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Sample records for merit pila coal

  1. Current developments on the coal and gas markets and their retroactive effects on the Merit Order

    Hecking, Harald; Cam, Eren; Schoenfisch, Max; Schulte, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Coal and gas continue to play a significant role in the European power generation system, especially in Germany. According to the AG energy balances, the share of hard coal in German gross electricity generation in 2016 was 17.2% and natural gas 12.4%. In addition to the CO 2 price, the prices for steam coal and natural gas are a key factor in determining which gas or coal power station is in Merit Order and whether it comes to a fuel switch. Declining gas prices have been rising sharply since the middle of 2016, and the volatile prices for steam coal have been rising. This article discusses the developments and factors responsible for these developments, which could be expected in the near future, and the implications for the gas-coal spread in the electricity market. [de

  2. Characteristics of Malaysian coals with their pyrolysis and gasification behaviour

    Nor Fadzilah Othman; Mohd Hariffin Bosrooh; Kamsani Abdul Majid

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted since comprehensive study on the gasification behaviour of Malaysian coals is still lacking. Coals were characterised using heating value determination, proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and ash analysis. Pyrolysis process was investigated using thermogravimetric analyser. While, atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed gasifier was used to investigate the gasification behaviour. Three Malaysian coals, Merit Pila, Mukah Balingian, Silantek; and Australian coal, Hunter Valley coals were used in this study. Thermal degradation of four coal samples were performed, which involved weight loss profile and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) curves. The kinetic parameters, such as maximum reactivity value, R max , Activation Energy, E a and Arrhenius constant, ln R o for each coal were determined using Arrhenius Equation. Merit Pila coal shows the highest maximum reactivity among other Malaysian coals. E a is the highest for Merit Pila coal (166.81kJmol -1 ) followed with Mukah Balingian (101.15 kJmol -1 ), Hunter Valley (96.45 kJmol -1 ) and Silantek (75.23 kJmol -1 ) coals. This finding indicates direct correlation of lower rank coal with higher E a . Merit Pila coal was studied in detail using atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed gasifier. Different variables such as equivalence ratio (ER) and gasifying agents were used. The highest H 2 proportion (38.3 mol.%) in the producer gas was reached at 715 degree Celsius and ER=0.277 where the maximization of LHV pg (5.56 MJ/Nm 3 ) was also detected. ER and addition of steam had shown significant contributions to the producer gas compositions and LHV pg . (author)

  3. Characterization of Malaysian coals for carbon dioxide sequestration

    Abunowara, M.; Bustam, M. A.; Sufian, S.; Eldemerdash, U.

    2016-06-01

    Coal samples from Mukah-Balingian and Merit-Pila coal mines were characterized with ultimate, approximate, petrographic analysis, FT-IR spectra patterns, FESEM images and BET measurements to obtain information on the chemical composition and chemical structure in the samples. Two coal samples were obtained from Merit-Pila coal mine namely sample1 (S1) and sample2 (S2). The other two coal samples were obtained from Mukah-Balingian coal mine namely sample3 (S3) and sample4 (S4), Sarawak, Malaysia. The results of ultimate analysis show that coal S1 has the highest carbon percentage by 54.47%, the highest hydrogen percentage by 10.56% and the lowest sulfur percentage by 0.19% and the coal S4 has the highest moisture content by 31.5%. The coal S1 has the highest fixed carbon percentage by 42.6%. The coal S4 has BET surface area by 2.39 m2/g and Langmuir surface area by 3.0684 m2/g respectively. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis of all coal samples shows a presence of oxygen containing functional groups which considered are as active sites on coal surface. The oxygen functional groups are mainly carboxyl (-COOH), hydroxyl (-OH), alkyl (-CH, -CH2, -CH3), aliphatic (C-O-C stretching associated with -OH), amino (-NH stretching vibrations), (-NH stretching vibrations), aromatic (C=C), vinylic (C=C) and clay minerals. In all FE-SEM images of coal samples matrix, it can be seen that there are luminous and as non luminous features which refer to the existence of various minerals types distributed in the coal organic matrix. The bright luminosity is due to the presence of sodium, potassium or aluminium. According to petrographic analysis, all coal sample samples are range in vitrinite reflectance from 0.38% to 56% (VRr) are sub-bituminous coals.

  4. Coal trends and prospects in Malaysia. Malaysia no sekitan doko to mitoshi

    Husin, T. (Tenaga Nasional Berhad (Malaysia))

    1993-03-01

    This paper describes problems in coal development and coal processing techniques used in Malaysia. Malaysia has a national organization placing importance on maximizing natural gas source development, but no such an organization is available for coal. Necessity exists in developing transportation infrastructures that can transport coal at a competitive price from coal mines to users inside and outside the country. Majority of the Merit Pila coal is produced in mines with relatively thin coal beds, which raise production cost higher. Coal resources are mostly of low calorific power. Since the coal resource development is a new economic activity, it requires training of people in related areas, and frameworks of legislative regulation. Important in coal development is to select technologies that can meet environmental requirements and stand with competitions in the world coal markets. New coal processing technologies available for discussion in coal refining processes include relaxed gasification or pyrolysis, coal liquefaction, coal-water mixture to mix coal powder and water with additives, coal pretreatment techniques, coal cleaning techniques, and fluidized bed combustion. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Current developments on the coal and gas markets and their retroactive effects on the Merit Order; Aktuelle Entwicklungen auf den Kohle- und Gasmaerkten und ihre Rueckwirkungen auf die Merit Order

    Hecking, Harald; Cam, Eren; Schoenfisch, Max; Schulte, Simon [ewi Energy Research and Scenarios gGmbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    Coal and gas continue to play a significant role in the European power generation system, especially in Germany. According to the AG energy balances, the share of hard coal in German gross electricity generation in 2016 was 17.2% and natural gas 12.4%. In addition to the CO{sub 2} price, the prices for steam coal and natural gas are a key factor in determining which gas or coal power station is in Merit Order and whether it comes to a fuel switch. Declining gas prices have been rising sharply since the middle of 2016, and the volatile prices for steam coal have been rising. This article discusses the developments and factors responsible for these developments, which could be expected in the near future, and the implications for the gas-coal spread in the electricity market. [German] Kohle und Gas spielen weiterhin eine bedeutende Rolle im europaeischen Stromerzeugungssystem, insbesondere in Deutschland. Laut AG Energiebilanzen lag 2016 der Anteil der Steinkohle an der deutschen Bruttostromerzeugung bei 17,2 % und der von Erdgas bei 12,4 %. Neben dem CO{sub 2}-Preis sind die Preise fuer Kesselkohle und Erdgas massgeblich dafuer verantwortlich, welches Gas- bzw. Kohlekraftwerk welche Position in der Merit Order einnimmt und ob es zu einem Fuel Switch kommt. Sinkende Preise beim Gas stehen seit Mitte 2016 stark gestiegenen und volatilen Preisen fuer Kesselkohle gegenueber. Dieser Artikel diskutiert, welche Entwicklungen und Faktoren fuer diese Entwicklungen verantwortlich sind, womit in naher Zukunft zu rechnen sein koennte und welche Implikationen dies fuer den Gas-Kohle-Spread im Strommarkt hat.

  6. Battery recycling machine; Maquina recicladora de pilas

    Higuera Gonzalez, R.M; Esquivel Montes, C.E; Perez Razo, E; Sanchez Guerrero, O.A. [Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Ixtapaluca, Ixtapaluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-03-15

    Batteries pollute the environment and therefore require special treatment or confine recycling in appropriate places, Mexico only has places for confining the batteries and send them to other countries for recycling. The purpose of this project is to reduce the contamination of soil and create a culture for the recycling of batteries. The prototype performs the separation of metals and chemical residues, so that later they can be processed separately. The machine is divided into two parts, mechanics and electronics, the mechanical part was designed to disarm it for easy maintenance, another advantage in the field of electronics and security is to control the machine from a computer at a distance significantly reducing accidents. To automate the machine will use a PLC clock for easy programming. [Spanish] Las pilas contaminan el medio ambiente y por ello requieren un tratamiento especial de reciclaje o confinarlos en lugares adecuados, Mexico solo cuenta con lugares para confinar las pilas y mandarlas a otros paises para su reciclaje. El proposito de este proyecto es reducir la contaminacion del suelo y crear una cultura para el reciclaje de pilas. El prototipo realiza la separacion de metales y residuos quimicos, para que mas adelante se puedan procesar por separado. La maquina se divide en dos partes; la mecanica y la electronica, la parte mecanica fue disenada para desarmarse esto para su facil mantenimiento, otra de las ventajas en el campo de electronica y seguridad es poder controlar el prototipo desde una computadora, a una distancia considerable reduciendo asi los accidentes. Para automatizar la maquina se utilizo un reloj PLC por su facil programacion.

  7. Pilas de combustible de Membrana polimérica

    Asensio, Juan; Peña, Juan; Pérez-Coll, Domingo; Ruiz-Morales, Juan; Marrero -López, David; Núñez, Pedro; Ballesteros, Belèn; Canales-Vázquez, Jesús; Borrós, Salvador; Gómez-Romero, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo revisamos brevemente las pilas de combustible poliméricas (PEM) basadas en membranas de intercambio protónico y que constituyen la tecnología idónea de pilas de combustible de baja temperatura, y por tanto las más adecuadas para aplicación en transporte. Revisaremos los materiales que las componen pero tambíen los desarrollos necesarios para su implantación definitiva en un mercado inclemente con las tecnologías caras, por límpias que sean.

  8. Coal

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F.

    2001-12-01

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  9. 1799-1999 Bicentenario dell'invenzione della pila ad opera di Alessandro Volta

    Montalbetti, Claudia

    1998-01-01

    In questo articolo è descritto, dal punto di vista tecnico, il sito Web Volta99, sito ufficiale delle celebrazioni per il bicentenario dell'invenzione della pila ad opera di Alessandro Volta. Indirizzo: http://www.cilea.it/volta99.

  10. The merit of meritocracy.

    Son Hing, Leanne S; Bobocel, D Ramona; Zanna, Mark P; Garcia, Donna M; Gee, Stephanie S; Orazietti, Katie

    2011-09-01

    We argue that the preference for the merit principle is a separate construct from hierarchy-legitimizing ideologies (i.e., system justification beliefs, prejudice, social dominance orientation), including descriptive beliefs that meritocracy currently exists in society. Moreover, we hypothesized that prescriptive beliefs about merit should have a stronger influence on reactions to the status quo when hierarchy-legitimizing ideologies are weak (vs. strong). In 4 studies, participants' preference for the merit principle and hierarchy-legitimizing ideologies were assessed; later, the participants evaluated organizational selection practices that support or challenge the status quo. Participants' prescriptive and descriptive beliefs about merit were separate constructs; only the latter predicted other hierarchy-legitimizing ideologies. In addition, as hypothesized, among participants who weakly endorsed hierarchy-legitimizing ideologies, the stronger their preference for the merit principle, the more they opposed selection practices that were perceived to be merit violating but the more they supported practices that were perceived to be merit restoring. In contrast, those who strongly endorsed hierarchy-legitimizing ideologies were always motivated to support the status quo, regardless of their preference for the merit principle. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Estudio de Algoritmos 2-Deslizantes Aplicados al Control de Pilas de Combustible

    Cristian Kunusch; Paul F. Puleston; Miguel A. Mayosky

    2008-01-01

    Resumen: En este trabajo se hace un estudio comparativo de tres diferentes técnicas de control por modo deslizante de segundo orden, aplicadas al problema específico del control de respiración de una pila de combustible PEM. Los algoritmos diseñados se contrastan por simulación utilizando el modelo completo del sistema, poniendo particular énfasis en la respuesta transitoria y la robustez frente a perturbaciones. Palabras clave: Pilas de Combustible, Control no lineal, Modo Deslizante

  12. Estudio de Algoritmos 2-Deslizantes Aplicados al Control de Pilas de Combustible

    Cristian Kunusch

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este trabajo se hace un estudio comparativo de tres diferentes técnicas de control por modo deslizante de segundo orden, aplicadas al problema específico del control de respiración de una pila de combustible PEM. Los algoritmos diseñados se contrastan por simulación utilizando el modelo completo del sistema, poniendo particular énfasis en la respuesta transitoria y la robustez frente a perturbaciones. Palabras clave: Pilas de Combustible, Control no lineal, Modo Deslizante

  13. Electrocatalizadores para pilas de combustible de membrana de intercambio protónico

    Lázaro Elorri, María Jesús; Moliner Álvarez, Rafael; Calvillo Lamana, Laura; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa

    2008-01-01

    Electrocatalizadores para pilas de combustible de membrana de intercambio protónico. Procedimiento de obtención de un material de carbono mesoporoso (SMC) que comprende: la adición de sílice coloidal a un precursor polimérico de carbono; el curado térmico; el carbonizado del compuesto obtenido; lavado del compuesto carbonizado con ácido fluorhídrico (HF) o NaOH; y la oxidación del material lavado. Además la invención se refiere a un catalizador para pilas de combustibl...

  14. Reward Merit with Praise.

    Andrews, Hans A.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the efforts of two educational institutions to reward teaching excellence using positive feedback rather than merit pay incentives. An Arizona district, drawing on Herzberg's motivation theories, offers highly individualized rewards ranging from computers to conference money, while an Illinois community college bestows engraved plaques…

  15. 2017 MERIT exercise

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Slide from HR public meeting. In 2017, the annual advancement exercise MARS will be replaced by the annual performance evaluation and recognition exercise MERIT. The HR Department has invited staff members to attend two information meetings “2017 MERIT Public Sessions”, the purpose of which is to explain the “general principles of the Merit, Evaluation and Recognition Integrated Toolkit”. The first meeting was held in English on Tuesday, 6 December. The second meeting will be in French on Thursday, 15 December at 10.00, in room 774-R-013 (Prévessin site). The Staff Association appreciates the HR Department’s efforts to inform staff members, especially regarding the changes between the MARS system and the MERIT system. Nevertheless, we find it useful if we inform you, from our side, taking up the issues we find the most pertinent. Benchmark jobs and the new salary scale The HR presentation looks back on the changes that took place in September 20...

  16. Merit Pay Misfires

    Ramirez, Al

    2011-01-01

    Critics argue that the uniform salary schedule is unfair because it promotes mediocrity by rewarding poor performers while failing to recognize outstanding achievement on the job. Advocates for merit pay systems for preK-12 education also contend that the uniform salary schedule ignores the basic purpose of education--student learning. Although…

  17. 2008 annual merit review

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The 2008 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review was held February 25-28, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland. The review encompassed all of the work done by the Vehicle Technologies Program: a total of 280 individual activities were reviewed, by a total of just over 100 reviewers. A total of 1,908 individual review responses were received for the technical reviews, and an additional 29 individual review responses were received for the plenary session review.

  18. Velocidad de secado en pilas de mena laterítica almacenadas a la intemperie

    Yoalbys Retirado-Mediaceja

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se establece, a partir del balance de energía térmica y el análisis de la transferencia de calor y masa en el secado natural, el modelo matemático para el cálculo y la simulación de la velocidad de secado en pilas de mena laterítica almacenadas a la intemperie, en la empresa productora de níquel y cobalto Comandante Ernesto Che Guevara de Moa. Las simulaciones evidenciaron que la velocidad de secado en las pilas fue, generalmente, inferior a 0,05 %/h y nula en determinados horarios de la mañana y la tarde en los taludes oeste y este, respectivamente.

  19. Cybersecurity Figure of Merit

    2016-04-30

    Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command The Cybersecurity Challenge in Acquisition Sonia Kaestner, Adjunct Professor, McDonough School of Business ...qÜáêíÉÉåíÜ=^ååì~ä= ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ= póãéçëáìã= tÉÇåÉëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=f= = Cybersecurity Figure of Merit CAPT Brian Erickson, USN, SPAWAR...the Acquisition Research Program of the Graduate School of Business & Public Policy at the Naval Postgraduate School. To request defense acquisition

  20. Desarrollo y validación experimental de un modelo computacional de pilas de combustible tipo PEM y su aplicación al análisis de monoceldas

    Iranzo Paricio, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    La presente tesis doctoral tiene como objetivo fundamental el desarrollo de un modelo computacional para pilas de combustible tipo PEM, que suponga un avance con respecto al estado actual del modelado de pilas de combustible. ... * Desarrollo de un model

  1. Value-Added Merit Pay.

    Twomey, Daniel F.

    The purpose of merit pay is to reward employees for their accomplishments and motivate them to continue improving. Critics of merit pay say the increased extrinsic motivation that it prompts is more than offset by the decrease in intrinsic motivation. Supporters of performance-based pay claim several benefits of the practice. This study addressed…

  2. Caracterización experimental de una pila de combustible de etanol directo

    Medina Ramiro, Álvaro

    2015-01-01

    El uso creciente de los combustibles fósiles por las sociedades industrializadas está conduciendo al agotamiento de estos recursos no renovables y al incremento descontrolado de las emisiones contaminantes y gases de efecto invernadero (CO2, CH4, etc.). Esto hace necesario recurrir a nuevas formas de producción de energía basadas en tecnologías limpias. En este escenario entran en juego las Pilas de Combustible, dispositivos electroquímicos que convierten directamente la energía química de lo...

  3. Evaluación de un implemento mecánico que permite airear pilas de compostaje

    Uliarte, Ernesto; Ambrogetti, Alejandro; Martínez, Laura; Montoya, Marcos Adrián; Rizzo, Pedro F.; Ferrari, Florencia N.

    2015-01-01

    Se desarrolló una herramienta tipo reja que permite mecanizar la aireación de pilas de compostaje. El objetivo del trabajo fue comparar la labor del implemento respecto de una máquina volteadora de compost y evaluar la composición del producto final obtenido. Durante el compostaje se monitorizó la evolución de parámetros físico-químicos, determinándose además la estabilidad y madurez del compost terminado. Las pilas aireadas con máquina volteadora alcanzaron temperaturas significativamente...

  4. Merit Principles Survey 2016 Data

    Merit Systems Protection Board — MPS contains a combination of core items that MSPB tracks over time and special-purpose items developed to support a particular special study. This survey differs...

  5. Inserción de pilas de combustible de hidrógeno en un yate de 45 metros

    Morera Castillo, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Con este trabajo se persigue la reducción de la contaminación atmosférica producida por el sector marítimo y la presentación del hidrógeno y las pilas de combustible como alternativas a los combustibles fósiles y a los motores y generadores convencionales.

  6. Observación de la fracción de agua líquida en pilas de combustible tipo PEM de cátodo abierto

    Luna, Julio; Costa Castelló, Ramón

    2017-01-01

    En este trabajo se diseña un observador no-lineal basado en modos deslizantes para la estimación de la fracción de agua líquida en una pila de combustible tipo PEM de cátodo abierto. La pila de combustible se modela con dos estados dinámicos: la temperatura de la pila y la saturación de agua líquida. La estrategia de observación se valida en simulación mediante un ciclo de conducción ARTEMIS.

  7. Coal background paper. Coal demand

    1997-01-01

    Statistical data are presented on coal demands in IEA and OECD member countries and in other countries. Coal coaking and coaking coal consumption data are tabulated, and IEA secretariat's coal demand projections are summarized. Coal supply and production data by countries are given. Finally, coal trade data are presented, broken down for hard coal, steam coal, coking coal (imports and export). (R.P.)

  8. Teachers' Perceptions of Merit Pay

    Jackson, Vanessa; Langheinrich, Cornelia; Loth, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to show the various perceptions teachers have on merit pay. This research was designed to examine the perceptions and attitudes of teachers towards the idea of performance based pay. This topic has been an ongoing battle within school systems since the 1800s. The participants in this study were teachers from the state…

  9. Subsurface Connections and Magma Mixing as revealed by Olivine- and Pyroxene-Hosted Melt Inclusions from Cerro Negro Volcano and the Las Pilas-El Hoyo Complex, Nicaragua.

    Venugopal, S.; Moune, S.; Williams-Jones, G.

    2015-12-01

    Cerro Negro, the youngest volcano in the Central American Volcanic Belt, is a polygenetic cinder cone with relatively frequent explosive basaltic eruptions. Las Pilas, on the other hand, is a much larger and older complex with milder and less frequent eruptions. Based on historical data, these two closely spaced volcanoes have shown concurrent eruptive behavior, suggesting a subsurface connection. To further investigate this link, melt inclusions, which are blebs of melt trapped in growing crystals, were the obvious choice for optimal comparison of sources and determination of pre-eruptive volatile contents and magmatic conditions. Olivine-hosted inclusions were chosen for both volcanoes and pyroxene-hosted inclusions were also sampled from Las Pilas to represent the evolved melt. Major, volatile and trace elements reveal a distinct geochemical continuum with Cerro Negro defining the primitive end member and Las Pilas representing the evolved end member. Volatile contents are high for Cerro Negro (up to 1260 ppm CO2, 4.27 wt% H2O and 1700 ppm S) suggesting that volatile exsolution is likely the trigger for Cerro Negro's explosive eruptions. Las Pilas volatile contents are lower but consistent with degassing and evolutionary trends shown by major oxides. Trace element contents are rather unique and suggest Cerro Negro magmas fractionally crystallize while Las Pilas magmas are the products of mixing. Magmatic conditions were estimated with major and volatile contents: at least 2.4 kbar and 1170 °C for Cerro Negro melts and 1.3 kbar and 1130 °C for Las Pilas melts with an overall oxygen fugacity at the NNO buffer. In combination with available literature data, this study suggests an interconnected subsurface plumbing system and thus Cerro Negro should be considered as the newest vent within the Las Pilas-El Hoyo Complex.

