

  16. Comparison of sampling techniques for Rift Valley Fever virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated mosquito sampling techniques with two types of traps and attractants at different time for trapping potential vectors for Rift Valley Fever virus. The study was conducted in six villages in Ngorongoro district in Tanzania from September to October 2012. A total of 1814 mosquitoes were collected, of which 738 ...

  17. Hunting and trading bushmeat in the Kilombero Valley, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Reinhardt; Meilby, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    premiums are paid for particular species this needs to be considered. This paper investigates these issues in the Kilombero Valley of Tanzania, based on one year of market data and interviews with 80 hunters, 169 traders and 67 retailers. Motivations were overwhelmingly commercial and the bushmeat trade...

  18. Re-Emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast describes the re-emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar during two rainy seasons in 2008 and 2009. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Pierre Rollin discusses what researchers learned about the outbreak and about infections in the larger population in Madagascar.

  19. 27 CFR 9.216 - Upper Mississippi River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...), east of St. Paul at Oakbury in Washington County. From the beginning point, proceed east on Interstate... Winnebago County to U.S. Highway 20 at Cherry Valley; then (6) Proceed west on U.S. Highway 20 to Illinois...), south of St. Paul; then (15) Follow Interstate Highway 494 (beltway) northeast into Washington County...

  20. Parking Space Occupancy at Rail Stations in Klang Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Phooi Wai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Klang Valley Integrated Rapid Transit system in Klang Valley, Malaysia has been quickly gaining momentum during the recent years. There will be two new MRT lines (MRT Line 1 and MRT Line 2 and one new LRT line (LRT Line 3 extended from the current integrated rail transit system by year 2020 with more than 90 new rail stations. With the substantial addition of potential rail passengers, there are doubts whether the existing Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley are able to accommodate the future parking space demand at rail stations. This research studies the parking occupancy at various Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley namely Taman Jaya, Asia Jaya, Taman Paramount, Taman Bahagia and Kelana Jaya by applying the non-conventional method utilizing Google Earth imageries. Results showed that the parking occupancy rate at these LRT stations were 100% or more before the commencement of LRT extension (Kelana Jaya and Ampang Lines in 2016 and in the range of 36% to 100% after the commencement of LRT extension due to the additionally built car parks and changes in parking pattern with dispersed passenger traffic.

  1. Rock-fall potential in the Yosemite Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, G.F.; Morrissey, M.M.; Iovine, Giulio; Godt, Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    We used two methods of estimating rock-fall potential in the Yosemite Valley, California based on (1) physical evidence of previous rock-fall travel, in which the potential extends to the base of the talus, and (2) theoretical potential energy considerations, in which the potential can extend beyond the base of the talus, herein referred to as the rock-fall shadow. Rock falls in the valley commonly range in size from individual boulders of less than 1 m3 to moderate-sized falls with volumes of about 100,000 m3. Larger rock falls exceeding 100,000 m3, referred to as rock avalanches, are considered to be much less likely to occur based on the relatively few prehistoric rock-fall avalanche deposits in the Yosemite Valley. Because the valley has steep walls and is relatively narrow, there are no areas that are absolutely safe from large rock avalanches. The map shows areas of rock-fall potential, but does not predict when or how frequently a rock fall will occur. Consequently, neither the hazard in terms of probability of a rock fall at any specific location, nor the risk to people or facilities to such events can be assessed from this map.

  2. Problem of industrial fumes in the forested valleys of Savoy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossavy, J

    1962-01-01

    A study of injury to forest trees in the Maurienne valley, caused by F in the fumes from aluminum factories was made. Of the local conifers, Pinus sylvestris was the most susceptible, followed by Picea abies and Abies alba; Larch has so far proved resistant, as have broadleaved deciduous species.

  3. 27 CFR 9.37 - California Shenandoah Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... “Shenandoah Valley” qualified by the word “California” in direct conjunction with the name “Shenandoah Valley... meets Big Indian Creek. (2) Then south, following Big Indian Creek, until Big Indian Creek meets the... until this boundary meets Big Indian Creek. (6) Then following Big Indian Creek in a northeasterly...

  4. The Luangwa Valley, Zambia: flyway and stopover site for White ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analyses of satellite telemetry data of White Storks Ciconia ciconia from the eastern populations at their stopover sites and staging areas document the importance of the Luangwa Valley, eastern Zambia, as a migration corridor bridging eastern and southern Africa. Twice each year from November to April, up to 100 000 ...

  5. Early thinning experiments established by the Fort Valley Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin P. De Blois; Alex. J. Finkral; Andrew J. Sanchez Meador; Margaret M. Moore

    2008-01-01

    Between 1925 and 1936, the Fort Valley Experimental Forest (FVEF) scientists initiated a study to examine a series of forest thinning experiments in second growth ponderosa pine stands in Arizona and New Mexico. These early thinning plots furnished much of the early background for the development of methods used in forest management in the Southwest. The plots ranged...

  6. Fort Valley's early scientists: A legacy of distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew J. Sanchez Meador; Susan D. Olberding

    2008-01-01

    When the Riordan brothers of Flagstaff, Arizona, asked Gifford Pinchot to determine why there was a deficit in ponderosa pine seedlings, neither party understood the historical significance of what they were setting in motion for the field of forest research. The direct result of that professional favor was the establishment of the Fort Valley Experiment Station (Fort...

  7. Fort Valley's early scientists: A legacy of distinction (P-53)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew J. Sanchez Meador; Susan D. Olberding

    2008-01-01

    When the Riordan brothers of Flagstaff, Arizona asked Gifford Pinchot to determine why there was a deficit in ponderosa pine seedlings, neither party understood the historical significance of what they were setting in motion for the field of forest research. The direct result of that professional favor was the establishment of the Fort Valley Experiment Station (Fort...

  8. Occurrence of rift valley fever (RVF) in Dodoma region, Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a peracute or acute febrile zoonotic ... results the patients were treated for malaria and/or meningitis based on visual/ clinical signs. ... RVF occurrence to humans by using case study definitions for RVF suspect's, and ...

  9. Valley plugs, land use, and phytogeomorphic response: Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Aaron R.; King, Sammy L.; Shroder, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic alteration of fluvial systems can disrupt functional processes that provide valuable ecosystem services. Channelization alters fluvial parameters and the connectivity of river channels to their floodplains which is critical for productivity, nutrient cycling, flood control, and biodiversity. The effects of channelization can be exacerbated by local geology and land-use activities, resulting in dramatic geomorphic readjustments including the formation of valley plugs. Considerable variation in the response of abiotic processes, including surface hydrology, subsurface hydrology, and sedimentation dynamics, to channelization and the formation of valley plugs. Altered abiotic processes associated with these geomorphic features and readjustments influence biotic processes including species composition, abundance, and successional processes. Considerable interest exists for restoring altered fluvial systems and their floodplains because of their social and ecological importance. Understanding abiotic and biotic responses of channelization and valley-plug formation within the context of the watershed is essential to successful restoration. This chapter focuses on the primary causes of valley-plug formation, resulting fluvial-geomorphic responses, vegetation responses, and restoration and research needs for these systems.

  10. 2D Semiconductors for Valley-Polarized LEDs and Photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ting

    The recently discovered two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors, such as transitional-metal-dichalcogenide monolayers, have aroused great interest due to the underlying quantum physics and the appealing optoelectronic applications like atomically thin light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and photodetectors. On the one hand, valley-polarized electroluminescence and photocurrent from such monolayers have not caused enough attention but highly demanded as building blocks for the new generation valleytronic applications. On the other hand, most reports on these devices are based on the mechanically exfoliated small samples. Considering real applications, a strategy which could offer mass-product and high compatibility to the current planar processes is greatly demanded. Large-area samples prepared by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) are perfect candidates towards such a goal. Here, we report electrically tunable valley-polarized electroluminescence and the selective spin-valley-coupled photocurrent in optoelectronic devices based on monolayer WS2 and MoS2 grown by CVD, exhibiting large electroluminescence and photocurrent dichroisms of 81% and 60%, respectively. The controllable valley polarization and emission components of the electroluminescence have been realized by varying electrical injection of carriers. For the observed helicity-dependent photocurrent, the circular photogalvanic effect at resonant excitations has been found to take the dominant responsibility.

  11. Testing a Mars science outpost in the Antarctic dry valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, D. T.; Mckay, C. P.; Wharton, R. A.; Rummel, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    Field research conducted in the Antarctic has been providing insights about the nature of Mars in the science disciplines of exobiology and geology. Located in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of southern Victoria Land (160 deg and 164 deg E longitude and 76 deg 30 min and 78 deg 30 min S latitude), research outposts are inhabited by teams of 4-6 scientists. It is proposed that the design of these outposts be expanded to enable meaningful tests of many of the systems that will be needed for the successful conduct of exploration activities on Mars. Although there are some important differences between the environment in the Antarctic dry valleys and on Mars, the many similarities and particularly the field science activities, make the dry valleys a useful terrestrial analog to conditions on Mars. Three areas have been identified for testing at a small science outpost in the dry valleys: (1) studying human factors and physiology in an isolated environment; (2) testing emerging technologies (e.g. innovative power management systems, advanced life support facilities including partial bioregenerative life support systems for water recycling and food growth, telerobotics, etc.); and (3) conducting basic scientific research that will enhance understanding of Mars while contributing to the planning for human exploration. It is suggested that an important early result of a Mars habitat program will be the experience gained by interfacing humans and their supporting technology in a remote and stressful environment.

  12. Fort Valley studies: A natural laboratory for research and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian W. Geils

    2008-01-01

    Drought, wildfire, extinction, and invasive species are considered serious threats to the health of our forests. Although these issues have global connections, we most readily see their consequences locally and attempt to respond with management based on science. For 100 years, the Fort Valley Experimental Forest (FVEF) has provided educational and experimental support...

  13. Stand development of trembling aspen in Canaan Valley, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Rentch; James T. Anderson

    2008-01-01

    In wetlands of Canaan Valley, West Virginia, trembling aspen occurs as a disjunct population well south of its primary natural range. Based on sample data from 15 stands, we found that aspen occurs as nearly monospecific stands or clones. Eight stands had median ages between 30 and 40 yrs, and we suggest that stand initiation was related to changes in land use after...

  14. Business plan Tilapia Pond Farming in the Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Herman; Meer, van der Magnus

    2015-01-01

    This business plan has been prepared for local entrepreneurs who would like to expand their business portfolio or to start a value chain business in the aquaculture sector in the Zambezi Valley, Mozambique.

    Freshwater aquaculture in Mozambique consists mainly of small-scale tilapia

  15. Geomorphic controls on Pleistocene knickpoint migration in Alpine valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leith, Kerry; Fox, Matt; Moore, Jeffrey R.; Brosda, Julian; Krautblatter, Michael; Loew, Simon

    2014-05-01

    Recent insights into sub-glacial bedrock stress conditions suggest that the erosional efficiency of glaciers may reduce markedly following a major erosional cycle [Leith et al., 2013]. This implies that the formation of large glacial valleys within the Alps is likely to have occurred shortly after the onset of 100 ky glacial-interglacial cycles (at the mid-Pleistocene Revolution (MPR)). The majority of landscape change since this time may have therefore been driven by sub-aerial processes. This hypothesis is supported by observations of hillslope and channel morphology within Canton Valais (Switzerland), where major tributary valleys display a common morphology along their length, hinting at a shared geomorphic history. Glaciers currently occupy the headwaters of many catchments, while the upper reaches of rivers flow across extensive alluvial planes before abruptly transitioning to steep channels consisting of mixed bedrock and talus fan deposits. The rivers then converge to flow out over the alluvial plane of the Rhone Valley. Characteristically rough topographies within the region are suggested to mark the progressive transition from a glacial to fluvially-dominated landscape, and correlate well with steepened river channel sections determined from a 2.5 m resolution LiDAR DEM. We envisage a landscape in which ongoing tectonic uplift drives the emergence of Alpine bedrock through massive sedimentary valley infills (currently concentrated in the Rhone Valley), whose elevation is fixed by the consistent fluvial baselevel at Lake Geneva. As fluvial incision ceases at the onset of glaciation, continued uplift causes the formation of knickpoints at the former transition from bedrock to sedimentary infill. These knickpoints will then propagate upstream during subsequent interglacial periods. By investigating channel morphologies using an approach based on the steady-state form of the stream power equation, we can correlate steepened channel reaches (degraded

  16. Birds of the St. Croix River valley: Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faanes, Craig A.

    1981-01-01

    The St. Croix River Valley encompasses nearly 11,550 km2 in east-central Minnesota and northwestern Wisconsin. A wide range of habitats are available for birds including upland oak, lowland deciduous, maple-basswood, lowland and upland coniferous forests, natural basin wetlands, and grasslands. Situated in the north-central region of the United States, the valley is a biological 'crossroads' for many species. Because of the mixed affinities of plant communities, the valley includes the northern and southern range limits for a number of species. Also, because the valley lies near the forest-prairie transition zone, many typical western breeding species (e.g. pintail, western meadowlark, yellow-headed blackbird) breed in proximity to typical eastern species such as tufted titmouse, eastern meadowlark, and cardinal. From 1966 to 1980, I conducted extensive surveys of avian distribution and abundance in the St. Croix River Valley. I have supplemented the results of these surveys with published and unpublished observations contributed by many ornithologists. These additional data include compilations from Christmas Bird Counts sponsored by the National Audubon Society and from the Breeding Bird Survey coordinated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Three hundred fourteen species have been recorded in the study area; data are presented on the migration period, nesting season distribution, winter distribution, relative abundance, and habitat use of each species. Recognizing the uniqueness of the area, and its importance not only to wildlife but also to man, the U.S. Congress designated the St. Croix a National Scenic Riverway. This action provided a considerable degree of protection to lands along and directly adjacent to the river. Unfortunately, no similar legal measure exists to protect lands away from the river. With the exception of the northern quarter of the St. Croix River Valley, agricultural interests have made significant inroads into the habitat base. The

  17. West Valley Demonstration Project annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In FY 1985 the most challenging goal of the Project to date, the start of verification testing of major subsystems of the Vitrification System, was accomplished. Individual testing of subsystems was completed in FY 1985 allowing for the start of integrated testing of all major portions of the Vitrification System. Other accomplishments during this period included completion of cleanup of the first of several former reprocessing cells, the first phase of testing and operation of the system which will solidify low-level liquid wastes and the beginning of construction to support installation of the Supernatant Treatment System which will be used to remove the radioactive fission products from the supernatant

  18. Hydrology of modern and late Holocene lakes, Death Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, D.N.

    1996-07-01

    Above-normal precipitation and surface-water runoff, which have been generally related to the cyclic recurrence of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, have produced modern ephemeral lakes in the closed-basin Death Valley watershed. This study evaluates the regional hydroclimatic relations between precipitation, runoff, and lake transgressions in the Death Valley watershed. Recorded precipitation, runoff, and spring discharge data for the region are used in conjunction with a closed-basin, lake-water-budget equation to assess the relative contributions of water from these sources to modern lakes in Death Valley and to identify the requisite hydroclimatic changes for a late Holocene perennial lake in the valley. As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Program, an evaluation of the Quaternary regional paleoflood hydrology of the potential nuclear-waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was planned. The objectives of the evaluation were (1) to identify the locations and investigate the hydraulic characteristics of paleofloods and compare these with the locations and characteristics of modern floods, and (2) to evaluate the character and severity of past floods and debris flows to ascertain the potential future hazards to the potential repository during the pre-closure period (US Department of Energy, 1988). This study addresses the first of these objectives, and the second in part, by assessing and comparing the sizes, locations, and recurrence rates of modern, recorded (1962--83) floods and late Holocene paleofloods for the 8,533-mi{sup 2}, closed-basin, Death Valley watershed with its contributing drainage basins in the Yucca Mountain site area.

  19. Geomorphic legacy of medieval Himalayan earthquakes in the Pokhara Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Anne; Stolle, Amelie; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Andermann, Christoff; Tofelde, Stefanie; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    The Himalayas and their foreland belong to the world's most earthquake-prone regions. With millions of people at risk from severe ground shaking and associated damages, reliable data on the spatial and temporal occurrence of past major earthquakes is urgently needed to inform seismic risk analysis. Beyond the instrumental record such information has been largely based on historical accounts and trench studies. Written records provide evidence for damages and fatalities, yet are difficult to interpret when derived from the far-field. Trench studies, in turn, offer information on rupture histories, lengths and displacements along faults but involve high chronological uncertainties and fail to record earthquakes that do not rupture the surface. Thus, additional and independent information is required for developing reliable earthquake histories. Here, we present exceptionally well-dated evidence of catastrophic valley infill in the Pokhara Valley, Nepal. Bayesian calibration of radiocarbon dates from peat beds, plant macrofossils, and humic silts in fine-grained tributary sediments yields a robust age distribution that matches the timing of nearby M>8 earthquakes in ~1100, 1255, and 1344 AD. The upstream dip of tributary valley fills and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry of their provenance rule out local sediment sources. Instead, geomorphic and sedimentary evidence is consistent with catastrophic fluvial aggradation and debris flows that had plugged several tributaries with tens of meters of calcareous sediment from the Annapurna Massif >60 km away. The landscape-changing consequences of past large Himalayan earthquakes have so far been elusive. Catastrophic aggradation in the wake of two historically documented medieval earthquakes and one inferred from trench studies underscores that Himalayan valley fills should be considered as potential archives of past earthquakes. Such valley fills are pervasive in the Lesser Himalaya though high erosion rates reduce

  20. Hydrology of modern and late Holocene lakes, Death Valley, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, D.N.

