Full Text Available Abstract Background The populations of industrialised countries are ageing; as this occurs, those who continue to use alcohol and illicit drugs age also. While alcohol use among older people is well documented, use of illicit drugs continues to be perceived as behaviour of young people and is a neglected area of research. This is the first published qualitative research on the experiences of older drug users in the United Kingdom. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in Merseyside, in 2008, with drug users aged 50 and over recruited through drug treatment services. Interviews were recorded and transcribed and analysed thematically. Only health status and health service contact are reported here. Results Nine men and one woman were interviewed (age range: 54 to 61 years; all but one had been using drugs continuously or intermittently for at least 30 years. Interviewees exhibited high levels of physical and mental morbidity; hepatitis C was particularly prevalent. Injecting-related damage to arm veins resulted in interviewees switching to riskier injecting practices. Poor mental health was evident and interviewees described their lives as depressing. The death of drug-using friends was a common theme and social isolation was apparent. Interviewees also described a deterioration of memory. Generic healthcare was not always perceived as optimal, while issues relating to drug specific services were similar to those arising among younger cohorts of drug users, for example, complaints about inadequate doses of prescribed medication. Conclusion The concurrent effects of drug use and ageing are not well understood but are thought to exacerbate, or accelerate the onset of, medical conditions which are more prevalent in older age. Here, interviewees had poor physical and mental health but low expectations of health services. Older drug users who are not in contact with services are likely to have greater unmet needs. The number of drug users
This is a presentation of the United Kingdom's experience with power transmission open access. The topics of the presentation include the objectives of changing, commercial arrangements and economic drivers, long term effects, the effects of moving to a more competitive environment, and factors affecting open access such as political climate and market regulation
While attempting bravely to sustain the legacy left by J.J. Thomson, Rutherford, Chadwick, Cockcroft, Blackett, Dirac and others earlier this century, the United Kingdom, one of the major contributors to CERN, has suffered in recent years from an erosion of the international purchasing power of the pound sterling. At the same time, the national scientific community has squabbled over the apportionment of the research cake. In recent years, the CERN budget has remained constant in real terms, but the pound has drifted steadily down. In 1984 one pound bought 3.15 Swiss francs, now it gets just over 2. The hypersensitivity which left calculations at the mercy of exchange rate hiccups was cushioned in 1988 by a new method of calculating national CERN contributions, introduced by Chris Llewellyn Smith, now the Laboratory's Director General, using less sensitive input data
To date, the reconnaissance mapping programme of the inner continental shelf of the United Kingdom has absorbed almost the entire effort of the offshore programme. Activities now, however, are much more diverse. Clients include government departments and public and private industry, and there are also the strategic and basis research projects in support of the Core Programme. Attention is now being turned to the remaining unexplored areas of the UK shelf. These include the Rockall Trough, the Hatton Rockall Basin, the Faeroe-Shetland Channel and the Norwegian Sea to the west and north of Scotland; and also the coastal strip around the UK extending one to two kilometres offshore, which was inaccessible to the large ships that conducted the first phase of the shelf survey. (author).
In any system employing liquid sodium as a coolant, large heat transfer coefficients exist between the metal structure containing the coolant, and the coolant itself. Any rapidly varying temperatures, either space wise or time wise, in the sodium are readily transmitted to the surrounding metal structure, resulting in the generation of appreciable thermal stresses within these structures. In particular, the phenomenon of thermal stratification in the sodium coolant has the potential to induce unacceptable thermal stresses throughout the system. With respect to the present U.K. fast reactor design, a large programme of work in connection with the thermal hydraulic aspects of the plant is in hand. This programme is being undertaken as a joint effort by the National Nuclear Corporation, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, and the Central Electricity Generating Board. Work is in progress both to identify the areas of the system that will be susceptible to, and to ensure that the design is capable of successfully withstanding any thermal stratification effects. The production of stratification phenomena depends both upon the design and the operation of the reactor system. These are briefly described below. Areas where thermal stratification effects exist are then identified and the programme of work associated with each area is outlined
Croft, S.; Williams, P.
The possession of nuclear weapons by the United Kingdom has long been a controversial issue in British politics, and among historians and strategists. Part of the controversy has revolved around questions of motivation. Why did the British Government under Prime Minister Clement Attlee develop nuclear weapons? Why have successive British governments maintained and, in fact, modernized the national nuclear force? This paper reports that a frequent response to these questions is to place the issue of the acquisition of nuclear weapons by the UK into a post-colonial context. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Britain was a great power with global assets and commitments. After the Empire was reduced in size and importance, however, and eventually swept away, Britain could not longer claim to be a superpower in any modern sense. Nevertheless, it is suggested, British policy makers had developed a foreign policy based upon certain assumptions about Britain's position and power and they were reluctant to relinquish these assumptions. Furthermore, it is contended, the decision to develop nuclear weapons was taken to reinforce what were the pretensions of a medium power, and the continued obsession of successive British governments with nuclear weapons provides evidence that Britain has still not come to terms with its reduced role and limited influence. In short, the British infatuation with nuclear weapons over the past 40 years is best explained in terms of concerns about status
The report represents a limited study of the United Kingdom Automobile Insurance Industry: (1) the structure, size, and relationships within the industry; (2) the basis of premium calculation, rate structure, types of policies, and payment of compens...
Full Text Available Devolution in the United Kingdom is deeply connected to United Kingdom membership of the European Union, which provides an external support system for the internal settlement. Exit from the European Union destabilizes the internal settlement and raises a series of major constitutional issues.
Full Text Available Devolution is a transfer of the legislative powers of the Westminster Parliament to the parliaments of the historical provinces once united with England into the United Kingdom, which are directly elected by the provincial population. That delegation is asymmetrical and revocable, but it does not affect the basic norms of the British unwritten constitution on parliamentary supremacy. Over the devolution the provinces do not acquire the primary competence, but the one that is given to them by the transfer of the legislative powers of the Westminster Parliament. A special law retaining the Westminster Parliament's primary competence and sovereignty grants this competence. Regarding the scope of the devolved powers of the provinces and the organizational mechanism for their execution, there is a significant asymmetry. In all the provinces, there is a unique junction between devolved powers and their holders. Before the referendum on the independence in Scotland in September 2014, the increase of devolved powers was promised not only for all the historical provinces (Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland, but for England as well, which represents a step towards the federalization of the UK. Devolution and several other institutions of the British constitution also, have a stamp 'Made in Britain' which does not allow easy imitation and transfer to another countries and their constitutions.
Lolli, A. (Bologna Univ. (Italy))
This paper reviews the mechanics and first results of deregulation in the electric power industry of the United Kingdom. Several aspects are dealt with, namely: 1983 Energy Act impacts on ownership and subsequent changes brought about by the 1989 Energy Act; the Act's stipulations with regard to share acquisition and distribution; the division of the patrimony of the Area Boards; natural monopolistic characteristics of power distribution; vertical integration in Scotland, target investment limits in Government and public participation; the 'golden share' concept to guarantee public participation; current 40% share ownership by the Government; 15% private ownership limit for individual investors; external control by Government of licensing and rate structure setting; the impacts of organizational changes on the overall cost benefits of deregulation; modified Governmental regulatory powers; measures to ensure competition and consumer protection; provisions regarding misbehaviour; second tier suppliers and reserve fuel supply obligations; deregulation impacts on nuclear power marketing; power pooling regulations; installation of new transmission lines; provisions encouraging the use of diverse energy sources; franchising; interconnection with national grid; regulation of technical operations; standby as it affects rate structure; and spot market pricing.
British Information Service, New York, NY. Reference Div.
This pamphlet uses the Articles of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a framework within which to describe legal safeguards of individual rights in the United Kingdom. Under each article of the Declaration, a historical perspective of the tradition of civil liberties is provided, as are descriptions of recent trends and…
McNulty, Cliodna A.M.; Boyle, Paul; Nichols, Tom; Clappison, Douglas P.; Davey, Peter
A total of 6% of 6,983 households in the United Kingdom had leftover antimicrobial drugs, and 4% had standby antimicrobial drugs. Respondents with leftover drugs were more educated, more knowledgeable about antimicrobial drugs, younger, and female. Of respondents with leftover drugs, 44% kept them in case of future need, and 18% had taken these drugs without medical advice.
Christopherson, Derman G.
Surveys developments in higher education in the United Kingdom since the publication of the government's 'White Paper' in December 1972. Considers: (1) reorganization of public higher education, (2) extent of student demand, (3) increase in enrollment of women, and (4) financial problems caused by inflation. (Editor/PG)
With challenges like the climatic change, the hydrocarbons prices increase and the energy supply security, the nuclear park is becoming a decisive and an urgent question in the United Kingdom. The author proposes an historical aspect of the nuclear energy in UK, the actors of the today nuclear industry and the technologies used in 2006, the radioactive wastes management, the programs of the future and the british opinion on the nuclear. (A.L.B.)
There are three areas of radioactive waste management which exemplify, beyond any reasonable doubt, that the United Kingdom has in the past (and intends in the future), to pursue a policy of dispersal and disposal of radioactive wastes: These are: (I) dumping of low-level waste in the deep ocean and, on a parallel, seabed emplacement of highly active waste; (II) the liquid discharges from Windscale into the Irish Sea; and (III) land dumping of low- and intermediate-level waste
Development of the United Kingdom (UK) nuclear safety philosophy is described in the context of the UK nuclear power program since 1959 and of its legislative framework. Basic to the philosophy is that the licensee is wholly responsible for nuclear safety. The licensing process and safety assessment principles used by the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate are discussed, and examples from the assessment of the proposed UK pressurized-water reactor are used to illustrate how the approach works in practice. The UK siting policy and regulatory developments since 1979 are also discussed. Recent, current, and future issues of interest to the regulatory authority are described against the development nuclear scene in the UK
Shepherd, J.; Harrison, J.; McNicholas, P.
This report gives information on the radioactive wastes which arise in the United Kingdom, updated to 1 January 1986. It has been compiled from information provided by the principal producers of the wastes, Amersham International plc, British Nuclear Fuels plc, the Central Electricity Generating Board, the South of Scotland Electricity Board, and the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. The report lists the waste types, or streams, which these organisations produce, or will produce, as part of their normal operations or from decommissioning of their plant. For each stream is given the volume (or in a few cases mass) of existing stocks, estimated arisings to the year 2030 (2080 in the case of some decommissioning wastes), specific activity, and conditioning factor (volume change from ''raw'' waste volume to volume conditioned for disposal). Details of the radionuclide compositions of individual waste streams are separately listed. Waste streams are allocated to one of the three categories High, Intermediate or Low-Level, although this does not necessarily imply any commitment to a particular disposal route. The report includes tables summarising the data, arranged in a hierarchical manner to enable totals to be readily extracted as required. Summary tables of both ''raw'' and ''conditioned'' waste volumes are given. Also included are a commentary on the data and important changes from the 1985 inventory, and information on scenarios on which estimates of future arisings are based. (author)
Singh, Rohit; Bhalla, Amit; Ockendon, Matthew; Hay, Stuart
Motocross is a form of motorcycle racing held on established off-road circuits and has been a recreational and competitive sport across the world for >100 years. In the United Kingdom alone, motocross has grown into a phenomenally ambitious and popular franchise. There are >200 motocross clubs across the country, permitting >900 events annually. To assess the current trend of spine-related motocross injuries over the past 5 years. Descriptive epidemiology study. Data were prospectively collected over 5 years (August 2010-August 2015) at our regional trauma and spine unit, regardless of whether the rider was performing the sport competitively or recreationally. During the study period, spine-related injuries were identified for 174 patients (age range, 6-75 years) who were directly referred to our department following recreational or competitive motocross, with most injuries being sustained within the early spring and summer months, representing the start of the motocross season. A significant number of injuries were in males (n = 203, 94%), with the majority of injuries occurring within the 21- to 30-year-old age group. A total of 116 (54%) injuries required operative treatment. The most common spinal injury was thoracolumbar burst fracture (n = 95), followed by chance fractures (n = 26). This data series emphasizes the prevalence and devastation of motocross-related spinal injuries in the United Kingdom and may serve in administering sanctions and guidelines to governing bodies of motocross. The spinal injuries that occur during motocross have significant capital connotations for regional spinal centers. The recent surge in motocross popularity is correlated with the number of injuries, which have increased over the past 5 years by almost 500%.
The UK Atomic Energy Authority has three research centres and many industrial enterprises. However, there is a general decline/stagnation of activities with only one research reactor for civilian use and no growth in the nuclear power sector. The United Kingdom may soon face the shortage of personnel in the essential field like health physics, radiation protection and safety management. Also there is a concern about anti-nuclear culture which is growing roots. British Nuclear Fuels Limited is trying to address some of these problems by opening a visitor centre in Sellafield and a centre of excellence in radiochemistry in one of the universities. International collaboration among nuclear research centres would be very valuable for optimizing the use of research reactors, training of nuclear engineers, decommissioning and handling other related issues. (author)
The purpose of this article is to publicise the work of the United Kingdom Nuclear Data Committee in the expectation that there are people in the U.K. who could make use of some of its functions but who are not at present aware of its existence. Details of the committee are given after the presentation of some historical and background information which help to place the Committee in perspective and in relation to other relevant national and international organizations, and to establish the nuclear data areas in which it currently deals. These areas are indicated briefly by the titles of the several sub-committees, i.e. Neutron, Chemical, Biomedical, Fusion and Nuclear Incineration Sub-Committees. (U.K.)
The United Kingdom is pursuing a substantial and evolving programme towards minimising the problem of high radon levels in homes. Work focuses on those areas of the country which early surveys have shown to have a significant proportion of affected homes, and involves cooperation between central and local Government, research institutions and private companies. Elements of the programme include: radon measurements on demand from householders in areas of potentially high radon and systematic surveys to refine knowledge of these areas; research into geological, epidemiological, psychological and financial aspects of the problem; the development and dissemination of advice on remedial and preventive measures; and a comprehensive approach to communication with all parties involved in issues of domestic exposure to radon. An account of progress is given, and future options are outlined towards fulfilling the Government's intention that substantial progress towards dealing with the impact of radon should be made by the close of the century. (author)
The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. In the United Kingdom RES-E are supported through a feed-in tariff, Contracts for Difference scheme, a quota system and tax regulation mechanism. For RES-H and C a subsidy and price-based mechanisms are available for supporting RES-H installations. Furthermore, a quota system for biofuels and a grant scheme for transport is in place. A training programme for RES-E plant installers is in place, as well as a certification programme for RES-E installations. An overarching Renewable Energy Roadmap relating to RES-E has been laid down and implemented
Full Text Available In the United Kingdom a user wishing to consult a UK thesis has traditionally had the following choices: the thesis may be consulted in the Library of the Higher Education Institution (HEI to which it was submitted; the thesis may be borrowed from the library of the HEI; a copy of the thesis may be purchased form the library of the HEI; the thesis may be borrowed through inter-library loan; or the thesis may be made available through the British Library’s British Thesis Service, which was set up in 1971. This Service currently holds more than 150,000 UK theses, which are added to at a rate of around 7,000 a year, with the participation of about a hundred Higher Education Institutions (HEIs. With the development of new technology, however, an interest developed in examining the feasibility of making theses available online to users. In the United Kingdom, the University Theses Online Group (UTOG was established as a consequence of a proposal to the Follett Implementation Group on Information Technology in 1994. The University Theses Online Group (UTOG is a working group of UK university librarians: the Group’s aims are to investigate the technical, cultural and administrative issues associated with the storage and delivery of theses in online form. The Group is made up of representatives of the British Library Document Supply Centre (BLDSC, British Thesis Service, and the university libraries of Cranfield, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Leeds, Manchester, Plymouth, Robert Gordon, University College London, Kent, University of London and Warwick.
Chiu, Geoff A; Bullock, M; Edwards, A
The treatment of maxillofacial injuries forms a substantial part of the work in oral and maxillofacial units, but injuries sustained in work-related incidents are uncommon, mainly because of the strict enforcement of Health and Safety policies. We used data from the Health and Safety Executive in the United Kingdom to review the incidence and aetiology of maxillofacial injuries that result from industrial accidents in the UK, and highlight the case of a worker who sustained an isolated fracture of the nasoethmoidal complex when he was trapped in a cheese press. In 2010-2011, roughly 115,379 accidents or incidents at work were reported in the UK, and of the 1623 (1%) that were maxillofacial, 81% occurred in the service sector. The most common mechanism of injury was assault (37%) and the most common injury was contusion (30%). Since the introduction of the Health and Safety Act, work-related accidents in the UK have decreased considerably. However, they will continue to occur because of human error. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mansour, Jane G; Curran, Megan A
The United States has long struggled with high levels of child poverty. In 2014, 2 of 5 (42.9%) of all American children lived in economically insecure households and just over 1 in 5 children lived below the official absolute poverty line. These rates are high, but not intractable. Evidence from the US Census Bureau's Supplemental Poverty Measure, among other sources, shows the effect that public investments in cash and noncash transfers can have in reducing child poverty and improving child well-being. However, with significant disparities in services and supports for children across states and the projected decline of current federal spending on children, the United States is an international outlier in terms of public investments in children, particularly compared with other high-income nations. One such country, the United Kingdom (UK), faced similar child poverty challenges in recent decades. At the end of the 20th century, the British Prime Minister pledged to halve child poverty in a decade and eradicate it 'within a generation.' The Labour Government then set targets and dedicated resources in the form of income supplements, employment, child care, and education support. Child poverty levels nearly halved against an absolute measure by the end of the first decade. Subsequent changes in government and the economy slowed progress and have resulted in a very different approach. However, the UK child poverty target experience, 15 years in and spanning multiple changes in government, still offers a useful comparative example for US social policy moving forward. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This report describes the stocks of radioactive wastes in the United Kingdom, together with projections of future arisings. Operational and decommissioning wastes are considered for both committed and prospective plant. Arisings are from power reactors, commercial reprocessing, fuel manufacture, medical and industrial sources and research and development. Data are presented for the wastes in their raw form and as conditioned for disposal. The data which refer to the situation on 1.1.87 are shown by producer and globally, in summary tables. The information presented for each producer includes a description of the activities that generate the wastes and a discussion of how stocks and arisings may have changed from earlier predictions. This is supplemented by a stream by stream tabulation showing the waste type, volume, density, conditioning factor and gross alpha and beta activity. The global projections are presented in tabular and graphical manner, and the changes from earlier projections are discussed. The scenarios which underly the projections are also presented. (author)
Full Text Available For the last 40 years, the number of international students aspiring to obtain a qualification in U.K. universities has been exponentially growing. However, such growth has been contested. What seemed to be a “golden” opportunity for Black-African students to pursue their education in the United Kingdom is met with challenges that impact the whole process of adjustment. This article examines these challenges using a qualitative empirical study of Black-African postgraduate students, carried out in three U.K. universities. The methods utilized were observations, focus groups, one-to-one interviews, and a case study to help identify and analyze the issues. The participants reported significant financial pressures and difficulties in understanding and integrating into the culture of U.K. universities. In some cases, these challenges left the students feeling disillusioned and cynical about the value of an international education. Universities must endeavor to tailor their recruitment, orientation, and support programs to the needs of Black-African international students or face damaging their reputations as world-class education providers.
Woolf, S H; Henshall, C
The National Health Service (NHS) provides universal health coverage for all British citizens. Most services are free of charge, although modest copayments are sometimes applied. About 11% of the population also has private insurance. General practitioners, generally the first point of contact for accessing the system, are independent contractors who serve as gatekeepers for specialist and hospital services and enjoy substantial clinical autonomy. Hospitals are public and are regionalized, but the 1990 reforms made them self-governing trusts that contract with local purchasers (health authorities and general practitioner fundholders). Reforms beginning in 1990 moved the NHS away from a centralized administrative structure to more pluralistic arrangements in which competition, as well as management, influences how services develop. Health technology and health technology assessment (HTA) have gained increasing attention in the NHS during this period, as part of a wider NHS Research and Development (R&D) Strategy. The strategy promotes a knowledge-based health service with a strong research infrastructure and the capacity to critically review its own needs. HTA is the largest and most developed of the programs within the strategy. It has a formal system for setting assessment priorities involving widespread consultation within the NHS, and a National Co-ordinating Centre for Health Technology Assessment. The strategy supports related centers such as the U.K. Cochrane Centre and the NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. A hallmark of the HTA program is strong public participation. The United Kingdom has made a major commitment to HTA and to seeking effective means of reviewing and disseminating evidence.
In 1970, at Queen's University Belfast, Claire Palley became the first woman to hold a Chair in Law at a United Kingdom university. However, little is known about the circumstances surrounding this event, or Claire Palley herself. This article (part of an extended project exploring her life history) seeks to address the question ‘Was there something about Claire Palley herself that made it more likely she would become the United Kingdom's first female law professor?’ Initially focusing on met...
United Kingdom is legally committed to meeting 15% of the UK's energy demand from renewable sources by 2020. The country considers renewables will also have a crucial role to play in the UK energy mix in the decades beyond, making the most of the UK's abundant natural resources. To increase and accelerate the use of renewable energy, the UK has introduced a number of legislative tools. A Renewables Obligation (RO) who provides incentives for large-scale renewable electricity generation by making UK suppliers source a proportion of their electricity from eligible renewable sources A Feed-in Tariffs (FITs) scheme -who pays energy users who invest in small-scale, low-carbon electricity generation systems for the electricity they generate and use, and for unused electricity they export back to the grid A Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) who pays commercial, industrial, public, not-for-profit and community generators of renewable heat for a 20-year period A Renewable Heat Premium Payment (RHPP) who gives one-off payments to householders, communities and social housing landlords to help them buy renewable heating technologies like solar thermal panels, heat pumps and biomass boilers A Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation who makes companies that supply more than 450,000 litres of fuel per year source a percentage from renewable sources. Besides its instruments, the British government is working to the implementation of the Electricity Market Reform (EMR) will also provide support for the production of renewable electricity from 2014 onwards. EMR introduces two key mechanisms to provide incentives for the investment required in our energy infrastructure. The Contracts for Difference (CFD) who provides long-term price stabilisation to low carbon plant, allowing investment to come forward at a lower cost of capital and therefore at a lower cost to consumers and the Capacity Market who provides a regular retainer payment to reliable forms of capacity (both demand and
United Kingdom is legally committed to meeting 15% of the UK's energy demand from renewable sources by 2020. The country considers renewables will also have a crucial role to play in the UK energy mix in the decades beyond, making the most of the UK's abundant natural resources. To increase and accelerate the use of renewable energy, the UK has introduced a number of legislative tools. A Renewables Obligation (RO) which provides incentives for large-scale renewable electricity generation by making UK suppliers source a proportion of their electricity from eligible renewable sources. A Feed-in Tariffs (FITs) scheme -which pays energy users who invest in small-scale, low-carbon electricity generation systems for the electricity they generate and use, and for unused electricity they export back to the grid. A Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) which pays commercial, industrial, public, not-for-profit and community generators of renewable heat for a 20-year period. A Renewable Heat Premium Payment (RHPP) which gives one-off payments to householders, communities and social housing landlords to help them buy renewable heating technologies like solar thermal panels, heat pumps and biomass boilers. A Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation which makes companies that supply more than 450,000 litres of fuel per year source a percentage from renewable sources. Besides its instruments, the British government is working to the implementation of the Electricity Market Reform (EMR), which will also provide support for the production of renewable electricity from 2014 onwards. EMR introduces two key mechanisms to provide incentives for the investment required in our energy infrastructure. The Contracts for Difference (CFD), which provide long-term price stabilisation to low carbon plants, allowing investment to come forward at a lower cost of capital and therefore at a lower cost to consumers and the Capacity Market, which provides a regular retainer payment to reliable forms of
United Kingdom is legally committed to meeting 15% of the UK's energy demand from renewable sources by 2020. The country considers renewables will also have a crucial role to play in the UK energy mix in the decades beyond, making the most of the UK's abundant natural resources. To increase and accelerate the use of renewable energy, the UK has introduced a number of legislative tools. A Renewables Obligation (RO) who provides incentives for large-scale renewable electricity generation by making UK suppliers source a proportion of their electricity from eligible renewable sources A Feed-in Tariffs (FITs) scheme -who pays energy users who invest in small-scale, low-carbon electricity generation systems for the electricity they generate and use, and for unused electricity they export back to the grid A Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) who pays commercial, industrial, public, not-for-profit and community generators of renewable heat for a 20-year period A Renewable Heat Premium Payment (RHPP) who gives one-off payments to householders, communities and social housing landlords to help them buy renewable heating technologies like solar thermal panels, heat pumps and biomass boilers A Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation who makes companies that supply more than 450,000 litres of fuel per year source a percentage from renewable sources. Besides its instruments, the British government is working to the implementation of the Electricity Market Reform (EMR) will also provide support for the production of renewable electricity from 2014 onwards. EMR introduces two key mechanisms to provide incentives for the investment required in our energy infrastructure. The Contracts for Difference (CFD) who provides long-term price stabilisation to low carbon plant, allowing investment to come forward at a lower cost of capital and therefore at a lower cost to consumers and the Capacity Market who provides a regular retainer payment to reliable forms of capacity (both demand and
The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. Various indicators show that the health of the population has improved over the last few decades. However, inequalities in health across socioeconomic groups have been increasing since the 1970s. The main diseases affecting the population are circulatory diseases, cancer, diseases of the respiratory system and diseases of the digestive system. Risk factors such as the steadily rising levels of alcohol consumption, the sharp increases in adult and child obesity and prevailing smoking levels are among the most pressing public health concerns, particularly as they reflect the growing health inequalities among different socioeconomic groups. Health services in England are largely free at the point of use. The NHS provides preventive medicine, primary care and hospital services to all those ordinarily resident. Over 12% of the population is covered by voluntary health insurance schemes, known in the United Kingdom as private medical insurance (PMI), which mainly provides access to acute elective care in the private sector. Responsibility for publicly funded health care rests with the Secretary of State for Health, supported by the Department of Health. The Department operates at a regional level through 10 strategic health authorities (SHAs), which are responsible for ensuring the quality and performance of local health services within their geographic area. Responsibility for commissioning health services at the local level lies with 151 primary care
Goldberg, L K; Brancato, V C
An international educational exchange between nursing students in the United States and the United Kingdom provides the critical link to develop global partnership to share and exchange information and knowledge on nursing and healthcare systems. This study program assists nurses to view themselves as part of the global community and encourages cooperation in advancing the vision of healthcare reform worldwide.
The arguments that have been put forward in the United Kingdom to justify the contention by its opponents that nuclear power should not be seen as a safe, economic, strategically desirable and environmentally attractive energy source are examined. Counter arguments are presented to support the belief that these are wholly wrong. In the short to medium term, however, economic and political considerations suggest that the prospects for nuclear power in the United Kingdom are not optimistic. The long term evolution of nuclear power is uncertain but it is possible that the security of energy supply, comparative economics and environmental attractions associated with nuclear power will become more apparent and work in its favour eventually. The conviction is expressed that, by the middle of the next century, the United Kingdom will be reaping the benefits of the fast reactor on a significant scale. (UK)
Michelle C Stanton
Full Text Available Meningococcal disease (MCD is the leading infectious cause of death in early childhood in the United Kingdom, making it a public health priority. MCD most commonly presents as meningococcal meningitis (MM, septicaemia (MS, or as a combination of the two syndromes (MM/MS. We describe the changing epidemiology and clinical presentation of MCD, and explore associations with socioeconomic status and other risk factors. A hospital-based study of children admitted to a tertiary children's centre, Alder Hey Children's Foundation Trust, with MCD, was undertaken between 1977 to 2007 (n = 1157. Demographics, clinical presentations, microbiological confirmation and measures of deprivation were described. The majority of cases occurred in the 1-4 year age group and there was a dramatic fall in serogroup C cases observed with the introduction of the meningococcal C conjugate (MCC vaccine. The proportion of MS cases increased over the study period, from 11% in the first quarter to 35% in the final quarter. Presentation with MS (compared to MM and serogroup C disease (compared to serogroup B were demonstrated to be independent risk factors for mortality, with odds ratios of 3.5 (95% CI 1.18 to 10.08 and 2.18 (95% CI 1.26 to 3.80 respectively. Cases admitted to Alder Hey were from a relatively more deprived population (mean Townsend score 1.25, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.41 than the Merseyside reference population. Our findings represent one of the largest single-centre studies of MCD. The presentation of MS is confirmed to be a risk factor of mortality from MCD. Our study supports the association between social deprivation and MCD.
Describes a current project in the United Kingdom designed to improve school buildings. The use of Asset Management Plans (AMPs) in providing the means through which likely future needs are assessed, criteria for prioritization are set, and informed decisions on local spending are made are examined. (GR)
The presentation discusses the importance of public information and education in the field of energy and particularly in the field of nuclear energy development. The attempt is made to explain some issues connected with the nuclear fuel cycle. Appendix contains comments on the United Kingdom educational materials in this area
Analyzes undergraduate admission data from the United Kingdom by sex, subject, and qualification level. Finds that admission into male dominated programs is made easier by a greater number of openings for students than female-dominated programs have. Concludes that female students are disadvantaged by the distribution of openings. (DK)
British attitudes toward immigrants are complex. The United Kingdom has received regular waves of immigrants, both political and economic asylum seekers and, especially in recent decades, recruited labor from the former nations of the British Empire. Throughout its history, ambivalence among the Britons is seen due to these developments. In this…
Fletcher, A.M.; Wear, F.J.; Haselden, H.; Shepherd, J.; Tymons, B.J.
Stocks of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom which have arisen, or are projected to arise, from commercial nuclear power reactors and fuel cycle facilities, research, medical and industrial uses of radioactive nuclides are given in the form of summary tables. Projected future arisings from operation and decommissioning of facilities and notional nuclear power generation programmes to 2030 are also given. (author)
The article starts with a brief and concise definition of public sector ethics. It traces the origin of public sector ethics in the United Kingdom (UK). Also, corruption and unethical conduct amongst others are in focus too. An analysis of the expected ethical standards in the public sector and mechanisms used to maintain such ...
The services and concessions available to visually handicapped owners of guide dogs in the United Kingdom are described in relation to veterinary, transportation, commercial, and state sectors; facilities and allowances provided by the Guide Dogs for the Blind Association and financial implications. (Author/MC)
Anderson, R.; Hayden, O.
Experience has been gained in the UK on the operation of LMFBR Steam Generator Units (SGU) over a period of 20 years from the Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR) and the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR). The DFR steam generator featured a double barrier and therefore did not represent a commercial design. PFR, however, faced the challenge of a single wall design and it is experience from this which is most valuable. The PFR reactor went critical in March 1974 and the plant operating history since then has been dominated by experience with leaks in the tube to tube plate welds of the high performance U-tubes SGU's. Operation at high power using the full complement of three secondary sodium circuits was delayed until July 1976 by the occurrence of leaks in the tube to tube plate welds of the superheater and reheater units which are fabricated in stainless steel. Repairs were carried out to the two superheaters and they were returned to service. The reheater tube bundle was removed from circuit after sodium was found to have entered the steam side. When the sodium had been removed and inspection carried out it was decided not to recover the unit. Since 1976 the remaining five stainless steel units have operated satisfactorily. This year a replacement reheater unit has been installed. This is of a new design in 9-Cr-Mo ferritic steel using a sleeve through which the steam tube passes to eliminate the tube to tube plate weld. Despite a few early leaks in evaporator tube to tube plate welds up to 1979, these failures did not initially present a major problem. However, in 1980 the rate of evaporator weld failures increased and despite the successful application of a shot peening process to eliminate stress corrosion failures from the water side of the weld, failures traced to the sodium side continued. A sleeving process was developed for application to complete evaporator units on a production basis with the objective of bypassing the welds at each end of the 500 tubes. The decision
Georgalas, Christos; Hadjihannas, Edward; Ghufoor, Khalid; Pracy, Paul; Papesch, Michael
OBJECTIVE: To assess the current status of operative training for otolaryngology specialist registrars in the United Kingdom. DESIGN: Web-based questionnaire survey. PARTICIPANTS: All otolaryngology specialist registrars in the United Kingdom. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The overall satisfaction with
The author reviews the activities on nuclear power plant instrumentation and control topics in the United Kingdom. Since the last meeting of the Working Group in May 1984, the activities of the nuclear power industry in the United Kingdom has been dominated, firstly, by the Public Inquiry into the proposal to site a PWR at Sizewell in Suffolk - the public part of the Inquiry finished about a year ago having lasted eighteen months but the report is not now expected for some months. Secondly, all of the first generation of Advanced Gas Cooled Reactors have run up to power. Thirdly, the Prototype Fast Reactor at Dounreay is now reliably producing its design output of 250 MW(e) following major modifications to its steam generators. The new developments of the NPP simulators, computer control and instrumentation systems as well as reactor protection systems are briefly discussed
NIELSEN, Ron W.
Abstract. Industrial Revolution did not boost economic growth and the growth of population even in the United Kingdom, the centre of this revolution. On the contrary, from around 1850, economic growth and the growth of population started to be diverted to slower trajectories. The new trend describing the growth of income per capita (Gross Domestic Product per capita, i.e. GDP/cap) is now analysed using Maddison’s data. Two numerical solutions and two analytical solutions of the differential e...
Abstract This dissertation investigates the issue of compensation culture and the evidence for it in the United Kingdom. Insight into the relationship between Tort Law and Insurance finds that the role of insurance is largely misinterpreted in the field. Insurance companies have many mechanisms to control behaviour, ensure personal responsibility is upheld, reduce moral hazard and promote risk management. This paper proposes that claims increases might be more evident in areas of compensa...
This paper reviews the sources of professional status and analyses these in relation to the podiatry profession in the United Kingdom. It is argued that the nature and act of professional practice and the patient/professional relationship are of particular importance in defining the status of the profession. These effects are discussed in relation to podiatry and compared to a high status professional group, that of dentistry. Finally the effects of attempting to change professional status are discussed.
This paper reviews the status of wildfire risk in the United Kingdom and examines some of the key issues in U.K. wildfire management. Wildfires challenge the resources of U.K. Fire and Rescue Services (FRSs), especially in dry years, yet FRSs are poorly equipped and trained to deal with wildfire. A brief geography of U.K. wildfires is presented using fire statistics...
Full Text Available The United Kingdom has recently introduced a unitary competition regime. Begining with 1979, the United Kingdom was a primary exponent of the neoliberal philosophy, putting in first place market, privatisation, liberalisation and deregulation. For that reason, a competition policy did not exist too much in practice for almost two decades. An important aspect was the influence of European Union competition law. Even in a such situation, the supranational policy could not take the place in of a domestic competition policy. The British Parliament adopted some rules in 1998 in the field of anti-competitive agreements and the control of abuse of dominance and in 2002 in the field of merger control. In March 2012, there were announced the proposals for the reformation the United Kingdom competition law regime. According to the proposals, the functions of the Competition Commission and the competition functions of the Office of Fair Trading (OFT, will be the competences of a new, single competition authority, the Competition and Markets Authority (CMA. The new body will have jurisdiction to analyse merger control reviews and market investigations, and in the same time will act as the main institution enforcing the competition laws.
Goodison, D.; Seddon, J.W.; Pape, E.M.
The safety cases for the United Kingdom's older nuclear power plant have been reviewed by their utilities in order to justify continued operation of the reactors up to an age of at least 30 year. These 'long term safety reviews' have identified worthwhile plant modifications and aspects where further studies or plant inspections are required. As the plants approach the age of 30 years, 'life extension reviews' are now being undertaken, concentrating on management of ageing, to support operation to at least 40 years. (author)
Dickins, Thomas E.; Johns, Sarah E.; Chipman, Abby
In this paper we describe teenage pregnancy and motherhood in the United Kingdom. This has been regarded as a key social policy issue for some time and is the focus of policy intervention under the current administration. We argue that policy has been based on simple models of teenage pregnancy that have failed to take into account the complex biological nature of reproductive behavior. Our claim is that the U.K. government would be well advised to take a life-history approach to this issue, ...
The thesis of this paper is that sources of energy for a country must be dependable and their use from the production of the basic fuel to the disposal of the wastes should be up to standards which people can understand and accept. In the United Kingdom, the educational system is the source of basic information on sources of energy that are available and which sources are currently being developed to supply present and future energy needs. THe author provides a synopsis of educational techniques and materials which are used to educate the public about nuclear energy production
Smith, D. E.; Shi, S.; Cullingford, R. A.; Dawson, A. G.; Dawson, S.; Firth, C. R.; Foster, I. D. L.; Fretwell, P. T.; Haggart, B. A.; Holloway, L. K.; Long, D.
All currently known sites in the United Kingdom with evidence for the Holocene Storegga Slide tsunami are described. Information on the altitude, distribution, stratigraphical context, age, particle size profile and microfossil characteristics of the deposits is presented. The tsunami involved a greater area than previously described, reaching a coastline over 600 km long. The ubiquitous sand layer which forms the main deposit associated with the event is shown to exhibit a consistent morphology and a particle size profile marked by fining-upwards sequences. An analysis of new and previously published radiocarbon dates indicates that from evidence in the United Kingdom, the event took place sometime around 7100 radiocarbon years BP (7900 calibrated years BP). A new isobase model for mainland Scotland and adjacent areas, providing a preliminary estimate of land uplift since the tsunami, is presented. The model estimates contemporary sea surface level offshore at 14 m below the present day mean high water spring tides. Tsunami sediment run-up is greatest in inlets, where it reaches at least 25 m on Shetland and at least 5 m along the mainland coastline to the south, and run-up of the tsunami would have exceeded these values. The tsunami sediments identified here are considered particularly valuable as a synchronous marker horizon.
Birgul, Askin; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Gioia, Rosalinda; Crosse, John; Earnshaw, Mark; Ratola, Nuno; Jones, Kevin C.; Sweetman, Andrew J.
The occurrence of PBDEs has been studied in the atmosphere of four sites in the United Kingdom over a period of ten years. The concentrations have exhibited a sharp decrease after 2001–2003. This is evident in the urban sites of Manchester and London and at the semi-rural site of Hazelrigg. The average ΣPBDE half-lives for these three sites were 3.4, 2.0 and 3.5 years respectively. ΣPBDEs concentrations in the UK (in 2010 ΣPBDEs −3 ) are among the lowest reported in literature. Comparison of concentrations to estimated emissions and employment of PBDE profiles suggest that PBDEs in the UK atmosphere originate from primary emissions from products that contain mainly the penta-BDE technical mixture. The detection of BDE-183 in the majority of samples hints that octa-bromodiphenylether has also been used extensively in the UK, however to a smaller extent than the penta- product. PBDE levels have declined in the United Kingdom since 2000 in a manner that broadly supports national atmospheric emissions inventories.
...; and more recently, from the UK's strong support in countering terrorism and confronting Iraq. The United States and Britain also share a mutually beneficial trade and economic relationship, and are each other's biggest foreign direct investors...
Folk, Amanda L.
This comparison seeks to determine if the three documents addressing information literacy skills and competence developed by professional library associations for postsecondary education in four predominantly English-speaking countries--the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand--have similar or varying conceptions of…
Marinetti, Maria Teresa
The National Health Service in the United Kingdom is experiencing a serious shortage of healthcare staff in several specialties; as a result, significant difficulties affecting both the ability to deliver the service and the quality, have been documented. Considering the specific features of the healthcare workforce, a holistic approach to the shortage has been suggested. This approach entails various long-term policy interventions, focusing on the improvement of recruitment and retention, changes in the skill mix of healthcare personnel, improvement of pay and working conditions, expanding training places and enhanced workforce planning. This strategy is underpinned by the premise that the causes of the shortages, the discontent amongst healthcare personnel and the poor quality of care that results, are all interrelated. This article deals specifically with shortage of medical doctors in the 4 components of the Kingdom. Each of them manages autonomously their health service and is designing separate plans to overcome medical staff shortage. However, these plans are similar and the same outcomes are expected in the 4 regions.
Appleby, Paul N; Crowe, Francesca L; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J
Vegetarians and others who do not eat meat have been observed to have lower incidence rates than meat eaters of some chronic diseases, but it is unclear whether this translates into lower mortality. The purpose of this study was to describe mortality in vegetarians and comparable nonvegetarians in a large United Kingdom cohort. The study involved a pooled analysis of data from 2 prospective studies that included 60,310 persons living in the United Kingdom, comprising 18,431 regular meat eaters (who ate meat ≥5 times/wk on average), 13,039 low (less-frequent) meat eaters, 8516 fish eaters (who ate fish but not meat), and 20,324 vegetarians (including 2228 vegans who did not eat any animal foods). Mortality by diet group for each of 18 common causes of death was estimated with the use of Cox proportional hazards models. There were 5294 deaths before age 90 in >1 million y of follow-up. There was no significant difference in overall (all-cause) mortality between the diet groups: HRs in low meat eaters, fish eaters, and vegetarians compared with regular meat eaters were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.00), 0.96 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.06), and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.10), respectively; P-heterogeneity of risks = 0.082. There were significant differences in risk compared with regular meat eaters for deaths from circulatory disease [higher in fish eaters (HR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.46)]; malignant cancer [lower in fish eaters (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.97)], including pancreatic cancer [lower in low meat eaters and vegetarians (HR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.36, 0.86 and HR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.82, respectively)] and cancers of the lymphatic/hematopoietic tissue [lower in vegetarians (HR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.79)]; respiratory disease [lower in low meat eaters (HR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.92)]; and all other causes [lower in low meat eaters (HR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.99)]. Further adjustment for body mass index left these associations largely unchanged. United Kingdom-based vegetarians and
Full Text Available Many elements of British company law are deeply embedded in nineteenth-century assumptions. Change has come very slowly when efforts have been made to modernise company law in the United Kingdom. The passage of the Companies Act 2006 was a significant advance after a lengthy period of debate and consultation, but the outcome is far from perfect. This legislation has, however, introduced some important new concepts into this body of British law. The Act sought to simplify company law and to start with a small firm focus as these comprise the vast majority of companies. For the first time, the Act also codified the duties of directors and introduced the concept of ‘enlightened shareholder value’, to give greater attention to stakeholders other than shareholders and to encourage companies to adopt more long-term perspectives. This paper explores some of these important changes.
Since 1980, the Derelict Land Grant program has supported reclamation of abandoned mines in the United Kingdom. The stabilization of large-scale limestone mines in the West Midlands has stimulated the development of new methods of bulk infilling using waste materials as thick pastes. Colliery spoil rock paste develops strengths of 10 to 20 kPa to support roof falls and prevent crown hole collapse. Pulverized fuel ash rock paste develops strengths over 1 MPa where lateral support to pillars is required. Smaller scale mine workings in the West Midlands and elsewhere have been stabilized using conventional grouting techniques, hydraulic and pneumatic stowing, foamed-concrete infill, bulk excavation with controlled backfill, and structural support using bolts, mesh, and shotcrete
The United Kingdom is facing a critical moment in its energy policy: North Sea oil and gas production is declining, dependence on imported energy is increasing, while rising energy prices and climate change considerations pose further challenges. The second thematic review of the UK addresses these challenges, focusing on energy investment, energy efficiency, and the return of nuclear power to the political agenda. Almost all coal-fired and nuclear power capacity in the United Kingdom will be retired within the next 15 years. The review encourages the government to maintain its trust in the market mechanism for the delivery of required investment and security of supply. However, it also identifies the need for the government to play a more active role in setting the framework. On the demand side, the IEA considers the government's 'Energy Efficiency Commitment' (EEC) an impressive success. The EEC was introduced in 2002 and is an energy-saving programme under which suppliers must achieve efficiency targets in households. Challenges, such as the requirement that 50 per cent of savings come from low-income households, remain, and the review invites the government to investigate ways in which fuel poverty could be reduced without distorting the EEC. The review also assesses the government's shifting direction on nuclear energy and backs this new path. It argues that the development of a positive investment framework in planning and licensing - without direct intervention in investment decisions favouring nuclear - will allow investors to judge the viability of new plants. 3 apps.
Type B packages and all packages containing fissile material, as well as special form radioactive materials, special arrangements and certain shipments, are required to be approved by the competent authority. In the United Kingdom competent authority approval is carried out on behalf of the Secretary of State by the Radioactive Materials Transport Division (RMTD) of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR). Competent authority approval of a package design is given only after a detailed assessment of the design by the specialist staff of RMTD. There are three facets to the assessment procedure, namely engineering, criticality and radiation protection, and quality assurance. The engineering assessor ensures that the designer has demonstrated the integrity of the containment and shielding systems under the regulatory conditions. The criticality assessor examines criticality safety and radiation protection measures, and together with the engineering assessor, decides whether this is maintained under regulatory conditions. The quality assurance assessor verifies that the applicant has established the necessary controls to ensure that the design requirements are met. The applicant is responsible for making the case for approval, but the assessment is facilitated if the competent authority is involved with the designer at an early stage in development and during the construction of any test prototype. When a regulatory test programme is required, it is designed and carried out by the applicant, but agreed and witnessed by representatives of RMTD. Following the test programme, the applicant submits a formal application, supported by a design safety report (DSR). The DSR provides a full analysis of the design and the test results, including the behaviour of the package under normal and accident conditions of transport, the manufacturing and maintenance procedures, quality assurance and the emergency provisions for the operation of the package
As the United Kingdom has been the first country in the world to adopt a law to struggle against climate change, The Climate Change Act 2008, which specifies a 80% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 (vs 1990), this report propose an overview of the actions implemented by this country in the political, economical, and technological fields to struggle against climate change. The various organisations and political institutions concerned by this struggle are presented (governmental organisations and institutions, non governmental institutions). The content of the Climate Change Act is described: definitions of constraints and requirements, carbon reduction commitment (CRC), carbon budgets, systems and programmes dealing with energy production (Renewable Obligation, household energy supplier obligations), with firms (Climate Change Levy, Climate Change Agreements, Enhanced Capital Allowances), with transports (Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation, Low Carbon Vehicle Procurement Programme), with buildings (Low Carbon Building Programme, Home Energy Saving Programme), with research and communication. Then, discussing the economy of climate change, this report comments the content of the Stern report, the reactions about it, and the economical consequences of struggle against climate change. These consequences can be drawbacks (increase of energy costs, inequalities of abilities to face transition costs, loss of international competitiveness) or benefits. The consequences of the economical crisis are also briefly discussed, as well as the consequences of the solutions to this crisis. The third part of this report gives an overview of the low carbon engineering and technology in the United Kingdom in the energy sector (renewable energy, wind energy, hydroelectric energy, biomass, nuclear energy, carbon capture and storage) and in the transport sector. The last part comments the objectives of the 2009 Copenhagen conference
Procurement of nuclear facilities in the United Kingdom is subject to nuclear site licence conditions issued by the Government through the Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR). Each nuclear facility in the United Kingdom must have a nuclear site licence and must comply with the 36 general conditions that are set out in the Licence Condition Handbook (October 2014). In addition, the ONR has published a technical assessment guide for the procurement of nuclear safety related items or services; a guide on intelligent customers and a guide on records management also apply to the procurement phase, and ONR interventions look across all three of these documents. Procurement governance arrangements need to be developed (including a policy, manual, procedures and template documents) and approved within the utility company. The ONR monitors the arrangements via interventions and deems the arrangements to be ‘adequate’. Some procurement contracts become lifetime records for nuclear safety related systems and need to be retained while the plant is in place. A formal record retention schedule needs to be created and managed by the procurement organization. The utility company may elect to set hold points during the various procurement stages and, importantly, obtain approval for the contract and its content from all technical stakeholders (with particular emphasis on the engineering, project management and design authority quality functions before contract award). For contracts with high nuclear safety significance, the ONR may enforce additional hold points before and/or after contract award. There is a general requirement that the utility puts in place adequate arrangements to ensure that suitably qualified and experienced personnel are employed to implement adequate management arrangements and to act as an intelligent customer. This includes being able to demonstrate that any contractor or supplier is suitable, capable and experienced, and has the necessary processes and
Sim, Dawn A.; Mitry, Danny; Alexander, Philip; Mapani, Adam; Goverdhan, Srini; Aslam, Tariq; Tufail, Adnan; Egan, Catherine A.; Keane, Pearse A.
Modern ophthalmic practice in the United Kingdom is faced by the challenges of an aging population, increasing prevalence of systemic pathologies with ophthalmic manifestations, and emergent treatments that are revolutionary but dependent on timely monitoring and diagnosis. This represents a huge strain not only on diagnostic services but also outpatient management and surveillance capacity. There is an urgent need for newer means of managing this surge in demand and the socioeconomic burden it places on the health care system. Concurrently, there have been exponential increases in computing power, expansions in the strength and ubiquity of communications technologies, and developments in imaging capabilities. Advances in imaging have been not only in terms of resolution, but also in terms of anatomical coverage, allowing new inferences to be made. In spite of this, image analysis techniques are still currently superseded by expert ophthalmologist interpretation. Teleophthalmology is therefore currently perfectly placed to face this urgent and immediate challenge of provision of optimal and expert care to remote and multiple patients over widespread geographical areas. This article reviews teleophthalmology programs currently deployed in the United Kingdom, focusing on diabetic eye care but also discussing glaucoma, emergency eye care, and other retinal diseases. We examined current programs and levels of evidence for their utility, and explored the relationships between screening, teleophthalmology, disease detection, and monitoring before discussing aspects of health economics pertinent to diabetic eye care. The use of teleophthalmology presents an immense opportunity to manage the steadily increasing demand for eye care, but challenges remain in the delivery of practical, viable, and clinically proven solutions. PMID:26830492
Tomlin, Carol; Wright, Cecile; Mocombe, Paul C.
This article synthesizes Marxian conceptions of identity construction within capitalist relations of production with the Wittgensteinian notion of "language games" to offer a more appropriate relational framework within which scholars ought to understand the Black-White academic achievement gap in America, the United Kingdom, and…
School uniforms are commonplace in the United Kingdom and seem to help promote students' respect for the teachers, the school, and themselves. Parents like the uniforms because they see it as a less expensive alternative. Teachers say they appreciate school uniforms because they help students focus on school and not each other's clothes. However,…
Jensen, Elsebeth Tvenstrup; Rasmussen, Erik Michael; Folkvardsen, Dorte Bek; Norman, Anders; Lillebaek, Troels
Mycobacterium chimaera was present at high rates (>80%) in heater–cooler units (HCUs) from all 5 thoracic surgery departments in Denmark. Isolates were clonal to HCU-associated isolates from the United States (including some from patients) and United Kingdom. However, M. chimaera from 2 brands of HCU were genetically distinct. PMID:28035898
Svensson, Erik; Jensen, Elsebeth Tvenstrup; Rasmussen, Erik Michael; Folkvardsen, Dorte Bek; Norman, Anders; Lillebaek, Troels
Mycobacterium chimaera was present at high rates (>80%) in heater-cooler units (HCUs) from all 5 thoracic surgery departments in Denmark. Isolates were clonal to HCU-associated isolates from the United States (including some from patients) and United Kingdom. However, M. chimaera from 2 brands of HCU were genetically distinct.
This paper begins by outlining the structure of the nuclear industry in the United Kingdom. It then sets out the methodology of burnup credit, and provides a brief discussion of the validation and robustness of the calculational route. This leads to a description of both the current and intended applications of burnup credit in the United Kingdom. (author)
... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7006 Value added tax exclusion (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70(f), use the following clause: Value Added Tax Exclusion (United Kingdom) (JUN 1997... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Value added tax exclusion...
The author addresses the mental health needs of ethnic minority children and young people in the United Kingdom and the services that are provided to support them. The author discusses the complex and distinctive pattern of ethnic minority distribution in the United Kingdom, along with a consideration of what is known about the mental health of…
As a response to the financial crisis the European Union (EU), the United States of America (USA) and the United Kingdom (UK) have increasingly focused on the phenomenon of white-collar crime as one of the major causes of the financial crisis. While recent studies have mainly surveyed weak banking regulation, weak credit regulation, inappropriate lending practices and the economic policies of nation states, this paper seeks to investigate the impact of market abuse and insider trading – under...