  10. De la electricidad animal, la pila y los controles a la investigación

    Francisco Alejandro Múnera Galarza

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Cada vez que un médico de urgencias usa un desfibrilador durante las maniobras de resucitación de un paciente en paro cardiorrespiratorio se aplican, sabiéndolo o no, los resultados de investigaciones sobre "el movimiento muscular de la rana" realizadas hace más de dos siglos por un avispado y excéntrico profesor de anatomía de la Universidad de Bolonia: Luigi Galvani. Su interpretación de estos resultados con base en una supuesta "electricidad animal" suscitó el desacuerdo de un profesor de física de la Universidad de Pavía: Alessandro Volta. El profesor Volta se dedicó entonces a hacer experimentos destinados a demostrar que los tejidos animales no eran necesarios para la conducción de la electricidad, y estos experimentos le condujeron a desarrollar la pila eléctrica, la misma que suministra hoy la energía para que funcionen los marcapasos, los electroestimuladores y un sinfín de ingenios electrónicos comunes en la práctica médica de nuestros días.

  11. 4 CFR 5.3 - Merit pay.

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Merit pay. 5.3 Section 5.3 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.3 Merit pay. The Comptroller General may promulgate regulations establishing a merit pay system for such employees of the Government Accountability Office as the...

  12. Coal geopolitics

    Giraud, P.N.; Suissa, A.; Coiffard, J.; Cretin, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs [fr

  13. Epistemic merit, autonomy, and testimony

    Jesús VEGA ENCABO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is argued that both the informer and the hearer in a testimonial situation deserve epistemic merit insofar as they contribute to the collaborative achievement of sharing knowledge. The paper introduces a distinction between the ideals of self-sufficiency and epistemic autonomy. The autonomous exercise of our epistemic agency is very often carried out under strong conditions of epistemic dependence. Testimony exhibits a kind of social dependence that does not threaten the autonomy of the subjects that need to consider their own epistemic capacities. When involved in a testimonial situation, both speaker and hearer declare, at least implicitly, the standings they occupy in an epistemic space and are obliged to recognise certain epistemic requirements.

  14. Capacidad resistente de pilas metálicas tubulares circulares rellenas de hormigón (CFT en puentes integrales

    Chacón, R.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an in-depth analysis of the structural response of concrete-filled tubular structures (CFT is presented. The main objective of the study is to assess the resistance of these structural elements when subjected to lateral displacements. These displacements, together with the corresponding axial forces, represent the actions to which the integral bridges piers are subjected to. For the sake of studying this response, a numerical model is used as a simulation tool over an hypothetical matrix of CFT. These numerical studies together with a wide experimental database found in the literature have been useful for drawing conclusions concerning the cross-sectional capacity of the CFT. A design proposal for this cross-sectional capacity which accounts for confinement is given. This proposal has been compared structurally with the present formulation found in EN1994.

    Se presenta el análisis estructural de pilas metálicas tubulares rellenas de hormigón (CFT sometidas a flexo-compresión. El objetivo principal es valorar los mecanismos resistentes de las pilas cuando se someten a un desplazamiento en cabeza. Estos desplazamientos, conjuntamente con el esfuerzo axil de compresión, que en este trabajo se aproxima con un porcentaje de la resistencia plástica a compresión de los CFT, representan las acciones a las cuales se ven sometidos los elementos de este estudio. Se utiliza una herramienta numérica sobre una base hipotética de prototipos de pilas. Los resultados numéricos obtenidos así como los resultados experimentales encontrados en la literatura han permitido extraer conclusiones relativas a la capacidad seccional de los CFT. Se proponen expresiones de diseño relativas a la capacidad resistente de los CFT considerando el efecto del confinamiento y se comparan con los resultados que se derivan de la formulación de EN1994.

  15. Artyfechinostomum malayanum: Metacercariae Encysted in Pila sp. Snails Purchased from Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Sinuon, Muth; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2017-06-01

    The metacercariae of Artyfechinostomum malayanum (Leiper, 1911) Mendheim, 1943 were discovered in Pila sp. snails purchased from a market in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. They were isolated from the snails using the artificial digestion technique and were orally fed to 2 hamsters, 1 rat, and 2 mice to obtain the adult flukes. The metacercariae were round, 145-165 μm in diameter, having a cyst wall of 6-10 μm in thickness, a head collar and collar spines, and characteristic features of excretory granules. Adult flukes were recovered in the small intestines of the animals at days 14 and 32 post infection and were morphologically observed using a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope. They were plump or elongated, ventrally curved, 6.0-8.1 × 1.6-2.0 mm in size, and characterized by the head collar bearing 43 collar spines, including 5 end group ones on each side, a long cirrus sac extending beyond the posterior margin of the ventral sucker, a submedian ovary, and 2 deeply lobed testes. Eggs in uteri were operculate, ovoid to ellipsoid, and 120-135 × 68-75 μm in size. In scanning electron microscopy, the head collar was prominent with collar spines looking like horns. Scale-like tegumental spines were densely distributed on the ventral surface between the head collar and ventral sucker. Sensory papillae were distributed mainly on the tegument around suckers. By this study, it has been first confirmed that the life cycle of A. malayanum exists in Cambodia.

  16. Optimización de la medida de conductividad en membranas poliméricas para pilas de combustible

    Espeso González, Iván

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de este Trabajo de Fin de Grado se centra en la medida de conductividad iónica de membranas poliméricas de intercambio iónico en diferentes celdas de conductividad para poder optimizar este tipo de medidas y evaluar las ventajas e inconvenientes que presenta cada una de las celdas de conductividad utilizadas para poder ser utilizadas con otro tipo de membranas poliméricas utilizadas también como electrolitos sólidos en pilas de combustible. Se han utilizado co...

  17. 1799-1999 Bicentenario dell'invenzione della Pila ad opera di Alessandro Volta - Evoluzione del sito

    Montalbetti, Claudia

    1998-01-01

    In questo articolo sono riportate le modifiche apportate al sito Volta99, sito ufficiale delle celebrazioni per il bicentenario dell'invenzione della pila ad opera di Alessandro Volta. Indirizzo: http://www.cilea.it/volta99. Rispetto alla versione illustrata sul bollettino n.62 sono state introdotte due importanti novità: la versione italiana e la bibliografia delle fonti secondarie. Per questa modifica è risultato molto utile per la gestione e la velocità di inserimento la scelta fatta di ut...

  18. Estudio de las modificaciones a introducir en un automóvil que incorpore la tecnología de pila de combustible

    Sánchez Portillo, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Este proyecto realiza un estudio sobre la tecnología de pilas de combustible de hidrógeno como sistema energético capaz de sustituir a las fuentes de energía convencionales, afrontar la disminución de las reservas existentes de combustibles fósiles y disminuir los efectos del cambio climático reduciendo la emisión de contaminantes tóxicos a la atmósfera. Se analiza la metodología de funcionamiento de las pilas de combustible, sus principales componentes y las diversas tipologías e...

  19. Merits and Demerits of Food Additives

    YANG, Xuening; ZHAN, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Food additive is a double-edged sword. It has merits and demerits. Food additives have such merits as improving sensory properties of foods, preventing deterioration and extending the shelf life, increasing varieties of foods, enhancing convenience of foods, facilitating food processing, and satisfying other demands. However, excessive and illegal use of food additives will exert adverse influence on food security. Therefore, it is required to take proper measures to bring merits of food addi...

  20. Chess players' fame versus their merit.

    Simkin, M V; Roychowdhury, V P

    2015-12-12

    We investigate a pool of international chess title holders born between 1901 and 1943. Using Elo ratings, we compute for every player his expected score in a game with a randomly selected player from the pool. We use this figure as the player's merit. We measure players' fame as the number of Google hits. The correlation between fame and merit is 0.38. At the same time, the correlation between the logarithm of fame and merit is 0.61. This suggests that fame grows exponentially with merit.

  1. Distribución de temperatura en pilas de mena laterítica expuestas a secado natural

    Yoalbys Retirado-Mediaceja

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available En la empresa productora de níquel y cobalto “Comandante Ernesto Che Guevara” de Moa la mena laterítica se expone, en pilas triangulares, al secado natural. Sin embargo, son imprecisos los métodos de cálculo actualmente empleados en la estimación de los parámetros del secado. En este trabajo se estableció, a partir del análisis físico-matemático del secado natural, el modelo matemático para calcular y simular la distribución de temperatura en la mena laterítica durante el secado. Las simulaciones evidencian que la laterita es mala conductora del calor, y que el intercambio térmico por conducción en las pilas es un fenómeno superficial que no incide significativamente más allá de los 9,7 cm de la superficie de secado

  2. Merit-Based Scholarships and Student Effort

    Hernandez-Julian, Rey

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-one states offer merit scholarships that require students to maintain a minimum grade point average (GPA). Using a comprehensive administrative database from Clemson University, this study estimates the relationship between the incentives created by a South Carolina merit scholarship (LIFE) and students' academic performance. I hypothesize…

  3. An Accounting Program Merit Pay Survey

    Lindsay, David H.; Campbell, Annhenrie; Tan, Kim B.; Wagner, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Basing the compensation of accounting professors on merit pay in order to encourage better teaching, research and service is controversial. Before the effectiveness of merit-based salary plans can be examined empirically, it must be determined which accounting programs use such a system. In this study, the 852 accounting programs in the United…

  4. 2017 MERIT Exercise close to completion!

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    The 2017 MERIT Guidelines, approved by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC), concern various processes and procedures, among which those for the annual exercise (or MERIT interview), promotions, and changes of benchmark job. The processes for “annual exercise” and “promotions” – “changes of benchmark job” have been programmed for two periods: from 1st December 2016 to 15 June 2017: MERIT interviews, evaluation, performance qualification and payment with effect as of the salary of May; from 3 April 2017 to 1st July 2017: promotions and changes of benchmark job. 2017 MERIT Interviews The results of the MERIT interviews have been announced to staff members, most of whom saw their salary increase. Only persons who are not eligible and those with “Insufficient” performance qualification did not receive a raise. Same goes for performance payments – the staff members whose performance was qualified as &ldq...

  5. Figures of merit for surface plasmon waveguides

    Berini, Pierre

    2006-12-01

    Three figures of merit are proposed as quality measures for surface plasmon waveguides. They are defined as benefit-to-cost ratios where the benefit is confinement and the cost is attenuation. Three different ways of measuring confinement are considered, leading to three figures of merit. One of the figures of merit is connected to the quality factor. The figures of merit were then used to assess and compare the wavelength response of hree popular 1-D surface plasmon waveguides: the single metal-dielectric interface, the metal slab bounded by dielectric and the dielectric slab bounded by metal. Closed form expressions are given for the figures of merit of the single metal-dielectric interface.

  6. Merits and Demerits of Food Additives

    Xuening; YANG; Yong; ZHAN

    2014-01-01

    Food additive is a double-edged sword. It has merits and demerits. Food additives have such merits as improving sensory properties of foods,preventing deterioration and extending the shelf life,increasing varieties of foods,enhancing convenience of foods,facilitating food processing,and satisfying other demands. However,excessive and illegal use of food additives will exert adverse influence on food security.Therefore,it is required to take proper measures to bring merits of food additives into full play,and get rid of their demerits.

  7. Control predictivo económico de vehículos híbridos basados en pilas de combustible

    Sampietro, Jose Luis; Costa Castelló, Ramon; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç

    2015-01-01

    Las pilas de combustible que utilizan el hidrógeno como combustible están siendo consideradas, en estos últimos años, como una alternativa a los combustibles fósiles para su uso en automóviles. Dicha tecnología se puede aplicar en los vehículos de propulsión híbrida. Este trabajo introduce el control predictivo económico (EMPC, siglas en inglés) como técnica de gestión óptima de la energía. Finalmente, se presentan simulaciones de varios escenarios, basados en un control EMPC, en donde se ...

  8. Quality aspects of thermal coal marketing

    Dunstone, D.

    1998-01-01

    Australia's thermal coal industry is under increasing competition. A successful marketing strategy must distinguish the product from that of Australian competitors, leaving the buyer in no doubt as to its value. The marketing of thermal coal is a very different experience and encompasses an interesting commercial and technical mix. The technical merits of a coal may be effectively used to prepare the way for a sale. However, once the technical hurdle is passed (i.e. the coal is classified as acceptable), the three factors which influence the sale are price, price and price. The other aspect of marketing is that marketing, especially technical market support, must realize that the buyer often has no experience in using the coals purchased. This is particularly true with thermal coals. Virtually no thought is given as to how the coal performs or how much is used. Consequently, it is not uncommon for cheap, low quality coals to be purchased, even though it is not the choice that will result in the lowest power generation cost when all other factors are taken into consideration. The author has developed a model which allows to differentiate between coals for a range of properties relative to the use of the coal, so that a coal company can calculate the break-even price in term of cost per kWh of electricity generated and enable a more valid cost comparison between coals to be made

  9. New coal

    1979-07-01

    Specially dedicated to coal, this edition comprises a series of articles of general interest dealing with the position of the French coalmining industry (interview with M.P. Gardent), the coal market in France, the work of CERCHAR, etc. New techniques, in-situ gasification of deep coal, gasification of coal by nuclear methods, the conversion of coal into petrol, the Emile Huchet power plant of Houilleres du Bassin de Lorraine, etc., are dealt with.

  10. Coal upgrading

    Nunes, S. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    This report examines current technologies and those likely to be used to produce cleaner coal and coal products, principally for use in power generation and metallurgical applications. Consideration is also given to coal production in the leading coal producing countries, both with developed and developing industries. A range of technologies are considered. These include the coal-based liquid fuel called coal water mixture (CWM) that may compete with diesel, the production of ultra-clean coal (UCC) and coal liquefaction which competes with oil and its products. Technologies for upgrading coal are considered, especially for low rank coals (LRC), since these have the potential to fill the gap generated by the increasing demand for coal that cannot be met by higher quality coals. Potential advantages and downsides of coal upgrading are outlined. Taking into account the environmental benefits of reduced pollution achieved through cleaner coal and reduced transport costs, as well as other positive aspects such as a predictable product leading to better boiler design, the advantages appear to be significant. The drying of low rank coals improves the energy productively released during combustion and may also be used as an adjunct or as part of other coal processing procedures. Coal washing technologies vary in different countries and the implications of this are outlined. Dry separation technologies, such as dry jigging and electrostatic separation, are also described. The demonstration of new technologies is key to their further development and demonstrations of various clean coal technologies are considered. A number of approaches to briquetting and pelletising are available and their use varies from country to country. Finally, developments in upgrading low rank coals are described in the leading coal producing countries. This is an area that is developing rapidly and in which there are significant corporate and state players. 81 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Coal-92

    Hillring, B.; Sparre, C.

    1992-11-01

    Swedish consumption of coal and coke during 1991 and trends in technology, environment and market aspects of coal use are reported. Steam coal use in the heating sector was unchanged from 1991, 1.2 Mtons. Reduced consumption in smaller district heating units (due to conversion to biofuels and gas) was compensated by increased use for power generation in cogeneration plants. Coal consumption in industry fell 0.10 Mton to 0.84 Mton due to lower production in one industry branch. Import of steam coal was 1.1 Mton (down 0.5 Mton from 1990) since new rules for strategic reserves allowed a reduction of stocks. During the last five years stocks have been reduced by 2 Mtons. Import of metallurgical coal was 1.6 Mton, unchanged from 1990. The report also gives statistics for the coal using plants in Sweden, on coal R and D, and on emission laws for coal firing. (9 tabs., 2 figs.)

  12. Coal 1992

    1992-01-01

    ACR's Coal 1992, the successor to the ACR Coal Marketing Manual, contains a comprehensive set of data on many aspects of the Australian coal industry for several years leading up to 1992. Tables and text give details of coal production and consumption in New South Wales, Queensland and other states. Statistics of the Australian export industry are complemented by those of South Africa, USA, New Zealand, Canada, Indonesia, China, Colombia, Poland and ex-USSR. Also listed are prices of Australian coking and non-coking coal, Australian coal stocks (and those of other major countries), loading port capacities, freight rates and coal quality requirements (analysis of coals by brand and supplier). A listing of Australian coal exporting companies is provided. A description of the spot Coal Screen Dealing System is given. World hard coal imports are listed by country and coal imports by major Asian countries tabulated. A forecast of demand by coal type and country up to the year 2000 is included.

  13. Performance appraisal and merit recognition exercise 2007

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    The 2007 performance appraisal and merit recognition exercise will start in the usual way with annual interviews between staff and their supervisors. This year, these interviews should be held in the period from 8 January 2007 to 16 April 2007. Interconnection with the 5-yearly review, a number of modifications to the procedures relating to the performance appraisal and merit recognition are currently under study. Administrative Circular No. 26 (Procedures governing the Career Development of Staff Members) and the electronic MAPS form in EDH are being reviewed and will be available from January onwards. HR Department will shortly provide further information on this subject. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  14. Coal pump

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  15. Policy Perspectives: No Merit in these Scholarships

    Vincent, Fay

    2005-01-01

    Mr. Fay Vincent, former Commissioner of Major League Baseball and Executive Vice President of The Coca Cola Company, provides a crisp, concise assessment of a trend that has worried us for quite a while: the growing trend of rewarding academically-gifted and typically-affluent students with an extra dose of merit aid, often at the expense of…

  16. Merit Pay and the Music Teacher

    Elpus, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Current proponents of education reform are at present seeking to fundamentally change the system of teacher compensation by eliminating the traditional single salary schedule and instituting a merit pay system that directly links teacher pay to student achievement. To date, the scholarly literature in music education has been silent on the subject…

  17. 45 CFR 201.11 - Personnel merit system review.

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personnel merit system review. 201.11 Section 201... STATES FOR PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Review and Audits § 201.11 Personnel merit system review. A personnel merit system review is carried out by the Office of State Merit Systems of the Office of the...

  18. Growth of Biomphalaria glabrata populations in the presence of the ampullariid snails Pila ovata, Lanistes carinatus and Marisa cornuarietis.

    Stryker, G A; Koech, D K; Loker, E S

    1991-06-01

    Adults of three ampullariid species were examined for their ability to affect the population growth of Biomphalaria glabrata (M line strain) under laboratory conditions in which food (lettuce) was supplied ad libitum over an eleven week interval. Lanistes carinatus and Pila ovata were obtained from Kenya, and Marisa cornuarietis originated from the Dominican Republic. The presence of either 3 or 9 L. carinatus or 3 M. cornuarietis per 40 l aquarium did not reduce the population size of B. glabrata below levels attained in control aquaria lacking ampullariids. The presence of 9 M. cornuarietis adults significantly reduced B. glabrata populations by week 10 of the experiment. Presence of 3 or 9 P. ovata per aquarium significantly reduced B. glabrata numbers below control levels starting at week four of the experiment. Aquaria with 9 P. ovata were observed to have fewer B. glabrata egg masses than control aquaria, but the number of egg masses observed was not significantly reduced in aquaria with 3 P. ovata or with 3 or 9 L. carinatus or M. cornuarietis. However, the presence of 3 or 9 adults of each ampullariid species resulted in a significant increase in the percentage of such egg masses that disappeared prior to expected hatching date and that were presumed to have been consumed. The results of his laboratory study suggest that further investigation of the role of ampullariids as biological control agents for pulmonate snails in sub-Saharan Africa should focus on P. ovata.

  19. Consumption of Biomphalaria glabrata egg masses and juveniles by the ampullariid snails Pila ovata, Lanistes carinatus and Marisa cornuarietis.

    Hofkin, B V; Stryker, G A; Koech, D K; Loker, E S

    1991-04-01

    Lanistes carinatus and Pila ovata from Kenya and Marisa cornuarietis from the Dominican Republic were examined for their ability to consume egg masses and juveniles of Biomphalaria glabrata (M line strain) under laboratory conditions. Adults of all three ampullariid species consumed all egg masses presented to them over a five day period of observation. Juvenile P. ovata consumed significantly more egg masses than juveniles of M. cornuarietis or L. carinatus. Both adult and juvenile ampullariids generally ate more egg masses when maintained under a temperature regime (25-32 degrees C) approximating conditions in coastal Kenya than at 13-25 degrees C which approximates the temperature regime near Nairobi, Kenya. Egg masses attached to floating 'refugia' were not attacked, apparently reflecting the difficulty experienced by ampullariids in reaching free-floating objects. Adults of each ampullariid species ate approximately 25% of all lariids in reaching free-floating objects. Adults of each ampullariid species ate approximately 25% of all 1.5 +/- 0.5 mm B. glabrata juvenile snails presented to them. P. ovata adults consumed significantly more 3.0 +/- 0.5 mm juveniles than adults of the other two species. B. glabrata egg masses and juveniles were consumed even though lettuce was continually present in experimental aquaria. Implications of these results for biological control studies in East Africa are discussed.

  20. Coal fights back

    Ince, R.