    1996-01-01

    Above-normal precipitation and surface-water runoff, which have been generally related to the cyclic recurrence of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, have produced modern ephemeral lakes in the closed-basin Death Valley watershed. This study evaluates the regional hydroclimatic relations between precipitation, runoff, and lake transgressions in the Death Valley watershed. Recorded precipitation, runoff, and spring discharge data for the region are used in conjunction with a closed-basin, lake-water-budget equation to assess the relative contributions of water from these sources to modern lakes in Death Valley and to identify the requisite hydroclimatic changes for a late Holocene perennial lake in the valley. As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Program, an evaluation of the Quaternary regional paleoflood hydrology of the potential nuclear-waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was planned. The objectives of the evaluation were (1) to identify the locations and investigate the hydraulic characteristics of paleofloods and compare these with the locations and characteristics of modern floods, and (2) to evaluate the character and severity of past floods and debris flows to ascertain the potential future hazards to the potential repository during the pre-closure period (US Department of Energy, 1988). This study addresses the first of these objectives, and the second in part, by assessing and comparing the sizes, locations, and recurrence rates of modern, recorded (1962--83) floods and late Holocene paleofloods for the 8,533-mi 2 , closed-basin, Death Valley watershed with its contributing drainage basins in the Yucca Mountain site area

  1. Landform Evolution of the Zanskar Valley, Ladakh Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, P.; Kumar, A.; Sharma, P.; Sundriyal, Y.; Srivastava, P.

    2017-12-01

    Zanskar River flow from south-west to north-east, perpendicularly through Higher Himalayan crystalline sequences, Tethyan sedimentary sequences, and Indus Molasses; and finally merge with the Indus River at Nimu. Geologically, the Indus valley is bounded by Ladakh Batholith in the north and highly folded and thrusted Zanskar mountain ranges in the south. Sedimentary sequences of Zanskar ranges are largely of continental origin, which were uplifted and deformed via several north verging thrusts, where Zanskar counter thrust, Choksti and Indus-Bazgo thrusts are important thrust zone, and there is atleast 36 km of crustal shortening in the Zanskar section which continued from middle Miocene to the late Pleistocene. This shortening is accommodated mainly by north or north-east directed Zanskar backthrusts. Two major tributaries of Zanskar: Tsrapchu and Doda, flow in the headwaters, along the strike of South Tibetan Detachment System (STDs), an east-west trending regional fault. The present study incorporate field sedimentology, geomorphology and chronology of landform associated with Zanskar valley. In the upper Zanskar, alluvial fan, valley fill and strath terraces configured the major landforms with paleo-lake deposits­­­ in the area between the fans. The lower catchment, at the confluence of Zanskar and Indus rivers, exhibit mainly valley fill terraces and strath terraces. Chronology suggests diachronous aggradation in the upper and lower Zanskar catchments. In the upper Zanskar large scale valley aggradation took place with simultaneously fan progradation and flooding events from 45-15 ka. Luminescence chronology of the lower Zanskar indicates aggradation from 145-55 ka and 18-12 ka. The two aggradation basins are separated by a deep V-shaped gorge which is approximately 60 km long. The longitudinal profile of the Zanskar River shows several local convexities marking knick point zone, which suggests tectonically controlled topography.

  2. Changes in active eolian sand at northern Coachella Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katra, Itzhak; Scheidt, Stephen; Lancaster, Nicholas

    2009-04-01

    Climate variability and rapid urbanization have influenced the sand environments in the northern Coachella Valley throughout the late 20th century. This paper addresses changes in the spatial relationships among different sand deposits at northern Coachella Valley between two recent time periods by using satellite data acquired from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). The approach employed here, involving multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) data and spectral mixture analysis, has shown that the major sand deposits can be spatially modeled at northern Coachella Valley. The "coarse-grained (quartz-rich) sand" deposit is associated with active eolian sand, and the "mixed sandy soil" and "fine-grained (quartz-rich) sand" deposits are associated with inactive eolian sand. The fractional abundance images showed a significant decrease between 2000 and 2006 in the percentage of active sand in the major depositional area for fluvial sediment, the Whitewater River, but also in two downwind areas: the Whitewater and Willow Hole Reserves. The pattern of the active sand appears to be related to variations in annual precipitation (wet and dry years) and river discharge in the northern Coachella Valley. We suggest here that recent human modifications to the major watercourses that supply sand affect the capability of fluvial deposition areas to restore sediments over time and consequently the responses of the sand transport system to climate change, becoming more sensitive to dry years where areas of active sand may shrink, degrade, and/or stabilize faster. The approach utilized in this study can be advantageous for future monitoring of sand in the northern Coachella Valley for management of these and similar environments.

  3. Update on the status of the West Valley demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greeves, J.T.; Camper, L.W.; Orlando, D.A.; Glenn, C.J.; Buckley, J.T.; Giardina, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    From 1966 to 1972, under an Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) license, Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) reprocessed 640 metric tons of spent fuel at its West Valley, New York, facility-, the only commercial spent fuel reprocessing plant in the U.S. The facility shut down in 1972, for modifications to increase its seismic stability and to expand its capacity. In 1976, without restarting the operation, NFS withdrew from the reprocessing business and returned control of the facilities to the site owner, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The reprocessing activities resulted in about 2.3 million liters (600,000 gallons) of liquid high-level waste (HLW) stored below ground in tanks, other radioactive wastes, and residual radioactive contamination. The West Valley site was licensed by AEC, and then the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), until 1981, when the license was suspended to execute the 1980 West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Act. The WVDP Act outlines the responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NRC, and NYSERDA at the site, including the NRC's responsibility to develop decommissioning criteria for the site. The Commission published the final policy statement on decommissioning criteria for the WVDP at the West Valley site after considering comments from interested stakeholders. In that regard, the Commission prescribed the License Termination Rule (LTR) criteria for the WVDP at the West Valley site, reflecting the fact that the applicable decommissioning goal for the entire NRC-licensed site is compliance with the requirements of the LTR. This paper will describe the history of the site, provide an update of the status of the decommissioning of the site and an overview of the technical and policy issues facing Federal and State regulators and other stakeholders as they strive to complete the remediation of the site. (author)

  4. Subglacial tunnel valleys in the Alpine foreland: an example from Bern, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerst Stucki, M.; Reber, R.; Schlunegger, F.

    2010-01-01

    The morphology of the Alpine and adjacent landscapes is directly related to glacial erosion and associated sediment transport. Here we report the effects of glacio-hydrologic erosion on bedrock topography in the Swiss Plateau. Specifically, we identify the presence of subsurface valleys beneath the city of Bern and discuss their genesis. Stratigraphic investigations of more than 4'000 borehole data within a 430 km 2 -large area reveal the presence of a network of >200 m-deep and 1'000 m-wide valleys. They are flat floored with steep sided walls and are filled by Quaternary glacial deposits. The central valley beneath Bern is straight and oriented towards the NNW, with valley flanks more than 20 o steep. The valley bottom has an irregular undulating profile along the thalweg, with differences between sills and hollows higher than 50-100 m over a reach of 4 km length. Approximately 500 m high bedrock highlands flank the valley network. The highlands are dissected by up to 80 m-deep and 500 m-broad hanging valleys that currently drain away from the axis of the main valley. We interpret the valleys beneath the city of Bern to be a tunnel valley network which originated from subglacial erosion by melt water. The highland valleys served as proglacial meltwater paths and are hanging with respect to the trunk system, indicating that these incipient highland systems as well as the main gorge beneath Bern formed by glacial melt water under pressure. (authors)

  5. Large tunable valley splitting in edge-free graphene quantum dots on boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Nils M.; Reisch, Tobias; Chizhova, Larisa A.; Nemes-Incze, Péter; Holl, Christian; Woods, Colin R.; Gorbachev, Roman V.; Cao, Yang; Geim, Andre K.; Novoselov, Kostya S.; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Libisch, Florian; Morgenstern, Markus

    2018-05-01

    Coherent manipulation of the binary degrees of freedom is at the heart of modern quantum technologies. Graphene offers two binary degrees: the electron spin and the valley. Efficient spin control has been demonstrated in many solid-state systems, whereas exploitation of the valley has only recently been started, albeit without control at the single-electron level. Here, we show that van der Waals stacking of graphene onto hexagonal boron nitride offers a natural platform for valley control. We use a graphene quantum dot induced by the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope and demonstrate valley splitting that is tunable from -5 to +10 meV (including valley inversion) by sub-10-nm displacements of the quantum dot position. This boosts the range of controlled valley splitting by about one order of magnitude. The tunable inversion of spin and valley states should enable coherent superposition of these degrees of freedom as a first step towards graphene-based qubits.

  6. Valley-polarized quantum transport generated by gauge fields in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Garcia, Jose H.; Roche, Stephan

    2017-09-01

    We report on the possibility to simultaneously generate in graphene a bulk valley-polarized dissipative transport and a quantum valley Hall effect by combining strain-induced gauge fields and real magnetic fields. Such unique phenomenon results from a ‘resonance/anti-resonance’ effect driven by the superposition/cancellation of superimposed gauge fields which differently affect time reversal symmetry. The onset of a valley-polarized Hall current concomitant to a dissipative valley-polarized current flow in the opposite valley is revealed by a {{e}2}/h Hall conductivity plateau. We employ efficient linear scaling Kubo transport methods combined with a valley projection scheme to access valley-dependent conductivities and show that the results are robust against disorder.

  7. Holocene extreme hydrological events and their climatic implications: evidence from the middle Satluj valley, western Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shubhra; Shukla, Anil; Marh, Bhupinder; Bartarya, Sukesh; Juyal, Navin

    2016-04-01

    Extreme hydrological events and associated climatic processes are investigated and inferred through palaeoflood deposits preserved in the middle Satluj valley, India. Satluj River is the largest tributary of the Indus River having third largest catchment area in the Himalaya. Both Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and the mid-latitude westerlies contribute to the hydrological budget of the river. The steep southern orographic front prevents the northward penetration of ISM, while the mid-latitude westerlies bring moisture in form of winter snow to the orogenic interiors. It has been observed that the floods in the Himalaya are intimately associated with the variability in the above climate systems. The optical chronology indicates that floods were clustered around three time domains. The oldest flood phase-1 is dated to ˜14-12 ka which climatically occurred during the initiation of the ISM after the Last Glacial Maximum. The second phase-2 is dated between 8-5 ka and is attributed to the moderate ISM. Whereas, the youngest phase-3 is assigned the Little Ice Age (LIA) and were associated with the variability in the mid-latitude westerlies. Geochemical analyses suggest that floods were generated in higher Himalayan crystalline (HHC) zone, as the extreme precipitation destabilised the precipitous slopes creating Landslide induced Lake Outbursts Floods (LLOFs). Further, the average interval between floods has decreased since 14 ka from 500 years, to 250 years and 100 years during respective flood phases. The southern slopes of Himalaya are influenced by both the monsoon and mid-latitude westerlies and any abrupt changes in the circulation pattern were found to associate with heavy rainfall events in this region. Although an interaction between the westerlies and the monsoon is implicated for extreme floods in the western Himalaya. However, exact mechanism of these interactions is still illusive except for the observational based studies which state that extreme floods

  8. Geologic map of the Lower Valley quadrangle, Caribou County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlindacher, H. Peter; Hovland, R. David; Miller, Susan T.; Evans, James G.; Miller, Robert J.

    2018-04-05

    The Lower Valley 7.5-minute quadrangle, located in the core of the Southeast Idaho Phosphate Resource Area, includes Mississippian to Triassic marine sedimentary rocks, Pliocene to Pleistocene basalt, and Tertiary to Holocene surficial deposits. The Mississippian to Triassic marine sedimentary sequence was deposited on a shallow shelf between an emergent craton to the east and the Antler orogenic belt to the west. The Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale Member of the Permian Phosphoria Formation hosts high-grade deposits of phosphate that were the subject of geologic studies through much of the 20th century. Open-pit mining of the phosphate has been underway within and near the Lower Valley quadrangle for several decades.

  9. The Virtual Museum of the Tiber Valley Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Arnoldus Huyzendveld

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the Virtual Museum of the Tiber Valley project is the creation of an integrated digital system for the knowledge, valorisation and communication of the cultural landscape, archaeological and naturalistic sites along the Tiber Valley, in the Sabina area between Monte Soratte and the ancient city of Lucus Feroniae (Capena. Virtual reality applications, multimedia contents, together with a web site, are under construction and they will be accessed inside the museums of the territory and in a central museum in Rome. The different stages of work will cover the building of a geo-spatial archaeological database, the reconstruction of the ancient potential landscape and the creation of virtual models of the major archaeological sites. This paper will focus on the methodologies used and on present and future results.

  10. Geological literature on the San Joaquin Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, J.C.; Trollman, W.M.; Denman, J.M.

    1973-01-01

    The following list of references includes most of the geological literature on the San Joaquin Valley and vicinity in central California (see figure 1) published prior to January 1, 1973. The San Joaquin Valley comprises all or parts of 11 counties -- Alameda, Calaveras, Contra Costa, Fresno, Kern, Kings, Madera, Merced, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, and Tulare (figure 2). As a matter of convenient geographical classification the boundaries of the report area have been drawn along county lines, and to include San Benito and Santa Clara Counties on the west and Mariposa and Tuolumne Counties on the east. Therefore, this list of geological literature includes some publications on the Diablo and Temblor Ranges on the west, the Tehachapi Mountains and Mojave Desert on the south, and the Sierra Nevada Foothills and Mountains on the east.

  11. Metallic iron for water treatment: leaving the valley of confusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makota, Susanne; Nde-Tchoupe, Arnaud I.; Mwakabona, Hezron T.; Tepong-Tsindé, Raoul; Noubactep, Chicgoua; Nassi, Achille; Njau, Karoli N.

    2017-12-01

    Researchers on metallic iron (Fe0) for environmental remediation and water treatment are walking in a valley of confusion for 25 years. This valley is characterized by the propagation of different beliefs that have resulted from a partial analysis of the Fe0/H2O system as (1) a reductive chemical reaction was considered an electrochemical one and (2) the mass balance of iron has not been really addressed. The partial analysis in turn has been undermining the scientific method while discouraging any real critical argumentation. This communication re-establishes the complex nature of the Fe0/H2O system while recalling that, finally, proper system analysis and chemical thermodynamics are the most confident ways to solve any conflicting situation in Fe0 environmental remediation.

  12. Venusian channels and valleys - Distribution and volcanological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Goro; Baker, Victor R.; Gulick, Virginia C.; Parker, Timothy J.

    1993-01-01

    An updated map is presented which shows the distribution of more than 200 channels and valleys on Venus. A large number of channels are concentrated in equatorial regions characterized by highlands, rift and fracture zones, an associated volcanic features. Many channels associated with flow deposits are similar to typical terrestrial lava drainage channels. They are associated with a wide range of volcanic edifices. More than half of the sinuous rilles are associated with coronae, coronalike features, or arachnoids. Corona volcanism driven by mantle plume events may explain this association. Many valley network are observed in highlands and in association with coronae, coronalike features, or arachnoids. This indicates that highlands and coronae provided fractures and flow-viscosity lavas, both of which seem to be required for network formation by lava sapping processes. Canali-type channels have a unique distribution limited to some plains regions.

  13. Ambient Radon-222 Monitoring in Amargosa Valley, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L.H. Karr; J.J. Tappen; D. Shafer; K.J. Gray

    2008-01-01

    As part of a program to characterize and baseline selected environmental parameters in the region around the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, ambient radon-222 monitoring was conducted in the rural community of Amargosa Valley, the community closest to the proposed repository site. Passive integrating radon monitors and a continuous radon monitoring instrument were deployed adjacent to the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) (http://www.cemp.dri.edu/index.html) station located in the Amargosa Valley Community Center near the library. The CEMP station provided real-time ambient gamma exposure and meteorological data used to correct the integrated radon measurements as well as verify meteorological data collected by the continuous radon monitoring instrument. Additionally, different types of environmental enclosures that housed the monitors and instrument were used to determine if particular designs influenced the ambient radon measurements

  14. Case histories of West Valley spent fuel shipments: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    In 1983, NRC/FC initiated a study on institutional issues related to spent fuel shipments originating at the former spent fuel processing facility in West Valley, New York. FC staff viewed the shipment campaigns as a one-time opportunity to document the institutional issues that may arise with a substantial increase in spent fuel shipping activity. NRC subsequently contracted with the Aerospace Corporation for the West Valley Study. This report contains a detailed description of the events which took place prior to and during the spent fuel shipments. The report also contains a discussion of the shipment issues that arose, and presents general findings. Most of the institutional issues discussed in the report do not fall under NRC's transportation authority. The case histories provide a reference to agencies and other institutions that may be involved in future spent fuel shipping campaigns. 130 refs., 7 figs., 19 tabs.

  15. In the San Joaquin Valley, hardly a sprinkle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holson, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    California has declared its six-year drought over, but in the San Joaquin Valley, center of the state's $18.5 billion agriculture industry, it lives on. The two weeks of strong rain this winter that swelled reservoirs and piled snow on the mountains is only trickling toward the region's nearly 20,000 farms. Federal water officials are under heavy pressure from the Environmental Protection Agency, which wants to improve water quality, and are worried about the plight of endangered fish in the Sacramento River. So, on March 12 they announced they will send farmers only 40% of the water allotments they got before the drought. The rest is being held against possible shortages. For the once-green valley, another year without water has brought many farmers perilously close to extinction

  16. Remediating the South Alligator Valley uranium mining legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawcett, M.; Waggitt, P.