Habibi, Fateh; Abdul Rahim, Khalid; Chin, Lee
Tourism industry has been an important contributor to the Malaysia economy. In this paper we inspect variations in the long run demand for tourism from United Kingdom and United States to Malaysia. The demand for tourism has been explained by macroeconomic variables, including income in origin countries, tourism prices in Malaysia, and travel cost between the two countries. Annual data from 1972 to 2006 are used for the analysis. Augmented Dickey-Fuller and Johansen’s maximum likelihood tests...
Hamilton, E.I.; Clifton, R.J.; Stevens, H.E.
The report consists of the results of an evaluation of research priorities for the environmental radioactivity of estuaries, (and near shore waters) of the United Kingdom. The format of this report is:(i) general conclusions for the future requirements for research in the field of environmental radioactivity; (ii) an overview of some specific recommendations for research; and (iii) an appendix in which a comprehensive evaluation of the research priorities for specific areas of research are given. On the basis that man is the prime target for concern and protection, special attention has been given to the environment in the vicinity of the British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield, Cumbria, which is the source of major releases of a variety of radionuclides into the natural environment. Subjects covered in the Appendix are: site factors; pathways to man; source term; hot particles; terrestrial inputs; surveys and monitoring; analysis; organics; field versus laboratory data; biology; bioaccumulation factors; some bioaccumulators of radioactivity; bioturbation; bacteria; genetics; natural change; sediment; resuspension; surfaces; Ksub(d) factors; pore liquids; diagenesis and the ageing processes; airborne transport of radionuclides; models; natural radioactivity; public opinion; recreation; the ICRP; the ALARA principle; decommissioning of nuclear power stations; identification of research requirements; environmental radioactivity - the national effort. (U.K.)
Full Text Available A career in surgery in the United Kingdom demands a commitment to a long journey of assessment. The assessment methods used must ensure that the appropriate candidates are selected into a programme of study or a job and must guarantee public safety by regulating the progression of surgical trainees and the certification of trained surgeons. This review attempts to analyse the psychometric properties of various assessment methods used in the selection of candidates to medical school, job selection, progression in training, and certification. Validity is an indicator of how well an assessment measures what it is designed to measure. Reliability informs us whether a test is consistent in its outcome by measuring the reproducibility and discriminating ability of the test. In the long journey of assessment in surgical training, the same assessment formats are frequently being used for selection into a programme of study, job selection, progression, and certification. Although similar assessment methods are being used for different purposes in surgical training, the psychometric properties of these assessment methods have not been examined separately for each purpose. Because of the significance of these assessments for trainees and patients, their reliability and validity should be examined thoroughly in every context where the assessment method is being used.
Legislation for compulsory wearing of seat belts by car drivers and front seat passengers has been acclaimed as a major public health advance. Reports from other countries, and two recent evaluative studies in the United Kingdom, have suggested that legislation reduces both deaths and injuries. To assess the effect of the UK law 5 years after its implementation, trends in routine data for 1976-1987 have been reviewed. There were two sources of data: mortality statistics, published by the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys in the quarterly Monitor DH4, and road accident statistics, recorded by the police and published by the Department of Transport. There is a downward trend in deaths over the period, but the data show little impact from the law. One explanation for this lack of effect is the risk compensation hypothesis, which suggests that "safety" improvements are transferred by drivers into increased performance--the amount and speed of travel. Public health policies need to take into account the complex behavioural interactions between travel and safety choices if they are to affect underlying trends.
Laid, Abdallah [Nuclear New Build Generation Company Ltd. (NNB GenCo), Barnwood (United Kingdom). EDF Energy Plc.; Cesbron, Mickael [Service Etudes et Project Thermiques et Nucleaires (SEPTEN), Lyon (France). EDF-SA
In the deterministic design basis analysis of the United Kingdom (UK) EPR based nuclear power plants all postulated initiating events are grouped into two different types, internal faults and internal/external hazards. ''Internal Fires'' is one of the internal hazards analysed at the design stage of the UK EPR. In effect, the main safety objective for fire protection is to ensure that all the required safety functions are performed in the event of an internal fire. To achieve this safety objective, provisions for protection against fire risks are taken to: (i) limit the spread of a fire, protect the safety functions of the facility; (ii) limit the propagation of smoke and dispersion of toxic, radioactive, inflammable, corrosive or explosive materials, and (iii) ensure the achievement of a safe shutdown state, personnel evacuation and all other necessary emergency actions. This paper presents the UK EPR approach on how the above provisions are applied. Such provisions involve implementing means of fire prevention, surveillance, firefighting and limiting fire consequences, appropriate to the risks inherent to the facility. Overall, the design of the UK EPR fire protection systems is based on three types of measures: prevention, containment and control.
Andersson-Hudson, Jessica; Knight, William; Humphrey, Mathew; O’Hara, Sarah
The development of shale gas in the United Kingdom (UK) using hydraulic fracturing, more commonly known as ‘fracking’, remains in its infancy. Yet understanding public attitudes for this fledgling industry is important for future policy considerations, decision-making and for industry stakeholders. This study uses data collected from the University of Nottingham, UK nationwide online survey (n=3823) conducted in September 2014, to consider ten hypothesises about the UK public's attitudes towards shale gas. From the survey data we can see that 43.11% of respondents support shale gas extraction in the UK. Furthermore, our results show that women, class DE respondents, non-Conservative party supporters, and respondents who positively associate shale gas with water contamination or earthquakes are less likely to support the extraction of shale gas in the UK. We also discuss potential policy implications for the UK government arising from these findings. - Highlights: • September 2014 survey of British attitudes towards allowing shale gas extraction. • Over 75% or respondents correctly identify shale gas. • 43.11% of respondents support shale gas extraction in the UK.
Jit, Mark; Choi, Yoon Hong; Edmunds, W John
To assess the cost effectiveness of routine vaccination of 12 year old schoolgirls against human papillomavirus infection in the United Kingdom. Economic evaluation. UK. Population Schoolgirls aged 12 or older. Costs, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), and incremental cost effectiveness ratios for a range of vaccination options. Vaccinating 12 year old schoolgirls with a quadrivalent vaccine at 80% coverage is likely to be cost effective at a willingness to pay threshold of pound30,000 (euro37,700; $59,163) per QALY gained, if the average duration of protection from the vaccine is more than 10 years. Implementing a catch-up campaign of girls up to age 18 is likely to be cost effective. Vaccination of boys is unlikely to be cost effective. A bivalent vaccine with the same efficacy against human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 costing pound13- pound21 less per dose (depending on the duration of vaccine protection) may be as cost effective as the quadrivalent vaccine although less effective as it does not prevent anogenital warts. Routine vaccination of 12 year old schoolgirls combined with an initial catch-up campaign up to age 18 is likely to be cost effective in the UK. The results are robust to uncertainty in many parameters and processes. A key influential variable is the duration of vaccine protection.
Reid, William A
In the United Kingdom, the medical students of yesteryear undertook a detailed pathology course, often with its own major examinations. This contributed to the increasing overload of factual information that was common in medical curricula. Following General Medical Council reports on medical education, pathology is now more fully integrated into clinical work and into problem-based learning, albeit with greatly reduced contact time with pathologists. Teaching methods have shifted from didactic presentations, such as lectures, to more varied methods, with emphasis on self-access and interactivity. Technological advances have brought well-illustrated textbooks, computer-assisted learning programs, Web resources, and electronic communication. There has been a decline in the role of museum specimens, microscopy, and, partly following a worldwide trend and partly following adverse media publicity, the traditional autopsy. Assessment methods have evolved, with integration of pathology into wider examinations. The greater drive toward increasing funding through the Research Assessment Exercise has had an adverse effect on teaching throughout universities. Despite these setbacks, the importance of pathology as a clinical discipline will ensure its continued role in medical education.
Barr, Hugh; Ross, Fiona
Interprofessional education (IPE) is being built into the mainstream of professional education for all health and social care professions throughout the United Kingdom (UK) driven by the Labour Government elected in 1997, coincidentally the year that this Journal hosted the first All Together Better Health conference in London. The incoming government prioritized pre-qualifying IPE to be provided in partnership by universities and service agencies supported regionally by workforce development confederations, later absorbed into strategic health authorities (SHAs), and centrally by educational, professional and regulatory bodies. Ambitious agenda for pre-qualifying IPE set by government are being tempered by realistic assessment of current outcomes borne of experience and corroborated by evidence. This paper suggests some ways to ease constraints and improve outcomes, but emphasizes the need to generate continuing interprofessional learning opportunities that build on the basics. It argues that accumulating experience and evidence must be brought to bear in formulating criteria for the approval and review of IPE within regulatory systems for professional education. Can IPE be sustained within mainstream professional education once initial enthusiasm ebbs and earmarked funds run dry? That is the issue.
Gilbert, Tony; Powell, Jason L
This paper provides a critical exploration of the assumptions and narratives underpinning the development of social policy initiatives targeting caring relationships based upon family ties. Using a narrative approach attention is drawn to the ways in which family identities are open to a far greater range of negotiation than is assumed by policy. Drawing on the United Kingdom as a case example, questions are posed about intergenerational relations and the nature of late life citizenship. The comparatively recent invention of narratives supporting 'informal care' and the link with neo-liberal and 'third way' notions of active citizenship are explored. As is the failure of policy developments to take into account the diversity of care giving styles and the complexity of caring relationships. It is argued that the uneven and locally specific ways in which policy develops enables the co-existence of a complex range of narratives about family, caring and ageing which address diverse aspects of the family life of older people in often contradictory ways.
Kyratsis, Yiannis; Armit, Kirsten; Zyada, Azra; Lees, Peter
This article aims to outline the historical development of medical leadership in the United Kingdom (UK), present recent advances, and discuss professional development and future prospects. With increasing involvement of medical professionals in top managerial roles in the UK over the last 30 years, leadership development initiatives have been growing steadily and there is increasing recognition of the need for leadership and management skills for doctors. Such skills can help to greatly improve patient care as well as enhance organisational effectiveness and productivity. The central involvement of professional bodies such as the UK Faculty of Medical Leadership and Management, and the establishment of medical fellowship schemes, have provided a solid foundation for a new generation of aspiring medical leaders but there is still a long way to go to achieve a higher degree of professionalism for clinical leadership in the UK. The evidence base is weak such that integrated efforts by clinicians and management academics have much to offer in achieving the vision of socially responsible, clinically relevant and research informed medical leadership training. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.
Ashcroft, R E; Campbell, A V; Jones, S
Political argument and institutions in the United Kingdom have frequently been represented as the products of a blend of nationalistic conservatism, liberal individualism and socialism, in which consensus has been prized over ideology. This situation changed, as the standard story has it, with the rise of Thatcherism in the late 1970s, and again with the arrival of Tony Blair's "New Labour" pragmatism in the late 1990s. Solidarity as an element of political discourse makes its appearance in the UK late in the day. It has been most strongly linked to the Third Way debate, as framed most influentially in the work of Prof. Anthony Giddens. In this paper we review the history and pre-history of the debate on solidarity in the UK, focussing mostly on its implications for welfare state reform. In particular we discuss the proposals for the long-term care of the Elderly issued by the Royal Commission on long-term care in 1999. In this context we critically examine the idea that solidarity is a new concept in British political culture, and that it is a concept which has real political "bite" in the project of welfare reform. We examine this through a consideration of Gidden's attempted synthesis of political argument and social theory.
W. A. Clemens
Full Text Available Fossils from two fissure fillings in Pant Quarry (designated Pant 4 and Pant 5, South Wales, United Kingdom, probably of Early Jurassic age document a taxonomically diverse vertebrate fauna, the Morganucodon-sphenodont fauna, composed of several kinds of reptiles, non-mammalian synapsids, and mammals. Six isolated molariform teeth from Pant 4 and 5 fissures clearly record the presence of Thomasia (Mammalia, Allotheria, Haramiyidae, a genus previously known only from purported Late Triassic faunas of southwestern England, France, Belgium, Luxemburg, Germany, and Switzerland. Small morphological differences from teeth in the larger English and continental European samples warrant identification of the Welsh material as Thomasia cf. moorei. The highly derived morphology of an isolated molariform tooth from Pant 5 fissure indicates the presence of another, possibly allotherian, taxon. Fossilien aus zwei wahrscheinlich unterjurassischen Spaltenfüllungen (Pant 4 und Pant 5 im Steinbruch Pant in Süd-Wales dokumentieren eine taxonomisch diverse Wirbeltierfauna. Diese Morganucodon-Sphenodontiden-Fauna besteht aus verschiedenen Formen von Reptilien, Synapsiden und Säugetieren. Sechs isolierte molariforme Zähne aus den Spaltenfüllungen Pant 4 und Pant 5 belegen eindeutig das Vorkommen von Thomasia (Mammalia, Allotheria, Haramiyidae, einer bisher nur aus vermutlich obertriassischen Faunen Südwest-Englands, Frankreichs, Belgiens, Luxemburgs, Deutschlands und der Schweiz bekannten Gattung. Geringe morphologische Unterschiede zu dem umfangreicheren Material aus England und Kontinental-Europa sprechen für die Identifikation des neuen Materials als Thomasia cf. moorei. Die stark abgeleitete Morphologie eines isolierten molariformen Zahnes aus der Spalte Pant 5 belegt das Vorkommen eines anderen Taxons, das möglicherweise auch den Allotheria zuzuordnen ist. doi:10.1002/mmng.200600018
There is considerable confusion over the terms `community' and `community education'. This paper explores these concepts, traces the growth of different models of community education in the United Kingdom, and highlights some of the issues, weaknesses and problems arising from its development. Two separate movements, evolutionary and revolutionary, are identified — school-based and community-based respectively — though in recent years the difference in practice has become blurred. Trends discernible in the development of community education include its increasing application to urban and high-density residential areas and the accompanying growth in the size of the institutions — and in the range of facilities offered. There is also the tendency to label a school/college `community' simply because it provides extra facilities although there is no modification of management structures or of the curriculum. Unresolved as yet is the change in the relationship between school and community effected by community education, one element of which is the reaction on pupils and staff of sharing institutional facilities with the community. Additionally, the larger an institution grows and the more complex the administrative structure it requires, so also the more impersonal does it become and the less able to express or create a real sense of community. What is needed if community education is to fulfil its purpose is community participation in management and decision-making — with adequate structures to facilitate this `lay' involvement, community control over part at least of the funds, appropriate training of teachers and community workers for their wider roles, and above all, consideration and articulation of the particular needs of each individual community.
Vernon Matthew C
Full Text Available Abstract Background The United Kingdom (UK government has been recording the births, deaths, and movements of cattle for the last decade. Despite reservations about the accuracy of these data, they represent a large and valuable body of information about the demographics of the UK cattle herd and its contact structure. In this article, a range of demographic data about UK cattle, and particularly their movements, are presented, as well as yearly trends in the patterns of movements. Results A clear seasonal pattern is evident in the number of movements of cattle, as are the reductions in movement volume due to foot and mouth disease outbreaks in 2001 and 2007. The distribution of ages of cattle at their time of death is multimodal, and the impact of the over thirty months rule is marked. Most movements occur between agricultural holdings, markets, and slaughterhouses, and there is a non-random pattern to the types of holdings movements occur between. Most animals move only a short distance and a few times in their life. Most movements between any given pair of holdings only occurred once in the last 10 years, but about a third occurred between 2 and 10 times in that period. There is no clear trend to movement patterns in the UK since 2002. Conclusions Despite a substantial number of regulatory interventions during the last decade, movement patterns show no clear trend since 2002. The observed patterns in the repeatability of movements, the types of holdings involved in movements, the distances and frequencies of cattle movements, and the batch sizes involved give an insight into the structure of the UK cattle industry, and could act as the basis for a predictive model of livestock movements in the UK.
Jackson, G; Patel, S; Khan, S
Counterfeit medicines pose an ever-increasing threat to public health, although precise tracking of illegal counterfeit prescription drug activity is difficult. Available data indicate that all types of medications have been targeted. Adverse health effects, including death, have resulted from using counterfeit medications; consumers who self-medicate without appropriate interactions with the healthcare system rarely receive adequate healthcare. The Internet provides a large, convenient route for counterfeiters to reach potential buyers with unregulated, often dangerous, products. The majority of medicines purchased via unverified Internet sites are counterfeit; often, these products lack the purported drug compound or have variable concentrations of active ingredients and sometimes contain dangerous toxins. Although many consumers acknowledge some degree of risk with purchasing medications via the Internet, speed, convenience and cost often prompt these purchases. Counterfeit medications also have been detected in the legitimate supply chain, but represent a significantly smaller proportion of sales than those purchased via the Internet. Pilot programmes in Europe have demonstrated that product verification systems prevent penetration of counterfeit products into the legitimate supply chain. Significant EU legislation, including stronger penalties for counterfeiting, is in development. In the United Kingdom, the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) launched an initiative against counterfeit medication. Healthcare professionals should report suspected cases of counterfeit medication to the MHRA, be alert to threats to the medicine supply, and provide practical advice to patients about ordering medications online, including avoiding unregulated Internet pharmacies, and being suspicious of sites offering substantial discounts and prescription-only medication without a prescription. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Full text: The United Kingdom was one of the first nations to initiate a civil nuclear power programme in the 1950s, with the first commercial generation of electricity being achieved in 1957. As the civil nuclear programme grew in size, an ongoing programme of environmental monitoring was instituted by central government that placed the responsibility for monitoring radioactivity in the local environment and the measurement of discharges of radioactive gases and liquids with the site operator, the Environment Agency, the Environment and Heritage Service, the Food Standards Agency and the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (or their predecessors). This presentation will discuss the sources of radioactivity in the UK environment from the nuclear industry, natural and other sources, focussing on how these sources of radioactivity are monitored and what future trends may be, taking the Windscale fire of 1957, the Chernobyl accident and the Litvinenko incident of 2006 as examples of how unexpected events have been addressed in the UK. As the national metrology institute for the UK, the NPL is required to provide support to the National Measurement System infrastructure of the UK, including the measurement of radioactivity. The presentation will also describe the absolute standardisation of radioactivity at the NPL, and how this is disseminated to organisations measuring environmental radioactivity in the UK by means of directly traceable standards of radioactivity and through the provision of an ongoing series of proficiency test exercises. The outcomes of some recent proficiency tests will be discussed, with emphasis on how the general performance of laboratories participating in these proficiency tests has matured over the years since their inception in 1989. In addition, the data treatment of such proficiency tests will also be examined in order to illustrate that statutory regulatory bodies, laboratory accreditation organisations and customers are able to
Full Text Available The development of electronic records have been an indicator of modern government all over the world. The format of public records of government agencies have been gradually transformed to digitalform. How to manage the life cycle of electronic records have became an important issue. In this paper, the development strategies in electronic records of the United States, Canada, United Kingdom and Australia are taken as examples to explain their state-of-the-art. Several suggestions are proposed as the reference for Taiwan’s government. [Article content in Chinese
Gabriel Araya Ahumada
This article describes in what ways international environmental law, the international regime of climate change and the European Union have influenced current climate change adaptation governance in the United Kingdom, especially in relation with the sustainable development policy.
This article reviews developments and trends in trade union education in the United Kingdom. Priorities for the eighties constituting a major concern for the Trades Union Congress and the Workers' Educational Association are analyzed. (CT)
Current practices in the United Kingdom for waste disposal from ''minor users'' of radioactive materials are reviewed. The regulation of the disposal of solid, liquid and airborne wastes is discussed. (H.K.)
PEB Exchange, 2001
Discusses a United Kingdom comparative study showing a positive link between educational capital spending and student performance. The study, which compared both qualitative and quantitative research, further reveals a positive link between capital spending and teacher and pupil motivation. (GR)
Carter, James G; Sherbon, Beverley J; Viney, Ian S
To allow research organisations to co-ordinate activity to the benefit of national and international funding strategies requires assessment of the funding landscape; this, in turn, relies on a consistent approach for comparing expenditure on research. Here, we discuss the impact and benefits of the United Kingdom's Health Research Classification System (HRCS) in national landscaping analysis of health research and the pros and cons of performing large-scale funding analyses. The first United Kingdom health research analysis (2004/2005) brought together the 11 largest public and charity funders of health research to develop the HRCS and use this categorisation to examine United Kingdom health research. The analysis was revisited in 2009/2010 and again in 2014. The most recent quinquennial analysis in 2014 compiled data from 64 United Kingdom research organisations, accounting for 91% of all public/charitable health research funding in the United Kingdom. The three analyses summarise the United Kingdom's health research expenditure in 2004/2005, 2009/2010 and 2014, and can be used to identify changes in research activity and disease focus over this 10 year period. The 2004/2005 analysis provided a baseline for future reporting and evidence for a United Kingdom Government review that recommended the co-ordination of United Kingdom health research should be strengthened to accelerate the translation of basic research into clinical and economic benefits. Through the second and third analyses, we observed strategic prioritisation of certain health research activities and disease areas, with a strong trend toward increased funding for more translational research, and increases in specific areas such as research on prevention. The use of HRCS in the United Kingdom to analyse the research landscape has provided benefit both to individual participatory funders and in coordinating initiatives at a national level. A modest amount of data for each project is sufficient for a
Harrison, David A; Ferrando-Vivas, Paloma; Wright, Stephen E; McColl, Elaine; Heyland, Daren K; Rowan, Kathryn M
To establish the psychometric properties of the Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit 24-item (FS-ICU-24) questionnaire in the United Kingdom. The Family-Reported Experiences Evaluation study recruited family members of patients staying at least 24 hours in 20 participating intensive care units. Questionnaires were evaluated for nonresponse, floor/ceiling effects, redundancy, and construct validity. Internal consistency was evaluated with item-to-own scale correlations and Cronbach α. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were used to explore the underlying structure. Twelve thousand three hundred forty-six family members of 6380 patients were recruited and 7173 (58%) family members of 4615 patients returned a completed questionnaire. One family member per patient was included in the psychometric assessment. Six items had greater than 10% nonresponse; 1 item had a ceiling effect; and 11 items had potential redundancy. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach α, overall .96; satisfaction with care, .94; satisfaction with decision making, .93). The 2-factor solution was not a good fit. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that satisfaction with decision making encompassed 2 constructs-satisfaction with information and satisfaction with the decision-making process. The Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit 24-item questionnaire demonstrated good psychometric properties in the United Kingdom setting. Construct validity could be improved by use of 3 domains and some scope for further improvement was identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cunningham, S. J.; Bateman, L. E.; Collins, J. M.
Objective: To identify factors affecting work-life balance amongst male and female orthodontists in the United Kingdom. Design: A qualitative interview-based study with a cross-sectional design. Subjects: Specialist orthodontists working in specialist practice and the hospital service in the United Kingdom were selected by purposive sampling. Methods: In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with eighteen orthodontic specialists. Interview transcripts were analysed using Framework A...
Rhamie, Jasmine; Hallam, Susan
While, there is a history of academic under-achievement among African-Caribbeans in the United Kingdom, some African-Caribbeans progress successfully through under-graduate and on to postgraduate studies. This research investigates the factors contributing to such academic success. Fourteen African-Caribbean professionals, male and female, aged between 23 and 40 years old, who had undertaken most of their compulsory education in United Kingdom schools, were interviewed. The findings suggest t...
Tarry, Estelle F
This thesis seeks to consider Thai students and their reasons for choosing to study in United Kingdom universities. Through the literature review it has been identified that higher education is globally expanding. Competing knowledgebased economies with higher education institutions have led education to be considered a market commodity and consequently the marketization of higher education in competitive world markets. This is exemplified by discussion of the United Kingdom higher education ...
Davoren, M.P.; Demant, Jakob Johan; Shiely, Frances
Alcohol is a leading cause of global suffering. Europe reports the uppermost volume of alcohol consumption in the world, with Ireland and the United Kingdom reporting the highest levels of binge drinking and drunkenness. Levels of consumption are elevated among university students. Thus......, this literature review aims to summarise the current research on alcohol consumption among university students in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom....
Iturriza-Gómara, M.; Dove, W.; Sandrasegaram, M.; Nakagomi, T.; Nakagomi, O.; Cunliffe, N.; Radford, A. D.; Morgan, K. L.
Rotaviruses are leading causes of gastroenteritis in the young of many species. Molecular epidemiological studies in children suggest that interspecies transmission contributes to rotavirus strain diversity in people. However, population-based studies of rotaviruses in animals are few. We investigated the prevalence, risk factors for infection, and genetic diversity of rotavirus A in a cross-sectional survey of cats housed within 25 rescue catteries across the United Kingdom. Morning litter tray fecal samples were collected during the winter and summer in 2012 from all pens containing kittens and a random sample of those housing adult cats. Group A rotavirus RNA was detected by real-time reverse transcription-PCR, and positive samples were G and P genotyped using nested VP4 and VP7 PCR assays. A total of 1,727 fecal samples were collected from 1,105 pens. Overall, the prevalence of rotavirus was 3.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2 to 4.9%). Thirteen out of 25 (52%; 95% CI, 31.3 to 72.2%) centers housed at least one rotavirus-positive cat. The prevalence of rotavirus was associated with season (odds ratio, 14.8 [95% CI, 1.1 to 200.4]; P = 0.04) but not age or diarrhea. It was higher during the summer (4.7%; 95% CI, 1.2 to 8.3%) than in winter (0.8%; 95% CI, 0.2 to 1.5%). Asymptomatic epidemics of infection were detected in two centers. G genotypes were characterized for 19 (33.3%) of the 57 rotavirus-positive samples and P genotypes for 36 (59.7%). Two rotavirus genotypes were identified, G3P and G6P. This is the first population-based study of rotavirus in cats and the first report of feline G6P, which questions the previous belief that G6P in people is of bovine origin. PMID:25411173
Mu, Keli; Brown, Ted; Peyton, Claudia G; Rodger, Sylvia; Huang, Yan-Hua; Wu, Chin-Yu; Watson, Callie; Stagnitti, Karen; Hutton, Eve; Casey, Jackie; Hong, Chia Swee
This international, cross-cultural study investigated the attitudes of occupational therapy students from Australia, United Kingdom, United States and Taiwan towards inclusive education for students with disabilities. The possible impact of professional education on students' attitudes was also explored. A total of 485 students from 11 entry-level occupational therapy education programmes from Australia, the United Kingdom, the United States and Taiwan participated in the study. Among them, 264 were freshmen (first-year students) and 221 were seniors (final-year students). Data collected from a custom-designed questionnaire were analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. In general, the occupational therapy students reported having positive attitudes towards inclusion. Considerable differences, however, existed among the student groups from the four countries. Professional education appeared to have a significant impact on students' attitudes towards inclusion from first year to senior year. Although students were in favour of inclusion, they also cautioned that their support for inclusive practices depended on various factors such as adequate preparation, support and assistance to students with disabilities. Limitations of the study included the small, convenience sample and different degree structures of the participating programmes. Future research studies need to compare occupational therapy students' attitudes with students from other health care professions. A longitudinal study on the impact of the professional education programme on students' attitudes towards inclusive education is warranted.
Robertson, Meredith J P; Aldridge, Anne; Curley, Anna E
To establish what bereavement care services are available in neonatal units in the United Kingdom and to establish the availability to staff (doctors, nurses, and chaplains) of bereavement education, training, communication, and multicultural support. For families who lose a baby in the neonatal period, the support they receive from hospital staff can be pivotal in their ability to cope with their grief. Hospital staff are not always trained to provide this support. Limited evidence is available regarding hospital-based bereavement care in neonatology or its impact on outcome. Questionnaire survey of selected doctors, nurses, and chaplains in 200 neonatal units in the United Kingdom. We had responses from 100% of neonatal units surveyed. Of 600 individuals, 320 responded; 11% of doctors had never received any formal training in bereavement care, compared with 0.8% of nurses and 1.2% and chaplains. In addition, 31% of respondents thought the training they received was inadequate. Knowledge of grief theorists was poor. Up to 99% of units were helping parents create memories through photographs or handprints. Parents were uniformly given the chance to be with their baby at the time of death (99% overall). Siblings were encouraged to be present 71% of the time; 75% of respondents felt that information about the needs of different faith groups was available. Formal psychological support was offered to 45% of families after bereavement. Studies have shown that parents value clear communication, education about grieving, and demonstrated emotional support by staff. Our study has shown that there are deficiencies in staff training and education in this area. Educators must promote the inclusion of content on bereavement/end-of-life care. Additional education on cultural issues would be helpful. Managing the bereavement process well to minimize morbidity for families and healthcare providers is an important challenge for the future.
Shah, Minesh P; Lopman, Benjamin A; Tate, Jacqueline E; Harris, John; Esparza-Aguilar, Marcelino; Sanchez-Uribe, Edgar; Richardson, Vesta; Steiner, Claudia A; Parashar, Umesh D
Previous studies have found a strong correlation between internet search and public health surveillance data. Less is known about how search data respond to public health interventions, such as vaccination, and the consistency of responses in different countries. In this study, we aimed to study the correlation between internet searches for "rotavirus" and rotavirus disease activity in the United States, United Kingdom, and Mexico before and after introduction of rotavirus vaccine. We compared time series of internet searches for "rotavirus" from Google Trends with rotavirus laboratory reports from the United States and United Kingdom and with hospitalizations for acute gastroenteritis in the United States and Mexico. Using time and location parameters, Google quantifies an internet query share (IQS) to measure the relative search volume for specific terms. We analyzed the correlation between IQS and laboratory and hospitalization data before and after national vaccine introductions. There was a strong positive correlation between the rotavirus IQS and laboratory reports in the United States (R2 = 0.79) and United Kingdom (R2 = 0.60) and between the rotavirus IQS and acute gastroenteritis hospitalizations in the United States (R2 = 0.87) and Mexico (R2 = 0.69) (P United States and by 70% (95% CI, 55%-86%) in Mexico. In the United Kingdom, there was a loss of seasonal variation after vaccine introduction. Rotavirus internet search data trends mirrored national rotavirus laboratory trends in the United States and United Kingdom and gastroenteritis-hospitalization data in the United States and Mexico; lower correlations were found after rotavirus vaccine introduction. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Rose, R.T.; Tomkins, B.; Townley, C.H.A.
A considerable amount of research has been carried out in the United Kingdom during the past two decades to quantify the factors which control the integrity of structural components. The work which has been aimed at understanding the performance of structures at high temperature, is particularly relevant to the Fast Reactor. At the same time, because of the need to demonstrate the tolerance to defects in the low temperature as well as the high temperature components, defect assessment criteria are also of great importance. Emphasis is now being given to the development of design procedures specifically for Fast Reactors, making use of the research so far completed. The United Kingdom proposals are being integrated with those from France, Federal Republic of Germany and Italy as part of the European collaborative venture. The paper outlines the major developments which are currently in hand, and brings up to date the review of United Kingdom activities presented at Tokyo in 1986. (author)
After a presentation of the general context (struggle against climate change, actions of the successive British governments, role of wind energy in the British energy strategy), this report proposes an overview of wind energy production in the United Kingdom. It comments the share of wind energy in comparison with other sources. It gives a rather detailed description of the status of the British wind energy industry: production capacity, used technologies, rank of the United Kingdom in the international and European wind energy industry, cost of wind energy production. It describes the means adopted by the United Kingdom to reach its objectives: political incentives (involved actors, main measures, support to research and development), industrial development (actors, offshore development, organisation of a system of rounds for the industrial development). It discusses the different technical, economic and political obstacles faced by this development
There has been considerable interest in recent years in comparing the operation of social work services for children and families internationally, particularly between Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States. Reviewing the respective policy environments and drawing on recent research experience in these three nations, the author…
Nassab, Reza; Navsaria, Harshad; Myers, Simon; Frame, James
The cosmetic surgery market is a rapidly growing sector of healthcare, and the use of marketing strategies is now an integral part of any cosmetic surgery practice. In this study, the authors review 50 Web sites from practitioners in London and New York to quantify the utilization of online marketing, comparing results between the United Kingdom and the United States.
This article makes a comparison across the unique educational settings of law and business schools in the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia and New Zealand to highlight differences in teaching methods necessary for culturally and ethnically mixed student cohorts derived from high migration, student mobility, higher education rankings…
This article considers the different ways that inclusion is conceived in the United Kingdom by government, teachers, and academics. I contend that a concept of inclusion based primarily on the notion of students with special educational needs being in mainstream schools is unhelpful to educators of deaf children and that a broader concept is needed. A working definition of inclusion is presented based on a system of values. I suggest "indicators of inclusion for deaf students" and illustrate with examples of practice. Some basic information on the education of deaf children in the United Kingdom is included.
Scott, David Mackendrick
Through an assessment of the recent criticism directed against the Court from the United Kingdom, this thesis sets out the investigate the future of the European Court of Human Rights. By analysing compliance with the Court as a form of ideology—in particular, the definition given by John B Thompson as the “ways in which meaning serves to establish and sustain relations of domination”—it studies the ways this has been challenged by the United Kingdom, and assesses the suitability of the curr...
The nature of seismic motions and the implications are briefly described and the development of seismic design criteria for nuclear power plants in various countries is described including possible future developments. The seismicity of the United Kingdom is briefly reviewed leading to the present position on seismic design criteria for nuclear power plants within the United Kingdom. Damage from past destructive earthquakes is reviewed and the existing codes of practice and standards are described. Finally the effect of earthquakes on major hazard plant is discussed in general terms including the seismic analysis of a typical plant item. (author)
Full Text Available Confronting socially unacceptable activities, especially corruptive criminal acts, including bribing, makes an important issue of every regulated legal system. The crucial part of such policies are the criminal polices. In this paper, the author deals with the criminal legislation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, related to the matters of active bribing as one of the basic forms of corruptive behaviour. While comparing the way the penal system is regulated in the said country, the author comments basic similarities and differences of the passive bribing legal regulation in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Croatia.
The importance of the Caspian Sea region to energy production is increasing and the forces influencing it are changing. The attention on this region focuses on its oil and natural gas reserves. A series of interviews with Western experts mainly from the United States and United Kingdom, including those in international organizations, academia, policy institutions, and government and industry officials identified key trends and issues that are important to their future policies and the significance of the Caspian oil and gas to the world energy market. The overriding issues are: The influence of Russia on regional security, stability, and the transportation of oil and gas products in the Caspian region. The outcome of the test between the United States and Iraq and the major effects it could have on commercial interests in the region and on who will be the major actors. Tensions caused by Iran refusal to settle the international demarcation of the Caspian Sea. Turkey position as a player, the affect of its new islamic-dominated government and its energy policies. Europe need to import gas and to diversify its supply. The construction of a pipeline to China. The impact of September 11, 2001 and terrorism on the Caspian region issues. The stability of the former Soviet Republics in the region. (author)
The importance of the Caspian Sea region to energy production is increasing and the forces influencing it are changing. The attention on this region focuses on its oil and natural gas reserves. A series of interviews with Western experts mainly from the United States and United Kingdom, including those in international organizations, academia, policy institutions, and government and industry officials identified key trends and issues that are important to their future policies and the significance of the Caspian oil and gas to the world energy market. The overriding issues are: The influence of Russia on regional security, stability, and the transportation of oil and gas products in the Caspian region. The outcome of the test between the United States and Iraq and the major effects it could have on commercial interests in the region and on who will be the major actors. Tensions caused by Iran refusal to settle the international demarcation of the Caspian Sea. Turkey position as a player, the affect of its new islamic-dominated government and its energy policies. Europe need to import gas and to diversify its supply. The construction of a pipeline to China. The impact of September 11, 2001 and terrorism on the Caspian region issues. The stability of the former Soviet Republics in the region. (author)
As a result of largely informal contacts between scientists from the United States, Canada, and United Kingdom, it became evident to their governments that, to insure compatible protection practices, closer technical cooperation must be established. This led to a two-day conference between representatives of the three governments at Chalk River, Ontario in September 1949; it was the first of what became known as the Tripartite Conferences. The initial talks led quickly to agreement on the new NCRP proposals for a basic permissible dose for the exposure of workers to external sources of radiation. A second meeting in Harwell, England, during the summer of 1950 reached tentative agreement on the outstanding problems. The third and last Tripartite Conference took place at Harriman, New York, in early spring 1953. This meeting produced the final recommendations, insofar as they involved agreements between the three countries, for new protection standards. Questions regarding the proceedings of the conferences and interpretations of their findings have arisen over the succeeding years; even as recently as 1983. Continued interest and consequent inquiries emphasized the desirability of providing more permanent documentation of those very important conferences. This author, a member of the United States delegation to all three conferences, came into possession of most of the working papers and final reports, hence he has felt the obligation to assemble this material for both technical and historical reference. This report compromises mainly of a brief discussion of the conferences themselves, with some background information leading up to their organization
Full Text Available Thomas Hugh Pennington University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom Abstract: This review describes Escherichia coli O157 outbreaks in the United Kingdom, beginning from the first, in the 1980s, to those recorded in 2013. We point out that the United Kingdom differs from other countries, particularly the United States, in that it has had a considerable number of outbreaks associated with butchers, but very few caused by contaminated burgers. Two of the butcher-associated outbreaks (in central Scotland in 1996 and South Wales in 2005 were very large and are considered here in detail; the reviewer conducted detailed investigations into both outbreaks. Also considered is the very large outbreak that occurred in visitors to an open farm in Surrey in 2009. Detailed descriptions of some milk-borne outbreaks and incidents connected with camping and childrens' nurseries have been published, and these are also considered in this review. Large outbreaks in the United Kingdom have sometimes led to policy developments regarding food safety, and these are considered, together with public reactions to them, their health effect, and their value, as examples to follow or eschew in terms of the procedures to be adopted in response to incidents of this kind. Regulatory and legal consequences are also considered. As a wise man said, making predictions is difficult, particularly about the future. This review follows this position but points out that although human infections caused by E. coli O157 are rare in the United Kingdom, their incidence has not changed significantly in the last 17 years. This review points out that although a response to an outbreak is to say "lessons must be learned", this response has been tempered by forgetfulness. Accordingly, this review restricts its recommendations regarding outbreaks to two: the crucial importance of a rapid response and the importance of experience, and even "gut feeling", when an inspector is evaluating the
From ends of the ninety, the new nuclear energy has been rejected three times like an option of viable energy generation for United Kingdom: once during the privatization of the electric supply industry and twice during the subsequent revisions to the energy politicians carried out in 2003. Nevertheless, three years more late, a new debate around the energy politics gave an unusual turning in the industry destination, characterized by the firm consideration in the political calendar about the new reactors development, as well as of governmental politicians guided to impel it. This recent interest arises of restlessness regarding the future security of the supply and to the necessity of reducing the carbon dioxide emissions of United Kingdom. With the purpose of obtaining the sufficient support of civil politicians and investors for the new construction project, the industry will have to devise convincing arguments to prove that it has already solved those problems that it suffered in the past and, also that deserves to receive a special treatment in the liberated market of the electricity. This document synthesizes the structure of the nuclear industry in United Kingdom, some recent historical data and the reasons for those that the new nuclear reactors were not very received in the past. It also indicates the measures that have taken in recent times to modify that perspective. Finally, it analyzes the possible future of the nuclear energy at long term in United Kingdom. (Author)
Smith, Claire F.; Hall, Samuel; Border, Scott; Adds, Philip J.; Finn, Gabrielle M.
There is increasing recognition of multiprofessional learning in anatomy and its role in medical and healthcare professions. This study utilized two components to investigate anatomy interprofessional education (AIPE) in the United Kingdom and Ireland. First, a survey involving qualitative and quantitative components asked Heads of Anatomy to…
Western European Education, 1985
Under Scottish law, schoolteachers may administer corporal chastisement in moderation as a disciplinary measure. The United Kingdom government is committed to a policy aimed at abolishing corporal punishment in Scottish schools, but they take the view that the policy is best implemented by consensus rather than by legislation. (RM)
Higher institutions in the United Kingdom (UK) have responded enthusiastically to two prime ministers' "Initiatives for International Education" to promote Britain as a destination for overseas students and international fees from Chinese students now play an important role in the funding of the UK university sector. Yet it is not clear…
Mavranezouli, Ifigeneia; Megnin-Viggars, Odette; Cheema, Nadir; Howlin, Patricia; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Pilling, Stephen
Adults with autism face high rates of unemployment. Supported employment enables individuals with autism to secure and maintain a paid job in a regular work environment. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of supported employment compared with standard care (day services) for adults with autism in the United Kingdom.…
Vossen, A.M.J.M.; Gorp, B. van
The purpose of this research is to uncover the manner in which newspapers and non-governmental organisation (NGO) campaigns in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Flanders represent poverty in developing countries. An inductive framing analysis, based on a social constructionist approach,
Haffner, M.E.A.; Hoekstra, J.S.C.M.; Tang, C.; Oxley, M.
In the United Kingdom, social landlords are facing decreasing governmental financial support for them to fulfil their role in the provision of social housing, which has led to increasing pressure on them to rely on private capital. Traditionally, bank loans were the main source of private capital,
The document reproduces the text of a letter received by the Director General of the IAEA on 11 September 1998 from the Governor of the United Kingdom concerning the policy of the UK Government related to fissile material transparency, safeguards and irreversibility initiatives
Davenport, Elisabeth; And Others
Describes a three-year study of home information systems in the United Kingdom being conducted by Queen Margaret College (Scotland). Topics include development of an interview protocol; interactive multimedia; perceptions of technology; use of technology; work versus entertainment; gender issues; and time factors. (Author/LRW)
In this paper, the impact of lifecourse family and labour market experiences on household incomes of older people in Belgium and the United Kingdom (UK) is analysed. To this end, panel data and life-history information fromthe Panel Study of Belgian Households and the British Household Panel Survey
van Ments, Morry
The article begins with an abbreviated CV of the author and then recounts the formation of Society for the Advancement of Games and Simulation in Education and Training (SAGSET) and the early days of simulation and gaming in the United Kingdom. Four strands of elements of development are described together with the key events of the 1970s and…
Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman
Importers of hardwood lumber in the United Kingdom were studied to determine the characteristics of the market and U.S. hardwood product preferences. Importers were mostly channel intermediaries that supplied end users and secondary manufacturers. Eighty percent of importers purchased North American lumber and the majority of importers dealt with both temperate and...
White, Kate; Bagilhole, Barbara; Riordan, Sarah
This article analyses career trajectories into university management in Australia, South Africa and the United Kingdom (UK), skills required to operate effectively and the power of vice-chancellors (VCs) and their impact on the gendered shaping of university leadership. It is based on qualitative research with 56 male and female senior managers.…
Judith Turner; Philip Jennings; Sam McDonough; Debbie Liddell; Jackie Stonehouse
A range of fungicides have been tested for activity against P. ramorum using both in vitro and in vivo tests. All fungicides had proven activity against Phytophthora species and either had full approval for use on hardy ornamental nursery stock in the United Kingdom, or could be used under the Revised Long Term Arrangements for Extension of Use (2002...
Gabriel Araya Ahumada
Full Text Available This article describes in what ways international environmental law, the international regime of climate change and the European Union have influenced current climate change adaptation governance in the United Kingdom, especially in relation with the sustainable development policy.
Shuldham, Caroline; Theaker, Chris; Jaarsma, Tiny; Cowie, Martin R.
Title. Evaluation of the European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour Scale in a United Kingdom population Aim. This paper is a report of a study to test the internal consistency, reliability and validity of the 12-item European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour Scale in an English-speaking sample in
Shallcross, Laura J; Petersen, Irene; Rosenthal, Joe; Johnson, Anne M; Freemantle, Nick; Hayward, Andrew C
Using a primary care database, we identified a major increase in impetigo in the United Kingdom during 1995-2010. Despite a doubled rate of primary care consultations, this increase was not identified by routine surveillance. Primary care databases are a valuable and underused source of surveillance data on infectious diseases.
Fatherhood in this 21st century is changing. There is wider societal recognition that, for the sake of our children, we need to value fathers and the contribution they make to family life. In the United Kingdom, various initiatives are actively supporting "Dads" in their role. For fathers of children with disabilities, there are even…
Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua; Cummings, Kenneth M.; Thrasher, James F.; Hitchman, Sara C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi
This study examines the effects of different cigarette package warnings in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom up to 5 years post-implementation. The data came from the International Tobacco Control Surveys. Measures included salience of warnings, cognitive responses, forgoing cigarettes and avoiding warnings. Although salience of the UK…
Nies, Henk; Nuijens, Jan Maarten
The United Kingdom and the Netherlands differ significantly with respect to structure, policy, legislation and financing of their care delivery systems. Day care services for elderly people thus developed in considerably different policy and socio-historical contexts. In this article various aspects
Cooper, Chris; And Others
The tourism and leisure industries are among the fastest growing in the United Kingdom, generating jobs and spending and stimulating economic development. The hotel and catering sector is by far the best documented of the tourism industry and is the major employer. It is also an underqualified sector, despite a range of courses from craft to…
This paper is the sum of the author's experience when she moved from England to Sweden four years ago. Sweden's international reputation for gender equality is unparalleled and therefore she expected to be part of a different gender order than that in the United Kingdom. However, she finds that at the level of everyday experience, gender relations…
Petersen, Irene; Rosenthal, Joe; Johnson, Anne M.; Freemantle, Nick; Hayward, Andrew C.
Using a primary care database, we identified a major increase in impetigo in the United Kingdom during 1995–2010. Despite a doubled rate of primary care consultations, this increase was not identified by routine surveillance. Primary care databases are a valuable and underused source of surveillance data on infectious diseases. PMID:24047615
This article explores the changing attitudes towards student accommodation in higher education in the United Kingdom since the end of the Second World War. In the first part of this period there was a firm assumption, in universities and teacher training colleges, that the accommodation of students in or close to their university or college,…
This article undertakes an extensive comparison of the domestic law of the Netherlands and the United Kingdom in respect of the attribution of income to a person for tax purposes. After a general introduction to both countries, the article looks at a series of specific situations in which the
Dorbeck-Jung, Barbel R.
This contribution discusses the United Kingdom (UK) government’s regulatory activities related to nanotechnological development. The central question is what other prudent public regulation can learn from the UK government’s regulatory strategy, its regulatory attitude and its large variety of
Background In most countries of the European Economic Area (EEA), there is no large-scale migration of medical graduates with diplomas obtained outside the EEA, which are international medical graduates (IMGs). In the United Kingdom however, health care is in part dependent on the influx of IMGs. In
Olsen, Morten Tange; Islas, Valentina; Graves, Jeff A.; Onoufriou, Aubrie; Vincent, Cecile; Brasseur, Sophie; Frie, Anne Kirstine; Hall, Ailsa J.
In the United Kingdom (UK), several harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) populations have been declining over the past decade. In order to understand the effect of these changes in abundance, this study seeks to determine the population structure of harbour seals in the UK, and in Scotland in particular,
...) for a united Ireland. However, the death toll from a single attack never exceeded twenty-nine and the British public developed a certain stoicism in the face of intermittent bombings in London and other British cities...
Keatley, David A.; Ferguson, Eamonn; Lonsdale, Adam; Hagger, Martin S.
Binge drinking is associated with deleterious health, social and economic outcomes. This study explored the lay understanding of the causes of binge drinking in members of the general public in the United Kingdom and Australia. Participants in the United Kingdom (N = 133) and Australia (N = 102) completed a network diagram exercise requiring them…
The British metrological structure in the field of ionizing radiation measurement is outlined. It was set up to guarantee the calibration chain from routine instruments to national standards. The National Physics Laboratory (NPL) is the British center for the exact measurement of radioactivity and ionizing radiations, the primary standards necessary being prepared and kept in the Ionizing Radiation Science Division. Various calibration services are provided and different methods have been developed to transmit units required for exposure, absorbed dose, activity and neutron flux density measurements. This variety is due to the needs dictated by different radiations, different intensities (radiation protection, therapy and industrial treatment levels) and different users. To satisfy these needs a secondary calibration center network has been set up in certain fields, and appropriate secondary calibration equipment developed. For example the Public Health Ministry has organized a plan covering all radiotherapeutic calibrations in the United Kingdom, while the wider needs of radiation protection are expected to be met in collaboration with the British Calibration Service (BCS) [fr
Gusmano, Michael K; Allin, Sara
Political debates about the affordability of health care programmes in high-income countries often point to population ageing as a threat to sustainability. Debates in the United States, in particular, highlight concerns about intergenerational equity, whereby spending on older people is perceived as a threat to spending on the young. This paper compares how the problem of health spending is defined in Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States by presenting the results of a content analysis of print media during the period 2005-2010. We found that population ageing was cited as an important source of health care cost increases in all three countries but was cited less frequently in Canadian newspapers than in the UK or US papers. Direct claims about intergenerational equity are infrequent among the articles we coded, but newspaper articles in the United States were more likely than those in Canada and the United Kingdom to claim that of high health care spending on older people takes resources away from younger people. In Canada a much larger percentage of articles in our sample either claimed that high health care spending is crowding out other types of government expenditure. Finally, we found that almost no articles in the United States challenged the view that population ageing causes health care spending, whereas in both Canada and the United Kingdom a small, but steady stream of articles challenged the idea that population ageing is to blame for health care spending increases.
Hatleskog, Anne; Lappi, Henna
The objective of this paper is to assess unconventional monetary policy at the zero nominal bound: First, we assemble a framework for implementing and evaluating unconventional monetary policy. Second, we use the framework to conduct three detailed case studies on unconventional policy responses in Japan, United States and United Kingdom. Third, we make a cross-country analysis of the development in key macroeconomic variables after the adaption of unconventional monetary policies. We find...
Wielenga, Vicki; Gilchrist, Dawna
As reported in the 2011 World Drug Report, cocaine is likely to be the most problematic drug worldwide in terms of trafficking-related violence and second only to heroin in terms of negative health consequences and drug deaths. Over a period of 60 years, cocaine evolved from the celebrated panacea of the 1860s to outlawed street drug of the 1920s. As demonstrated by the evolution of cocaine use and abuse in the United Kingdom and United States during this time period, cultural attitudes influenced both the acceptance of cocaine into the medical field and the reaction to the harmful effects of cocaine. Our review of articles on cocaine use in the United Kingdom and the United States from 1860 to 1920 reveals an attitude of caution in the United Kingdom compared with an attitude of progressivism in the United States. When the trends in medical literature are viewed in the context of the development of drug regulations, our analysis provides insight into the relationship between cultural attitudes and drug policy, supporting the premise that it is cultural and social factors which shape drug policy, rather than drug regulations changing culture.
Nuclear generating capacity in the UK is static with no units currently under construction following the completion of the Sizewell B PWR. The Government's reviews of nuclear energy policy and radioactive waste management policy have been published following a public consultation procedure, largely with an endorsement of current policies. Nuclear Electric plc (NE) and Scottish Nuclear Limited's (SNL) AGR and PWR stations are to be privatised as two subsidiaries of a holding company, and it is planned that the Magnox stations and their liabilities will be kept in the public sector, initially in a stand alone company but ultimately integrated with BNFL. Prompt reprocessing of all Magnox fuel will continue. NE and SNL have signed contracts for extensive reprocessing of AGR fuel. In addition, SNL has agreed contractual arrangements with BNFL for long term storage of its remaining overlife arisings of AGR fuel and has therefore on commercial ground opted not to dry store their fuel at the reactor site. NE have not yet made a decision on the fate of their AGR fuel not covered by existing reprocessing contracts. No option selection has taken place for PWR fuel. Following the closure of the Dounreay PFR and the withdrawal from the EFR project, the option of recycle of plutonium in fast reactors has been suspended. (author)
James Tosin Akinlua
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to elicit beliefs about hypertension among Nigerian immigrants in the United Kingdom.The distributions of cardiovascular risk factors and diseases are not shared equally across ethnic and economic groups in the United Kingdom. Its burden is more clustered among minority ethnic populations and migrant groups including black African Nigerian migrants. Similar patterns have been reported across Europe, Australia, Canada, Nordic countries and the United States of America. There are about 300 distinct ethnic groups in Nigeria and reliable information about their beliefs about hypertension is not available. Given that the United Kingdom has a large community of Nigerian immigrants from these different ethno-cultural backgrounds, understanding their unique beliefs about hypertension may help promote appropriate care for this population in the United Kingdom and Nigeria.A single Pentecostal church community in West London.Twenty-seven Nigerian migrant members of the church entered and completed the study.A qualitative interview study was conducted. The interviews were analysed using thematic framework analysis. The outcome measures were emerging themes from the thematic framework analysis.Participants expressed beliefs in four major areas related to hypertension: (1 The Meaning of the term hypertension, (2 Perceptions of causation, (3 Effects of hypertension, and (4 Perceptions of treatment. The study revealed a diversity of beliefs about hypertension which incorporated both orthodox and culturally framed ideas.This study identified important beliefs among Nigerian migrants about hypertension that can contribute to our understanding of the management of hypertension in this group and suggests the need for further research to determine whether these beliefs may be representative of this group.