    1990-01-01

    During the twentieth century coal has moved from being the dominant energy hero that fueled the industrial revolution to a background role: a fuel of last choice, a supplemental resource, and sometimes a convenient villain in the environmental debate. But, as this paper points out, the other side of the coin is that coal is dependable, plentiful, and the price is right. To examine the issue as it merits, reason will have to be substituted for emotion. We are currently in what the author of this paper calls the crisis enrichment stage of the debate. In this stage, when definitive knowledge is lacking, there is a temptation to imagine the worst, overcorrect the problem, and do considerable damage to energy supply and economic needs. The environmental movement has provoked a hunt for someone to blame for the world's current environmental situation. Without a proven culprit to blame for disturbances to some of the world's lakes and forests, it has been decided that coal is the cause. This paper makes a plea for balance, urging all parties to find some acceptable middle ground between energy production and environmental protection

  1. The merit of synesthesia for consciousness research

    Tessa Marije Van Leeuwen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Synesthesia is a phenomenon in which additional perceptual experiences are elicited by sensory stimuli or cognitive concepts. Synesthetes possess a unique type of phenomenal experiences not directly triggered by sensory stimulation. Therefore, for better understanding of consciousness it is relevant to identify the mental and physiological processes that subserve synesthetic experience. In the present work we suggest several reasons why synesthesia has merit for research on consciousness. We first review the research on the dynamic and rapidly growing field of the studies of synesthesia. We particularly draw attention to the role of semantics in synesthesia, which is important for establishing synesthetic associations in the brain. We then propose that the interplay between semantics and sensory input in synesthesia can be helpful for the study of the neural correlates of consciousness, especially when making use of ambiguous stimuli for inducing synesthesia. Finally, synesthesia-related alterations of brain networks and functional connectivity can be of merit for the study of consciousness.

  2. Clinical track faculty: merits and issues.

    Lee, Won-Hee; Kim, Cho Ja; Roh, Young Sook; Shin, Hyunsook; Kim, Mi Ja

    2007-01-01

    Clinical track faculty (CTF) has been in operation for more than two decades in the United States, and 12 of the top 20 schools of nursing with the highest National Institutes of Health funding in the United States have CTF in place. Yet, only limited articles have been published regarding the merits and issues related to its operation. This article examines the advantages/merits of establishing CTF in schools of nursing, discusses the qualification criteria and types of appointment for CTF, and analyzes issues related to operating CTF in Korea. A questionnaire survey and two workshops were conducted involving faculty from a college of nursing and clinical nurse managers from university-affiliated medical centers and community agencies. Most of the respondents indicated that establishing CTF was advantageous. Merits included the following: increasing reality-based clinical education and training; decreasing the reality shock of students; increasing student satisfaction; and linking education, practice, and research more effectively. Major issues were as follows: getting the approval of medical centers/universities; developing an agreement on CTF operation between the college of nursing and clinical agencies; clarifying types and criteria of appointment and promotion; and developing a statement on role and compensation policies. Most issues are similar to what U.S. schools of nursing have faced, except for the first one. In conclusion, establishing CTF in Korea appears to be highly desirable. Merits outweigh issues/concerns, and Korean nursing schools may look for an opportune time for obtaining the approval of medical centers/universities. Nursing schools in other countries that face a similar challenge of providing clinical teaching with high research performance may consider instituting CTF.

  3. Merit exponents and control area diagrams in materials selection

    Zander, Johan; Sandstroem, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Merit exponents are introduced to generalise the merit indices commonly used in materials selection. → The merit exponents can rank materials in general design situations. → To allow identification of the active merit exponent(s), control area diagrams are used. → Principles for generating the control area diagrams are presented. -- Abstract: Merit indices play a fundamental role in materials selection, since they enable ranking of materials. However, the conventional formulation of merit indices is associated with severe limitations. They are dependent on the explicit solution of the variables in the equations for the constraints from the design criteria. Furthermore, it is not always easy to determine which the controlling merit index is. To enable the ranking of materials in more general design cases, merit exponents are introduced as generalisations of the merit indices. Procedures are presented for how to compute the merit exponents numerically without having to solve equations algebraically. Merit exponents (and indices) are only valid in a certain range of property values. To simplify the identification of the controlling merit exponent, it is suggested that so called control area diagrams are used. These diagrams consist of a number of domains, each showing the active constraints and the controlling merit exponent. It is shown that the merit exponents play a crucial role when the control area diagram (CAD) is set up. The principles in the paper are developed for mechanically loaded components and are illustrated for engineering beams with two or three geometric variables.

  4. Australian coal

    1985-11-01

    Total export shipments of coal in Australia in the year ending June 30 1985 reached a record of 83.8 Mt. The export trade is expected to bring in an income of 4 billion Australian dollars in the current year making coal Australia's biggest revenue-earning export commodity. This article presents a brief overview of the Australian coal industry with production and export statistics and information on major open pit and underground mines.

  5. Coal - 96

    Sparre, C.

    1996-09-01

    The report deals mainly with coal consumption, but also gives some information about technology, environmental aspects and markets. Data have been collected by questionnaires or via telephone. The use of steam coal for heating was 0.8 Mtons (down 20% from 1994). Cogeneration plants were the main users. Taxes and environmental reasons cause a reduction of the coal use that will probably continue the next years. Use of steam coal in industry has been constant at a level of 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal rests constant at a level of 1.6 Mtons. 1.2 Mtons of coke was produced, and 0.3 Mtons imported. The PFBC-plant at Vaertan, Stockholm used 0.13 Mtons of coal, while some coal fired power plants have been converted to peat and wood fuels. The average price of steam coal imported to Sweden in 1995 was 333 SEK/ton, 6% higher than in 1994. The contract prices for delivery 1996 are about the same as at the end of 1995. All cogeneration plants have some sort of SO 2 removal system, mostly wet-dry. The largest plant, at Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a SCR system for NO x removal. Most other plants are using low NO x burners or SNCR systems, based on ammonia or urea, which reduce the emissions 50 - 70%. Some statistic about the world coal market is also given in the report

  6. Venezuelan coal

    Vazquez, L.U.

    1991-01-01

    The existence of coal deposits in Venezuela has been known since the early nineteenth century, when the Naricual Mines were discovered in the State of Anzoategui Eastern Venezuela. Through the years the Venezuelan coal business had its ups and downs, but it was not until 1988 that we could properly say that our coal began to play a role in the international market. This paper reports that it is only now, in the nineties, that Venezuelan coal projects have come under a planning, promotional and developmental policy preparing the ground for the great projects Venezuela will have in the not-too-distant future

  7. Control Difuso de un Tranvía Híbrido Propulsado por Pila de Combustible, Batería y Supercondensador

    Pablo García

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El presente artículo se centra en la descripción de un nuevo sistema de gestión de energía para un nuevo tranvía, en la ciudad de Zaragoza (España, propulsado mediante pila de combustible de hidrógeno, como fuente principal de energía, y batería de ión-litio y supercondensador, como fuentes secundarias y de almacenamiento de energía. En la nueva configuración para este tranvía, la batería apoya a la pila de combustible durante los arranques y absorbe la potencia disponible durante las desaceleraciones y frenadas. Por su parte, el supercondensador, al ser el elemento de respuesta dinámica más rápida, actúa principalmente durante los picos de potencia, en los que ni la pila ni la batería son capaces de trabajar. El nuevo sistema de control y de gestión de la energía está basado en lógica difusa, siendo éste el encargado de generar la potencia de referencia en la pila y la variación de la potencia a intercambiar por parte de la batería. En el caso del supercondensador, un control en cascada formado por dos lazos de control ha sido utilizado para poder mantener constante la tensión del bus de continua. Las simulaciones, realizadas todas ellas bajo la plataforma MATLAB-Simulink® y utilizando el ciclo de trabajo real del actual tranvía, muestran como el nuevo sistema de control y gestión de la energía es perfectamente válido para su aplicación en este sistema híbrido. Palabras clave: Vehículos híbridos, sistema de gestión de energía, almacenamiento de energía, lógica difusa, convertidores

  8. Estudio de la deposición de catalizador sobre membranas de intercambio protónico basadas en líquidos iónicos polimerizados para su aplicación en pilas de combustible

    Herrero Rozas, Luis Alberto

    2017-01-01

    RESUMEN: Debido al aumento de la población mundial y a los problemas asociados al cambio climático se están desarrollando nuevas fuentes de energía más sostenibles. Crabtree y cols (2006) propusieron un modelo energético basado en la producción de hidrógeno a partir de energías renovables y su almacenamiento para su posterior uso. En este modelo energético las pilas de combustible juegan un papel fundamental al ser las generadoras de energía eléctrica. Una pila de combustible es un dispos...

  9. Coal summit II

    1983-01-01

    Various papers were presented on world coal trade. Papers include: Poland as a producer and exporter of coal; the dynamics of world coal trade; Cerrejon coal production perspectives; present state of the Australian coal industry; present state of the EC coal market and future prospects; prospects of US coal exports to Europe; forecast of Italian coal supply and demand through 1990; statistics from coal transportation outlook; status of world coal ports.

  10. Merit in Principle, Merit in Practice: An Investigation into Merit-based Human Resources Management Through the Lens of Title 5-exempt Federal Organizations

    Woodard, Colleen A.

    2000-01-01

    This dissertation research investigates whether merit-based principles and practices are embedded into the HRM systems of 19 Title 5-exempt federal organizations. Title 5-exempt organizations, such as government corporations, serve as a vehicle for exploring the question of what constitutes merit in more loosely regulated public environments. This research fills a void in the discussion about how we can sustain a merit foundation in deregulated and decentralized federal human resources syste...

  11. International Coal Report's coal year 1991

    McCloskey, G [ed.

    1991-05-31

    Following introductory articles on factors affecting trade in coal and developments in the freight market, tables are given for coal exports and coal imports for major countries worldwide for 1989 and 1990. Figures are also included for coal consumption in Canada and the Eastern bloc,, power station consumption in Japan, coal supply and demand in the UK, electric utility coal consumption and stocks in the USA, coal production in Australia, Canada and USA by state, and world hard coal production. A final section gives electricity production and hard coal deliveries in the EEC, sales of imported and local coal and world production of pig iron and steel.

  12. Converting coal

    Avigliano, A. [Bedeschi (Italy)

    2006-10-15

    In September 2005, Bedeschi was commissioned to design and supply a coal unloading, conveying and storage facility for a new raw coal line system within Hatien II Cement Co. The new plant is composed of a grab unloader, a conveyor system, a storage shed with stacking and reclaiming facilities, a complete dedusting system and civil and steel structure engineering. The scope of supply includes a local fabrication portion; however, main components will be imported. The project will be completed in 21 months. The paper looks into the mechanics of loading and unloading coal. 4 figs., 4 photos.

  13. Modelación matemática del área de exposición y del volumen de las pilas de menas lateríticas expuestas a secado solar natural

    Yoalbys Retirado-Mediaceja

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Las menas lateríticas cubanas se exponen, en forma de pilas, a la radiación solar y la convección del aire para reducirles el contenido de humedad mediante la implementación del proceso de secado solar natural. La confección de las pilas de minerales se basa en criterios empíricos y, en consecuencia, no se conoce el área de exposición de las mismas y el volumen de mineral expuesto al secado. En este artículo se establecen los modelos matemáticos que permiten calcular, de forma precisa, la longitud de la superficie lateral, la altura, el área de exposición y el volumen de las pilas de mineral, en función de las dimensiones de la superficie horizontal disponible para el secado y de dos propiedades del material: la granulometría y la humedad. Las ecuaciones matemáticas establecidas caracterizan a las pilas con simetría axial y secciones transversales semi-elípticas, hiperbólicas, parabólicas y triangulares. Se aplicaron los modelos obtenidos a un caso de estudio para una superficie horizontal disponible de 40 m de largo y 5 m de ancho, considerando los valores medios de los ángulos de reposo maximal y tangencial de las menas lateríticas cubanas.

  14. Coal competitiveness?

    Rogeaux, B.

    2006-01-01

    Will coal electrical plants be more competitive in the coming years? Answering this one cannot be limited to merely comparing estimates based on reference electricity production costs. The competitiveness of coal will indeed depend on the final product marketed, as the MWhs are not equal: is the purpose to produce base, half-base MWh? Does the electrical equipment structure require flexible MWh (for instance in the event of significant intermittent renewable energy amounts), and therefore plants able to adjust their power rapidly? But the competitiveness of coal will also depend on many factors that will correct reference cost estimates: uncertainties, risks, externalities. These factors will need to be appreciated on a case by case basis. We introduce some of the reasoning used to better appreciate the future competitiveness of coal, and the main factors conditioning it in three contrasting regions of the world: Europe, USA, china. (author)

  15. Coal - 97

    Sparre, C.

    1997-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1996. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1996 was 1,2 mill tons and 50% higher than in 1995. The increase is probably temporary and due to high prices of electricity because of lack of water power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generation plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hotwater plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1996 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1996 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1,5 mill tons. 0,3 mill tons of coke were imported. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1996 was 340 SEK/ton or 2% higher than in 1995. For the world, the average import price was 51,5 USD/ton, nearly the same as the year before. The contract prices for delivery during 1997 are about equal as the end of 1996. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x given by county administrations or concession boards

  16. Coal -98

    Sparre, C.

    1998-01-01

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1997. Some information about technic, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1997 was 730 000 tons and about 500 000 tons lower than in 1996. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of hydro power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. Some foreign analysts, however, estimate a doubled use of coal for energy use after 2020 because of the plans to phase out the nuclear power. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1997 these figures are 2 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1997 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.5 Mill tons. 0.3 mill tons of coke were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has plans to build a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has taken a fluid bed boiler for different fuels in operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm

  17. Liquid fuels from Canadian coals

    Taylor, G. W.

    1979-06-15

    In Canadian energy planning, the central issue of security of supply must be addressed by developing flexible energy systems that make the best possible use of available resources. For liquid fuel production, oil sands and heavy oil currently appear more attractive than coal or biomass as alternatives to conventional crude oil, but the magnitude of their economic advantage is uncertain. The existence of large resources of oil sands, heavy oils, natural gas and low-sulfur coals in Western Canada creates a unique opportunity for Canadians to optimize the yield from these resources and develop new technology. Many variations on the three basic liquefaction routes - hydroliquefaction, pyrolysis and synthesis - are under investigation around the world, and the technology is advancing rapidly. Each process has merit under certain circumstances. Surface-mineable subbituminous and lignite coals of Alberta and Saskatchewan appear to offer the best combination of favorable properties, deposit size and mining cost, but other deposits in Alberta, Nova Scotia and British Columbia should not be ruled out. The research effort in Canada is small by world standards, but it is unlikely that technology could be imported that is ideally suited to Canadian conditions. Importing technology is undesirable: innovation or process modification to suit Canadian coals and markets is preferred; coprocessing of coal liquids with bitumen or heavy oils would be a uniquely Canadian, exportable technology. The cost of synthetic crude from coal in Canada is uncertain, estimates ranging from $113 to $220/m/sup 3/ ($18 to $35/bbl). Existing economic evaluations vary widely depending on assumptions, and can be misleading. Product quality is an important consideration.

  18. Coal 95

    Sparre, C.

    1995-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO 2 and NO x as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO 2 removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO x cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO x burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs

  19. Coal preparation

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The acid rain control legislation has prompted the Department of Energy (DOE) to seek new technology using the Clean Coal Technology program solicitation. The main goal of the program is to reduce SO 2 emissions below 9 Mt/a (10 million stpy) and NO x emission below 5.4 Mt/a (6 million stpy) by the year 2000. This would be accomplished by using precombustion, combustion, post combustion and conversion technology. Utilities are considering installing new scrubbers, switching fuel or possibly deep clean. However, the time required to implement the control technology is short. Due to the legislation, about 110 plants will have to adopt one of the approaches. This paper reports that in characterization of coal, Ames Laboratory used a scanning electron microscope- based, automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) technique to identify coal and mineral matter association. Various forms of organic sulfur were identified using peroxyacetic acid oxidation of coal. This was followed by subsequent microscopic, GC-MS, and HRMS analysis by Southern Illinois University. In ultrafine grinding of coal, it was reported by the Mining and Mineral Institute of Alabama that silica sand or flint shot used less energy compared to steel ball mills

  20. An economics figure of merit in ALPS

    Shatilla, Y.A.

    2000-01-01

    One of the most pressing issues facing the deregulated nuclear electric power industry is its economic competitiveness when compared to other sources of electrical power. Traditionally, finding the optimum loading pattern (LP) that meets all the safety and operational objective functions and at the same time produces the most attractive economical solutions is an iterative process. This is because (a) LP search tools usually lack the capability to generate equilibrium solutions and (b) economics objective functions are hard to include in the search process. In this paper, the Westinghouse Advanced Loading Pattern Search code (ALPS) has been demonstrated to successfully find LPs that meet user-defined operational and safety as well as economics objectives. This has been made possible by the development of TULIP language that allows the integration of external procedures into the search process of the main program, ALPS. In the example given, an economic figure of merit (EFM) has been defined and included via TULIP script into the fuel management optimization problem of a three-loop Westinghouse core operating an 18-month cycle. The LPs found by ALPS exhibit a clear trend of meeting and, in some cases, exceeding the EFM objective function defined for the ALPS search process a priori

  1. Distilling coal

    Blythe, F C

    1914-09-14

    In the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, heavy hydrocarbon oil, such as petroleum, kerosine, shale oil, and heavy tar oil, obtained in some cases during the process, is added to the coal, which is then distilled under pressure and at a comparatively low temperature regulated so as to produce a large proportion of hydrocarbon oils and a small proportion of permanent gas. In one method, about 5 to 10 parts of hydrocarbon oil are mixed with 100 parts of crushed or ground coal, and the mixture is heated in a closed vessel, provided in some cases with an agitator, under a pressure of about 60 lb/in/sup 2/, and the temperature may be gradually raised to 350/sup 0/C and then to about 500/sup 0/C. The heating may be by means of superheated steam with or without external heat.

  2. Obtainment of Hg-free Mn/Zn solutions from spent alkaline batteries; Obtencion de soluciones de Mn/Zn libres de Hg provenientes de pilas alcalinas gastadas

    Perez-Nicolas, L.; Espinosa-Ramirez, I. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, UPALM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: lepeni@hotmail.com; Aguilar, M. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Palacios-Beas, E. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, UPALM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    As in many other countries, the excessive consumption of alkaline batteries in Mexico has generated highly contaminating wastes, with heavy metal contents such as Mn, Zn, Fe, Hg, Cu and Ni, among others. This has caused a large degree of environmental degradation with repercussions for the health of living beings. Because there are no regulations regarding the disposal of spent batteries, they are thrown out with the rest of the domestic wastes or directly into nature, ending up in open-air landfills or containers where they are incinerated, thereby contaminating the planet's environment, soil and springs. The present work studies the obtainment of solutions of Hg-free Mn and Zn (Mn/Zn {>=} 1) from spent alkaline batteries for use in synthesis of (Mn,Zn)Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite by a wet method. The effect is analyzed of the dissolution medium (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, HCl and HCl/NO{sub 3}) temperature and time on the percentage of dissolution of the metals present in the electrode material, characterized by atomic absorption (AA) spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The results of the investigation indicate that the best dissolution conditions are MD=H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, T=50 degrees Celsius and t =30 min, where 94.1 and 90.7 % (w/w) of Mn and Zn are obtained, respectively, with Mn/Zn = 1.51. The mercury content was determined to be 3.91%, higher than that stated by the battery specifications, which is recovered by dissolving with HCl/HNO{sub 3} in the residual solid. [Spanish] En Mexico como en muchos otros paises, el consumo excesivo de pilas alcalinas ha generado desechos altamente contaminantes, con contenidos de metales pesados como Mn, Zn, Fe, Hg, Cu y Ni entre otros, que han provocado un gran deterioro en el medio ambiente repercutiendo en la salud de los seres vivos. Dado que no se tiene una regulacion en cuanto a la disposicion de pilas gastadas, estas se desechan con el resto de las residuos domesticos o directamente

  3. Vegetación de las pilas o pilancones de la sierra de Guadarrama y La Serena (España

    Baonza Díaz, Jorge

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Weathering pits are wetlands of geomorphologic and biological interest, but this common fact is obscured by the different names used by biologists, such as the ambiguous name of rock pool. Aquatic or amphibious plant communities are known around the world, principally from SE North-America and Tropical Africa, but few are known from Spain. Here, I study the vegetation of weathering pits from two different localities: La Serena (Southweast Spain and Sierra de Guadarrama (central Spain. Plant communities change with depth of water and depth of sediment in the weathering pits. Some of them are characterized by Crassula vaillantii or Isoetes velatum.Las pilas o pilancones son unos humedales de interés tanto geomorfológico como biológico, aunque esta identidad ha pasado inadvertida por haberse usado distintas denominaciones en cada campo científico. Las comunidades acuáticas o anfibias vegetales de los pilancones han sido estudiadas en diversas partes del mundo, especialmente en el SE de Norteamérica y en África tropical, pero apenas hay referencias de España. En el presente trabajo se estudia la vegetación encontrada en los pilancones de dos zonas distantes, La Serena (Badajoz y la sierra de Guadarrama (Madrid. Estas comunidades varían según el nivel de máxima inundación que alcanza la pila y la profundidad del sedimento, con comunidades dominadas por Crassula vaillantii o Isoetes velatum, entre otras.

  4. 4 CFR 2.4 - Merit system principles.

    2010-01-01

    .... (a) Merit personnel systems are based on the principle that an organization is best served by... embody the following merit system principles: (1) Recruitment should be from qualified individuals from...) Equal pay should be provided for work of substantially equal value, with appropriate consideration of...