    2010-01-01

    In late 1950s and early 1960s 13 uranium mines operated in the South Alligator Valley of Australia's Northern Territory. Once sales contracts had been filled the mines were abandoned and no remediation took place. In the 1980s the valley was designated as part of Stage 3 of the adjacent World Heritage-listed, Kakadu National Park. Proposals for remediation were only seriously put forward when the land was returned to the traditional Aboriginal owners, the Gunlom Land Trust, in 1996. Although they leased the land back so it would remain a part of Kakadu National Park the traditional Aboriginal owners required remediation to be complete by 2015. This paper tells the story of the development and implementation of the remediation process from the start of planning in 1998 to completion in 2009; and finally it describes the development of stakeholder relationships and the initial plans for long term stewardship. (author)

  17. Daytime wind valleys adjacent to the Great Salt Lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, G.L. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Hoard, D.E. (Amparo Corp., Santa Fe, NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    In 1986 Los Alamos National Laboratory was engaged by the US Army to study the meteorological aspects of emergency preparedness at several sites where toxic materials are stored and handled. The project included a series of tracer and meteorological field experiments in the vicinity of the Tooele Army Depot. These experiments generated a large data set for validating numerical simulations and for empirical analyses of the local meteorology. This paper discusses the main characteristics of the daytime, up-valley flow at the Utah site, including frequency of occurrence, horizontal and vertical structure, and temporal evolution. Some parameters controlling the variability in onset time for up-valley flow are identified, and an empirical forecasting scheme is discussed. 16 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Molecular Confirmation of Salmonella typhimuriumin Poultry from Kathmandu Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar Adhikari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A prevalence study was carried to isolate Salmonella typhimurium from blood (n= 50 and gut samples (n=100 of poultry in Kathmandu valley during early 2016. Salmonella typhimurium bacteria isolated in the selective media were biochemically confirmed based on Bergey’s Manual. Two sets of oligonucleotide primers-the genus specific 16S rRNA and the organism specific invA were employed for molecular level confirmation by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR assay. The amplified fragments in 1% agarose gel observed at 406bp and 285bp, respectively confirmed the isolates to be Salmonella typhimurium. Of 150 samples tested, Salmonella typhimurium were isolated from 49 samples, among which nine were from blood (18% and forty from the gut (40%. The present result indicated an alarmingly high level of Salmonella typhimurium, which can result inzoonotic infection in humans owing to increased contact with poultry and consumption of poultry products in the Kathmandu valley.

  19. Hidden Valley Higgs Decays in the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ciapetti, G

    2009-01-01

    A number of extensions of the Standard Model result in particles that are neutral, weakly-coupled and have macroscopic decay lengths that can be comparable with LHC detector dimensions. These particles represent, from an experimental point of view, a challenge both for the trigger and for the reconstruction capabilities of the ATLAS apparatus. For the purpose of exploring the challenges to the trigger posed by long-lived particles, the Hidden Valley scenario serves as an excellent setting. In this note we present the results of a first study of ATLAS detector performance for some Hidden Valley processes with long-lived, neutral states that decay throughout the detector volume to multi heavy-flavor jets, mainly b-bbar.

  20. Combinatorial vector fields and the valley structure of fitness landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Bärbel M R; Stadler, Peter F

    2010-12-01

    Adaptive (downhill) walks are a computationally convenient way of analyzing the geometric structure of fitness landscapes. Their inherently stochastic nature has limited their mathematical analysis, however. Here we develop a framework that interprets adaptive walks as deterministic trajectories in combinatorial vector fields and in return associate these combinatorial vector fields with weights that measure their steepness across the landscape. We show that the combinatorial vector fields and their weights have a product structure that is governed by the neutrality of the landscape. This product structure makes practical computations feasible. The framework presented here also provides an alternative, and mathematically more convenient, way of defining notions of valleys, saddle points, and barriers in landscape. As an application, we propose a refined approximation for transition rates between macrostates that are associated with the valleys of the landscape.

  1. Water and waste water management Generation Victoria - Latrobe Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longmore, G. [Hazelwood Power Corporation, VIC (Australia); Pacific Power (International) Pty. Ltd., Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    Water is a necessary resource for coal fired power plant and waste water is generated. The efficient management of water and waste water systems becomes an important operational environmental factor. This paper describes the development and implementation of a ten year water and waste water management strategy for the Latrobe Valley Group of brown coal fired power stations in Victoria. In early 1991, a team was put together of representatives from each power site to develop the strategy entitled `SECV Latrobe Valley Water and Wastewater Management Strategy`. The strategy was developed with extensive public consultation, which was a factor in protracting the process such that the final document was not promulgated until late 1992. However, the final comprehensive document endorsed and agreed by management, has since attracted favourable comment as a model of its type. (author). 2 figs.

  2. Resource assessment of the Imperial Valley. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biehler, S.; Lee, T.

    1977-01-01

    A resource assessment of the Imperial Valley has been made based on the use of the gravity anomalies as indicators of total excess mass. These data indicate a potential of producing electric power of 7 to 80 thousand megawatts for 30 years. Over half of the total potential is located in the Salton Sea Anomaly and approximately half of the potential of the Salton Sea field is water covered. An attempt has been made to assess not only the heat in storage in the fluid but also recoverable from the country rock by reinjection. Based on calculations, the natural recharge rate of heat in the Valley due to sea floor spreading is too small to give the resource an indefinite life-span since the economic rates of withdrawal appear to be at least an order of magnitude greater.

  3. Fifteen years of Superfund at South Valley: Reengineering required

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormier, J.; Horak, F.

    1995-01-01

    It is no surprise to many of Superfund's practitioners that the law and its application are flawed. The South Valley Superfund Site in Albuquerque, New Mexico has not escaped Superfund's problems. The problems and issues arising out of the South Valley Superfund site have spurred the desire to seek a better way to administer and manage cleanup. This new method applies organizational and role changes that bring Superfund closer to an efficient business-like entity. This ''Reengineered'' Superfund strives for reorganization, contractor reduction, improved communication, reporting reduction, and teaming. In addition, modifications are made to the roles of regulators, potentially responsible parties (PRPs), and the public. Today the site encompasses roughly one square mile in area, includes six identified contaminant sources, and deals with solvent and petroleum by-product contamination

  4. Views on the Anisotropic Nature of Ilva Valley Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA-ALINA MUREŞAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two concepts important for the authors of this article: anisotropic region and anisotropic space. Anisotropic region is defined by A. Dauphiné, the geographer (-mathematician, as a territorial unit whose structure results from the organisation of space along one or more axes. From the point of view of a territorial system, this type of region has some characteristics which differentiate it both from the homogeneous region and from the polarised one. These specificities have been analysed for Ilva Valley. The region of Ilva Valley is formed along the morphological axis represented by the Ilva River. The aim is to identify these specificities or their absence within this region. In this way we can determine whether this region is an anisotropic one or just an anisotropic space, namely whether it can be considered as evolving towards an anisotropic region, not yet complying with all characteristics of anisotropic regions.

  5. Case histories of West Valley spent fuel shipments: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In 1983, NRC/FC initiated a study on institutional issues related to spent fuel shipments originating at the former spent fuel processing facility in West Valley, New York. FC staff viewed the shipment campaigns as a one-time opportunity to document the institutional issues that may arise with a substantial increase in spent fuel shipping activity. NRC subsequently contracted with the Aerospace Corporation for the West Valley Study. This report contains a detailed description of the events which took place prior to and during the spent fuel shipments. The report also contains a discussion of the shipment issues that arose, and presents general findings. Most of the institutional issues discussed in the report do not fall under NRC's transportation authority. The case histories provide a reference to agencies and other institutions that may be involved in future spent fuel shipping campaigns. 130 refs., 7 figs., 19 tabs

  6. Water and waste water management Generation Victoria - Latrobe Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longmore, G.

    1995-01-01

    Water is a necessary resource for coal fired power plant and waste water is generated. The efficient management of water and waste water systems becomes an important operational environmental factor. This paper describes the development and implementation of a ten year water and waste water management strategy for the Latrobe Valley Group of brown coal fired power stations in Victoria. In early 1991, a team was put together of representatives from each power site to develop the strategy entitled 'SECV Latrobe Valley Water and Wastewater Management Strategy'. The strategy was developed with extensive public consultation, which was a factor in protracting the process such that the final document was not promulgated until late 1992. However, the final comprehensive document endorsed and agreed by management, has since attracted favourable comment as a model of its type. (author). 2 figs

  7. Laboratory work in support of West Valley glass development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunnell, L.R.

    1988-05-01

    Over the past six years, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted several studies in support of waste glass composition development and testing of glass compositions suitable for immobilizing the nuclear wastes stored at West Valley, New York. As a result of pilot-scale testing conducted by PNL, the glass composition was changed from that originally recommended in response to changes in the waste stream, and several processing-related problems were discovered. These problems were solved, or sufficiently addressed to determine their likely effect on the glass melting operations to be conducted at West Valley. This report describes the development of the waste glass composition, WV-205, and discusses solutions to processing problems such as foaming and insoluble sludges, as well as other issues such as effects of feed variations on processing of the resulting glass. An evaluation of the WV-205 glass from a repository perspective is included in the appendix to this report

  8. How Silicon Valley Journalists Talk about: Independence in Innovation Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten; Nordfors, David

    2010-01-01

    as a keyword. The valley culture is known to stress the value of trust-based personal contacts. This applies also to journalists and their access to sources. This paper discusses how this relates to traditional journalism norms that stress journalists’ independence from sources. Based on explorative, semi......Silicon Valley has become known for innovations that have led to substantial changes for citizens around the world. In 1960s’-80s’ the innovation had to do with computers and electronics, 1990s-00s’ it was on Internet and Web services. Since the later part of the 00’s, clean tech has emerged...... that as access to powerful sources becomes scarce and controlled journalists tend to be more innovative and diverse in shaping professional norms to balance access to sources with their readers’ mandate. The continued development of this diversity of norms, and its impact on society needs to be further explored....

  9. NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU 366) FY2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolich, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Mizell, Steve [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Campbell, Scott [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Desert Research Institute (DRI) is conducting a field assessment of the potential for contaminated soil transport from the Plutonium Valley Contamination Area (CA) as a result of wind transport and storm runoff in support of National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) efforts to complete regulatory closure of the contamination areas. The DRI work is intended to confirm the likely mechanism(s) of transport and determine the meteorological conditions that might cause movement of contaminated soils. The emphasis of the work is on collecting sediment transported by channelized storm runoff at the Plutonium Valley investigation sites. These data will inform closure plans that are being developed, which will facilitate the appropriate closure design and post-closure monitoring.

  10. Soil of the lower valley of the Dragonja river (Slovenia)

    OpenAIRE

    Tomaž PRUS; Nina ZUPANČIČ; Helena GRČMAN

    2015-01-01

    Soil of the lower valley of the river Dragonja developed under specific soil-forming factors. Soil development in the area was influenced by alluvial sediments originating from surrounding hills, mostly of flysch sequence rocks, as a parent material, Sub-Mediterranean climate and the vicinity of the sea. Different soil classification units (Gleysol and Fluvisol) were proposed for that soil in previous researches. The aim of our study was the evaluation of morphological, chemical and mineralog...

  11. Radiation safety at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    This is a report on the Radiation Safety Program at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). This Program covers a number of activities that support high-level waste solidification, stabilization of facilities, and decontamination and decommissioning activities at the Project. The conduct of the Program provides confidence that all occupational radiation exposures received during operational tasks at the Project are within limits, standards, and program requirements, and are as low as reasonably achievable

  12. Temperature and Precipitation trends in Kashmir valley, North Western Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, Mifta Ul; Rasool, Rehana; Ahmed, Pervez; Dimri, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    Climate change has emerged as an important issue ever to confront mankind. This concern emerges from the fact that our day-to-day activities are leading to impacts on the Earth's atmosphere that has the potential to significantly alter the planet's shield and radiation balance. Developing countries particularly whose income is particularly derived from agricultural activities are at the forefront of bearing repercussions due to changing climate. The present study is an effort to analyze the changing trends of precipitation and temperature variables in Kashmir valley along different elevation zones in the north western part of India. As the Kashmir valley has a rich repository of glaciers with its annual share of precipitation, slight change in the temperature and precipitation regime has far reaching environmental and economic consequences. The results from Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) data of the period 1980-2014 reveals that the annual mean temperature of Kashmir valley has increased significantly. Accelerated warming has been observed during 1980-2014, with intense warming in the recent years (2001-2014). During the period 1980-2014, steeper increase, in annual mean maximum temperature than annual mean minimum temperature, has been observed. In addition, mean maximum temperature in plain regions has shown higher rate of increase when compared with mountainous areas. In case of mean minimum temperature, mountainous regions have shown higher rate of increase. Analysis of precipitation data for the same period shows a decreasing trend with mountainous regions having the highest rate of decrease which can be quite hazardous for the fragile mountain environment of the Kashmir valley housing a large number of glaciers.

  13. NONMARKET VALUE OF WESTERN VALLEY RANCHLAND USING CONTINGENT VALUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberger, Randall S.; Walsh, Richard G.

    1997-01-01

    With the irreversible loss of agricultural land to develop uses in certain areas, there is increased concern that land be preserved for posterity'Â’s sake. We estimate the nonmarket value of a ranchland protection program in the Yampa River Valley in Routt County, Colorado, including the Steamboat Springs resort. The case study builds on previous land preservation studies by adding several preferences indicators. We find that local residentsÂ’' willingness to pay is substantial, but insuffici...

  14. Mapping Ecosystem Services in the Jordan Valley, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Ana; Marques, Ana; Ribeiro, Inês; Alho, Maria; Catarina Afonso, Ana; Almeida, Erika; Branquinho, Cristina; Talozi, Samer; Pinho, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade researchers started using ecosystem services as a new framework to understand the relationships between environment and society. Habitat quality and water quality are related with ecosystem services regulation and maintenance, or even provision. According to the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES) both habitat quality and water quality are associated with lifecycle maintenance, habitat and gene pool protection, and water conditions, among others. As there is increased pressure on habitats and rivers especially for agricultural development, mapping and evaluating habitat and water quality has important implications for resource management and conservation, as well as for rural development. Here, we model and map habitat and water quality in the Jordan Valley, Jordan. In this study, we aim to identify and analyse ecosystem services both through 1) habitat quality and 2) water quality modelling using InVest, an integrated valuation of ecosystem services and tradeoffs. The data used in this study mainly includes the LULC, Jordan River watershed and main threats and pollutants in the study area, such as agriculture, industry, fish farms and urbanization. Results suggest a higher pressure on natural habitats in the Northern region of the Jordan Valley, where industry is dominant. Agriculture is present along the Jordan Valley and limits the few natural forested areas. Further, water pollution is mainly concentrated in disposal sites due to the low flow of the Jordan River. Our results can help to identify areas where natural resources and water resource management is most needed in the Jordan Valley. Acknowledgements: Transbasin FP7 project

  15. Re-Emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-27

    This podcast describes the re-emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar during two rainy seasons in 2008 and 2009. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Pierre Rollin discusses what researchers learned about the outbreak and about infections in the larger population in Madagascar.  Created: 5/27/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/27/2010.

  16. Numerical simulation of flow in Brush Creek Valley, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leone, J.M. Jr.; Lee, R.L.

    1987-06-01

    In this paper, we present some results from our three-dimensional, non-hydrostatic, finite element model applied to simulations of flow in Brush Creek Valley. These simulations are not intended to reproduce any particular experiment, but rather are to evaluate the qualitative performance of the model, to explore the major difficulties involved, and to begin sensitivity studies of the flows of interest. 2 refs., 11 figs

  17. Climate change and the Lower Fraser Valley. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, E.; Langlois, D.

    2000-01-01

    The climatic changes that are expected to occur in British Columbia's Lower Fraser Valley over the next century were described in this report which included information about the science of climate change and the development of global climate models that provide estimates of global climate for the coming century. The confidence that scientists have in these models was reflected in the fact that most can simulate the important seasonal and geographical large scale features of the global climate, and that many of the large scale changes that are effected by greenhouse gas concentrations can be explained in terms of physical processes which operate around the world. The models also reproduce with reasonable accuracy the variations of climate such as the El Nino phenomena., the cooling due to the Mount Pinatubo eruption in 1991 and the global warming that occurred over the past 100 years. Three climate stations were analyzed in this study to assess the climate change of the Valley. Climatic change is influenced by increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere which in turn cause accelerated global warming. Scientists generally believe that the combustion of fossil fuels and other human activities are a major reason for the increased concentration of carbon dioxide. Plant respiration and the decomposition of organic matter releases 10 times more CO 2 than that released anthropogenically, but these releases are in balance with plant photosynthesis. The rate of warming in the Lower Fraser Valley is uncertain, but climate models suggest it could be about 3 to 4 degrees warming with wetter winters and drier summers by the end of the century. The Valley currently has mild temperatures and high precipitation because of its proximity to the Pacific Oceans and the surrounding mountains. Global warming can have an impact on sea levels along the coast, spring flooding, summer drought, coastal ecosystems, air quality, occurrences of forest fires, and recreation

  18. ADVERTISING AND AN ACCIDENTAL CLASSIC: ILLUSTRATED SKETCHES OF DFATH VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Steeples

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Illustrated Sketches of Death Valley (1891 originated as a hastily-written series of journalistic sketches of our Western borax deserts. They were written on commission to supplement their authors income. Conceived as a means subtly to promote the borax industry the Sketches in time won unintended recognition as a classic source for their subject. They also assumed unforeseen importance as an illustration of the role of advertising in America’s changing economy.