Chandra Shekhar Bhatnagar
Full Text Available The Sharpe (1964, Lintner (1965 and Black (1972 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM postulates that the equilibrium rates of return on all risky assets are a linear function of their covariance with the market portfolio. Recent work by Fama and French (1996, 2006 introduce a Three Factor Model that questions the “real world application” of the CAPM Theorem and its ability to explain stock returns as well as value premium effects in the United States market. This paper provides an out-of-sample perspective to the work of Fama and French (1996, 2006. Multiple regression is used to compare the performance of the CAPM, a split sample CAPM and the Three Factor Model in explaining observed stock returns and value premium effects in the United Kingdom market. The methodology of Fama and French (2006 was used as the framework for this study. The findings show that the Three Factor Model holds for the United Kingdom Market and is superior to the CAPM and the split sample CAPM in explaining both stock returns and value premium effects. The “real world application” of the CAPM is therefore not supported by the United Kingdom data.
Black, Nick; Barker, Marian; Payne, Mary
Objectives To describe the multicentre clinical databases that exist in the United Kingdom, to report on their quality, to explore which organisational and managerial features are associated with high quality, and to make recommendations for improvements. Design Cross sectional survey, with interviews with database custodians and search of electronic bibliographic database (PubMed). Studies reviewed 105 clinical databases across the United Kingdom. Results Clinical databases existed in all areas of health care, but their distribution was uneven—cancer and surgery were better covered than mental health and obstetrics. They varied greatly in age, size, growth rate, and geographical areas covered. Their scope (and thus their potential uses) and the quality of the data collected also varied. The latter was not associated with any organisational characteristics. Despite impressive achievements, many faced substantial financial uncertainty. Considerable scope existed for improvements: greater use of nationally approved codes; more support from relevant professional organisations; greater involvement by nurses, allied health professionals, managers, and laypeople in database management teams; and more attention to data security and ensuring patient confidentiality. With some notable exceptions, the audit and research potential of most databases had not been realised: half the databases had each produced only four or fewer peer reviewed research articles. Conclusions At least one clinical database support unit is needed in the United Kingdom to provide assistance in organisation and management, information technology, epidemiology, and statistics. Without such an initiative, the variable picture of databases reported here is likely to persist and their potential not be realised. PMID:15205292
Griffiths, J; Verble, M; Falvey, S; Bell, S; Logan, L; Morgan, K; Wellington, F
In 2004, the United Kingdom began for the first time a systematic, countrywide initiative to increase organ donations. The approach, based on international research and with consultation from the United States, entailed encouraging the early identification and referral of potential donors, training critical care physicians in breaking bad news and in collaborating with donor coordinators, training coordinators in donation conversation skills, and getting them in to speak with families. The strategy represented a large culture change in the procurement of organs in the United Kingdom and has met resistance. However, the change has started to take hold and, despite a dramatic and unexpected 21% reduction in potential brain stem death donors over a 4-year period, is showing positive results. Herein we have described the historical model for procuring organs in the United Kingdom, the development of the new strategy, its components, and the results of its implementation, in terms of earlier referrals, the identification of non-heart-beating donors, the collaboration between physicians and coordinators in speaking with families and in converted donors.
Is the practice of UK patients traveling to India as medical tourists morally justified? This article addresses that question by examining three ethically relevant issues. First, the key factor motivating citizens of the United Kingdom to seek medical treatment in India is identified and analyzed. Second, the life prospects of the majority of the citizens of the two nations are compared to determine whether the United Kingdom is morally warranted in relying on India to meet the medical needs of its citizens. Third, as neoliberal reforms are justified on the grounds that they will help the indigent populations affected by them, the impact of medical tourism--a neoliberal initiative--on India's socially and economically marginalized groups is scrutinized.
Government policy towards radioactive waste management in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is based on the system of dose limitations laid down by ICRP as interpreted by the National Radiological Protection Board for use in the United Kingdom. The paper describes the legislative and administrative arrangements by which this policy is enforced, including the work of the principal inspectorates, the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate and the Radiochemical Inspectorate together with the latter's equivalents in Scotland and Northern Ireland. It is concluded that the present legislation, including that relating to planning and the setting up of public inquiries, is sufficiently all-embracing to ensure both strict control of the disposal of all the radioactive waste currently arising or which will arise in the future and a high degree of public involvement in the necessary decisions. (author)
Neville, Ron; Neville, Jemma
Debate on how resource-rich countries and their health care professionals should help the plight of sub-Saharan Africa appears locked in a mind-set dominated by gloomy statistics and one-way monetary aid. Having established a project to link primary care clinics based on two-way sharing of education rather than one-way aid, our United Kingdom colleagues often ask us: "But what can we learn from Malawi?" A recent fact-finding visit to Malawi helped us clarify some aspects of health care that may be of relevance to health care professionals in the developed world, including the United Kingdom. This commentary article is focused on encouraging debate and discussion as to how we might wish to re-think our relationship with colleagues in other health care environments and consider how we can work together on a theme of two-way shared learning rather than one-way aid.
Estacio, Emee Vida; Saidy-Khan, Sirandou
In this article, we explore the experiences of racial microaggression among migrant nurses in the United Kingdom. Eleven migrant nurses kept a reflective diary for 6 weeks to record and reflect on their experiences of living and working in the United Kingdom. The diary entries were then thematically analyzed. The results suggest that migrant nurses experienced racial microaggression from patients and colleagues through racial preferences and bullying. Institutional racism also hindered their opportunities for further training and promotion. As a result, some experienced feelings of anger, frustration, and even paranoia. Despite the negative consequences of racial microaggression on their emotional well-being, incidents were downplayed as trivial because of their vague and subtle nature. To encourage better multicultural interactions in the workplace, supportive organizational infrastructures need to be in place to enhance diversity awareness and to improve mechanisms for reporting and dealing with cases of racial microaggression.
Emee Vida Estacio
Full Text Available In this article, we explore the experiences of racial microaggression among migrant nurses in the United Kingdom. Eleven migrant nurses kept a reflective diary for 6 weeks to record and reflect on their experiences of living and working in the United Kingdom. The diary entries were then thematically analyzed. The results suggest that migrant nurses experienced racial microaggression from patients and colleagues through racial preferences and bullying. Institutional racism also hindered their opportunities for further training and promotion. As a result, some experienced feelings of anger, frustration, and even paranoia. Despite the negative consequences of racial microaggression on their emotional well-being, incidents were downplayed as trivial because of their vague and subtle nature. To encourage better multicultural interactions in the workplace, supportive organizational infrastructures need to be in place to enhance diversity awareness and to improve mechanisms for reporting and dealing with cases of racial microaggression.
Giannoumis, G Anthony
Despite different historical traditions, previous research demonstrates a convergence between regulatory approaches in the United Kingdom and Norway. To understand this convergence, this article examines how different policy traditions influence the legal obligations of performance standards regulating web content for use by persons with disabilities. While convergence has led to similar policy approaches, I argue that national policy traditions have an impact on how governments establish legal obligations for standards compliance. The analysis reveals that national policy traditions influenced antidiscrimination legislation and the capacity and authority of regulatory agencies, which impacted the diverging legal obligations of standards in the United Kingdom and Norway. The analysis further suggests that policy actors mediate the reciprocal influence between national policy traditions and regulatory convergence mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bryant, P M
This paper describes United Kingdom policy in relation to radioactive waste and summarises the relevant legislation ad methods of control. Data are given on the amounts of radioactivity discharged as waste from establishments of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, the nuclear power stations operated by the Electricity Generating Boards and other users of radioactive materials. Studies of the behaviour of radioactivity in the environment are reported with particular reference to food chains and other potential sources of irradiation of the public. The results of environmental monitoring are presented and estimates are made of radiation doses received by individual members of the public and larger population groups as a result of waste disposal. It is concluded that the doses received are all within the appropriate limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, and in most cases are trivial.
This article reports the results of an empirical study examining the impact of human gene patents on the development and delivery of genetic tests in the public sector in the United Kingdom. Semi-structured qualitative interviews. The study found that, despite the potential for gene patents to have significant negative consequences for genetic testing, in fact, human gene patents have little or no impact on practice for those developing genetic tests in the public sector in the United Kingdom. This is not because patents are managed optimally; rather, gene patents are essentially ignored. This article reports the factors that motivate this behavior. At least insofar as there seems to be no apparent problem of lack of patient access, there is no significant public health problem. However, there is divergence between the legal and the practical situation. Complacency about the lack of impact of patents on access to diagnostics is risky, and concerns about patents should be addressed proactively, rather than reactively.
Pryke, D.C.; Taylor, R.R.
Irradiation has been recommended as a method for preparing foods for hospital patients requiring sterile diets as a result of intensive therapy or disease that has resulted in suppression of the immune system. It has a number of advantages over other methods and in recognition of this, in the United Kingdom, the use of irradiated foods for hospital patients has been specifically exempted from regulatory control. Due to a number of factors there is a move away from keeping patients in a sterile environment; however, irradiation may still have a role to play for vulnerable and high-risk patients. This paper summarizes the use of radiation-sterilized foods in hospitals in the United Kingdom and discusses the future potential for both radiation-sterilized and ‘radiation-pasturized’ foods
In this chapter food safety control in relation to quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) as food and food ingredient was discussed and evaluated through a critical examination of the current statutory provisions at United Kingdom (UK) and European Union (EU) Levels. The risk if any, posed by quinoa seeds from production to consumption were identified and suggestions for compliance were made. Quinoa though novel in the UK and marketed loosely as superfood apparently does not warrant any specific (...
This Consultation Document reviews how the United Kingdom Department of Energy's nuclear R and D programmes support the Government's nuclear policy and reaches preliminary conclusions about their future direction. It describes the changes the Department has adopted, and is proposing, to ensure that it is better informed about the nuclear R and D it commissions and that the work is carried out cost-effectively. The areas of research reviewed are: safety; radiological protection; safeguards; reactor technology; fusion; decommissioning and waste management. (author)
Gui, Li; Gu, Shen; Barriball, K Louise; While, Alison E; Chen, Guoliang
Nurse education has undergone considerable changes creating new opportunities and challenges for nurse teachers. Limited comparative research of the working lives of nurse teachers has been reported, thus similarities and differences that may exist are unidentified. This paper reports a study of the working lives of nurse teachers in mainland China and the United Kingdom. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Census sample of nurse teachers working in four nursing schools in mainland China (n=3) and the United Kingdom (n=1). The overall response rate was 56.8% (China=61, 61.0%, UK=60, 53.1%). Completion of questionnaire specifically developed for the study but comprising six validated tools to collecting data on: job satisfaction, sense of coherence, role conflict and role ambiguity, work empowerment and professional identification. Data on self-reported roles and personal details were also collected. Data were collected between September 2008 and January 2009. Both samples were satisfied with their jobs overall but reported low levels of satisfaction with promotion. Chinese nurse teachers working full-time reported the lowest level for sense of coherence and professional identification. Nurse teachers working full-time in the United Kingdom reported the highest role conflict score. Sense of coherence and work empowerment were significantly and positively correlated to job satisfaction. Role conflict and role ambiguity were negatively correlated (but not always significantly) to job satisfaction and its facets. For respondents in mainland China, professional identification was significantly and positively correlated with overall job satisfaction and its facets. Strategies to improve job satisfaction with promotion opportunities for both samples are indicated. Respondents working full-time in both mainland China and the United Kingdom experienced greater challenges at work than their part-time colleagues. © 2013.
Thomas, Anthony; Heffron, Raphael J.
The law surrounding third party nuclear liability is important to all parties in the nuclear supply chain whether they are providing decommissioning services, project management expertise or a new reactor. This paper examines third party nuclear liability, and in particular, in relation to a Supplier in the nuclear energy sector in the United Kingdom (UK). The term "Supplier" is used in this paper and, depending on the context, is intended to cover all parties in the supply chain providing se...
Thomas, A.; Heffron, R. J.
The law surrounding third party nuclear liability is important to all parties in the nuclear supply chain whether they are providing decommissioning services, project management expertise or a new reactor. This paper examines third party nuclear liability, and in particular, in relation to a Supplier in the nuclear energy sector in the United Kingdom (UK). The term “Supplier” is used in this paper and, depending on the context, is intended to cover all parties in the supply chain providing se...
Lewis, Richard; Morris, Annette; Oliphant, Ken
This article seeks to identify the most reliable sources of statistical information about the workings of the personal injury litigation system in the United Kingdom to present their principal data in clear, straightforward and accessible form, and to subject them to critical analysis. These figures provide the basis for an initial examination of the claim that a damaging compensation culture has developed in the UK in recent years.
Francis, Leslie J.; Gubb, Sean; Robbins, Mandy
This study set out to examine the psychological type profile of Lead Elders within the Newfrontiers network of churches in the United Kingdom and to compare this profile with the established profile of clergymen in the Church of England. A sample of 134 Lead Elders completed the Francis Psychological Type Scales. The study shows that Newfrontiers Lead Elders display slight preferences for extraversion over introversion, for sensing over intuition, and for thinking over feeling, and a strong p...
Two major events have affected the monetary regime in the United Kingdom in recent years, namely the introduction of inflation targeting, and the granting of operational independence to the Bank of England. In this paper we examine what impact, if any, these events have had on inflation expectations. A series of Granger causality tests are used in order to examine the causal relationship between a measure of prices and inflation expectations. We find evidence that the introduction of inflatio...
OLIVEIRA, Renata Carvalho de; FERNANDES, Ana Carolina; PROENÇA, Rossana Pacheco da Costa; HARTWELL, Heather; RODRIGUES, Vanessa Mello; FIATES, Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck
ABSTRACT Objective This pilot study was aimed at exploring preferences of young adults in two different contexts on restaurant menu labelling formats. Methods Five focus groups were conducted with 36 participants, two focus groups with 11 participants in Brazil and three focus groups with 25 in the United Kingdom. Themes originating from the content analysis of the transcriptions were organised around four possible menu labelling formats: 1) numerical information on calories; 2) numerical i...
This study aims to provide a broad yet comprehensive understanding of corporate governance in the international context. After an exhaustive review of the social sciences literature, the dominant theoretical paradigms and debates on corporate governance have been highlighted. Next, the study traces the trajectory of corporate governance development in the United Kingdom and India. Landmark reports and revolutionary codes of conduct which form the backbone of existing corporate governance syst...
Ömer Faruk Ursavaş; David McIlroy; Sami Şahin
The possession or acquisition of a range of computer skills is an implicit assumption related to many undergraduate study programmes, and use of university computer facilities may impact on overall academic performance and employability beyond graduation. This study therefore tested levels of computer anxiety (CARS) and computer thoughts (CTS) in Turkish and United Kingdom undergraduates with reference to culture group difference, regularity of use (or home use) and use of university computer...
This thesis deals with cooperation between France, Germany and the United Kingdom within the area of foreign and security policy. Two case studies are presented, one of them concerning cooperation between the three states within and outside institutions in 1980 following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and the other dealing with cooperation concerning the crisis in Macedonia in 2001. In accordance with the approach of neoliberal institutionalism the primary hypothesis is that cooperation ...
International audience; This chapter describes the early development and introduction of computers into schools in the United Kingdom from the 1970s to the evaluation of their impacts and a shift in the focus of their uses in the 1990s. The chapter explores key factors influencing the direction and deployment of uses of computers in schools. It considers influences of national initiatives and policies, the development of support, support centres and central agencies, the involvement of hardwa...
With challenges like the climatic change, the hydrocarbons prices increase and the energy supply security, the nuclear park is becoming a decisive and an urgent question in the United Kingdom. The author proposes an historical aspect of the nuclear energy in UK, the actors of the today nuclear industry and the technologies used in 2006, the radioactive wastes management, the programs of the future and the british opinion on the nuclear. (A.L.B.)
The dissertation analyzes the discourse and development of the British anti-sex trafficking movement. Following the European Union's largest expansion in 2004, the United Kingdom experienced a surge in immigration from Eastern Europe, which was greeted by fears about losing British culture, stolen jobs, and rising criminal activity. From this welter of concerns, I argue, the issue of sex trafficking coalesced into a moral panic about the dangers of immigration and the sexual exploitation of w...
Hildegard Brauns; Markus Gangl; Stefani Scherer
"Over the last two decades, youth unemployment emerged as one of the major problems of many contemporary European societies. As educational achievement is regularly claimed to prevent labour market exclusion, this paper explores the educational stratification of unemployment in early labour market career and its institutional embeddedness in specific education and employment systems. For the sake of comparative analysis, the paper investigates youth unemployment in France, the United Kingdom ...
This study examines the beta or systematic risk of initial public offerings using a sample of newly issued stocks in the United Kingdom market. The findings are threefold. First, the beta risk estimation is found to decline over time. It corresponds with the differential information model which predicts that the risk of low information is high with uncertainty around it and will decline as the quantity of information increases. The quantity of information, in this case, is represented by time...
Currie, Jonny; Davies, Llion; McCarthy, Joanne; Perry, Malorie; Moore, Catherine; Cottrell, Simon; Bowley, Mererid; Williams, Chris; Shankar, Ananda Giri; Stiff, Rhianwen
The United Kingdom achieved interrupted endemic measles transmission for 36 months in 2016. Despite this, ongoing challenges from sporadic measles cases typically imported from abroad remain. We summarise a B3 measles genotype outbreak in south-east Wales occurring between May and September 2017, linked with other European outbreaks, and lessons learnt. Seventeen confirmed cases and one probable case occurred principally in education and healthcare-settings. Six confirmed cases attended healthcare settings when infectious, without being isolated.
A review of the United Kingdom Fast Reactor Programme was given in March 1983. Operational experience with the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) is briefly summarized. The design concept of the Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor (CDFR), including design codes, engineering components, materials and fuels development, chemical engineering/sodium technology, safety and reactor performance, is reviewed. The problems of PFR and CDFR fuel reprocessing are also discussed
Kvist, Jon; Sinfield, Adrian
Substantial benefits are being routed through the tax system separately and much less publicly than in the welfare state. This study analyses how the tax benefits in Denmark and the United Kingdom are operating, raising questions of equity and privilege, and of cost and value for money. One major...... conclusion is that tax routes to welfare deserves much closer and more public examination than they currently receive in either country....
Koshy, Gibby; Delpisheh, Ali; Brabin, Bernard J.
Background To determine changes in prevalence of parental and childhood asthma in Merseyside between 1991 and 2006. Methods Four standardized cross-sectional respiratory surveys using a parent-completed questionnaire were completed in 1991 (n = 1171), 1993 (n = 2368) 1998 (n = 1964) and in 2006 (n =
Tipping, Ed; Quinton, John; Davies, Jessica; Bell, Vicky; Carnell, Ed; Dragosits, Ulli; Muhammed, Shibu; Naden, Pam; Stuart, Marianne; Tomlinson, Sam; Whitmore, Andy; Wu, Lianhai
Human intervention over the last 200 years has resulted in vast changes to the fluxes of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) entering the United Kingdom's landscape. Industrialisation has resulted in N deposition, agricultural intensification has seen widespread use of N and P fertilizers and societal actions have resulted in extensive land use change. To understand the consequences of these anthropogenic inputs for our soils, freshwaters and ecosystems it is necessary to take an integrated long term large scale approach. Integration across the compartments of the critical zone - from atmosphere, plants to soil and stream - is necessary in order to trace the effects of deposition, fertilization, cultivation and land use change. Coherent integration of C, N and P dynamics is also crucial, as biological processes tightly couple these cycles, so that in unison C N and P control the generation of biomass and consequent production of soil organic matter, having knock on effects for dissolved and particulate fluxes and ecosystem function. The Long-Term Large-Scale (LTLS) project is developing an integrated model that simulates the pools and fluxes of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus (C, N, and P) between atmospheric, vegetation, soil and aquatic systems for the whole of the United Kingdom for a period spanning from the onset of the industrial revolution up until the present day. In this paper we will present results demonstrating the changes in the soil macronutrient cycles in response to agrarian and social change in the United Kingdom over the last 200 years
Wilford, Howard; Hunt, Jane
For young men, a consequence of surviving childhood malignancy can be iatrogenic infertility. Current health policies focus on the elimination of "post code lotteries" in cancer services. The extent to which sperm cryopreservation services for young men at risk of infertility from cancer treatment are provided and standardised within the United Kingdom and Ireland, was therefore the subject of this research. This paper draws on data from a three-stage study to describe sperm cryopreservation services for adolescent males, identifying current provision of sperm cryopreservation at the majority of United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group (UKCCSG) centres. In particular, the ways in which services are managed and written information provided to patients and their families was focused upon. Nurses from 18 of 22 UKCCSG centres responded to a questionnaire, six nurses from the replying centres participated in further, focused interviews. Results suggested that, during a 1 year period, approximately 118 adolescent males within the United Kingdom and Ireland could potentially have benefited from cryopreservation services. Of the responding centres, 15 offered a cryopreservation service. However, the majority (n=14) lacked consistency and co-ordination in their service provision. The provision of written information to this patient group was limited and analysis revealed all was of a poor quality. Findings from the study led the researchers to conclude that all young men at risk of iatrogenic sterility from cancer treatment could benefit from the production and systematic application of national guidelines and that standardising sperm cryopreservation services would fit with current health policy.
The report and accounts of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority for the year ended 31 March 1986 is presented. The contents include: a) a general report, b) technical report, c) facilities, expertise and organisation, d) accounts. (UK)
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the provision for sexual health care of adolescents in genitourinary medicine clinics in the United Kingdom. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to all 170 consultants in charge of genitourinary medicine clinics in the United Kingdom. RESULTS: Completed questionnaires were received from 119 consultants in charge of clinics. Eleven per cent of attenders during April-June 1995 were aged under 20 years. Attenders aged under 16 years and from 16-19 years old were found to...
Wu, Junyan; Hu, Jiale; Ruan, Hong
Designed to explore a suitable way to develop nurse anesthetist education in China, this article introduces 3 educational models for nurse anesthesia education in 3 countries, which all are members of the International Federation of Nurse Anesthetists (IFNA). In addition, this article carries out the comparison from 4 areas: program admission requirements; structure and length; content; and delivery mode. Healthcare leaders in China can learn from the United States, France, and the United Kingdom regarding how to develop nurse anesthesia educational programs and how to design a standardized nurse anesthesia educational program, which is consistent with the national need.
Berridge, Clara; Furseth, Peder Inge; Cuthbertson, Richard; Demello, Steven
Interest in utilizing technology to help older adults remain living at home is growing; however, uptake remains low. We present a conceptual framework for understanding independent living technology innovation within health and social services. Public policy and innovation in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Scandinavia are profiled as case studies. In all profiled countries, independent living technology is more rapidly advancing than associated state policy, regulation, and payment systems. The findings from this comparative analysis reveal areas for further exploration, including policy subsystem environments in which technologies and services are regulated, as well as trends and desires of older adults and their caregivers within particular cultural contexts.
Wielenga, Vicki; Gilchrist, Dawna
As reported in the 2011 World Drug Report, cocaine is likely to be the most problematic drug worldwide in terms of trafficking-related violence and second only to heroin in terms of negative health consequences and drug deaths. Over a period of 60 years, cocaine evolved from the celebrated panacea of the 1860s to outlawed street drug of the 1920s. As demonstrated by the evolution of cocaine use and abuse in the United Kingdom and United States during this time period, cultural attitudes influ...
Sheppard, James P; Schwartz, Claire L; Tucker, Katherine L; McManus, Richard J
The effective diagnosis and management of hypertension is one of the most important parts of cardiovascular prevention internationally and this is no different in the United Kingdom. Approximately 14% of the UK population currently receive treatment for hypertension. Recent UK guidelines from the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence have placed greater emphasis on the utilization of out-of-office measurement of blood pressure to more accurately diagnose hypertension. The aim of the present study was to provide a state-of-the-art review of the evidence for screening, diagnosing, and managing hypertension, as implemented in the United Kingdom, with an emphasis on the role of self-monitored and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in routine clinical care. Consideration was given to the use of ambulatory and home monitoring to confirm a diagnosis of hypertension and the use of self-monitoring and self-management to monitor and guide treatment. The evidence for the use of self-monitoring in patients with hypertension was examined, both in isolation, and in combination with lifestyle and treatment interventions. There is a place for self-monitored blood pressure in specific underresearched populations such as the elderly, specialist conditions, ethnic groups, and during pregnancy and this is discussed here. The evidence supporting the use of out-of-office monitoring in all aspects of routine clinical care has increased substantially in recent years and is reflected in increased utilization by patients and clinicians alike. Several areas require further research but it is clear that out-of-office monitoring is here to stay and is fast becoming an important part of hypertension management in the United Kingdom. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Binks, W.; Marley, W.G.
It is now the common practice in the United Kingdom for persons who are exposed occupationally to ionizing radiations to be subjected to continuous individual monitoring in order to ensure that the doses that they receive from sources external to the body do not exceed the levels which are regarded as acceptable. In the operation of large-scale monitoring services such as are provided by the Radiological Protection Service (R.P.S.) and by the establishments of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (U.K.A.E.A.) there is no satisfactory alternative to the use of photographic film, bearing in mind such aspects as simplicity, reliability, accuracy, cheapness, ease of postal transmission of the films in the special holders, and availability of a durable record of the dose received. The Radiological Protection Service provides a film badge service which is widely used by industry. This organization also provides film badges for about one-third of the occupationally exposed persons in National Health Service hospitals; for the remaining hospital workers the majority of establishments undertake their own monitoring arrangements. The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority provides its own film badge services for all exposed workers. It is the purpose of this report to summarize the information obtained by the R.P.S. and the U.K.A.E.A. regarding the doses received by occupationally exposed persons. The total genetically effective dose received by the population from occupational exposure is also compared with that received from natural background radiation. This report also summarizes the measurements made by the R.P.S. and the U.K.A.E.A. to check the internal contamination of the body in cases where radioactivity has been ingested or inhaled
Rivero-Arias, Oliver; Gray, Alastair; Wolstenholme, Jane
To estimate life years and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) lost and the economic burden of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) in the United Kingdom including healthcare and non-healthcare costs from a societal perspective. All UK residents in 2005 with aSAH (International Classification of Diseases 10th revision (ICD-10) code I60). Sex and age-specific abridged life tables were generated for a general population and aSAH cohorts. QALYs in each cohort were calculated adjusting the life tables with health-related quality of life (HRQL) data. Healthcare costs included hospital expenditure, cerebrovascular rehabilitation, primary care and community health and social services. Non-healthcare costs included informal care and productivity losses arising from morbidity and premature death. A total of 80,356 life years and 74,807 quality-adjusted life years were estimated to be lost due to aSAH in the UK in 2005. aSAH costs the National Health Service (NHS) pound168.2 million annually with hospital inpatient admissions accounting for 59%, community health and social services for 18%, aSAH-related operations for 15% and cerebrovascular rehabilitation for 6% of the total NHS estimated costs. The average per patient cost for the NHS was estimated to be pound23,294. The total economic burden (including informal care and using the human capital method to estimate production losses) of a SAH in the United Kingdom was estimated to be pound510 million annually. The economic and disease burden of aSAH in the United Kingdom is reported in this study. Decision-makers can use these results to complement other information when informing prevention policies in this field and to relate health care expenditures to disease categories.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To estimate life years and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs lost and the economic burden of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH in the United Kingdom including healthcare and non-healthcare costs from a societal perspective. Methods All UK residents in 2005 with aSAH (International Classification of Diseases 10th revision (ICD-10 code I60. Sex and age-specific abridged life tables were generated for a general population and aSAH cohorts. QALYs in each cohort were calculated adjusting the life tables with health-related quality of life (HRQL data. Healthcare costs included hospital expenditure, cerebrovascular rehabilitation, primary care and community health and social services. Non-healthcare costs included informal care and productivity losses arising from morbidity and premature death. Results A total of 80,356 life years and 74,807 quality-adjusted life years were estimated to be lost due to aSAH in the UK in 2005. aSAH costs the National Health Service (NHS £168.2 million annually with hospital inpatient admissions accounting for 59%, community health and social services for 18%, aSAH-related operations for 15% and cerebrovascular rehabilitation for 6% of the total NHS estimated costs. The average per patient cost for the NHS was estimated to be £23,294. The total economic burden (including informal care and using the human capital method to estimate production losses of a SAH in the United Kingdom was estimated to be £510 million annually. Conclusion The economic and disease burden of aSAH in the United Kingdom is reported in this study. Decision-makers can use these results to complement other information when informing prevention policies in this field and to relate health care expenditures to disease categories.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The United Kingdom has recruited nurses from countries with a reported surplus in their nursing workforce, such as India and the Philippines. However, little is known about the decision to emigrate made by nurses from these countries. One theory suggests that individuals weigh the benefits and costs of migration: the push and pull factors. This paper challenges the restricted economic focus of this predominant theory and compares the diverse motivations of nurses from different countries as well as those of nurses with previous migratory experience and first-time migrants. Methods This research was undertaken in a National Health Service acute trust in London by means of a qualitative interpretative approach. Data were collected through face-to-face longitudinal and cross-sectional interviews with internationally recruited nurses from India (n = 6 and the Philippines (n = 15; and analysis of their narratives was used to generate data about their expectations and experiences. Data were analysed by means of a framework approach that allowed for intra-case and cross-case analysis. Results From an individual perspective, nurses in this study reported economic reasons as the main trigger for migration in the first instance. Yet this doesn't entirely explain the decision to move from previous migratory destinations (e.g. Saudi Arabia where economic needs are already fulfilled. In these cases migration is influenced by professional and social aspirations that highlight the influence of the cultural environment – specifically some religious and gender-related issues. Family support and support from migratory networks in the country of origin and destination were also important elements conducive to and supportive of migration. Nurses from India report coming to the United Kingdom to stay, while Filipina nurses come as temporary migrants sending remittances to support their families in the Philippines. Conclusion This study shows
The United Kingdom Nuclear Science Forum (UKNSF) meets twice a year to discuss issues relating to the measurement and evaluation of nuclear data. Topics cover a wide range of applications in the UK nuclear industry. Links between members are maintained throughout the year, mainly through e-mail and the UKNSF website (www.uknsf.ofg.uk). Work of primary interest includes the measurement and evaluation of decay data (e.g. half-lives and gamma ray emission probabilities), fission yields, and neutron cross sections for fission and fusion. All known studies within the UK are summarised in this report. Specific applications and international links of relevance are also described. (author)
The paper describes the status of the NPP control and instrumentation in the United Kingdom. The general technology underlying most aspects of power reactor C and I in the UK has not altered since the last progress report although there have been many improvements in detail. In one field, however, that of computer applications, the change has almost been one of kind rather than degree. The following fields are briefly described: The status of nuclear power in the UK, the development of sensors, the development of electronic equipment, signal processing - information technology, quality assurance and the validation and verification of software, expert systems, training simulators. (author). 1 ref
Sanders, B.C.; Abel, E.; Brown, M.H.; Cole, G.V.; White, L.J.
The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has a wide ranging research and development program in active handling equipment and this is now being extended into the application of teleoperators and robotics. As a direct spin-off from this work the Harwell Laboratory is undertaking a feasibility study into the application of advanced robotics in the nuclear industry for an initiative by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI). Together with the Culham Laboratory and Industry, an R and D program into the application of robotics in space is being undertaken. This paper is an overview of these and associated programs giving the background and content of the work being undertaken
Gotham, Dzintars; Meldrum, Jonathan; Nageshwaran, Vaitehi; Counts, Christopher; Kumari, Nina; Martin, Manuel; Beattie, Ben; Post, Nathan
Universities are significant contributors to research and technologies in health; however, the health needs of the world's poor are historically neglected in research. Medical discoveries are frequently licensed exclusively to one producer, allowing a monopoly and inequitable pricing. Similarly, research is often published in ways that make it inaccessible. Universities can adopt policies and practices to overcome neglect and ensure equitable access to research and its products. For 25 United Kingdom universities, data on health research funding were extracted from the top five United Kingdom funders' databases and coded as research on neglected diseases (NDs) and/or health in low- and lower-middle-income countries (hLLMIC). Data on intellectual property licensing policies and practices and open-access policies were obtained from publicly available sources and by direct contact with universities. Proportions of research articles published as open-access were extracted from PubMed and PubMed Central. Across United Kingdom universities, the median proportion of 2011-2014 health research funds attributable to ND research was 2.6% and for hLLMIC it was 1.7%. Overall, 79% of all ND funding and 74% of hLLMIC funding were granted to the top four institutions within each category. Seven institutions had policies to ensure that technologies developed from their research are affordable globally. Mostly, universities licensed their inventions to third parties in a way that confers monopoly rights. Fifteen institutions had an institutional open-access publishing policy; three had an institutional open-access publishing fund. The proportion of health-related articles with full-text versions freely available online ranged from 58% to 100% across universities (2012-2013); 23% of articles also had a creative commons CC-BY license. There is wide variation in the amount of global health research undertaken by United Kingdom universities, with a large proportion of total research
The United Kingdom's pay-for-performance system, the Quality and Outcomes Framework, continues to evolve. Since its inception in 2004, the Quality and Outcomes Framework has provided a strong focus on evidence-based performance targets that remains a dominant theme. Strengthening of the evidence base has resulted in the appearance of several new clinical indicators. Increasingly, change has been driven by explicit public health goals with targets incentivized according to their potential for mortality reduction. In 2011, a new policy direction became apparent. New indicators accounting for almost 10% of the Quality and Outcomes Framework will be determined by achievement of targets reflecting the efficient use of health service resources.
The adoption in the United Kingdom in 1976 of an Act to determine liability for injury to the unborn (foetus) has provided the opportunity to amend the Nuclear Installations Act which governs the liability of nuclear operators, which is now extended to such injury. Any 'injury' attributable to a nuclear operator which so affects a mother that her child is born disabled involves the liability of that operator within the meaning of the Nuclear Installations Act whether or not either parent has suffered an injury on that occasion. (NEA) [fr
Williams, J R; Morgan, A G; Rouch, D A; Brown, N L; Lee, B T
Thirty-three enteric isolates from Australian (Escherichia coli only) and United Kingdom (U.K.) (Salmonella sp., Citrobacter spp., and E. coli) piggeries were characterized with respect to their copper resistance. The copper resistance phenotypes of four new Australian E. coli isolates were comparable with that of the previously studied E. coli K-12 strain ED8739(pRJ1004), in that the resistance level in rich media was high (up to 18 mM CuSO4) and resistance was inducible. Copper resistance w...
Factors involving litigation in the United Kingdom involving diagnostic radiology in cases where trauma was and was not involved are discussed. Various medico-legal problems in diagnostic radiology are considered including specific issues of responsibility in radiological practice, informed consent for radiological procedures, the necessity of radiologists to visit patients following a radiological examination, the medico-legal position for using low-osmolar contrast media, radiological examinations in pregnancy, the position of radiologists regarding requests from para-medical sources and finally the retention of records. (UK)
Hawkes, N.P. (ed.) [National Physical Laboratory, Acoustics and Ionising Radiation Division, Middlesex (United Kingdom)
The United Kingdom Nuclear Science Forum (UKNSF) meets twice a year to discuss issues relating to the measurement and evaluation of nuclear data. Topics cover a wide range of applications in the UK nuclear industry. Links between members are maintained throughout the year, mainly through e-mail and the UKNSF website (www.uknsf.ofg.uk). Work of primary interest includes the measurement and evaluation of decay data (e.g. half-lives and gamma ray emission probabilities), fission yields, and neutron cross sections for fission and fusion. All known studies within the UK are summarised in this report. Specific applications and international links of relevance are also described. (author)
Poole, C. J.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the process and outcome of retirement due to ill health in six large organisations. DESIGN: Cross sectional study of the rate of retirement due to ill health by age, sex, and length of service. Principal diagnoses by age and length of service were also compared. SETTING: Four public and two private large employers in the United Kingdom. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of retirement on the grounds of ill health by age, sex, and length of service of employees contributing to p...
The main purpose of this study is to assess the impact of Brexit on the foreign direct investment (FDI) in the United Kingdom. As a novelty, compare to previous studies from the literature, the research focused on two proxies for FDI: FDI projects with the associated new and safeguarded jobs and FDI inflows as percent of GDP. Moreover, other methods were used to measure the Brexit impact on the FDI: a gravity model approach based on mixed-effects Poisson models and a counterfactual analysis b...
Lundy, Claire T; Jungbluth, Heinz; Pohl, Keith R E; Siddiqui, Ata; Marinaki, Anthony M; Mundy, Helen; Champion, Michael P
Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of purine metabolism resulting from mutations in the ADSL gene on chromosome subband 22q13.1 and associated with a wide range of clinical manifestations. Although there is currently no effective treatment of ADSL deficiency, recognition of the condition is important, because prenatal genetic diagnosis can be offered to affected families. Reported here are the cases of the only three children diagnosed to date in the United Kingdom with adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency, to further delineate the clinical phenotype and to raise awareness of this disorder. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vilela, Sofia; Santos, Susana; Padrão, Patrícia; Caraher, Martin
Several studies have pointed adverse effects of long term migration on eating habits. Research is needed to understand if this effect occurs also with a short length of migration, as is the case of international students. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of short and long term migration on eating habits of Portuguese university students. Participants were 46 English and 55 Portuguese students from universities in London, United Kingdom. The findings from this study highlight the difficulties that Portuguese students faced in maintaining a traditional Mediterranean diet after moving to a Northern European environment.
O'Brien, Kevin; Wright, Jean L.; Conboy, Frances; Macfarlane, Tatiana; Mandall, Nicky
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to validate the child perception questionnaire (CPQ11-14) with a sample of schoolchildren in Greater Manchester, United Kingdom. Methods: We made a longitudinal survey of children from 1999 to 2002, using the index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN) at baseline when the children were 11 to 12 years old, the CPQ11-14, and their uptake of orthodontic treatment 3 years later. Results: CPQ11-14 scores corresponded to differences in IOTN scores. These ...
Brown, Alison E; Kall, Meaghan M; Smith, Ruth D; Yin, Zheng; Hunter, Alan; Hunter, Alan; Delpech, Valerie C
The United Kingdom's CD4 surveillance scheme monitors CD4 cell counts among HIV patients and is a national resource for HIV surveillance. It has driven public health policy and allowed auditing of national HIV testing, treatment and care guidelines. WE DEMONSTRATE ITS UTILITY THROUGH FOUR EXAMPLE OUTPUTS: median CD4 count at HIV diagnosis; late HIV diagnosis and short-term mortality; the timing of first CD4 count to indicate entry into HIV care; and the proportion of patients with CD4 counts auditing of policies and guidelines. These routine surveillance outputs can be generated at national and local levels to drive and monitor public health policy and prevention efforts.
Rueedi, J; Cronin, A A; Moon, B; Wolf, L; Hoetzl, H
In Europe, large volumes of public water supply come from urban aquifers and so efficient urban water management and decision tools are essential to maintain quality of life both in terms of health, personal freedom and environment. In the United Kingdom, this issue gained increased importance with the last year's low volumes of groundwater replenishment that resulted in increased water shortages all over the country. An urban water volume and quality model (UVQ) was applied to a suburb of Doncaster (United Kingdom) to assess the current water supply system and to compare it with new potential scenarios of water management. The initial results show considerable changes in both water and solute fluxes for some scenarios and rather limited changes for others. Changing impermeable roads and paved areas to permeable areas, for example, would lead to higher infiltration rates that may be welcome from a water resources viewpoint but less so from a water quality point of view due to high concentrations of heavy metals. The biggest impact on water quality and quantity leaving the system through sewer, storm water and infiltration system was clearly obtained by re-using grey water from kitchen, bathroom and laundry for irrigation and toilet flush. The testing of this strategy led to lower volumes and higher concentrations of sewerage, a considerable decrease in water consumption and an increase in groundwater recharge. The scenarios were tested neither in terms of costs nor social acceptance for either water supplier or user.
Jones, Patrick; Rai, Bhavan Prasad
Bedside teaching holds a strong tradition as a key-learning platform for clinical examination in the basic medical clerkship. There is a growing body of literature expressing concern for its witnessed decline in medical school curricula. However, the views of students toward this patient-centered cornerstone in surgical education remain under-reported. The purpose of this study was to gain a nationwide perspective on bedside teaching according to medical students in the United Kingdom. An adapted Delphi method was employed to formulate the question series as part of a multi-step process including a pilot study, which was used to construct this survey. The target population was medical undergraduates in the United Kingdom and participants were recruited via social media. Outcomes assessed included exposure to bedside teaching, perceived benefits of clinical simulation, and junior doctors as clinical teachers. Barriers to clinical examination were also evaluated. Overall, 368 completed surveys were received (completion rate 98.9%). Final year students were significantly more likely to report receiving insufficient bedside teaching (Pbarrier to overcome when examining patients and two-thirds of students felt they burdened patients during bedside teaching. This prospective study confirms the exposure deficit, which medical students experience in bedside teaching. The junior doctor represents a dynamic clinical teacher in the face of working time directives. Peer learning is a novel solution to such pressures. Work is needed to re-establish the hospital wards as a supportive environment for student learning.
Poduval, Shoba; Howard, Natasha; Jones, Lucy; Murwill, Phil; McKee, Martin; Legido-Quigley, Helena
Immigration is a key political issue in the United Kingdom. The 2014 Immigration Act includes a number of measures intended to reduce net immigration, including removing the right of non-European Economic Area migrants to access free health care. This change risks widening existing health and social inequalities. This study explored the experiences of undocumented migrants trying to access primary care in the United Kingdom, their perspectives on proposed access restrictions, and suggestions for policymakers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 undocumented migrants and four volunteer staff at a charity clinic in London. Inductive thematic analysis drew out major themes. Many undocumented migrants already faced challenges accessing primary care. None of the migrants interviewed said that they would be able to afford charges to access primary care and most said they would have to wait until they were much more unwell and access care through Accident & Emergency (A&E) services. The consequences of limiting access to primary care, including threats to individual and public health consequences and the additional burden on the National Health Service, need to be fully considered by policymakers. The authors argue that an evidence-based approach would avoid legislation that targets vulnerable groups and provides no obvious economic or societal benefit. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions:]br]sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Parsons, H K; Metcalf, S C; Tomlin, K; Read, R C; Dockrell, D H
Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is associated with a high mortality despite antimicrobial therapy, but may be preventable by pneumococcal vaccination. The extent of previous exposure to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccination prior to an episode of IPD in hospitalised adults in the United Kingdom is unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in adults with IPD admitted to either of two teaching hospitals in Sheffield, United Kingdom during 1992-2000. Receipt of pneumococcal vaccination, risk factors for IPD, death and disability were determined. The number of cases of IPD was 552 and 187/230 patient records from one site were reviewed. According to UK pneumococcal vaccination guidelines 59% of patients should have received the vaccine and 76% of patients if updated guidelines, which include age>65 years as an indication, are applied. In patients with known risk factors, excluding age, only 8% had been vaccinated. The mortality from IPD was 21% and an additional 6% suffered major complications. In patients hospitalised with IPD there is a high rate of pre-existing risk factors and a low rate of administration of pneumococcal vaccination. IPD incurs significant mortality, morbidity and economic cost and there is potential for reducing this by improved uptake of pneumococcal vaccination.
Giannopoulos, Antonios; Alani, Amir
Ground penetrating radar has been playing an important role for many years in assisting in the non-destructive evaluation of UK's built environment as well as being employed in more general shallow depth geophysical investigations. Ground penetrating radar, in the United Kingdom, has a long history of original work both in developing original research ideas on fundamental aspects of the technique, both in hardware and in software, and in exploring innovative ideas relating to the practical implementation of ground penetrating radar in a number of interesting projects. For example, the base of one of the biggest organisations that connects ground penetrating radar practitioners is in the United Kingdom. This paper will endeavour to review the current status of ground penetrating radar research - primarily carried out in UK Universities - and present some key areas and work that is carried out at a practical level - primarily by private enterprises. Although, the main effort is to concentrate on ground penetrating radar applications relating to civil engineering problems other related areas of ground penetrating radar application will also be reviewed. The aim is to create a current picture of ground penetrating radar use with a view to inform and potentially enhance the possibility of new developments and collaborations that could lead to the advancement of ground penetrating radar as a geophysical investigative method. This work is a contribution to COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar.
Full Text Available The Great Financial Crisis has been touted to be the worst crisis since the Great Depression of 1930; its effect has profound ramifications on the global economy. The nature and the severity of the crisis provoked an unprecedented policy response from policy makers at both global and domestic levels. To address the rampaging crisis, the Bank of England implemented a number of conventional and unconventional policy measures to curtail the economic rot and to stimulate economic growth. There is a broad consensus in the empirical literature and other evidence found in this paper that a number of the policies implemented in the United Kingdom played a significant role in re-directing and stimulating the economy. This paper reviews the various policy measures adopted by the Bank of England from the inception of the financial crisis in 2008 and assesses their effectiveness in bringing back the economy from the brink of collapse. Our review shows that quantitative easing (QE policy and the expansionary fiscal policy adopted by the Bank of England were effective policy tools used in stimulating economic growth, stemming the effect and shortening the duration of the crisis in the United Kingdom
Kono, Shin; Gotoda, Takuji; Yoshida, Shigeaki; Oda, Ichiro; Kondo, Hitoshi; Gatta, Luigi; Naylor, Greg; Dixon, Michael; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Axon, Anthony
To assess the diagnostic concordance between endoscopic and histological atrophy in the United Kingdom and Japan. Using published data, a total of 252 patients, 126 in the United Kingdom and 126 in Japan, aged 20 to 80 years, were evaluated. The extent of endoscopic atrophy was classified into five subgroups according to a modified Kimura-Takemoto classification system and was compared with histological findings of atrophy at five biopsy sites according to the updated Sydney system. The strength of agreement of the extent of atrophy between histology and visual endoscopic inspection showed good reproducibility, with a weighted kappa value of 0.76 (P atrophy (OR = 0.10, 95%CI: 0.03-0.36). The strength of agreement between endoscopic and histological atrophy, assessed by cancer risk-oriented grading, was reproducible, with a kappa value of 0.81 (95%CI: 0.75-0.87). Only nine patients (3.6%) were endoscopically underdiagnosed with antral predominant rather than extensive atrophy and were considered false negatives. Endoscopic grading can predict histological atrophy with few false negatives, indicating that precancerous conditions can be identified during screening endoscopy, particularly in patients in western countries.
Denton, D A; Newton, J T; Bower, E J
To determine the levels of burnout and work engagement among dentists in the United Kingdom.Study design Postal survey of 500 dentists selected at random from the General Dental Council register. Respondents completed a questionnaire pack comprising the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-17) and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS), together with questions on demographic characteristics. Approximately 8% of respondents had scores suggestive of burnout on all three scales of the MBI-HSS and a further 18.5% had high scores in two of the domains. Eighty-three percent of respondents had work engagement scores suggestive of moderate or high work engagement. Dentists with postgraduate qualifications and those who work in larger teams had lower burnout scores and more positive work engagement scores. Dentists who spend a greater proportion of their time in NHS practice showed lower work engagement and higher levels of burnout. Burnout affects a small but significant proportion of dental practitioners in the United Kingdom. A larger proportion of practitioners show low work engagement, suggesting a negative attitude to their work. Higher burnout scores and lower work engagement scores were found in dentists without postgraduate qualifications, those in small teams and in those who spend a greater proportion of their time in NHS practice.
Ball-King, Laurence; Watt, John; Ball, David J
Following a tragic accident in 1993 involving the deaths of teenagers while kayaking a new regulatory regime was imposed upon some adventure sports providers in the United Kingdom. In particular, a new regulatory body, the Adventure Activities Licensing Authority (AALA), was established to oversee the sector. Yet in 2010, a government-sponsored review recommended that AALA be abolished and this recommendation has been quickly accepted by government. This article explores the background to these developments through documentation, interviews with those affected by the AALA regime, and court cases. Evidence reported here, perhaps surprising, is that AALA itself is seen in a very positive light by many, even those it regulates. What may have happened is that AALA became caught up in a wider debate about the place and management of risk in life beyond the workplace, which has been simmering in the United Kingdom for a decade or more, and of which it fell foul. It may also be that adventure sports, because they entail voluntary engagement with high consequence hazards, starkly expose serious questions about the application of conventional, factory-originated risk assessment approaches to life in general. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.
Andrew James Reid
Full Text Available Political participation in the United Kingdom among young voters (aged 18-24 has steadily declined over the past two decades. Alongside this decline, video game popularity has meteorically risen among the same demographic, resulting in video games becoming increasingly more integrated within modern society. While these instances are not necessarily related, there is opportunity to explore the use of video games’ popularity to increase political participation.The basis of this research is to investigate video games as a medium for social change, and its application within a political context in order to encourage political participation in the United Kingdom. The research intends to critically analyse existing video game design theories with implications of social impact, such as transformative design, procedural rhetoric, ethical design, persuasive principles and the theory of play.This research has assisted in the development of the Political Design Framework, a design methodology that provides ethical definition and validation for video games that intend to promote political engagement.
Hunter, M L; Harrhy, L E; Morgan, M Z
To provide information relevant to the current and predicted future profile of the UK's specialist workforce in paediatric dentistry. Postal questionnaire. Two hundred and twenty-one registered dentists whose names appeared on the Specialist List in Paediatric Dentistry and who were identified as resident within the United Kingdom. Questionnaires were returned by 192 specialists, a response rate of 86.9%. This paper is, however, based on data provided by 187 respondents currently practising in the United Kingdom (54 (28.9%) male and 133 (71.1%) female). The majority of respondents were based in England (138) and practised in hospital settings (120). Eighty-two respondents (14 males and 68 females) stated that they were working part-time and 57 (5 males and 52 females) indicated that they had already taken a break at some time during their career. Eighty-four (45.2%) respondents plan to retire during the next ten years. Working patterns associated with a feminised workforce will have a considerable impact on the volume of service that can be provided. Workforce planners must be cognisant of the need to increase the number of specialists in training to take account of service lost through part-time working and career breaks.
Newbery, S G; Cooke, S W; Martineau, H M
Internationally, forensic medicine and pathology are increasingly recognized as an important aspect of work done by veterinary clinicians and veterinary pathologists. In this article, a forensic veterinary clinician, a forensic veterinary pathologist in private practice, and a forensic veterinary pathologist at a veterinary school discuss the interactions among veterinary clinicians, veterinary pathologists, and law enforcement agencies and how future interactions can be improved. The focus is on the United Kingdom, but many of the principles, challenges, and suggestions are applicable to other jurisdictions. Clinicians and pathologists require forensic training to enable them to apply their veterinary knowledge to suspected cases of animal abuse and to subsequently present their findings and conclusions to a court of law in a concise, professional, and unbiased manner, and some opportunities for such advanced training in the United Kingdom are indicated. It is important that forensic veterinary clinicians and pathologists interact in an unbiased and collegial manner to answer the questions posed by courts of law. Opportunities for improved training, communication, and interaction among forensic veterinarians, forensic scientists, and law enforcement are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.