  5. Profiles of Merit Pay Provisions in Ohio School Districts

    Willis, Chris; Ingle, W. Kyle

    2018-01-01

    A small number of districts in Ohio from a variety of locales have adopted merit pay provisions. Using Springer's (2009) taxonomy of teacher compensation, we analyzed compensation provisions of these districts. We asked: What are the characteristics of these districts? What criteria are used to determine merit? Who is determining who receives…

  6. Merit Pay and Music Education: A Motivation Perspective

    Vagi, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Recently, state and federal legislators have emphasized teacher quality in their efforts to improve public education. Many reformers believe that merit pay may prove invaluable in attracting highly qualified educators to the workforce and retaining them, as well as in improving students' test scores. While merit pay's ability to recruit and retain…

  7. Characteristics of National Merit Scholars from Small Rural Schools.

    Peltier, Gary; And Others

    This study compares 1988 National Merit Scholars enrolled in rural public schools with a senior class smaller than 99 students to other merit scholars and the national sample of SAT takers. Rural scholars were more likely to be female (45.5%) and Caucasian (98%) than other scholars. Involvement in extracurricular activities was significantly…

  8. Employee Reactions to Merit Pay: Cognitive Approach and Social Approach

    Wang, Yingchun

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation aims to tackle one of the most pressing questions facing the merit pay system researchers and practitioners: Why do merit pay raises have such a small effect on employees' satisfaction, commitment and job performance? My approach to the study of this question is to develop explanatory frameworks from two perspectives: cognitive…

  9. Redefining the merit order of stochastic generation in forward markets

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Zugno, Marco; Pineda Morente, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    This letter proposes a new merit order for the dispatch of stochastic production in forward markets (e.g., dayahead markets). The proposed merit order considers not only the marginal cost of the stochastic generating unit, which is often very low or zero, but also the projected cost of balancing...

  10. Design and construction of a go-kart hybrid PEM fuel cell / rechargeable battery; Diseno y construccion de un go-kart hibrido pila de combustible PEM / bateria recargable

    Suarez Alcantara, Karina; Rodriguez Castellanos, Andres; Soloza Feria, Omar [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: k.suarez.alcantara@gmail.com

    2008-11-15

    An hybrid Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell, PEMFC-Rechargeable Battery Go-kart has been designed and manufactured using AutoCAD software for the design and a CNC mechanical machine for the manufacture of components of the fuel cell. The membrane-electrode assemblies, MEAs, were integrated with a Gore-Select membrane and carbon cloth with Pt (20 wt % /C) 0.5 mg/cm{sup 2} anode and cathode electrode catalysts loading. High density graphite collector plates with 5mm thickness were used as collector plates. The estimated weigh of the go-kart with a driver is about 120 kg. The demand of the motor of the go-kart is 20 V and 5 A (100W), supplied by an hybrid system integrated by three 30Watts PEMFC. The commercially available Pb/acid rechargeable battery supplies energy for peripheral equipment. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta el diseno y la construccion de un go-kart hibrido pila de combustible con membrana de conduccion protonica tipo PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane, por sus siglas en ingles) y pila recargable. El diseno de los colectores de corriente de la pila se realizo utilizando el programa AutoCAD y la construccion mediante una fresadora con control numerico, CNC. Los ensambles membrana-electrocatalizador de la pila estan formados por membranas Gore-Select y por electrodos de Pt soportado en tela de carbon al 20 %peso/C con carga de 0.5 mg /cm{sup 2}, en anodo y catodo. Los platos colectores de corriente fueron manufacturados en grafito de alta densidad con espesor de 5 mm. La caracterizacion de la pila de combustible se realizo mediante ensayos de polarizacion potenciostatica. El peso total del go-kart y una persona a bordo es de 120 kg. La potencia del go-kart es generada por un motor de corriente directa de 20 V y 5 A (100 Watts). Para tal efecto, se construyeron tres pilas de combustible de 30 W cada una, con un respaldo de baterias recargables comerciales de Pb/acido para energizar equipos perifericos.

  11. Hydrogen and fuel cells: security and energy sustainability; Hidrogeno y pilas de combustible: seguridad y sostenibilidad energetica

    Brey Sanchez, J. J.

    2012-11-01

    As fuel, hydrogen burns, burn like gasoline or natural gas, but with the difference that the only emission is water vapor produced without the presence of carbon dioxide. So, this is a clean fuel when its use. However, while the coal, oil or natural gas is found in nature, hydrogen must be produced from a primary energy source: it is said to be a energy vector. (Author)

  12. Coal Mines Security System

    Ankita Guhe; Shruti Deshmukh; Bhagyashree Borekar; Apoorva Kailaswar; Milind E.Rane

    2012-01-01

    Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, auto...

  13. Coal at the crossroads

    Scaroni, A.W.; Davis, A.; Schobert, H.; Gordon, R.L.; Ramani, R.V.; Frantz, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Worldwide coal reserves are very large but coal suffers from an image of being an environmentally unfriendly and inconvenient fuel. Aspects discussed in the article include: coal's poor image; techniques for coal analysis, in particular instrumented techniques; developments in clean coal technology e.g. coal liquefaction, fluidized bed combustion, co-generation and fuel slurries; the environmental impact of mining and land reclamation; and health aspects. It is considered that coal's future depends on overcoming its poor image. 6 photos

  14. Elemental composition of coal fly ash: Malta coal power station in the Mpumalanga province in South Africa case study using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    Eze, Ch.P.; Fatoba, O.; Madzivire, G.; Petrik, L.F.; Ostrovnaya, T.M.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Nechaev, A.N.

    2013-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis along with ICP-OES, LA ICP-MS, and XRF were used to determine the elemental composition of coal fly ash from the Malta coal power station in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. A total of 54 major, trace and rare-earth elements were obtained by the four analytical techniques. The results were compared and the discrepancies discussed to show the merits and drawbacks of each of the techniques. It was shown that the elemental content of this particular coal fly ash is of the same order as the NIST standard reference material Coal Fly Ash 1633b

  15. Coal industry annual 1997

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  16. Coal industry annual 1997

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  17. Coal marketing manual 1987

    1987-01-01

    This manual provides information on the international coal market in tabulated format. Statistics are presented for the Australian coal industry, exports, currency movements, world coal production, coal and coke imports and exports. Detailed information is provided on the Australian coal industry including mine specific summaries. Pricing summaries for thermal and coking coal in 1987, coal quality standards and specifications, trends in coal prices and stocks. Imports and exports for World coal and coke, details of shipping, international ports and iron and steel production. An exporters index of Australian and overseas companies with industry and government contacts is included. 15 figs., 67 tabs.

  18. Coal industry annual 1996

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  19. Coal industry annual 1996

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  20. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  1. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995

  2. Coal and Energy.

    Bryant, Reba; And Others

    This teaching unit explores coal as an energy resource. Goals, student objectives, background information, and activity options are presented for each major section. The sections are: (1) an introduction to coal (which describes how and where coal was formed and explains the types of coal); (2) the mining of coal (including the methods and ways of…

  3. Coal -94

    Sparre, C.

    1994-05-01

    This report deals with use of coal and coke during 1993; information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Use of steamcoal for heating purposes has been reduced about 3 % during 1993 to 1,0 mill tons. This is the case especially for the heat generating boilers. Production in co-generation plants has been constant and has increased for electricity production. Minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels, LPG and NG. Use of steamcoal will probably go down in the immediate years both in heat generating and co-generating plants. Coal-based electricity has been imported from Denmark during 1993 corresponding to about 400 000 tons of coal, when several of our nuclear plants were stopped. Use of steamcoal in the industry has been constant at 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. Coke consumption in industry was 1,4 mill tons. 0,2 mill tons of coke were imported. Average price of steamcoal imported to Sweden in 1993 was 308 SEK/ton or 13 % higher than in 1992; this can be explained by the dollar price level increasing 34% in 1993. For the world, the average import price was 50,0 USD/ton, a decrease of 6 %. The coal market during 1993 was affected by less consumption in Europe, shut downs of European mines and decreasing prices. High freight price raises in Russia has affected the Russian export and the market in northern Europe. The prices have been stabilized recently. All Swedish plants meet emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x . Co-generation plants all have some sort of SO 2 -removal system; the wet-dry method is mostly used. A positive effect of the recently introduced NO x -duties is a 40% reduction

  4. Coal statistics 1977

    Statistical Office of the European Communities

    1978-01-01

    Presents tables of data relating to the coal market in the European Community in 1977. The tables cover hard coal production, supply and trade; briquettes; cokes; lignite, brown coal briquettes and peat; and mines and coke ovens.

  5. Australian coal yearbook 1989

    Aylward, A [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This yearbook contains a mine directory; details of coal export facilities and ports; annual coal statistics; a buyers' guide; names and addresses of industry organisations and an index of coal mine owners.

  6. Coal industry annual 1993

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  7. Coal industry annual 1993

    1994-01-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993

  8. Australian black coal statistics 1990

    1991-01-01

    This second edition of Australian black coal statistics replaces the Joint Coal Board's publication 'Black coal in Australia'. It includes an expanded international coal trade supplement. Sections cover resources of black coal, coal supply and demand, coal production, employment and productivity of mines, export data, coal consumption and a directory of producers.

  9. Relative Merits of Four Methods for Scoring Cloze Tests.

    Brown, James Dean

    1980-01-01

    Describes study comparing merits of exact answer, acceptable answer, clozentropy and multiple choice methods for scoring tests. Results show differences among reliability, mean item facility, discrimination and usability, but not validity. (BK)

  10. Wind energy and electricity prices. Exploring the 'merit order effect'

    Morthost, P.E.; Ray, S.; Munksgaard, J.; Sinner, A.F.

    2010-04-01

    This report focuses on the effect of wind energy on the electricity price in the power market. As the report will discuss, adding wind into the power mix has a significant influence on the resulting price of electricity, the so called merit order effect (MOE). The merit order effect has been quantified and discussed in many scientific publications. This report ends the first phase of a study on the MOE, evaluating the impact of EWEA's 2020 scenarios on future European electricity prices. The basic principles of the merit order effect are provided in the first part of the document. The literature review itself contains methods and tools not only to quantify the merit order effect but also in order to forecast its future range and volume.

  11. Figures of Merit Guiding Research on Organic Solar Cells

    Kirchartz, Thomas; Kaienburg, Pascal; Baran, Derya

    2018-01-01

    these criteria considering thermodynamic limits, their correlation to photocurrent and photovoltage, and effects on the fill factor. Each criterion is quantified by a figure of merit (FOM) that directly relates to device performance. To ensure a wide

  12. Pulverized coal burnout in blast furnace simulated by a drop tube furnace

    Du, Shan-Wen [Steel and Aluminum Research and Development Department, China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung 812 (China); Chen, Wei-Hsin [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 700 (China); Lucas, John A. [School of Engineering of the University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    Reactions of pulverized coal injection (PCI) in a blast furnace were simulated using a drop tube furnace (DTF) to investigate the burnout behavior of a number of coals and coal blends. For the coals with the fuel ratio ranging from 1.36 to 6.22, the experimental results indicated that the burnout increased with decreasing the fuel ratio, except for certain coals departing from the general trend. One of the coals with the fuel ratio of 6.22 has shown its merit in combustion, implying that the blending ratio of the coal in PCI operation can be raised for a higher coke replacement ratio. The experiments also suggested that increasing blast temperature was an efficient countermeasure for promoting the combustibility of the injected coals. Higher fuel burnout could be achieved when the particle size of coal was reduced from 60-100 to 100-200 mesh. However, once the size of the tested coals was in the range of 200 and 325 mesh, the burnout could not be improved further, resulting from the agglomeration of fine particles. Considering coal blend reactions, the blending ratio of coals in PCI may be adjusted by the individual coal burnout rather than by the fuel ratio. (author)

  13. 1982 Australian coal conference papers

    1982-01-01

    This third Australian coal conference included papers discussing the market for coal, finance and investment, use of computers, mining, coal research, coal preparation and waste disposal, marketing and trade, and the transport of coal. All papers have been individually abstracted.

  14. Young children consider merit when sharing resources with others.

    Kanngiesser, Patricia; Warneken, Felix

    2012-01-01

    MERIT IS A KEY PRINCIPLE OF FAIRNESS: rewards should be distributed according to how much someone contributed to a task. Previous research suggests that children have an early ability to take merit into account in third-party situations but that merit-based sharing in first-party contexts does not emerge until school-age. Here we provide evidence that three- and five-year-old children already use merit to share resources with others, even when sharing is costly for the child. In Study 1, a child and a puppet-partner collected coins that were later exchanged for rewards. We varied the work-contribution of both partners by manipulating how many coins each partner collected. Children kept fewer stickers in trials in which they had contributed less than in trials in which they had contributed more than the partner, showing that they took merit into account. Few children, however, gave away more than half of the stickers when the partner had worked more. Study 2 confirmed that children related their own work-contribution to their partner's, rather than simply focusing on their own contribution. Taken together, these studies show that merit-based sharing is apparent in young children; however it remains constrained by a self-serving bias.

  15. Young children consider merit when sharing resources with others.

    Patricia Kanngiesser

    Full Text Available MERIT IS A KEY PRINCIPLE OF FAIRNESS: rewards should be distributed according to how much someone contributed to a task. Previous research suggests that children have an early ability to take merit into account in third-party situations but that merit-based sharing in first-party contexts does not emerge until school-age. Here we provide evidence that three- and five-year-old children already use merit to share resources with others, even when sharing is costly for the child. In Study 1, a child and a puppet-partner collected coins that were later exchanged for rewards. We varied the work-contribution of both partners by manipulating how many coins each partner collected. Children kept fewer stickers in trials in which they had contributed less than in trials in which they had contributed more than the partner, showing that they took merit into account. Few children, however, gave away more than half of the stickers when the partner had worked more. Study 2 confirmed that children related their own work-contribution to their partner's, rather than simply focusing on their own contribution. Taken together, these studies show that merit-based sharing is apparent in young children; however it remains constrained by a self-serving bias.

  16. Ultravitrinite coals from Chukotka

    Lapo, A.V.; Letushova, I.A.

    1979-03-01

    Chemical and petrographic analysis was conducted on coals from the Anadyrya and Bukhti Ugol'noi deposits. Characteristics of the most prevalent type of vitrinite coals in both regions are presented here. Anadyrya coals belong to a transitional phase between brown coal and long flame. Ultravitrinite coals predominate. Gas coals from Bukti Ugol'noi have a higher carbon content than Anadyrya coals. They also have a higher hydrogen content and yield of initial resin. In several cases there was also a higher yield of volatile substances. Chukotka coals are characterized by a 10 percent higher initial resin yield than equally coalified Donetsk coals, other indicators were equal to those of Donetsk coals. Because of this, Chukotka coals are suitable for fuel in power plants and as raw materials in the chemical industry. (15 refs.) (In Russian)

  17. Coal Tar and Coal-Tar Pitch

    Learn about coal-tar products, which can raise your risk of skin cancer, lung cancer, and other types of cancer. Examples of coal-tar products include creosote, coal-tar pitch, and certain preparations used to treat skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, and dandruff.

  18. 78 FR 12422 - Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting

    2013-02-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit... nursing research. Applications are reviewed for scientific and technical merit, mission relevance, and the... Program Manager, Scientific Merit Review Board, Department of Veterans Affairs, Health Services Research...

  19. 75 FR 40036 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    2010-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit... (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit... is to review rehabilitation research and development applications for scientific and technical merit...

  20. Pedagogical Merit Review of Animal Use for Education in Canada.

    Marc T Avey

    Full Text Available There are two components to the review of animal based protocols in Canada: review for the merit of the study itself, and review of the ethical acceptability of the work. Despite the perceived importance for the quality assurance these reviews provide; there are few studies of the peer-based merit review system for animal-based protocols for research and education. Institutional animal care committees (ACCs generally rely on the external peer review of scientific merit for animal-based research. In contrast, peer review for animal based teaching/training is dependent on the review of pedagogical merit carried out by the ACC itself or another committee within the institution. The objective of this study was to evaluate the views of ACC members about current practices and policies as well as alternate policies for the review of animal based teaching/training. We conducted a national web-based survey of ACC members with both quantitative and qualitative response options. Responses from 167 ACC members indicated broad concerns about administrative burden despite strong support for both the current and alternate policies. Participants' comments focused mostly on the merit review process (54% relative to the efficiency (21%, impact (13%, and other (12% aspects of evaluation. Approximately half (49% of the comments were classified into emergent themes that focused on some type of burden: burden from additional pedagogical merit review (16%, a limited need for the review (12%, and a lack of resources (expertise 11%; people/money 10%. Participants indicated that the current system for pedagogical merit review is effective (60%; but most also indicated that there was at least some challenge (86% with the current peer review process. There was broad support for additional guidance on the justification, criteria, types of animal use, and objectives of pedagogical merit review. Participants also supported the ethical review and application of the Three Rs in

  1. Record coking coal settlements

    Macdonald, C.

    2005-02-01

    The US$100/tonne psychological barrier in coking coal prices has been well and truly smashed. The article examines developments in coal pricing. It includes quotes from many senior executives in the coal industry as collected at McCloskey's Australian Coal.04 conference held in Sydney, 18-19 November 2004. 2 photos.

  2. COAL Conference Poster

    Brown, Taylor Alexander; McGibbney, Lewis John

    2017-01-01

    COAL Conference Poster This archive contains the COAL conference poster for the AGU Fall Meeting 2017 by Taylor Alexander Brown. The Inkscape SVG source is available at https://github.com/capstone-coal/coal-conference-poster/ under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International license.

  3. 75 FR 65404 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    2010-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit... & Regenerative Medicine Subcommittee of the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit..., examination, reference to, [[Page 65405

  4. The coal-fired gas turbine locomotive - A new look

    Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Purohit, G. P.

    1983-01-01

    Advances in turbomachine technology and novel methods of coal combustion may have made possible the development of a competitive coal fired gas turbine locomotive engine. Of the combustor, thermodynamic cycle, and turbine combinations presently assessed, an external combustion closed cycle regenerative gas turbine with a fluidized bed coal combustor is judged to be the best suited for locomotive requirements. Some merit is also discerned in external combustion open cycle regenerative systems and internal combustion open cycle regenerative gas turbine systems employing a coal gasifier. The choice of an open or closed cycle depends on the selection of a working fluid and the relative advantages of loop pressurization, with air being the most attractive closed cycle working fluid on the basis of cost.

  5. Coal option. [Shell Co

    1978-01-01

    This paper notes the necessity of developing an international coal trade on a very large scale. The role of Shell in the coal industry is examined; the regions in which Shell companies are most active are Australia, Southern Africa, Indonesia; Europe and North America. Research is being carried out on marketing and transportation, especially via slurry pipelines; coal-oil emulsions; briquets; fluidized-bed combustion; recovery of coal from potential waste material; upgrading of low-rank coals; unconventional forms of mining; coal conversion (the Shell/Koppers high-pressure coal gasification process). Techniques for cleaning flue gas (the Shell Flue Gas Desulfurization process) are being examined.

  6. Concerning coal: an anthology

    Mayer, M.; Hawse, M.L.; Maloney, P.J. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    The anthology takes a humanistic look at coal mining in Illinois. One of its goals is to increase public awareness of coal in American society; it also seeks to enhance understanding of the historical aspects of coal and to study the impact of coal on mining families. Many of the 25 selections in the anthology come from Coal Research Center publications, `Concerning coal` and `Mineral matters`. Articles are arranged in three parts entitled: life in the mining community; mining in folklore, story telling, literature, art and music; and technology as it affected the people of the coal fields. 117 refs., 25 photos. 1 map.

  7. Coal information 1995

    1996-01-01

    This volume is a comprehensive reference book on current world coal market trends and long-term prospects to 2010. It contains an in-depth analysis of the 1995 international coal market covering prices, demand, trade, supply and production capacity as well as over 450 pages of country specific statistics on OECD and key non-OECD coal producing and consuming countries. The book also includes a summary of environmental policies on climate change and on coal-related air quality issues as well as essential facts on coal-fired power stations in coal-importing regions, on coal ports world-wide and on emission standards for coal-fired boilers in OECD countries. Coal Information is one of a series of annual IEA statistical publications on major energy sources; other reports are Oil and Gas Information and Electricity Information. Coal Information 1995 is published in July 1996. (author)

  8. Coal yearbook 1993

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This book is the first coal yearbook published by ATIC (France). In a first chapter, economical context of coal worldwide market is analyzed: comparative evaluations on coal exports and imports, coal industry, prices, production in USA, Australia, South Africa, China, former USSR, Poland, Colombia, Venezuela and Indonesia are given. The second chapter describes the french energy context: national coal production, imports, sectorial analysis, maritime transport. The third chapter describes briefly the technologies of clean coal and energy saving developed by Charbonnages de France: fossil-fuel power plants with combined cycles and cogeneration, fluidized beds for the recovery of coal residues, recycling of agricultural wastes (sugar cane wastes) in thermal power plant, coal desulfurization for air pollution abatement. In the last chapter, statistical data on coal, natural gas and crude oil are offered: world production, world imports, world exports, french imports, deliveries to France, coal balance, french consumption of primary energy, power generation by fuel type

  9. ACR coal 1992

    1992-01-01

    This publication is a comprehensive reference document on production, exports, prices and demand of coal in world markets. A forecast of demand by coal type and country up to the year 2000 is provided. Statistics of the Australian export industry are complemented by those of South Africa, USA, Canada, Indonesia, China, C.I.S. and Colombia. A very comprehensive coal quality specification for nearly all the coal brands exported from Australia, as well as leading non-Australian coal brands, is included.

  10. Assessing coal burnout

    Lowe, A. [Pacific Power, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1999-11-01

    Recent research has allowed a quantitative description of the basic process of burnout for pulverized coals to be made. The Cooperative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilization has built on this work to develop a coal combustion model which will allow plant engineers and coal company representatives to assess their coals for combustion performance. The paper describes the model and its validation and outlines how it is run. 2 figs.