  19. Intelligent electric vehicle charging: Rethinking the valley-fill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Keenan; Temple, William G.; Zhang, K. Max

    This study proposes an intelligent PEV charging scheme that significantly reduces power system cost while maintaining reliability compared to the widely discussed valley-fill method of aggregated charging in the early morning. This study considers optimal PEV integration into the New York Independent System Operator's (NYISO) day-ahead and real-time wholesale energy markets for 21 days in June, July, and August of 2006, a record-setting summer for peak load. NYISO market and load data is used to develop a statistical Locational Marginal Price (LMP) and wholesale energy cost model. This model considers the high cost of ramping generators at peak-load and the traditional cost of steady-state operation, resulting in a framework with two competing cost objectives. Results show that intelligent charging assigns roughly 80% of PEV load to valley hours to take advantage of low steady-state cost, while placing the remaining 20% equally at shoulder and peak hours to reduce ramping cost. Compared to unregulated PEV charging, intelligent charging reduces system cost by 5-16%; a 4-9% improvement over the flat valley-fill approach. Moreover, a Charge Flexibility Constraint (CFC), independent of market modeling, is constructed from a vehicle-at-home profile and the mixture of Level 1 and Level 2 charging infrastructure. The CFC is found to severely restrict the ability to charge vehicles during the morning load valley. This study further shows that adding more Level 2 chargers without regulating PEV charging will significantly increase wholesale energy cost. Utilizing the proposed intelligent PEV charging method, there is a noticeable reduction in system cost if the penetration of Level 2 chargers is increased from 70/30 to 50/50 (Level 1/Level 2). However, the system benefit is drastically diminished for higher penetrations of Level 2 chargers.

  20. Groundwater quality in the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-06-09

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Western San Joaquin Valley is one of the study units being evaluated. 

  1. Groundwater quality in the Southern Sacramento Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Southern Sacramento Valley is one of the study units being evaluated.

  2. Groundwater quality in the Northern Sacramento Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Northern Sacramento Valley is one of the study units being evaluated.

  3. Photo-medical valley. 'Photo medical research center'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanishi, Shunichi; Daido, Hiroyuki; Tajima, Toshiki

    2008-01-01

    To develop a much more compact cancer diagnosis and therapeutic instrument using high intensity laser technology, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has successfully proposed this novel effort to the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) program as the creation of a 'photo-medical industrial valley' base in 2007 fiscal year. In this report, a new laser techniques to drive controlled ion beams is described. It is very important approach to realize a laser-driven ion accelerator. (author)

  4. Draft environmental impact statement - BPA/Lower Valley transmission project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    Bonneville Power Administration and Lower Valley Power and Light, Inc., propose to solve a voltage stability problem in the Jackson and Afton, Wyoming areas. For the Agency Proposed Action, BPA and Lower Valley would construct a new 115-kV line from BPA's Swan Valley Substation near Swan Valley in Bonneville County, Idaho about 58 km (36 miles) east to BPA's Teton Substation near Jackson in Teton County, Wyoming. The new line would be next to an existing 115-kV line. Most of the line would be supported by a mix of single-circuit wood pole H-frame structures would be used. The Single-Circuit Line Alternative has all the components of the Agency Proposed Action except that the entire line would be supported by single-circuit structures. The Short Line Alternative has all the components of the Single-Circuit Line Alternative except it would then be removed. For the Static Var Compensation Alternative, BPA would install a Static Var Compensator (SVC) at Teton or Jackson Substation. An SVC is a group of electrical equipment placed at a substation to help control voltage on a transmission system. The No Action Alternative assumes that no new transmission line is built, and no other equipment is added to the transmission system. The USFS (Targhee and Bridger-Teton National Forests) must select al alternative based on their needs and objectives, decide if the project complies with currently approved forest plans, decide if special use permits or easements are needed for construction, operation, and maintenance of project facilities, and decide if they would issue special use permits and letters of consent to grant easements for the project

  5. Tenneessee Valley Authority office of nuclear power management development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority's Management Development Plan is discussed and consists of an analysis of each managerial position, an analysis of each individual manager's and potential manager's qualifications and training and a comparison of the two. From this comparison two products are derived: a management replacement plan and an individual development plan for each nuclear employee. The process of the program is described in detail

  6. Eradicating tsetse from the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Farming activities in Ethiopia, as in much of sub-Saharan Africa, are restricted by the presence of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). These carry the livestock and human disease, trypanosomosis, which severely affects agricultural production and human well-being. In collaboration with the Ethiopian authorities, the International Atomic Energy Agency is sponsoring a Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programme to eradicate tsetse from the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia. (IAEA)

  7. Rock-fall Hazard In The Yosemite Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzetti, F.; Reichenbach, P.; Wieczorek, G. F.

    Rock slides and rock falls are the most frequent slope movements in Yosemite Na- tional Park, California. In historical time (1851-2001), more than 400 rock falls and rock slides have been documented in the valley, and some of them have been mapped in detail. We present the preliminary results of an attempt to assess rockfall hazard in the Yosemite Valley using STONE, a 3-dimensional rock-fall simulation computer program. The software computes 3-dimensional rock-fall trajectories starting from a digital terrain model (DTM), the location of rock-fall release points (source areas), and maps of the dynamic rolling coefficient and of the coefficients of normal and tan- gential energy restitution. For each DTM cell the software also calculates the number of rock falls passing through the cell, the maximum rock-fall velocity and the maxi- mum flying height. For the Yosemite Valley, a DTM with a ground resolution of 10 x 10 m was prepared using topographic contour lines from USGS 1:24,000-scale maps. Rock-fall release points were identified as DTM cells having a slope steeper than 60 degrees, an assumption based on the location of historical rock falls. Maps of the nor- mal and tangential energy restitution coefficients and of the rolling friction coefficient were produced from a surficial geologic map. The availability of historical rock falls mapped in detail allowed us to check the computer program performance and to cali- brate the model parameters. Visual and statistical comparison of the model results with the mapped rock falls confirmed the accuracy of the model. The model results are also compared with a geomorphic assessment of rock-fall hazard based on potential energy referred to as a "shadow angle" approach, recently completed for the Yosemite Valley.

  8. Optically initialized robust valley-polarized holes in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Wei-Ting

    2015-11-25

    A robust valley polarization is a key prerequisite for exploiting valley pseudospin to carry information in next-generation electronics and optoelectronics. Although monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides with inherent spin–valley coupling offer a unique platform to develop such valleytronic devices, the anticipated long-lived valley pseudospin has not been observed yet. Here we demonstrate that robust valley-polarized holes in monolayer WSe2 can be initialized by optical pumping. Using time-resolved Kerr rotation spectroscopy, we observe a long-lived valley polarization for positive trion with a lifetime approaching 1 ns at low temperatures, which is much longer than the trion recombination lifetime (~10–20 ps). The long-lived valley polarization arises from the transfer of valley pseudospin from photocarriers to resident holes in a specific valley. The optically initialized valley pseudospin of holes remains robust even at room temperature, which opens up the possibility to realize room-temperature valleytronics based on transition metal dichalcogenides.

  9. Geological and seismic evaluation of a Lower Mannville valley system; Alderson Prospect, Rolling Hills, southeastern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, J.C.; Lawton, D.C.; Gunn, J.D.

    1987-09-01

    A Lower Mannville valley complex cutting into Jurassic and Mississippian strata in southeastern Alberta was identified on a conventional seismic section. The valley was drilled and a twenty metre core of muddy sandstone was recovered from the target interval. Oil staining was visible within the core but tests showed only muddy water. In contrast, thin sands adjacent to the channel tested up to 300 m/sup 3//day gas and 800 m oil. Sediments adjacent to the valley are interpreted as contemporaneous levee splay deposits of a channel that occupied the valley, whereas the muddy sandstones within the channel represent either a fine grained point bar, or an abandoned channel-fill deposit. In the latter case, coarse grained, sandy, point bar deposits can be expected to occur elsewhere in the channel system. Oil is trapped in crevasse splay deposits draped over a local Mississippian high, but not in the valley because of poor reservoir quality of the channel sandstone. The internal geometry of the valley fill cannot be resolved directly from the seismic data because of the small size of the channel. However, the geometry of reflections from sediments directly above the valley shows variation in the fill and implies that, at the test location, the valley fill is an abandoned channel deposit. It is proposed here that reflection geometry above Lower Mannville valleys can provide a means of determining the type of valley fill. 11 figs., 1 tab., 29 illus.

  10. Model for bridging the translational "valleys of death" in spinal cord injury research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrable B

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bill Barrable,1 Nancy Thorogood,1 Vanessa Noonan,1,2 Jocelyn Tomkinson,1 Phalgun Joshi,1 Ken Stephenson,1 John Barclay,1 Katharina Kovacs Burns3 1Rick Hansen Institute, 2Division of Spine, Department of Orthopaedics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, 3Health Sciences Council, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Abstract: To improve health care outcomes with cost-effective treatments and prevention initiatives, basic health research must be translated into clinical application and studied during implementation, a process commonly referred to as translational research. It is estimated that only 14% of health-related scientific discoveries enter into medical practice and that it takes an average of 17 years for them to do so. The transition from basic research to clinical knowledge and from clinical knowledge to practice or implementation is so fraught with obstacles that these transitions are often referred to as “valleys of death”. The Rick Hansen Institute has developed a unique praxis model for translational research in the field of spinal cord injury (SCI. The praxis model involves three components. The first is a coordinated program strategy of cure, care, consumer engagement, and commercialization. The second is a knowledge cycle that consists of four phases, ie, environmental scanning, knowledge generation and synthesis, knowledge validation, and implementation. The third is the provision of relevant resources and infrastructure to overcome obstacles in the “valleys of death”, ie, funding, clinical research operations, informatics, clinical research and best practice implementation, consumer engagement, collaborative networks, and strategic partnerships. This model, which is to be independently evaluated in 2018 to determine its strengths and limitations, has been used to advance treatments for pressure ulcers in SCI. The Rick Hansen Institute has developed an innovative solution to move knowledge into action by

  11. Pink bollworm integrated management using sterile insects under field trial conditions, Imperial Valley, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, M.L.; Staten, R.T.; Roberson, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    The pink bollworm moth (Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders) feeds almost exclusively on cotton (Gossypium spp.) and causes economic loss (Pfadt 1978). The pink bollworm (PBW) is often the key pest of cotton in Arizona, southern California, and northwestern Mexico. The larvae (immature stages) bore into the developing cotton fruit, where they feed on the cotton lint and seeds, causing significant damage and dramatically reducing the yield of cotton lint (Pfadt 1978). The PBW is difficult to control with conventional means (insecticides) because it spends the destructive larval phase inside the cotton boll where it is well protected from control measures. Cultural controls, such as a short growing season, have successfully decreased the population in the Imperial Valley (Chu et al. 1992) to the point where eradication may be possible using sterile insects and genetically engineered cotton. Because the PBW is an introduced insect, with few plant hosts other than cultivated cotton, its eradication from continental USA is a desirable and economically attractive alternative to the continued use of pesticides and/or further loss to the pest. Mass releases of sterile insects began in earnest in 1970 in the San Joaquin Valley, California, in order to inhibit normal reproduction and to eradicate the pest in an environmentally responsible manner. Sterile release involves mass production and sexual sterilisation using irradiation (20 krad for PBW adults). This was accomplished by building a rearing facility in Phoenix, AZ. The facility has 6,410 square metres of permanent laboratories, rearing and irradiation chambers and insect packing rooms. The facility operates the year round but with a variable production rate, that is, maximal during the cotton growing season (May through September). Sterile insect technology is based on the monitoring of the native and sterile populations in the field and the subsequent release of appropriate numbers of sterile insects in order to

  12. Site characterization at the Rabbit Valley Geophysical Performance Evaluation Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppenjan, S.; Martinez, M.

    1994-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) is developing a Geophysical Performance Evaluation Range (GPER) at Rabbit Valley located 30 miles west of Grand Junction, Colorado. The purpose of the range is to provide a test area for geophysical instruments and survey procedures. Assessment of equipment accuracy and resolution is accomplished through the use of static and dynamic physical models. These models include targets with fixed configurations and targets that can be re-configured to simulate specific specifications. Initial testing (1991) combined with the current tests at the Rabbit Valley GPER will establish baseline data and will provide performance criteria for the development of geophysical technologies and techniques. The US DOE's Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) staff has conducted a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey of the site with its stepped FM-CW GPR. Additionally, STL contracted several other geophysical tests. These include an airborne GPR survey incorporating a ''chirped'' FM-CW GPR system and a magnetic survey with a surfaced-towed magnetometer array unit Ground-based and aerial video and still frame pictures were also acquired. STL compiled and analyzed all of the geophysical maps and created a site characterization database. This paper discusses the results of the multi-sensor geophysical studies performed at Rabbit Valley and the future plans for the site

  13. Interaction Induced Quantum Valley Hall Effect in Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Marino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We use pseudo-quantum electrodynamics in order to describe the full electromagnetic interaction of the p electrons in graphene in a consistent 2D formulation. We first consider the effect of this interaction in the vacuum polarization tensor or, equivalently, in the current correlator. This allows us to obtain the T→0 conductivity after a smooth zero-frequency limit is taken in Kubo’s formula. Thereby, we obtain the usual expression for the minimal conductivity plus corrections due to the interaction that bring it closer to the experimental value. We then predict the onset of an interaction-driven spontaneous quantum valley Hall effect below an activation temperature of the order of 2 K. The transverse (Hall valley conductivity is evaluated exactly and shown to coincide with the one in the usual quantum Hall effect. Finally, by considering the effects of pseudo-quantum electrodynamics, we show that the electron self-energy is such that a set of P- and T-symmetric gapped electron energy eigenstates are dynamically generated, in association with the quantum valley Hall effect.

  14. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Cane Valley is a former uranium mill that has undergone surface remediation in the form of tailings and contaminated materials removal. Contaminated materials from the Monument Valley (Arizona) UMTRA Project site have been transported to the Mexican Hat (Utah) UMTRA Project site for consolidation with the Mexican Hat tailings. Tailings removal was completed in February 1994. Three geologic units at the site contain water: the unconsolidated eolian and alluvial deposits (alluvial aquifer), the Shinarump Conglomerate (Shinarump Member), and the De Chelly Sandstone. Water quality analyses indicate the contaminant plume has migrated north of the site and is mainly in the alluvial aquifer. An upward hydraulic gradient in the De Chelly Sandstone provides some protection to that aquifer. This water sampling and analysis plan recommends sampling domestic wells, monitor wells, and surface water in April and September 1994. The purpose of sampling is to continue periodic monitoring for the surface program, evaluate changes to water quality for site characterization, and provide data for the baseline risk assessment. Samples taken in April will be representative of high ground water levels and samples taken in September will be representative of low ground water levels. Filtered and nonfiltered samples will be analyzed for plume indicator parameters and baseline risk assessment parameters

  15. Resource development and the Mackenzie Valley Resource Management Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donihee, J.

    1999-01-01

    Changes to the resource management regime of the Northwest Territories based on land claim agreements with native peoples which result from the Mackenzie Valley Resource Management Act are the result of commitments made by Canada during the negotiation of these land claims. This statute effects important changes to the legislative framework for environmental impact assessment and land and water management. It also establishes land use planning processes for the Gwich'in and Sahtu settlement areas and will result in an environmental and cumulative effects monitoring program for the Mackenzie Valley. The Act also establishes new institutions of public government responsible for environmental impact assessment, land and water management, and land use planning. These boards will play an internal and continuing role in resource development and management in the Mackenzie Valley. A brief overview is included of some features of the new legislative scheme, specifically focussing on environmental impact assessment and water management. An understanding of the new regime will be important for oil and gas companies that are looking north with renewed interest as a result of improved oil and gas prices and also for mining companies given the continuing interest in diamond exploration and development in the Northwest Territories. 29 refs

  16. Winter habitat associations of diurnal raptors in Californias Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolrno, E.R.; Herzog, M.P.; Hooper, S.L.; Smith, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The wintering raptors of California's Central Valley are abundant and diverse. Despite this, little information exists on the habitats used by these birds in winter. We recorded diurnal raptors along 19 roadside survey routes throughout the Central Valley for three consecutive winters between 2007 and 2010. We obtained data sufficient to determine significant positive and negative habitat associations for the White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus), Bald Eagle {Haliaeetus leucocephalus), Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus), Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Rough-legged Hawk (Buteo lagopus), American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), and Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus). The Prairie Falcon and Ferruginous and Rough-legged hawks showed expected strong positive associations with grasslands. The Bald Eagle and Northern Harrier were positively associated not only with wetlands but also with rice. The strongest positive association for the White-tailed Kite was with wetlands. The Red-tailed Hawk was positively associated with a variety of habitat types but most strongly with wetlands and rice. The American Kestrel, Northern Harrier, and White-tailed Kite were positively associated with alfalfa. Nearly all species were negatively associated with urbanized landscapes, orchards, and other intensive forms of agriculture. The White-tailed Kite, Northern Harrier, Redtailed Hawk, Ferruginous Hawk, and American Kestrel showed significant negative associations with oak savanna. Given the rapid conversion of the Central Valley to urban and intensive agricultural uses over the past few decades, these results have important implications for conservation of these wintering raptors in this region.