Bray, Rebecca Scott
At the beginning of 2008, the United Kingdom Government rolled into the Counter-Terrorism Bill some controversial proposals to reform coronial inquest processes, namely clauses that would provide for "secret inquests". The provisions were heavily criticised both inside and outside Parliament, and took a rocky passage through both the House of Commons and the House of Lords before eventually being abandoned by the government. In 2009 the government again tried to introduce "secret inquests" with the Coroners and Justice Bill, instead ultimately succeeding in establishing what critics have termed a "parallel" system of justice through provisions around "secret inquiries". This move has been seen as subverting the principles of transparency and open justice in the investigation of contentious deaths. This article examines the government's efforts to introduce "secret inquests" and thereafter "secret inquiries" in the context of the United Kingdom's coronial law and purpose, human rights obligations and the ongoing issues around sensitive intelligence, and examines the clash of laws that gave rise to the controversial proposals.
Williams, Craig A; Gowing, Lucy; Horn, Richard; Stuart, Alan Graham
Physical activity and exercise have important health benefits for children and adolescents with CHD. The objective of this study was to survey the provision of advice and recommendations in United Kingdom paediatric CHD clinics. A three-page questionnaire was sent out to paediatric cardiac consultants in the United Kingdom, paediatric consultants with expertise in cardiology, and nursing staff (Paediatricians with Expertise in Cardiology Special Interest Group), as well as all members of the British Congenital Cardiovascular Association. The aim of this questionnaire was to determine the extent and scope of current information provision and to assess the importance that clinicians place on this advice. There were 68 responses in total, and the data showed that, of these, 24 (36%) clinicians had never provided paediatric CHD patients with written advice about exercise. Only 27 (39%) clinicians provided physical activity advice at every appointment. Lack of time during consultation (n=39, 56.9%), lack of training (n=38, 55.2%), and uncertainty about appropriate recommendations (n=38, 55.2%) were identified as the main factors preventing clinicians from providing patients with advice about physical activity. Although healthcare providers consider physical activity to be very important, the provision of clear, specific advice and recommendations is underutilised; therefore, more education and provision of resources to support the promotion of exercise need to be provided to clinicians and their support teams.
Derwent, R.G.; Wilson, R.B.
The United Kingdom environmental research into the mechanisms of the atmospheric transport and deposition of acidity, to understand the impacts of that acidity on soils, surface waters, forests, crops and the built environment and the consequences for fishery status, freshwater and soil ecosystems. The Critical Loads Approach opens the possibility of more subtle and sensitive ways of tackling the problems of environmental acidification on the European scale. The United Kingdom is contributing vigorously to the Critical Loads Approach through the mapping exercises, the environmental studies that underpin them and the understanding of the driving deposition mechanisms which lead both to pollutant removal and ecosystem contamination. Future progress with the UN ECE Convention on the Long Range Transport of Air Pollution and the revision of the NO x , SO 2 and VOC protocols will rest in very large measure on the shared confidence within Europe in the knowledge of the underpinning environmental science. The Critical Loads Approach should provide an important policy focus within the international scientific community to set environmentally-based targets for future co-ordinated emission control programmes
Boufana, Belgees; Lett, Wai San; Lahmar, Samia; Buishi, Imad; Bodell, Anthony J; Varcasia, Antonio; Casulli, Adriano; Beeching, Nicholas J; Campbell, Fiona; Terlizzo, Monica; McManus, Donald P; Craig, Philip S
Cystic echinococcosis is endemic in Europe including the United Kingdom. However, information on the molecular epidemiology of Echinococcus spp. from the United Kingdom is limited. Echinococcus isolates from intermediate and definitive animal hosts as well as from human cystic echinococcosis cases were analysed to determine species and genotypes within these hosts. Echinococcus equinus was identified from horse hydatid isolates, cysts retrieved from captive UK mammals and copro-DNA of foxhounds and farm dogs. Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) was identified from hydatid cysts of sheep and cattle as well as in DNA extracted from farm dog and foxhound faecal samples, and from four human cystic echinococcosis isolates, including the first known molecular confirmation of E. granulosus s.s. infection in a Welsh sheep farmer. Low genetic variability for E. equinus from various hosts and from different geographical locations was detected using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1), indicating the presence of a dominant haplotype (EQUK01). In contrast, greater haplotypic variation was observed for E. granulosus s.s. cox1 sequences. The haplotype network showed a star-shaped network with a centrally placed main haplotype (EgUK01) that had been reported from other world regions. Copyright © 2014 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fernández de Marco, M; Brugman, V A; Hernández-Triana, L M; Thorne, L; Phipps, L P; Nikolova, N I; Fooks, A R; Johnson, N
Theileria spp. are tick-borne protozoan parasites that infect a wide range of wild and domestic animals. In this study, the utility of xenosurveillance of blood-fed specimens of Culiseta annulata for detecting the presence of piroplasms in livestock was investigated. Blood-fed mosquitoes were collected at Elmley National Nature Reserve, Kent, United Kingdom. All specimens were morphologically identified, and DNA barcoding was used to confirm the morphological identification. Both the vertebrate host species and Theileria genome was detected within the bloodmeal by real-time PCR. Sequencing was used to confirm the identity of all amplicons. In total, 105 blood-fed mosquitoes morphologically identified as Cs. annulata were collected. DNA barcoding revealed that 102 specimens were Cs. annulata (99%), while a single specimen was identified as Anopheles messeae. Two specimens could not be identified molecularly due to PCR amplification failure. Blood meal analysis revealed that Cs. annulata fed almost exclusively on cattle at the collection site (n=100). The application of a pan-piroplasm PCR detected 16 positive samples (15.2%) and sequence analysis of the amplicons demonstrated that the piroplasms present in the blood meal belonged to the Theileria orientalis group. This study demonstrates how xenosurveillance can be applied to detecting pathogens in livestock and confirms the presence of Theileria species in livestock from the United Kingdom. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mighell, A J
The technical aspects of dentistry need to be practised with insight into the spectrum of human diseases and illnesses and how these impact upon individuals and society. Application of this insight is critical to decision-making related to the planning and delivery of safe and appropriate patient-centred healthcare tailored to the needs of the individual. Provision for the necessary training is included in undergraduate programmes, but in the United Kingdom and Ireland there is considerable variation between centres without common outcomes. In 2009 representatives from 17 undergraduate dental schools in the United Kingdom and Ireland agreed to move towards a common, shared approach to meet their own immediate needs and that might also be of value to others in keeping with the Bologna Process. To provide a clear identity the term \\'Clinical Medical Sciences in Dentistry\\' was agreed in preference to other names such as \\'Human Disease\\' or \\'Medicine and Surgery\\'. The group was challenged to define consensus outcomes. Contemporary dental education documents informed, but did not drive the process. The consensus curriculum for undergraduate Clinical Medical Sciences in Dentistry teaching agreed by the participating centres is reported. Many of the issues are generic and it includes elements that are likely to be applicable to others. This document will act as a focus for a more unified approach to the outcomes required by graduates of the participating centres and act as a catalyst for future developments that ultimately aim to enhance the quality of patient care.
Renata Carvalho de OLIVEIRA
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective This pilot study was aimed at exploring preferences of young adults in two different contexts on restaurant menu labelling formats. Methods Five focus groups were conducted with 36 participants, two focus groups with 11 participants in Brazil and three focus groups with 25 in the United Kingdom. Themes originating from the content analysis of the transcriptions were organised around four possible menu labelling formats: 1 numerical information on calories; 2 numerical information on calories and nutrients; 3 traffic light system plus Guideline Daily Amounts; 4 food information with ingredients list plus highlighted symbols. Results In both countries, participants preferred the ingredients list plus symbols format, considered more comprehensive and useful to make an informed food choice. Organic food and vegetarian symbols were the ones considered most important to appear on restaurant menu labels with ingredients list. However, most participants in Brazil and in the United Kingdom rejected the information restricted to calories and calories plus nutrients formats, saying that these would not influence their own choices. Conclusion This is the first multicultural qualitative study exploring preferences of people living in different countries with different eating habits, but where menu labelling is voluntary. Results evidenced similarities in participants’ likes and dislikes for menu labelling formats in these two different contexts. Discussions showed participants in both countries prefer qualitative information than numerical information, suggesting that ingredients list and symbols provide information that people want to see on the menu.
Nassab, Reza; Harris, Paul
Over the past 10 years, there has been significant fluctuation in the yearly growth rates for cosmetic surgery procedures in both the United States and the United Kingdom. The authors compare cosmetic surgical procedure rates in the United Kingdom and United States with the macroeconomic climate of each region to determine whether there is a direct relationship between cosmetic surgery rates and economic health. The authors analyzed annual cosmetic surgery statistics from the British Association of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons and the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery for 2002-2011 against economic indices from both regions, including the gross domestic product (GDP), consumer prices indices (CPI), and stock market reports. There was a 285.9% increase in the United Kingdom and a 1.1% increase in the United States in the number of procedures performed between 2002 and 2011. There were significant positive correlations between the number of cosmetic procedures performed in the United Kingdom and both the GDP (r = 0.986, P failed to show a significant relationship with any indices. UK interest rates showed a significant negative correlation (r = -0.668, P indices are accurate indicators of numbers of procedures being performed in the United Kingdom, whereas rates in the United States seem independent of those factors.
Zodiates, A.M.; Willcock, A. [PWR Project Group, Knutsford, England (United Kingdom)
The Pressurizer Water Reactor (PWR) design chosen for adoption by Nuclear Electric plc was based on the Westinghouse Standard Nuclear Unit Power Plant System (SNUPPS). This design was developed to meet the United Kingdom (UK) requirements and those improvements are embodied in the Sizewell B plant. Nuclear Electric plc is now looking to the design of the future PWRs to be built in the UK. These PWRs will be based as replicas of the Sizewell B design, but attention will be given to reducing operator doses further. This paper details the approach in operator protection improvements incorporated at Sizewall B, presents the estimated annual collective dose, and identifies the approach being adopted to reduce further operator doses in future plants.
Just as in the United States, political changes in the United Kingdom and other nations affect education policy. Louise Stoll, professor at the London Centre for Leadership in Learning, Institute of Education, University of London, offers a different view on policy in these excerpts from a conversation with Tracy Crow, Learning Forward's associate…
Parenteral nutrition (PN) plays an important role in providing nutrients for infants unable to tolerate enteral feeds study was to look at PN prescribing in neonatal units in the United Kingdom (U.K.) and Ireland, in particular in infants < 1.5 kg. A postal questionnaire was administered to the 235 neonatal units. The response rate was 179 (76%), of which 136 (76%) used PN. The initial amount of protein prescribed was 0.1-2 g\\/kg\\/day in 102 units (91%), >2 g\\/kg\\/day in 4 (4%) and 5 (5%) used no protein. 88 (80%) started lipids with the first PN prescription. Only 5 units (5%) started with >1 g\\/kg\\/day. The maximum dose of lipids and protein both varied from 2 - >4 g\\/kg\\/day. The initial glucose infusion rate was 4-8 mg\\/kg\\/min. Interestingly only 44% of units started PN in the first 24 hours of age. Hence results show great variation in PN prescribing.
New world origins for haemoparasites infecting United Kingdom grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), as revealed by phylogenetic analysis of bartonella infecting squirrel populations in England and the United States.
Bown, K. J.; Ellis, B. A.; Birtles, R. J.; Durden, L. A.; Lello, J.; Begon, M.; Bennett, M.
Phylogenetic analyses of bartonella have suggested divergence between bartonellae that infect mammals native to the Old and New Worlds. We characterized bartonella isolated from Eastern grey squirrels (Sciurius carolinensis) in the United States and from grey and red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in the United Kingdom by nucleotide sequence comparison (gltA and groEL). Isolates from grey squirrels in the United States and the United Kingdom were identical, and most similar to Bartonella vinsonii, a species associated with New World rodents. A single and novel bartonella genotype was obtained from all 12 red squirrel isolates. Although grey squirrels were first introduced into the United Kingdom over 125 years ago, they continue to be infected solely by the bartonella associated with grey squirrels native to the United States. These results illustrate that exotic species may be accompanied by the introduction and maintenance, over many generations, of their microparasites. PMID:12558350
New world origins for haemoparasites infecting United Kingdom grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), as revealed by phylogenetic analysis of bartonella infecting squirrel populations in England and the United States.
Bown, K J; Ellis, B A; Birtles, R J; Durden, L A; Lello, J; Begon, M; Bennett, M
Phylogenetic analyses of bartonella have suggested divergence between bartonellae that infect mammals native to the Old and New Worlds. We characterized bartonella isolated from Eastern grey squirrels (Sciurius carolinensis) in the United States and from grey and red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in the United Kingdom by nucleotide sequence comparison (gltA and groEL). Isolates from grey squirrels in the United States and the United Kingdom were identical, and most similar to Bartonella vinsonii, a species associated with New World rodents. A single and novel bartonella genotype was obtained from all 12 red squirrel isolates. Although grey squirrels were first introduced into the United Kingdom over 125 years ago, they continue to be infected solely by the bartonella associated with grey squirrels native to the United States. These results illustrate that exotic species may be accompanied by the introduction and maintenance, over many generations, of their microparasites.
Full Text Available Abstract Global research has shown the persistence of inequality with regard to accessing curriculum with a view to obtaining suitable work and making useful contributions to society. The intersection of race, gender, language and low socio-economic levels creates situations which often marginalize ethnic minorities in school settings (Freire, 1968; Nieto & Turner, 2012. The graduation rates in the United States for Native American, African American and Hispanic students are lower than the graduation rates of Whites and Asian Americans. In addition, Bangladeshis and African Caribbeans currently living in the UK are under-represented in higher education, particularly young men in those communities. The research questions that guide this inquiry are: (1 According to databases, how does the academic performance of language minority groups compare to the academic performance of non-linguistic minority groups at the elementary and secondary levels of education? (2 According to language support teachers and university students, what are the strengths and weaknesses of the instructional practices for language minorities who are learning English in the United Kingdom (UK (Bristol and the United States (US (Henrico? Participants were: five UK teachers, four UK university students, five US teachers, four US university students. Data collection supervised by lead researchers included interviews, focus groups, classroom observation, and performance documents. Data analysis utilized a mixed-methods approach. Overall, linguistic minority groups performed lower than their English proficient peers. Culturally, UK teachers provided a greater emphasis on religious instruction, whereas US teachers addressed patriotic topics more frequently. Teachers in the United States and the United Kingdom were culturally supportive with slight variation in the encouraged use of the students’ heritage languages.
Chung, Wonjun; Choi, Jinbong
Based on a concept of professionalism, this study analyzed and compared current public relations curricula of higher education among the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea. In terms of three educational orientations, results indicated that public relations education in the United States is the most balanced among theoretical,…
The Director General has received a communication from the Resident Representatives of France, Germany and the United Kingdom, dated 8 August 2005, attaching the text of a letter dated 5 August 2005 sent by the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of France, Germany and the United Kingdom, and the High Representative of the European Union, to the Secretary of the Supreme National Security Council of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The letter transmits proposals for a Framework for a Long-Term Agreement between the Islamic Republic of Iran and France, Germany and the United Kingdom, with the Support of the High Representative of the European Union. The communication from the Permanent Missions and, as requested therein, the text of the letter and its enclosure, are herewith attached for the information of all Member States
Cotton, Matthew; Rattle, Imogen; Van Alstine, James
Shale gas has become an energy policy priority in the United Kingdom in light of profitable extraction activities in the United States. Since 2012 the Coalition Government has created key economic drivers to encourage shale exploration, whilst growing activism in affected site communities has stirred significant media and academic commentary. This study examines the growing national debate as a matter of discourse, adopting an argumentative discourse analytic approach to assess data collected from stakeholder interviews (n=21) and key policy actor statements quoted in broadsheet newspapers. We explore three dominant “storylines” emerging in relation to shale gas policy: (1) “cleanliness and dirt” concerns the relative framing of the environmental benefits and harms of shale gas; (2) “energy transitions – pathways and diversions” concerns geographic metaphors of transitions to carbon intensive and low-carbon energy systems; and (3) “geographies of environmental justice” concerns divisions of economic benefit distribution, environmental impact and procedural fairness. We find that central government policy rhetoric emphasises economic development, regulatory oversight and distribution of benefits to site communities, whilst minimising discussion of the implications of shale gas for anthropogenic climate change. The role of these discourses in influencing shale gas policy is discussed. - Highlights: • We examine the discourses emerging in relation to shale gas policy in the United Kingdom. • We use a combination of stakeholder interviews and a broadsheet newspaper search. • Three “storylines” emerge: “cleanliness and dirt”, “energy transitions” and “geographies of environmental justice”. • UK policy rhetoric emphasises economic development, regulatory oversight and distribution of benefits to site communities. • The issue of climate change is marginalised in UK shale gas policy
This case note addresses the recent European Court of Human Rights case Al-Jedda v the United Kingdom. In this case, the Court decided that the act of detaining and interning the applicant in Iraq was attributable to the United Kingdom, and not the United Nations, and that the applicant fell under
Arora, V S; Stuckler, D; McKee, M
First, to determine if a cyclical trend is observed for search activity of suicide and three common suicide risk factors in the United Kingdom: depression, unemployment, and marital strain. Second, to test the validity of suicide search data as a potential marker of suicide risk by evaluating whether web searches for suicide associate with suicide rates among those of different ages and genders in the United Kingdom. Cross-sectional. Search engine data was obtained from Google Trends, a publicly available repository of information of trends and patterns of user searches on Google. The following phrases were entered into Google Trends to analyse relative search volume for suicide, depression, job loss, and divorce, respectively: 'suicide'; 'depression + depressed + hopeless'; 'unemployed + lost job'; 'divorce'. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was employed to test bivariate associations between suicide search activity and official suicide rates from the Office of National Statistics (ONS). Cyclical trends were observed in search activity for suicide and depression-related search activity, with peaks in autumn and winter months, and a trough in summer months. A positive, non-significant association was found between suicide-related search activity and suicide rates in the general working-age population (15-64 years) (ρ = 0.164; P = 0.652). This association is stronger in younger age groups, particularly for those 25-34 years of age (ρ = 0.848; P = 0.002). We give credence to a link between search activity for suicide and suicide rates in the United Kingdom from 2004 to 2013 for high risk sub-populations (i.e. male youth and young professionals). There remains a need for further research on how Google Trends can be used in other areas of disease surveillance and for work to provide greater geographical precision, as well as research on ways of mitigating the risk of internet use leading to suicide ideation in youth. Copyright © 2015 The Royal
She, Qianru; Wotherspoon, Terry
Against the backdrop of demographic change and economic reconfiguration, recruiting international students, especially those at tertiary level, has drawn growing attention from advanced economies as part of a broad strategy to manage highly skilled migration. This comparative study focuses on three English speaking countries receiving international students: Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. International student policies, in particular entry and immigration regulations, and the trends in student mobility since the late 1990s are examined drawing on secondary data. By exploring the issue from the political economy perspectives, this study identifies distinct national strategies for managing student mobility, determines key factors shaping the environment of student migration in each nation, and addresses the deficiency of human capital theory in the analysis of global competition for high skills.
Thakkar, Vidhi; Sullivan, Terrence
Health services and policy research (HSPR) represent a multidisciplinary field which integrates knowledge from health economics, health policy, health technology assessment, epidemiology, political science among other fields, to evaluate decisions in health service delivery. Health service decisions are informed by evidence at the clinical, organizational, and policy level, levels with distinct, managerial drivers. HSPR has an evolving discourse spanning knowledge translation, linkage and exchange between research and decision-maker partners and more recently, implementation science and learning health systems. Local context is important for HSPR and is important in advancing health reform practice. The amounts and configuration of national investment in this field remain important considerations which reflect priority investment areas. The priorities set within this field or research may have greater or lesser effects and promise with respect to modernizing health services in pursuit of better value and better population outcomes. Within Canada an asset map for HSPR was published by the national HSPR research institute. Having estimated publicly-funded research spending in Canada, we sought identify best available comparable estimates from the United States and the United Kingdom. Investments from industry and charitable organizations were not included in these numbers. This commentary explores spending by the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom on HSPR as a fraction of total public spending on health and the importance of these respective investments in advancing health service performance. Proposals are offered on the merits of common nomenclature and accounting for areas of investigation in pursuit of some comparable way of assessing priority HSPR investments and suggestions for earmarking such investments to total investment in health services spending. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open
Full Text Available Health services and policy research (HSPR represent a multidisciplinary field which integrates knowledge from health economics, health policy, health technology assessment, epidemiology, political science among other fields, to evaluate decisions in health service delivery. Health service decisions are informed by evidence at the clinical, organizational, and policy level, levels with distinct, managerial drivers. HSPR has an evolving discourse spanning knowledge translation, linkage and exchange between research and decision-maker partners and more recently, implementation science and learning health systems. Local context is important for HSPR and is important in advancing health reform practice. The amounts and configuration of national investment in this field remain important considerations which reflect priority investment areas. The priorities set within this field or research may have greater or lesser effects and promise with respect to modernizing health services in pursuit of better value and better population outcomes. Within Canada an asset map for HSPR was published by the national HSPR research institute. Having estimated publiclyfunded research spending in Canada, we sought identify best available comparable estimates from the United States and the United Kingdom. Investments from industry and charitable organizations were not included in these numbers. This commentary explores spending by the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom on HSPR as a fraction of total public spending on health and the importance of these respective investments in advancing health service performance. Proposals are offered on the merits of common nomenclature and accounting for areas of investigation in pursuit of some comparable way of assessing priority HSPR investments and suggestions for earmarking such investments to total investment in health services spending.
Photo 01: Mr Peter Warry, PPARC Chairman, Victrex Plc, United Kingdom visiting the ATLAS SCT module tests with Dr Joleen Pater, SCT (Manchester). Photo 02: PPARC Council Members, United Kingdom, visiting the ATLAS SCT module tests. L.t to r.: Mrs Judith Scott, Chief Executive, British Computer Society, Prof. George Efstathiou, Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Mr Peter Warry, PPARC Chairman, Victrex Plc, Prof. Martin Ward, Director X-Ray Astronomy, of Leicester, Prof. James Stirling, Director, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, University of Durham and Prof. Brian Foster, University of Bristol.
The Chairman of the Board of Governors received on 16 January 2006 a communication dated 13 January 2006, copied to the Director General, from the Permanent Missions of France, Germany and the United Kingdom, enclosing a statement issued on the occasion of the meeting on 12 January 2006 in Berlin of the Foreign Ministers of France, Germany and the United Kingdom and the High Representative of the European Union. The communication from the Permanent Missions and, as requested therein, the text of the statement, are herewith attached for the information of all Member States
The Director General received on 2 August 2005 a communication from the Permanent Missions of France, Germany and the United Kingdom, dated 2 August 2005, attaching the text of a letter sent by the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of France, Germany and the United Kingdom, and the High Representative of the European Union, to the Secretary of the Supreme National Security Council of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The communication from the Permanent Missions and, as requested therein, the text of the letter, are herewith attached for the information of all Member States
Full Text Available France and the United Kingdom are influential backers when it comes to the global governance of aid to developing countries. A short history of the contributions made by these former colonial powers to ODA is presented, covering the institutions concerned, strategies conducted and funding provided. These institutions have undergone complex changes since the initial phase of making “improvements” in the colonies up until recent reforms. Their ambitious strategies, grounded on considerable research, have received attention from a multilateral audience, turning the colonial question into a global issue. The vision of aid in both France and the UK is broader than is conveyed by the calculations that are carried out by the OECD’s DAC. Though subject to political contingencies, aid from these countries amounts to a substantial contribution that seeks to respond to various development needs.
A system analysis approach to the assessment of comparative cost and energy contributions of some new technologies is presented. The work reported here refers to the energy system of the United Kingdom, and was carried out within the context of a multi-national R and D Strategy Project. The main tool of analysis is the linear program MARKAL, the function and method of operation of which are described briefly. A range of 14 scenarios is analysed, covering various assumption about the availability of oil, of nuclear power, and of the new technologies themselves. The input data used are described in detail. An overall view of the results is obtained in terms of the trade-off between independence from imported oil and total extra cost, and a cross-section of the detailed results is presented to illustrate and analyse the role of a number of new technologies. (orig.) [de
Samsudin, Humaida Banu
This study is intended to look at the company's age to be one of the predictor for financially distressed non-life insurance companies in United Kingdom. Financial distress is a condition where a company has difficulty paying off its obligations to its creditors. For this study, Lexis plot is used to identify either younger companies or older companies are in run-off. Run-off is a process where many insurance companies stop underwriting policies long before they reach financial crisis or financial distress. The study utilises financial data of 22 years from year 1985 to year 2006 for 397 companies. From the study, it is identified that younger companies are more in financial distress than older companies.
Myles, Puja R.; Openshaw, Peter J.M.; Gadd, Elaine M.; Lim, Wei Shen; Semple, Malcolm G.; Read, Robert C.; Taylor, Bruce L.; McMenamin, James; Armstrong, Colin; Bannister, Barbara; Nicholson, Karl G.; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S.
To determine clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized in the United Kingdom with pandemic (H1N1) 2009, we studied 1,520 patients in 75 National Health Service hospitals. We characterized patients who acquired influenza nosocomially during the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 outbreak. Of 30 patients, 12 (80%) of 15 adults and 14 (93%) of 15 children had serious underlying illnesses. Only 12 (57%) of 21 patients who received antiviral therapy did so within 48 hours after symptom onset, but 53% needed escalated care or mechanical ventilation; 8 (27%) of 30 died. Despite national guidelines and standardized infection control procedures, nosocomial transmission remains a problem when influenza is prevalent. Health care workers should be routinely offered influenza vaccine, and vaccination should be prioritized for all patients at high risk. Staff should remain alert to the possibility of influenza in patients with complex clinical problems and be ready to institute antiviral therapy while awaiting diagnosis during influenza outbreaks. PMID:21470446
Bateman, Ian J; Harwood, Amii R; Mace, Georgina M; Watson, Robert T; Abson, David J; Andrews, Barnaby; Binner, Amy; Crowe, Andrew; Day, Brett H; Dugdale, Steve; Fezzi, Carlo; Foden, Jo; Hadley, David; Haines-Young, Roy; Hulme, Mark; Kontoleon, Andreas; Lovett, Andrew A; Munday, Paul; Pascual, Unai; Paterson, James; Perino, Grischa; Sen, Antara; Siriwardena, Gavin; van Soest, Daan; Termansen, Mette
Landscapes generate a wide range of valuable ecosystem services, yet land-use decisions often ignore the value of these services. Using the example of the United Kingdom, we show the significance of land-use change not only for agricultural production but also for emissions and sequestration of greenhouse gases, open-access recreational visits, urban green space, and wild-species diversity. We use spatially explicit models in conjunction with valuation methods to estimate comparable economic values for these services, taking account of climate change impacts. We show that, although decisions that focus solely on agriculture reduce overall ecosystem service values, highly significant value increases can be obtained from targeted planning by incorporating all potential services and their values and that this approach also conserves wild-species diversity.
This paper describes some lessons for the US from the restructuring of the Electricity Supply Industry in the United Kingdom. The British found that the policy objective of introducing competition into the generation of electricity was not consistent with the desire to expand their nuclear power industry in the private sector. Recently passed US legislation to introduce competition in the generation of electricity might have the same effect as the restructuring of the British Electricity Supply Industry. The British pressurized water reactors are US designed/constructed and the regulatory system is similar to one that now exists in the US. The British experience suggests that the disincentives resulting from the introduction of competition could weight any benefits from regulatory reform. The British experience also shows the problems that can occur when decommissioning cost estimates begin to escalate rapidly. Comparisons of the decommissioning cost estimates in the two countries suggest that the US estimates are optimistic
Hawkins, Nathaniel M; Wright, David J; Capewell, Simon
Poor outcomes and poor uptake of evidence based therapies persist for patients with heart failure in the United Kingdom. We offer a strategic analysis of services, defining the context, organization and objectives of the service, before focusing on implementation and performance. Critical flaws in past service development and performance are apparent, a consequence of failed performance management, policy and political initiative. The barriers to change and potential solutions are common to many health care systems. Integration, information, financing, incentives, innovation and values: all must be challenged and improved if heart failure services are to succeed. Modern healthcare requires open adaptive systems, continually learning and improving. The system also needs controls. Performance indicators should be simple, clinically relevant, and outcome focused. Heart failure presents one of the greatest opportunities to improve symptoms and survival with existing technology. To do so, heart failure services require radical reorganization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Foster, Geoffrey; Hunt, Brian
Arcanobacterium pluranimalium was first reported in 2001 for 2 isolates, from a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and a fallow deer (Dama dama). The same organism was subsequently reported from ovine material. A review of material submitted to veterinary laboratories in the United Kingdom from a range of domestic and wild animals during the following years revealed that A. pluranimalium had been recovered from ovine specimens on 33 occasions. Twenty ovine isolates came from abortion material, 5 from semen samples, 3 from abscesses, 3 from viscera, and 1 case each of navel ill and peritonitis. The only other A. pluranimalium isolate recovered during the period was from a milk sample collected from a cow with mastitis. The findings of the current study suggest that sheep were the host most frequently affected by infection with A. pluranimalium with recovery most commonly made from abortion material.
Tyszler, Johan; Bordier, Cecile; Leseur, Alexia
Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Reports' offer in-depth analyses on a given subject. This issue addresses the following points: The National Debate on Energy Transition in France highlighted issues relating to the social acceptability of the measures in question, and especially the inclusion of fuel poverty. However, the wide range of determining factors for fuel poverty (high energy prices, poor living conditions, and limited financial resources) make it hard to characterise the households involved. Several indicators are available although the defining criterion that is currently used, even though it is disputed, is the allocation of at least 10% of a household's income to expenditure on fuel: in this case, 3.8 million households would be concerned in France, and 4.7 million in the United Kingdom
The paper describes the background to the seismic assessment of existing nuclear structures in the United Kingdom. Nuclear installations in this country were not designed specifically to resist earthquakes until the nineteen-seventies, although older plants were robustly constructed. The seismic capability of these older installations is now being evaluated as part of the periodic safety reviews which nuclear licensees are required to carry out. The regulatory requirements which set the framework for these studies are explained. The licensees' processes of hazard appraisal and examination of the response of the structure are briefly summarized. Regulatory views on some of the criteria used to judge the adequacy of safety are discussed. Finally the paper provides some comments on future initiatives and possible areas of development. (author)
Williams, Laurence; Macnaghten, Phil; Davies, Richard; Curtis, Sarah
The prospect of fracking in the United Kingdom has been accompanied by significant public unease. We outline how the policy debate is being framed by UK institutional actors, finding evidence of a dominant discourse in which the policy approach is defined through a deficit model of public understanding of science and in which a technical approach to feasibility and safety is deemed as sufficient grounds for good policymaking. Deploying a deliberative focus group methodology with lay publics across different sites in the north of England, we find that these institutional framings are poorly aligned with participants' responses. We find that unease regularly overflows the focus on safety and feasibility and cannot be satisfactorily explained by a lack of understanding on the part of participants. We find that scholarship from science and technology studies productively elucidates our participants' largely sceptical positions, and orientates strategies for responding to them more effectively. © The Author(s) 2015.
Williams, Laurence; Macnaghten, Phil; Davies, Richard; Curtis, Sarah
The prospect of fracking in the United Kingdom has been accompanied by significant public unease. We outline how the policy debate is being framed by UK institutional actors, finding evidence of a dominant discourse in which the policy approach is defined through a deficit model of public understanding of science and in which a technical approach to feasibility and safety is deemed as sufficient grounds for good policymaking. Deploying a deliberative focus group methodology with lay publics across different sites in the north of England, we find that these institutional framings are poorly aligned with participants’ responses. We find that unease regularly overflows the focus on safety and feasibility and cannot be satisfactorily explained by a lack of understanding on the part of participants. We find that scholarship from science and technology studies productively elucidates our participants’ largely sceptical positions, and orientates strategies for responding to them more effectively. PMID:26170264
Bramman, J.I.; Wheeler, R.C.
Nuclear power produced about 20% of the electricity supply in the United Kingdom in 1986, mostly from gas-cooled reactors, i.e. the 10 AGRs currently in operation and the 26 older MAGNOX reactors. Plans to increase the nuclear component of generating capacity by building the first PWR in the UK, Sizewell 'B', were strongly endorsed in the report by Sir Frank Layfield published on 26 January 1987. This resulted from the Public Inquiry into building Sizewell 'B', which was held between 11 January 1983 and 7 March 1985, the longest Public Inquiry ever held in the UK. The government gave the go-ahead for the building of Sizewell 'B' on 12 March 1987
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reflect upon the consequences of the devolutionprocess initiated by the Labour government in 1997. The paper considers thedevelopment of Scottish devolution since its inception up to the present day.In so doing, it establishes a distinction between the so-called unionist viewand the secessionist approach. It offers a detailed study of current plans fora referendum on secession, as planned by the Scottish National Party (SNP,while considering its main objectives and challenges. It also includes a thoroughoverview of the main recommendations of the Calman Commission(2009 set up by the Government of Scotland and the Government of theUnited Kingdom in order to evaluate ten years of devolution. The paperconcludes by offering some final reflections on the consequences of devolutionfor Scottish and British identity alike.
The main legislation governing the safety of nuclear installations in the United Kingdom is the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 (HSWA) and the associated relevant statutory provisions of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 (as amended). The HSWA sought to simplify and unify all industrial safety legislation and set in place the Health and Safety Commission (HSC) and its executive arm, the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). The Health and Safety Executive's Nuclear Safety Division (NSD) regulates the nuclear activities on such sites through HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII). Under the Nuclear Installations Act (NIA) no corporate body may use any site for the purpose of installing or operating any reactor, other than such a reactor comprised in a means of transport, or other prescribed installation unless the operator has been granted a nuclear site licence by the Health and Safety Executive. Nuclear fuel cycle facilities are examples of such prescribed installations. (J.P.N.)
Phillip L Manning
Full Text Available A new record of a sauropodomorph dinosaur is here described from the Middle Jurassic (Aalenian Saltwick Formation of Whitby (Yorkshire, UK. A single caudal vertebra represents an early sauropodomorph and signifies the earliest recognised eusauropod dinosaur from the United Kingdom. The absence of pleurocoels and a narrow, dorsoventrally deep, but craniocaudally short centrum, suggests a primitive sauropodomorph. Distinct spinopostzygopophyseal laminae rise from the lateral margins of the postzygapophyses and pass caudally along what remains of the neural spine, a character unique to a subgroup of sauropods that includes Barapasaurus, Omeisaurus and other neosauropods and eusauropods. The lack of phylogenetically robust characters in sauropod caudal vertebrae usually makes it difficult to establish affinities, but the absence of mild procoely excludes this specimen from both Diplodocoidea and Lithostrotia. The vertebra cannot be further distinguished from those of a wide range of basal sauropods, cetiosaurids and basal macronarians. However, this plesiomorphic vertebra still signifies the earliest stratigraphic occurrence for a British sauropod dinosaur.
Manning, Phillip L; Egerton, Victoria M; Romano, Mike
A new record of a sauropodomorph dinosaur is here described from the Middle Jurassic (Aalenian) Saltwick Formation of Whitby (Yorkshire), UK. A single caudal vertebra represents an early sauropodomorph and signifies the earliest recognised eusauropod dinosaur from the United Kingdom. The absence of pleurocoels and a narrow, dorsoventrally deep, but craniocaudally short centrum, suggests a primitive sauropodomorph. Distinct spinopostzygopophyseal laminae rise from the lateral margins of the postzygapophyses and pass caudally along what remains of the neural spine, a character unique to a subgroup of sauropods that includes Barapasaurus, Omeisaurus and other neosauropods and eusauropods. The lack of phylogenetically robust characters in sauropod caudal vertebrae usually makes it difficult to establish affinities, but the absence of mild procoely excludes this specimen from both Diplodocoidea and Lithostrotia. The vertebra cannot be further distinguished from those of a wide range of basal sauropods, cetiosaurids and basal macronarians. However, this plesiomorphic vertebra still signifies the earliest stratigraphic occurrence for a British sauropod dinosaur.
Coxon, James; Hosey, Marie Therese; Newton, J Tim
Paediatric specialist dental practitioners are often faced with the challenge of disruptive behaviour or refusal to comply with treatment. Behaviour management skills are an essential component of their role. However, little is known of the confidence or competence of practitioners in these approaches. To identify paediatric dentists' knowledge of behavioural management principles as applied to paediatric dentistry. Postal questionnaire survey of all specialists in Paediatric Dentistry on the General Dental Council UK register (n = 234), using the Knowledge of Behavioural Principles as Applied to Children Questionnaire (KBPACQ; O'Dell, 1979) adapted for the dental setting. Information was also gathered on experience in using behavioural management techniques and demographics. Responses were received from 105 practitioners (45%). Participants gave the correct answer, on average, to 38% of the items (range 0 to 75%). Knowledge of behavioural principles amongst paediatric dentists in the United Kingdom is poor, despite their widespread reported use of such techniques.
Fearnley, I. G. [British Nuclear Fuels Ltd., Sellafield (United Kingdom)
More than 90% of radioactive waste generated in the United Kingdom is classified as low level and is disposed of in near surface repositories. BNFL owns and operates the principal facility for the disposal of this material at Drigg in West Cumbria. In order to fully optimise the use of the site and effectively manage this `national` resource a full understanding and assessment of the risks associated with the performance of the repository to safely contain the disposed waste must be achieved to support the application for the site authorization for disposal. This paper describes the approaches adopted by BNFL to reviewing these risks by the use of systematic Safety and Engineering Assessments supported in turn by experimental programmes and computations models. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.
Fearnley, I. G.
More than 90% of radioactive waste generated in the United Kingdom is classified as low level and is disposed of in near surface repositories. BNFL owns and operates the principal facility for the disposal of this material at Drigg in West Cumbria. In order to fully optimise the use of the site and effectively manage this 'national' resource a full understanding and assessment of the risks associated with the performance of the repository to safely contain the disposed waste must be achieved to support the application for the site authorization for disposal. This paper describes the approaches adopted by BNFL to reviewing these risks by the use of systematic Safety and Engineering Assessments supported in turn by experimental programmes and computations models. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs
Humphries, R.N.; McQuire, G.E.
The restoration of colliery wastes and open pit coal sites in the United Kingdom (UK) is undertaken according to a land use strategy plan and detailed specifications that have been agreed upon with the planning authorities. For two of the major land uses in the UK, agriculture and forestry, data on physical criteria (climate, site features and soils) are available to assist in the planning and design of land use strategies and specification of restoration treatments. Similar criteria could also be developed for the restoration of semi natural vegetation and habitats for landscape, wildlife, and amenity uses. Three examples are described illustrating the use of the physical criteria in the design of schemes, the specification of treatments, and the assessment of achievements
Full Text Available During the recovery after the economic crisis, much academic and policy attention was diverted to the role of cities as growth hubs all over Europe and the world. Significant economic disparities are a longstanding problem for the United Kingdom as a whole, which have been growing for decades and are remarkably high among the most developed OECD and EU countries. To investigate recent spatial processes, the methodology of our research relies on comparative spatial data analysis and literature review. Our analyses will cover the issue of a spatially more balanced development based on the “northern powerhouse” initiative which builds upon the collective strength of the cities in the North. Addressing the ‘national’ problem of regional inequalities, spatial rebalancing is assumed to be inevitable, especially in the light of the new economic and regional challenges posed by the Brexit decision.
Tariq, Memoona; Syed, Jawad
Drawing on qualitative interviews with 20 South Asian heritage, Muslim, female leaders, managers, and supervisors in the United Kingdom, we examine the multi-layered issues and challenges they face in pursuit of employment and leadership positions. The paper offers an intersectional perspective taking into account interconnected and overlapping factors (gender, ethnicity, religion, and family status) that affect not only the issues and challenges these women face in the labour market but also the individual agency and strategies they use to overcome any obstacles in the way of their employment and career. The results show that although Muslim women continue to face a myriad of challenges in the workplace, they are also able to tackle some of these issues through their individual strategies and networks, such as personal networks and further education. The study highlights the need for policymakers and employers to consider intersectionality to enable ethnic minority women's inclusion and leadership within and outside the workplace.
Fullard, K.; Baum, M.R.
Impact research in the United Kingdom has embraced a wide range of topics during the last fifteen years and advice has been provided in the form of guidelines for use in safety assessments and design studies. It is now the intention to produce a comprehensive Impact Assessment Procedure encompassing the definition of loading, whipping pipe effects and the response of steel and concrete targets. This paper is restricted to introducing the methods used for characterising missiles from pressurised vessels and for determining the impact damage produced in concrete targets. Considerable reliance has been placed on the interpretation of experimental data and guidance is therefore limited by the availability of such data. This paper indicates the extent to which advice can be given and the issues which still need further attention. An example is given of the use of the methods for characterising missiles from a cylindrical pressure vessel. (orig.)
The United Kingdom faces a looming energy gap with around 20 pct of its generating capacity due for closure in the next 10 to 15 years as a result of plant age and new European legislation on environmental protection and safety at work. A number of solutions exist for this problem including the use of new materials so that new plants can operate at higher temperatures, new technologies related to carbon capture and gasification, development of renewable resources, and less obviously the use of accurate models for predicting creep life. This article reviews, with illustrations, some of the more applicable and successful creep prediction methodologies used by academics and industrialists and highlights how these techniques can help alleviate the looming energy gap. The role that these approaches can play in solving the energy gap is highlighted throughout.
Tucker, Simon; Wisbey, Simon
This presentation sketched how the United Kingdom's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) deals with its obligation of identification, storage, preservation, sharing and destruction of records related to the memory of the UK civilian nuclear industry. Based on the experience of the ongoing establishment of a National Nuclear Archive, the speaker reflected on who the main actors are and how they could contribute; to what extent their work should be co-ordinated; whether there are guidelines; whether 'stories' are being generated out of these archives for the benefits of all readerships; and whether there are issues of secrecy. It was highlighted that to successfully maintain the interest and the knowledge, it will be necessary to go beyond the technical and legislative areas and reach out to the wider society, for instance to the fields of education and culture
Ryan, A; Wilson, S; Greenfield, S; Clifford, S; McManus, R J; Pattison, H M
We aimed to describe the availability in the United Kingdom of self-tests that are used to diagnose or screen for conditions without involving a health professional. A systematic Internet search identified 104 unique self-tests related to 24 named conditions including cancers, chronic conditions and infections. These self-tests require various samples including blood obtained using a lancet. The samples are processed at home with results available in minutes or sent to a laboratory for processing with results returned to the individual by e-mail or post. Prices per self-test and condition range from < Pounds 1 to Pounds 76. Self-tests are readily available, and further work is needed to assess their impact.
McAuliffe, Laura; Kokotovic, Branko; Ayling, Roger D.
polymorphism (AFLP), and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. In addition, the influence of variable surface protein (Vsp) profiles on the profiles generated with molecular typing techniques was studied. Both AFLP and RAPD separated the isolates into two distinct groups, but PFGE showed less......Mycoplasma bovis is an important veterinary pathogen causing pneumonia, arthritis, and mastitis in infected cattle. We investigated the genetic diversity of 53 isolates collected in the United Kingdom between 1996 and 2002 with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), amplified fragment length...... congruence with the other techniques. There was no clear relationship between the geographic origin or year of isolation of the isolates and the profiles produced. No correlation between Vsp profiles and any of the molecular typing techniques was observed. We propose that RAPD and AFLP provide valuable tools...
The petroleum industry of the United Kingdom Continental Shelf (UKCS) has been subject to various degrees of regulation. Self-sufficiency, security of supply and developing offshore supply industry triggered government regulations that were seen as interventionary and protectionist. This paper tests the extent to which regulations targeting involvement of British offshore supply industry in the UKCS activity created inefficiencies. Data envelopment analysis (DEA), stochastic frontier analysis (SFA), Malmquist Indices, and standard regression analysis are used to measure the amount and address the source of inefficiencies. We will show that such inefficiencies could not be ruled out. The results provide an important insight into the UKCS production techniques and, more generally, into governments' abilities to influence private sector behaviour through contracts and tendering
Full Text Available Patrick Jones, Bhavan Prasad Rai Department of Surgery, Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, UK Purpose: Bedside teaching holds a strong tradition as a key-learning platform for clinical examination in the basic medical clerkship. There is a growing body of literature expressing concern for its witnessed decline in medical school curricula. However, the views of students toward this patient-centered cornerstone in surgical education remain under-reported. The purpose of this study was to gain a nationwide perspective on bedside teaching according to medical students in the United Kingdom. Materials and methods: An adapted Delphi method was employed to formulate the question series as part of a multi-step process including a pilot study, which was used to construct this survey. The target population was medical undergraduates in the United Kingdom and participants were recruited via social media. Outcomes assessed included exposure to bedside teaching, perceived benefits of clinical simulation, and junior doctors as clinical teachers. Barriers to clinical examination were also evaluated. Results: Overall, 368 completed surveys were received (completion rate 98.9%. Final year students were significantly more likely to report receiving insufficient bedside teaching (P<0.01. Seventy-eight percent of the study group agreed that clinical simulation is a good learning tool for clinical examination. Seventy percent of students felt junior doctors were as able as senior doctors to teach. Lack of confidence was identified as the commonest barrier to overcome when examining patients and two-thirds of students felt they burdened patients during bedside teaching. Conclusion: This prospective study confirms the exposure deficit, which medical students experience in bedside teaching. The junior doctor represents a dynamic clinical teacher in the face of working time directives. Peer learning is a novel solution to such pressures. Work is needed to re-establish the
Scott, Julia K; Leary, Sam D; Ness, Andy R; Sandy, Jonathan R; Persson, Martin; Kilpatrick, Nicky; Waylen, Andrea E
Cleft care provision in the United Kingdom has been centralized over the past 15 years to improve outcomes for children born with cleft lip and palate. However, to date, there have been no investigations to examine how well these multidisciplinary teams are performing. In this pilot study, a cross-sectional questionnaire surveyed members of all health care specialties working to provide cleft care in 11 services across the United Kingdom. Team members were asked to complete the Team Work Assessment (TWA) to investigate perceptions of team working in cleft services. The TWA comprises 55 items measuring seven constructs: team foundation, function, performance and skills, team climate and atmosphere, team leadership, and team identity; individual constructs were also aggregated to provide an overall TWA score. Items were measured using five-point Likert-type scales and were converted into percentage agreement for analysis. Responses were received from members of every cleft team. Ninety-nine of 138 cleft team questionnaires (71.7%) were returned and analyzed. The median (interquartile range) percentage of maximum possible score across teams was 75.5% (70.8, 88.2) for the sum of all items. Team performance and team identity were viewed most positively, with 82.0% (75.0, 88.2) and 88.4% (82.2, 91.4), respectively. Team foundation and leadership were viewed least positively with 79.0% (72.6, 84.6) and 76.6% (70.6, 85.4), respectively. Cleft team members perceive that their teams work well, but there are variations in response according to construct.
Astell-Burt, Thomas; Feng, Xiaoqi
Introduction The economic recession which began in 2008 has resulted in a substantial increase in unemployment across many countries, including the United Kingdom. Strong association between unemployment and poor health status among individuals is widely recognised. We investigated whether the prevalence of poor health at a population level increased concurrent to the rise in unemployment during the economic recession, and whether the impact on health varied by geographical and socioeconomic circumstances. Method Health, demographic and socioeconomic measures on 1.36 million survey responses aged 16–64 were extracted from the Quarterly Labour Force Survey of the United Kingdom, collected every three months, from January 2006 to December 2010. The likelihood of self-reporting poor health status and specific types of health problems (depression, mental illness, cardiovascular and respiratory) across time were estimated separately using logistic regression. Explanatory variables included economic status (International Labour Organization definition), occupational class, age, gender, country of birth, ethnicity, educational qualifications, couple status, household tenure, number of dependents, and geographical region. Results Unemployment (age-gender adjusted) rose from 4.5% in January 2008 to 7.1% by September 2009. The reporting of poor health status increased from 25.7% in July 2009 to 29.5% by December 2010. Similar increases were found for cardiovascular and respiratory health problems; not depression or mental illness. The prevalence of poor health status among the unemployed decreased from 28.8% in July 2008, to 24.9% by March 2009; but this was followed by an increase in poor health experienced across all regions and by all socioeconomic groups, including those who remained employed, regardless of their occupational class. Interpretation Although our study found no exacerbation of pre-recession health inequalities, the rise in poor health status not only for
Andrews, Hannah; Singh, Yogen
Following the Safe and Sustainable review of Paediatric Services in 2012/2013, National Health Service England recommended that local paediatric cardiology services should be provided by specially trained paediatricians with expertise in cardiology in all non-specialist hospitals. To understand the variation in local paediatric cardiology services provided across district general hospitals in the United Kingdom. An internet-based questionnaire was sent out via the Paediatrician with Expertise in Cardiology Special Interest Group and the Neonatologists with Interest in Cardiology and Haemodynamics contact databases and the National Health Service directory. Non-responders were followed-up via telephone. The response rate was 80% (141 of 177 hospitals), and paediatricians with expertise in cardiology were available in 68% of those. Local cardiology clinics led by paediatricians with expertise in cardiology were provided in 96 hospitals (68%), whereas specialist outreach clinics were held in 123 centres (87%). A total of 11 hospitals provided neither specialist outreach clinics nor any local cardiology clinics led by paediatricians with expertise in cardiology. Paediatric echocardiography services were provided in 83% of the hospitals, 12-lead electrocardiogram in 96%, Holter electrocardiogram in 91%, and exercise testing in only 47% of the responding hospitals. Telemedicine facilities were established in only 52% of the centres, where sharing echocardiogram images via picture archiving and communication system was used most commonly. There has been a substantial increase in the availability of paediatricians with expertise in cardiology since 2008. Most of the hospitals are well-supported by specialist cardiology centres via outreach clinics; however, there remains significant variation in the local paediatric cardiology services provided across district general hospitals in the United Kingdom.
Rodriguez-Una, Ignacio; Azuara-Blanco, Augusto; King, Anthony J
To evaluate the spectrum of glaucoma surgery and the post-operative follow-up regimes undertaken among glaucoma specialists in the United Kingdom. National survey. Seventy-five glaucoma specialists (consultants and fellows). An eight-question survey was emailed to all glaucoma subspecialists members of the United Kingdom and Eire Glaucoma Society. Surgery undertaken, post-operative management, awareness of intervention tariff and handling of the follow-up burden generated through surgery. Almost all the participants (74/75: 99%) routinely performed trabeculectomy, 54 responders (72%) undertook tube surgery and Minimally Invasive Glaucoma Surgery (MIGS) was more frequently undertaken (33.0%) than non-penetrating surgery (23%). In general, for patients with advanced glaucoma requiring a low target intraocular pressure (IOP), the most frequent primary intervention was trabeculectomy (99%), followed by tubes (64%). Similarly, in patients with less advanced glaucoma requiring moderate target IOP, participants preferred trabeculectomy (99%), followed by MIGS (60%). By the first 6 months after the procedure, trabeculectomy and Baerveldt tube implant required a larger number of postoperative visits (9 and 7, respectively), than iStent® and non-penetrating deep sclerectomy (3 and 5, respectively). The majority of participants were not aware of the costs of their interventions. A wide variety of glaucoma surgery techniques are undertaken. Post-operative follow-up regimes are variable between techniques and for surgeons using the same technique. Trabeculectomy requires more follow-up than any other intervention. For patients requiring low IOP, trabeculectomy is the operation of choice for most surgeons. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.