  11. The merit of cogeneration: Measuring and rewarding performance

    Verbruggen, Aviel

    2008-01-01

    Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) is a thermal power generation cycle with the merit of recovering part or all of the heat that is fatally discarded by such cycles. This merit of higher efficiency is subject of rewarding by public authorities. When the EU enacts CHP promotion in a Directive (1997-2004), crucial measurement and qualification issues remain unsolved. CEN (coordinator of the European Bureaus of Standards) contributes in clarifying the measurement of CHP activities, but shortfalls remain, while CEN bypasses the debate on qualifying CHP performance. This article offers appropriate methods for measuring CHP activities based on design characteristics of the plants. The co-generated electric output is a necessary and sufficient indicator of CHP merit and performance. Regulators can extend this indicator, but should avoid the perverse effects of biased external benchmarking as the EU Directive entails

  12. Coal information 1996

    1997-01-01

    Coal Information (1997 edition) is the latest edition of a publication that has been produced annually by the IEA since 1983. The report is intended to provide both Member countries of the OECD and those employed in all sectors of the coal industry with information on current world coal market trends and long-term prospects. It includes information on coal prices, demand, trade, supply, production capacity, transport, environmental issues (including emission standards for coal-fired boilers), coal ports, coal-fired power stations and coal used in non -OECD countries. Part I of the publication contains a wide ranging review of world coal market developments in 1996 and current prospects to 2010. The review is based on historical data of OECD energy supply and demand, data on other world regions, projections of OECD coal supply, demand and trade and information provided by the CIAB. Part II provides, in tabular and graphical form, a more detailed and comprehensive statistical picture of coal developments and future prospects for coal in the OECD, by region and for individual Member countries. Readers interested in projections are strongly advised to read the notes for individual countries in Principles and Definitions in Part II. Coal statistics for non-OECD countries are presented in Part III of the book. Summary data are available on hard coal supply and end-use statistics for about 40 countries and regions world-wide. Data are based on official national submissions to the United Nations in Geneva and New York, national energy publications, information provided to the IEA Secretariat by national statistical offices as well as other unofficial Secretariat sources. Further information on coal used in non-OECD countries is published annually by the IEA in Energy Statistics and Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Also included in Part III are the Survey of Coal Ports world-wide and the Survey of Coal-fired Power Stations in coal-importing countries

  13. Improving Teaching Effectiveness: Merit Pay vs. Organizational Culture.

    Bushardt, Stephen C.; Fowler, Aubrey R.

    1987-01-01

    Identifies four conditions which cause merit pay systems to fail to increase teacher performance: lack of skills, the poor timing of rewards, an inability to measure performance; and competing reinforcers. Explains why organizational culture is a more effective mediator of rewards. (SD)

  14. HIV / AIDS prevalence testing - merits, methodology and outcomes ...

    HIV / AIDS prevalence testing - merits, methodology and outcomes of a survey conducted at a large mining organisation in South Africa. ... These baseline prevalence data also provide an opportunity for monitoring of proposed interventions using cross-sectional surveys at designated intervals in the future. South African ...

  15. Exercice MERIT 2017 en passe de s’achever !

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Les lignes directrices 2017 du MERIT (https://cds.cern.ch/record/2239422/files/2017_MERIT_Guidelines.pdf?version=1), approuvées par le Comité de Concertation permanent (CCP), concernent divers processus et procédures parmi lesquels, l’exercice annuel (ou entretien MERIT), la promotion, le changement d’emploi repère. Les processus « exercice annuel » et « promotions » - « changement d’emploi repère » ont été programmés sur deux périodes : du 1er décembre 2016 au 15 juin 2017, les entretiens MERIT, l’évaluation, la qualification et la rétribution de la performance, avec effet sur le salaire de mai ; du 3 avril 2017 au 1er juillet 2017, les promotions et les changements d’emploi repère. Entretie...

  16. Teacher Merit Pay: Is It a Good Idea?

    Clabaugh, Gary K.

    2009-01-01

    President Obama's education agenda, which unhappily seems to be George W. Bush's program squared, contains two major features that will impact teacher pay and working conditions. The first is that charter schools are to be promoted aggressively. The second is an insistence on teacher merit pay. In this article, the author talks about teacher merit…

  17. First MARS exercise of merit recognition: what's the outcome?

    Staff Association

    2007-01-01

    In June, the decisions concerning the various forms of merit recognition of the staff are taken. The Staff Association commends all those involved and, in particular, the supervisors who, for this first exercise, have had to assess your performance in record time, in accordance with the new provisions in the recently revised administrative circular no. 26.

  18. Merit Goods, Education Public Policy--India at Cross Roads

    Misra, Satya Narayan; Ghadai, Sanjaya Ku.

    2015-01-01

    Merit Goods have always received handsome attention and allocation from countries which have witnessed a congruence between high significant economic growth and Human Development Index (HDI). The Emerging Market Economies (EMEs) have become significant manufacturing hubs by universalizing education and improving their Incremental Capital Output…

  19. The thermoelectric figure of merit of poor thermal conductors

    Dixon, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    Calculations are given to show that for low thermal conductivity materials the radiation losses at even moderate temperatures preclude the use of the Harman technique for measuring the thermoelectric figure of merit. Measurements on liquid Tl 66 Se 34 , which has suitable thermoelectric properties, confirm this. (author)

  20. The merits of a robot : A Dutch experience

    Mobach, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the merits of a robot at the community pharmacy in a quasi-experiment. Method: The applied methods for data-collection were barcode-time measurements, direct observations, time-interval studies, and tally at a Dutch community pharmacy. The topics consisted of workload, waiting

  1. 2009 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review

    none,

    2009-10-01

    Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting to review the FY2008 accomplishments and FY2009 plans for the Vehicle Technologies Program, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academic to give inputs to DOE on the Program with a structured and formal methodology.

  2. 78 FR 66384 - Membership of the Merit Systems Protection Board's Performance Review Board

    2013-11-05

    ... MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD Membership of the Merit Systems Protection Board's Performance Review Board AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection Board. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the members of the Merit Systems Protection Board's Performance Review Board. DATES: November 5, 2013...

  3. 76 FR 42140 - Public Availability of the Merit Systems Protection Board's FY 2010 Service Contract Inventory

    2011-07-18

    ... MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD Public Availability of the Merit Systems Protection Board's FY 2010 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection Board. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Merit.../service-contract-inventories-guidance-11052010.pdf . The MSPB's inventory is posted on its Web site at...

  4. 75 FR 3939 - Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) Provides Notice of Opportunity To File Amicus Briefs

    2010-01-25

    ... MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) Provides Notice of Opportunity To File Amicus Briefs AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection Board. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 7521 and 5 CFR 1201.131, the Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) is providing notice of...

  5. Pilas de combustible de una sola cámara, basadas en electrolitos de ceria dopada con gadolinia y operadas con metano y propano

    Piñol, S.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The main advantages of single-chamber solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs respect to dual-chamber SOFCs, are to simplify the device design and to operate in mixtures of hydrocarbon (methane, propane… and air, with no separation between fuel and oxidant. However, this design requires the use of selective electrodes for the fuel oxidation and the oxidant reduction. In this work, electrolyte-supported SOFCs were fabricated using gadolinia doped ceria (GDC as the electrolyte, Ni + GDC as the anode and LSC(La0.5Sr0.5CoO3-δ-GDC-Ag2O as the cathode. The electrical properties of the cell were determined in mixtures of methane + air and propane + air. The influence of temperature, gas composition and total flow rate on the fuel cell performance was investigated. As a result, the power density was strongly increased with increasing temperature, total flow rate and hydrocarbon composition. Under optimized gas compositions and total flow conditions, power densities of 70 and 320 mW/cm2 operating on propane at a temperature of 600ºC and methane (795ºC were obtained, respectively.

    La principal ventaja de las pilas de combustible de óxido sólido (SOFCs de una sola cámara, frente a las bicamerales convencionales, es que permiten simplificar el diseño del dispositivo y operar con mezclas de hidrocarburos (metano, propano... y aire, sin necesidad de separar ambos gases, por medio del uso de electrodos selectivos a la oxidación del combustible y reducción del oxidante. En el presente trabajo, se han fabricado monopilas soportadas sobre electrolitos de ceria dopada con gadolinia (GDC, de 200 µm de espesor, usando Ni-GDC como ánodo y LSC(La0.5Sr0.5CoO3-δ-GDC-Ag2O como cátodo. Las propiedades eléctricas de la celda se determinaron en un reactor de una sola cámara, usando mezclas de metano + aire y propano + aire. Se investigó la influencia de la

  6. Metacognitive reflection and insight therapy (MERIT) for patients with schizophrenia.

    de Jong, S; van Donkersgoed, R J M; Timmerman, M E; Aan Het Rot, M; Wunderink, L; Arends, J; van Der Gaag, M; Aleman, A; Lysaker, P H; Pijnenborg, G H M

    2018-04-25

    Impaired metacognition is associated with difficulties in the daily functioning of people with psychosis. Metacognition can be divided into four domains: Self-Reflection, Understanding the Other's Mind, Decentration, and Mastery. This study investigated whether Metacognitive Reflection and Insight Therapy (MERIT) can be used to improve metacognition. This study is a randomized controlled trial. Patients in the active condition (n = 35) received forty MERIT sessions, the control group (n = 35) received treatment as usual. Multilevel intention-to-treat and completers analyses were performed for metacognition and secondary outcomes (psychotic symptomatology, cognitive insight, Theory of Mind, empathy, depression, self-stigma, quality of life, social functioning, and work readiness). Eighteen out of 35 participants finished treatment, half the drop-out stemmed from therapist attrition (N = 5) or before the first session (N = 4). Intention-to-treat analysis demonstrated that in both groups metacognition improved between pre- and post-measurements, with no significant differences between the groups. Patients who received MERIT continued to improve, while the control group returned to baseline, leading to significant differences at follow-up. Completers analysis (18/35) showed improvements on the Metacognition Assessment Scale (MAS-A) scales Self Reflectivity and metacognitive Mastery at follow-up. No effects were found on secondary outcomes. On average, participants in the MERIT group were, based on MAS-A scores, at follow-up more likely to recognize their thoughts as changeable rather than as facts. MERIT might be useful for patients whose self-reflection is too limited to benefit from other therapies. Given how no changes were found in secondary measures, further research is needed. Limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  7. Value-chain analysis of freshwater apple snail (Pila globosa used for on-farm feeds in the freshwater prawn farming sector in Bangladesh

    S.A.A. Nahid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth of the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii sector in Bangladesh since 1970s has been supported by natural availability of freshwater apple snail (Pila globosa, used for on-farm prawn feeds. The present study identified the current configuration of the value-chain benefits and constraints of freshwater apple snail in south-western Bangladesh in August 2011, based upon Rapid Market Appraisal (RMA approach. The site of snail collection was Chanda Beel in Gopalganj district, while trading, processing and final consumption was represented by Rayer Mahal Bazar in Khulna district. There were seven different nodes recognized throughout the value chain. Snail marketing was identified as a seasonal business and took place during June to November each year. Between 1995 and 2011 the price of whole snail, meat and shell has increased by 800%, 325% and 315%, respectively. The abundance of snail had been reduced and its demand has increased due to the expansion of the prawn farming industry. Prawn farmers preferred snail meat due to its’ low cost (US$ 0.21 kg-1 as a source of protein compared to commercial prawn feed (US$ 0.41 kg-1. Snail harvesting and processing were considered as additional livelihood options for the poor, where 60% of the labour involved in snail harvesting were women, and 95% the de-shelling workforce. Induced breeding in captivity and sustainable management in nature as well as development of commercial production of apple snails might reduce the pressure on ecosystems and positively contributed to the continued expansion of freshwater prawn farming in Bangladesh.

  8. Diseño, modelado e implementación de un sistema de alimentación para aplicaciones portátiles basado en pilas de combustible

    Rubio García-Caro, Angel Luis

    2010-01-01

    Este proyecto fin de carrera se ha realizado dentro del Grupo de Sistemas Electrónicos de Potencia, perteneciente al departamento de Tecnología Electrónica de la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Este trabajo ha sido desarrollado en el marco de un proyecto de investigación del grupo y está orientado al estudio de sistemas de alimentación basados en pilas de combustible tipo PEM (“Proton Exchange Membrane”). El objetivo principal del presente proyecto es realizar el diseño de un sistema de ...

  9. Trends in Japanese coal trade

    Nakajima, S

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses 1) the latest forecast for coal demand in Japan; 2) trends in Japanese steam coal demand, with breakdown by industry; 3) the organization of steam coal supply, with details of the distribution network and of the new coal cartridge system; 4) the demand for metallurgical coal. Other topics outlined include the current status of Japanese coal production, Japanese coal trade, and the development of overseas coal resources. 1 figure, 5 tables.

  10. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  11. Coal marketing manual 1986

    1986-01-01

    This manual presents information for the use of marketers, consumers, analysts and investors. The information is presented in a series of tables and figures. Statistics are given for: Australian export tonnages and average export values for 1978-1985; international pig iron production 1976 to 1985; and international crude steel production 1979 to 1985. Trends in Australian export tonnages and prices of coal are reviewed. Details of international loading and discharge ports are given, together with a historical summary of shipping freight-rates since 1982. Long term contract prices for thermal and coking coal to Japan are tabulated. A review of coal and standards is given, together with Australian standards for coal and coke. A section on coal quality is included containing information on consumer coal quality preferences and Australian and Overseas coal brands and qualities. Finally an index is given of contact details of Australian and Overseas exporting companies, government departments, and the Australian Coal Association.

  12. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) is a lung disease that ...

  13. Fording Canadian Coal Trust

    Popowich, J.; Millos, R. [Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This is the first of five slide/overhead presentations presented at the Fording Canadian Coal Trust and Tech Cominco Ltd. investor day and mine tour. The Fording Canadian Coal Trust is described. The Trust's assets comprise six Elk Valley metallurgical coal mines and six wollastonite operations (in the NYCO Group). Trust structure, corporate responsibility, organizational structure, reserves and resources, management philosophy, operating strategies, steel market dynamics, coal market, production expansion, sales and distribution are outlined. 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Coal. [1987 and 1989

    1988-06-01

    Despite increases in recently negotiated coal prices in US dollar terms, unit export returns for Australian coal are expected to rise only marginally in 1988-89 due to the anticipated appreciation of the Australian dollar. Australian coal production is expected to recover in 1988-89, after falling in 1987-88. A table summarising coal statistics in 1985-87 is presented. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Review biodepyritisation of coal

    Acharya, C.; Sukla, L.B.; Misra, V.N. [Regional Research Lab., Orissa (India)

    2004-01-01

    This review provides a detailed summary of the recent and past research activities in the area of biodesulfurisation of coal. It provides information about microorganisms important for biodesulfurisation of coal, with the emphasis on Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The review presents an insight into various methods of desulfurisation of coal combining physical and biological methods. Also, there are discussions on coal structure, distribution, mechanism and kinetics of pyrite oxidation and jarosite precipitation. Finally, areas requiring further research are identified.

  16. Coal dust symposium

    1981-03-01

    This paper gives a report of the paper presented at the symposium held in Hanover on 9 and 10 February 1981. The topics include: the behaviour of dust and coal dust on combustion and explosion; a report on the accidents which occurred at the Laegerdorf cement works' coal crushing and drying plant; current safety requirements at coal crushing and drying plant; and coal crushing and drying. Four papers are individually abstracted. (In German)

  17. Coal world market

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A brief analysis of major tendencies in the world market of coal is presented. It is pointed out that recent years, by and large, were favourable for the development of the world coal industry. Prices for coal (both for power-grade and coking one) in 1995 after many years of depressive state increased by nearly 20 % and reached a maximum of the last decade. International coal trading continues to grow and the tendency may persist in the mext two years

  18. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  19. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The year 2012 benefited from a growth of the consumption of hard coal at the national level as well as at the international level. Worldwide, the hard coal still is the number one energy source for power generation. This leads to an increasing demand for power plant coal. In this year, the conversion of hard coal into electricity also increases in this year. In contrast to this, the demand for coking coal as well as for coke of the steel industry is still declining depending on the market conditions. The enhanced utilization of coal for the domestic power generation is due to the reduction of the nuclear power from a relatively bad year for wind power as well as reduced import prices and low CO{sub 2} prices. Both justify a significant price advantage for coal in comparison to the utilisation of natural gas in power plants. This was mainly due to the price erosion of the inexpensive US coal which partly was replaced by the expansion of shale gas on the domestic market. As a result of this, the inexpensive US coal looked for an outlet for sales in Europe. The domestic hard coal has continued the process of adaptation and phase-out as scheduled. Two further hard coal mines were decommissioned in the year 2012. RAG Aktiengesellschaft (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) running the hard coal mining in this country begins with the preparations for the activities after the time of mining.

  20. Coal economics and taxation

    1978-01-01

    These proceedings contain opening remarks, the luncheon and dinner addresses, list of delegates and the papers presented at the four sessions on Coal Mines cost money - for what.; Coal mines cost money - Where the money comes from; taxation and royalty policies; and the coal industry view on operating costs. Sixteen papers are abstracted separately.

  1. Thermoelectric figure of merit of chiral carbon nanotube

    Mensah, N.G.; Nkrumah-Buandoh, G.K.; Mensah, S.Y.; Allotey, F.K.A.; Twum, A.K.

    2005-09-01

    We have investigated the thermoelectrical properties of chiral carbon nanotube and numerically evaluated the figure of merit. We observed that the properties are highly anisotropic and depend on the geometric chiral angle (GCA) θ h , temperature and the overlapping integrals (exchange energy) for the jumps along the tubular axis Δ z and the base helix Δ s . The thermopower α exhibited giant values with the peak occurring between 100 K and 150 K. The electron thermal conductivity showed unusually high value with the peaks shifting towards high temperature. We attribute the high peak values to electron-phonon interactions. Finally we noted that by changing the Δ s and Δ z it is possible to get a figure of merit greater than 1. (author)

  2. Merit pay: the Federal Government's pay-for-performance experience.

    Holliman, Sherry Diane.

    1983-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited For many years, businesses in private industry have been utilizing and experimenting with various forms of performance-based pay. These innovations have been part of a continuing search by organizations for better approaches to administering pay. With the passing of the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978, the Federal Government began its form of this concept entitled, 'Merit Pay'. Although many studies have examined uses in the areas of ...

  3. Merit pay as a motivator in the federal sector.

    Engel, James D.

    1982-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 required the implementation of the Merit Pay System for a portion of the Federal civilian workforce as a means of increasing productivity through the use of monetary incentives. To test the validity of this concept, several theories of worker motivation are reviewed and their relation to money motivation and pay-for-performance is established. These relationships are compared to the results of dat...

  4. 2012 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review

    None

    2012-10-26

    The 2012 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting was held May 14-18, 2012 in Crystal City, Virginia. The review encompassed all of the work done by the Hydrogen Program and the Vehicle Technologies Program: a total of 309 individual activities were reviewed for Vehicle Technologies, by a total of 189 reviewers. A total of 1,473 individual review responses were received for the technical reviews.

  5. Self-scrubbing coal

    Kindig, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    More than 502 million tons - 65 percent of all coal shipped to utilities in 1990 - were above 1.2 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million Btu. Most of the coal, even though cleaned in conventional coal preparation plants, still does not meet the emission limitation the Clean Air Act Amendments mandate for the year 2000. To cope with this fact, most utilities plan to switch to low sulfur (western U.S. or Central Appalachian) coal or install scrubbers. Both solutions have serous drawbacks. Switching puts local miners out of work and weakens the economy in the utility's service territory. Scrubbing requires a major capital expenditure by the utility. Scrubbers also increase the operating complexity and costs of the generating station and produce yet another environmental problem, scrubber sludge. Employing three new cost-effective technologies developed by Customer Coals International (CCl), most non-compliance coals east of the Mississippi River can be brought into year-2000 compliance. The compliance approach employed, depends upon the characteristics of the raw coal. Three types of raw coal are differentiated, based upon the amount of organic sulfur in the coals and the ease (or difficultly) of liberating the pyrite. They are: Low organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. Moderate organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. High organic sulfur content or the pyrite liberates with difficulty. In this paper examples of each type of raw coal are presented below, and the compliance approach employed for each is described. The names of the beneficiated coal products produced from each type of raw coal give above are: Carefree Coal, Self-Scrubbing Coal and Dry-Scrubbing Coal

  6. Australian Coal Company Risk Factors: Coal and Oil Prices

    M. Zahid Hasan; Ronald A. Ratti

    2014-01-01

    Examination of panel data on listed coal companies on the Australian exchange over January 1999 to February 2010 suggests that market return, interest rate premium, foreign exchange rate risk, and coal price returns are statistically significant in determining the excess return on coal companies’ stock. Coal price return and oil price return increases have statistically significant positive effects on coal company stock returns. A one per cent rise in coal price raises coal company returns ...

  7. Coal Data: A reference

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ''Coal Terminology and Related Information'' provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

  8. Coal and public perceptions

    Porter, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) clean coal outreach efforts are described. The reason why clean coal technology outreach must be an integral part of coal's future is discussed. It is important that we understand the significance of these advances in coal utilization not just in terms of of hardware but in terms of public perception. Four basic premises in the use of coal are presented. These are: (1) that coal is fundamentally important to this nation's future; (2) that, despite premise number 1, coal's future is by no means assured and that for the last 10 years, coal has been losing ground; (3) that coal's future hinges on the public understanding of the benefits of the public's acceptance of advanced clean coal technology; and (4) hat public acceptance of clean coal technology is not going to be achieved through a nationwide advertising program run by the Federal government or even by the private sector. It is going to be gained at the grassroots level one community at a time, one plant at a time, and one referendum at a time. The Federal government has neither the resources, the staff, nor the mandate to lead the charge in those debates. What is important is that the private sector step up to the plate as individual companies and an individual citizens working one-one-one at the community level, one customer, one civic club, and one town meeting at a time

  9. Indonesian coal export potential

    Millsteed, Ch.; Jolly, L.; Stuart, R.