  17. Examining Dimethyl Sulfide Emissions in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, D.; Hughes, S.; Blake, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Dimethyl Sulfide (DMS) is a sulfur-containing compound that leads to the formation of aerosols which can lead to the formation of haze and fog. Whole air samples were collected on board the NASA C-23 Sherpa aircraft during the 2017 Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) over dairies and agricultural fields in the San Joaquin Valley. Analysis of the samples indicate average DMS concentrations of 23 ± 9 pptv, with a maximum concentration of 49 pptv. When compared with DMS concentrations from previous SARP missions (2009-2016), 2017 by far had the highest frequency of elevated DMS in this region. For this study, agricultural productivity of this region was analyzed to determine whether land use could be contributing to the elevated DMS. Top down and bottom up analysis of agriculture and dairies were used to determine emission rates of DMS in the San Joaquin Valley. Correlations to methane and ethanol were used to determine that DMS emissions were strongly linked to dairies, and resulted in R2 values of 0.61 and 0.43, respectively. These values indicate a strong correlation between dairies and DMS emissions. Combined with NOAA HySPLIT back trajectory data and analysis of ground air samples, results suggest that the contribution of dairies to annual DMS emissions in the San Joaquin Valley exceeds those from corn and alfalfa production.

  18. PM10 source apportionment study in Pleasant Valley, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egami, R.T.; Chow, J.C.; Watson, J.G.; DeLong, T.

    1990-01-01

    A source apportionment study was conducted between March 18 and April 4, 1988, at Pleasant Valley, Nevada, to evaluate air pollutant concentrations to which community residents were exposed and the source contributions to those pollutants. Daily PM 10 samples were taken for chemical speciation of 40 trace elements, ions, and organic and elemental carbon. This paper reports that the objectives of this case study are: to determine the emissions source composition of the potential upwind source, a geothermal plant; to measure the ambient particulate concentration and its chemical characteristics in Pleasant Valley; and to estimate the contributions of different emissions sources to PM 10 . The study found that: particulate emissions from the geothermal cooling-tower plume consisted primarily of sulfate, ammonia, chloride, and trace elements; no significant quantities of toxic inorganic species were found in the ambient air; ambient PM 10 concentrations in Pleasant Valley were within Federal standards; and source contribution to PM 10 were approximately 60% geological material; 20% motor vehicle exhaust; and 10% cooling-tower plume

  19. Geologic evaluation of the Oasis Valley basin, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridrich, C.J.; Minor, S.A.; and Mankinen, E.A.

    2000-01-13

    This report documents the results of a geologic study of the area between the underground-nuclear-explosion testing areas on Pahute Mesa, in the northwesternmost part of the Nevada Test Site, and the springs in Oasis Valley, to the west of the Test Site. The new field data described in this report are also presented in a geologic map that is a companion product(Fridrich and others, 1999) and that covers nine 7.5-minute quadrangles centered on Thirsty Canyon SW, the quadrangle in which most of the Oasis Valley springs are located. At the beginning of this study, published detailed maps were available for 3 of the 9 quadrangles of the study area: namely Thirsty Canyon (O'Connor and others, 1966); Beatty (Maldonado and Hausback, 1990); and Thirsty Canyon SE (Lipman and others, 1966). Maps of the last two of these quadrangles, however, required extensive updating owing to recent advances in understanding of the regional structure and stratigraphy. The new map data are integrated in this re port with new geophysical data for the Oasis Valley area, include gravity, aeromagnetic, and paleomagnetic data (Grauch and others, 1997; written comm., 1999; Mankinen and others, 1999; Hildenbrand and others, 1999; Hudson and others, 1994; Hudson, unpub. data).

  20. Electrical resistivity tomography investigations in the ufita Valley (southern Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Basso

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Several Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT surveys have been carried out to study the subsurface structural and sedimentary settings of the upper Ufita River valley, and to evaluate their efficiency to distinguish the geological boundary between shallow Quaternary sedimentary deposits and clayey bedrock characterized by moderate resistivity contrast. Five shallow ERTs were carried out across a morphological scarp running at the foot of the northeastern slope of the valley. This valley shoulder is characterized by a set of triangular facets, that some authors associated to the presence of a SW-dipping normal fault. The geological studies allow us to interpret the shallow ERTs results obtaining a resistivity range for each Quaternary sedimentary deposit. The tomographies showed the geometrical relationships of alluvial and slope deposits, having a maximum thickness of 30-40 m, and the morphology of the bedrock. The resistivity range obtained for each sedimentary body has been used for calibrating the tomographic results of one 3560m-long deep ERT carried out across the deeper part of the intramountain depression with an investigation depth of about 170 m. The deep resistivity result highlighted the complex alluvial setting, characterized by alternating fine grained lacustrine deposits and coarser gravelly fluvial sediments.

  1. NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU 366) FY2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolich, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Mizell, Steve [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Campbell, Scott [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Desert Research Institute (DRI) is conducting a field assessment of the potential for contaminated soil transport from the Plutonium Valley Contamination Area (CA) as a result of wind transport and storm runoff in support of National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) efforts to complete regulatory closure of the contamination areas. The DRI work is intended to confirm the likely mechanism(s) of transport and determine the meteorological conditions that might cause movement of contaminated soils. The emphasis of the work is on collecting sediment transported by channelized storm runoff at the Plutonium Valley investigation sites. These data will inform closure plans that are being developed, which will facilitate the appropriate closure design and post-closure monitoring. In 2011, DRI installed two meteorological monitoring stations south (station #1) and north (station #2) of the Plutonium Valley CA and a runoff sediment sampling station within the CA. Temperature, wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, precipitation, solar radiation, barometric pressure, soil temperature, and airborne particulate concentration are collected at both meteorological stations. The maximum, minimum, and average or total (as appropriate) for each of these parameters are recorded for each 10-minute interval. The sediment sampling station includes an automatically activated ISCO sampling pump with collection bottles for suspended sediment, which is activated when sufficient flow is present in the channel, and passive traps for bedload material that is transported down the channel during runoff events. This report presents data collected from these stations during fiscal year (FY) 2015.

  2. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Melton Valley Storage Tanks Waste filtration process evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, B.W.; McCabe, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this filter study was to evaluate cross-flow filtration as effective solid-liquid separation technology for treating Oak Ridge National Laboratory wastes, outline operating conditions for equipment, examine the expected filter flow rates, and determine proper cleaning.The Gunite Tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory contain heels which are a mixture of sludge, wash water, and bentonite clay. The tanks are to be cleaned out with a variety of flushing techniques and the dilute mixture transferred to another storage tank. One proposal is to transfer this mixture into existing Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST), which already contain a large amount of sludge and supernate. The mixed aqueous phase will then be transferred to new MVST, which are prohibited from containing insoluble solids. To separate the solid from the liquid and thereby prevent solids transfer into the new MVST, a technique is needed that can cleanly separate the sludge and bentonite clay from the supernate. One proposed method for solid liquid separation is cross-flow filtration. Cross-flow filtration has been used at the Savannah River and West Valley sites for treatment of tank waste, and is being tested for applicability at other sites. The performance of cross-flow filters with sludge has been tested, but the impact of sludge combined with bentonite clay has not. The objective of this test was to evaluate the feasibility of using cross-flow filters to perform the solid liquid separation required for the mixture of Gunite and MVST tank wastes

  3. Description, field test and data analysis of a controlled-source EM system (EM-60). [Leach Hot Springs, Grass Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, H.F.; Goldstein, N.E.; Hoversten, M.; Oppliger, G.; Riveros, C.

    1978-10-01

    The three sections describe the transmitter, the receiver, and data interpretations and indicate the advances made toward the development of a large moment electromagnetic (EM) system employing a magnetic dipole source. A brief description is given of the EM-60 transmitter, its general design, and the consideration involved in the selection of a practical coil size and weight for routine field operations. A programmable, multichannel, multi-frequency, phase-sensitive receiver is described. A field test of the EM-60, the data analysis and interpretation procedures, and a comparison between the survey results and the results obtained using other electrical techniques are presented. The Leach Hot Springs area in Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada, was chosen for the first field site at which the entire system would be tested. The field tests showed the system capable of obtaining well-defined sounding curves (amplitude and phase of magnetic fields) from 1 kHz down to 0.1 Hz. (MHR)

  4. The Silicon Valley Eco System. High-energetic in many ways; Het Silicon Valley Eco Systeem: hoogenergetisch in vele opzichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Heuvel, J.

    2012-04-15

    The highly commended Silicon Valley Eco System is bubbling with energy with regard to the subjects that are focused upon, including sustainable energy, or the widely available expertise that is needed for the developments, good ideas, capital and optimism, fed by frequent examples of extraordinarily successful companies. The sheer endlessness of network opportunities joins all these elements frequently. This article addresses several noteworthy interactions in the field of sustainable energy over the last period. [Dutch] Het veel geroemde Silicon Valley eco systeem bruist van energie in de vorm van de onderwerpen waar men zich op richt, waaronder duurzame energie, of de ruim aanwezige expertise die nodig is voor de ontwikkelingen, goede ideeen, kapitaal, en optimisme, gevoed door regelmatige voorbeelden van buitensporig succesvolle bedrijven. De schier oneindige netwerkmogelijkheden brengen al deze elementen met grote regelmaat bij elkaar. In dit artikel volgen enkele vermeldenswaardige interacties op het vlak van duurzame energie uit de afgelopen periode.

  5. Groundwater quality in the Indian Wells Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Indian Wells Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Indian Wells study area is approximately 600 square miles (1,554 square kilometers) and includes the Indian Wells Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Indian Wells Valley has an arid climate and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff from the surrounding mountains draining towards dry lake beds in the lower parts of the valley. Land use in the study area is approximately 97.0 percent (%) natural, 0.4% agricultural, and 2.6% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban area is the city of Ridgecrest (2010 population of 28,000). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from the Sierra Nevada to the west and from the other surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada and to the west and from the other surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada and direct infiltration from irrigation and septic systems. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells and evapotranspiration near the dry lakebeds. The primary aquifers in the Indian Wells study area are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in

  6. Preliminary results of hydrogeologic investigations Humboldt River Valley, Winnemucca, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip M.

    1964-01-01

    Most of the ground water of economic importance and nearly all the ground water closely associated with the flow o# the Humboldt River in the. 40-mile reach near Winnemucca, Nev., are in unconsolidated sedimentary deposits. These deposits range in age from Pliocene to Recent and range in character from coarse poorly sorted fanglomerate to lacustrine strata of clay, silt, sand, and gravel. The most permeable deposit consists of sand and gravel of Lake Lahontan age--the so-called medial gravel unit--which is underlain and overlain by fairly impermeable silt and clay also of Lake Lahontan age. The ultimate source of nearly all the water in the study area is precpitation within the drainage basin of the Humboldt River. Much of this water reaches the study, area as flow or underflow of the Humboldt River and as underflow from other valleys tributary to the study area. Little if any flow from the tributary streams in the study area usually reaches the Humboldt River. Most of the tributary streamflow within the study area evaporates or is transpired by vegetation, but a part percolates downward through unconsolidated deposits of the alluvial fans flanking the mountains and move downgradient as ground-water underflow toward the Humboldt River. Areas that contribute significant amounts of ground-water underflow to. the valley of the Humboldt River within the study area are (1) the valley of the Humboldt River upstream from the study area, (2) the Pole Creek-Rock Creek area, (3) Paradise Valley, and (4) Grass Valley and the northwestern slope of the Sonoma Range. The total average underflow from these areas in the period 1949-61 was about 14,000-19,000 acre-feet per year. Much of this underflow discharged into the Humboldt River within the study area and constituted a large part of the base flow of the river. Streamflow in the Humboldt River increases substantially in the early spring, principally because of runoff to the river in the reaches upstream from the study area

  7. Geophysical Surveys of the Hydrologic Basin Underlying Yosemite Valley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, E. L.; Shaw, K. A.; Carey, C.; Dunn, M. E.; Whitman, S.; Bourdeau, J.; Eckert, E.; Louie, J. N.; Stock, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    UNR students in an Applied Geophysics course conducted geophysical investigations in Yosemite Valley during the months of March and August 2017. The goal of the study is to understand better the depth to bedrock, the geometry of the bedrock basin, and the properties of stratigraphy- below the valley floor. Gutenberg and others published the only prior geophysical investigation in 1956, to constrain the depth to bedrock. We employed gravity, resistivity, and refraction microtremor(ReMi) methods to investigate the interface between valley fill and bedrock, as well as shallow contrasts. Resistivity and ReMi arrays along three north-south transects investigated the top 50-60m of the basin fill. Gravity results constrained by shallow measurements suggest a maximum depth of 1000 m to bedrock. ReMi and resistivity techniques identified shallow contrasts in shear velocity and electrical resistivity that yielded information about the location of the unconfined water table, the thickness of the soil zone, and spatial variation in shallow sediment composition. The upper several meters of sediment commonly showed shear velocities below 200 m/s, while biomass-rich areas and sandy river banks could be below 150 m/s. Vs30 values consistently increased towards the edge of the basin. The general pattern for resistivity profiles was a zone of relatively high resistivity, >100 ohm-m, in the top 4 meters, followed by one or more layers with decreased resistivity. According to gravity measurements, assuming either -0.5 g/cc or -0.7 g/cc density contrast between bedrock and basin sediments, a maximum depth to bedrock is found south of El Capitan at respectively, 1145 ± 215 m or 818 ± 150 m. Longitudinal basin geometry coincides with the basin depth geometry discussed by Gutenberg in 1956. Their results describe a "double camel" shape where the deepest points are near El Capitan and the Ahwahnee Hotel and is shallowest near Yosemite Falls, in a wider part of the valley. An August Deep

  8. Sampling strategies and materials for investigating large reactive particle complaints from Valley Village homeowners near a coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, A.; Davis, H.; Frazar, B.; Haines, B.

    1997-01-01

    This paper will present Phase 3's sampling strategies, techniques, methods and substrates for assisting the District to resolve the complaints involving yellowish-brown staining and spotting of homes, cars, etc. These spots could not be easily washed off and some were permanent. The sampling strategies for the three phases were based on Phase 1 -- the identification of the reactive particles conducted in October, 1989 by APCD and IITRI, Phase 2 -- a study of the size distribution and concentration as a function of distance and direction of reactive particle deposition conducted by Radian and LG and E, and Phase 3 -- the determination of the frequency of soiling events over a full year's duration conducted in 1995 by APCD and IITRI. The sampling methods included two primary substrates -- ACE sheets and painted steel, and four secondary substrates -- mailbox, aluminum siding, painted wood panels and roof tiles. The secondary substrates were the main objects from the Valley Village complaints. The sampling technique included five Valley Village (VV) soiling/staining assessment sites and one southwest of the power plant as background/upwind site. The five VV sites northeast of the power plant covered 50 degrees span sector and 3/4 miles distance from the stacks. Hourly meteorological data for wind speeds and wind directions were collected. Based on this sampling technique, there were fifteen staining episodes detected. Nine of them were in summer, 1995

  9. Structural Evolution of the East Sierra Valley System (Owens Valley and Vicinity, California: A Geologic and Geophysical Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Blakely

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The tectonically active East Sierra Valley System (ESVS, which comprises the westernmost part of the Walker Lane-Eastern California Shear Zone, marks the boundary between the highly extended Basin and Range Province and the largely coherent Sierra Nevada-Great Valley microplate (SN-GVm, which is moving relatively NW. The recent history of the ESVS is characterized by oblique extension partitioned between NNW-striking normal and strike-slip faults oriented at an angle to the more northwesterly relative motion of the SN-GVm. Spatially variable extension and right-lateral shear have resulted in a longitudinally segmented valley system composed of diverse geomorphic and structural elements, including a discontinuous series of deep basins detected through analysis of isostatic gravity anomalies. Extension in the ESVS probably began in the middle Miocene in response to initial westward movement of the SN-GVm relative to the Colorado Plateau. At ca. 3–3.5 Ma, the SN-GVm became structurally separated from blocks directly to the east, resulting in significant basin-forming deformation in the ESVS. We propose a structural model that links high-angle normal faulting in the ESVS with coeval low-angle detachment faulting in adjacent areas to the east.

  10. Structural evolution of the east Sierra Valley system (Owens Valley and vicinity), California: a geologic and geophysical synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Calvin H.; Stone, Paul; Blakely, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    The tectonically active East Sierra Valley System (ESVS), which comprises the westernmost part of the Walker Lane-Eastern California Shear Zone, marks the boundary between the highly extended Basin and Range Province and the largely coherent Sierra Nevada-Great Valley microplate (SN-GVm), which is moving relatively NW. The recent history of the ESVS is characterized by oblique extension partitioned between NNW-striking normal and strike-slip faults oriented at an angle to the more northwesterly relative motion of the SN-GVm. Spatially variable extension and right-lateral shear have resulted in a longitudinally segmented valley system composed of diverse geomorphic and structural elements, including a discontinuous series of deep basins detected through analysis of isostatic gravity anomalies. Extension in the ESVS probably began in the middle Miocene in response to initial westward movement of the SN-GVm relative to the Colorado Plateau. At ca. 3-3.5 Ma, the SN-GVm became structurally separated from blocks directly to the east, resulting in significant basin-forming deformation in the ESVS. We propose a structural model that links high-angle normal faulting in the ESVS with coeval low-angle detachment faulting in adjacent areas to the east.