Full Text Available The economic recession which began in 2008 has resulted in a substantial increase in unemployment across many countries, including the United Kingdom. Strong association between unemployment and poor health status among individuals is widely recognised. We investigated whether the prevalence of poor health at a population level increased concurrent to the rise in unemployment during the economic recession, and whether the impact on health varied by geographical and socioeconomic circumstances.Health, demographic and socioeconomic measures on 1.36 million survey responses aged 16-64 were extracted from the Quarterly Labour Force Survey of the United Kingdom, collected every three months, from January 2006 to December 2010. The likelihood of self-reporting poor health status and specific types of health problems (depression, mental illness, cardiovascular and respiratory across time were estimated separately using logistic regression. Explanatory variables included economic status (International Labour Organization definition, occupational class, age, gender, country of birth, ethnicity, educational qualifications, couple status, household tenure, number of dependents, and geographical region.Unemployment (age-gender adjusted rose from 4.5% in January 2008 to 7.1% by September 2009. The reporting of poor health status increased from 25.7% in July 2009 to 29.5% by December 2010. Similar increases were found for cardiovascular and respiratory health problems; not depression or mental illness. The prevalence of poor health status among the unemployed decreased from 28.8% in July 2008, to 24.9% by March 2009; but this was followed by an increase in poor health experienced across all regions and by all socioeconomic groups, including those who remained employed, regardless of their occupational class.Although our study found no exacerbation of pre-recession health inequalities, the rise in poor health status not only for the unemployed, but also among
Sim, Dawn A; Mitry, Danny; Alexander, Philip; Mapani, Adam; Goverdhan, Srini; Aslam, Tariq; Tufail, Adnan; Egan, Catherine A; Keane, Pearse A
Modern ophthalmic practice in the United Kingdom is faced by the challenges of an aging population, increasing prevalence of systemic pathologies with ophthalmic manifestations, and emergent treatments that are revolutionary but dependent on timely monitoring and diagnosis. This represents a huge strain not only on diagnostic services but also outpatient management and surveillance capacity. There is an urgent need for newer means of managing this surge in demand and the socioeconomic burden it places on the health care system. Concurrently, there have been exponential increases in computing power, expansions in the strength and ubiquity of communications technologies, and developments in imaging capabilities. Advances in imaging have been not only in terms of resolution, but also in terms of anatomical coverage, allowing new inferences to be made. In spite of this, image analysis techniques are still currently superseded by expert ophthalmologist interpretation. Teleophthalmology is therefore currently perfectly placed to face this urgent and immediate challenge of provision of optimal and expert care to remote and multiple patients over widespread geographical areas. This article reviews teleophthalmology programs currently deployed in the United Kingdom, focusing on diabetic eye care but also discussing glaucoma, emergency eye care, and other retinal diseases. We examined current programs and levels of evidence for their utility, and explored the relationships between screening, teleophthalmology, disease detection, and monitoring before discussing aspects of health economics pertinent to diabetic eye care. The use of teleophthalmology presents an immense opportunity to manage the steadily increasing demand for eye care, but challenges remain in the delivery of practical, viable, and clinically proven solutions. © 2016 Diabetes Technology Society.
Hammond, David; Daniel, Samantha; White, Christine M
Cigarette packaging is the most prominent form of tobacco marketing remaining in countries such as the United Kingdom. The current study examined perceptions of cigarette packaging among female youth and the potential impact of "plain" cigarette packaging regulations. A national sample of 947 16- to 19-year-old female subjects in the United Kingdom completed an online survey. Participants were randomized to view 10 cigarette packs designed according to one of four experimental conditions: fully branded female packs, the same packs without descriptor words, the same packs without brand imagery or descriptors ("plain" packs), and branded non-female brands. Participants rated packs on measures of appeal and health risk, positive smoker image, and completed a behavioral pack selection task. Plain packs were rated as the least appealing and worse tasting compared with all other conditions. Plain packs were also associated with fewer false beliefs about health risks compared with branded packs. Removing brand descriptors from packs significantly reduced measures of appeal and taste, particularly for brands with flavor descriptors, such as cherry and vanilla. Plain packs were significantly less likely to be associated with positive images, such as glamour, sophistication, and slimness. Most importantly, respondents were significantly less likely to accept a pack of cigarettes when offered only plain versus branded packs (p = .026). Marketing in the form of pack branding remains a potent tool for increasing the appeal of tobacco products to young women. The findings provide empirical support for plain cigarette packaging regulations in Australia to be implemented in 2012. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining Regime; 3. Radioactive Substances; 4. Nuclear Installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response); 5. Trade in Nuclear Materials and Equipment; 6. Radiation Protection; 7. Radioactive Waste Management; 8. Non-Proliferation and Physical Protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear Third Party Liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and Supervisory Authorities (Department of Trade and Industry - DTI; Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs and the Secretary of State for Health; Secretary of State for Transport; Secretary of State for Education); 2. Advisory Bodies (Medical Research Council - MRC; Nuclear Safety Advisory Committee; Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee); 3. Public and Semi-Public Agencies (United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority - UKAEA; Health and Safety Commission and Executive - HSC/HSE; National Radiological Protection Board - NRPB; Environment Agencies; British Nuclear Fuels plc. - BNFL; Amersham International plc.; The National Nuclear Corporation Ltd. - NNC; United Kingdom Nirex Ltd.; Magnox Electric plc.; British Energy Generation Ltd.; Scottish Electricity Generator Companies; British Energy Generation Ltd.; Regional Electricity Companies in England and Wales)
Carter, Ashley J R; Delarosa, Beverly; Hur, Hannah
Ideally, the allocation of research funding for each specific type of cancer should be proportional to its societal burden. This burden can be estimated with the metric 'years of life lost' (YLL), which combines overall mortality and age at death. Using United Kingdom data from 2010, we compared research funding from the National Cancer Research Institute to this YLL burden metric for 26 types of cancers in order to identify the discrepancies between cancer research funding allocation and societal burden. We also compared these values to United States data from 2010 and United Kingdom data published in 2005. Our study revealed a number of discrepancies between cancer research funding and burden. Some cancers are funded at levels far higher than their relative burden suggests (testicular, leukaemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma, breast, cervical, ovarian, prostate) while other cancers appear under-funded (gallbladder, lung, nasopharyngeal, intestine, stomach, pancreatic, thyroid, oesophageal, liver, kidney, bladder, and brain/central nervous system). United Kingdom funding patterns over the past decade have generally moved to increase funding to previously under-funded cancers with one notable exception showing a converse trend (breast cancer). The broad relationship between United Kingdom and United States funding patterns is similar with a few exceptions (e.g. leukaemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma, prostate, testicular cancer). There are discrepancies between cancer research funding allocation and societal burden in the United Kingdom. These discrepancies are broadly similar in both the United Kingdom and the United States and, while they appear to be improving, this is not consistent across all types of cancer.
Clinical communication education is now part of the core curriculum of every medical school in the United Kingdom and the United States. It has emerged over 30 years because of various societal, political, and policy drivers and is supported by an impressive evidence base.For a variety of reasons, however, clinical communication has become separated from other parts of medical education and tends to be positioned in the early years of the curriculum, when students have limited experience of being in the clinical workplace and working with patients. The teachers of clinical communication, whether medical-school-based or clinically based, may not share learning goals for the subject and this may, therefore, provide a disintegrated learning experience for students.Clinical communication teachers need to inject fresh thinking into the teaching and learning of the subject to unite it with clinical practice in the authentic clinical workplace. Engaging with theories of workplace learning, which aim to overcome the theory/practice gap in vocational education, may be the way forward. The author suggests various ways that this might be achieved-for example, by situating clinical communication education throughout the whole undergraduate curriculum, by integrating the topic of clinical communication with other areas of medical education, by developing coteaching and curriculum design partnerships between medical school and clinical workplace, and by developing a greater range of postgraduate education that offers opportunities for professional development in clinical communication for qualified doctors that is complementary with what is taught in undergraduate education.
Mocombe, Paul C.
This hermeneutical essay demonstrates why and how Pierre Bourdieu's social reproduction theory is neither an adequate explanation for understanding praxis nor the Black/White academic achievement gap in contemporary postindustrial economies like that of the United States and the United Kingdom. The underlining hypothesis of the work is that the…
Robinson, Lee; Bond, Caroline
The most thoroughly researched topic in relation to autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) is the evaluation of interventions. Educational psychology in the United Kingdom and Ireland is the most closely allied profession to school psychology in the United States. In considering what is published by and for the profession, it is important to include…
Coryell, Joellen Elizabeth; Durodoye, Beth A.; Wright, Robin Redmon; Pate, P. Elizabeth; Nguyen, Shelbee
This report outlines a method for learning about the internationalization processes at institutions of adult and higher education and then provides the analysis of data gathered from the researchers' own institution and from site visits to three additional universities in the United States and the United Kingdom. It was found that campus…
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.
The governments of the United States, Japan, West Germany, France, and the United Kingdom each have large research and development efforts involving government agencies, universities and industry. This document provides a comparative overview of policies and programs which contribute to the development of technologies in the general area of…
Vosmer, Susanne; Hackett, Simon; Callanan, Margie
This paper presents the results of a three-stage Delphi study examining the current level of consensus among 24 professionals in the United Kingdom regarding definitions of and distinctions between normal, inappropriate and sexually abusive behaviours in children under 10 years, as well as factors influencing their views. Although firm conclusions…
The document reproduces the statement adopted by the Zangger Committee on the recent nuclear tests conducted by India and Pakistan, which was received on 26 June 1998 by the Director General of the IAEA from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom to the IAEA
This article reviews early education and care policies in the United Kingdom since 1997, when a Labour Government came to power, and sets them in the wider context of international changes. It argues that the Labour Government has, by intention and by default, supported the development of private sector, and especially corporate sector childcare.…
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-588-804, A-412-801] Ball Bearings and... orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from Japan and the United Kingdom. On April 20, [[Page 35402... redetermination that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from Japan and...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-588-804, A-412-801] Ball Bearings and... sunset review of the antidumping duty orders on bearings from Japan and the United Kingdom, the... 30, 2011. \\1\\ See Antidumping Duty Orders: Ball Bearings, Cylindrical Roller Bearings, and Spherical...
In the United Kingdom (UK), policy and provision for students with disabilities in post-compulsory education has made considerable progress in a relatively short time. This growth has been aided by several factors, arguably the most significant being the introduction of legal requirements in 1995. Many institutions and organisations have tried to…
Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman
Importers of hardwood lumber in the United Kingdom were studied to determine the product and supplier attributes that most influenced their purchase decisions. Importers of North American hardwoods were least satisfied with Lumber Straightness. Straightness, Absence of Stain and the Absence of Surface Checks were the most important lumber attributes. On Time Shipment...
Southgate, Vera, Ed.
Edited versions of selected major papers presented at the July 1971 study conference of the United Kingdom Reading Association, which had the theme "Literacy at All Levels," are included in this book. This group defines literacy as "the mastery of our native language in all its aspects, as a means of communication," and…
Social enterprise is being increasingly encouraged as a solution to social problems concerning social exclusion, child development and family welfare within both developed and developing countries. This article considers these policy contexts and two case studies of social enterprises that provide children's services in the United Kingdom and…
Bath, P.A.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Poppelaars, J.L.
This paper presents a case study of the challenges and requirements associated with harmonising data from two independently-conceived datasets from The Netherlands and the United Kingdom: the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) and the Nottingham Longitudinal Study of Activity and Ageing
Lebeda, A.; Dolezalova, I.; Kristkova, E.; Dehmer, K.J.; Astley, D.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Treuren, van R.
Expeditions were conducted in the Czech Republic, Germany, the Netherlands and United Kingdom in 2001 (partly 1998) to study Lactuca serriola L. (prickly lettuce, compass plant) geographic distribution, ecology, habitat characteristics and occurrence of diseases and pests on this species. During
Mafuba, Kay; Gates, Bob; Cozens, Maria
The aim of this study was to explore how public health policy in the United Kingdom was reflected in community intellectual disability nurses' (CIDNs)' job descriptions and person's specifications. The role of CIDNs has evolved due to policy changes. As these roles evolve, job descriptions and person specifications are important in highlighting…
A historical review of outdoor education in the United Kingdom discusses early objectives of preparing young men for war, improving physical health and moral character, and preventing juvenile delinquency; girls' outdoor courses of the 1950s that emphasized hygiene, homemaking, and child care skills; and outdoor education's reflection of sex-role…
Walker, Caroline; Peart, David; Gleaves, Alan
The United Kingdom Merchant Navy has a very poor record on access and training for females in terms of marine careers across all levels. Furthermore, it is a world where equity and equality are often simply overlooked, partly because the difficult and harsh realities of "normal" working conditions effectively marginalise both women and…
Provides initial assessment of the design and significance of the Domesday Project in the United Kingdom. Discusses the system's cost effectiveness and explains how optical disks store and retrieve information. Concludes by considering strengths and weaknesses of the project and implications of using Domesday in New Zealand. (BR)
Wang, Miao; Ngai, Steven Sek-Yum
Using data collected by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's Program for International Student Assessment in 2003, this study examines the gap in the educational aspirations of children from single-parent families and two-parent families in the United Kingdom (UK) and Hong Kong. Consistent with previous research on the…
Teo, Timothy; Hargreaves, David J.; Lee, June
The authors investigate whether there were significant differences in preferences for, familiarity with, and identification of Chinese, Malay, and Indian music between adolescent students from Singapore (n = 78) and the United Kingdom (n = 53). Also explored are the relationships among these three variables. Students were asked to rate their…
An international team of researchers studied the following aspects of training in the United Kingdom's motor vehicle repair and sales sector: structure and characteristics; institutional and social context; relationship to the labor market; changing structural, economic, and organizational conditions; and training/recruitment and relationship to…
Reuter, Sandra; Toeroek, M. Estee; Holden, Matthew T. G.; Reynolds, Rosy; Raven, Kathy E.; Blane, Beth; Donker, Tjibbe; Bentley, Stephen D.; Aanensen, David M.; Grundmann, Hajo; Feil, Edward J.; Spratt, Brian G.; Parkhill, Julian; Peacock, Sharon J.
The correct interpretation of microbial sequencing data applied to surveillance and outbreak investigation depends on accessible genomic databases to provide vital genetic context. Our aim was to construct and describe a United Kingdom MRSA database containing over 1000 methicillin-resistant
Martin P. Davoren
Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol is a leading cause of global suffering. Europe reports the uppermost volume of alcohol consumption in the world, with Ireland and the United Kingdom reporting the highest levels of binge drinking and drunkenness. Levels of consumption are elevated among university students. Thus, this literature review aims to summarise the current research on alcohol consumption among university students in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom. Methods MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE and PsychInfo were systematically searched for literature from January 2002 until December 2014. Each database was searched using the following search pillars: alcohol, university student, Ireland or the United Kingdom and prevalence studies. Results Two thousand one hundred twenty eight articles were retrieved from electronic database searching. These were title searched for relevance. 113 full texts were retrieved and assessed for eligibility. Of these, 29 articles were deemed to meet inclusion criteria for the review. Almost two thirds of students reported a hazardous alcohol consumption score on the AUDIT scale. Over 20 % reported alcohol problems over their lifetime using CAGE while over 20 % exceed sensible limits each week. Noteworthy is the narrowing of the gender gap throughout the past decade. Conclusion This is the first review to investigate consumption patterns of university students in Ireland and the United Kingdom. A range of sampling strategies and screening tools are employed in alcohol research which preclude comparability. The current review provides an overview of consumption patterns to guide policy development.
Longmore, A.J.; Tritton, S.B.
Positions, photographs and descriptions are given for 11 new planetary nebulae discovered on United Kingdom Schmidt plates. One of the planetary nebulae has the highest galactic latitude of any known planetary, and may be associated with a magnitude 9 G5 star. Near-infrared (J,H,K) magnitudes are given for the star. (author)
Westerheijden, Donald F.
Comparing and contrasting reforms of governance arrangements in higher education systems in Japan with those in Europe (the United Kingdom and the Netherlands provide two very different examples), the paper focuses on the consequences of state-level governance reform for shared governance in the
Norris, Gill; Williams, Steve; Adam-Smith, Derek
Two key issues thrown up by the 1999 introduction of the National Minimum Wage (NMW) in the United Kingdom are its likely impact on employers' training practices in low paying sectors of the economy and the implications for skills. Based on a study of the hospitality industry, this article assesses the limited significance of the differential,…
Alostad, Azhar H; Steinke, Douglas T; Schafheutle, Ellen I
Herbal medicine (HM) regulation is less developed than that of allopathic medicines, with some countries lacking specific regulations. For the purpose of informing a registration system for HMs in Kuwait, which does not manufacture but imports all HMs, this study compared the similarities and differences between the current HM registration systems of five countries. The five countries were selected as major source countries of HM in Kuwait (United Kingdom (UK), Germany and United States of America (USA)) or because of geographical proximity or size and approach (United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Kingdom of Bahrain). Documentary analysis of HM classification systems was performed by reviewing the regulatory and law documentation of these countries' drug regulatory authority websites. Data on HM definition, classification and the main requirements for registration were extracted and analysed for similarities and differences. There was diversity in the classification of HMs across all five countries including terms used, definitions, type of law, requirements, restrictions and preparation type. The regulatory authorities of the UK, Germany, UAE and Kingdom of Bahrain offer simplified registration for HMs, where plausible efficacy as a result of established traditional use is sufficient. In USA, the concept of traditional use does not exist, instead, the product can be categorised as a dietary supplement where no assessment or evaluation is required prior to marketing. Owing to the inconsistencies in how drug regulatory authorities define HMs, it will be important to design a clear definition of what constitutes a HM in Kuwait, which is a country that does not produce and register its own products but assesses products registered elsewhere.
Glover, Matthew; Montague, Erin; Pollitt, Alexandra; Guthrie, Susan; Hanney, Stephen; Buxton, Martin; Grant, Jonathan
Building on an approach applied to cardiovascular and cancer research, we estimated the economic returns from United Kingdom public- and charitable-funded musculoskeletal disease (MSD) research that arise from the net value of the improved health outcomes in the United Kingdom. To calculate the economic returns from MSD-related research in the United Kingdom, we estimated (1) the public and charitable expenditure on MSD-related research in the United Kingdom between 1970 and 2013; (2) the net monetary benefit (NMB), derived from the health benefit in quality adjusted life years (QALYs) valued in monetary terms (using a base-case value of a QALY of £25,000) minus the cost of delivering that benefit, for a prioritised list of interventions from 1994 to 2013; (3) the proportion of NMB attributable to United Kingdom research; and (4) the elapsed time between research funding and health gain. The data collected from these four key elements were used to estimate the internal rate of return (IRR) from MSD-related research investments on health benefits. We analysed the uncertainties in the IRR estimate using a one-way sensitivity analysis. Expressed in 2013 prices, total expenditure on MSD-related research from 1970 to 2013 was £3.5 billion, and for the period used to estimate the rate of return, 1978-1997, was £1.4 billion. Over the period 1994-2013 the key interventions analysed produced 871,000 QALYs with a NMB of £16 billion, allowing for the net NHS costs resulting from them and valuing a QALY at £25,000. The proportion of benefit attributable to United Kingdom research was 30% and the elapsed time between funding and impact of MSD treatments was 16 years. Our best estimate of the IRR from MSD-related research was 7%, which is similar to the 9% for CVD and 10% for cancer research. Our estimate of the IRR from the net health gain to public and charitable funding of MSD-related research in the United Kingdom is substantial, and justifies the research investments
Appleby, Paul N; Crowe, Francesca L; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Travis, Ruth C
Background: Vegetarians and others who do not eat meat have been observed to have lower incidence rates than meat eaters of some chronic diseases, but it is unclear whether this translates into lower mortality. Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe mortality in vegetarians and comparable nonvegetarians in a large United Kingdom cohort. Design: The study involved a pooled analysis of data from 2 prospective studies that included 60,310 persons living in the United Kingdom, comprising 18,431 regular meat eaters (who ate meat ≥5 times/wk on average), 13,039 low (less-frequent) meat eaters, 8516 fish eaters (who ate fish but not meat), and 20,324 vegetarians (including 2228 vegans who did not eat any animal foods). Mortality by diet group for each of 18 common causes of death was estimated with the use of Cox proportional hazards models. Results: There were 5294 deaths before age 90 in >1 million y of follow-up. There was no significant difference in overall (all-cause) mortality between the diet groups: HRs in low meat eaters, fish eaters, and vegetarians compared with regular meat eaters were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.00), 0.96 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.06), and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.10), respectively; P-heterogeneity of risks = 0.082. There were significant differences in risk compared with regular meat eaters for deaths from circulatory disease [higher in fish eaters (HR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.46)]; malignant cancer [lower in fish eaters (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.97)], including pancreatic cancer [lower in low meat eaters and vegetarians (HR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.36, 0.86 and HR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.82, respectively)] and cancers of the lymphatic/hematopoietic tissue [lower in vegetarians (HR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.79)]; respiratory disease [lower in low meat eaters (HR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.92)]; and all other causes [lower in low meat eaters (HR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.99)]. Further adjustment for body mass index left these associations largely unchanged
A British college teacher describes his 1976 summer study tour to colleges, universities, and labor unions in the United States and the variety of labor education programs that have been developed, in which labor unions have taken a direct interest. (MF)
Y. V. Sergeyeva
Full Text Available To ensure the competitiveness and integration of the Russian educational system in the global educational environment it is necessary to study the experience of the leading countries faced by the problem of creativity fostering. The paper provides the comparative analysis of the content, approaches to and organizational forms of the creative faculty formation in educational systems of the United Kingdom, the United States and Russia. According to the author, the creative component is the inherent part of educational systems of the given countries, though its place in the system might be different. At the state level, the interest to creativity development is demonstrated by the statutory documents, official statements and legislative acts; their content reveals that both in Russia and the USA the interest to creativity fostering results from the state strategic policy, while in the UK the focus is on the economic prospects. The author mentions the centralized projects supported by the British government and aimed at stimulating creativity, though the participation of universities in the projects is optional. The didactic and methodological materials acquired by the author have the practical implications and can be used in teachers’ training at various levels. The research materials were introduced at several Russian and International scientific conferences, discussed at seminars, round-table talks, and in the course of the International Creative Project performed by the students of Yekaterinburg and York in 2007–2013.
Barnett, Tony; Sorenson, Corinna
Infectious diseases are a long-standing and continuing threat to health and welfare, with their containment dependent on national disease surveillance and response capacities. This article discusses infectious disease surveillance in the United States and the United Kingdom, examining historical national traditions for identifying and controlling infectious disease risks and how globalization and technical advances have influenced the evolution of their respective approaches. The two systems developed in different but parallel ways. In the United States, surveillance remained quite localized at the state level until the early twentieth century and still retains many of those features. The U.K. approach became centralized from the latter part of the nineteenth century and has principally remained so. In both cases, disease surveillance was traditionally conceived as a public good, where national or local authorities held sovereign rights and power to protect public health. With the increasing globalized nature of infectious disease, such notions shifted toward surveillance as a global public good, with countries responding in turn by creating new global health governance arrangements and regulations. However, the limitations of current surveillance systems and the strong hold of national interests place into question the provision of surveillance as a global public good. These issues are further highlighted with the introduction of new surveillance technologies, which offer opportunities for improved disease detection and identification but also create potential tensions between individual rights, corporate profit, equitable access to technology, and national and global public goods.
Rogers, S N; Palmer, N O A; Lowe, D; Randall, C
We aimed to record all new patients who presented to departments of oral surgery, oral medicine, and oral and maxillofacial surgery, and to dental hospitals in the UK, with avascular necrosis of the jaws including bisphosphonate-related necrosis (BRONJ) over a 2-year period (1 June 2009-31 May 2011). They were eligible irrespective of age, cause, or coexisting conditions. Data on incidence, clinical characteristics, risk factors, and coexisting conditions were collected. A total of 383 cases were registered: 369 were described as BRONJ, 5 as avascular necrosis, and 9 were unknown. Bisphosphonates had been given orally in 207 (56%), intravenously in 125 (34%), both orally and intravenously in 27 (7%), and was unknown in 9 (2%); one had been given denosumab. The main risk factor was dental extraction, and the mandible was commonly affected. The median duration of administration until onset of BRONJ was 3 years in those treated intravenously and 4 years in those treated orally. Levels of engagement with the study varied between regions, and extrapolation from the 2 most involved (Merseyside and Northern Ireland) found around 8.2-12.8 cases/million/year, which is 508-793 patients/year across the UK. To our knowledge this is one of the first studies to estimate national rates of BRONJ. It confirms that the risk and incidence are low. With changes in trends for antiresorptive bone medication, and increasing numbers of elderly people, it would be useful to repeat the registration in the future. Copyright © 2014 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The conflict in Syria between the government of Bashar al-Assad and various other forces, which started in the spring of 2011, continues to cause displacement within the country and across the region. By the end of 2014, an estimated 7.6 million people were internally displaced and 3.7 million Syrians had fled the country since the conflict began (OCHA 2014; UNHCR 2015a. The refugee situation caused by the Syrian conflict is dire, and it has placed enormous strain on neighboring countries. Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, Egypt, and Turkey host massive numbers of Syrian refugees, and Syrians have been seeking protection beyond these countries in increasing numbers since 2011.This paper looks at the burdens and costs of the Syrian refugee crisis and considers how they have, or have not, been shared by the international community at large, and in particular by Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It also considers to what degree Syrians have been able to find protection in states outside the region. Germany and Sweden, by the end of 2014, had provided protection to the largest number of Syrian refugees outside the region. Although Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States differ in the level of protection provided to Syrians, all four states have increased protection to Syrians via resettlement and asylum (and in the case of the US temporary protected status since 2012. Despite this, the degree of protection provided by the four states is modest in relation to that provided by neighboring countries to Syria, and far more could be done. This paper also argues that the international community as a whole has not sufficiently contributed toward alleviating the burden caused by the Syrian refugee influx, in terms of both financial assistance and refugee resettlement.The paper puts forward two general recommendations to reduce the strain on neighboring countries: increase the level of burden sharing by the international
Moodie, Crawford; Sinclair, Lesley; Mackintosh, Anne Marie; Power, Emily; Bauld, Linda
Little is known about how consumers perceive tobacco companies in the United Kingdom. An online cross-sectional survey with those aged 16 years and over (N = 2253) explored perceptions of, and attitudes towards, tobacco companies. This included awareness of tobacco companies, views on tobacco companies' practices (targeting the most vulnerable, encouraging smoking to replace those who quit or die, making cigarettes more addictive) and values (honesty, ethics, interest in harm reduction), perceptions of regulation of tobacco companies (whether tobacco companies have the same marketing rights as other companies, should be allowed to promote cigarettes, be required to sell cigarettes in plain packs, and pay for associated health costs), and locus of responsibility for health problems caused by tobacco use. Prompted awareness of tobacco companies was high (68%). Almost a third of the sample had a negative perception of tobacco companies' practices, for example, they thought they made cigarettes more addictive. In terms of tobacco companies' values, less than a fifth considered tobacco companies honest, ethical, and interested in reducing the harm caused by cigarettes. Indeed, tobacco company executives were rated lower than the seven other professions asked about, except car salesman, in terms of ethics and honesty. More than half the sample supported greater regulation, for example, requiring tobacco companies to pay for health costs due to tobacco use. Most attributed responsibility for smoking-related health problems to smokers (88%) and tobacco companies (55%). The findings suggest that consumers are not fully informed about tobacco company practices. Few studies outside of North America have explored perceptions of tobacco companies' practices, values and regulation and responsibility for smoking-related illness. Adults surveyed within the United Kingdom considered tobacco companies dishonest, unethical and untrustworthy, but only a third of the sample thought
Full Text Available Musculoskeletal pain syndromes are one of the most common causes of disability and referral to a medical specialist. Seven million consultations for lumbosacral pain are annually carried out in the United Kingdom.Examination of patients with back pain. Three levels of health care delivered to patients with back pain in the United Kingdom may be arbitrarily identified. Level 1 is outpatient: a general practitioner jointly with a manipulative therapist, a physiotherapist, a rehabilitation specialist, and mid-level health workers render care to patients with insignificant and mild pain syndrome; Level 2 is also outpatient, which involves the participation of a hospital or multidisciplinary team consultant, for example, in a musculoskeletal pain service or a specialized pain center; Level 3 is to deliver care at neurosurgical or orthopedic hospital, by applying invasive interventions. Acute back pain is a benign condition in the vast majority of cases; there is no need for additional instrumental and laboratory studies; but spinal X-ray study, computed tomography (СT scan, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, general blood and urine tests are required when marked neurological and somatic disorders are present.Management of patients with acute lumbosacral pain is to inform a patient about the benign nature of the disease; to exclude bed rest; to explain the need to maintain normal activity; to train how to correctly lift weights and to maintain normal posture; to refer for manual and exercise therapy in order to return to normal motor activity; to use proven effective medication. In most cases, acute back pain goes away spontaneously for a short period of time; an active treatment approach is considered to be optimal. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and acetaminophen are used for analgesia if required. Patients who show no improvement after 4 weeks of treatment need rescreening for markers of potentially dangerous spinal diseases, as
Lowder, Travis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
This report expands on a previous National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) technical report (Lowder et al. 2015) that focused on the United States' unique approach to distributed generation photovoltaics (DGPV) support policies and business models. While the focus of that report was largely historical (i.e., detailing the policies and market developments that led to the growth of DGPV in the United States), this report looks forward, narrating recent changes to laws and regulations as well as the ongoing dialogues over how to incorporate distributed generation (DG) resources onto the electric grid. This report also broadens the scope of Lowder et al. (2015) to include additional countries and technologies. DGPV and storage are the principal technologies under consideration (owing to market readiness and deployment volumes), but the report also contemplates any generation resource that is (1) on the customer side of the meter, (2) used to, at least partly, offset a host's energy consumption, and/or (3) potentially available to provide grid support (e.g., through peak shaving and load shifting, ancillary services, and other means).
D. J. Morris
Full Text Available The datasets described here bring together quality-controlled seawater temperature measurements from over 130 years of departmental government-funded marine science investigations in the UK (United Kingdom. Since before the foundation of a Marine Biological Association fisheries laboratory in 1902 and through subsequent evolutions as the Directorate of Fisheries Research and the current Centre for Environment Fisheries & Aquaculture Science, UK government marine scientists and observers have been collecting seawater temperature data as part of oceanographic, chemical, biological, radiological, and other policy-driven research and observation programmes in UK waters. These datasets start with a few tens of records per year, rise to hundreds from the early 1900s, thousands by 1959, and hundreds of thousands by the 1980s, peaking with > 1 million for some years from 2000 onwards. The data source systems vary from time series at coastal monitoring stations or offshore platforms (buoys, through repeated research cruises or opportunistic sampling from ferry routes, to temperature extracts from CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth profiles, oceanographic, fishery and plankton tows, and data collected from recreational scuba divers or electronic devices attached to marine animals. The datasets described have not been included in previous seawater temperature collation exercises (e.g. International Comprehensive Ocean–Atmosphere Data Set, Met Office Hadley Centre sea surface temperature data set, the centennial in situ observation-based estimates of sea surface temperatures, although some summary data reside in the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC archive, the Marine Environment Monitoring and Assessment National (MERMAN database and the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES data centre. We envisage the data primarily providing a biologically and ecosystem-relevant context for regional assessments of changing
Morris, David J.; Pinnegar, John K.; Maxwell, David L.; Dye, Stephen R.; Fernand, Liam J.; Flatman, Stephen; Williams, Oliver J.; Rogers, Stuart I.
The datasets described here bring together quality-controlled seawater temperature measurements from over 130 years of departmental government-funded marine science investigations in the UK (United Kingdom). Since before the foundation of a Marine Biological Association fisheries laboratory in 1902 and through subsequent evolutions as the Directorate of Fisheries Research and the current Centre for Environment Fisheries & Aquaculture Science, UK government marine scientists and observers have been collecting seawater temperature data as part of oceanographic, chemical, biological, radiological, and other policy-driven research and observation programmes in UK waters. These datasets start with a few tens of records per year, rise to hundreds from the early 1900s, thousands by 1959, and hundreds of thousands by the 1980s, peaking with > 1 million for some years from 2000 onwards. The data source systems vary from time series at coastal monitoring stations or offshore platforms (buoys), through repeated research cruises or opportunistic sampling from ferry routes, to temperature extracts from CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth) profiles, oceanographic, fishery and plankton tows, and data collected from recreational scuba divers or electronic devices attached to marine animals. The datasets described have not been included in previous seawater temperature collation exercises (e.g. International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set, Met Office Hadley Centre sea surface temperature data set, the centennial in situ observation-based estimates of sea surface temperatures), although some summary data reside in the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) archive, the Marine Environment Monitoring and Assessment National (MERMAN) database and the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) data centre. We envisage the data primarily providing a biologically and ecosystem-relevant context for regional assessments of changing hydrological conditions
Head, Michael G.; Fitchett, Joseph R.; Lichtman, Amos B.; Soyode, Damilola T.; Harris, Jennifer N.; Atun, Rifat
Background. Norovirus accounts for a considerable portion of the global disease burden. Mapping national or international investments relating to norovirus research is limited. Methods. We analyzed the focus and type of norovirus research funding awarded to institutions in the United States and United Kingdom during 1997–2013. Data were obtained from key public and philanthropic funders across both countries, and norovirus-related research was identified from study titles and abstracts. Included studies were further categorized by the type of scientific investigation, and awards related to vaccine, diagnostic, and therapeutic research were identified. Norovirus publication trends are also described using data from Scopus. Results. In total, US and United Kingdom funding investment for norovirus research was £97.6 million across 349 awards; 326 awards (amount, £84.9 million) were received by US institutions, and 23 awards (£12.6 million) were received by United Kingdom institutions. Combined, £81.2 million of the funding (83.2%) was for preclinical research, and £16.4 million (16.8%) was for translational science. Investments increased from £1.7 million in 1997 to £11.8 million in 2013. Publication trends showed a consistent temporal increase from 48 in 1997 to 182 in 2013. Conclusions. Despite increases over time, trends in US and United Kingdom funding for norovirus research clearly demonstrate insufficient translational research and limited investment in diagnostics, therapeutics, or vaccine research. PMID:26744430
Oliver, Adam; Brown, Lawrence D
We are at the beginning of an era in which the pressure to secure the biggest possible "bang" for the health care "buck" is perhaps higher than it ever has been, on both sides of the Atlantic, and within the health policy discourse, incentives, for both professionals and patients, are occupying an increasingly prominent position. In this article, we consider issues related to motivating the professional and the patient to perform targeted actions, drawing on some of the evidence that has thus far been reported on experiences in the United Kingdom and the United States, and we present an admittedly somewhat speculative taxonomy of hypothesized effectiveness for some of the different methods by which each of these two broad types of incentives can be offered. We go on to summarize some of the problems of, and objections to, the use of incentives in health and health care, such as those relating to motivational crowding and gaming, but we conclude by positing that, following appropriate consideration, caution, and methodological and empirical investigation, health-related incentives, at least in some contexts, may contribute positively to the social good.
Denk, Daniela; Boufana, Belgees; Masters, Nicholas J; Stidworthy, Mark F
Tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus reside in the small intestine of a number of carnivorous species, predominantly canids. In enzootic areas, hydatidosis caused by taeniid metacestodes can present a significant problem in accidental intermediate hosts, including humans. Whereas the United Kingdom is currently considered free of Echinococcus multilocularis, Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) and Echinococcus equinus are endemic in the UK and have been reported in a variety of captive mammals. The presentation of echinoccocosis in non-human primates widely parallels disease in humans, and public health concerns are related to the four genera, E. granulosus, E. multilocularis, Echinococcus vogeli and Echinococcus oligarthrus. In contrast, sporadic outbreaks and individual hydatid disease cases in non-human primates have been associated with several Echinococcus and Taenia species. Here we describe three fatal cases of cystic echinococcosis in two captive ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and one captive red-ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata rubra) and provide molecular tapeworm characterisation. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this includes the first report of Echinococcus ortleppi in a UK born ring-tailed lemur and provides the first in depth case reports of echinococcosis due to E. equinus in UK born ring-tailed and red ruffed lemurs with detailed clinical and pathological findings. The cestode life cycle and implications for zoo collections are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Derwent, R. G.; Field, R. A.; Dumitrean, P.; Murrells, T. P.; Telling, S. P.
Continuous, high frequency in situ observations of ethane and propane began in the United Kingdom in 1993 and have continued through to the present day at a range of kerbside, urban background and rural locations. Whilst other monitored C2 - C8 hydrocarbons have shown dramatic declines in concentrations by close to or over an order of magnitude, ethane and propane levels have remained at or close to their 1993 values. Urban ethane sources appear to be dominated by natural gas leakage. Background levels of ethane associated with long range transport are rising. However, natural gas leakage is not the sole source of urban propane. Oil and gas operations lead to elevated propane levels in urban centres when important refinery operations are located nearby. Weekend versus weekday average diurnal curves for ethane and propane at an urban background site in London show the importance of natural gas leakage for both ethane and propane, and road traffic sources for propane. The road traffic source of propane was tentatively identified as arising from petrol-engined motor vehicle refuelling and showed a strong downwards trend at the long-running urban background and rural sites. The natural gas leakage source of ethane and propane in the observations exhibits an upwards trend whereas that in the UK emission inventory trends downwards. Also, inventory emissions for natural gas leakage appeared to be significantly underestimated compared with the observations. In addition, the observed ethane to propane ratio found here for natural gas leakage strongly disagreed with the inventory ratio.
In recent years, cosmetic surgery in the United Kingdom, which is provided almost entirely by the private sector, has gained in popularity despite evidence of its potential risks to patients. Over 32,000 procedures were reported by one association of cosmetic surgeons alone in 2007, three times more than in 2003. This article examines the regulation of cosmetic surgery in the UK, in light of the need for informed consent and the importance of patient autonomy. Since 2000, the government has attempted through legislation covering all health care provision to regulate cosmetic surgeons' qualifications, patient rights to information, and the inspection and registration of premises. However, the risk to patients from unregistered and poorly qualified surgeons, and from private clinics with a poor quality of care, has still not been adequately addressed. Moreover, ensuring informed consent and the maintenance of standards has been left to professional self-regulation. An independent, government-funded umbrella organisation with lay representation and sufficient powers of registration and inspection of all relevant cosmetic surgery practitioners is needed to fully protect patients, and should have its roots in specific legislation governing cosmetic surgery. Copyright 2010 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Edwards-Jones, G.; Plassmann, K.; York, E.H.; Hounsome, B.; Jones, D.L.; Mila i Canals, L.
Carbon labels inform consumers about the amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) released during the production and consumption of goods, including food. In the future consumer and legislative responses to carbon labels may favour goods with lower emissions, and thereby change established supply chains. This may have unintended consequences. We present the carbon footprint of three horticultural goods of different origins supplied to the United Kingdom market: lettuce, broccoli and green beans. Analysis of these footprints enables the characterisation of three different classes of vulnerability which are related to: transport, national economy and supply chain specifics. There is no simple relationship between the characteristics of an exporting country and its vulnerability to the introduction of a carbon label. Geographically distant developing countries with a high level of substitutable exports to the UK are most vulnerable. However, many developing countries have low vulnerability as their main exports are tropical crops which would be hard to substitute with local produce. In the short term it is unlikely that consumers will respond to carbon labels in such a way that will have major impacts in the horticultural sector. Labels which require contractual reductions in GHG emissions may have greater impacts in the short term.
The implementation of a pharmacovigilance service compliant with the legal and regulatory responsibilities of clinical trial sponsors presents particular challenges for sponsors in a non-commercial setting. In this paper we examine these challenges in detail. We identify and discuss the key steps in the development of a pharmacovigilance service within a public health service and university setting in the United Kingdom. We describe how we have established a central Pharmacovigilance Office with dedicated staff and resources within our organisation. This office is supported by an electronic pharmacovigilance reporting infrastructure developed to facilitate the receipt and processing of safety information, the onward reporting in compliance with legislation and the provision of sponsor institution oversight of clinical trial participant safety. An education and training programme has also been set up to ensure that all relevant staff in the organisation are fully aware of the pharmacovigilance service and are appropriately trained in its use. We discuss possible alternatives to this approach and why we consider our solution to be the most appropriate to ensure that a non-commercial sponsor organisation and investigators are operating in a fully compliant way. PMID:23758677
't Mannetje, Andrea; Brennan, Paul; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Rudnai, Peter; Lissowska, Jolanta; Fabiánová, Eleonóra; Cassidy, Adrian; Mates, Dana; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Fevotte, Joelle; Fletcher, Tony; Boffetta, Paolo
Occupation as a welder has been associated with a 25%-40% increase in lung cancer risk. This study aims to elucidate to what extent confounding by smoking and asbestos drives this association and to evaluate the role of welding-related exposures such as chromium. The study included 2,197 male incident lung cancer cases and 2,295 controls from Romania, Hungary, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, and the United Kingdom from 1998 to 2001. Information on risk factors was collected through face-to-face interviews. Experts assessed exposure to 70 agents, and risk estimates were adjusted for smoking and occupational exposures. Occupation as a welder/flame cutter (prevalence controls: 3.7%) was associated with an odds ratio of 1.36 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.86) after adjustment for smoking and occupational exposures including asbestos. An odds ratio of 1.18 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.38) was found for welding fumes (prevalence controls: 22.8%), increasing to 1.38 for more than 25 exposure years (95% CI: 1.09, 1.75). A duration-response association was also observed for mild steel welding without chromium exposure. In this population, occupational exposure to welding fumes accounted for approximately 4% of lung cancer cases, to which both stainless and mild steel welding contributed equally. Given that welding remains a common task for many workers, exposure to welding fumes represents an important risk factor for lung cancer.
Neville, Vikki; Hinde, Keith; Line, Elaine; Todd, Rae; Saunders, Richard Anthony
To identify implicit causes of companion rabbit relinquishment, this study investigated whether there was annual and seasonal variation in the number of advertisements and ages of rabbits posted as free or for sale on classified websites in the United Kingdom. The number of advertisements posted decreased from 2014 to 2016. There was an increase in the number of advertisements for free rabbits in winter compared with other seasons, which could be a result of caregivers' reduced willingness to interact with their rabbits and carry out husbandry during periods of inclement weather. Rabbits advertised as free were older than rabbits advertised for sale, and rabbits relinquished due to human-related reasons were older than those relinquished because of rabbit-related factors. It is recommended that further research is undertaken to elucidate whether providing education to prospective rabbit caregivers regarding the life span of rabbits and their substantial husbandry requirements, especially in winter, would deter the purchase of rabbits by caregivers unable or unwilling to care for them in the long term.
Full Text Available To investigate the teaching of antimicrobial stewardship (AS in undergraduate healthcare educational degree programmes in the United Kingdom (UK.Cross-sectional survey of undergraduate programmes in human and veterinary medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and nursing in the UK. The main outcome measures included prevalence of AS teaching; stewardship principles taught; estimated hours apportioned; mode of content delivery and teaching strategies; evaluation methodologies; and frequency of multidisciplinary learning.80% (112/140 of programmes responded adequately. The majority of programmes teach AS principles (88/109, 80.7%. 'Adopting necessary infection prevention and control precautions' was the most frequently taught principle (83/88, 94.3%, followed by 'timely collection of microbiological samples for microscopy, culture and sensitivity' (73/88, 82.9% and 'minimisation of unnecessary antimicrobial prescribing' (72/88, 81.8%. The 'use of intravenous administration only to patients who are severely ill, or unable to tolerate oral treatment' was reported in ~50% of courses. Only 32/88 (36.3% programmes included all recommended principles.Antimicrobial stewardship principles are included in most undergraduate healthcare and veterinary degree programmes in the UK. However, future professionals responsible for using antimicrobials receive disparate education. Education may be boosted by standardisation and strengthening of less frequently discussed principles.
Wallace, Stephanie; Nazroo, James; Bécares, Laia
To examine the longitudinal association between cumulative exposure to racial discrimination and changes in the mental health of ethnic minority people. We used data from 4 waves (2009-2013) of the UK Household Longitudinal Study, a longitudinal household panel survey of approximately 40 000 households, including an ethnic minority boost sample of approximately 4000 households. Ethnic minority people who reported exposure to racial discrimination at 1 time point had 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) mental component scores 1.93 (95% confidence interval [CI] = -3.31, -0.56) points lower than did those who reported no exposure to racial discrimination, whereas those who had been exposed to 2 or more domains of racial discrimination, at 2 different time points, had SF-12 mental component scores 8.26 (95% CI = -13.33, -3.18) points lower than did those who reported no experiences of racial discrimination. Controlling for racial discrimination and other socioeconomic factors reduced ethnic inequalities in mental health. Cumulative exposure to racial discrimination has incremental negative long-term effects on the mental health of ethnic minority people in the United Kingdom. Studies that examine exposure to racial discrimination at 1 point in time may underestimate the contribution of racism to poor health.
A N Katkina
Full Text Available Social networks such as Facebook and Twitter have recently become very popular and turned to be an effective instrument for achieving political goals. However, the social networks’ impact is rather ambivalent: on the one hand, social media form specific political actors and support self-organization and civil movements; on the other hand, social media reinforce destructive and aggressive manifestations with the pronounced criminal purposes, e.g. social media ability to disseminate information among large groups is used to organize mass riots. The article analyzes one of the recent and significant events largely provoked by the social networks - mass riots in the United Kingdom in August 2011 that were originally a reaction to the murder of M. Diggan by a police officer who tried to arrest him as a suspect in drug trafficking and possession of weapons. The way events developed into mass riots was the result of discussions in social media and use of social networks to coordinate joint actions of mass riots participants. The article provides a detailed description of the events and authorities’ actions to overcome the crisis and prevent such riots in the future, thus making some conclusions about the nature of social media impact on the politics.
Angrave, David; Charlwood, Andy; Wooden, Mark
Cigarette smoking is a risk factor in a range of serious diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, stroke and type II diabetes. Theory suggests that working long hours will increase smoking propensities among workers. Consequently there is a significant body of evidence on the relationship between working time and smoking. Results, however, are inconsistent and therefore inconclusive. This paper provides new evidence on how working time affects smoking behaviour using nationally representative panel data from Australia (from 2002 to 2011) and the United Kingdom (from 1992 to 2011). We exploit the panel design of the surveys to look at within-person changes in smoking behaviour over time as working time changes. In contrast to most previous studies, this means we control for time invariant aspects of personality and genetic inheritance that may affect both smoking propensities and choice of working hours. We find that working long hours tends to increase the chances that former smokers will relapse, reduce the chances that smokers will quit and increase cigarette consumption among regular smokers, and that these effects tend to become more pronounced for workers who usually work very long hours (50 or more hours a week) compared to those who work moderately long hours (40-49 h a week). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rayner, M; Boaz, A; Higginson, C
The objective of this research was to examine how consumers use health-related food endorsements on food labels. Three endorsement programs were examined: those of the two major retailers in the United Kingdom, Tesco and Sainsbury's, and the "Pick the Tick" program of the National Heart Foundation of Australia. The main methodology used was protocol analysis. This involves the subject "thinking aloud" while performing a task--in this case, (a) shopping normally and (b) shopping "healthily" for foods on a predetermined list--to generate a protocol. Each subject was also interviewed to investigate reported use of endorsements. Subjects were a quota sample (N = 44) of shoppers representative of the U.K. and Australian populations. Information about the subjects, the protocols, and interview data were analyzed quantitatively; the protocols were also analyzed qualitatively. Sainsbury's and Australian shoppers never used the endorsements when shopping but Tesco shoppers did, albeit rarely. Tesco shoppers used the endorsement in complex ways and not just as a trigger to food selection. They sometimes used the endorsement to reject endorsed foods. Subjects claimed to use the endorsements even though the protocol analysis revealed no actual use. There are features of the Tesco endorsement program that make it more helpful to consumers than the other programs.
Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Drumright, Lydia N; Gharbi, Myriam; Farrell, Susan; Holmes, Alison H
To investigate the teaching of antimicrobial stewardship (AS) in undergraduate healthcare educational degree programmes in the United Kingdom (UK). Cross-sectional survey of undergraduate programmes in human and veterinary medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and nursing in the UK. The main outcome measures included prevalence of AS teaching; stewardship principles taught; estimated hours apportioned; mode of content delivery and teaching strategies; evaluation methodologies; and frequency of multidisciplinary learning. 80% (112/140) of programmes responded adequately. The majority of programmes teach AS principles (88/109, 80.7%). 'Adopting necessary infection prevention and control precautions' was the most frequently taught principle (83/88, 94.3%), followed by 'timely collection of microbiological samples for microscopy, culture and sensitivity' (73/88, 82.9%) and 'minimisation of unnecessary antimicrobial prescribing' (72/88, 81.8%). The 'use of intravenous administration only to patients who are severely ill, or unable to tolerate oral treatment' was reported in ~50% of courses. Only 32/88 (36.3%) programmes included all recommended principles. Antimicrobial stewardship principles are included in most undergraduate healthcare and veterinary degree programmes in the UK. However, future professionals responsible for using antimicrobials receive disparate education. Education may be boosted by standardisation and strengthening of less frequently discussed principles.
Rooney, C.; Maconochie, N.; Fraser, P.; Davies, G.; Beral, V.
The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between risk of prostatic cancer and occupational exposures, especially to radionuclides, in employees of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. Risk of prostatic cancer was significantly increased in men who were internally contaminated with or who worked in environments potentially contaminated by tritium, chromium-51, iron-59, cobalt-60, or zinc-65. Internal contamination with at least one of the five radionuclides was detected in 14 men with prostatic cancer (10%) and 12 controls (3%) (relative risk 5.32 (95% confidence interval 1.87 to 17.24). Altogether 28 men with prostatic cancer (21%) and 46 controls (11%) worked in environments potentially contaminated by at least one of the five radionuclides (relative risk 2.36 (1.26 to 4.43)); about two thirds worked at heavy water reactors (19 men with prostatic cancer and 32 controls (relative risk 2.13 (1.00 to 4.52)). Relative risk of prostatic cancer increased with increasing duration of work in places potentially contaminated by these radionuclides and with increasing level of probable contamination. Prostatic cancer was not associated with exposure to plutonium, uranium, cadmium, boron, beryllium, or organic or inorganic chemicals. (Author)
Smith, Claire F; Hall, Samuel; Border, Scott; Adds, Philip J; Finn, Gabrielle M
There is increasing recognition of multiprofessional learning in anatomy and its role in medical and healthcare professions. This study utilized two components to investigate anatomy interprofessional education (AIPE) in the United Kingdom and Ireland. First, a survey involving qualitative and quantitative components asked Heads of Anatomy to report on their institutions' uptake of AIPE. Second, a series of case studies explored the experiences of students by using evaluation forms and an in-depth analysis of thematic concepts to understand the learners' perspectives on designing and delivering AIPE. Out of the 13 institutions that took part in the survey, eight did not offer an AIPE program. Between the remaining five institutions that deliver AIPE programs, 10 different modules are offered with the majority involving healthcare professions. The AIPE component is rated highly by students. The themes from the case studies highlight how valuable AIPE is from the student perspective both in terms of engaging them in anatomy as well as in the broader skills of teamwork and communication. The case studies also revealed how AIPE can be engaging for groups of students who might not have previously had access to cadaveric anatomy, for example, engineers and archeologists. The results of this study have implications for curriculum design in medicine and healthcare but also for further engagement of professional groups from non-healthcare backgrounds. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.
Krausmann, Fridolin; Schandl, Heinz; Sieferle, Rolf Peter
We employ the concepts of socio-ecological regime and regime transition to better understand the biophysical causes and consequences of industrialization. For two case studies, the United Kingdom and Austria we describe two steps in a major transition from an agrarian to an industrial socio-ecological regime and the resulting consequences for energy use, land use and labour organization. In a first step, the coal based industrial regime co-existed with an agricultural sector remaining within the bounds of the old regime. In a second step, the oil/electricity based industrial regime, agriculture was integrated into the new pattern and the socio-ecological transition had been completed. Industrialization offers an answer to the input and growth related sustainability problems of the agrarian regime but creates new sustainability problems of a larger scale. While today's industrial societies are stabilizing their resource use albeit at an unsustainable level large parts of the global society are in midst of the old industrial transition. This poses severe problems for global sustainability. (author)
Emma L Snary
Full Text Available The genus Henipavirus includes Hendra virus (HeV and Nipah virus (NiV, for which fruit bats (particularly those of the genus Pteropus are considered to be the wildlife reservoir. The recognition of henipaviruses occurring across a wider geographic and host range suggests the possibility of the virus entering the United Kingdom (UK. To estimate the likelihood of henipaviruses entering the UK, a qualitative release assessment was undertaken. To facilitate the release assessment, the world was divided into four zones according to location of outbreaks of henipaviruses, isolation of henipaviruses, proximity to other countries where incidents of henipaviruses have occurred and the distribution of Pteropus spp. fruit bats. From this release assessment, the key findings are that the importation of fruit from Zone 1 and 2 and bat bushmeat from Zone 1 each have a Low annual probability of release of henipaviruses into the UK. Similarly, the importation of bat meat from Zone 2, horses and companion animals from Zone 1 and people travelling from Zone 1 and entering the UK was estimated to pose a Very Low probability of release. The annual probability of release for all other release routes was assessed to be Negligible. It is recommended that the release assessment be periodically re-assessed to reflect changes in knowledge and circumstances over time.