    1993-01-01

    Indonesia's coal mining sector is expanding rapidly. Much of the increase in coal production since the mid-1980s has been exported. Indonesian coal mining companies have large expansion programs and continuing strong export growth is projected for the remainder of the 1990s. The low mining costs of indonesian coal, together with proximity to Asian markets, mean that Indonesia is well placed to compete strongly with other thermal coal exporters and win market share in the large and expanding thermal coal market in Asia. However, there is significant uncertainty about the likely future level of Indonesia's exportable surplus of coal. The government's planned expansion in coal fired power generation could constrain export growth, while the ability of producers to meet projected output levels is uncertain. The purpose in this article is to review coal supply and demand developments in Indonesia and, taking account of the key determining factors, to estimate the level of coal exports from Indonesia to the year 2000. This time frame has been chosen because all currently committed mine developments are expected to be on stream by 2000 and because it is difficult to project domestic demand for coal beyond that year. 29 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs

  10. Coal; Le charbon

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F. [TotalFinaElf, La Defense, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2001-12-15

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  11. Washability of Australian coals

    Whitmore, R L

    1979-06-01

    Australian coals tend to be young in geological age and high in ash by world standards; preparation of the coal before marketing is almost universal. On the basis of float and sink data from 39 locations in the eastern Australian coalfields, the coals are place in four categories representing increasing difficulty in their washability characteristics. These seem to be related neither to the geological age nor the geographical position of the deposit and Hunter Valley coals, for example, span all categories. The influence of crushing on the washability of Australian coals is briefly considered and from limited data it is concluded to be appreciably smaller than for British or North American coals. A strategy for the float and sink analysis of Australian coals is proposed and the influence of washability characteristics on current trends in the selection of separating processes for coking and steaming products is discussed.

  12. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    Shridharani, K.G.; Tarrer, A.R.

    1983-02-15

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260/sup 0/ C to 315/sup 0/ C in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275/sup 0/ C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350/sup 0/ C.

  13. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    Tarrer, Arthur R.; Shridharani, Ketan G.

    1983-01-01

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260.degree. C. to 315.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275.degree. C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350.degree. C.

  14. Coal use and coal technology study (KIS)

    Kram, T.; Okken, P.A.; Gerbers, D.; Lako, P.; Rouw, M.; Tiemersma, D.N.

    1991-11-01

    The title study aims to assess the possible role for coal in the Netherlands energy system in the first decades of the next century and the part new coal conversion technologies will play under various conditions. The conditions considered relate to (sectoral) energy demand derived from national scenarios in an international context, to energy prices, to environmental constraints (acidification, solid waste management and disposal) and to the future role for nuclear power production. Targets for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions are not explicitly included, but resulting CO 2 emissions are calculated for each variant case. The part that coal can play in the Dutch energy supply is calculated and analyzed by means

  15. Market-based carbon abatement policies: the case of coal subsidy phase-out

    Okogu, B.E.; Birol, F.

    1993-01-01

    The issue of coal subsidies in industrialized countries is explored and basic econometric techniques are used to quantify the impact on carbon emissions of phasing out such subsidies. Components with other measures for reducing global carbon emissions, such as a carbon or energy tax, deregulation of the coal market has at least equal merit in terms of cost, and it is certainly cheaper than engineering-based approaches, moreover, a policy of coal-subsidy phase-out will have a positive impact on the drive for a cleaner global environment and regional problems, such as acid rain. Coal mining is also an important source of the second major greenhouse gas, methane. Yet coal is the least taxed of all fossil fuels and enjoys significant subsidies in a number of industrialized countries. This raised serious doubts about the real intentions of the proposed new energy and environmental taxes in Europe and North America. (3 figures, 3 tables) (UK)

  16. Clean coal technologies

    Aslanyan, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  17. Coal prices rise

    McLean, A.

    2001-01-01

    Coking and semi hard coking coal price agreements had been reached, but, strangely enough, the reaching of common ground on semi soft coking coal, ultra low volatile coal and thermal coal seemed some way off. More of this phenomenon later, but suffice to say that, traditionally, the semi soft and thermal coal prices have fallen into place as soon as the hard, or prime, coking coal prices have been determined. The rise and rise of the popularity of the ultra low volatile coals has seen demand for this type of coal grow almost exponentially. Perhaps one of the most interesting facets of the coking coal settlements announced to date is that the deals appear almost to have been preordained. The extraordinary thing is that the preordination has been at the prescience of the sellers. Traditionally, coking coal price fixing has been the prerogative of the Japanese Steel Mills (JSM) cartel (Nippon, NKK, Kawasaki, Kobe and Sumitomo) who presented a united front to a somewhat disorganised force of predominantly Australian and Canadian sellers. However, by the time JFY 2001 had come round, the rules of the game had changed

  18. South Blackwater Coal`s maintenance program

    Nash, J. [South Blackwater Coal Limited, Blackwater, Qld. (Australia)

    1998-09-01

    The South Blackwater operation consists of two opencut mining areas and two underground mines (Laleham and Kenmure) near Blackwater in central Queensland, all of which supply coal to a central coal preparation plant. South Blackwater Coal Ltd. recently developed a maintenance improvement programme, described in this article. The programme involved implementation systems of key performance indicators (KPIs), benchmaking, condition monitoring, work planning and control, failure analysis and maintenance audit. Some improvements became almost immediately apparent, others were quite gradual. Major results included: improved availability (and reliability) of all opencast fleets, improvements in rear dump availability; reduced maintenance man-hours for opencast fleets; and increased availability of the coal handling and preparation plant. The paper is an edited version of that presented at the `Maintenance in mining conference` 16-19 March 1998, held in Bali, Indonesia. 4 figs., 2 photos.

  19. 76 FR 42167 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    2011-07-18

    ... subcommittees of the Board will meet to evaluate merit review applications: August 9--Rehabilitation Engineering... Rehabilitation. August 16--Rehabilitation Engineering and Prosthetics/Orthotics. August 16-17--Psychological... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit...

  20. 75 FR 3542 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    2010-01-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit... (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit... Board is to review rehabilitation research and development applications for scientific and technical...

  1. Magnetothermoelectric figure of merit of Co/Cu multilayers

    Hu, X. K., E-mail: xiukun.hu@ptb.de; Krzysteczko, P.; Liebing, N.; Schumacher, H. W. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Serrano-Guisan, S. [International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Av. Mestre José Veiga, 4715-330 Braga (Portugal); Rott, K.; Reiss, G. [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, Postfach 100131, D-33501 Bielefeld (Germany); Kimling, J.; Böhnert, T.; Nielsch, K. [Institut für Angewandte Physik, Universität Hamburg, Jungiusstraße 11, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-03-03

    The switching of the magnetic configuration of giant magnetoresistance multilayers not only changes the electrical and thermal conductivities but also the thermopower. We study the magnetotransport and the magnetothermoelectric properties of Co/Cu multilayer devices in a lateral thermal gradient. The Seebeck coefficient reaches values up to −18 μV/K at room temperature and shows a magnetic field dependence up to 28.6% upon spin reversal. In combination with thermal conductivity data of the same Co/Cu stack, we find a magnetothermoelectric figure of merit of up to 65%. Furthermore, a magneto-power factor of up to 110% is derived.

  2. Agreement in polar motion measurements during the MERIT campaign

    Djurovic, D.; Techy, C.; Paquet, P.

    From the original polar motion (PM) measurements performed during the MERIT Campaign, the Chandler and the annual components are removed. The analysis of the residuals shows a high level of significant correlation between the various techniques mainly for phenomenon ranging from 30 days to a few months. For periods smaller than one month the series are not correlated except for the X component, deduced from laser and Doppler techniques, which remains significant at the 99 percent level. These results led to the belief for a new earth rotation service open to different sources of data.

  3. Figures of merit for measuring aging management program effectiveness

    Knudson, R.; Sciacca, F.; Walsh, R.; Zigler, G.

    1991-01-01

    One of the requirements for nuclear plant license renewal may be the establishment and demonstration of an effective aging management program. An analysis of both qualitative and quantitative information will be required to define the contents of this aging management program. The authors propose two quantitative figures of merit, Mean Event Detection Frequency and Mean Renewal Rate, that can be used to compare the effectiveness of various inspection, surveillance, test, and monitoring (ISTM) activities for aging mitigation. An example showing the relative effectiveness of an enhanced Loose Parts Monitoring System with current ISTM activities for steam generators and reactor internals is provided. (author)

  4. Coal comes clean

    Minchener, A.

    1991-01-01

    Coal's status as the dominant fuel for electricity generation is under threat because of concern over the environmental impacts of acid rain and the greenhouse effect. Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides cause acid rain and carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas. All are produced when coal is burnt. Governments are therefore tightening the emission limits for fossil-fuel power plants. In the United Kingdom phased reductions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions are planned. It will be the responsibility of the power generator to take the necessary steps to reduce the emissions. This will be done using a number of technologies which are explained and outlined briefly - flue gas desulfurization, separation of coal into high and low-sulphur coal, direct desulfurization of coal, circulating fluidised bed combustion, integrated-gasification combined cycle systems and topping cycles. All these technologies are aiming at cleaner, more efficient combustion of coal. (UK)

  5. Cuttability of coal

    Sikora, W

    1978-01-01

    The process of cutting dull M, dull bright MB, bright dull BM, and bright B coal under various compressive stress conditions was studied in laboratory tests. The efficiency of ploughs depends much more on the natural mining conditions than does that of shearer-loaders. For seams of medium workability, it is difficult to forecast whether ploughs will be successful. Cuttability tests are a good way of determining whether ploughs can be used. The effort necessary to cut coal in a stressed condition depends not only on such properties as the workability defined by the Protodyakonov index or compressive strength, but also, and mainly, on the petrographic structure and elastic properties of the coal. In bright coals with high elastic strain, and with BM and MB coals, a much greater increment of effort is necessary with increase in compressive stresses. The cuttability of dull coals from difficult mines was not very different.

  6. Coal tar in dermatology

    Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Aben, K.K.H.; Van Der Valk, P.G.M.; Van Houtum, J.L.M.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

    2007-07-01

    Coal tar is one of the oldest treatments for psoriasis and eczema. It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipruritic and antimitotic effects. The short-term side effects are folliculitis, irritation and contact allergy. Coal tar contains carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of coal tar has been shown in animal studies and studies in occupational settings. There is no clear evidence of an increased risk of skin tumors or internal tumors. Until now, most studies have been fairly small and they did not investigate the risk of coal tar alone, but the risk of coal tar combined with other therapies. New, well-designed, epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the risk of skin tumors and other malignancies after dermatological use of coal tar.

  7. Coal-to-liquid

    Cox, A.W.

    2006-03-15

    With crude oil prices rocketing, many of the oil poor, but coal rich countries are looking at coal-to-liquid as an alternative fuel stock. The article outlines the two main types of coal liquefaction technology: direct coal liquefaction and indirect coal liquefaction. The latter may form part of a co-production (or 'poly-generation') project, being developed in conjunction with IGCC generation projects, plus the production of other chemical feedstocks and hydrogen. The main part of the article, based on a 'survey by Energy Intelligence and Marketing Research' reviews coal-to-liquids projects in progress in the following countries: Australia, China, India, New Zealand, the Philippines, Qatar and the US. 2 photos.

  8. Coal, culture and community

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  9. Risk Aversion and Support for Merit Pay: Theory and Evidence from Minnesota's Q Comp Program

    Nadler, Carl; Wiswall, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Recent research attributes the lack of merit pay in teaching to the resistance of teachers. This article examines whether the structure of merit pay affects the types of teachers who support it. We develop a model of the relative utility teachers receive from merit pay versus the current fixed schedule of raises. We show that if teachers are risk…

  10. 78 FR 6854 - Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    2013-01-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit... Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will meet on February 13-14, 2013, at the... research. Applications are reviewed for scientific and technical merit. Recommendations regarding funding...

  11. Coal contract cost reduction through resale of coal

    Simon, R.

    1990-01-01

    The weak coal market of the 1980's has enabled utilities and other users of coal to enjoy stable or falling prices for coal supplies. Falling prices for coal stimulated the renegotiation of numerous coal contracts in recent years, as buyers look to take advantage of lower fuel prices available in the marketplace. This paper examines the use of coal resale transactions as a means of reducing fuel costs, and analyzes the benefits and risks associated with such transactions

  12. Clean coal technologies

    Bourillon, C.

    1994-01-01

    In 1993 more than 3.4 billion tonnes of coal was produced, of which half was used to generate over 44 per cent of the world's electricity. The use of coal - and of other fossil fuels- presents several environmental problems such as emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO 2 ), and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into the atmosphere. This article reviews the measures now available to mitigate the environmental impacts of coal. (author)

  13. Marketing Canada's coal

    1985-11-01

    The topics are presented which were discussed at the 36th Canadian Coal Conference, held in Vancouver, BC in September 1985. The theme was Challenges, today and tomorrow and the conference sought to examine the primary problems confronting the world coal industry today: overcapacity, soft demand, depressed prices and intense global competition. Coal production in Canada was presented and its role in the steelmaking and electric power industries evaluated. A general mood of optimism prevailed.

  14. Merits and difficulties in adopting codes, standards and nuclear regulations

    El-Saiedi, A.F.; Morsy, S.; Mariy, A.

    1978-01-01

    Developing countries planning for introducing nuclear power plants as a source of energy have to develop or adopt sound regulatory practices. These are necessary to help governmental authorities to assess the safety of nuclear power plants and to perform inspections needed to confirm the established safe and sound limits. The first requirement is to form an independent regulatory body capable of setting up and enforcing proper safety regulations. The formation of this body is governed by several considerations related to local conditions in the developing countries, which may not always be favourable. It is quite impractical for countries with limited experience in the nuclear power field to develop their own codes, standards and regulations required for the nuclear regulatory body to perform its tasks. A practical way is to adopt codes, standards and regulations of a well-developed country. This has merits as well as drawbacks. The latter are related to problems of personnel, software, equipment and facilities. The difficulties involved in forming a nuclear regulatory body, and the merits and difficulties in adopting foreign codes, standards and regulations required for such body to perform its tasks, are discussed in this paper. Discussions are applicable to many developing countries and particular emphasis is given to the conditions and practices in Egypt. (author)

  15. Coal export facilitation

    Eeles, L.

    1998-01-01

    There is a wide range of trade barriers, particularly tariffs, in current and potential coal market. Commonwealth departments in Australia play a crucial role in supporting government industry policies. This article summarises some of more recent activities of the Department of Primary Industries and Energy (DPIE) in facilitating the export of Australian Coals. Coal export facilitation activities are designed to assist the Australian coal industry by directing Commonwealth Government resources towards issues which would be inappropriate or difficult for the industry to address itself

  16. Optimal coal import strategy

    Chen, C.Y.; Shih, L.H.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, the main power company in Taiwan has shifted the primary energy resource from oil to coal and tried to diversify the coal supply from various sources. The company wants to have the imported coal meet the environmental standards and operation requirements as well as to have high heating value. In order to achieve these objectives, establishment of a coal blending system for Taiwan is necessary. A mathematical model using mixed integer programming technique is used to model the import strategy and the blending system. 6 refs., 1 tab

  17. Electrostatic beneficiation of coal

    Mazumder, M.K.; Tennal, K.B.; Lindquist, D.

    1994-10-01

    Dry physical beneficiation of coal has many advantages over wet cleaning methods and post combustion flue gas cleanup processes. The dry beneficiation process is economically competitive and environmentally safe and has the potential of making vast amounts of US coal reserves available for energy generation. While the potential of the electrostatic beneficiation has been studied for many years in laboratories and in pilot plants, a successful full scale electrostatic coal cleaning plant has not been commercially realized yet. In this paper the authors review some of the technical problems that are encountered in this method and suggest possible solutions that may lead toward its full utilization in cleaning coal.

  18. Australian coal year book 1986

    1986-01-01

    This yearbook presents a review of the Australian coal industry during the 1984-85 financial year. Included are details on mines, future prospects, coal export facilities and ports, annual cost statistics and a index of coal mine owners.

  19. Australian black coal statistics 1991

    1992-01-01

    This third edition of Australian black coal statistics covers anthracite, bituminous and subbituminous coals. It includes maps and figures on resources and coal fields and statistics (mainly based on the calendar year 1991) on coal demand and supply, production, employment and productivity in Australian coal mines, exports, prices and ports, and domestic consumption. A listing of coal producers by state is included. A final section presents key statistics on international world trade in 1991. 54 tabs.

  20. Prospects for coal: technical developments

    Kaye, W G; Peirce, T J

    1983-07-01

    This article summarises the reasons for predicting an increase in the use of coal as an industrial energy source in the United Kingdom. The development of efficient and reliable coal-burning techniques is therefore of great importance. Various techniques are then discussed, including conventional combustion systems, fluidised bed combustion systems, fluidised bed boilers and furnaces, coal and ash handling, coal-liquid mixtures, coal gasification and coal liquefaction. (4 refs.)

  1. Coal combustion technology in China

    Huang, Z.X.

    1994-01-01

    Coal is the most important energy source in China, the environmental pollution problem derived from coal burning is rather serious in China. The present author discusses coal burning technologies both in boilers and industrial furnaces and their relations with environmental protection problems in China. The technological situations of Circulating Fluidized Bed Coal Combustor, Pulverized Coal Combustor with Aerodynamic Flame Holder and Coal Water Slurry Combustion have been discussed here as some of the interesting problems in China only. (author). 3 refs

  2. Thermal coal utilization for the ESCAP region

    1982-01-01

    A selection of papers is presented originating from talks to coal utilization workshops for the ASEAN region in 1981. The papers cover: planning aspects - economic and technical aspects of coal usage, long term planning for fuel coal needs, planning and coal selection for coal-fired power plants, coal availability and marketing, and economic aspects of coal usage in developing countries; combustion and plant - changing from coal to oil, principles and problems of coal combustion, use of indigenous and imported coals and their effects on plant design, coal pulverizing mills, ash and dust disposal, environmental aspects of coal combustion, industrial sized coal-fired boilers; transport and storage -ocean shipment, coal receival facilities and associated operations, shipping and rail transport, coal handling and transport, environmental issue in the transport and handling of coal, coal preparation and blending; testing and properties - coal types, characterization properties and classification; training power plant operators; the cement industry and coal, the Australian black coal industry.

  3. The Indonesian coal industry

    Cook, A.; Daulay, B.

    2000-01-01

    In this comprehensive article the authors describe the origins and progress of the Indonesian coal industry and the role it plays, and will play, in the domestic energy scene and world coal trade. In the '80s, the Indonesian coal industry laid the basis for major expansion such that coal production rose from under a million tonnes in 1983 to 10.6 million tonnes in 1990, 50.9 million tonnes by 1996 and 61.2 million tonnes in 1992. At the same time, exports have increased from 0.4 million tonnes to 44.8 million tonnes. Current export levels are higher than originally expected, due in part to a slow down in the construction of electric power stations and a partial switch to natural gas. This has slowed the rate at which domestic coal demand has built up. The majority of coals currently exported are low rank steam coals, but some of the higher rank and very low ash coals are used for blast furnace injection, and a very small proportion may even be used within coking blends, even though they have poor coking properties. The Indonesian coal industry has developed very rapidly over the last six years to become a significant exporter, especially within the ASEAN context. The resources base appears to be large enough to support further increases in production above those already planned. It is probable that resources and reserves can be increased above the current levels. It is likely that some reserves of high value coals can be found, but it is also probable that the majority of additions to reserves will be lower in rank (and therefore quality) compared with the average of coals currently being mined. Reserves of qualities suitable for export will support that industry for a considerable period of time. However, in the longer term, the emphasis of production will increasingly swing to the domestic market

  4. Pila paatose asemel / Mari Laaniste

    Laaniste, Mari, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Dokumentaalfilm animaator Priit Pärnast "Mees animatsioonist" : režissöör Hardi Volmer : peaprodutsent ja operaator Arko Okk : stsenarist Toomas Kall : helilooja Olav Ehala : Acuba Film 2005. Lisatud andmed H. Volmeri kohta

  5. ¡Ponte las pilas!

    María Pilar Hernández Quilis

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Tras la observación de los problemas que ocasionan los verbos con múltiples significados, nos embarcamos en la tarea de desarrollar una actividad que complementara el aprendizaje del significado, y que por su carácter lúdico, motivara y consolidara los conocimientos aprendidos previamente con mayor rapidez.En este caso, nos hemos decidido por el verbo poner(se que tantos problemas crea a los estudiantes foráneos.

  6. Gestión óptima de la energía en vehículos híbridos basados en pilas de combustible utilizando control predictivo económico

    Sampietro, Jose Luis; Costa Castelló, Ramon; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç

    2016-01-01

    Las pilas de combustible que utilizan el hidrégeno como combustible están siendo consideradas, en estos últimos años, como una alternativa a los combustibles fósiles para su uso en automóviles. Dicha tecnología se puede utilizar en los vehículos eléctricos o de propulsión híbrida ya en uso. Este trabajo introduce el control predictivo económico (EMPC, siglas en inglés) como técnica de gestión óptima de la energía. Finalmente, se presentan simulaciones de varios escenarios, basados en un contr...