  11. Groundwater-flow and land-subsidence model of Antelope Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siade, Adam J.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Rewis, Diane L.; Martin, Peter; Phillips, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Antelope Valley, California, is a topographically closed basin in the western part of the Mojave Desert, about 50 miles northeast of Los Angeles. The Antelope Valley groundwater basin is about 940 square miles and is separated from the northern part of Antelope Valley by faults and low-lying hills. Prior to 1972, groundwater provided more than 90 percent of the total water supply in the valley; since 1972, it has provided between 50 and 90 percent. Most groundwater pumping in the valley occurs in the Antelope Valley groundwater basin, which includes the rapidly growing cities of Lancaster and Palmdale. Groundwater-level declines of more than 270 feet in some parts of the groundwater basin have resulted in an increase in pumping lifts, reduced well efficiency, and land subsidence of more than 6 feet in some areas. Future urban growth and limits on the supply of imported water may increase reliance on groundwater.

  12. A preliminary research of characteristic of selected frequency luminescence for debris flow in Jiangjiagou valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhaowen; Wei Mingjian; Li Dongxu; Pan Baolin; Ge Yonggang

    2009-01-01

    Four debris flow samples were separated from Nidepin, Duozhao and Dawazigou valleys in Jiangjiagou valley area, Yunnan province. They were measured with BG2003 luminescence spectrograph. The characteristic spectra of the selected frequency luminescence of samples from the different locations were obtained. The wave length of emission photons from samples of Dawazigou valley and Jiangjia valley are 300, 310, 320, 400 and 460 nm when it was using blue light (488)nm excited. When the green light (532 nm) has been used to excited, the wave length of emission photons from samples of Dawazigou valley and Duozhao valley are similar high at 310 and 320 nm. Furthermore, using the green light excited the samples from desert sand at the same lab condition; the number of absorbed photons of samples from desert sand is much higher than from debris flow. (authors)

  13. Ultrafast generation of pseudo-magnetic field for valley excitons in WSe2 monolayers

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, J.

    2014-12-04

    The valley pseudospin is a degree of freedom that emerges in atomically thin two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (MX2). The capability to manipulate it, in analogy to the control of spin in spintronics, can open up exciting opportunities. Here, we demonstrate that an ultrafast and ultrahigh valley pseudo-magnetic field can be generated by using circularly polarized femtosecond pulses to selectively control the valley degree of freedom in monolayer MX2. Using ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy, we observed a pure and valley-selective optical Stark effect in WSe2 monolayers from the nonresonant pump, resulting in an energy splitting of more than 10 milli-electron volts between the K and K′ valley exciton transitions. Our study opens up the possibility to coherently manipulate the valley polarization for quantum information applications.

  14. Ultrafast generation of pseudo-magnetic field for valley excitons in WSe2 monolayers

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, J.; Hong, X.; Jin, C.; Shi, S.-F.; Chang, C.-Y. S.; Chiu, Ming-Hui; Li, Lain-Jong; Wang, F.

    2014-01-01

    The valley pseudospin is a degree of freedom that emerges in atomically thin two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (MX2). The capability to manipulate it, in analogy to the control of spin in spintronics, can open up exciting opportunities. Here, we demonstrate that an ultrafast and ultrahigh valley pseudo-magnetic field can be generated by using circularly polarized femtosecond pulses to selectively control the valley degree of freedom in monolayer MX2. Using ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy, we observed a pure and valley-selective optical Stark effect in WSe2 monolayers from the nonresonant pump, resulting in an energy splitting of more than 10 milli-electron volts between the K and K′ valley exciton transitions. Our study opens up the possibility to coherently manipulate the valley polarization for quantum information applications.

  15. Factors controlling the geochemical evolution of fumarolic encrustations, Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodosky, L.G.; Keith, T.E.C.

    1993-01-01

    Factor and canonical correlation analysis of geochemical data from eight fossil fumaroles suggest that six major factors controlled the formation and evolution of fumarolic encrustations on the 1912 ash-flow sheet in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (VTTS). The six-factor solution model explains a large proportion (low of 74% for Ni to high of 99% for Si) of the individual element data variance. Although the primary fumarolic deposits have been degraded by secondary alteration reactions and up to 75 years of weathering, the relict encrustations still preserve a signature of vapor-phase element transport. This vapor-phase transport probably occurred as halide or oxyhalide species and was significant for As, Sb and Br. At least three, and possibly four, varied temperature leaching events affected the fumarolic deposits. High-temperature gases/liquids heavily altered the ejecta glass and mineral phases adjacent to the fumarolic conduit. As the fumaroles cooled. Fe-rich acidic condensate leached the ejecta and primary fumarolic deposits and resulted in the subsequent precipitation of Fe-hydroxides and/or Fe-oxides. Low- to ambient-temperature leaching and hydration reactions generated abundant hydrated amorphous phases. Up to 87% of the individual element data variance is apparently controlled by the chemistry of the ejecta on which the relict encrustations are found. This matrix chemistry factor illustrates that the primary fumarolic minerals surrounding the active VTTS vents observed by earlier workers have been effectively removed by the dissolution reactions. Element enrichment factors calculated for the VTTS relict encrustations support the statistical factor interpretations. On the average, the relict encrustations are enriched, relative to visibly unaltered matrix protolith, in As, Br, Cr, Sb, Cu, Ni, Pb, Fe, and LOI (an indirect measure of sample H2O content). ?? 1993.

  16. Ground water in Fountain and Jimmy Camp Valleys, El Paso County, Colorado with a section on Computations of drawdowns caused by the pumping of wells in Fountain Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Edward D.; Glover, Robert E.

    1964-01-01

    The part of Fountain Valley considered in this report extends from Colorado Springs to the Pueblo County line. It is 23 miles long and has an area of 26 square miles. The part of Jimmy Camp Valley discussed is 11 miles long and has an area of 9 square miles. The topography is characterized by level flood plains and alluvial terraces that parallel the valley and by rather steep hills along the valley sides. The climate is semiarid, average annual precipitation being about 13 inches. Farming and stock raising are the principal occupations in the valleys; however, some of the agricultural land near Colorado Springs is being used for housing developments. The Pierre Shale and alluvium underlie most of the area, and mesa gravel caps the shale hills adjacent to Fountain Valley. The alluvium yields water to domestic, stock, irrigation, and public-supply wells and is capable of yielding large quantities of water for intermittent periods. Several springs issue along the sides of the valley at the contact of the mesa gravel and the underlying Pierre Shale. The water table ranges in depth from less than 10 feet along the bottom lands to about 80 feet along the sides of the valleys; the saturated thickness ranges from less than a foot to about 50 feet. The ground-water reservoir in Fountain Valley is recharged by precipitation that falls within the area, by percolation from Fountain Creek, which originates in the Pikes Peak, Monument Valley, and Rampart Range areas, and by seepage from irrigation water. This reservoir contains about 70,000 acre-feet of ground water in storage. The ground-water reservoir in Jimmy Camp Valley is recharged from precipitation that falls within the area, by percolation from Jimmy Camp Creek during periods of streamflow, and by seepage from irrigation water. The Jimmy Camp ground-water reservoir contains about 25,000 acre-feet of water in storage. Ground water is discharged from the area by movement to the south, by evaporation and transpiration in

  17. Sacramento River Flood Control Project, California Mid-Valley Area, Phase 3. Design Memorandum Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-01

    in the study area. Plants that are candidates for Federal listing are the Suisun aster, heart-scale, California hibiscus , delta tule-pea. Mason’s...agricultural chemicals. According to Sutter County Environmental Health , the State Water Resources Control Board tested a sediment sample taken under the

  18. Archaeological Investigations in the Upper Tombigbee Valley, Mississippi: Phase I. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    the genus level by comparison to spe- cimens in the comparative collection at Auburn University- Montgomery, to a dicot wood key (King n.d.), and to...by hickory nut fragments. It contained a grape seed (Vitis), a persimmon fragment ( Diospyros ), and hardwood fragments. Samples from three prepared...hackberry seed (Celtic). Feature 120 contained walnut fragments (Juglans), fern spores, a persimmon seed ( Diospyros ), unidentifiable seed fragments

  19. Archaeological Investigations in the Upper Tombigbee Valley, Mississippi: Phase I. Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    marshelder (sumpweed) (7va) maygrass (Phalaris carol iniana) maypop (Passi flora Incarnata) milkweed (Asclepiodora viridis ) neftles (Urt ica) Ohio...plum (Prunus) wild potato vine (Tpomoea pandurata) wild rice (Zizania aquatica) wild strawberries ( Fragaria ) DATE, FILMED 15, 8 3 DTIC

  20. Archaeological Test Excavations. Phase II Testing at the Hagerman National Fish Hatchery, Hagerman Valley, Idaho,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    Camp, Robert Mierendorf, Stanley Gough, Terry Eller, Jeffrey Walker, Glen W. Lindeman, and Keith Virga. Their efforts are greatly appreciated. tThe...groundwater resources of the Snake River Plain in southeastern Idaho. U.S. Geological Survey, Water-Supply Papr 774. Washington. Young F.O., Glen Trail and...Ofilled channels and is pinkish in color; nodules or dendritic pieces of carbonate can be isolated from sediment, these are hard and brittle but easily

  1. Electronic properties in a two-dimensional disordered electron liquid: Spin-valley interplay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burmistrov, I. S.; Chtchelkatchev, N. M.

    2008-01-01

    We report a detailed study of the influence of the spin and valley splittings on such physical observables of the two-dimensional disordered electron liquid as resistivity and spin and valley susceptibilities. We explain qualitatively the nonmonotonic dependence of the resistivity on temperature in the presence of a parallel magnetic field. In the presence of either spin or valley splitting we predict a temperature dependence of the resistivity with two maximum points

  2. Superior Valley Polarization and Coherence of 2s Excitons in Monolayer WSe_{2}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Yu; Goldstein, Thomas; Tong, Jiayue; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Yan, Jun

    2018-01-26

    We report the experimental observation of 2s exciton radiative emission from monolayer tungsten diselenide, enabled by hexagonal boron nitride protected high-quality samples. The 2s luminescence is highly robust and persists up to 150 K, offering a new quantum entity for manipulating the valley degree of freedom. Remarkably, the 2s exciton displays superior valley polarization and coherence than 1s under similar experimental conditions. This observation provides evidence that the Coulomb-exchange-interaction-driven valley-depolarization process, the Maialle-Silva-Sham mechanism, plays an important role in valley excitons of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides.

  3. Superior Valley Polarization and Coherence of 2 s Excitons in Monolayer WSe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Yu; Goldstein, Thomas; Tong, Jiayue; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Yan, Jun

    2018-01-01

    We report the experimental observation of 2 s exciton radiative emission from monolayer tungsten diselenide, enabled by hexagonal boron nitride protected high-quality samples. The 2 s luminescence is highly robust and persists up to 150 K, offering a new quantum entity for manipulating the valley degree of freedom. Remarkably, the 2 s exciton displays superior valley polarization and coherence than 1 s under similar experimental conditions. This observation provides evidence that the Coulomb-exchange-interaction-driven valley-depolarization process, the Maialle-Silva-Sham mechanism, plays an important role in valley excitons of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides.

  4. Hydrological responses to channelization and the formation of valley plugs and shoals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Aaron R.; King, Sammy L.

    2017-01-01

    Rehabilitation of floodplain systems focuses on restoring interactions between the fluvial system and floodplain, however, there is a paucity of information on the effects of valley plugs and shoals on floodplain hydrological processes. We investigated hydrologic regimes in floodplains at three valley plug sites, two shoal sites, and three unchannelized sites. Valley plug sites had altered surface and sub-surface hydrology relative to unchannelized sites, while only sub-surface hydrology was affected at shoal sites. Some of the changes were unexpected, such as reduced flood duration and flood depth in floodplains associated with valley plugs. Our results emphasize the variability associated with hydrologic processes around valley plugs and our rudimentary understanding of the effects associated with these geomorphic features. Water table levels were lower at valley plug sites compared to unchannelized sites, however, valley plug sites had a greater proportion of days when water table inundation was above mean root collar depth than both shoal and unchannelized sites as a result of lower root collar depths and higher deposition rates. This study has provided evidence that valley plugs can affect both surface and sub-surface hydrology in different ways than previously thought and illustrates the variability in hydrological responses to valley plug formation.

  5. Gate-tunable valley-spin filtering in silicene with magnetic barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, X. Q., E-mail: xianqiangzhe@126.com [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Meng, H. [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, Shanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723001 (China)

    2015-05-28

    We theoretically study the valley- and spin-resolved scattering through magnetic barrier in a one layer thick silicene, using the mode-matching method for the Dirac equation. We show that the spin-valley filtering effect can be achieved and can also be tuned completely through both a top and bottom gate. Moreover, when reversing the sign of the staggered potential, we find the direction of the valley polarization is switched while the direction of spin polarization is unchanged. These results can provide some meaningful information to design valley valve residing on silicene.

  6. Electrical control of the anomalous valley Hall effect in antiferrovalley bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wen-Yi; Duan, Chun-Gang

    2017-08-01

    In analogy to all-electric spintronics, all-electric valleytronics, i.e., valley manipulation via electric means, becomes an exciting new frontier as it may bring revolutions in the field of data storage with ultra-high speed and ultra-low power consumption. The existence of the anomalous valley Hall effect in ferrovalley materials demonstrates the possibility of electrical detection for valley polarization. However, in previously proposed valley-polarized monolayers, the anomalous valley Hall effect is controlled by external magnetic fields. Here, through elaborate structural design, we propose the antiferrovally bilayer as an ideal candidate for realizing all-electric valleytronic devices. Using the minimal k.p model, we show that the energy degeneracy between valley indexes in such system can be lifted by electric approaches. Subsequently, the anomalous valley Hall effect strongly depends on the electric field as well. Taking the bilayer VSe2 as an example, all-electric tuning and detecting of anomalous valley Hall effect is confirmed by density-functional theory calculations, indicating that the valley information in such antiferrovalley bilayer can be reversed by an electric field perpendicular to the plane of the system and easily probed through the sign of the Hall voltage.

  7. Magnetoelectric control of valley and spin in a silicene nanoribbon modulated by the magnetic superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Xing-Tao, E-mail: anxt@hku.hk

    2015-03-20

    The control of valley and spin degrees of freedom and the transport properties of electrons in a zigzag silicene nanoribbon modulated by the magnetic superlattices are investigated theoretically. Due to the valley–spin locking effect in silicene, the valley degree of freedom can be controlled by magnetic means. The valley or/and spin selection induced by the exchange field result in the perfect spin–valley filter and tunneling magnetoresistance effect in the double ferromagnetic barriers on the surface of the silicene nanoribbon. It is more interesting that there are valley-resolved minigaps and minibands in the zigzag silicene nanoribbon modulated by the magnetic superlattices which give rise to the periodically modulated spin (or/and valley) polarization and tunneling magnetoresistance. The results obtained may have certain practical significance in applications for future valleytronic and spintronic devices. - Highlights: • The valley can be controlled by a magnetic field in silicene. • The valley-resolved miniband transport is studied in the silicene superlattices. • There are the perfect spin–valley filter and tunneling magnetoresistance effect.

  8. 78 FR 75332 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; California Central Valley Angler Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... useful for understanding the economic importance of Central Valley fisheries and potential recreational.... Dated: December 5, 2013. Gwellnar Banks, Management Analyst, Office of the Chief Information Officer...

  9. Hybrid spin and valley quantum computing with singlet-triplet qubits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohling, Niklas; Russ, Maximilian; Burkard, Guido

    2014-10-24

    The valley degree of freedom in the electronic band structure of silicon, graphene, and other materials is often considered to be an obstacle for quantum computing (QC) based on electron spins in quantum dots. Here we show that control over the valley state opens new possibilities for quantum information processing. Combining qubits encoded in the singlet-triplet subspace of spin and valley states allows for universal QC using a universal two-qubit gate directly provided by the exchange interaction. We show how spin and valley qubits can be separated in order to allow for single-qubit rotations.

  10. Enhanced valley splitting in monolayer WSe2 due to magnetic exchange field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuan; Norden, Tenzin; Zhang, Peiyao; Zhao, Puqin; Cheng, Yingchun; Sun, Fan; Parry, James P; Taheri, Payam; Wang, Jieqiong; Yang, Yihang; Scrace, Thomas; Kang, Kaifei; Yang, Sen; Miao, Guo-Xing; Sabirianov, Renat; Kioseoglou, George; Huang, Wei; Petrou, Athos; Zeng, Hao

    2017-08-01

    Exploiting the valley degree of freedom to store and manipulate information provides a novel paradigm for future electronics. A monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) with a broken inversion symmetry possesses two degenerate yet inequivalent valleys, which offers unique opportunities for valley control through the helicity of light. Lifting the valley degeneracy by Zeeman splitting has been demonstrated recently, which may enable valley control by a magnetic field. However, the realized valley splitting is modest (∼0.2 meV T -1 ). Here we show greatly enhanced valley spitting in monolayer WSe 2 , utilizing the interfacial magnetic exchange field (MEF) from a ferromagnetic EuS substrate. A valley splitting of 2.5 meV is demonstrated at 1 T by magnetoreflectance measurements and corresponds to an effective exchange field of ∼12 T. Moreover, the splitting follows the magnetization of EuS, a hallmark of the MEF. Utilizing the MEF of a magnetic insulator can induce magnetic order and valley and spin polarization in TMDCs, which may enable valleytronic and quantum-computing applications.