Ludman, Peter F; de Belder, Mark A; Redwood, Simon; Banning, Adrian
In the United Kingdom, a clinical data set is completed for every patient undergoing coronary intervention and certain structural interventions, and sent to central servers in the National Institute for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research (NICOR) on behalf of the British Cardiovascular Intervention Society (BCIS). These data are linked to the national mortality register. In addition, data are obtained about the structure of healthcare provision using an annual survey. Analyses of these data are provided for different audiences in several formats. Public reports of individual consultant operator activity and risk-adjusted outcomes from percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have also been produced annually since 2012. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been performed since 2007. Over 2,000 cases were performed in 2015, giving a rate of 30 per million population. Complications to discharge have fallen as case mix has changed and technologies improved. While the mean age has remained about 81 years, the logistic EuroSCORE of patients treated by TAVI has fallen from about 22 in 2010 to 18 in 2015. Tracked 30-day mortality was 3.7% in 2014. Left atrial appendage occlusion and patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure for stroke, and the use of the MitraClip® system (Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA, USA) for mitral regurgitation have been funded through a process called "commissioning through evaluation".
Hall, Jill; Buckley, Hannah L; Lamb, Karen A; Stubbs, Nikki; Saramago, Pedro; Dumville, Jo C; Cullum, Nicky A
Complex wounds (superficial-, partial-, or full-thickness skin loss wounds healing by secondary intention) are common; however, there is a lack of high-quality, contemporary epidemiological data. This paper presents point prevalence estimates for complex wounds overall as well as for individual types. A multiservice, cross-sectional survey was undertaken across a United Kingdom city (Leeds, population 751,485) during 2 weeks in spring of 2011. The mean age of people with complex wounds was approximately 70 years, standard deviation 19.41. The point prevalence of complex wounds was 1.47 per 1,000 of the population, 95% confidence interval 1.38 to 1.56. While pressure ulcers and leg ulcers were the most frequent, one in five people in the sample population had a less common wound type. Surveys confined to people with specific types of wound would underestimate the overall impact of complex wounds on the population and health care resources. © 2014 The Authors. Wound Repair and Regeneration published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Wound Healing Society.
Burton, Christopher R; Duxbury, Joy; French, Beverley; Monks, Rob; Carter, Bernie
In the light of concerns about the wider social and economic value of the PhD training programme, this article discusses the challenges being directed primarily at the traditional doctoral programme of study. While the PhD is primarily concerned with the student making an original contribution to knowledge, the value-added component of the doctoral research degree needs to respond to the needs of a wider market of purchasers, and to meet practice and policy requirements for research leadership. The United Kingdom Research Councils (UK GRAD, 2001. Joint Skills Statement of Skills Training Requirements. Available at http://www.grad.ac.uk/downloads/documents/general/Joint%20Skills%20Statementpdf. (last accessed 1st April 2008.) suggest a range of seven skill domains over and above research design and management that should be offered to students. The seven domains are research skills and techniques, participation in the research environment, research management, personal effectiveness, communication, networking and team working, and career management. This article develops and extends these skill domains for the current healthcare context and considers how these should guide the development and evaluation of the value-added components of doctoral research degree programmes in nursing. The challenges that these issues present to academic departments are also discussed. Our conclusion is that PhD research training needs re-visioning and broadening so that the students' experience includes these value-added components.
Ömer Faruk Ursavaş
Full Text Available The possession or acquisition of a range of computer skills is an implicit assumption related to many undergraduate study programmes, and use of university computer facilities may impact on overall academic performance and employability beyond graduation. This study therefore tested levels of computer anxiety (CARS and computer thoughts (CTS in Turkish and United Kingdom undergraduates with reference to culture group difference, regularity of use (or home use and use of university computer facilities. A substantial minority of students (32-33% reported computer anxiety in both groups, but more UK (41% than Turkish students (21% were deficient in positive self-concept (CTS. Reference to the subscales in the two measures pinpointed cultural differences disguised at scale level, and gender differences were evident across rather than within culture groups. As expected, positive self-concept was associated with use of computer facilities (r’s = 0 to 0.25, p < .001, and anxiety was associated more weakly with avoidance (r’s = 0 to -0.18, p < .001. Results suggest that computer confidence (implying motivation and engagement should not be assumed to exist in the agenda for wider participation. Also within and between group differences indicate that there is no typical or stereotypical student profile in approach to computer activity
Haw, Camilla; Sutton, Lesley; Simkin, Sue; Gunnell, David; Kapur, Navneet; Nowers, Mike; Hawton, Keith
This paper reviews the research literature on gunshot suicide in the United Kingdom and the international literature with reference to strategies aimed at preventing gunshot suicides. Trends in gun ownership and changes in firearm legislation in the UK over the past 20 years are described. Most UK gunshot suicides are male, middle-aged and living with a partner and involve the use of shotguns. They are less likely to have current or past mental health problems, or a previous act of self-harm, than people who commit suicide by other methods, and their suicide is more likely to have been precipitated by a relationship dispute. Where alcohol is consumed the amount tends to be large. The international literature provides evidence of a strong association between rates of gun ownership and gunshot suicide, and some evidence of a reduction in firearm suicide rates following the introduction of restrictive firearm legislation. Over the past 20 years the number of gunshot suicides in the UK has declined by over 50% to a little over a hundred deaths per annum. At the same time, firearm legislation has become progressively more restrictive and rates of gun ownership have declined. Measures, which might further reduce the prevalence of gunshot suicides in the UK, are discussed.
Simpson, Sue; Cook, Alison; Miles, Kathryn
The aim of this study is to report on the experiences, benefits, and challenges of patient and public involvement and engagement (PPIE) from a publicly funded early awareness and alert (EAA) system in the United Kingdom. Using email, telephone, a Web site portal, Twitter and focus groups, patients and the public were involved and engaged in the recognized stages of an EAA system: identification, filtration, prioritization, early assessment, and dissemination. Approaches for PPIE were successfully integrated into all aspects of the National Institute for Health Research Horizon Scanning Research and Intelligence Centre's EAA system. Input into identification activities was not as beneficial as involvement in prioritization and early assessment. Patients gave useful insight into the Centre's Web site and engaging patients using Twitter has enabled the Centre to disseminate outputs to a wider audience. EAA systems should consider involving and engaging with patients and the public in identification, prioritization, and assessment of emerging health technologies where practicable. Further research is required to examine the value and impact of PPIE in EAA activities and in the early development of health technologies.
Schock, Alex; Gurrala, Rajesh; Fuller, Harriet; Foyle, Leo; Dauber, Malte; Martelli, Francesca; Scholes, Sandra; Roberts, Lisa; Steinbach, Falko; Dastjerdi, Akbar
An outbreak of neurological disease in grower pigs characterised by ataxia and paraparesis was investigated in this study. The outbreak occurred 3-4 weeks post weaning in grower pigs which displayed signs of spinal cord damage progressing to recumbency. Pathology in the affected spinal cords and to a lesser extent in the brainstem was characterised by pronounced inflammation and neuronophagia in the grey matter. Molecular investigation using a pan-virus microarray identified a virus related to porcine sapelovirus (PSV) in the spinal cord of the two affected pigs examined. Analysis of 802 nucleotides of the virus polymerase gene showed the highest homology with those of viruses in the genus Sapelovirus of Picornaviridae. This PSV, strain G5, shared 91-93%, 67-69% and 63% nucleotide homology with porcine, simian and avian sapeloviruses, respectively. The nucleotide homology to other members of the Picornaviridae ranged from 41% to 62%. Furthermore, viral antigen was detected and co-localised in the spinal cord lesions of affected animals by an antibody known to react with PSV. In conclusion, clinical and laboratory observations of the diseased pigs in this outbreak are consistent with PSV-G5 being the causative agent. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first unequivocal report of polioencephalomyelitis in pigs by a neuroinvasive PSV in the United Kingdom. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shackley, Simon; Green, Ken
Drawing upon 'transitions theory' and a typology which produces five types of transitions, we describe and analyse the changes that have taken place in the United Kingdom's energy system over the past several decades in terms of three of these transition pathways, namely reproduction (e.g. incremental improvements in energy efficiency), transformation (e.g. more directed efforts towards energy efficiency gains, e.g., through voluntary and compulsory standards-setting processes) and substitution (e.g. the shift from coal to natural gas). Looking into the future, and drawing upon a programme of UK-based research which covered a wide range of potential new supply technologies and changes on the demand side, we identify the key drivers of change, including economic and commercial, technological, policy and regulatory imperatives. This analysis opens up the prospect for two further transition pathways to become manifest. These are: de-alignment/re-alignment (e.g. shift from conventional coal to coal technologies with carbon dioxide capture and storage) and re-configuration (e.g. integrating renewables within buildings and the possible emergence of the 'hydrogen economy'). We conclude with a discussion of the opportunities for policy learning and experimentation consistent with transitions theory to facilitate the deployment of more sustainable energy systems
Vrinten, Charlotte; Wardle, Jane; Marlow, Laura Av
Cancer fear and fatalism are believed to be higher in ethnic minorities and may contribute to lower engagement with cancer prevention and early detection. We explored the levels of cancer fear and fatalism in six ethnic groups in the United Kingdom and examined the contribution of acculturation and general fatalism. A cross-sectional survey of 720 White British, Caribbean, African, Indian, Pakistani, and Bangladeshi women (120 of each) was conducted. Three items assessed cancer fear and two cancer fatalism. Acculturation was assessed using (self-reported) migration status, ability to speak English, and understanding of health leaflets; general fatalism with a standard measure. Relative to White British women, African and Indian women were more fearful of cancer, Bangladeshi women less fearful, and Pakistani and Caribbean women were similar to White British women. Cancer fatalism was higher in all the ethnic minority groups compared with White British women. Less acculturated women were less likely to worry (ORs 0.21-0.45, all Pfatalism (OR 2.29, Pfatalism are more prevalent among ethnic minority than White British women and even more so in less acculturated ethnic minorities. This may affect their participation in cancer prevention and early detection.
Humphries, R.N.; McQuire, G.E.
Broadleaved woodland is an important land use and vegetation type in the United Kingdom (UK), and potentially the most effective landscape and restoration treatment for colliery waste tips and open pit coal sites. A field-based national survey of collieries in England and Wales in 1986 and 1987 showed that establishment was satisfactory in only half of the schemes, and growth was deemed satisfactory in less than one-fifth. There are standard forestry practices whereby stock quality can be assured, and herbaceous vegetation controlled or eliminated by the use of herbicides. During the restoration of the site, depending on choice of species, adequate soil water can be provided by the selection of appropriate soil types and thicknesses, and adoption of appropriate soil handling and decompaction practices. The low affinity of the plantations with local and regional types was partly due to the planting of non-native species and partly due to the failure to match species with site and soil characteristics. There is no reason why woodlands of a local and regional character cannot be established by planting the associated species. A matrix of fast-growing tree and/or shrub species should be used to promote early woodland development. These would be removed during normal management which is essential for the ultimate success of the woodland. Planting schemes should also incorporate woodland structural elements and understory and ground flora species. Provided that these measures are fully implemented, significant improvements in establishment, growth, and woodland development on restored sites should be achieved
Smith, T O; de Medici, A; Oduoza, U; Hakim, A; Paton, B; Retter, G; Haddad, F S; Macgregor, A
To explore the musculoskeletal health of retired professional ballet dancers in the United Kingdom (UK). Online national survey. Retired professional ballet dancers living in the UK. The survey explored: what musculoskeletal injuries or diseases are experienced by retired professional ballet dancers; which anatomical regions were affected by musculoskeletal injuries or diseases in retired professional ballet dancers; whether ballet dancers were forced to retire from professional ballet due to musculoskeletal injuries or disease. Forty-six retired ballet dancers responded. Thirty-six percent (n = 17) of respondents reported retiring from ballet due to musculoskeletal injury. The median age when respondents retired from professional ballet was 29 years. The most common issues that caused people to retire were hip and back pain (25%; n = 9 respectively), followed by hamstring injuries, ankle injuries, cervical spine injuries, and anterior knee pain (13% respectively; n = 5). Ninety-one percent (n = 42) reported experiencing muscle and joint pain post-retirement. Musculoskeletal pain and disease was a problem for respondents in this study. Further investigation is needed to define the problem, so management can be examined. Comparing performance and training regimes to injury rates in professional dancers, and then following these cohorts into retirement, would increase knowledge on this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bojko, Jamie; Dunn, Alison M; Stebbing, Paul D; Ross, Stuart H; Kerr, Rose C; Stentiford, Grant D
Dikerogammarus haemobaphes, the 'demon shrimp', is an amphipod native to the Ponto-Caspian region. This species invaded the UK in 2012 and has become widely established. Dikerogammarus haemobaphes has the potential to introduce non-native pathogens into the UK, creating a potential threat to native fauna. This study describes a novel species of microsporidian parasite infecting 72.8% of invasive D. haemobaphes located in the River Trent, UK. The microsporidium infection was systemic throughout the host; mainly targeting the sarcolemma of muscle tissues. Electron microscopy revealed this parasite to be diplokaryotic and have 7-9 turns of the polar filament. The microsporidium is placed into the 'Cucumispora' genus based on host histopathology, fine detail parasite ultrastructure, a highly similar life-cycle and SSU rDNA sequence phylogeny. Using this data this novel microsporidian species is named Cucumispora ornata, where 'ornata' refers to the external beading present on the mature spore stage of this organism. Alongside a taxonomic discussion, the presence of a novel Cucumispora sp. in the United Kingdom is discussed and related to the potential control of invasive Dikerogammarus spp. in the UK and the health of native species which may come into contact with this parasite. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The focus of this article is on advocacy opportunities provided by the anti-trafficking framework in a new political climate. Through the case study of the United Kingdom (UK Modern Slavery Act 2015 deliberations the article explores opportunities to use political interest in human trafficking to advocate labour rights and protections for vulnerable workers. The article explores how, largely cynical, political motivations for the debate on ‘modern slavery’ in the UK, provided an opportunity to reframe the anti-trafficking discourse in this context. Whilst migration control and labour market deregulation are key priorities for the UK government, the Modern Slavery Act process enabled advocates to highlight the impact of such measures on vulnerable, predominantly migrant, workers. It also ultimately served to persuade decision makers to make a connection between widespread labour abuses and severe labour exploitation. Through this case study the article argues for engagement with anti-trafficking frameworks to both highlight and harness the political rhetoric, and maximise the space provided for promoting the rights of vulnerable workers.
Jenkins, Sian; Arribas-Ayllon, Michael
Genetic counselling is not routinely offered for psychiatric disorders in the United Kingdom through NHS regional clinical genetics departments. However, recent genomic advances, confirming a genetic contribution to mental illness, are anticipated to increase demand for psychiatric genetic counselling. This is the first study of its kind to employ qualitative methods of research to explore accounts of psychiatric health professionals regarding the prospects for genetic counselling services within clinical psychiatry in the UK. Data were collected from 32 questionnaire participants, and 9 subsequent interviewees. Data analysis revealed that although participants had not encountered patients explicitly demanding psychiatric genetic counselling, psychiatric health professionals believe that such a service would be useful and desirable. Genomic advances may have significant implications for genetic counselling in clinical psychiatry even if these discoveries do not lead to genetic testing. Psychiatric health professionals describe clinical genetics as a skilled profession capable of combining complex risk communication with much needed psychosocial support. However, participants noted barriers to the implementation of psychiatric genetic counselling services including, but not limited to, the complexities of uncertainty in psychiatric diagnoses, patient engagement and ethical concerns regarding limited capacity.
Valton da Silva Costa
Full Text Available Abstract Many health systems (HS have adopted novel models of care which have included non-medical prescription (NMP by physiotherapists. The aim of this study was to verify in the literature the existence of this practice and its possible benefits. A literature review was carried out through search on Science Direct, PubMed, SciELO, Lilacs and Google Scholar, and in the World Confederation for Physical Therapy and Chartered Society of Physiotherapy websites. In recent decades the United Kingdom adopted the NMP for health professionals, followed by Canada. In Australia and New Zealand physiotherapists have acted in the prescription and administration of medications under medical orders, which is the first step into independent prescription. Brazilian physiotherapists cannot prescribe any medication, despite of high demands from patients in the Brazilian HS, shortage of physicians in many regions and bureaucracy in accessing health services. The adoption of NMP by physiotherapists may play an important role in the HS, and it seems to be an inevitable achievement in the next years in Australia and New Zealand. The main benefits include decreasing bureaucracy for assistance, population demands for medication as well as major professional refinement.
Morris, David K; Turnbull, Patricia A
Heightened awareness and increasingly sophisticated psychological tests have seen a dramatic rise in the numbers of people diagnosed with dyslexia. Accordingly, there is a reported increase in the numbers of students with dyslexia entering Higher Education (HE) in the United Kingdom (UK) [Singleton, C.H., Chair, 1999. Dyslexia in higher education: policy, provision and practice. Report of the national working party on dyslexia in higher education. University of Hull on behalf of the Higher Education Funding Councils of England and Scotland, Hull], [Higher Education Statistics Agency. HESA. Available from: (accessed 21.12.05)]. Studies researching the effects of dyslexia on the clinical practice of nurses are almost non-existent. This paper reports part of a UK study exploring the clinical experiences of student nurses with dyslexia. In depth interviewing of 18 adult branch student nurses revealed a range of difficulties encountered and a variety of coping mechanisms to manage these. Other than in exceptional circumstances there is no legal requirement to disclose a dyslexia diagnosis. The decision to conceal or disclose their dyslexia was particularly prominent and contentious for these participants. This related to the attitudes of co-workers, concerns for patient safety, expectations of support, confidentiality issues and potential discrimination. Dyslexia continues to attract an unwarranted stigma and can adversely affect the learning experience. The need for disability awareness training in the workplace and improved education/service partnerships to support these students is considered crucial.
Paisi, M; Kay, E; Kaimi, I; Witton, R; Nelder, R; Christophi, C; Lapthorne, D
To examine the spatial clustering of obesity and dental caries in young children in Plymouth, United Kingdom, to evaluate the association between these conditions and deprivation, and explore the impact of neighbourhood-level characteristics on their distribution. Cross-sectional study analysing data from the National Child Measurement Programme (N=2427) and the Local Dental Health Survey (N=1425). The association of deprivation with weight status and caries was determined at individual and area level, using ANOVA and Poisson models. The overall spatial clustering was assessed using a modified version of the Global Moran's I, while clusters were located through Local Indicators of Spatial Association. Spatial autocorrelation was assessed using the variograms of the raw values. Log-linear Poisson models were fitted to assess the significance of neighbourhood characteristics on overweight/obesity and caries distribution. At an individual level, deprivation was not associated with BMI z-scores but was a significant predictor of caries (p⟨0.05). However, at area level, deprivation related to the rates of both conditions. A significant positive autocorrelation was observed across neighbourhoods for caries. The variograms suggested spatial autocorrelations up to 2.5 km and 3 km for overweight/obesity and caries, respectively. Among several neighbourhood characteristics, the proportion of people on benefits was found to be a significant predictor of caries rates. Our results underline the importance of considering geographic location and characteristics of the broader environment when developing strategies to target obesity and caries. Copyright© 2018 Dennis Barber Ltd.
Tompkins, C N E; Wright, N M J; Waterman, M G; Sheard, L
The United Kingdom Ministry of Justice recently highlighted the extent of buprenorphine (Subutex) misuse in English andWelsh prisons, naming it the third most misused drug overall. Yet little is known regarding how illicit buprenorphine is obtained in prison and what influences prisoners to use it. Qualitative research was used to explore prison drug using practices. Thirty men who were former prisoners with a history of injecting drug use were interviewed in depth about their illicit prison drug use, including buprenorphine. Interviews were conducted over 18 months, from August 2006 to January 2008 and were analysed using Framework. The misuse of Subutex by snorting emerged as a significant theme. Accounts suggested that the diversion of prison prescribed Subutex was widespread and prisoners used various tactics to obtain the medication. Various complex and interlinked reasons were given to explain why Subutex was snorted in prison. The main motivation for snorting was to experience a prolonged euphoric opiate effect, believed to help to combat the boredom of being in prison. The price of illicit Subutex in prison was linked to its availability, but it was generally cheaper than heroin, thus contributing to its use. Participants'narratives identified the belief that snorting Subutex in prison was not risk free, but risks were lower than continuing to use other drugs, particularly injecting illicit opiates. The implications of prison Subutex misuse for prisoners, prison medical services, commissioners, and prescribing policy and practice are discussed.
Rufai, Sohaib R; Holland, Luke C; Dimovska, Eleonora O F; Bing Chuo, Cher; Tilley, Simon; Ellis, Harold
Suturing is a skill expected to be attained by all medical students on graduation, according to the General Medical Council's (GMC) Tomorrow's Doctors. There are no GMC recommendations for the amount of suture training required at medical school nor the level of competence to be achieved. This study examines the state of undergraduate suture training by surveying a sample of medical students across the United Kingdom. We distributed a survey to 17 medical schools to be completed by undergraduates who have undergone curricular suture training. The survey included questions relating to career intention, hours of curricular suture training, hours of additional paid training, confidence in performing various suture techniques and knowledge of their indications. We also asked about the students' perceived proficiency at injecting local anesthetic and their overall opinion of medical school suture training. We received responses from 705 medical students at 16 UK medical schools. A total of 607 (86.1%) medical students had completed their scheduled curricular suture training. Among them, 526 (86.5%) students reported inadequate suture training in medical school and 133 (21.9%) students had paid for additional training. Results for all competence markers were significantly lower than the required GMC standards (p Students who had paid for additional training were significantly more confident across all areas examined (p students surveyed. These findings suggest that medical schools should provide more opportunities for students to develop their suturing skills to achieve the GMC standard. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Nisar, Pasha J; Scott, Humphrey J
This study identifies key attributes of a modern surgical trainer as defined by individual trainees and consultant training faculty members. Using a collaborative inquiry process, we conducted focus groups and semistructured interviews with 32 trainees and 10 consultant trainers in general surgery. This study was undertaken in a single postgraduate deanery in the United Kingdom. Key trainer attributes were identified and categorized into themes. Key attributes identified by core trainees (CTs) were enthusiasm, giving feedback, setting targets, completing online assessments, and inspiring trainees. From specialty trainees (STs), key attributes were leading in difficult situations, patience, ensuring trainees perform cases, inspiring trainees, and being a role model. Key attributes from consultants were engaging other trainers, awareness of individual needs, ensuring trainees perform cases, discussing problems sympathetically, and patience. Effective communication was the principal trainer theme for CTs and STs identified the principal theme of leadership. These themes were emphasized also by trainers. Trainees and trainers have different beliefs on the attributes a good surgical trainer should possess. These findings may be used to promote understanding between trainees and trainers of the expectations and difficulties faced by surgical consultants. Copyright © 2011 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The agencies involved in the assessment and prioritisation of medicines for public subsidy purposes in Australia, England and Wales, and New Zealand are compared in terms of their processes; ultimate decision-maker and political involvement in decisions; price-setting processes; decision criteria and inclusion of economic assessment of cost-effectiveness; provision for the rule of rescue and separate treatment of potentially life-saving medicines and cancer drugs; levels of access; extent of consumer participation in processes and decisions; and provision for appeal from decisions. All countries face the key challenge of expanding access to important new treatments, while maintaining cost-effectiveness as a key criterion for public funding and safeguarding the affordability and sustainability of their programs into the future. New Zealand's model may have led to a greater focus on cost-containment and overall affordability than those of the other two agencies. Despite controversial decisions that have led on occasion to disappointment and challenge, the Australian and New Zealand agencies have survived and appear to have managed to date to maintain public and political support. By contrast, the United Kingdom's National Institute for Healthcare and Clinical Excellence is facing major changes to its role that could see it become more of an advisory organisation.
The purpose of this investigation was to examine change in risk for eating disorders in higher education students sojourning in the United Kingdom (UK), as well as associations between such risk and experiences in the host culture. Participants were 98 female students from Malaysia, who completed a measure of risk factors for eating disorder symptomatology (the Eating Disorder Inventory-3 subscales of drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and bulimia symptoms) at two time points: two months prior to beginning their sojourn in the UK (Time 1) and four months after the sojourn began (Time 2). At Time 2, participants also completed measures of sociocultural adjustment, cultural distance between home and host cultures, and perceived discrimination in the host culture. Analyses indicated that, compared to scores at Time 1, participants had significantly higher drive for thinness (d = 0.64), body dissatisfaction (d = 0.54), and bulimia symptoms (d = 0.29) at Time 2. Poorer sociocultural adjustment and greater perceived discrimination significantly predicted greater risk of eating disorders at Time 2. The stress associated with culture change may place sojourning students at risk for disordered eating. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which this risk is related to culture-change specifically, as opposed to a general set of factors associated with transition-related psychopathology more broadly. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:695-700). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Courtenay, Molly; Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Deslandes, Rhian; Hodson, Karen; Lim, Rosemary; Morris, Gary; Reeves, Scott; Weiss, Marjorie
Multi-drug resistant infections have been identified as one of the greatest threats to human health. Healthcare professionals are involved in an array of patient care activities for which an understanding of antimicrobial stewardship is important. Although antimicrobial prescribing and stewardship competencies have been developed for healthcare professionals who adopt the role of a prescriber, competencies do not exist for other medicine-related stewardship activities. Undergraduate education provides an ideal opportunity to prepare healthcare professionals for these roles and activities. This report presents a protocol for a study designed to provide national consensus on antimicrobial stewardship competencies appropriate for undergraduate healthcare professional education. A modified Delphi process will be used in which a panel of Experts, comprising members from across the United Kingdom, with expertise in prescribing and medicines management with regard to the education and practice of healthcare professionals, and antimicrobial prescribing and stewardship, will be invited to take part in two survey rounds. The competencies developed will be applicable to all undergraduate healthcare professional education programmes. They will help to standardise curricula content and enhance the impact of antimicrobial stewardship education.
Historically, electricity systems have been made up of small local networks gradually becoming incorporated to benefit from the diversity of demand and the economies of scale in electricity generation that are possible with large interconnected systems. Today, this logic would seem to have certain limits, now that the benefits related to the size of production units appear to have been exhausted and in view of the growing difficulties in developing new transmission infrastructures. At the same time, there have been considerable improvements in the technical and economic performance of modular generating techniques, which are now enjoying significant development under the effect of electricity sector liberalization and policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of the present paper is to analyse the effect of electricity sector liberalization on the development of distributed generation, and more specifically to examine the conditions in which these new electricity generating technologies can be diffused in a liberalized framework. The paper looks first at how competition has affected the electricity market. This analysis is followed by an examination of the problems of integrating distributed generation into electricity systems. In the third part of the paper, three brief case studies highlight the principal differences between Germany, the United Kingdom and France in the field of distributed generation. This brief analysis reveals that the institutional framework in which distributed generation must operate and the price signals given to electricity sector actors play as big a part as traditional incentives, certificates, bidding systems or guaranteed feed-in tariffs in driving the deployment process. (author)
Parmar, C D; Mahawar, K K; Boyle, M; Carr, W R J; Jennings, N; Schroeder, N; Balupuri, S; Small, P K
Mini Gastric Bypass is a promising bariatric procedure with multiple apparent benefits. Ours is the first unit within the National Health Service of the United Kingdom to be routinely performing this procedure. This retrospective cohort study reports our experience with first 125 procedures. Data were retrospectively analysed from a prospective database. Information was further supplemented by interviewing team members, contacting patients' general practitioners and telephonic follow-up. The mean follow-up was 11.4 months. There were 86 (68.8%) females and the mean age was 45 (range 20-70) years. Mean weight and body mass index was 135.8 (range 85-244) kilograms and 48.1 (range 34.5-73.8) kg m(-2) , respectively. The mean operating time was 92.4 (range 45-150) minutes and the mean post-operative hospital stay was 2.2 (range 2-17) days. There was no leak, one 30-day reoperation and no mortality in this study. Three patients required late reoperations and four patients developed marginal ulcers. At 6 months follow-up (n = 114), 27.5 (range 11.4-47.4) % total body weight loss and 60.1 (range 23.2-117.5) % excess body weight loss was seen. The figures at 12 months follow-up (n = 65) were 36.8 (range 23.7-55.4) % and 79.5 (range 44.9-138.3) %, respectively. This study demonstrates early safety and efficacy of Mini Gastric Bypass in a carefully selected British obese population in a high-volume centre. © 2016 World Obesity.
Pidgeon, Nick; Harthorn, Barbara Herr; Bryant, Karl; Rogers-Hayden, Tee
Emerging nanotechnologies pose a new set of challenges for researchers, governments, industries and citizen organizations that aim to develop effective modes of deliberation and risk communication early in the research and development process. These challenges derive from a number of issues including the wide range of materials and devices covered by the term `nanotechnology', the many different industrial sectors involved, the fact that many areas of nanotechnology are still at a relatively early stage of development, and uncertainty about the environmental, health and safety impacts of nanomaterials. Public surveys have found that people in the United States and Europe currently view the benefits of nanotechnologies as outweighing their risks although, overall, knowledge about nanotechnology remains very low. However, surveys cannot easily uncover the ways that people will interpret and understand the complexities of nanotechnologies (or any other topic about which they know very little) when asked to deliberate about it in more depth, so new approaches to engaging the public are needed. Here, we report the results of the first comparative United States-United Kingdom public engagement experiment. Based upon four concurrent half-day workshops debating energy and health nanotechnologies we find commonalities that were unexpected given the different risk regulatory histories in the two countries. Participants focused on benefits rather than risks and, in general, had a high regard for science and technology. Application context was much more salient than nation as a source of difference, with energy applications viewed in a substantially more positive light than applications in health and human enhancement in both countries. More subtle differences were present in views about the equitable distribution of benefits, corporate and governmental trustworthiness, the risks to realizing benefits, and in consumerist attitudes.
Pidgeon, Nick; Harthorn, Barbara Herr; Bryant, Karl; Rogers-Hayden, Tee
Emerging nanotechnologies pose a new set of challenges for researchers, governments, industries and citizen organizations that aim to develop effective modes of deliberation and risk communication early in the research and development process. These challenges derive from a number of issues including the wide range of materials and devices covered by the term 'nanotechnology', the many different industrial sectors involved, the fact that many areas of nanotechnology are still at a relatively early stage of development, and uncertainty about the environmental, health and safety impacts of nanomaterials. Public surveys have found that people in the United States and Europe currently view the benefits of nanotechnologies as outweighing their risks although, overall, knowledge about nanotechnology remains very low. However, surveys cannot easily uncover the ways that people will interpret and understand the complexities of nanotechnologies (or any other topic about which they know very little) when asked to deliberate about it in more depth, so new approaches to engaging the public are needed. Here, we report the results of the first comparative United States-United Kingdom public engagement experiment. Based upon four concurrent half-day workshops debating energy and health nanotechnologies we find commonalities that were unexpected given the different risk regulatory histories in the two countries. Participants focused on benefits rather than risks and, in general, had a high regard for science and technology. Application context was much more salient than nation as a source of difference, with energy applications viewed in a substantially more positive light than applications in health and human enhancement in both countries. More subtle differences were present in views about the equitable distribution of benefits, corporate and governmental trustworthiness, the risks to realizing benefits, and in consumerist attitudes.
Snow, Thomas M; Ludman, Peter; Banya, Winston; DeBelder, Mark; MacCarthy, Philip M; Davies, Simon W; Di Mario, Carlo; Moat, Neil E
The management and impact of concomitant coronary artery disease in patients referred for TAVI remains contentious. We describe the prevalence, clinical impact and management of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients in the United Kingdom TAVI Registry. All-inclusive study of patients undergoing TAVI in the United Kingdom (excluding Northern Ireland) from January 2007 to December 2011. Coronary artery disease at the time of TAVI was demonstrated on invasive angiography. 2588 consecutive patients were entered in the U.K. TAVI Registry. CAD was reported in 1171 pts with left main stem involvement in 12.4% of this cohort (n=145). Most patients were free of chest pain, but limited by dyspnoea (NYHA Class III & IV 81.9%). Angina was however more prevalent in those patients with CAD (pHeart Team in making decisions on individual patients must not be underestimated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Simeone, R.N.; Hodgkinson, I.A.
This paper begins by surveying the development of the United Kingdom nuclear industry, its organization in both the public and private sectors of the economy, and changes in the numbers employed up to the present day. The possible future nuclear programme and overall manpower needs, and the UKAEA's role and manpower requirements within this programme, are outlined. Manpower problems arising from national shortages of engineers and technicians and reviews of arrangements for their education and training, and also from the pattern of historical development of the UKAEA, are described. UKAEA arrangements for formulating and implementing personnel policies, current policies for recruitment, carrier management and in-service training and their relationship to present and future needs are then discussed. The final section draws attention to UKAEA facilities for the training of staff from other organizations in the United Kingdom and from overseas. (author)
Walsh, John; Swan, Allan Graeme
The process for developing national emergency management strategies for both the United States and the United Kingdom has led to the formulation of differing approaches to meet similar desired outcomes. Historically, the pathways for each are the result of the enactment of legislation in response to a significant event or a series of events. The resulting laws attempt to revise practices and policies leading to more effective and efficient management in preparing, responding, and mitigating all types of natural, manmade, and technological hazards. Following the turn of the 21st century, each country has experienced significant advancements in emergency management including the formation and utilization of 2 distinct models: health care coalitions in the United States and resiliency forums in the United Kingdom. Both models have evolved from circumstances and governance unique to each country. Further in-depth study of both approaches will identify strengths, weaknesses, and existing gaps to meet continued and future challenges of our respective disaster health care systems.
Mirela Ionela ACELEANU
The Anglo-Saxon model of employment has certain features that derive from the specificity of the political and economic system of Great Britain. The labour market policies in the United Kingdom were different depending on the historical and political period; however, the Anglo-Saxon model is characterized mainly by high flexibility but low security. This paper presents the main features of the Anglo-Saxon model of employment, compared to the Nordic and the Mediterranean m...
Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; Balmford, James; McNeill, Ann; Hitchman, Sara; Driezen, Pete; Thompson, Mary E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Cummings, K Michael
E-cigarettes (ECs) have gained significant attention in recent years. They have been introduced in jurisdictions with divergent existing laws that affect their legality. This provides the opportunity for natural experiments to assess effects of such laws in some cases independent of any formulated government policy. We compare patterns of EC awareness and use over a 3 year period in Australia where laws severely restrict EC availability, with awareness and use in the United Kingdom where ECs are readily available. Data analyzed come from Waves 8 and 9 (collected in 2010 and 2013, respectively) of the International Tobacco Control surveys in Australia and the United Kingdom (approximately 1,500 respondents per wave per country). Across both waves, EC awareness, trial, and use among current and former smokers were significantly greater in the United Kingdom than in Australia, but all 3 of these measures increased significantly between 2010 and 2013 in both countries, and the rate of increase was equivalent between countries. Seventy-three percent of U.K. respondents reported that their current brands contained nicotine as did 43% in Australia even though sale, possession and/or use of nicotine-containing ECs without a permit are illegal in Australia. EC use was greater among smokers in both countries, at least in part due to less uptake by ex-smokers. EC awareness and use have risen rapidly between 2010 and 2013 among current and former smokers in both Australia and the United Kingdom despite different EC regulatory environments. Substantial numbers in both countries are using ECs that contain nicotine. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Walid El Ansari; Reza Oskrochi; Ghollamreza Haghgoo
This cross-sectional survey assessed and compared by country, the levels and correlates of 21 self-reported symptoms/health complaints. We examined the associations between self-reported symptoms and perceived stress. Data was collected from universities in the United Kingdom and Egypt (N = 3706 and 3271 undergraduates, respectively). A self-administered questionnaire assessed a range of self-reported symptoms, perceived stress, sociodemographic (gender, age, marital status, year of study, l...
Ji Yan; Peter A. Groothuis
Objectives: Smoking during pregnancy is a key preventable risk contributor to poor infant health. Our study presents a full dynamic relationship between the timing of prenatal smoking cessation or reduction and infant birth weight. Methods: Using a large representative dataset of birth cohort in the United Kingdom, we apply multiple linear regressions to examine how smoking cessation or reduction at different stages especially different months of pregnancy affects infant birth weight. For rob...
This report provides basic information and statistical data on foreign electronics research and development sponsored by the governments of the European Union, Germany, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, France, and Singapore. Industrial R&D funding was found to be highly significant in all of the countries studied. Government and industry typically collaborate closely in the planning of economic strategies for capturing new or larger shares of targeted segments of the electronics market.
The illicit use of anabolic steroids amongst the gym population continues to rise in the United Kingdom presenting serious challenges to public health. This study used qualitative interviews to explore the experiences of 24 users of anabolic steroids and investigate their motives and experiences. Body satisfaction was a motivating factor in the use of anabolic steroids. Anabolic steroid users’ drug use and associated behaviour were influenced by numerous sources of information, in particular,...
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis documents findings on the relationship of government budget deficits and defense spending for France, Germany, Greece, and the United Kingdom in detail and for NATO and OECD country collectives. The thesis topic is relevant, as many European countries are justifying their recent cuts in defense spending with high government budget deficits. The author looked at different data sources and metrics to graphically analyze the ...
Simon Biggs; Chris Phillipson; Rebecca Leach; Anne-Marie Money
Baby boomers have been credited with an essentially ‘youthful’ approach to themselves, to consumption and to life-style. As they enter midlife and older age they are also faced with the challenges of a mature identity. This paper critically examines the strategies that baby boomers in the United Kingdom use to manage identity as they grow older. Specifically, questions concerning attitudes to cohort labels, personal ageing and other generations are compared to the consumption choices that are...
Johnson, P; Vanderbeck, RM
There is a growing literature that addresses the appropriateness and merits of including exceptions in law to accommodate faith-based objections to homosexuality. However, what has rarely been considered and, as a consequence, what is generally not understood, is how such religious exceptions come to exist in law. This article provides a detailed analysis of the contribution of the Church of England to ensuring the inclusion of religious exceptions in United Kingdom legislation designed to pr...
The texts of the Agreement between the Agency and the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland for the application of safeguards with regard to the Bradwell Nuclear Power Station, and of the Supplementary Agreement thereto, which were signed on 20 June 1966 and entered into force on 1 September 1966, are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members
The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Denmark and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland relating to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. This Safeguards Transfer Agreement was signed and entered into force on 23 June 1965
The paper is part of a wider study into how women's studies was introduced in the academic curriculum in the United Kingdom, Canada and the USA. It looks at the sexual politics of the academy during the 1970s and 1980s, and at how they are now remembered. Women's studies was inextricably bound up in the politics of feminist activism in the period,…
Sarah D. Stanwick; Peter A. Stanwick
In response to ethical dilemmas faced by companies around the globe, companies are developing or refining their ethical codes. Many of these companies communicate these codes to their stakeholders through the companys corporate social responsibility (CSR) report. This paper examines the ethics codes of the top 100 companies (based on market capitalization) in the United Kingdom. A sample of CSR reports for these companies is examined to determine if the company includes its ethical code in th...
G. Y. Niyazova
Full Text Available The article considers the United Kingdom language policy on the territory of Azerbaijan after the Soviet Union collapse, which is a bright example of the world political map redrawing. Taking into account the fact that the language is an important tool of the extending one’s influence over the country, we can say with certainty that the success of the specific state laying a claim to play the leading role in on the global political arena strongly depends on its ability to promote its language abroad, to enhance its status and to create such conditions where in the foreign country its language conquers the status close to the status of the native language. In this regard, the United Kingdom activity can serve as an example of a successful foreign language state policy.The authors analyze the activity of such organizations as the British Council, the BBC and BP on spreading the English language. The aforesaid British organizations are the master plate of the efficient language state policy tools, as long as they not only actively develop the global picture of the world, but also promote the interests of the United Kingdom on the territory of the former Soviet Union.Azerbaijan encourages the United Kingdom intention to spread the English language on its territory and does its best in assisting in the implementation of the proposed initiatives, realizing that the spread of the English language being the language of a global communication in Azerbaijan would contribute to the raising of Azerbaijan status on the world arena.
The aim of this economic study is the wording of a synthetic document for the public information in the framework of the 98/30/CE european directive transposition to the gas internal market. It is writing in four main chapters, one for each country concerned: the Germany, the Spain, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Each one presents the historical context, the actors of the natural gas industry and the main provisions. (A.L.B.)
Verbeke, Wim; Marcu, Afrodita; Rutsaert, Pieter; Gaspar, Rui; Seibt, Beate; Fletcher, Dave; Barnett, Julie
Cultured meat has evolved from an idea and concept into a reality with the August 2013 cultured hamburger tasting in London. Still, how consumers conceive cultured meat is largely an open question. This study addresses consumers' reactions and attitude formation towards cultured meat through analyzing focus group discussions and online deliberations with 179 meat consumers from Belgium, Portugal and the United Kingdom. Initial reactions when learning about cultured meat were underpinned by fe...
Hiro Izushi; Yuko Aoyama
In this paper we explore the interrelationship between technological progress and the formation of industry-specific skills by analysing the evolution of the video-game industry in three countries: Japan, the United States, and the United Kingdom. We argue that the cross-sectoral transfer of skills occurs differently depending on national contexts, such as the social legitimacy and strength of preexisting industries, the socioeconomic status of entrepreneurs or pioneer firms in an emerging in...
Maere, G. de; Roch, M.; Cavaco, A.; Preat, M.
In this report a comparison is made of the rules and practices applied in various countries (Belgium, France, Federal Republic of Germany, United Kingdom and United States of America) in designing PWR plants to resist natural hazards (first part of the report) and hazards associated with human activities (second part). The third part of the report deals with the practices in different countries concerning the protection against accidents of internal origin [fr
Huang, CY; Cheah, CSL; Lamb, Michael Ernest; Zhou, N
The current study examined the associations between parentally perceived child effortful control (EC) and the parenting styles of 122 Chinese mothers (36 first-generation Chinese immigrants in the United Kingdom, 40 first-generation Chinese immigrants in the United States, and 46 Taiwanese mothers) of 5- to 7-year-old (M age = 5.82 years, SD = .805; 68 boys and 54 girls) children. The findings showed significant cultural group differences in mothers’ reported authoritarian parenting style. Si...
Walshe, Kieran; Boyd, Alan; Bryce, Marie; Luscombe, Kayleigh; Tazzyman, Abigail; Tredinnick-Rowe, John; Archer, Julian
Objective To describe the implementation of medical revalidation in healthcare organisations in the United Kingdom and to examine reported changes and impacts on the quality of care. Design A cross-sectional online survey gathering both quantitative and qualitative data about structures and processes for medical revalidation and wider quality management in the organisations which employ or contract with doctors (termed 'designated bodies') from the senior doctor in each organisation with statutory responsibility for medical revalidation (termed the 'Responsible Officer'). Setting United Kingdom Participants Responsible Officers in designated bodies in the United Kingdom. Five hundred and ninety-five survey invitations were sent and 374 completed surveys were returned (63%). Main outcome measures The role of Responsible Officers, the development of organisational mechanisms for quality assurance or improvement, decision-making on revalidation recommendations, impact of revalidation and mechanisms for quality assurance or improvement on clinical practice and suggested improvements to revalidation arrangements. Results Responsible Officers report that revalidation has had some impacts on the way medical performance is assured and improved, particularly strengthening appraisal and oversight of quality within organisations and having some impact on clinical practice. They suggest changes to make revalidation less 'one size fits all' and more responsive to individual, organisational and professional contexts. Conclusions Revalidation appears primarily to have improved systems for quality improvement and the management of poor performance to date. There is more to be done to ensure it produces wider benefits, particularly in relation to doctors who already perform well.
The concept of socio-ecological transitions is used to analyse the quantitative importance of physical imports and exports for the Habsburg Empire and the United Kingdom in the 19th and early 20th centuries. For the Habsburg Empire, a new dataset of foreign trade and social metabolism is presented. For the United Kingdom, the analysis relies on previously published data. Foreign trade volumes increased in both countries in the long run. Total trade volumes were much higher in the United Kingdom throughout the entire time period, on average by around a factor four. Physical factors explaining the disparities in structure and volume of foreign trade in the two countries are differences in (1) the temporal patterns of the socio-ecological transition and (2) domestic resource endowments. In both countries, energy carrying materials, i.e. fossil fuels and biomass, were the dominant resources in physical foreign trade. The analysis focuses on the physically most important material groups: coal, wood and cereals, and discusses the role of imports and exports in relation to domestic resource provision and environmental pressures. Physical foreign trade increased at a faster pace than domestic resource extraction and consumption. The socio-ecological transition was thus accompanied by rising international integration of resource supply.
Boyd, Alan; Bryce, Marie; Luscombe, Kayleigh; Tazzyman, Abigail; Tredinnick-Rowe, John; Archer, Julian
Objective To describe the implementation of medical revalidation in healthcare organisations in the United Kingdom and to examine reported changes and impacts on the quality of care. Design A cross-sectional online survey gathering both quantitative and qualitative data about structures and processes for medical revalidation and wider quality management in the organisations which employ or contract with doctors (termed ‘designated bodies’) from the senior doctor in each organisation with statutory responsibility for medical revalidation (termed the ‘Responsible Officer’). Setting United Kingdom Participants Responsible Officers in designated bodies in the United Kingdom. Five hundred and ninety-five survey invitations were sent and 374 completed surveys were returned (63%). Main outcome measures The role of Responsible Officers, the development of organisational mechanisms for quality assurance or improvement, decision-making on revalidation recommendations, impact of revalidation and mechanisms for quality assurance or improvement on clinical practice and suggested improvements to revalidation arrangements. Results Responsible Officers report that revalidation has had some impacts on the way medical performance is assured and improved, particularly strengthening appraisal and oversight of quality within organisations and having some impact on clinical practice. They suggest changes to make revalidation less ‘one size fits all’ and more responsive to individual, organisational and professional contexts. Conclusions Revalidation appears primarily to have improved systems for quality improvement and the management of poor performance to date. There is more to be done to ensure it produces wider benefits, particularly in relation to doctors who already perform well. PMID:28084166
Gopal, Raja Lexshimi Raja; Beaver, Kinta; Barnett, Tony; Ismail, Nik Safiah Nik
Little is known about the information needs of women with breast cancer in non-Western societies. This study examined the priority information needs of 100 women with breast cancer in Malaysia and compared the findings to previous work involving 150 women diagnosed with breast cancer in the United Kingdom. The study used a valid and reliable measure, the Information Needs Questionnaire (INQ). The INQ contained 9 items of information related to physical, psychological, and social care, used successfully in Canada and the United Kingdom. The INQ was shown to have cross-cultural relevance and sensitivity. For Malaysian women, information about likelihood of cure, sexual attractiveness, and spread of disease were the most important information needs. For UK women, similar priorities were evident, apart from the item on sexual attractiveness, which was ranked much lower by women in the United Kingdom. The cultural similarities and differences that emerged from this study have implications for nurses in the cancer field caring for people from a diversity of cultural backgrounds. Breast care nurses are not a feature of the Malaysian healthcare system, although the findings from this study support the view that specialist nurses have a vital role to play in meeting the psychosocial needs of women with breast cancer in non-Western societies.
Meldrum, R J; Ellis, P W; Mannion, P T; Halstead, D; Garside, J
A survey of Listeria in ready-to-eat food took place in Wales, United Kingdom, between February 2008 and January 2009. In total, 5,840 samples were taken and examined for the presence of Listeria species, including L. monocytogenes. Samples were tested using detection and enumeration methods, and the results were compared with current United Kingdom guidelines for the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat foods. The majority of samples were negative for Listeria by both direct plating and enriched culture. Seventeen samples (0.29%) had countable levels of Listeria species (other than L. monocytogenes), and another 11 samples (0.19%) had countable levels of L. monocytogenes. Nine samples (0.15%) were unsatisfactory or potentially hazardous when compared with United Kingdom guideline limits; six (0.10%) were in the unsatisfactory category (>100 CFU/g) for Listeria species (other than L. monocytogenes), and three (0.05%) were in the unacceptable or potentially hazardous category (>100 CFU/g) for L. monocytogenes. All three of these samples were from sandwiches (two chicken sandwiches and one ham-and-cheese sandwich). The most commonly isolated serotype of L. monocytogenes was 1/2a. This survey was used to determine the current prevalence of Listeria species and L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods sampled from the point of sale in Wales.
The concept of socio–ecological transitions is used to analyse the quantitative importance of physical imports and exports for the Habsburg Empire and the United Kingdom in the 19th and early 20th centuries. For the Habsburg Empire, a new dataset of foreign trade and social metabolism is presented. For the United Kingdom, the analysis relies on previously published data. Foreign trade volumes increased in both countries in the long run. Total trade volumes were much higher in the United Kingdom throughout the entire time period, on average by around a factor four. Physical factors explaining the disparities in structure and volume of foreign trade in the two countries are differences in (1) the temporal patterns of the socio-ecological transition and (2) domestic resource endowments. In both countries, energy carrying materials, i.e. fossil fuels and biomass, were the dominant resources in physical foreign trade. The analysis focuses on the physically most important material groups: coal, wood and cereals, and discusses the role of imports and exports in relation to domestic resource provision and environmental pressures. Physical foreign trade increased at a faster pace than domestic resource extraction and consumption. The socio–ecological transition was thus accompanied by rising international integration of resource supply. PMID:21760665
Formetta, Giuseppe; Stewart, Elizabeth; Bell, Victoria
Floods are among the most dangerous natural hazards, causing loss of life and significant damage to private and public property. Regional flood-frequency analysis (FFA) methods are essential tools to assess the flood hazard and plan interventions for its mitigation. FFA methods are often based on the well-known index flood method that assumes the invariance of the coefficient of variation of floods with drainage area. This assumption is equivalent to the simple scaling or self-similarity assumption for peak floods, i.e. their spatial structure remains similar in a particular, relatively simple, way to itself over a range of scales. Spatial scaling of floods has been evaluated at national scale for different countries such as Canada, USA, and Australia. According our knowledge. Such a study has not been conducted for the United Kingdom even though the standard FFA method there is based on the index flood assumption. In this work we present an integrated approach to assess of the spatial scaling behaviour of floods in the United Kingdom using three different methods: product moments (PM), probability weighted moments (PWM), and quantile analysis (QA). We analyse both instantaneous and daily annual observed maximum floods and performed our analysis both across the entire country and in its sub-climatic regions as defined in the Flood Studies Report (NERC, 1975). To evaluate the relationship between the k-th moments or quantiles and the drainage area we used both regression with area alone and multiple regression considering other explanatory variables to account for the geomorphology, amount of rainfall, and soil type of the catchments. The latter multiple regression approach was only recently demonstrated being more robust than the traditional regression with area alone that can lead to biased estimates of scaling exponents and misinterpretation of spatial scaling behaviour. We tested our framework on almost 600 rural catchments in UK considered as entire region and
Luo, Jingyuan; Flynn, Jesse M; Solnick, Rachel E; Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Matthews, Kirstin R W
As the scientific community globalizes, it is increasingly important to understand the effects of international collaboration on the quality and quantity of research produced. While it is generally assumed that international collaboration enhances the quality of research, this phenomenon is not well examined. Stem cell research is unique in that it is both politically charged and a research area that often generates international collaborations, making it an ideal case through which to examine international collaborations. Furthermore, with promising medical applications, the research area is dynamic and responsive to a globalizing science environment. Thus, studying international collaborations in stem cell research elucidates the role of existing international networks in promoting quality research, as well as the effects that disparate national policies might have on research. This study examined the impact of collaboration on publication significance in the United States and the United Kingdom, world leaders in stem cell research with disparate policies. We reviewed publications by US and UK authors from 2008, along with their citation rates and the political factors that may have contributed to the number of international collaborations. The data demonstrated that international collaborations significantly increased an article's impact for UK and US investigators. While this applied to UK authors whether they were corresponding or secondary, this effect was most significant for US authors who were corresponding authors. While the UK exhibited a higher proportion of international publications than the US, this difference was consistent with overall trends in international scientific collaboration. The findings suggested that national stem cell policy differences and regulatory mechanisms driving international stem cell research in the US and UK did not affect the frequency of international collaborations, or even the countries with which the US and UK most
Bravo, Caroline A; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie
The Movember Foundation raises awareness and funds for men's health issues such as prostate and testicular cancers in conjunction with a moustache contest. The 2013 Movember campaigns in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom shared the same goal of creating conversations about men's health that lead to increased awareness and understanding of the health risks men face. Our objective was to explore Twitter conversations to identify whether the 2013 Movember campaigns sparked global conversations about prostate cancer, testicular cancer, and other men's health issues. We conducted a content analysis of 12,666 tweets posted during the 2013 Movember campaigns in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom (4,222 tweets from each country) to investigate whether tweets were health-related or non-health-related and to determine what topics dominated conversations. Few tweets ( n = 84, 0.7% of 12,666 tweets) provided content-rich or actionable health information that would lead to awareness and understanding of men's health risks. While moustache growing and grooming was the most popular topic in U.S. tweets, conversations about community engagement were most common in Canadian and U.K. tweets. Significantly more tweets co-opted the Movember campaign to market products or contests in the United States than Canada and the United Kingdom ( p health issues.