  7. Dry piston coal feeder

    Hathaway, Thomas J.; Bell, Jr., Harold S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention provides a solids feeder for feeding dry coal to a pressurized gasifier at elevated temperatures substantially without losing gas from the gasifier by providing a lock having a double-acting piston that feeds the coals into the gasifier, traps the gas from escaping, and expels the trapped gas back into the gasifier.

  8. Development of coal resources

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    It is an important issue to expand stable coal supply areas for Japan, especially to assure stable supply of overseas coals. The investigations on geological structures in foreign countries perform surveys on geological structures in overseas coal producing countries and basic feasibility studies. The investigations select areas with greater business risks in coal producing countries and among private business entities. The geological structure investigations were carried out on China, Indonesia and Malaysia and the basic feasibility studies on Indonesia during fiscal 1994. The basic coal resource development investigations refer to the results of previous physical explorations and drilling tests to develop practical exploration technologies for coal resources in foreign countries. The development feasibility studies on overseas coals conduct technological consultation, surface surveys, physical explorations, and trial drilling operations, and provide fund assistance to activities related thereto. Fiscal 1994 has provided fund assistance to two projects in Indonesia and America. Fund loans are provided on investigations for development and import of overseas coals and other related activities. Liability guarantee for development fund is also described.

  9. Coal in Canada

    Salaff, S.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the potential market for coal-fired independent power projects in western Canada. The topics of the article include emissions issues, export potential for power produced, and financial and other assistance to independent power producers offered by British Columbia Hydro and coal mining companies in the region, including financing of projects and power distribution services including connecting to the USA grids

  10. Black coal. [Australia

    Pratt, R

    1973-01-01

    Statistics are given for the Australian black coal industry for 1970-3 (production, value, employment, wages and salaries, productivity, trade, stocks, consumption, export contracts, exploration, etc.). In less detail, world coal trade is reviewed and coke production is mentioned briefly. (LTN )

  11. The hydrogen economy- A debate on the merits

    Van Vuuren, DS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info van Vuuren_2007.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 5193 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name van Vuuren_2007.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 The Hydrogen Economy A Debate... cheapest alternative. • The Hydrogen Economy or its alternative will only really take off when cheap coal production begins to peak Slide 10 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Global Warming • The risk is real, but the debate...

  12. Cooling System for the Merit High-Power Target Experiment

    Haug, F; Silva, P; Pezzeti, M; Pavlov, O; Pirotte, O; Metselaar, J; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fabich, A; Lettry, J; Kirk, H G; McDonald, K T; Titus, P; Bennett, J R J

    2010-01-01

    MERIT is a proof-of-principle experiment of a target station suitable as source for future muon colliders or neutrino factories. When installed at the CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) PS (Proton Synchrotron)complex fast-extracted high-intensity proton beams intercepted a free mercury jet inside a normal-conducting, pulsed 15-T capture solenoid magnet cooled with liquid nitrogen. Up to 25 MJ of Joule heat was dissipated in the magnet during a pulse. The fully automated, remotely controlled cryogenic system of novel design permitted the transfer of nitrogen by the sole means of differential pressures inside the vessels. This fast cycling system permitted several hundred tests in less than three weeks during the 2007 data taking campaign.

  13. Optimization principles and the figure of merit for triboelectric generators.

    Peng, Jun; Kang, Stephen Dongmin; Snyder, G Jeffrey

    2017-12-01

    Energy harvesting with triboelectric nanogenerators is a burgeoning field, with a growing portfolio of creative application schemes attracting much interest. Although power generation capabilities and its optimization are one of the most important subjects, a satisfactory elemental model that illustrates the basic principles and sets the optimization guideline remains elusive. We use a simple model to clarify how the energy generation mechanism is electrostatic induction but with a time-varying character that makes the optimal matching for power generation more restrictive. By combining multiple parameters into dimensionless variables, we pinpoint the optimum condition with only two independent parameters, leading to predictions of the maximum limit of power density, which allows us to derive the triboelectric material and device figure of merit. We reveal the importance of optimizing device capacitance, not only load resistance, and minimizing the impact of parasitic capacitance. Optimized capacitances can lead to an overall increase in power density of more than 10 times.

  14. Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev.10) - Recognition of merit

    2014-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 10) entitled “Recognition of Merit”, approved by the Director-General following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 5 December 2013 and entering into force on 1 January 2014, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department (see here).   This circular is applicable to staff members. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 9) entitled “Recognition of Merit” of December 2011. The circular was revised in order to take into account the work performed in the framework of an elective mandate during the exercise of merit recognition of staff members. In addition, the circular was revised to provide that, in the case of staff members on special leave for professional reasons for a period equal to or longer than half a year, it will no longer be possible to grant an exceptional advancement. Department Head Office HR Department

  15. 2015 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review

    None, None

    2015-11-01

    The 2015 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) and Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR) was held June 8-12, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia. The review encompassed all of the work done by the FCTO and the VTO: 258 individual activities were reviewed for VTO, by 170 reviewers. A total of 1,095 individual review responses were received for the VTO technical reviews. The objective of the meeting was to review the accomplishments and plans for VTO over the previous 12 months, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academia to give inputs to DOE on the Office with a structured and formal methodology. The meeting also provided attendees with a forum for interaction and technology information transfer.

  16. 2017 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review

    None, None

    2017-10-31

    The 2017 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR) was held June 5-9, 2017, in Washington, DC. The review encompassed work done by the Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and VTO: 263 individual activities were reviewed for VTO by 191 reviewers. Exactly 1,241 individual review responses were received for the VTO technical reviews. The objective of the meeting was to review the accomplishments and plans for VTO over the previous 12 months, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academia to give inputs to DOE with a structured and formal methodology. The meeting also provided attendees with a forum for interaction and technology information transfer.

  17. 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review

    None, None

    2016-12-01

    The 2016 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR) was held June 6-9, 2016, in Washington, DC. The review encompassed work done by the Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and VTO: 226 individual activities were reviewed for VTO, by 171 reviewers. A total of 1,044 individual review responses were received for the VTO technical reviews. The objective of the meeting was to review the accomplishments and plans for VTO over the previous 12 months, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academia to give inputs to DOE with a structured and formal methodology. The meeting also provided attendees with a forum for interaction and technology information transfer.

  18. 2014 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review

    None

    2014-11-01

    The 2014 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) and Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR) was held June 16-20, 2014, in Washington, DC. The review encompassed all of the work done by the FCTO and the VTO: a total of 295 individual activities were reviewed for VTO, by a total of 179 reviewers. A total of 1,354 individual review responses were received for the VTO technical reviews. The objective of the meeting was to review the accomplishments and plans for VTO over the previous 12 months, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academia to give inputs to DOE on the Office with a structured and formal methodology. The meeting also provided attendees with a forum for interaction and technology information transfer.

  19. 2013 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The 2013 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) and Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR) was held May 13-17, 2013, in Crystal City, Virginia. The review encompassed all of the work done by the FCTO and the VTO: a total of 287 individual activities were reviewed for VTO, by a total of 187 reviewers. A total of 1,382 individual review responses were received for the VTO technical reviews. The objective of the meeting was to review the accomplishments and plans for VTO over the previous 12 months, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academia to give inputs to DOE on the Office with a structured and formal methodology. The meeting also provided attendees with a forum for interaction and technology information transfer.

  20. A Figure-of-Merit for Beta Cell Detector Characterization

    Foxe, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miller, Brian W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suarez, Rey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-02

    In order to decrease the minimum detectable activities (MDAs) of beta-gamma radioxenon detectors, it is important to increase the ability to resolve the individual isotopes. One proposed method for doing this is to increase the energy resolution of the beta cell through the use of silicon detectors. While silicon detectors can improve the energy resolution, it is accompanied with a decrease in detection efficiency compared to plastic scintillator beta cells. Due to the uncertainty on the impact of the competing variables, we have developed a figure-of-merit (FOM) capable of determining the impact of detector parameters on the MDAs. By utilizing the FOM to analyze different detectors, we are able to directly compare current and future detectors and estimate their impact on the radioxenon MDAs.

  1. Figures of merit for the evaluation of regenerative power converters

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083258; Rossini, Stefano; Le Godec, Gilles; Papastergiou, Konstantinos; Carrica, Daniel; Retegui, Rogeli Garcia

    2016-01-01

    In some applications, like those for particle accelerators and transfer lines, electromagnet loads operate in cycling mode i.e. absorbing or extracting energy from or to a power source. Built-in energy storage such as electrochemical capacitors can be used whose lifetime is heavily depended on the current ripple and depth of discharge. Moreover, the sizing of this storage element is a trade-off between power taken from the grid and energy stored. Additionally, the adopted power conversion structure and control strategy impact on such decision process. In this work, a number of topologies have been evaluated for these applications and the key metrics used to compare them. The proposed figures of merit are used through examples to highlight the trade-offs related with the choice of dc-bus regulation topology and control strategy.

  2. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  3. The renaissance of coal

    Schernikau, Lars

    2013-01-01

    There is hardly another energy resource where public opinion and reality lie as far apart as they do for coal. Many think of coal as an inefficient relic from the era of industrialisation. However, such views underestimate the significance of this energy resource both nationally and globally. In terms of global primary energy consumption coal ranks second behind crude oil, which plays a central role in the energy sector. Since global electricity use is due to rise further, coal, being the only energy resource that can meet a growing electricity demand over decades, stands at the beginning of a renaissance, and does so also in the minds of the political leadership. Coal is indispensable as a bridging technology until the electricity demand of the world population can be met primarily through renewable resources.

  4. Methane of the coal

    Vasquez, H.

    1997-01-01

    In the transformation process of the vegetable material to the coal (Carbonization), the products that are generated include CH 4, CO2, N2 and H2. The methane is generated by two mechanisms: below 50 centigrade degree, as product of microbial decomposition, the methanogenic is generated; and above 50 centigrade degree, due to the effects of the buried and increase of the range of the coal, the thermogenic methane is detachment, as a result of the catagenic. The generated methane is stored in the internal surfaces of the coal, macro and micro pores and in the natural fractures. The presence of accumulations of gas of the coal has been known in the entire world by many years, but only as something undesirable for its danger in the mining exploitation of the coal

  5. China's coal industry

    Karmazin, V A

    1988-09-01

    Presents data on China's coal industry. China's coal reserves are estimated to be 4,000 million Mt; annual production is over 800 Mt. Eleven new mining projects have been recently completed. They were financed with participation of foreign capital (US$ 1,400 million). Twenty-five new mines with 32.27 Mt production capacity were planned to be put into operation in 1988. Annual coal production is expected to increase to 870 Mt in 1990 at a cost of US$ 8,500 million. Numerical data on China's individual coal basins, new schemes, capital outlay and foreign capital participation are given. The dynamic development of China's coal industry since 1949 is briefly reviewed and management methods are explained.

  6. Industrial coal utilization

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  7. USA coal producer perspective

    Porco, J. [Alpha Natural Resources, Latrobe, PA (US). Alpha Energy Global Marketing

    2004-07-01

    The focus is on the Central Appalachian coal industry. Alpha Natural Resources was formed in 2002 from Pittston Coal's Virginia and Coastal operations. AMCI's U.S. operations and Mears Enterprises in Pennsylvania were acquired later. The company produces 20-21 million tonnes per year and sells 20 million tonnes of steam coal and 10 million tonnes of exports, including some coal that is brokered. Foundry coke is a major product. Capital investment has resulted in increased productivity. Central Appalachia is expected to continue as a significant coal-producing region for supplying metallurgical coke. Production is expected to stabilize, but not increase; so the mines will have a longer life. 31 slides/overheads are included.

  8. Coal in the Mediterranean

    Sore, J.C.; Coiffard, J.

    1992-01-01

    Mediterranean countries are not traditionally coal producers. In France, the main mines were located in the North and East, and belonged to the great coal fields of northern Europe. Spain is a modest producer (ten million tonnes), as is Turkey with its three million tonnes. The only way most of these mines can stand up to international competition is by an array of protectionistic measures and subsidies. This state of affairs has marked events of quite another nature, as it relates to energy economics. That is, coal has taken on increasing importance in the energy supplies of all the countries of the Mediterranean zone over the past twenty years. In this article, we set out by describing coke supply for the Mediterranean ensemble, and then go on to analyze the development aspects of coal for electrical production, the future of Mediterranean lignite, and the supply of imported coal. 4 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sarofim, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gueishen, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mandalaparty, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, H. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  10. State coal profiles, January 1994

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  11. The economic case for industrial application of low-rank coal technology

    Irwin, W.

    1991-01-01

    The World Coal Institute estimates coal should overtake oil as the world's largest source of primary energy by the turn of the century. Current world coal production of 3.6 billion tons in 1990 is predicted to rise to 4 billion tons by the year 2000. It is conceded that a major environmental problem with burning coal is the so-called greenhouse effect. The question is how do you use the new technologies that have been developed which now allow coal to be burned with minimum damage to the environment. Despite their technical merits, acceptance of these new technologies is slow because they appear uncompetitive when compared with historic energy costs. Unless economic comparisons include some form of environmental evaluation, this issue will continue to be a barrier to progress. To avoid stagnation and provide the necessary incentive for implementing badly needed change, structural changes in energy economics need to be made which take into account the environmental cost element of these emerging new technologies. The paper discusses coal trade and quality and then describes the three main areas of development of clean coal technologies: coal preparation, combustion, and flue gas treatment

  12. NMR imaging studies of coal

    Ma, Z.R.; Zhang, P.Z.; Ding, G.L.; Li, L.Y.; Ye, C.H. [University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-06-01

    The permeation transportation and swelling behavior of solvents into coal are investigated by NMR imaging using pyridine-d{sub 5} and acetone-d{sub 6}. Images of coal swollen with deuterated solvents illuminate proton distributions of mobile phases within the coal macromolecular networks. More information about the chemical and physical structure of coal can be obtained using NMR imaging techniques.

  13. Clean coal technology: The new coal era

    1994-01-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Program is a government and industry cofunded effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal processes in a series of full-scale showcase`` facilities built across the country. Begun in 1986 and expanded in 1987, the program is expected to finance more than $6.8 billion of projects. Nearly two-thirds of the funding will come from the private sector, well above the 50 percent industry co-funding expected when the program began. The original recommendation for a multi-billion dollar clean coal demonstration program came from the US and Canadian Special Envoys on Acid Rain. In January 1986, Special Envoys Lewis and Davis presented their recommendations. Included was the call for a 5-year, $5-billion program in the US to demonstrate, at commercial scale, innovative clean coal technologies that were beginning to emerge from research programs both in the US and elsewhere in the world. As the Envoys said: if the menu of control options was expanded, and if the new options were significantly cheaper, yet highly efficient, it would be easier to formulate an acid rain control plan that would have broader public appeal.

  14. Coal: Less than lackluster

    Doerell, P.

    1994-01-01

    Not many in the world coal industry will remember 1993 as a good year. The reasons for the poor state of affairs were first the weak economic climate, and second, the energy glut. For the first time after expanding steadily since the 70s, seaborne trade in hard coal fell by about 4% to 350M mt. Steam coal accounted for a good half of this volume. While demand continued to rise in the newly industrialized countries of the Pacific area, imports into Europe of both coking coal and steam coal fell sharply. The United States, CIS, and Canada had to accept substantial losses of export volume. Australia, as well as South Africa, Colombia, and Indonesia consolidated their market positions and Poland, too, recorded high volumes available for export. The positive news came from Australia, where in mid-December the New South Wales coal industry reported an increase in the net profit after tax from $A83M (about $55M) to $A98M (about $126M) in 1992/1993. This success was however ascribed less to an improvement in the fundamental mining indicators than to the fall in the Australian dollar and the lowering of corporate tax. The reduction in capital investment by 26% down to $A330M (after the previous year when it had also been cut by 25%) is seen by the chairman of the NSW Coal Assoc. as not auguring well for the industry's ability to meet the forecast growth in demand to the year 2000

  15. Coal in competition

    Manners, G

    1985-06-01

    During the past decade world coal consumption has expanded by about 26% whilst energy demands overall have grown by only 17%. This is because of the increased price of oil products, plus a period during which the costs of mining coal in many parts of the world have been moderately well contained. Over-ambitious forecasts of coal demand have encouraged the considerable over-investment in coalmining capacity that exists today. Costs of winning coal and transporting it are low, but sales depend on the rate of growth of a country's demand for energy. Some countries are more successful at marketing coal than others. Amongst the major factors that influence the rate of substitution of one source of energy for another is the nature and age of the boiler stock. The outcome of the developing environmental debate and calls for reduction in SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions from coal-fired boilers is going to affect coal's fortunes in the 1990's.

  16. A coal combine

    Wlachovsky, I; Bartos, J

    1980-02-15

    A design is presented for a coal combine, equipped with two drum operational units, on whose both ends of the upper surface of the body, two coal saws are mounted with the help of a lever system. These saws, found in an operational position, form a gap in the block of the coal block, which is not embraced by the drum operational unit. The coal block, found between the gap and the support, falls down onto the longwall scraper conveyor. The lever system of each coal saw is controlled by two hydraulic jacks. One of the jacks is mounted vertically on the facial wall of the body of the combine and is used for the hoisting for the required height of the horizontal arm of the lever, reinforced by one end in the hinge on the body of the combine. On the ''free'' end of that lever, a coal saw is mounted in a hinge-like fashion and which is connected by the hydraulic jack to the horizontal arm of the lever system. This hydraulic jack is used for the clamping of the coal saw to the face.

  17. Microbial desulfurization of coal

    Bos, P.; Boogerd, F.C.; Kuenen, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, studies have been initiated to explore the possibilities of the use of biological systems in coal technology. This chapter discusses the principles behind the bioprocessing of coal, the advantages and disadvantages, and the economic feasibility of the process. For large-scale, coal-using, energy-producing plants, stack gas cleaning should be the treatment of choice. Biodesulfurization is preferable with industrial, small-scale, energy-producing plants. Treatment of the stack gases of these plants is not advisable because of high investment costs. Finally, it should be realized that biodesulfurization produces a waste stream that needs further treatment. 91 refs

  18. Coal-fired generation

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  19. Economic outlook for coal

    Denis Casey.

    1997-01-01

    Coal still a fundamental component of two major industries in New South Wales- electricity production and steel making. Its future will be shaped by its ability to meet expected international increases in demand for thermal coal, and by profitability and possible impact of greenhouse strategy decisions. By 2002 the demand for the State's coal is estimated at a total of 116 million tons and it expected to play an increased role in the fuel mix for electricity generation because of its competitive price, established technologies and abundant supply

  20. Coal potential of Antartica

    Rose, G.; McElroy, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    This report attempts to bring together available information on the coal deposits of Antarctica and discuss factors that would be involved if these deposits were to be explored and mined. Most of the reported principal coal deposits in Antarctica lie generally within the Transantarctic Mountains: the majority are of Permian age and are present in the Victoria Group of the Beacon Supergroup. Several other deposits have been recorded in East Antarctica and in the Antarctic Peninsula, including minor occurrences of Mesozoic and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale.

  1. Extreme coal handling

    Bradbury, S; Homleid, D. [Air Control Science Inc. (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Within the journals 'Focus on O & M' is a short article describing modifications to coal handling systems at Eielson Air Force Base near Fairbanks, Alaska, which is supplied with power and heat from a subbituminous coal-fired central plant. Measures to reduce dust include addition of an enclosed recirculation chamber at each transfer point and new chute designs to reduce coal velocity, turbulence, and induced air. The modifications were developed by Air Control Science (ACS). 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Coal liquefaction becomes viable

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    In 2003 the May/June issue of CoalTrans International speculated that coal liquefaction would become viable due to falling coal prices. This has not proved the case but the sustained high oil price is sparking new interest. A survey by Energy Intelligence and Marketing Research during November 2005 revealed a growth in the number of projects under development or at the feasibility stage. The article reports projects in China, the USA, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines and India. China is commissioning the first wave of large liquefaction plants. The key question is whether other countries, particularly the USA, will follow.