  11. Phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Sole, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V; Sol, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V

    2011-01-01

    Phase transitions--changes between different states of organization in a complex system--have long helped to explain physics concepts, such as why water freezes into a solid or boils to become a gas. How might phase transitions shed light on important problems in biological and ecological complex systems? Exploring the origins and implications of sudden changes in nature and society, Phase Transitions examines different dynamical behaviors in a broad range of complex systems. Using a compelling set of examples, from gene networks and ant colonies to human language and the degradation of diverse ecosystems, the book illustrates the power of simple models to reveal how phase transitions occur. Introductory chapters provide the critical concepts and the simplest mathematical techniques required to study phase transitions. In a series of example-driven chapters, Ricard Solé shows how such concepts and techniques can be applied to the analysis and prediction of complex system behavior, including the origins of ...

  12. Glacial evolution of the upper Gallego Valley (Panticosa mountains and Ribera de Biescas, Aragonese Pyrenees, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano-Cañadas, Enrique

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Glacial evolution in the upper Gallego Valley has been established by studying erosional and depositional land forms. Ten pulsations, related to five phases are described: Premaximal (F. G. 0, attributed to Middle Pleistocene; Peniglacier, with three expanding pulsations (F.G. 1, 2 y 3, is attributed to the Upper Pleistocene; Finipleniglacial with two phases of dynamic (F.G. 4 y 5' and climatic (F.G. 5 equilibrium associated with the Pleistocene deglaciation; high mountain phase (F.G. 6 y 7, with two morphogenetic episodes; and the Holocene pulses from the Little Ice Age.

    [es] Evolución glaciar del Alto Gallego (Montañas de Panticosa y Ribera de Biescas, Pirineo aragonés. Se reconstruye la evolución glaciar del Alto Gallego a partir del estudio de las formas de erosión y acumulación glaciar. Se describen diez pulsaciones, correspondientes a cinco fases mayores: Premáximo (F.G.O., atribuido al Pleistoceno medio; Pleniglaciar, con tres pulsaciones de expansión (F.G. 1,2 y 3, del Pleistoceno reciente; el Finipleniglaciar,con fases de equilibrio dinámico (F.G. 4y 5'y climático (F.G.S, ligadas a la deglaciación pleistocena; las fases de alta montaña, con dos pulsaciones (F.G. 6 y 7, atribuidas al Tardiglaciar; y las fases holocenas, de la Pequeña Edad del Hielo.
    [fr] Évolution glaciaire de Haut Gallego (montagnes de Panticosa et Rivage de Biescas, Pyrénées aragonaises. On étudie l'évolution glaciaire du Haut Gallego à partir de l'étude des formes d'érosion et accumulation glaciaire. On décrit dix pulsations, correspondant à cinq phases majeures: le Prémaximun (F.G. 0, attribué au Pléistocène moyen; le Pléniglaciaire avec trois pulsations d'expansion (F.G. 1, 2 et 3 attribuée au Pleistocene récent; le Pini-pléniglaciaire avec des phases d'équilibre dynamique (F.G. 4 et 5 et climatique (F.G. 5, liées à la déglaciation pléistocène; les phases de haute montagne, avec deux pulsations (F.G. 6 et 7 attribu

  13. The Wintertime Covariation of CO2 and Criteria Pollutants in an Urban Valley of the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, Ryan; Lin, John C.; Hoch, Sebastian W.; Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Mendoza, Daniel L.; Fasoli, Ben; Mitchell, Logan; Catharine, Douglas; Stephens, Britton B.

    2018-03-01

    Numerous mountain valleys experience wintertime particulate pollution events, when persistent cold air pools (PCAPs) develop and inhibit atmospheric mixing, leading to the accumulation of pollutants. Here we examine the relationships between trace gases and criteria pollutants during winter in Utah's Salt Lake Valley, in an effort to better understand the roles of transport versus chemical processes during differing meteorological conditions as well as insights into how targeted reductions in greenhouse gases will impact local air quality in varying meteorological conditions. CO2 is a chemically inert gas that is coemitted during fossil fuel combustion with pollutants. Many of these coemitted pollutants are precursors that react chemically to form secondary particulate matter. Thus, CO2 can serve as a stable tracer and potentially help distinguish transport versus chemical influences on pollutants. During the winter of 2015-2016, we isolated enhancements in CO2 over baseline levels due to urban emissions ("CO2ex"). CO2ex was paired with similar excesses in other pollutant concentrations. These relationships were examined during different wintertime conditions and stages of pollution episodes: (a) Non-PCAP, (b) beginning, and (c) latter stages of an episode. We found that CO2ex is a good indicator of the presence of gaseous criteria pollutants and a reasonable indicator of PM2.5. Additionally, the relationships between CO2ex and criteria pollutants differ during different phases of PCAP events which provide insight into meteorological and transport processes. Lastly, we found a slight overestimation of CO:CO2 emission ratios and a considerable overestimation of NOx:CO2 by existing inventories for the Salt Lake Valley.

  14. Delineation of tunnel valley across the North Sea coastline, Denmark based on reflection seismic data, boreholes, TEM and Schlumberger soundings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Jørgensen, Flemming; Christensen, Steen

    Buried tunnel valleys are elongated depressions eroded into the substratum during the Pleistocene glaciations. Nine such valleys are mapped on- and offshore in a 300 km2 area located at the Danish North Sea coast. The delineation of the buried valleys is based on an extensive data set consisting......, preferred orientations, and morphology support that three of the tunnel valleys cross the North Sea coastline. It is suggested that the nine valleys were formed during at least six events that occurred through one or more pre-Weichselian glaciations. Key words: Pleistocene valleys, geophysical mapping...

  15. Ozone Laminae and Their Entrainment Into a Valley Boundary Layer, as Observed From a Mountaintop Monitoring Station, Ozonesondes, and Aircraft Over California's San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faloona, I. C.; Conley, S. A.; Caputi, D.; Trousdell, J.; Chiao, S.; Eiserloh, A. J., Jr.; Clark, J.; Iraci, L. T.; Yates, E. L.; Marrero, J. E.; Ryoo, J. M.; McNamara, M. E.

    2016-12-01

    The San Joaquin Valley of California is wide ( 75 km) and long ( 400 km), and is situated under strong atmospheric subsidence due, in part, to the proximity of the midlatitude anticyclone of the Pacific High. The capping effect of this subsidence is especially prominent during the warm season when ground level ozone is a serious air quality concern across the region. While relatively clean marine boundary layer air is primarily funneled into the valley below the strong subsidence inversion at significant gaps in the upwind Coast Range mountains, airflow aloft also spills over these barriers and mixes into the valley from above. Because this transmountain flow occurs under the influence of synoptic subsidence it tends to present discrete, laminar sheets of differing air composition above the valley boundary layer. Meanwhile, although the boundary layers tend to remain shallow due to the prevailing subsidence, orographic and anabatic venting of valley boundary layer air around the basin whips up a complex admixture of regional air masses into a "buffer layer" just above the boundary layer (zi) and below the lower free troposphere. We present scalar data of widely varying lifetimes including ozone, methane, NOx, and thermodynamic observations from upwind and within the San Joaquin Valley to better explain this layering and its subsequent erosion into the valley boundary layer via entrainment. Data collected at a mountaintop monitoring station on Chews Ridge in the Coast Range, by coastal ozonesondes, and aircraft are analyzed to document the dynamic layering processes around the complex terrain surrounding the valley. Particular emphasis will be made on observational methods whereby distal ozone can be distinguished from the regional ozone to better understand the influence of exogenous sources on air quality in the valley.

  16. Urban air quality of kathmandu valley "Kingdom of Nepal"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, C. K.

    The oval shaped tectonic basin of Kathmandu valley, occupying about 656 sq.km is situated in the middle sector of Himalayan range. There are three districts in the valley, i.e. Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur. Out of the three, the most populated is Kathmandu city (the capital of Kingdom of Nepal) which has a population of 668,00 in an area of approximately 50 km 2. The energy consumption of the city population is about 1/3 of the total import to Nepal of gasoline, diesel, kerosene, furnace oil and cooking gas. This has resulted heavy pollution of air in the city leading to bronchitis, and throat and chest diseases. Vehicles have increased several fold in recent months and there are 100,000 in number on the road and they have 900 km of road, out of which only 25% is metalled. Most of the two and three wheelers are polluting the air by emission of gases as well as dust particulate. SO 2 has been found to go as high as 202 μg cm -3 and NO 2 to 126 μg cm -3 particularly in winter months when a thick layer of fog covers the valley up to 10 am in the morning. All the gases are mixed within the limited air below the fog and the ground. This creates the problem. Furthermore, municipal waste of 500 m 3 a day and also liquid waste dumped directly into the Bagmati river at the rate of 500,000 ℓ d -1 makes the city ugly and filthy. Unless pollution of air, water and lard are controlled in time, Nepal will lose much of its foreign exchange earnings from the tourist industry. It is found that tourist arrivals have considerably reduced in recent years and most of hotels occupancy is 50-60% in peak time. Nepal is trying to introduce a legal framework for pollution control but it will take time to become effective.

  17. Catastrophic valley fills record large Himalayan earthquakes, Pokhara, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolle, Amelie; Bernhardt, Anne; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2017-12-01

    Uncertain timing and magnitudes of past mega-earthquakes continue to confound seismic risk appraisals in the Himalayas. Telltale traces of surface ruptures are rare, while fault trenches document several events at best, so that additional proxies of strong ground motion are needed to complement the paleoseismological record. We study Nepal's Pokhara basin, which has the largest and most extensively dated archive of earthquake-triggered valley fills in the Himalayas. These sediments form a 148-km2 fan that issues from the steep Seti Khola gorge in the Annapurna Massif, invading and plugging 15 tributary valleys with tens of meters of debris, and impounding several lakes. Nearly a dozen new radiocarbon ages corroborate at least three episodes of catastrophic sedimentation on the fan between ∼700 and ∼1700 AD, coinciding with great earthquakes in ∼1100, 1255, and 1344 AD, and emplacing roughly >5 km3 of debris that forms the Pokhara Formation. We offer a first systematic sedimentological study of this formation, revealing four lithofacies characterized by thick sequences of mid-fan fluvial conglomerates, debris-flow beds, and fan-marginal slackwater deposits. New geochemical provenance analyses reveal that these upstream dipping deposits of Higher Himalayan origin contain lenses of locally derived river clasts that mark time gaps between at least three major sediment pulses that buried different parts of the fan. The spatial pattern of 14C dates across the fan and the provenance data are key to distinguishing these individual sediment pulses, as these are not evident from their sedimentology alone. Our study demonstrates how geomorphic and sedimentary evidence of catastrophic valley infill can help to independently verify and augment paleoseismological fault-trench records of great Himalayan earthquakes, while offering unparalleled insights into their long-term geomorphic impacts on major drainage basins.

  18. Effects of Groundwater Development on Uranium: Central Valley, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgens, B.C.; Fram, M.S.; Belitz, K.; Burow, K.R.; Landon, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Uranium (U) concentrations in groundwater in several parts of the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California, have exceeded federal and state drinking water standards during the last 20 years. The San Joaquin Valley is located within the Central Valley of California and is one of the most productive agricultural areas in the world. Increased irrigation and pumping associated with agricultural and urban development during the last 100 years have changed the chemistry and magnitude of groundwater recharge, and increased the rate of downward groundwater movement. Strong correlations between U and bicarbonate suggest that U is leached from shallow sediments by high bicarbonate water, consistent with findings of previous work in Modesto, California. Summer irrigation of crops in agricultural areas and, to lesser extent, of landscape plants and grasses in urban areas, has increased Pco2 concentrations in the soil zone and caused higher temperature and salinity of groundwater recharge. Coupled with groundwater pumping, this process, as evidenced by increasing bicarbonate concentrations in groundwater over the last 100 years, has caused shallow, young groundwater with high U concentrations to migrate to deeper parts of the groundwater system that are tapped by public-supply wells. Continued downward migration of U-affected groundwater and expansion of urban centers into agricultural areas will likely be associated with increased U concentrations in public-supply wells. The results from this study illustrate the potential long-term effects of groundwater development and irrigation-supported agriculture on water quality in arid and semiarid regions around the world. Journal compilation ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association. No claim to original US government works.

  19. An overview of the West Valley demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannum, W.H.; Boswell, M.B.; De Boer, T.K.; Duckworth, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    This session is titled ''DOE Special Waste Management Projects.'' West Valley and TMI are indeed special projects, in that they represent today's problems. They may well have been the two most visible symbols as to how nuclear wastes can poison the entire civilian nuclear power program. Each in its own way has been perceived as a major threat to the environment and to public health and safety; in both cases this threat has been perceived to be grossly more severe than it has been in fact. It is the Department of Energy' intent that both of these problems be made to disappear. This paper serves to introduce a series of paper describing the status of the West Valley Project. In the West Valley case substantial progress is being made and we believe we are well on the way toward transforming what has been a skeleton along the road to progress into positive and unmistakable evidence that high-level nuclear wastes such as those resulting from reprocessing can be managed, understood, and prepared for disposal by a straightforward adaptation and application of existing technologies. Further, we now have evidence that the costs of doing this are not exorbitant. Subsequent papers will describe waste characterization; the plans and designs for solidification; and the ancillary and supporting programs for handling effluents and wastes, for D and D to utilize existing facilities, and environmental support. In this paper we describe the history of this plant and the wastes being used in the demonstration; the legislation and intent of the Project; the accomplishments to date; and the projected schedule and costs

  20. Variations of surface ozone concentration across the Klang Valley, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Mohd Talib; Huey, Lim Shun; Juneng, Liew

    2012-12-01

    Hourly air quality data covering the period 2004-2008 was obtained from the Air Quality Division, the Department of Environment (DOE) through long-term monitoring by Alam Sekitar Sdn. Bhd. (ASMA) were analysed to investigate the variations of surface ozone (O3) in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. A total of nine monitoring stations were selected for analysis in this study and the results show that there are distinct seasonal patterns in the surface O3 across the Klang Valley. A high surface O3 concentration is usually observed between January and April, while a low surface O3 concentration is found between June and August. Analysis of daily variations in surface O3 and the precursors - NO, NO2, CO, NMHC and UVb, indicate that the surface O3 photochemistry in this study area exhibits a positive response to the intensity and wavelength in UVb while being influenced by the concentration of NOx, particularly through tritration processes. Although results from our study suggested that NMHCs may influence the maximum O3 concentration, further investigation is required. Wind direction during different monsoons was found to influence the concentration of O3 around the Klang Valley. HYSPLIT back trajectories (-72 h) were used to indicate the air-mass transport patterns on days with high concentrations of surface O3 in the study area. Results show that 47% of the high O3 days was associated with the localized circulation. The remaining 32% and 22% were associated with mid-range and long-range transport across the South China Sea from the northeast.

  1. Residence Times in Central Valley Aquifers Recharged by Dammed Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loustale, M.; Paukert Vankeuren, A. N.; Visser, A.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater is a vital resource for California, providing between 30-60% of the state's water supply. Recent emphasis on groundwater sustainability has induced a push to characterize recharge rates and residence times for high priority aquifers, including most aquifers in California's Central Valley. Flows in almost all rivers from the western Sierra to the Central Valley are controlled by dams, altering natural flow patterns and recharge to local aquifers. In eastern Sacramento, unconfined and confined shallow aquifers (depth recharged by a losing reach of the Lower American River, despite the presence of levees with slurry cut-off walls.1 Flow in the Lower American River is controlled through the operation of the Folsom and Nimbus Dams, with a minimum flow of 500 cfs. Water table elevation in wells in close proximity to the river are compared to river stage to determine the effect of river stage on groundwater recharge rates. Additionally, Tritium-3Helium dates and stable isotopes (∂18O and ∂2H) have been measured in monitoring wells 200- 2400 ft lateral distance from the river, and depths of 25 -225 feet BGS. Variation in groundwater age in the vertical and horizontal directions are used to determine groundwater flow path and velocity. These data are then used to calculate residence time of groundwater in the unconfined and confined aquifer systems for the Central Valley in eastern Sacramento. Applying groundwater age tracers can benefit future compliance metrics of the California Sustainable Groundwater Resources Act (SGMA), by quantifying river seepage rates and impacts of groundwater management on surface water resources. 1Moran et al., UCRL-TR-203258, 2004.

  2. Climatology of atmospheric PM10 concentration in the Po Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigi, A.; Ghermandi, G.

    2014-01-01

    The limits to atmospheric pollutant concentration set by the European Commission provide a challenging target for the municipalities in the Po Valley, because of the characteristic climatic conditions and high population density of this region. In order to assess climatology and trends in the concentration of atmospheric particles in the Po Valley, a dataset of PM10 data from 41 sites across the Po Valley have been analysed, including both traffic and background sites (either urban, suburban or rural). Of these 41 sites, 18 with 10 yr or longer record have been analysed for long term trend in de-seasonalized monthly means, in annual quantiles and in monthly frequency distribution. A widespread significant decreasing trend has been observed at most sites, up to few percent per year, by Generalised Least Square and Theil-Sen method. All 41 sites have been tested for significant weekly periodicity by Kruskal-Wallis test for mean anomalies and by Wilcoxon test for weekend effect magnitude. A significant weekly periodicity has been observed for most PM10 series, particularly in summer and ascribed mainly to anthropic particulate emissions. A cluster analysis has been applied in order to highlight stations sharing similar pollution conditions over the reference period. Five clusters have been found, two gathering the metropolitan areas of Torino and Milano and their respective nearby sites and the other three clusters gathering north-east, north-west and central Po Valley sites respectively. Finally the observed trends in atmospheric PM10 have been compared to trends in provincial emissions of particulates and PM precursors, and analysed along with data on vehicular fleet age, composition and fuel sales. Significant basin-wide drop in emissions occurred for gaseous pollutants, contrarily to emissions of PM10 and PM2.5, whose drop resulted low and restricted to few provinces. It is not clear whether the decrease for only gaseous emissions is sufficient to explain the

  3. West Valley demonstration project: Implementation of the kerosene mitigation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blickwedehl, R.R.; Goodman, J.; Valenti, P.J.