Williams, J R; Morgan, A G; Rouch, D A; Brown, N L; Lee, B T
Thirty-three enteric isolates from Australian (Escherichia coli only) and United Kingdom (U.K.) (Salmonella sp., Citrobacter spp., and E. coli) piggeries were characterized with respect to their copper resistance. The copper resistance phenotypes of four new Australian E. coli isolates were comparable with that of the previously studied E. coli K-12 strain ED8739(pRJ1004), in that the resistance level in rich media was high (up to 18 mM CuSO4) and resistance was inducible. Copper resistance was transferable by conjugation from the new Australian isolates to E. coli K-12 recipients. DNA similarity between the new Australian isolates and the pco copper resistance determinant located on plasmid pRJ1004 was strong as measured by DNA-DNA hybridization; however, the copper resistance plasmids were nonidentical as indicated by the presence of restriction fragment length polymorphisms between the plasmids. DNA-DNA hybridization and polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated DNA homology between the pco determinant and DNA from the U.K.E. coli, Salmonella sp., and Citrobacter freundii isolates. However, the copper resistance level and inducibility were variable among the U.K. strains. Of the U.K. E. coli isolates, 1 demonstrated a high level of copper resistance, 4 exhibited intermediate resistance, and 16 showed a low level of copper resistance; all of these resistances were expressed constitutively. A single U.K. C. freundii isolate, had a high level of copper resistance, inducible by subtoxic levels of copper. Transconjugants from one E. coli and one C. freundii donor, with E. coli K-12 strain UB1637 as a recipient, showed copper resistance levels and inducibility of resistance which differed from that expressed from plasmid pRJ1004.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Grant, Aimee; McEwan, Kirsten; Tedstone, Sally; Greene, Giles; Copeland, Lauren; Hunter, Billie; Sanders, Julia; Phillips, Rhiannon; Brown, Amy; Robling, Mike; Paranjothy, Shantini
Peer support is recommended by the World Health Organization for the initiation and continuation of breastfeeding, and this recommendation is included in United Kingdom (U.K.) guidance. There is a lack of information about how, when, and where breastfeeding peer support was provided in the U.K. We aimed to generate an overview of how peer support is delivered in the U.K. and to gain an understanding of challenges for implementation. We surveyed all U.K. infant feeding coordinators (n = 696) who were part of U.K.-based National Infant Feeding Networks, covering 177 National Health Service (NHS) organisations. We received 136 responses (individual response rate 19.5%), covering 102 U.K. NHS organisations (organisational response rate 58%). We also searched NHS organisation websites to obtain data on the presence of breastfeeding peer support. Breastfeeding peer support was available in 56% of areas. However, coverage within areas was variable. The provision of training and ongoing supervision, and peer-supporter roles, varied significantly between services. Around one third of respondents felt that breastfeeding peer-support services were not well integrated with NHS health services. Financial issues were commonly reported to have a negative impact on service provision. One quarter of respondents stated that breastfeeding peer support was not accessed by mothers from poorer social backgrounds. Overall, there was marked variation in the provision of peer-support services for breastfeeding in the U.K. A more robust evidence base is urgently needed to inform guidance on the structure and provision of breastfeeding peer-support services. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tchero, Huidi; Kangambega, Pauline; Lin, Lucien; Mukisi-Mukaza, Martin; Brunet-Houdard, Solenne; Briatte, Christine; Retali, Gerald Reparate; Rusch, Emmanuel
Cost estimates for diabetic foot are available for developed countries based on cost data for different years. This study aimed to provide a comparison of the cost of diabetic foot in E5 (France, Spain, Italy, Germany, and the United Kingdom) and its characteristics across different conditions. PubMed, Central and Embase databases were searched in February 2017 for English language publications. Bibliographies of relevant papers were also searched manually. Reviews and research papers from E5 regions reporting on cost of diabetic foot were included. Reported cost was converted to equivalent 2016 $ for comparison purposes. All the costs presented are mean cost per patient per year in 2016 $. Nine studies were included in the analysis. The total cost of amputation ranged from $ 15,046 in 2001 to $ 38,621 in 2005. The direct cost of amputation ranged from $ 13,842 in 2001 to $ 83,728 during 2005-2009. Indirect cost of amputation was more uniform, ranging from between $ 1,043 to $ 1,442. The direct cost of gangrene ranged from $ 3,352 in 2003 to $ 8,818 in Germany. Although, for the same year, 2003, the cost for Spain was almost double that for Germany. The total cost of an uninfected ulcer was $ 6,174 in 2002, but increased to $ 14,441 in 2005; for an infected ulcer the cost increased from $ 2,637 to $ 2,957. The different countries showed variations in the components used to calculate the cost of diabetic foot. The E5 incurs a heavy cost from diabetic foot and its complications. There is an unmet need for the identification of cost-cutting strategies, as diabetic foot costs more than major cardiac diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Despite significant developments, 3D technologies are still not fully exploited in practice due to the lack of awareness as well as the lack of understanding of who the users of 3D will be and what the user requirements are. From a National Mapping & Cadastral Agency and data acquisition perspective, each new 3D feature type and element within a feature added (such as doors, windows, chimneys, street lights requires additional processing and cost to create. There is therefore a need to understand the importance of different 3D features and components for different applications. This will allow the direction of capture effort towards items that will be relevant to a wide range of users, as well as to understand the current status of, and interest in, 3D at a national level. This paper reports the results of an initial requirements gathering exercise for 3D geographic information in the United Kingdom (UK. It describes a user-centred design approach where usability and user needs are given extensive attention at each stage of the design process. Web-based questionnaires and semi-structured face-to-face interviews were used as complementary data collection methods to understand the user needs. The results from this initial study showed that while some applications lead the field with a high adoption of 3D, others are laggards, predominantly from organisational inertia. While individuals may be positive about the use of 3D, many struggle to justify the value and business case for 3D GI. Further work is required to identify the specific geometric and semantic requirements for different applications and to repeat the study with a larger sample.
Drennan, Vari; Davis, Kathy; Goodman, Claire; Humphrey, Charlotte; Locke, Rachel; Mark, Annabelle; Murray, Susan F; Traynor, Michael
This paper is a report of an integrative literature review to investigate: (a) the extent of entrepreneurial activity by nurses, midwives and health visitors in the United Kingdom and (b) the factors that influenced these activities. Internationally, social and commercial entrepreneurial activity is regarded as important for economic growth and social cohesion. Seventeen bibliographic databases were searched using single and combined search terms: 'entrepreneur$', 'business', 'private practice', 'self-employ$', 'intrapreneur$''social enterprise$''mutuals', 'collectives', 'co-op' and 'social capital' which were related to a second layer of terms 'Nurs$', 'Midwi$', 'Visit$'. 'Entrepreneur$' Private Midwi$, Independent Midwi$, and 'nursing workforce'. In addition, hand searches of non-indexed journals and grey literature searches were completed. The following inclusion criteria were: (a) describing nurses, midwife and/or health visitor entrepreneurship (b) undertaken in the UK, and (c) reported between January 1996 and December 2005. Of 154 items included only three were empirical studies; the remainder were narrative accounts. While quality of these accounts cannot be verified, they provide as complete an account as possible in this under-researched area. The numbers of nurses, midwives and health visitors acting entrepreneurially were very small and mirror international evidence. A categorization of entrepreneurial activity was inductively constructed by employment status and product offered. 'Push' and 'pull' influencing factors varied between types of entrepreneurial activity. Empirical investigation into the extent to which nurses and midwives respond to calls for greater entrepreneurialism should take account of the complex interplay of contextual factors (e.g. healthcare legislation), professional and managerial experience and demographic factors.
Leigh, W J; Wakeford, R
In the United Kingdom, the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 places a "strict" statutory duty on the operators of nuclear facilities to ensure that any exposure to radiation resulting from operations does not cause injury or damage. A claimant does not have to prove fault to receive compensation under the Act, only causation. The 1965 Act has been fundamental in shaping litigation involving the nuclear industry in the UK. Civil law cases brought under the Act will be heard before a single judge (with no jury or technical assessor) who must present his or her decision in a reasoned judgment. This process leads to a considerable volume of expert evidence being presented to the court and extensive cross-examination of witnesses. The expense and uncertain outcome of cases involving claims by nuclear workers that occupational exposure to radiation had caused the development of cancer has led to employers and trade unions setting up the voluntary Compensation Scheme for Radiation-linked Diseases as an alternative to litigation. This Scheme has worked well and is held up as a model of alternative dispute resolution. However, a few cases concerning personal injury or damage to property have come before the courts when the defendant nuclear operator considered that the claims were technically unjustified and where settlement was not a policy option. As anticipated, these cases were lengthy, complex, and expensive. The radiation doses assessed to have been received by the individuals who were the subject of claims, whether workers or members of the public, have been crucial to the outcome. The technical expertise of health physicists and allied specialists has been vital in establishing defensible estimates of dose, and this contribution can be expected to remain of high importance in radiation litigation in the UK.
Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kawai, Hiroki [Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan)
The ABWR (Advanced Boiling Water Reactor) is a generation III+ reactor, the most modern operational generation of nuclear power plants. The UK ABWR design is proposed for development and construction in the United Kingdom (UK), and under review by the Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR) through Generic Design Assessment (GDA). The UK ABWR design has mainly two types of the safety system: ''preventing'' and ''mitigating'' a fault and their consequences. The prevention of internal hazards starts with design processes and procedures. These processes lead to limiting the sources of potential hazards. The mitigative safety systems are required to ensure the fundamental safety functions (FSFs): control of reactivity, Fuel cooling, long term heat removal, confinement/containment of radioactive materials, and others. Implementation of the safety philosophy is based upon redundant and diverse safety systems that deliver the FSFs. Three mechanical divisions are provided, each of which contains redundant systems, structures, and components (SSCs) capable of carrying out all the FSFs. The safety divisions are separated by robust barriers which act to contain a hazard in an affected division and prevent the spread of the hazard to a different division. The deterministic assessments and the hazard schedule argue that the rooms containing SSCs providing the FSFs are located in different fire safety divisions. The approach to maintaining the FSFs during and after internal fires is to ensure fires do not spread beyond that division to affect redundant equipment in other divisions. During the GDA process, it is demonstrated that generally barrier compartmentation (the divisional barrier walls, ceilings and floors) is sufficient to contain the postulated fires. The UK ABWR design has sufficient capability of withstanding the postulated internal fire hazard to achieve the FSFs. Further development is being undertaken with feedback in the GDA
Weightman, M.W.; Willby, C.R.
In the United Kingdom, the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) licenses nuclear facilities, including research reactors, on behalf of the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). The legislation, the regulatory organizations and the methods of operation that have been developed over the last 30 years result in a largely non-prescriptive form of control that is well suited to research reactors. The most important part of the regulatory system is the license and the attachment of conditions which it permits. These conditions require the licensee to prepare arrangements to control the safety of the facility. In doing so the licensee is encouraged to develop a 'safety culture' within its organization. This is particularly important for research reactors which may have limited staff resources and where the ability, and at times the need, to have access to the core is much greater than for nuclear power plants. Present day issues such as the ageing of nuclear facilities, public access to the rationale behind regulatory decisions, and the emergence of more stringent safety requirements, which include a need for quantified safety criteria, have been addressed by the NII. This paper explores the relevance of such issues to the regulation of research reactors. In particular, it discusses some of the factors associated with research reactors that should be considered in developing criteria for the tolerability of risk from these nuclear facilities. From a consideration of these factors, it is the authors' view that the range of tolerable risk to the public from the operation of new research reactors may be expected to be more stringent than similar criteria for new nuclear power plants, whereas the criteria for tolerable risk for research reactor workers are expected to be about the same as those for power reactor workers
O'Neill, Braden; Ziebland, Sue; Valderas, Jose; Lupiáñez-Villanueva, Francisco
The production of health information has begun to shift from commercial organizations to health care users themselves. People increasingly go online to share their own health and illness experiences and to access information others have posted, but this behavior has not been investigated at a population level in the United Kingdom. This study aims to explore access and production of user-generated health content among UK Internet users and to investigate relationships between frequency of use and other variables. We undertook an online survey of 1000 UK Internet users. Descriptive and multivariate statistical analyses were used to interpret the data. Nearly one-quarter of respondents (23.7%, 237/1000) reported accessing and sharing user-generated health content online, whereas more than 20% (22.2%, 222/1000) were unaware that it was possible to do this. Respondents could be divided into 3 groups based on frequency of use: rare users (78.7%, 612/778) who accessed and shared content less than weekly, users (13.9%, 108/778) who did so weekly, and superusers (7.5%, 58/778) who did so on a daily basis. Superusers were more likely to be male (Pbanking and shopping (Ponline health content, only a minority of respondents reported doing so frequently. As this type of content proliferates, superusers are likely to shape the health information that others access. Further research should assess the effect of user-generated online content on health outcomes and use of health services by Internet users.
Laverty, Anthony A; Mindell, Jennifer S; Webb, Elizabeth A; Millett, Christopher
Increasing active travel (walking, cycling, public transport) is increasingly seen as integral to strategies to raise physical activity levels. This study examined (1) sociodemographic correlates of active travel to work and (2) associations between active travel and cardiovascular risk factors in the United Kingdom (UK). Data come from Understanding Society, a nationally representative survey of UK residents in 2009/2011, analyzed in 2012. Multinomial logistic regression assessed associations between sociodemographic factors and mode of transport to work. Linear and logistic regression was used to examine associations between mode of travel and overweight/obesity, and having hypertension or diabetes. A total of 69% of participants traveled to work using private transport, with public transport, walking, and cycling used by 16%, 12%, and 3%, respectively. Use of any active travel was more likely in participants living in London. Black participants were more likely to walk (AOR=1.41, 95% CI=1.08, 1.84) or take public transport (AOR=2.34, 95% CI=1.88, 2.90) to work than whites. Using public transport, walking, or cycling to work was associated with a lower likelihood of being overweight (AOR=0.80, 95% CI=0.54, 0.88 for walking). Walking or cycling was associated with a lower likelihood of having diabetes, and walking was associated with a lower likelihood of having hypertension than private transport (AOR=0.83, 95% CI=0.71, 0.97). There are wide variations in the mode of travel to work across regions and sociodemographic groups in the UK. The protective association between active travel and cardiovascular risk demonstrated in this nationally representative study adds to growing evidence that concerted policy focus in this area may benefit population health. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Flynn, Hannah; Lewis, Philippa
In 2003, The National Health Service Cervical Screening Programme (NHSCSP) in England modified its recommendation by increasing the age at which to begin screening from 20 to 25. This was on the grounds that normal changes in the cervix before the age of 25 are often identified during screening as being abnormal, resulting in many young women receiving unnecessary treatment at both a significant psychological cost to the patient and a financial cost to the service. In 2011, the cervical screening programme in Northern Ireland was also amended followed closely by Scotland in late 2012. Some 10 years later, Wales finally altered cervical screening policy in January 2013 and now invite women for an initial screen at the age of 25, in line with the rest of the United Kingdom (UK). The withdrawal of cervical screening from 20 to 24 years in England was the first occasion globally, where a population cancer screening programme was withdrawn. Although the changes in England were perceived by some as "rational care" - as they encourage utilisation of beneficial services while discouraging use of those that may lead to more harms than benefits, many people also believe them to be "rationing care". In fact, even now, a decade on from the policy alterations in England, people are still vociferously exhibiting their discontent at the decision; exacerbated by national media headlines such as: "Denying young women smear tests is a disgrace". Yet with recent, rather alarming analysis of trends in England suggesting a rise in the incidence of cervical cancer in young women, it seems of great public health interest to consider whether such a rise is attributable to reduced cervical screening activity and reflect on whether the decision to alter cervical screening policy for those under the age of 25 was, in fact, a rational and correct decision. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shuldham, Caroline; Theaker, Chris; Jaarsma, Tiny; Cowie, Martin R
This paper is a report of a study to test the internal consistency, reliability and validity of the 12-item European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour Scale in an English-speaking sample in the United Kingdom. The European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour Scale quantifies the measures patients take to manage their heart failure. Produced in the Netherlands and Sweden, it has been translated into English. A convenience sample of 183 patients (response rate 85%) with heart failure (New York Heart Association, Class I-IV) was recruited from an outpatient clinic between July 2004 and July 2005. Mainly men (n = 143), they had a mean age of 65.6 years (sd = 12.3). They completed the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire, the Self-Care of Heart Failure Index, and the European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour Scale during their clinic visit. The latter questionnaire was repeated at home within 2 weeks. The scale was reliable but internal consistency was only moderate (Cronbach's alpha = 0.69) and lower than in other European populations. It appears to be repeatable in the short-term. Comparison with the Self-Care of Heart Failure Index raised questions about whether the two questionnaires measured the same concept. Variance in self-care was not explained by gender, age or severity of heart failure. As self-care is an important component in the life of patients with heart failure, further exploration of the methods for measuring patients' self-care behaviours is warranted to enable healthcare staff to assess patients effectively. This would also help in understanding the applicability of tools in a range of patients, cultures and settings.
Ali, Sheila; Chalder, Trudie; Madan, Ira
Background Disabling fatigue is common in the working age population. It is essential that occupational health (OH) professionals are up-to-date with the management of fatigue in order to reduce the impact of fatigue on workplace productivity. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of one-day workshops on OH professionals' knowledge of fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and their confidence in diagnosing and managing these in a working population. Methods Five interactive problem-based workshops were held in the United Kingdom. These workshops were developed and delivered by experts in the field. Questionnaires were self-administered immediately prior to, immediately after, and 4 months following each workshop. Questionnaires included measures of satisfaction, knowledge of fatigue and CFS, and confidence in diagnosing and managing fatigue. Open-ended questions were used to elicit feedback about the workshops. Results General knowledge of fatigue increased significantly after training (with a 25% increase in the median score). Participants showed significantly higher levels of confidence in diagnosing and managing CFS (with a 62.5% increase in the median score), and high scores were maintained 4 months after the workshops. OH physicians scored higher on knowledge and confidence than nurses. Similarly, thematic analysis revealed that participants had increased knowledge and confidence after attending the workshops. Conclusion Fatigue can lead to severe functional impairment with adverse workplace outcomes. One-day workshops can be effective in training OH professionals in how to diagnose and manage fatigue and CFS. Training may increase general knowledge of fatigue and confidence in fatigue management in an OH setting. PMID:25516811
Tee, R D; Gordon, D J; Gordon, S; Crook, B; Nunn, A J; Musk, A W; Venables, K M; Taylor, A J
In a study of 279 United Kingdom bakery workers a high prevalence of immunological response to storage mites was found. To determine whether this was the consequence of exposure to storage mites in bakery work, a population of salt packing workers was examined as a comparison group not at occupational risk of exposure to storage mites. Forty two per cent of both groups were atopic (had a positive skin prick response greater than negative controls to D pteronyssinus, grass pollen, or cat fur by 2 mm or more) and 33% had an immediate skin prick test response to at least one of four storage mites (L destructor, G domesticus, T putrescentiae, A Siro). A higher percentage of the salt packing workers than the bakery workers had a positive radioallergosorbent test (RAST) (greater than or equal to 0.35 PRU) to D pteronyssinus and to the four storage mites. Logistic regression analysis identified atopy as the most significant variable for a positive skin test and RAST response to storage mites in both groups of workers. RAST inhibition was used to analyse extracted area and personal air samples. Analysis of static area samples for aeroallergen showed immunological identity with flour but L destructor was found in only one of seven exposed filters. The concentration of airborne flour was related to exposure rank of perceived dustiness and gravimetric measurement of total dust. Nineteen out of 32 filters from workers in jobs with higher dust exposure (rank >/=6) had a level of > 10 microgram/m(3) flour whereas this concentrations was exceeded in only one of 23 filters from workers in low dust exposure (bakery workers. The development of immunological (and airway) responsiveness to inhaled flour dust is increased in those exposed to higher concentrations of airborne allergen, which appears to be predominantly flour and not storage mites. PMID:1515350
Scott, J.; Barker, R.
Electrical spectroscopy measurements in the range of mHz to kHz have been made on the dominantly red Permo-Triassic sandstone from the United Kingdom. Samples have been selected from borehole cores from all of the main outcrop areas of sandstone and represent a wide variety of lithologies. This sandstone is an important aquifer for several major cities including Manchester and Birmingham. The samples have been fully saturated with sodium chloride brines and a synthetic groundwater solution that is higher in calcium and magnesium ions than sodium and which closely matches the cation concentrations of the groundwater at Birmingham. Electrical measurements were made using a four-electrode arrangement of silver-silver chloride electrodes. Most of the electrical spectra show a clear, slightly asymmetric, electrical relaxation phenomenon with relaxation peaks in the range of 0.001 Hz to 20 Hz. These relaxation phenomena can be fitted very well by a generalised Cole-Cole model. The relaxation time from this model is found to correlate closely with the dominant pore-throat size from mercury injection. Normalising the chargeability, Cole-Cole m parameter, by the conductivity gives a polarisation magnitude which correlates well with the pore surface to volume ratio (SPOR) for sandstone samples with an even distribution of surface coating clays. The information obtained from the electrical spectra is very useful. The pore-throat size is important in controlling the permeability and in particular the flow of non-aqueous phase fluids. The pore surface area has links to the sorbtion properties of the rock, which are important in estimating contaminant transport. The electrical spectra also provide a useful fingerprint of individual lithologies which could be used for correlation between boreholes or outcrops.
Davies, M M; Bath, P A
The aims of the study were to explore the maternity information concerns of a group of Somali women in a Northern English city and to investigate the relationships of these women with maternity health professionals. The Somali community is one of the most established ethnic minorities in the United Kingdom (UK). The health needs of this group and in particular, the information needs of Somali women with respect to pregnancy, childbirth and post-natal care are poorly understood. To facilitate information provision to birthing mothers and to support maternal decision-making among minority ethnic women, research is required to understand and identify their information needs. A user-centred study utilizing a focus group and semi-structured interviews with English-speaking and non-English speaking Somali women was conducted in a large English city. Discussions were audiotaped, translated, transcribed and then analysed using a variation of the constant comparative Themes and categories were identified across transcripts during data collection and analysis and appropriate quotations are used to illustrate all themes. Major findings that emerged from the analysis related to contact with health professionals, language support and information and satisfaction with health professionals. The findings indicate key maternity information concerns of Somali women with regard to maternity issues and have a number of implications for midwifery and nursing practice. Poor communication between the non-English speaking Somali women and health workers was perceived as an underlying problem in seeking information. Fears about misinterpretation and confidentiality, limit the usefulness of interpreters. The Somali women perceived that they were denied information due to punitive attitudes and prejudiced views among health professionals.
Full Text Available Surveillance of pregnancies in women living with HIV is carried out on a national basis in the United Kingdom (UK through the National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC. There are currently around 1100-1200 HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU infants born every year in the UK, where vertical transmission of HIV now occurs in fewer than five in every 1000 pregnancies. By the end of 2014, there was a cumulative total of more than 15,000 HEU children with any combination antiretroviral therapy (cART exposure and more than 5,000 with cART exposure from conception in the UK. HEU infants are increasingly being exposed to newer antiretroviral drugs for which less is known regarding both short and longer-term safety. In this commentary, we describe the approaches that have been taken to explore health outcomes in HEU children born in the UK. This includes the Children exposed to AntiRetroviral Therapy (CHART Study, which was a consented follow-up study carried out in 2002-2005 of HEU children born in 1996-2004. The CHART Study showed that 4% of HEU children enrolled had a major health or development problem in early childhood; this was within expected UK norms but the study was limited by small numbers and short-term follow-up. However, the problems with recruitment and retention that were encountered within the CHART Study demonstrated that comprehensive, clinic-based follow-up was not a feasible approach for long-term assessment of HEU children in the UK. We describe an alternative approach developed to monitor some aspects of their long-term health, involving the flagging of HEU infants for death and cancer registration with the UK Office for National Statistics. Some of the ethical concerns regarding investigation of long-term outcomes of in utero and perinatal exposure to antiretrovirals including those relating to consent and confidentiality are also discussed.
Cresswell, Kathrin; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah; Sheikh, Aziz
The United Kingdom (UK) lags behind other high-income countries in relation to technological innovation in healthcare. In order to inform UK strategy on how to catalyse innovation, we sought to understand what national strategies can help to promote a climate for innovation in healthcare settings by extracting lessons for the UK from international innovators. We undertook a series of qualitative semi-structured interviews with senior international innovators from a range of health related policy, care/service delivery, commercial and academic backgrounds. Thematic analysis helped to explore how different stakeholder groups could facilitate/inhibit innovation at individual, organisational, and wider societal levels. We conducted 14 interviews and found that a conducive climate for healthcare innovation comprised of national/regional strategies stimulating commercial competition, promoting public/private relationships, and providing central direction (e.g. incentives for adoption and regulation through standards) without being restrictive. Organisational attitudes with a willingness to experiment and to take risks were also seen as important, but a bottom-up approach to innovation, based on the identification of clinical need, was seen as a crucial first step to construct relevant national policies. There is now a need to create mechanisms through which frontline National Health Service staff in relation can raise ideas/concerns and suggest opportunities for improvement, and then build national innovation environments that seek to address these needs. This should be accompanied by creating competitive health technology markets to stimulate a commercial environment that attracts high-quality health information technology experts and innovators working in partnership with staff and patients.
Townsend, Claire L.; Forsgren, Marianne; Ahlfors, Karin; Ivarsson, Sten-Anders; Tookey, Pat A.; Peckham, Catherine S.
Background. Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important cause of neurological problems, particularly sensorineural hearing loss, but data on long-term sequelae and the impact of nonprimary maternal infection are limited. We report updated findings on childhood outcomes from 2 large prospective studies. Methods. Pregnant women in Malmö, Sweden, and London, United Kingdom, were included between 1977 and 1986, and newborns were screened for CMV (virus culture of urine or saliva). Cases and matched controls underwent regular, detailed developmental assessments up to at least age 5 years. Results. One hundred seventy-six congenitally infected infants were identified among >50 000 screened (Malmö: 76 [4.6/1000 births]; London: 100 [3.2/1000 births]); 214 controls were selected. Symptoms were recorded in 11% of CMV-infected neonates (19/176) and were mostly mild; only 1 neonate had neurological symptoms. At follow-up, 7% of infants (11/154) were classified as having mild, 5% (7/154) moderate, and 6% (9/154) severe neurological sequelae. Four of 161 controls (2%) had mild impairment. Among children symptomatic at birth, 42% (8/19) had sequelae, versus 14% (19/135) of the asymptomatic infants (P = .006). All moderate/severe outcomes were identified by age 1; mild sequelae were first identified at age 2–5 years in 6 children, and age 6–7 years in 3. Among the 16 children with moderate/severe outcomes, 2 had mothers with confirmed and 7 with presumed nonprimary infection. Conclusions. Moderate or severe outcomes were reported in 11% of children with congenital CMV identified through population screening, all by 1 year; all impairment detected after this age was mild. Nonprimary infections contributed substantially to the burden of childhood congenital CMV disease. PMID:23334811
Fitzgerald, Felicity; Harris, Kathryn; Doyle, Ronan; Alber, Dagmar; Klein, Nigel
Microbial translocation (MT) from the gut is implicated in driving immune activation, increasing morbidity and mortality in HIV. We used bacterial 16S rDNA PCR, Sanger sequencing, and high-throughput sequencing to identify microbial DNA in the bloodstream of HIV-infected children in London, United Kingdom. Blood samples were collected from sequential children attending the HIV clinic at Great Ormond Street Hospital, London. DNA extraction, broad range 16S rDNA PCR, and standard Sanger sequencing were carried out. A subset of positive samples was analyzed by high-throughput sequencing (Roche 454 platform). Of 105 samples collected from sequential children, nine were positive using broad range 16S rDNA PCR (8.6%; 95% CI 4.4-16%). From three amplicons, 16S rDNA sequences were identified as Streptococcus, Propionibacterium acnes, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Four positive samples were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing. In the three samples in which organisms were identified by Sanger sequencing, the same species were identified. Further species, in differing proportions, were identified in all four samples. The identified organisms included known gut orders Bifidobacteriaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Bacteroidales, and Clostridiales. In immunocompetent children of equivalent age, no bacterial DNA was detected in blood using this approach. This is the first study to our knowledge using molecular techniques to identify MT in children in the developed world. Our data indicate that 16S rDNA is detectable in 8.6% of HIV-infected children. Levels of DNA were low and from multiple bacterial species. Further studies are needed to ascertain the importance of MT in HIV-infected children.
Samman, A; McMonagle, E L; Logan, N; Willett, B J; Biek, R; Hosie, M J
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a significant pathogen of domestic and non-domestic felids worldwide. In domestic cats, FIV is classified into five distinct subtypes (A-E) with subtypes A and B distributed most widely. However, little is known about the degree of intrasubtype viral diversity and this may prove critical in determining whether monovalent vaccines are likely to protect against FIV strains within a single subtype. Here, we characterise novel env sequences from 47 FIV strains recovered from infected cats in the United Kingdom and its environs. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that all bar one sequence belonged to subtype A, the predominant subtype in Western Europe. A single sequence was identified as a likely subtype A/C recombinant, intriguing given that subtype C does not appear to exist in either the UK or North Western Europe and suggestive of a recombination event predating its introduction into the UK. Subtype A strains from the UK were not significantly differentiated from representative subtype A isolates found elsewhere suggesting multiple introductions of FIV into the country. Divergence among isolates was comparable to that observed for subtype A isolates worldwide, indicating that FIV in the UK covers the full spectrum of subtype A diversity seen globally. This study demonstrates that while subtype A is predominant in the UK, novel introductions may result in the emergence of novel subtypes or intersubtype recombinants, potentially circumventing vaccine strategies. However, the dominance of subtype A suggests that the development of a regional or subtype-specific protective vaccine for the UK could be achievable. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Population health status scores are routinely used to inform economic evaluation and evaluate the impact of disease and/or treatment on health. It is unclear whether the health status in black and minority ethnic groups are comparable to these population health status data. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-status in South Asian and African-Caribbean populations. Methods Cross-sectional study recruiting participants aged ≥ 45 years (September 2006 to July 2009 from 20 primary care centres in Birmingham, United Kingdom.10,902 eligible subjects were invited, 5,408 participated (49.6%. 5,354 participants had complete data (49.1% (3442 South Asian and 1912 African-Caribbean. Health status was assessed by interview using the EuroQoL EQ-5D. Results The mean EQ-5D score in South Asian participants was 0.91 (standard deviation (SD 0.18, median score 1 (interquartile range (IQR 0.848 to 1 and in African-Caribbean participants the mean score was 0.92 (SD 0.18, median 1 (IQR 1 to 1. Compared with normative data from the UK general population, substantially fewer African-Caribbean and South Asian participants reported problems with mobility, usual activities, pain and anxiety when stratified by age resulting in higher average health status estimates than those from the UK population. Multivariable modelling showed that decreased health-related quality of life (HRQL was associated with increased age, female gender and increased body mass index. A medical history of depression, stroke/transient ischemic attack, heart failure and arthritis were associated with substantial reductions in HRQL. Conclusions The reported HRQL of these minority ethnic groups was substantially higher than anticipated compared to UK normative data. Participants with chronic disease experienced significant reductions in HRQL and should be a target for health intervention.
Wong, K.; Ellul, C.
Despite significant developments, 3D technologies are still not fully exploited in practice due to the lack of awareness as well as the lack of understanding of who the users of 3D will be and what the user requirements are. From a National Mapping & Cadastral Agency and data acquisition perspective, each new 3D feature type and element within a feature added (such as doors, windows, chimneys, street lights) requires additional processing and cost to create. There is therefore a need to understand the importance of different 3D features and components for different applications. This will allow the direction of capture effort towards items that will be relevant to a wide range of users, as well as to understand the current status of, and interest in, 3D at a national level. This paper reports the results of an initial requirements gathering exercise for 3D geographic information in the United Kingdom (UK). It describes a user-centred design approach where usability and user needs are given extensive attention at each stage of the design process. Web-based questionnaires and semi-structured face-to-face interviews were used as complementary data collection methods to understand the user needs. The results from this initial study showed that while some applications lead the field with a high adoption of 3D, others are laggards, predominantly from organisational inertia. While individuals may be positive about the use of 3D, many struggle to justify the value and business case for 3D GI. Further work is required to identify the specific geometric and semantic requirements for different applications and to repeat the study with a larger sample.
Garriga, Rosa M; Sainsbury, Anthony W; Goodship, Allen E
Metabolic bone disease has been reported in free-living red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in the United Kingdom but the prevalence of this disease is unknown. In this study the bone quality of free-living red squirrels in the UK was assessed by radiology and bone densitometry. The study comprised 20 red squirrels found dead and submitted to the Zoological Society of London (UK) between 1997 and 1998, 10 were from the Isle of Wight (IoW), where gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) are absent, and 10 were from Cumbria (Cu), where gray squirrels are present. Gray squirrels are considered potential competitors for red squirrels. Radiologic evaluation of humerus, femur, tibia, radius, and ilium revealed a slightly lower bone density and thinner cortices in red squirrels from the IoW when compared with those from Cu. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral content and density of the isolated right humerus and femur of 19 of the 20 red squirrels. The bone densitometry study reinforced the radiographic findings. The IoW specimens had lower bone mineral density values, although statistical significance (P0.94) was found when the bone mineral content and density between the femur and the humerus among groups and within each group were compared, showing a uniform level of mineralization between upper and lower limbs. These findings suggested generalized bone loss for the IoW red squirrels that may be compatible with some degree of osteopenia. Within the wide range of causes that lead to osteopenia, malnutrition (especially protein deficiency), calcium and copper deficiencies, and genetic factors remain as possible etiologies.
Dato Syed Ahmad Idid, S.N. K. A.-I.
Skilled, competent and sufficient human resources is fundamental for the safe and successful implementation and expansion of a nuclear power programme (NPP). As nuclear education and training (E&T) stakeholders deliberate and discuss to identify suitable syllabus and courses to offer for education and training to support NPP, it is critical that the nuclear fuel cycle as well as the nuclear power value-chain is taken into consideration in the selection and introduction of relevant courses by Universities and Institutions to nurture and educate skilled manpower for the nuclear power industry. This paper strives to share with the education and training stakeholders, that the task of educating and training students is not solely to prepare them to work in a nuclear power plant, but importantly also to train human resources to support other organizations that require skilled and competent personnel in nuclear related field including Government agencies and Ministries, Business and Industry, Financial sector, International agencies and media agencies, amongst others. Additionally this paper aims to dovetail that a critical mass of skilled manpower along the entire value-chain or scope of nuclear power sector covering planning, construction, manufacturing, commissioning, operation and maintenance and decommissioning must be trained to implement the related tasks required to support NPP competently. Thus, it is within this context, that this paper will outline best practices in nuclear education and training offered by the United Kingdom and France which trains students, professionals, technicians as well as craftsmen not only for employment in a nuclear power plant but also for supporting the nuclear policy formulation in Government Agencies and for supporting nuclear power industry sectors including engineering, construction, manufacturing and services. This paper will offer recommendations for enhancing cooperation in nuclear education and training aimed at building
(a) The natural uranium/ magnox fuel cycle. The United Kingdom have chosen the natural uranium graphite-moderated gas-cooled reactor as the basis of their nuclear power programme. They have operated the reactors at Calder Hall and Chapelcross for seven years; the Berkeley and Bradwell reactors of the CEGB are now operating, and reactors at seven other sites are under construction or planned. The fuel for these reactors is designed and manufactured at the U.K.A.E.A. Springfields factory and then transported to the reactor site for loading. After irradiation and discharge the fuel is transported to the U.K.A.E.A. site at Windscale for separation of uranium and plutonium from fission products. The paper outlines the UK experience of design and manufacture of fuel, re actor operation, transport of irradiated fuel and subsequent processing of the fuel. Mention is made of the behaviour of fuel in a reactor and alternative charging and discharging programmes, the subject is further elaborated in another paper. (b) Reactors using enriched fuels. The UK are developing an advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR), the prototype reactor of which came on power in 1963. The fuel is manufactured from enriched uranium oxide canned in stainless steel and it will be reprocessed through a ''head-end'' which will be added to the Windscale Magnox separation plant. The enriched uranium for the AGR is produced in the UK Diffusion Plant at Capenhurst. An alternative to enriched uranium oxide as a fuel is plutonium-enriched natural-uranium oxide. The paper outlines the experience in production of oxide fuel for AGR, the operating experience with the reactor so far and the plans for reprocessing the fuel. The alternative use of a plutonium fuel is considered and the effects of this on costs and the fuel cycle. Finally the paper outlines the place of Magnox and AGR reactors in the UK power programme. (author) [fr
Metcalfe, S. E.; Atkins, D. H. F.; Derwent, R. G.
Acid deposition modelling calculations have been compared against the data obtained during the first year's operation of the United Kingdom Secondary Precipitation Network. The model adopted employed a single level trajectory approach to describe the coupled atmospheric chemistry and deposition of SO x NO y and NH x species. For the precipitation sulphate concentrations, the model results over the 47 network sites correlated well with the observations. When corrections were applied within the model calculations for background deposition and for dry deposition into the bulk collector, then the model results overestimated the precipitation sulphate observations by about 27%. For the precipitation nitrate concentrations, again the model results correlated well with the observations. Over the whole network, the model underestimated the observations by about 6% and no significant background correction was required for background sources. For the precipitation ammonium concentrations, good agreement with the observations could only be obtained if an additional ammonia source over and above that from animal manure was included in the model. One possibility investigated was exhalation from agricultural soils with an emission rate of 50-100 kg NH x ha -1 a -1. The model was able to reproduce the main features of the distributions of NO 2 and NH 3 in terms of gradients across the U.K. and in the location of the respective maxima. However, in both cases, severe underestimation by the model was apparent. The source of this underestimation was found to involve the assumption of complete vertical mixing in the model and the neglect of nocturnal stable layers.
There are nine commercial Magnox gas-cooled reactor power stations in the United Kingdom. Three of these stations have been shutdown and are being decommissioning, and plans have also been prepared for the eventual decommissioning of the remaining operational stations. The preferred strategy for the decommissioning of the Magnox power stations has been identified as 'Safestore' in which the decommissioning activities are carried out in a number of steps separated by quiescent periods of care and maintenance. The final clearance of the site could be deferred for up to 135 years following station shutdown so as to obtain maximum benefit from radioactive decay. The first step in the decommissioning strategy is to defuel the reactors and transport all spent and new fuel off the site. This work has been completed at all three shutdown stations. Decommissioning work is continuing on the three sites and has involved activities such as dismantling, decontamination, recycling and disposal of some plant and structures, and the preparation of others for retention on the site for a period of care and maintenance. Significant experience has been gained in the practical application of decommissioning, with successful technologies and processes being identified for a wide range of activities. For example, large and small metallic and concrete structures, some with complex geometries, have been successfully decontaminated. Also, the reactors have been prepared for a long period of care and maintenance, with instrumentation and sampling systems having been installed to monitor their continuing integrity. All of this work has been done under careful safety, technical, and financial control. (author)
Al Rmalli, S.W.; Haris, P.I.; Harrington, C.F.; Ayub, M.
Arsenic is a highly toxic element and its presence in food composites is a matter of concern to the well being of both humans and animals. Arsenic-contaminated groundwater is often used in Bangladesh and West Bengal (India) to irrigate crops used for food and animal consumption, which could potentially lead to arsenic entering the human food chain. In this study, we used graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy to determine the total arsenic concentrations in a range of foodstuffs, including vegetables, rice and fish, imported into the United Kingdom from Bangladesh. The mean and range of the total arsenic concentration in all the vegetables imported from Bangladesh were 54.5 and 5-540 μg/kg, respectively. The highest arsenic values found were for the skin of Arum tuber, 540 μg/kg, followed by Arum Stem, 168 μg/kg, and Amaranthus, 160 μg/kg. Among the other samples, freshwater fish contained total arsenic levels between 97 and 1318 μg/kg. The arsenic content of the vegetables from the UK was approximately 2- to 3-fold lower than those observed for the vegetables imported from Bangladesh. The levels of arsenic found in vegetables imported from Bangladesh in this study, in some cases, are similar to those previously recorded for vegetables grown in arsenic-affected areas of West Bengal, India, although lower than the levels reported in studies from Bangladesh. While the total arsenic content detected in our study in vegetables, imported from Bangladesh, is far less than the recommended maximum permitted level of arsenic, it does provide an additional source of arsenic in the diet. This raises the possibility that the level of arsenic intake by certain sectors of the UK population may be significantly higher then the general population and requires further investigations
Salcher, Maximilian; Mcguire, Alistair; Muthurangu, Vivek; Kelm, Marcus; Kuehne, Titus; Naci, Huseyin
Undesirable outcomes in health care are associated with patient harm and substantial excess costs. Coarctation of the aorta (CoA), one of the most common congenital heart diseases, can be repaired with stenting but requires monitoring and subsequent interventions to detect and treat disease recurrence and aortic wall injuries. Avoidable costs associated with stenting in patients with CoA are unknown. We developed an economic model to calculate potentially avoidable costs in stenting treatment of CoA in the United Kingdom over 5 years. We calculated baseline costs for the intervention and potentially avoidable complications and follow-up interventions and compared these to the costs in hypothetical scenarios with improved treatment effectiveness and complication rates. Baseline costs were £16 688 ($25 182) per patient. Avoidable costs ranged from £137 ($207) per patient in a scenario assuming a 10% reduction in aortic wall injuries and reinterventions at follow-up, to £1627 ($2455) in a Best-case scenario with 100% treatment success and no complications. Overall costs in the Best-case scenario were 90.2% of overall costs at Baseline. Reintervention rate at follow-up was identified as most influential lever for overall costs. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed a considerable degree of uncertainty for avoidable costs with widely overlapping 95% confidence intervals. Significant improvements in the treatment effectiveness and reductions in complication rates are required to realize discernible cost savings. Up to 10% of total baseline costs could be avoided in the best-case scenario. This highlights the need to pursue patient-specific treatment approaches which promise optimal outcomes.
Hindi, Ali M K; Schafheutle, Ellen I; Jacobs, Sally
The United Kingdom has been at the forefront of enhancing pharmacist roles and community pharmacy services, particularly over the past decade. However, patient and public awareness of community pharmacy services has been limited. To identify and synthesize the research literature pertaining to patient and public perspectives on: existing community pharmacy services, extended pharmacist roles and strategies to raise awareness of community pharmacy services. Systematic search of 8 electronic databases; hand searching of relevant journals, reference lists and conference proceedings. UK studies investigating patient or public views on community pharmacy services or pharmacist roles from 2005 to 2016. Data were extracted into a grid and subjected to narrative synthesis following thematic analysis. From the 3260 unique papers identified, 30 studies were included. Manual searching identified 4 additional studies. Designs using questionnaires (n = 14, 41%), semi-structured interviews (n = 8, 24%) and focus groups (n = 6, 18%) made up the greatest proportion of studies. Most of the studies (n = 28, 82%) were published from 2010 onwards and covered perceptions of specific community pharmacy services (n = 31). Using a critical appraisal checklist, the overall quality of studies was deemed acceptable. Findings were grouped into 2 main themes "public cognizance" and "attitudes towards services" each with 4 subthemes. Patients and the public appeared to view services as beneficial. Successful integration of extended pharmacy services requires pharmacists' clinical skills to be recognized by patients and physicians. Future research should explore different approaches to increase awareness. © 2017 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gonçalves, Pedro César Gaspar; Griffiths, Gareth; Rawlinson, Andrew
To study the severity of bone loss in a Medieval UK population, and compare this with other ancient UK populations from different time periods. Skulls from a burial site in York (XI-XV century) were investigated. Skulls with a minimum of 17 teeth were included and were divided from childhood into five age groups. Direct measurements from the cement enamel junction (CEJ) to the alveolar crest (AC) were undertaken at six points around each tooth with a UNC 15 probe. The mean bone loss was calculated for each tooth type. Seventy five skulls were included in the study (12-60 years of age). Bone loss was found to increase with age, but stabilized in older individuals (>45 years). The mean CEJ-AC distance varied from 2.1mm in the youngest group to a maximum of 4.1mm in 36-45 year olds. Results were compared with a Roman-British population (Whittaker et al., 1982) where comparable values for mean bone loss were 2.2mm and 5.4mm respectively, and a population of XVIII century Londoners (Whittaker et al., 1998) where bone loss of 1.1mm and 4.0mm was reported for the youngest and oldest age groups respectively. Measuring the CEJ-AC distance in dried skulls from ancient populations may be used as a proxy for the levels of periodontal disease irrespective of tooth wear. The findings from the current study suggest that the severity of periodontitis as determined by measurements of alveolar bone loss on dried skulls from this ancient population, seems to have declined in the United Kingdom from the III-V century to XVIII century. This may be due to changes in environmental factors including living conditions and diet, together with individual characteristics including systemic illness and genetic make up. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Lone, M; McKenna, J P; Cryan, J F; Downer, E J; Toulouse, A
Tooth morphology is a central component of the dental curriculum and is applicable to all dental specialities. Traditional teaching methods are being supplemented with innovative strategies to tailor teaching and accommodate the learning styles of the recent generation of students. An online survey was compiled and distributed to the staff involved in teaching tooth morphology in the United Kingdom and Ireland to assess the importance of tooth morphology in the dentistry curriculum and the methodologies employed in teaching. The results of the survey show that tooth morphology constitutes a small module in the dental curriculum. It is taught in the first 2 years of the dental curriculum but is applicable in the clinical years and throughout the dental career. Traditional teaching methods, lecture and practical, are being augmented with innovative teaching including e-learning via virtual learning environment, tooth atlas and e-books leading to blended learning. The majority of the schools teach both normal dental anatomy and morphologic variations of dental anatomy and utilise plastic teeth for practical and examination purposes. Learning the 3D aspects of tooth morphology was deemed important by most of the respondents who also agreed that tooth morphology is a difficult topic for the students. Despite being core to the dental curriculum, overall minimal time is dedicated to the delivery of tooth morphology, creating a reliance on the student to learn the material. New forms of delivery including computer-assisted learning tools should help sustain learning and previously acquired knowledge. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Murray, C. H.; Hooper, A. J.; Mathieson, J.
In 1997, the UK programme for the deep disposal of radioactive waste was ''stopped dead in its tracks'' with the refusal by the Secretary of State for the Environment to allow Nirex to go ahead with its plans for an underground Rock Characterisation Facility at Sellafield in north-west England. Since that time a House of Lords' Select Committee has held an inquiry into what went wrong and what the way ahead should be. In addition, Nirex and the nuclear industry players have also been analyzing the past with a view to learning from the experience in taking things forward. In Nirex's view this is essentially an ethical issue; the waste exists and we should deal with it in this generation. Three areas need to be better addressed if a successful program of management of the nation's radioactive waste is to be achieved: the process of how policy development and implementation can be achieved; the structure of the nuclear industry and its relationship to the waste management organization; and the behavior of the players in their interaction with stakeholders. All three are underpinned by the need for transparency. In recognition that developing a policy for managing radioactive waste has to be achieved with the support of all stakeholders, the Government instigated a consultation exercise in September 2001. The initial phase of this initiative is essentially a consultation about consultation and is intended to decide on how the next stages of a six year policy development program should be addressed. In addition to this exercise, the Government is undertaking a fundamental review of the structuring of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). They are both shareholders in Nirex and in November 2001 the Government announced the setting up of a Liabilities Management Authority (LMA) to manage the long-term nuclear liabilities that are publicly owned, particularly through those organizations. The future of Nirex will be
McNamee, R; Kemmlert, K; Lundholm, L; Cherry, N M
To describe the relation with age of risk of reported injury after a fall among women at work in two countries, the United Kingdom and Sweden, with particular emphasis on fractures, and to interpret these data. Rates of accidents compiled under the national reporting regulations of each country during a two year period were described by age, sex, cause (fall on the level, fall from a height, other), and occurrence of fracture, with emphasis on the relative risk (RR) in workers aged 45 years and over compared with those aged under 45. For fractures (major fractures only in the United Kingdom) among women, RRs were calculated for all occupations, with the three digit occupational classification schemes of each country. Summary RRs for older versus younger women, directly standardised for occupation, were derived. Among women, RRs for injury after a fall on the level and fall from a height were 2.77 and 1.77 respectively in Sweden and 2.28 and 1.54 in the United Kingdom. When restricted to fractures, the RRs became 4.75 and 3.66 respectively in Sweden and 3.35 and 1.97 in the United Kingdom. Standardisation for occupation gave RRs for fractures of 4.87 and 3.75 in Sweden and 3.43 and 2.16 in the United Kingdom. Almost all occupational groups with enough fractures for analysis showed an excess of fractures related to falls among older women. A different age pattern was seen for all injuries or fracture after other types of accidents and for all types of accident in men. It is argued that, for fractures at least, the results for women are unlikely to be due to reporting bias and unlikely to be explained by a greater exposure to workplace hazards among older women. Whether there is an increased risk of falling, as distinct from sustaining a fracture, is not clear. The generality of the increased risk suggest that efforts should be made to minimise hazards in all occupational sectors, particularly those using many women.