    1987-05-01

    An aggressive program was implemented to mitigate the migration of radioactive kerosene believed to have originated from the West Valley NRC-Licensed Disposal Area (NDA) disposal trenches designated as SH-10 and SH-11 (Special Holes 10 and 11). This report provides a historical background of the events leading to the migration problem, the results of a detailed investigation to determine the location and source of the kerosene migration, the remediation plan to mitigate the migration, and the actions taken to successfully stabilize the kerosene. 7 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  4. Restriction of Rift Valley Fever Virus Virulence in Mosquito Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja R. Gerrard

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Arboviruses are maintained in a natural cycle that requires blood-sucking arthropod and vertebrate hosts. Arboviruses are believed to persistently infect their arthropod host without overt pathology and cause acute infection with viremia in their vertebrate host. We have focused on elucidating how a specific arbovirus, Rift Valley fever (RVF virus, causes cytopathic effect in cells derived from vertebrates and non-cytopathic infection in cells derived from arthropods. We demonstrate that the vertebrate virulence factor, NSs, is functional in arthropod cells but is expressed at significantly lower levels in infected arthropod versus infected vertebrate cells.

  5. An rf communications system for the West Valley transfer cart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutcher, R.I.; Moore, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype radio frequency communications system for digital data was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in controlling the vitrification facility transfer cart at the West Valley Nuclear Services facility in New York. The communications system provides bidirectional wireless data transfer between the operator control station and the material transfer cart. The system was designed to operate in radiation fields of 10 4 R/h while withstanding a total integrated dose of 10 7 R of gamma radiation. Implementation of antenna spatial diversity, automatic gain control, and spectral processing improves operation in the reflective environment of the metal-lined reprocessing cells

  6. Control of medfly by SIT in the Nereva river valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjelis, Mario; Ljubetic, Visnja; Novosel, Nevenka

    2006-01-01

    A feasibility study of medfly suppression by means of sterile males released program in the Neretva Vallley, Croatia, is presented. The increase of medfly infestation is considered, as almost all cultures of the region represent host plants for the insect. Environmental friendly methods such well developed SIT technique associated with other organic methods are mentioned as an option of no disruption of the present natural balance. Area study and strategy planning is briefly presented. Population dynamics of Ceratitis capitata in the different parts of the delta Neretva valley, during period 2002 - 2004 Year is reported. Medfly capture on selected locations with different host availability in Neretva river is studied. (MAC)

  7. Control of medfly by SIT in the Nereva river valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjelis, Mario, E-mail: mario.bjelis@zzb.h [Institut for Plant Protection in Agriculture and Foresty of Republic of Croatia, Zagreb, Zvonimirova (Croatia); Ljubetic, Visnja [Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Watter Managment of Republic of Croatia, Zagreb (Croatia); Novosel, Nevenka [State Office for Nuclear Safety, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-07-01

    A feasibility study of medfly suppression by means of sterile males released program in the Neretva Vallley, Croatia, is presented. The increase of medfly infestation is considered, as almost all cultures of the region represent host plants for the insect. Environmental friendly methods such well developed SIT technique associated with other organic methods are mentioned as an option of no disruption of the present natural balance. Area study and strategy planning is briefly presented. Population dynamics of Ceratitis capitata in the different parts of the delta Neretva valley, during period 2002 - 2004 Year is reported. Medfly capture on selected locations with different host availability in Neretva river is studied. (MAC)

  8. Audiomagnetotelluric investigation of Snake Valley, eastern Nevada and western Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, Darcy K.; Pari, Keith; Baird, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) data along four profiles in western Snake Valley and the corresponding two-dimensional (2-D) inverse models reveal subsurface structures that may be significant to ground-water investigations in the area. The AMT method is a valuable tool for estimating the electrical resistivity of the earth over depth ranges from a few meters to less than one kilometer. The method has the potential to identify faults and stratigraphy within basins of eastern Nevada, thereby helping define the hydrogeologic framework of the region.

  9. Yampa River Valley sub-area contingency plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Yampa River Valley sub-area contingency plan (Contingency Plan) has been prepared for two counties in northwestern Colorado: Moffat County and Routt County. The Contingency Plan is provided in two parts, the Contingency Plan and the Emergency Response Action Plan (ERAP). The Contingency Plan provides information that should be helpful in planning to minimize the impact of an oil spill or hazardous material incident. It contains discussions of planning and response role, hazards identification, vulnerability analysis, risk analysis, cleanup, cost recovery, training, and health and safety. It includes information on the incident command system, notifications, response capabilities, emergency response organizations, evacuation and shelter-in-place, and immediate actions.

  10. Mobile equipment maintenance at Elk Valley Coal Corporation Fording River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Major loading and support equipment, haul trucks, and the number of staff and hourly tradesmen working in the maintenance manpower division at Elk Valley Coal are listed. Maintenance strategies are safety, high maintenance of equipment availabilities and reliability, cost reduction, and maximized productivity of assets. Maintenance assets comprise a large shop, shovel and drill crew, machine shop, light vehicle facility, line crew, radio technicians, and cranes. Most maintenance work is completed in- house. Fording River uses a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) that was developed in-house to match business needs. Several examples of the application of Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) are described. 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. WHIPJET progress on piping restraint elimination at Beaver Valley - 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Server, W.L.; Szy Slow Ski, J.J.; Goldstein, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    Fracture mechanics technology has advanced to the point that an engineering approach using the concept of leak-before-break in lieu of postulating double-ended pipe rupture is now possible. An approach based upon this fracture mechanics technology, termed WHIPJET, is currently being applied to Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2 for Duquesne Light Company. The WHIPJET philosophy is simple, conservative, and provides defense-in-depth arguments for high energy piping throughout the balance-of-plant. Progress being made in applying WHIPJET to several lines is presented

  12. Rockfall failure mechanisms in Yosemite Valley, California (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matasci, Battista; Guerin, Antoine; Carrea, Dario; Stock, Greg M.; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Collins, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Rockfall hazard is especially high in Yosemite Valley, with tens of rockfalls inventoried every year. A rockfall on 5 October 2013 from Ahwiyah Point consisted of a volume of 740 cubic meters and occurred within the perimeter of a larger event on 28 March 2009 that released 25'400 cubic meters of rock (Zimmer et al., 2012). In both events (2009 and 2013), the initial rockfall volumes dislodged a second one approximately equivalent in size by impacting the cliff below the source area during the fall. Rock fragments of up to several cubic meters were deposited on the talus slope, damaging a heavily used and recently reconstructed hiking path. We performed extensive mapping of structural features for several cliffs of Yosemite Valley to improve the assessment of the most susceptible rockfall areas. In particular we mapped and characterized the main brittle structures, the exfoliation joints and the failure mechanisms of the past rockfalls. Several failure mechanisms exist in Yosemite including the propagation of brittle structures that may lead to tensile, planar sliding, wedge sliding or toppling failures. Frequently, topographically-parallel exfoliation joints and topographically-oblique discontinuities coexist, resulting in complex failures. We also developed a methodology to examine how the distribution of joints within the cliff faces of Yosemite Valley affects overall stability with respect to the identified failure mechanisms. For these analyses, we used terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to collect high resolution point clouds of the vertical and overhanging rock faces throughout the Valley. This provided the necessary 3D data to identify the main joint sets, perform spacing and trace length measurements, and calculate volumes of previous and potential rockfalls. We integrated this information with stability calculations to identify the likely failure mechanisms for each area of cliff and to obtain the number of potential failures per square meter of cliff face

  13. LANDSLIDE RECLAMATION IN ŠÁRKA VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vaníček

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Housing development in Šárka’s valley is situated in former brickworks – borrow pit for brick-clay. On its north side the borrow pit cutting is up to 8m high with main road on top. This slope was suffering from progressive landslide mainly due to weathering and surface erosion. The reclamation works proposed and afterwards executed consisted of stabilizing the slope by combination of soil nailing and connecting reinforced slope with surcharge bench at its toe. The final reinforced soil structure nicely merged into the surrounding environment.

  14. Interaction of valleys and circulation patterns (CPs on spatial precipitation patterns in southern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Topography exerts influence on the spatial precipitation distribution over different scales, known typically at the large scale as the orographic effect, and at the small scale as the wind-drift rainfall (WDR effect. At the intermediate scale (1~10 km, which is characterized by secondary mountain valleys, topography also demonstrates some effect on the precipitation pattern. This paper investigates such intermediate-scale topographic effects on precipitation patterns, focusing on narrow-steep valleys in the complex terrain of southern Germany, based on the daily observations over a 48 yr period (1960~2007 from a high-density rain-gauge network covering two sub-areas, Baden-Wuerttemberg (BW and Bavaria (BY. Precipitation data at the valley and non-valley stations are compared under consideration of the daily general circulation patterns (CPs classified by a fuzzy rule-based algorithm. Scatter plots of precipitation against elevation demonstrate a different behavior of valley stations comparing to non-valley stations. A detailed study of the precipitation time series for selected station triplets, each consisting of a valley station, a mountain station and an open station have been investigated by statistical analysis with the Kolmogorov–Smirnov (KS test supplemented by the One-way analysis of variance (One-way ANOVA and a graphical comparison of the mean precipitation amounts. The results show an interaction of valley orientation and the direction of the CPs at the intermediate scale, i.e. when the valley is shielded from the CP which carries the precipitation, the precipitation amount within the valley is comparable to that on the mountain crest, and both larger than the precipitation at the open station. When the valley is open to the CP, the precipitation within the valley is similar to the open station but much less than that on the mountain. Such phenomenon where the precipitation is "blind" to the valleys at the intermediate scale

  15. Subglacial tunnel valleys in the Alpine foreland: an example from Bern, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerst Stucki, M.; Reber, R.; Schlunegger, F.

    2010-12-15

    The morphology of the Alpine and adjacent landscapes is directly related to glacial erosion and associated sediment transport. Here we report the effects of glacio-hydrologic erosion on bedrock topography in the Swiss Plateau. Specifically, we identify the presence of subsurface valleys beneath the city of Bern and discuss their genesis. Stratigraphic investigations of more than 4'000 borehole data within a 430 km{sup 2}-large area reveal the presence of a network of >200 m-deep and 1'000 m-wide valleys. They are flat floored with steep sided walls and are filled by Quaternary glacial deposits. The central valley beneath Bern is straight and oriented towards the NNW, with valley flanks more than 20 {sup o} steep. The valley bottom has an irregular undulating profile along the thalweg, with differences between sills and hollows higher than 50-100 m over a reach of 4 km length. Approximately 500 m high bedrock highlands flank the valley network. The highlands are dissected by up to 80 m-deep and 500 m-broad hanging valleys that currently drain away from the axis of the main valley. We interpret the valleys beneath the city of Bern to be a tunnel valley network which originated from subglacial erosion by melt water. The highland valleys served as proglacial meltwater paths and are hanging with respect to the trunk system, indicating that these incipient highland systems as well as the main gorge beneath Bern formed by glacial melt water under pressure. (authors)

  16. Hydrothermal fluid composition at Middle Valley, Northern Juan de Fuca Ridge: Temporal and spatial variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruse, Anna M.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.; Saccocia, Peter J.; Zierenberg, Robert

    Hydrothermal fluids were collected in July 2000 from the Dead Dog and Ore Drilling Program (ODP) Mound vent fields at Middle Valley, a sediment-covered spreading center on the northern Juan de Fuca Ridge. Measured fluid temperatures varied from 187° to 281°C in focused flow vents and 40°C in ODP Hole 1035F. Cl concentrations indicate that ODP Mound fluids undergo phase separation in the subsurface, whereas Dead Dog fluids do not. The lack of phase separation at Dead Dog is consistent with other geochemical indicators of lower subsurface temperatures. Cooling and equilibration with quartz after phase separation at the ODP Mound results in exit temperatures and silica concentrations that are indistinguishable from those at Dead Dog. The sulfur isotopic composition of aqueous ΣH2S indicates extensive reduction of seawater SO4 and leaching of basaltic sulfur at both areas. A new area of venting, which resulted from drilling operations during ODP Leg 169, was discovered on the eastern side of the ODP Mound. The fluids in the new area have compositions that are similar to those of Hole 1035H and Shiner Bock, except for lower H2 and higher H2S concentrations. These differences reflect the conversion of pyrite to pyrrhotite in the ODP Mound as fluids react with sulfide minerals during upflow. Fluid temperatures and compositions have remained constant between 1990 and 2000 indicating that subsurface reaction zone conditions did not change over this period. Near constant concentrations of sediment-derived mobile trace elements suggest that the residence time of fluids in a high-temperature reservoir exceeds 10 years.

  17. Phase field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhakrishnan, B.; Gorti, S.B.; Clarno, K.; Tonks, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the phase-field method and its application to microstructure evolution in reactor fuel and clad are discussed. The examples highlight the capability of the phase-field method to capture evolution processes that are influenced by both thermal and elastic stress fields that are caused by microstructural changes in the solid-state. The challenges that need to be overcome before the technique can become predictive and material-specific are discussed. (authors)

  18. Documentation of the Santa Clara Valley regional ground-water/surface-water flow model, Santa Clara Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.T.; Li, Zhen; Faunt, C.C.

    2004-01-01

    The Santa Clara Valley is a long, narrow trough extending about 35 miles southeast from the southern end of San Francisco Bay where the regional alluvial-aquifer system has been a major source of water. Intensive agricultural and urban development throughout the 20th century and related ground-water development resulted in ground-water-level declines of more than 200 feet and land subsidence of as much as 12.7 feet between the early 1900s and the mid-1960s. Since the 1960s, Santa Clara Valley Water District has imported surface water to meet growing demands and reduce dependence on ground-water supplies. This importation of water has resulted in a sustained recovery of the ground-water flow system. To help support effective management of the ground-water resources, a regional ground-water/surface-water flow model was developed. This model simulates the flow of ground water and surface water, changes in ground-water storage, and related effects such as land subsidence. A numerical ground-water/surface-water flow model of the Santa Clara Valley subbasin of the Santa Clara Valley was developed as part of a cooperative investigation with the Santa Clara Valley Water District. The model better defines the geohydrologic framework of the regional flow system and better delineates the supply and demand components that affect the inflows to and outflows from the regional ground-water flow system. Development of the model includes revisions to the previous ground-water flow model that upgraded the temporal and spatial discretization, added source-specific inflows and outflows, simulated additional flow features such as land subsidence and multi-aquifer wellbore flow, and extended the period of simulation through September 1999. The transient-state model was calibrated to historical surface-water and ground-water data for the period 197099 and to historical subsidence for the period 198399. The regional ground-water flow system consists of multiple aquifers that are grouped

  19. Weathering and transport of chromium and nickel from serpentinite in the Coast Range ophiolite to the Sacramento Valley, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jean M.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Mills, Christopher T.; Breit, George N.; Hooper, Robert L.; Holloway, JoAnn M.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Ranville, James F.

    2015-01-01

    A soil geochemical study in northern California was done to investigate the role that weathering and transport play in the regional distribution and mobility of geogenic Cr and Ni, which are both potentially toxic and carcinogenic. These elements are enriched in ultramafic rocks (primarily serpentinite) and the soils derived from them (1700–10,000 mg Cr per kg soil and 1300–3900 mg Ni per kg soil) in the Coast Range ophiolite. Chromium and Ni have been transported eastward from the Coast Range into the western Sacramento Valley and as a result, valley soil is enriched in Cr (80–1420 mg kg−1) and Ni (65–224 mg kg−1) compared to median values of U.S. soils of 50 and 15 mg kg−1, respectively. Nickel in ultramafic source rocks and soils is present in serpentine minerals (lizardite, antigorite, and chrysotile) and is more easily weathered compared to Cr, which primarily resides in highly refractory chromite ([Mg,Fe2+][Cr3+,Al,Fe3+]2O4). Although the majority of Cr and Ni in soils are in refractory chromite and serpentine minerals, the etching and dissolution of these minerals, presence of Cr- and Ni-enriched clay minerals and development of nanocrystalline Fe (hydr)oxides is evidence that a significant fractions of these elements have been transferred to potentially more labile phases.

  20. Environment, safety and health, management and organization compliance assessment, West Valley Demonstration Program, West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    An Environment, Safety and Health ''Tiger Team'' Assessment was conducted at the West Valley Demonstration Project. The Tiger Team was chartered to conduct an onsite, independent assessment of WVDP's environment, safety and health (ES ampersand H) programs to assure compliance with applicable Federal and State laws, regulations, and standards, and Department of Energy Orders. The objective is to provide to the Secretary of Energy the following information: current ES ampersand H compliance status of each facility; specific noncompliance items; ''root causes'' for noncompliance items; evaluation of the adequacy of ES ampersand H organization and resources (DOE and contractor) and needed modifications; and where warranted, recommendations for addressing identified problem areas