Black, D A Jason; Pilcher, Christine; Drake, Shawn; Maude, Erika; Glynn, David
It has been highlighted in both Poland and the United States of America (USA) that knowledge of idiopathic scoliosis (IS) among physiotherapy students is limited with respect to the 2011 International Society on Scoliosis Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORT) guidelines. Early detection of scoliosis and correct initial management is essential in effective care, and thus physiotherapists should be aware of the basic criteria for diagnosis and indications for treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the basic knowledge of IS in physiotherapy students trained in the United Kingdom (UK). A previously designed and tested 10-question survey, including knowledge of the 2011 SOSORT guidelines, was transcribed onto an online-survey platform. Questions were designed to analyse knowledge of definition, cause, development, prevalence, diagnosis, treatment and bracing of scoliosis. All UK universities offering physiotherapy degrees were invited to participate, with the programme lead of each institution asked to distribute the questionnaire to all penultimate and final year physiotherapy students (bachelor's and master's degrees). The final number of students who received the study invitation is unknown. The survey link closed after 8 weeks of data collection. Two hundred and six students, split over 12 institutions, successfully completed the questionnaire. Analysis showed that 79% of students recognised when IS is likely to develop, yet only 52% recognised that IS's aetiology is unknown. Eighty-eight percent of students incorrectly defined IS as a 2-dimensional deformity, with only 24% successfully recognising the prevalence of IS within the scoliosis population. Just 12% knew the criteria for diagnosis; however, 93% were unable to recognise the appropriate treatment approach through therapeutic exercise. Finally, 54% of students managed to identify correctly when bracing is recommended for IS. In comparison to previous studies within the USA, students in
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the aetiology, presentation and management of these patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB at a tertiary children’s unit in the United Kingdom. This was a retrospective single-institution study on children (<16 years who presented with acute UGIB over a period of 5 years using known International Classification of Diseases (ICD codes. A total of 32 children (17 males, 15 females were identified with a total median age at presentation of 5.5 years. The majority (24/32 of patients presented as an emergency. A total of 19/32 presented with isolated haematemesis, 8/32 with isolated melaena and 5/32 with a combination of melaena and haematemesis. On admission, the mean haemoglobin of patients who presented with isolated haematemesis was 11 g/dL, those with isolated melaena 9.3 g/dL and those with a combination 7.8 g/dL. Blood transfusion was required in 3/19 with haematemesis and 3/5 with haematemesis and melaena. A total of 19/32 underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Endoscopic findings were oesophageal varices (5/19 of which 4 required banding; bleeding gastric ulcer (1/19 requiring clips, haemospray and adrenaline; gastric vascular malformation (1/19 treated with Argon plasma coagulation therapy; duodenal ulcer (3/19 which required surgery in two cases; oesophagitis (5/19; and gastritis +/− duodenitis (3/19. A total of 13/32 patients did not undergo endoscopy and the presumed aetiology was a Mallory–Weiss tear (4/13; ingestion of foreign body (2/13; gastritis (3/13; viral illness (1/13; unknown (2/13. While UGIB is uncommon in children, the morbidity associated with it is very significant. Melaena, dropping haemoglobin, and requirement for a blood transfusion appear to be significant markers of an underlying cause of UGIB that requires therapeutic intervention. A multi-disciplinary team comprising gastroenterologists and surgeons is essential.
Marier, E A; Snow, L C; Floyd, T; McLaren, I M; Bianchini, J; Cook, A J C; Davies, R H
All European Union (EU) Member States (MSs) were required to conduct a baseline survey from October 2006 to September 2007 to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella infection in finisher pigs at slaughter. In the United Kingdom (UK), samples for microbiological culture were collected from the ileo-caecal lymph nodes, from carcass swabs and from caecal contents. Meat juice samples were also collected for testing in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MJE) to detect a serological response. Salmonella was isolated from 22% (CI95% 19-25%) of ileo-caecal lymph nodes, 15% (CI95% 12-18%) of carcass swabs and 22% (CI95% 19-26%) of caecal contents. A quarter (25%, CI95% 22-29%) of MJE samples were positive for Salmonella antibodies (cut-off, S/P≥0.25). The most frequently identified serovars were Salmonella typhimurium (57%) and Salmonella derby (26%). The results were used to investigate some factors associated with Salmonella infection in slaughter pigs. The weight of the carcass was significant, with a lower probability of obtaining a positive meat juice result from pigs with a weight greater than 75 kg (p=0.03). The weight of the lymph node sample was significantly associated with Salmonella status, with a heavier sample of lymph nodes being more likely to be positive (OR=2.16 CI95% 1.07-4.39). 'Carcass weight' in two of the classes - 75-79 kg and 80-84 kg - (OR=0.44 CI95% 0.28-0.70; OR=0.64 CI95% 0.49-0.85) and 'fewer-than-1500-pigs' scheduled for slaughter on the day of sampling' (OR=0.41 CI95% 0.24-0.71) were also associated with a reduced risk of isolating Salmonella from lymph node. The model for carcass swabs showed a positive association with 'time-elapsed-since-the-start-of-the-line' indicating a higher risk of contamination as the day progressed (p<0.01). This model also showed positive association between isolation of Salmonella from a carcass swab and the occurrence of Salmonella in caecal contents from the same pig (OR=2.22 CI95% 1.38-3.59) and a negative
His Excellency Mr Ney Samol Ambassador Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of Cambodia to the United Nations Office and other international organizations in Geneva signing the Guest Book with Deputy Head of International Relations E. Tsesmelis
His Excellency Mr Yusuf Abdulkarim Bucheeri Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of Bahrain to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva
Ordan, Julien Marius
Visit of His Excellency Mr Yusuf Abdulkarim Bucheeri Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of Bahrain to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva
The document reproduces the text of a letter dated 19 June 1997 received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Resident Representative of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, referring to the Revised Supplementary Agreement Concerning the Provision of Technical Assistance by the International Atomic Energy Agency to the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on behalf of the Government of Hong Kong done at Vienna on 4 February 1983
Guyot, Patricia; Taylor, Peter C; Christensen, Robin
To compare the efficacy of abatacept and alternative biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and an inadequate response to methotrexate (MTX) in the United Kingdom.......To compare the efficacy of abatacept and alternative biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and an inadequate response to methotrexate (MTX) in the United Kingdom....
Head, Michael G; Fitchett, Joseph R; Lichtman, Amos B; Soyode, Damilola T; Harris, Jennifer N; Atun, Rifat
Norovirus accounts for a considerable portion of the global disease burden. Mapping national or international investments relating to norovirus research is limited. We analyzed the focus and type of norovirus research funding awarded to institutions in the United States and United Kingdom during 1997-2013. Data were obtained from key public and philanthropic funders across both countries, and norovirus-related research was identified from study titles and abstracts. Included studies were further categorized by the type of scientific investigation, and awards related to vaccine, diagnostic, and therapeutic research were identified. Norovirus publication trends are also described using data from Scopus. In total, US and United Kingdom funding investment for norovirus research was £97.6 million across 349 awards; 326 awards (amount, £84.9 million) were received by US institutions, and 23 awards (£12.6 million) were received by United Kingdom institutions. Combined, £81.2 million of the funding (83.2%) was for preclinical research, and £16.4 million (16.8%) was for translational science. Investments increased from £1.7 million in 1997 to £11.8 million in 2013. Publication trends showed a consistent temporal increase from 48 in 1997 to 182 in 2013. Despite increases over time, trends in US and United Kingdom funding for norovirus research clearly demonstrate insufficient translational research and limited investment in diagnostics, therapeutics, or vaccine research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
G. R. McMeeking
Full Text Available Black carbon (BC aerosols absorb sunlight thereby leading to a positive radiative forcing and a warming of climate and can also impact human health through their impact on the respiratory system. The state of mixing of BC with other aerosol species, particularly the degree of internal/external mixing, has been highlighted as a major uncertainty in assessing its radiative forcing and hence its climate impact, but few in situ observations of mixing state exist. We present airborne single particle soot photometer (SP2 measurements of refractory BC (rBC mass concentrations and mixing state coupled with aerosol composition and optical properties measured in urban plumes and regional pollution over the United Kingdom. All data were obtained using instrumentation flown on the UK's BAe-146-301 large Atmospheric Research Aircraft (ARA operated by the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM. We measured sub-micron aerosol composition using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS and used positive matrix factorization to separate hydrocarbon-like (HOA and oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA. We found a higher number fraction of thickly coated rBC particles in air masses with large OOA relative to HOA, higher ozone-to-nitrogen oxides (NOx ratios and large concentrations of total sub-micron aerosol mass relative to rBC mass concentrations. The more ozone- and OOA-rich air masses were associated with transport from continental Europe, while plumes from UK cities had higher HOA and NOx and fewer thickly coated rBC particles. We did not observe any significant change in the rBC mass absorption efficiency calculated from rBC mass and light absorption coefficients measured by a particle soot absorption photometer despite observing significant changes in aerosol composition and rBC mixing state. The contributions of light scattering and absorption to total extinction (quantified by the single scattering albedo; SSA did change for
Full Text Available High-frequency measurements of atmospheric molecular hydrogen (H2 and carbon monoxide (CO were made at an urban site in the United Kingdom (UK from mid-December, 2008 until early March, 2009. Very few measurements of H2 exist in the urban environment, particularly within the UK, but are an essential component in the assessment of anthropogenic emissions of H2 and to a certain extent CO. These data provide detailed information on urban time-series, diurnal cycles as well as sources and sinks of both H2 and CO at urban locations. High-frequency data were found to be strongly influenced by local meteorological conditions of wind speed and temperature. Diurnal cycles were found to follow transport frequency very closely due to the sites proximity to major carriageways, consequently a strong correlation was found between H2 and CO mole fractions. Background subtracted mean and rush hour molar H2/CO emission ratios of 0.53±0.08 and 0.57±0.06 respectively, were calculated from linear fitting of data. The scatter plot of all H2 and CO data displayed an unusual two population pattern, thought to be associated with a large industrial area 85 km to the west of the site. However, the definitive source of this two branch pattern could not be fully elucidated. H2 emissions from transport in the UK were estimated to be 188±39 Gg H2/yr, with 8.1±2.3 Tg/yr of H2 produced from vehicle emissions globally. H2 and CO deposition velocities were calculated during stable night-time inversion events when a clear decay of both species was observed. CO was found to have a much higher deposition velocity than H2, 1.3±0.8×10−3 and 2.2±1.5×10−4 m s−1 (1σ respectively, going against the law of molecular diffusivity. The source of this unusual result was investigated, however no conclusive
Murray, C. H.; Hooper, A. J.; Mathieson, J.
In 1997, the UK programme for the deep disposal of radioactive waste was ''stopped dead in its tracks'' with the refusal by the Secretary of State for the Environment to allow Nirex to go ahead with its plans for an underground Rock Characterisation Facility at Sellafield in north-west England. Since that time a House of Lords' Select Committee has held an inquiry into what went wrong and what the way ahead should be. In addition, Nirex and the nuclear industry players have also been analyzing the past with a view to learning from the experience in taking things forward. In Nirex's view this is essentially an ethical issue; the waste exists and we should deal with it in this generation. Three areas need to be better addressed if a successful program of management of the nation's radioactive waste is to be achieved: the process of how policy development and implementation can be achieved; the structure of the nuclear industry and its relationship to the waste management organization; and the behavior of the players in their interaction with stakeholders. All three are underpinned by the need for transparency. In recognition that developing a policy for managing radioactive waste has to be achieved with the support of all stakeholders, the Government instigated a consultation exercise in September 2001. The initial phase of this initiative is essentially a consultation about consultation and is intended to decide on how the next stages of a six year policy development program should be addressed. In addition to this exercise, the Government is undertaking a fundamental review of the structuring of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). They are both shareholders in Nirex and in November 2001 the Government announced the setting up of a Liabilities Management Authority (LMA) to manage the long-term nuclear liabilities that are publicly owned, particularly through those organizations
Ladlow, Peter; Phillip, Rhodri; Etherington, John; Coppack, Russell; Bilzon, James; McGuigan, M Polly; Bennett, Alexander N
To evaluate the functional and mental health status of severely injured traumatic amputees from the United Kingdom military at the completion of their rehabilitation pathway and to compare these data with the published normative data. Retrospective independent group comparison of descriptive rehabilitation data recorded postrehabilitation. A military complex trauma rehabilitation center. Amputees (N=65; mean age, 29±6 y) were evaluated at the completion of their rehabilitation pathway; of these, 54 were operationally (combat) injured (23 unilateral, 23 bilateral, 8 triple) and 11 nonoperationally injured (all unilateral). Continuous ∼4-week inpatient, physician-led, interdisciplinary rehabilitation followed by ∼4-weeks of patient-led, home-based rehabilitation. The New Injury Severity Score at the point of injury was used as the baseline reference. The 6-minute walk test, Amputee Mobility Predictor with Prosthesis, Special Interest Group in Amputee Medicine, Defence Medical Rehabilitation Centre mobility and activity of daily living scores as well as depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), anxiety (General Anxiety Disorder Scale-7), mental health support, and pain scores were recorded at discharge and compared with the published normative data. The mean New Injury Severity Score was 40±15. After 34±14 months of rehabilitation, amputees achieved a mean 6-minute walk distance of 489±117 m compared with age-matched normative distances of 459 to 738 m. The 2 unilateral groups walked (544 m) significantly further (P>.05) than did the bilateral amputee (445±104 m) and triple amputee (387±99 m) groups. All groups demonstrated mean functional mobility scores consistent with scores of either active adults or community ambulators with limb loss. In total, 85% could walk/run independently and 95% could walk and perform activities of daily living independently with an aid/adaptation. No significant difference in mental health outcome was reported between the
Lowry, D.; Fisher, R. E.; Zazzeri, G.; Lanoisellé, M.; France, J.; Allen, G.; Nisbet, E. G.
Unlike the big open landscapes of many continents with large area sources dominated by one particular methane emission type that can be isotopically characterized by flight measurements and sampling, the complex patchwork of urban, fossil and agricultural methane sources across NW Europe require detailed ground surveys for characterization (Zazzeri et al., 2017). Here we outline the findings from multiple seasonal urban and rural measurement campaigns in the United Kingdom. These surveys aim to: 1) Assess source distribution and baseline in regions of planned fracking, and relate to on-site continuous baseline climatology. 2) Characterize spatial and seasonal differences in the isotopic signatures of the UNFCCC source categories, and 3) Assess the spatial validity of the 1 x 1 km UK inventory for large continuous emitters, proposed point sources, and seasonal / ephemeral emissions. The UK inventory suggests that 90% of methane emissions are from 3 source categories, ruminants, landfill and gas distribution. Bag sampling and GC-IRMS delta13C analysis shows that landfill gives a constant signature of -57 ±3 ‰ throughout the year. Fugitive gas emissions are consistent regionally depending on the North Sea supply regions feeding the network (-41 ± 2 ‰ in N England, -37 ± 2 ‰ in SE England). Ruminant, mostly cattle, emissions are far more complex as these spend winters in barns and summers in fields, but are essentially a mix of 2 end members, breath at -68 ±3 ‰ and manure at -51 ±3 ‰, resulting in broad summer field emission plumes of -64 ‰ and point winter barn emission plumes of -58 ‰. The inventory correctly locates emission hotspots from landfill, larger sewage treatment plants and gas compressor stations, giving a broad overview of emission distribution for regional model validation. Mobile surveys are adding an extra layer of detail to this which, combined with isotopic characterization, has identified spatial distribution of gas pipe leaks
Michelle M A Fernando
Full Text Available The association of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC with SLE is well established yet the causal variants arising from this region remain to be identified, largely due to inadequate study design and the strong linkage disequilibrium demonstrated by genes across this locus. The majority of studies thus far have identified strong association with classical class II alleles, in particular HLA-DRB1*0301 and HLA-DRB1*1501. Additional associations have been reported with class III alleles; specifically, complement C4 null alleles and a tumor necrosis factor promoter SNP (TNF-308G/A. However, the relative effects of these class II and class III variants have not been determined. We have thus used a family-based approach to map association signals across the MHC class II and class III regions in a cohort of 314 complete United Kingdom Caucasian SLE trios by typing tagging SNPs together with classical typing of the HLA-DRB1 locus. Using TDT and conditional regression analyses, we have demonstrated the presence of two distinct and independent association signals in SLE: HLA-DRB1*0301 (nominal p = 4.9 x 10(-8, permuted p < 0.0001, OR = 2.3 and the T allele of SNP rs419788 (nominal p = 4.3 x 10(-8, permuted p < 0.0001, OR = 2.0 in intron 6 of the class III region gene SKIV2L. Assessment of genotypic risk demonstrates a likely dominant model of inheritance for HLA-DRB1*0301, while rs419788-T confers susceptibility in an additive manner. Furthermore, by comparing transmitted and untransmitted parental chromosomes, we have delimited our class II signal to a 180 kb region encompassing the alleles HLA-DRB1*0301-HLA-DQA1*0501-HLA-DQB1*0201 alone. Our class III signal importantly excludes independent association at the TNF promoter polymorphism, TNF-308G/A, in our SLE cohort and provides a potentially novel locus for future genetic and functional studies.
Sharma, Aarti; Walker, Dawn-Marie; Atiomo, William
To identify the most commonly used methods for weight reduction in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) utilized by obstetricians and gynaecologists in the United Kingdom (UK). Permission was sought from the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) to conduct an electronic survey of all consultants practising in the UK. The questionnaire was anonymous and an electronic link was sent via email to the 1140 consultants whose details were provided by the RCOG. A 27-item questionnaire was developed. The variables evaluated were first-line methods of weight reduction used, proportion of women with PCOS seen that were obese, whether the patients had tried other weight reduction methods before seeking help, the optimal dietary advice and optimal composition, the optimal duration and frequency of exercise suggested, BMI used for suggesting weight loss, percentage of women in whom weight loss worked, length of time allowed prior to suggesting another method, methods considered most effective by patients, use of metformin for weight loss, criteria used for prescribing metformin, first-line anti-obesity drugs preferred if any, second- and third-line methods used, referral to other specialists and criteria for referral for bariatric surgery. Responses were categorical and are reported as proportions. One hundred and seven (9.4%) consultants responded to the questionnaire. One hundred and four (97%) provided advice on diet and 101 (94%) advice on exercise as their first-line strategy for weight management. Fifty-one (47.7%) stated that they provided specific information on an optimal dietary intake, 53 (49.9%) on the optimal dietary composition and 61 (57%) on the optimal duration and frequency of exercise per week. The commonest second-line methods used were anti-obesity drugs and metformin and the most popular third-line management options were anti-obesity drugs and bariatric surgery. The results suggest that the information provided to women with
McQueen, Carl P
Limited data exist on the standard of care provided for children at mass gatherings and special events (MGSE). Some studies provide valuable insight into the proportion of pediatric patients that can be expected at various types of MGSEs, but an accurate breakdown of the range of pediatric conditions treated at major events has yet to be produced. Such data are essential for the preparation of MGSEs so that the health and safety of children at such events can be adequately safeguarded. The aim of this study is to examine the care requirements for children at a large, outdoor music festival in the United Kingdom. A retrospective review of all patient report forms (PRFs) from a large, outdoor music festival held in Leeds (UK) in 2003. Data were extracted from the PRFs using a standardized proforma and analyzed using an Excel computer program. Pediatric cases contributed approximately 15% to the overall workload at the event. Children presented with a range of conditions that varied from those seen in the adult population. Children were more likely than adults to present for medical attention following crush injuries (OR = 2.536; 95% CI = 1.537-4.187); after a collapse/syncopal episode (OR = 2.687; 95% CI = 1.442-5.007); or complaining of nausea (OR = 3.484; 95% CI = 2.089-5.813). Alcohol/drugs were less likely to be involved in the precipitating cause for medical attention in children compared to adults (OR = 0.477; 95% CI = 0.250-0.912). No critical care incidents involving children were encountered during the event. Mass gatherings and special events in the UK, such as outdoor music festivals, can involve a large number of children who access medical care for a different range of conditions compared to adults. The care of children at large, outdoor music events should not be overlooked. Event planning in the UK should include measures to ensure that appropriately trained and equipped medical teams are used at music festivals to safeguard the welfare of children who
Theofanidi, Sofia; Cloke, Hannah Louise; Clark, Joanna
of the flood events will follow, using simple hydrological boundary conditions. The sensitivity testing of the model, will permit to assess which parameters have the potential to alter significantly the peak discharge during the flood, flood water levels and flood inundation extent. Assessing the model's sensitivity and uncertainty, contributes to the improvement of the flood risk knowledge. The area of study is a subcatchment of the River Thames in the southern part of the United Kingdom. The Thames with its tributaries, support a wide range of social, economic and recreational activities. In addition, the historical and environmental importance of the Thames valley highlights the need for a sustainable flood mitigation planning which includes the better understanding of the flood mechanisms and flood risks.
Barratt, Monica J; Ferris, Jason A; Winstock, Adam R
To investigate the prevalence of awareness of the online illicit drug marketplace Silk Road (SR), consumption of drugs purchased from SR and reasons for use and non-use of SR. Global Drug Survey: purposive sample collected in late 2012. The base sample (n = 9470) reported recent drug purchase and resided in the United Kingdom (n = 4315, median age 24, 76% male), Australia (n = 2761, median age 32, 76% male) or the United States (n = 2394, median age 21, 80% male). Online questionnaire. A total of 65% of US, 53% of Australian and 40% of UK respondents had heard of SR; 18% of US, 10% of UK and 7% of Australian respondents had consumed drugs purchased through SR. Across the three countries, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) was the most commonly purchased drug (53-60%), followed by cannabis (34-51%), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) (29-45%) and the 2C family (16%-27%). The most common reasons for purchasing from SR were wider range (75-89%), better quality (72-77%), greater convenience (67-69%) and the use of vendor rating systems (60-65%). The most common reasons for avoiding SR purchase were adequate drug access (63-68%) and fear of being caught (41-53%). Logistic regressions found that, compared with people from the UK, Australians [odds ratio (OR) = 3.37; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.29, 4.97) and Americans (OR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.10, 1.94) were more likely to use SR due to lower prices; and to avoid SR purchase due to fear of being caught (Australia: OR = 1.65; 95% CI = 1.39, 1.96; USA: OR = 1.62; 95% CI = 1.37, 1.92). While reasons for Silk Road use accord with broader online commerce trends (range, quality, convenience, ratings), its appeal to drug purchasers is moderated by country-specific deterrents and market characteristics. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.
This Environmental Assessment provides the necessary information so that a decision can be made on whether a Finding of No Significant Impact Environmental Impact Statement should be prepared for the proposed action. The proposed action is to transfer 2,592 low enriched uranium billets to the United Kingdom. The billets are currently stored in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The proposed action would consist of two types of activities: loading and transportation. The loading activities would include placing the billets into the appropriate containers for transportation. The transportation activities would include the tasks required to transport the containers 215 miles (344 km) via highway to the Port of Seattle, Washington, and transfer the containers aboard an ocean cargo vessel for transportation to the United Kingdom. The Department of Energy would only be responsible for conducting the loading activities. The United Kingdom would be responsible for conducting the transportation activities in compliance with all applicable United States and international transportation laws. The tasks associated with the proposed action activities have been performed before and are well defined in terms of requirements and consequences. A risk assessment and a nuclear safety evaluation were performed to address safety issues associated with the proposed action. The risk assessment determined the exposure risk from normal operation and from the maximum credible accident that involves a truck or ship collision followed by a fire that engulfs all the billets in the shipment and the release of the radiological contents of the shipment to the environment. The criticality assessment determined the nuclear safety limits for handling, transporting and storing the shipment under incident-free and accident transport conditions
Little, Michael A; Collins, Kenneth J
Both the United States and the United Kingdom experienced a transformation in the science of physical anthropology from the period before World War II until the post-war period. In the United States, Sherwood L. Washburn is credited with being a leading figure in this transformation. In the United Kingdom, two individuals were instrumental in bringing about a similar change in the profession. These were Joseph S. Weiner at the University of Oxford and Nigel Barnicot at the University of London, with Weiner playing the principal role as leader in what Washburn called the "New Physical Anthropology," that is, the application of evolutionary theory, the de-emphasis on race classification, and the application of the scientific method and experimental approaches to problem solving. Weiner's contributions to physical anthropology were broad-based--climatic and work physiology, paleoanthropology, and human variation--in what became known as human biology in the U.K. and human adaptability internationally. This biographical essay provides evidence for the significant influence of J.S. Weiner on the post-war development of human biology (biological or physical anthropology) inthe U.K. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Schache, Andrew G; Powell, Ned G; Cuschieri, Kate S; Robinson, Max; Leary, Sam; Mehanna, Hisham; Rapozo, Davy; Long, Anna; Cubie, Heather; Junor, Elizabeth; Monaghan, Hannah; Harrington, Kevin J; Nutting, Christopher M; Schick, Ulrike; Lau, Andy S; Upile, Navdeep; Sheard, Jon; Brougham, Kath; West, Catharine M L; Oguejiofor, Ken; Thomas, Steve; Ness, Andy R; Pring, Miranda; Thomas, Gareth J; King, Emma V; McCance, Dennis J; James, Jacqueline A; Moran, Michael; Sloan, Phil; Shaw, Richard J; Evans, Mererid; Jones, Terry M
A rising incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) incidence has occurred throughout the developed world, where it has been attributed to an increasing impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) on disease etiology. This report presents the findings of a multicenter cross-sectional retrospective study aimed at determining the proportion of HPV-positive and HPV-negative OPSCC within the United Kingdom. Archival tumor tissue blocks from 1,602 patients previously diagnosed with OPSCC (2002-2011) were collated from 11 centers. HPV status was determined with three validated commercial tests to provide valid data for 1,474 cases in total. Corresponding national incidence data from the same decade were obtained from UK Cancer registries. The overall proportion of HPV + OPSCC between 2002 and 2011 was 51.8% [95% confidence interval (CI), 49.3-54.4], and this remained unchanged throughout the decade [unadjusted RR = 1.00 (95% CI, 0.99-1.02)]. However, over the same period, the incidence of OPSCC in the broader UK population underwent a 2-fold increase [age-standardized rate 2002: 2.1 (95% CI, 1.9-2.2); 2011: 4.1 (95% CI, 4.0-4.3)]. Although the number of OPSCCs diagnosed within the United Kingdom from 2002 to 2011 nearly doubled, the proportion of HPV + cases remained static at approximately 50%. Our results argue that the rapidly increasing incidence of OPSCC in the United Kingdom cannot be solely attributable to the influence of HPV. The parallel increase in HPV + and HPV - cases we documented warrants further investigation, so that appropriate future prevention strategies for both types of disease can be implemented. Cancer Res; 76(22); 6598-606. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.
Mirela Ionela ACELEANU
Full Text Available The Anglo-Saxon model of employment has certain features that derive from the specificity of the political and economic system of Great Britain. The labour market policies in the United Kingdom were different depending on the historical and political period; however, the Anglo-Saxon model is characterized mainly by high flexibility but low security. This paper presents the main features of the Anglo-Saxon model of employment, compared to the Nordic and the Mediterranean model and shows Britain's economic situation before and after the crisis.
Two types of change will influence the environment of a subsurface nuclear waste isolation facility: natural geological changes and changes caused by the construction of the waste repository and introduction of the waste. This report is concerned with vertical crustal movements, which are an expression of natural geological changes. Vertical crustal movements observed outside the United Kingdom are reviewed, and vertical movements in a test region of the UK investigated by comparison of geodetic levellings. The implications of vertical crustal movement to waste isolation facilities and some potentially valuable lines of research are discussed. (author)
Markussen, Mads Ville; Kulak, Michal; Smith, Laurence G.
Resource use and environmental impacts of a small-scale low-input organic vegetable supply system in the United Kingdom were assessed by emergy accounting and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The system consisted of a farm with high crop diversity and a related box-scheme distribution system. We...... compared empirical data from this case system with two modeled organic food supply systems representing high-and low-yielding practices for organic vegetable production. Further, these systems were embedded in a supermarket distribution system and they provided the same amount of comparable vegetables...
Full Text Available Background: Clozapine is an antipsychotic medication used in treatment resistant schizophrenia. However, clozapine is associated with a significant adverse effect profile and extensive monitoring is required to optimise consumer safety. Traditionally, clozapine can only be prescribed by a psychiatrist and dispensed at a hospital or hospital affiliated pharmacy in Australia. These restrictions could result in significant treatment burden for consumers taking clozapine. Objective: To identify (1 the different models of supply that exist for people living in the community taking clozapine in Australia and compare to those in New Zealand and the United Kingdom, and (2 explore how these supply models may impact on consumer burden from the perspective of professionals involved in the supply of clozapine. Method: Key informants were interviewed (n=8 from Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom regarding how consumers, who lived in the community, accessed clozapine. Data were analysed and led to the development of four clozapine supply models. These four models were further validated by an online survey of a wider sample (n=30. Data were analysed thematically and via simple descriptive statistics. Results: Clozapine supply varied depending on location. A secondary care model was utilised in the United Kingdom compared to a community based (primary care model in New Zealand; Australia utilised a mixture of both secondary and primary care. A key theme from all study participants was that community pharmacy should be utilised to dispense clozapine to consumers living in the community, provided adequate training and safeguards are in place. It was noted that the utilisation of community pharmacies could improve access and flexibility, thereby reducing treatment burden for these consumers. Conclusion: There are predominately two models for supply of clozapine to consumers living in the community in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. One
Laursen, Keld; Reichstein, Toke; Salter, Ammon
Exploring the effect of geographical proximity and university quality on university–industry collaboration in the United Kingdom, Regional Studies. This paper concerns the geographical distance between a firm and the universities in its local area. It is argued that firms' decisions to collaborate...... with universities for innovation are influenced by both geographical proximity to universities and the quality of these universities. The findings show that being located close to a lower-tier university reduces the propensity for firms to collaborate locally, while co-location with top-tier universities promotes...
Peng, Fei; Kang, Lili
This paper aims to investigate the cyclical changes in the wage structure of the United Kingdom over the period 1972-2002 using the General Household Survey (GHS). Wage structure of the UK shows a cyclical pattern, which may be from the different wage cyclicality of the top, middle and bottom percentile groups. Higher educated male workers have experienced a faster growth of the education premiums so that the wages of males have become more dispersed after the 1970s. However, female workers w...
In the framework of the greenhouse effect gases emission fight, the United Kingdom decided to favor the development of the renewable energies and the energy efficiency. As the buildings represents 50% of the energy consumption, it was fundamental to implement programs aiming the energy control in buildings. In the possible solutions the use of microsystems of energy production is poorly represented. So the government is developing measures and research programs to promote an efficient use of the micro-generation. The document presents this program. (A.L.B.)
Colbert, S D; Green, Ben; Brennan, P A; Mercer, N
Babies born with clefts of the lip, and the alveolus or palate, or both, require multidisciplinary, highly specialised treatment from birth to early adulthood. We review the contemporary management of clefts and outline the current treatment protocol adopted by cleft networks in the United Kingdom. We also look at the level of evidence and the restructuring of services that has defined current practice. In light of the recent Cleft Care UK study, we ask whether it is now time to adopt a new philosophy towards the surgical techniques that are used. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jamjoom, Aimun A B; Wiggins, A N; Loan, J J M; Emelifeoneu, J; Fouyas, I P; Brennan, P M
Academic metrics can be used to compare the productivity of researchers. We aimed to use a variety of bibliometric parameters to assess the productivity of neurosurgeons working in the United Kingdom. Neurosurgical consultants working in the United Kingdom were identified using the Society of British Neurosurgeons' Audit Programme website. Baseline data collected included year of entry to specialist register, academic position and award of higher degree. Google Scholar was used to compute a range of academic metrics for each consultant including the h-index, hi-norm, e-index and g-index. Non-parametric tests were used to compare median results. Median metrics for the whole cohort were: h-index (5), hi-norm (3), g-index (10.4) and e-index (9). The top 3 units based on h-index were Addenbrookes (13), Great Ormond Street (12.5) and Queen's Square (11.5). The h-index correlated with academic position [Prof (17.5), Senior Lecturer (10.5) and non-academic (5); P 10 year (7), citation metrics. It provides a benchmark bibliometric profile and we advocate future comparative assessments as a means to assess impact of and guide academic policy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The trend toward electronic government has espoused a large quantity of electronic records, which challenge the existing records management models in the modern countries. This paper describes and compares the development and transition toward electronic records management in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia to show how the three advanced countries evolved the government records management practices. The analysis emphasized on the holistic policy initiative perspective and compared the directives and regulations, research and development programs and plans, the emerging structures of governance, staffing and professional training, and risk management provisions. The comparison may shed lights on the government electronic management in the other countries. [Article content in Chinese
Voracek, Martin; Loibl, Lisa Mariella; Swami, Viren; Vintilă, Mona; Kõlves, Kairi; Sinniah, Dhachayani; Pillai, Subash Kumar; Ponnusamy, Subramaniam; Sonneck, Gernot; Furnham, Adrian; Lester, David
The genetics of suicide is increasingly recognized and relevant for mental health literacy, but actual beliefs may lag behind current knowledge. We examined such beliefs in student samples (total N = 686) from Estonia, Malaysia, Romania, the United Kingdom, and the United States with the Beliefs in the Inheritance of Risk Factors for Suicide Scale. Cultural effects were small, those of key demographics nil. Several facets of construct validity were demonstrated. Marked differences in perceived plausibility of evidence about the genetics of suicide according to research design, observed in all samples, may be of general interest for investigating lay theories of abnormal behavior and communicating behavioral and psychiatric genetic research findings.
Ghebrehewet, Sam; Thorrington, Dominic; Farmer, Siobhan; Kearney, James; Blissett, Deidre; McLeod, Hugh; Keenan, Alex
Measles is a highly contagious vaccine-preventable infection that caused large outbreaks in England in 2012 and 2013 in areas which failed to achieve herd protection levels (95%) consistently. We sought to quantify the economic costs associated with the 2012-13 Merseyside measles outbreak, relative to the cost of extending preventative vaccination to secure herd protection. A costing model based on a critical literature review was developed. A workshop and interviews were held with key stakeholders in the Merseyside outbreak to understand the pathway of a measles case and then quantify healthcare activity and costs for the main NHS providers and public health team incurred during the initial four month period to May 2012. These data were used to model the total costs of the full outbreak to August 2013, comprising those to healthcare providers for patient treatment, public health and societal productivity losses. The modelled total cost of the full outbreak was compared to the cost of extending the preventative vaccination programme to achieve herd protection. The Merseyside outbreak included 2458 reported cases. The estimated cost of the outbreak was £ 4.4m (sensitivity analysis £ 3.9 m to £ 5.2m) comprising 15% (£ 0.7 m) NHS patient treatment costs, 40% (£ 1.8m) public health costs and 44% (£ 2.0m) for societal productivity losses. In comparison, over the previous five years in Cheshire and Merseyside a further 11,793 MMR vaccinations would have been needed to achieve herd protection at an estimated cost of £ 182,909 (4% of the total cost of the measles outbreak). Failure to consistently reach MMR uptake levels of 95% across all localities and sectors (achieve herd protection) risks comparatively higher economic costs associated with the containment (including healthcare costs) and implementation of effective public health management of outbreaks. Commissioned by the Cheshire and Merseyside Public Health England Centre. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published
Reid, Scott M; Cox, William J; Ceeraz, Vanessa; Sutton, David; Essen, Steve C; Howard, Wendy A; Slomka, Marek J; Irvine, Richard M; Brown, Ian H
We report the first occurrence of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus [A(H1N1)pdm09] infection on two epidemiologically linked turkey breeder premises in the United Kingdom during December 2010 and January 2011. Clinically, the birds showed only mild signs of disease, with the major presenting sign being an acute and marked reduction in egg production, leading to the prompt reporting of suspected avian notifiable disease for official investigation. Presence of A(H1N1)pdm09 infection in the United Kingdom turkey breeder flocks was confirmed by detailed laboratory investigations including virus isolation in embryonated specific pathogen-free fowls' eggs, two validated real-time reverse transcription-PCR tests, and nucleotide sequencing of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes. These investigations revealed high nucleotide identity with currently circulating human A(H1N1)pdm09 strains, suggesting that human-to-poultry transmission (reverse zoonosis) was the most likely route of infection. Peak levels of human influenza-like illness community transmission also coincided with the onset of clinical signs in both affected turkey breeder flocks. This case demonstrated the value of the existing passive surveillance framework and associated veterinary and laboratory infrastructure that enables the detection and management of both exotic and new and emerging disease hazards and risks. The case also presents further evidence of the susceptibility of turkeys to infection with influenza A viruses of nonavian origin.
This article examines how important decisions about health can alter between public health policy formulation and eventual marketing implementation. Specifically, the article traces the development and production of a major United Kingdom social marketing campaign named Change4Life, and examines how ideas about the causes of and solutions to the obesity epidemic are produced in differing ways throughout the health promotion process. This study examines a variety of United Kingdom health research, policy, marketing strategy and marketing messages between 2008 and 2011. This research demonstrates that claims about causality oscillate and alter throughout the research, policy and Change4Life marketing process. These oscillations are problematic, since the Department of Health described the original consumer research as 'critical'. Given both the importance of the health issues being addressed and the amount of funding dedicated to Change4Life, that 'critical' research was directly contradicted in the campaign requires urgent review. To conclude, the article discusses the utility of social marketing when considering causal claims in health promotion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Manchaiah, Vinaya; Danermark, Berth; Vinay; Ahmadi, Tayebeh; Tomé, David; Krishna, Rajalakshmi; Germundsson, Per
The current study was aimed at understanding the social representation of hearing aids in India, Iran, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. We also compared these results to explore the cross-cultural differences and similarities among these countries. The study involved a cross-sectional design, and the data were collected from four different countries using the snowball sampling method. Data were analyzed using a content analysis to identify the most-similar categories of responses reported, a co-occurrences analysis to see which of these categories are reported commonly, and a chi-square analysis to study if there was any association between positive, neutral, and negative connotations among participants in different countries. The current study revealed four different social representations of hearing aids from India, Iran, Portugal, and the United Kingdom, and also a global index. The study results provide very useful insights into how hearing aids are represented in the society. These findings may have important implications for public education and also for manufacturers from the viewpoint of designing and marketing hearing aids in different countries.
Yadoo, Annabel; Gormally, Alexandra; Cruickshank, Heather
Low-carbon off-grid electrification for rural areas is becoming increasingly popular in the United Kingdom. However, many developing countries have been electrifying their rural areas in this way for decades. Case study fieldwork in Nepal and findings from United Kingdom based research will be used to examine how developed nations can learn from the experience of developing countries with regard to the institutional environment and delivery approach adopted in renewable energy off-grid rural electrification. A clearer institutional framework and more direct external assistance during project development are advised. External coordinators should also engage the community in a mobilization process a priori to help alleviate internal conflicts of interest that could later impede a project. - Highlights: → Development of community renewable energy projects in the UK is commended. → The UK can benefit from the experience of successful programmes in Nepal. → A clearer institutional framework and more direct external assistance is required. → External coordinators should engage the community in a mobilization process.
Shang, Chenyu; Beaver, Kinta; Campbell, Malcolm
Incidence rates for breast cancer have increased significantly among Chinese women, accompanied by low utilization of breast screening and delay in symptom presentation. The aims of this study were to explore (1) views on breast cancer and breast health among Chinese women in the United Kingdom and (2) the potential influence of social and cultural context on views and screening behavior. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 22 Chinese women. Pertinent aspects of Grounded Theory methods, including simultaneous data collection and analysis, constant comparison, and memo writing, were used. Four themes emerged: cultural views on breast cancer, information sources and knowledge, breast screening practice, and views on healthcare services. The theme views on breast cancer had 3 subthemes: a fearful disease, taboo, and fatalism. Aspects of traditional Chinese culture had important influences on Chinese women's views on breast cancer. Self-care formed the most significant strategy to promote health and prevent illness. Although the study found high utilization of breast screening when offered, only 6 women reported breast awareness practices. This study found that traditional beliefs were not the sole determinant of breast health behavior. The way in which breast screening services are offered in the United Kingdom may reduce the significance of cultural views and shape individuals' health behavior. Findings indicate that information on breast awareness should be delivered to this group of women in Chinese by health professionals through Chinese mass media.
The Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) of the United Kingdom (UK) suggested the use of an accident progression logic model method developed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for K Reactor to predict the magnitude and timing of radioactivity releases (the source term) based on an advanced logic model methodology. Predicted releases are output from the personal computer-based model in a level-of-confidence format. Additional technical discussions eventually led to a request from the NII to develop a proposal for assembling a similar technology to predict source terms for the UK's advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) type. To respond to this request, WSRC is submitting a proposal to provide contractual assistance as specified in the Scope of Work. The work will produce, document, and transfer technology associated with a Decision-Oriented Source Term Estimator for Emergency Preparedness (DOSE-EP) for the NII to apply to AGRs in the United Kingdom. This document, Appendix A is a part of this proposal
This case note addresses the recent European Court of Human Rights case Al-Jedda v the United Kingdom. In this case, the Court decided that the act of detaining and interning the applicant in Iraq was attributable to the United Kingdom, and not the United Nations, and that the applicant fell under the UK's jurisdiction. Having established jurisdiction, the Court addressed whether Al-Jedda's internment violated Article 5(1) of the European Convention on Human Rights. In order to answer this, t...
Koivusalo, Meri; Tritter, Jonathan
The ambitious and comprehensive Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership Agreement (TTIP/TAFTA) agreement between the European Union and United States is now being negotiated and may have far-reaching consequences for health services. The agreement extends to government procurement, investment, and further regulatory cooperation. In this article, we focus on the United Kingdom National Health Service and how these negotiations can limit policy space to change policies and to regulate in relation to health services, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and health industries. The negotiation of TTIP/TAFTA has the potential to "harmonize" more corporate-friendly regulation, resulting in higher costs and loss of policy space, an example of "trade creep" that potentially compromises health equity, public health, and safety concerns across the Atlantic.
Communication dated 5 September 2005 received from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the Agency concerning a letter from the Government of the United Kingdom to the Secretary General of the League of Arab States
The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 5 September 2005 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom, attaching a letter dated 31 August 2005 from the Minister of State at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office to the Secretary General of the League of Arab States. In the light of the request expressed by the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom in that Note Verbale, the Note Verbale and the attached letter are hereby circulated for the information of all Member States
Natural gas has, over the last 40 years, come to account for a substantial percentage of primary energy consumption (i.e. including inputs to electricity and heat generation) in the United Kingdom (UK). In 2002, this percentage (37.3) was exceeded in only two other European countries, the Netherlands (46.0) and Hungary (43.0) (International Energy Agency, 2003). Although oil has generally attracted greater attention than natural gas, the effects of the latter upon the energy economy of the UK have, in certain respects, been more profound. Most North Sea oil production is exported directly from the UK (69.4 per cent in 2003 (DTI, 2004)) and the balance has been processed within an oil refining system originally established to handle imported oil. By contrast, the availability of natural gas from the North Sea from the mid-1960s transformed the UK gas industry from a producer of secondary energy (i.e. town gas manufactured from coal and oil) to a distributor of primary energy. This transformation had a geographical dimension evident in the contrast between the essentially local distribution systems of the town gas industry and the national system created to deliver natural gas. The development of this system has been accompanied by very significant organisational changes as the gas industry became one of several network utilities transferred from public to private ownership in the UK since the 1980s. This paper reviews these events from a geographical perspective. It is divided into three main sections. The first describes the growth of the natural gas consumption in the UK. The second places this empirical material within a policy framework. The third relates spatial variations in the availability and cost of natural gas to patterns of economic development and welfare. The introduction of natural gas from the North Sea into the UK energy market has clearly had major consequences at the national scale. It rapidly displaced the town gas industry, superimposing a
Singla, Rashmi; Klein, Sonia; Panesar, Jasbir
This article reflects the situation of Asian communities in Denmark and the United Kingdom which is influenced by global trends, the patterns of differing learning they participate in which are influenced by the concept of LifeLong Learning within each country, educational opportunities, socio...... produced and have led to some social change. Through accessing educational guidance and educational opportunities, members of the Asian communities have gone on to improving their socio-economic status. This has occurred via education leading to better employment options and entrepreneurship....... Entrepreneurship has been a foundation for immigrants to develop and establish a sense of citizenship. The impacts of life long learning in this digital age has important implications on the future of entrepreneurship as a viable option for immigrants. The landscape and accessibility of knowledge in the 21st...
Grunert, Klaus G.; Sørensen, Elin
Executive summary 1. We define a key success factor as a skill or resource that a business can invest in, which, on the market the business is operating on, explains a major part of the observable differences in perceived value and/or relative costs. The key success factors as perceived by managers...... need not be identical with the actual key success factors in a market. 2. Depth interviews with managers in yoghurt-producing companies in Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom showed considerable variation in both substance and degree of detail in their perceptions of the determinants of success...... on their markets. 3. When aggregated, 16 potential key success factors were derived: High product quality, attractive packaging, high quality of raw material, possession of advanced technology and know-how, competent management and competent staff, wide product range, extensive product development activities...
Full Text Available Baby boomers have been credited with an essentially ‘youthful’ approach to themselves, to consumption and to life-style. As they enter midlife and older age they are also faced with the challenges of a mature identity. This paper critically examines the strategies that baby boomers in the United Kingdom use to manage identity as they grow older. Specifically, questions concerning attitudes to cohort labels, personal ageing and other generations are compared to the consumption choices that are made in areas considered to be key to an ageing identity, including: appearance, clothing and bodily maintenance. Boomers identify with succeeding rather than preceding generations. While they claim not to be concerned with bodily ageing as such, their strategies are aimed at maintaining a balance between youthful and mature identities. Priority was given to blurring the boundaries between themselves and younger adult generations. The implications for the relationship between adult ageing and patterns of consumption are explored.
Kazeem O Salaam
Full Text Available This piece of work seeks to perform detailed review and analysis of those factors that precipitated global financial and economic crises in 2008 with a focus on the United Kingdom economy. Impacts of the crises from both micro and macro economy perspectives are also analysed in conjunction with the sudden change in government policies from less rigid fiscal prudence, price stability, unsupportive employment policies as well as weak financial services supervision to unconventional stiff fiscal and monetary policies as well as hard core financial regulations with a primary aim to cleaning up the economic and the financial mess that characterised the meltdown. To finalise this work, it is concluded that efficiency of policy actions to address the economic menace to a large extent, helped British Economy to get out of the crisis despite that all the measures adopted were not considered to be perfect in its entirety. Other potential areas of study are also identified.
Recent research from the United Kingdom (UK) has highlighted some of the differences in breast cancer presentations between women of different ethnic groups. Analysis of a large database showed that Black women of African or Caribbean heritage living in England and Wales are more likely to present with stage 3 or 4 cancer than White British women and less likely to have their cancer detected through screening. In many countries around the world, migrant and cultural minority groups experience social and economic disadvantage and this is reflected in their health outcomes. With world migration at record levels, it is timely to reflect on ethnic disparities and to consider how developed nations can care for their minority groups, which are increasing in number and diversity. These issues and challenges are discussed, using the UK's migrant population and Australia's Indigenous and migrant populations as case studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
When policy change is considered, what determines its success or failure? Why do plans for broad reforms often fall short, and why do certain types of change become more difficult over time? This article addresses these questions by examining health policy development in Canada, Australia, and the United Kingdom - specifically, why Canada alone failed to adopt nationwide, public pharmaceutical insurance. It demonstrates that the pace of change has significant implications for the scope of policy development. It provides new mechanisms to explain why incremental reforms stall based on the reciprocal relationship between elite ideas and public expectations and suggests that similar factors can explain how barriers to policy change develop and the conditions under which those barriers may be overcome.
Full Text Available This study attempts to evaluate the model of education in Islamic economics and finance that currently adopted in Indonesia and United Kingdom. The study employs the method of Analytic Network Process (ANP. This study decomposes the problem by way of undertaking in-depth interviews and questionnaires as preliminary steps to all stakes holders in these countries comprising practitioners, academicians, experts and users. In order to evaluate and measure these differences, pair-wise comparison is conducted followed by synthesis method to come up with appropriate solutions. The root of the problem comprises of internal and external, while the solution includes short term as well as long terms with strategic policy as the last outcome. The finding of this study demonstrates different results in every cluster of respective countries. Moreover, the findings reveal that quite a few challenges lie ahead in applying the best model to be used as teaching materials in these countries.
Full Text Available The turmoil created by the financial crisis and economic recession in Europe has served as an impetus for austerity measures in many countries. In this article, we ask whether these crises have also triggered reforms in family policy, and we focus on three European welfare states – Finland, Germany and the United Kingdom – countries that are often considered members of different family policy regimes. The article addresses two main research questions. The first one relates to the number, direction and magnitude of family policy reforms in these three countries since the beginning of the financial crisis in 2008/2009, while in the second we discuss whether the reforms observed during this period can be seen as being related to the financial crisis and its later repercussions on the Euro-zone area, or if there are other explanations.
Luciana L. Contarino Sparta
Full Text Available The intensification of long distance migration movements during late 19th century gave birth to legislation that restricted entry into the United Kingdom, one of the main immigration- receiving countries. Nevertheless, underpopulated American states eager for immigrants also developed restrictive legal regulations. Although the acceptance or rejection of immigrants has been related to fluctuating labour demand, it is also true that they became desirable or undesirable according to cultural and national stereotypes. This position implied looking with disdain at the contributions from people who did not belong to Western civilization. In fact, racialized archetypes were constructed in order to invisibilise those sectors of the population, which began to be considered “minorities”.
Communication dated 4 March from the Governor for the Russian Federation and the Resident Representatives of China, France, Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States of America concerning UN Security Council resolution 1803 (2008)
The Director General has received a letter dated 4 March 2008 from the Governor for the Russian Federation and the Resident Representatives of China, France, Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States of America, attaching the text of a statement agreed by the Foreign Ministers of China, France, Germany, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States of America, with the support of the High Representative of the European Union and read by the Permanent Representative of the United Kingdom on the occasion of the adoption on 3 March 2008 of United Nations Security Council resolution 1803 (2008). The letter and, as requested therein, the attached text, are herewith circulated for the information of Member States
Hakeem, Abdul R; Dave, Rajiv; Prasad, K Raj; Menon, Krishna V; Lewington, Andrew; Fernando, Bimbi; Sanfey, Hilary; Ahmad, Niaz
Awareness among the medical students and junior doctors about organ donation and transplantation (ODT) may play an important role in increasing organ donor pool. This study surveys the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of ODT among the U.K. junior doctors and attempts to identify their educational needs. To our knowledge, this is first such study in the United Kingdom. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among 1,696 junior doctors (809 foundation and 887 core trainees). A 36-point questionnaire explored the junior doctor's knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes toward ODT. There were 523 respondents (30.8%). Majority were foundation trainees (58.9%). Only 29.6% had previous exposure to transplantation, which reflected in their poor knowledge on the basics of ODT. Only 47.0% of the respondents were aware that consent from next of kin or family is sought for all deceased organ donation. Those registered as organ donor (69.8%) had better knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes in comparison to those not registered. Majority (84.1%) felt that they were inadequately exposed to ODT, and 96.8% stated that ODT should be part of undergraduate curriculum. Junior doctors in the United Kingdom have limited knowledge about ODT. Although subjected to investigators bias, the results demonstrate that junior doctors' perceptions and attitudes toward ODT were favorable. Majority felt that their ODT knowledge was inadequate and suggested the need for a change in undergraduate ODT curriculum. Increasing knowledge and awareness among junior doctors may help to improve the continuing organ shortage for transplantation.
As the United Kingdom has been the first country in the world to adopt a law to struggle against climate change, The Climate Change Act 2008, which specifies a 80% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 (vs 1990), this report propose an overview of the actions implemented by this country in the political, economical, and technological fields to struggle against climate change. The various organisations and political institutions concerned by this struggle are presented (governmental organisations and institutions, non governmental institutions). The content of the Climate Change Act is described: definitions of constraints and requirements, carbon reduction commitment (CRC), carbon budgets, systems and programmes dealing with energy production (Renewable Obligation, household energy supplier obligations), with firms (Climate Change Levy, Climate Change Agreements, Enhanced Capital Allowances), with transports (Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation, Low Carbon Vehicle Procurement Programme), with buildings (Low Carbon Building Programme, Home Energy Saving Programme), with research and communication. Then, discussing the economy of climate change, this report comments the content of the Stern report, the reactions about it, and the economical consequences of struggle against climate change. These consequences can be drawbacks (increase of energy costs, inequalities of abilities to face transition costs, loss of international competitiveness) or benefits. The consequences of the economical crisis are also briefly discussed, as well as the consequences of the solutions to this crisis. The third part of this report gives an overview of the low carbon engineering and technology in the United Kingdom in the energy sector (renewable energy, wind energy, hydroelectric energy, biomass, nuclear energy, carbon capture and storage) and in the transport sector. The last part comments the objectives of the 2009 Copenhagen conference.