  3. Revival of coal. [France and USA

    1981-05-01

    This edition is devoted to the production and consumption of coal in France. It presents a study of the main topics involved, discusses the position of coal in France - under what form should it beused, and deals with coal consumption in cement works role of coal for urban district heating, future of coal gasification in France, France's coal policy, coal industry in the USA, underground gasification of coal, France's coal reserves, etc.. (In French)

  4. NO emission characteristics of superfine pulverized coal combustion in the O2/CO2 atmosphere

    Liu, Jiaxun; Gao, Shan; Jiang, Xiumin; Shen, Jun; Zhang, Hai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Superfine pulverized coal combustion in O 2 /CO 2 atmosphere is a new promising technology. • NO emissions of superfine pulverized coal combustion in O 2 /CO 2 mixture were focused. • Coal particle sizes have significant effects on NO emissions in O 2 /CO 2 combustion. - Abstract: The combination of O 2 /CO 2 combustion and superfine pulverized coal combustion technology can make full use of their respective merits, and solve certain inherent disadvantages of each technology. The technology of superfine pulverized coal combustion in the O 2 /CO 2 atmosphere is easy and feasible to be retrofitted with few reconstructions on the existing devices. It will become a useful and promising method in the future. In this paper, a one-dimensional drop-tube furnace system was adopted to study the NO emission characteristics of superfine pulverized coal combustion in the O 2 /CO 2 atmosphere. The effects of coal particle size, coal quality, furnace temperature, stoichiometric ratio, etc. were analyzed. It is important to note that coal particle sizes have significant influence on NO emissions in the O 2 /CO 2 combustion. For the homogeneous NO reduction, smaller coal particles can inhibit the homogeneous NO formations under fuel-rich combustion conditions, while it becomes disadvantageous for fuel-lean combustion. However, under any conditions, heterogeneous reduction is always more significant for smaller coal particle sizes, which have smoother pore surfaces and simpler pore structures. The results from this fundamental research will provide technical support for better understanding and developing this new combustion process

  5. Publication of administrative circular No. 26 (Rev. 8) – Recognition of merit

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 8) – Recognition of merit Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 8) – "Recognition of merit", approved by the Standing Concertation Committee at its meeting on 3 September 2008, is now available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 7) – "Recognition of merit of staff members" of May 2007. Paper copies will shortly be available in Departmental secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 78003

  6. Publication of administrative circular No. 26 (Rev. 8) – Recognition of merit

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 8) – Recognition of merit Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 8) – "Recognition of merit", approved by the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 3 September 2008, is now available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 7) – "Recognition of merit of staff members" of May 2007. Paper copies will shortly be available in Departmental secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 78003

  7. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  8. Thermal expansion of coking coals

    Orlik, M.; Klimek, J. (Vyzkumny a Zkusebni Ustav Nova Hut, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia))

    1992-12-01

    Analyzes expansion of coal mixtures in coke ovens during coking. Methods for measuring coal expansion on both a laboratory and pilot plant scale are comparatively evaluated. The method, developed, tested and patented in Poland by the Institute for Chemical Coal Processing in Zabrze (Polish standard PN-73/G-04522), is discussed. A laboratory device developed by the Institute for measuring coal expansion is characterized. Expansion of black coal from 10 underground mines in the Ostrava-Karvina coal district and from 9 coal mines in the Upper Silesia basin in Poland is comparatively evaluated. Investigations show that coal expansion reaches a maximum for coal types with a volatile matter ranging from 20 to 25%. With increasing volatile matter in coal, its expansion decreases. Coal expansion increases with increasing swelling index. Coal expansion corresponds with coal dilatation. With increasing coal density its expansion increases. Coal mixtures should be selected in such a way that their expansion does not cause a pressure exceeding 40 MPa. 11 refs.

  9. Bayesian inference on genetic merit under uncertain paternity

    Tempelman Robert J

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A hierarchical animal model was developed for inference on genetic merit of livestock with uncertain paternity. Fully conditional posterior distributions for fixed and genetic effects, variance components, sire assignments and their probabilities are derived to facilitate a Bayesian inference strategy using MCMC methods. We compared this model to a model based on the Henderson average numerator relationship (ANRM in a simulation study with 10 replicated datasets generated for each of two traits. Trait 1 had a medium heritability (h2 for each of direct and maternal genetic effects whereas Trait 2 had a high h2 attributable only to direct effects. The average posterior probabilities inferred on the true sire were between 1 and 10% larger than the corresponding priors (the inverse of the number of candidate sires in a mating pasture for Trait 1 and between 4 and 13% larger than the corresponding priors for Trait 2. The predicted additive and maternal genetic effects were very similar using both models; however, model choice criteria (Pseudo Bayes Factor and Deviance Information Criterion decisively favored the proposed hierarchical model over the ANRM model.

  10. The merits of measuring challenge and hindrance appraisals.

    Searle, Ben J; Auton, Jaime C

    2015-01-01

    The challenge-hindrance framework has shown that challenge stressors (work characteristics associated with potential personal gain) tend to have positive outcomes, whereas hindrance stressors (those which obstruct goals) have negative outcomes. However, typical research methods assume that stressors allocated to these categories are appraised consistently by different people and across different situations. We validate new measures of challenge and hindrance appraisals and demonstrate their utility in stress research. We used a cross-sectional survey of American employees (Study 1, n = 333), a diary survey of Australian employees (Study 2, n = 241), and a survey of Australian college students whose performance was evaluated independently (Study 3, n = 350). Even after accounting for the effects of stressors, challenge and hindrance appraisals consistently explained unique variance in affective states, with indications that stressors have indirect effects via appraisals. Such effects were seen within- as well as between-participants (Study 2). Appraisals also had expected associations with specific coping behaviors (Study 1), while challenge appraisal was associated with task performance (Study 3). The scales of challenge and hindrance appraisals were psychometrically sound across multiple contexts. RESULTS highlight the merit of considering appraisal in stress research.

  11. Figures of Merit Guiding Research on Organic Solar Cells

    Kirchartz, Thomas

    2018-03-02

    While substantial progress in the efficiency of polymer-based solar cells was possible by optimizing the energy levels of the polymer and more recently also the acceptor molecule, further progress beyond 10% efficiency requires a number of criteria to be fulfilled simultaneously, namely, low energy-level offsets at the donor–acceptor heterojunction, low open-circuit voltage losses due to nonradiative recombination, and efficient charge transport and collection. In this feature article we discuss these criteria considering thermodynamic limits, their correlation to photocurrent and photovoltage, and effects on the fill factor. Each criterion is quantified by a figure of merit (FOM) that directly relates to device performance. To ensure a wide applicability, we focus on FOMs that are easily accessible from common experiments. We demonstrate the relevance of these FOMs by looking at the historic and recent achievements of organic solar cells. We hope that the presented FOMs are or will become a valuable tool to evaluate, monitor, and guide further development of new organic absorber materials for solar cells.

  12. Clean utilization of coal

    Yueruem, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains 23 lectures presented at the Advanced Study Institute on 'Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Catalytic Solid Fuel Conversion for the Production of Clean Synthetic Fuels', which was held at Akcay, Edremit, Turkey, between 21 July and August 3, 1991. Three main subjects: structure and reactivity of coal; cleaning of coal and its products, and factors affecting the environmental balance of energy usage and solutions for the future, were discussed in the Institute and these are presented under six groups in the book: Part 1. Structure and reactivity of coal; Part 2. Factors affecting environmental balance; Part 3. Pre-usage cleaning operations and processes; Part 4. Upgrading of coal liquids and gases; Part 5. Oxygen enriched processes; and Part 6. Probable future solution for energy and pollution problems. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all the lectures

  13. Coal exports still growing

    Blain, M.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that the swings and roundabouts of the Asian economic shake out and Australian dollar devaluation are starting to work their way through the Australian export coal market. Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, at this stage the results are not proving to be as bad as were at first predicted by some market watchers. Export revenue and tonnages are up 12% for the year to July 98. Coal exports totaling $9.5 billion left Australia's shores in the 12 months confirming coal as Australia's single largest export revenue earner. Sales volumes in the present financial year are still increasing, the market being driven by steadily increasing Asian demand for steaming coal from places like Korea, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines

  14. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining these...

  15. Coal industry - memoranda

    1986-01-01

    This paper contains 41 memoranda submitted to the UK House of Commons Energy Committee containing views on the UK coal industry and responses to questions from the Select Committee. The following organizations are represented: Department of Energy; National Coal Board; APEX; BACM; NACODS; NUM; UDM; TUC; CEGB; Electricity Council; Northern Ireland Electricity Service; SSEB; British Gas Corporation; BP; Conoco (UK) Ltd.; Costain Mining Ltd.; Shell UK Ltd.; BSC; ICI; Boots; CBI; PSA; Solid Fuel Advisory Service; Domestic Coal Consumers Council; Associated Heat Services; Association of Shell Boilermakers; Babcock Power Ltd.; GEC; Foster Wheeler Power Products; ABMEC; British Longwall Mining Association; Federation of Civil Engineering Contractors; Federation of Small Mines of Great Britain; Chamber of Coal Traders; Coalfield Communities Campaign; Nottinghamshire County Council; Federation of Self-Employed and Small Businesses; the Colombian, Belgian and Netherlands Embassies; and Plaid Cymru.

  16. Coal terminal directory

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    The directory gives a comprehensive listing of the world's coal terminals, in a total of 50 countries including information on throughput, facilities, storage capacity, and vessel size limitation.

  17. Development of effective means of propaganda of safety techniques for coal mines

    Galushko, A.L.; Brusilovskiy, V.I.; Popov, I.I.

    1979-01-01

    Information letters about accidents in coal mines are systematically developed and sent to enterprises and organizations of the branch for practical use in preventive work on work protection and work safety. Information materials on advanced experience in prevention of accidents and traumatism are published in large quantities. Principal measures which have dramatically affected the reduction of the level of production traumatism are listed which merit dissemination in the branch. It is noted that the use of these means of propaganda of work safety makes it possible to improve preventive work on work safety and production sanitation in enterprises of the coal industry.

  18. Nanometre-sized pores in coal: Variations between coal basins and coal origin

    Sakurovs, Richard; Koval, Lukas; Grigore, Mihaela; Sokolava, Anna; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Melnichenko, Yuri B.

    2018-01-01

    We have used small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to investigate the differences in methane and hexane penetration in pores in bituminous coal samples from the U.S., Canada, South Africa, and China, and maceral concentrates from Australian coals. This work is an extension of previous work that showed consistent differences between the extent of penetration by methane into 10–20 nm size pores in inertinite in bituminous coals from Australia, North America and Poland.In this study we have confirmed that there are differences in the response of inertinite to methane and hexane penetration in coals sourced from different coal basins. Inertinite in Permian Australian coals generally has relatively high numbers of pores in the 2.5–250 nm size range and the pores are highly penetrable by methane and hexane; coals sourced from Western Canada had similar penetrability to these Australian coals. However, the penetrability of methane and hexane into inertinite from the Australian Illawarra Coal Measures (also Permian) is substantially less than that of the other Australian coals; there are about 80% fewer 12 nm pores in Illawarra inertinite compared to the other Australian coals examined. The inertinite in coals sourced from South Africa and China had accessibility intermediate between the Illawarra coals and the other Australian coals.The extent of hexane penetration was 10–20% less than CD4 penetration into the same coal and this difference was most pronounced in the 5–50 nm pore size range. Hexane and methane penetrability into the coals showed similar trends with inertinite content.The observed variations in inertinite porosity between coals from different coal regions and coal basins may explain why previous studies differ in their observations of the relationships between gas sorption behavior, permeability, porosity, and maceral composition. These variations are not simply a demarcation between Northern and Southern Hemisphere coals.

  19. Coal flotation technical review

    Heiser, N. [C. Clarkson & Associates Pty. Ltd., Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    1996-10-01

    The Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP) recently commissioned a study into the status of flotation in coal preparation, in order to direct limited funds to areas of maximum benefit. The primary purpose of the study was the assessment of new flotation technologies, including those commercially available and those still under development. Technologies examined included: the Jameson Cell, Microcel, and Ekof cell. Problems and advantages are discussed, with suggestions for future areas of research. 3 figs.

  20. 1988 coal price negotiation

    Senmura, Akira

    1988-12-01

    In the negotiation on raw coal price for 1988, which began at the end of 1987, Australia requested price rise of 4 - 5 dollars for the reason of rise of Australian dollars, conditions of mines, price drop in the past five years, and world supply/demand of coal. Japan insisted to maintain the price of preceding year. The talk ended in a dead lock which could last a long time. Negotiation on the Canadian coal price also encountered difficulties but an agreement was obtained in March as Japan accepted the increased price. After which, Japan and Australia agreed to raise the price by 2.90 dollars and an increase over last year. Producing countries also requested a wide price rise as 7.50 dollars for general coal, making in this area very difficult to progress. Finally, they agreed to raise the price by 6.30 dollars and the electric power utility in Japan responded by importing of U.S. coal, which has a lower heat output but is also cheaper. It depends on Australia for 70% of coal supply but started to diversify the source. 3 tabs.

  1. Coal mining in Australia

    Mills, L J

    1981-12-01

    In 1959 black coal production in Australia totalled some 21.9 million tonnes per annum, 70% of this being produced from underground mines in the coalfields of New South Wales. By 1980 output levels had increased by nearly 350% to 75.4 million tonnes per annum (54% of which was exported) compared with 5% some 20 years earlier. Because it is blessed with large reserves of coal and other forms of energy, it is inevitable that the Australian coal mining industry will be required to play a major role in the development of the international coal market through to the end of the present century. Experts now predict a need for the black coal output in Australia to be developed from its present level to a minimum of 293 million tonnes per annum by the year 2000. This paper examines the present circumstances in the Australian coal industry and attempts to outline the development which has to be undertaken in order to meet the needs of an energy hungry world.

  2. Integrated coal preparation

    Buchanan, D.J.; Jones, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    Perceptions of quality have changed over the years. The attributes of a certain coal (its rank, slagging propensity, ash content etc) are traditionally referred to as its quality. However, the subject of this paper is quality in a much wider sense: quality as fitness for purpose: and all that such a wide definition entails. British Standard BS 5750 (ISO 9000) Quality Systems defines a systems approach to quality, and includes both the supplier of raw materials and the final customer within this boundary. Coal preparation starts at the production face. The greater the proportion of dirt in run-of-mine product the greater the challenge in satisfying the customer's needs. Significant advances have been made in minimizing mined dirt. For example, the sue of vertical steering on longwall faces improves productivity and quality. Unfortunately modern mining methods produce large quantities of fines, despite efforts to reduce them at the point of production and during transportation to the surface. Coal preparation also produces further fines. It has been estimated that fine coal costs 2.5 times as much to clean as large coal, and the costs of handing wet fine coal product will inflate this estimate. Handling considerations rightly concern our customers and are part of the wider meaning of quality. In this paper the authors address some novel solutions to the challenge posed by fines

  3. Prospects for coal and clean coal technology in the Philippines

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    This report examines the current energy outlook for the Philippines in regard not only to coal but also other energy resources. The history of the power sector, current state of play and future plans to meet the increasing energy demand from a growing population are discussed. There is also analysis of the trends for coal demand and production, imports and exports of coal and the types of coal-fired power stations that have been built. This includes examination of the legislation involving coal and the promotion of clean coal technologies.

  4. Workability of coal seams in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin

    Sikora, W; Fels, M; Soltysik, K

    1978-04-01

    This paper presents results of an investigation on workability of coal seams of stratigraphic groups from 100 to 700 in the: Upper Silesian Coal Basin. Analyzed are 2900 petrographic logs taken in the longwall workings and in narrow openings as well as about 9000 individual samples. Workability of coal seams, floors and partings is determined. Workability is described by the indicator f, (according to the Protodyakonov shatter method) and the indicator U, (compression strength of the unshaped test samples). The mean percentage content of indivi dual petrographic groups of coal as well as the mean workability indicator, f, of coals in the stratigraphic groups of coal seams in Upper Silesia are also determined.

  5. Coal development potential in Pakistan

    Khan, M N; Pelofsky, A H [eds.

    1986-01-01

    A total of 48 papers were presented, and covered the following topics: the current situation in Pakistan with respect to development and utilization of coal resources; the policies that have been responsible for the development and utilization of coal resources in Pakistan; coal development and utilization in other developing nations e.g. Indonesia, Greece, Philippines, China, Thailand and Haiti; and technological developments in coal exploration; extraction, handling, transport and utilization which could accelerate future development of Pakistan's coal resources. Specific subjects covered include the use of coal in the cement industry of Pakistan; the production of briquettes for domestic use, development and training of personnel for the coal industry; and sources of finance for coal development projects. Particular emphasis is given throughout the conference to the Lakhra coal mine/power plant project which aims to develop and effectively utilize the lignite reserves of Sind Province. 47 papers have been abstracted separately.

  6. Coal 99; Kol 99

    Sparre, C

    2000-07-01

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1998. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1998 was 680 000 tons and somewhat lower than in 1997. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of waterpower. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. During 1998 these figures are 1 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. Steel-works, however, increase their use of steam coal in order to replace the more expensive coke. The import of metallurgical coal in 1998 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.1 mill tons of coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.4 mill tons from which 0.3 mill tons were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has ordered a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has put a fluid bed boiler for various fuels into operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm Energi, Haesselbyverket, has invested

  7. The transnationalisation of the Indian coal economy and the Australian political economy: The fusion of regimes of accumulation?

    Rosewarne, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The Indian government's economic development program is predicated on increasing electricity generating capacity. Coal fired power and removal of obstacles to private corporations investing in generating capacity are core elements in this program. With difficulties in boosting national coal production, the state-owned Coal India Limited and energy corporations have spearheaded a range of global coal sourcing endeavours, including investing in offshore deposits. Energy security has become reflected in engineering global supply chains, securing control of coal, with two of the largest projects involving Adani and GVK proposing to develop mines in the Galilee Basin in Queensland, Australia. These investments become the institutional and organisational architecture that locks in demand, a global demand which helps to explain successive Australian governments support for and approval of the projects. Notwithstanding considerable environmental opposition, and questions about the economic merits and commercial viability of the projects, Australian governments are wedded to the conviction that expanded development of the economy is tied to extracting and exporting fossil fuels, to consolidating Australia as an ‘energy superpower’. - Highlights: • Expansion of India's electricity generation capacity is contingent on coal imports. • Exporting coal is critical to Australia's ambitions as an energy superpower. • The moral case for exporting coal is made in terms of poverty alleviation. • Continued expansion of coal mining will compromise global climate change ambitions.

  8. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals

    Wang Mingshi; Zheng Baoshan; Wang Binbin; Li Shehong; Wu Daishe; Hu Jun

    2006-01-01

    The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4 ± 0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0 ± 8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary > Early Jurassic > Late Triassic > Late Jurassic > Middle Jurassic > Late Permian > Early Carboniferous > Middle Carboniferous > Late Carboniferous > Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous > Anthracite > Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal

  9. Membranas híbridas basadas en estireno-metacrilato-sílice y ácido fosfowolfrámico obtenidas por sol-gel para pilas de combustible de intercambio protónico (PEMFC

    Mosa, J.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to internal combustion engines, proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC used in transportation operate with zero emissions of environmental pollutants. The increase of the operation temperature in PEMFC above 100°C is a great concern for the application of this type of cells in electric vehicles. Hybrid organic-inorganic membranes with nanosized interfaces can combine the main properties of their components to meet this objective. Styrene-methacrylate-silica membranes doped with phosphotungstic acid (PWA were prepared through acid catalyzed sol-gel process and free-radical copolymerization. Additionally, sulfonation processes of aromatic rings to produce attached SO3H groups were applied to increase the proton conductivity. The effect of sulfonation degree and PWA doping on the membrane properties such as chemical and thermal stability, water uptake, ion exchange capacity, and proton conductivity were investigated. The measurement of conductivity shows a general increase with rising temperatures and with the increasing of SO3H groups density, reaching a maximum value of 3.2 10-3 S/cm at 130ºC and 100%HR.

    Comparadas con los motores de combustión interna, las pilas de combustible de intercambio de protones (PEMFC son capaces de operar sin emisiones de agentes contaminantes. El aumento de la temperatura de operación de la pila de combustible por encima de 100ºC es uno de los grandes objetivos en este campo ya que facilitaría el desarrollo comercial de los vehículos eléctricos impulsados por pilas de combustible. Las membranas híbridas orgánico-inorgánicas nanoestructuradas combinan las propiedades necesarias para este tipo de aplicación. Se obtuvieron membranas híbridas dopadas con ácido fosfowolfrámico (PWA por copolimerización radicálica a partir de alquilalcóxidos y monómeros de estireno y metacrilato, y por reacción sol-gel vía catálisis ácida. La conductividad protónica se logra realizando un proceso

  10. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  11. Trace elements in coal ash

    Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Doughten, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Coal ash is a residual waste product primarily produced by coal combustion for electric power generation. Coal ash includes fly ash, bottom ash, and flue-gas desulfurization products (at powerplants equipped with flue-gas desulfurization systems). Fly ash, the most common form of coal ash, is used in a range of products, especially construction materials. A new Environmental Protection Agency ruling upholds designation of coal ash as a non-hazardous waste under Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, allowing for the continued beneficial use of coal ash and also designating procedures and requirements for its storage.

  12. EIA projections of coal supply and demand

    Klein, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Contents of this report include: EIA projections of coal supply and demand which covers forecasted coal supply and transportation, forecasted coal demand by consuming sector, and forecasted coal demand by the electric utility sector; and policy discussion

  13. Coal 95; Kol - 95

    Sparre, C

    1996-12-31

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO{sub 2} removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO{sub x} cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO{sub x} burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs.

  14. Variability of Mercury Content in Coal Matter From Coal Seams of The Upper Silesia Coal Basin

    Wierzchowski, Krzysztof; Chećko, Jarosław; Pyka, Ireneusz

    2017-12-01

    The process of identifying and documenting the quality parameters of coal, as well as the conditions of coal deposition in the seam, is multi-stage and extremely expensive. The taking and analyzing of seam samples is the method of assessment of the quality and quantity parameters of coals in deep mines. Depending on the method of sampling, it offers quite precise assessment of the quality parameters of potential commercial coals. The main kind of seam samples under consideration are so-called "documentary seam samples", which exclude dirt bands and other seam contaminants. Mercury content in coal matter from the currently accessible and exploited coal seams of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) was assessed. It was noted that the mercury content in coal seams decreases with the age of the seam and, to a lesser extent, seam deposition depth. Maps of the variation of mercury content in selected lithostratigraphic units (layers) of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin have been created.

  15. Public Entrepreneurs and the Adoption of Broad-Based Merit Aid beyond the Southeastern United States

    Ingle, William Kyle; Petroff, Ruth Ann

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of broad-based merit aid adoption in the southeastern United States has been well noted in the literature. However, there are states that have adopted broad-based merit aid programs outside of the Southeast. Guided by multiple theoretical frameworks, including innovation diffusion theory (e.g., Gray, 1973, 1994; Rogers, 2003),…

  16. 5 CFR 335.106 - Special selection procedures for certain veterans under merit promotion.

    2010-01-01

    ... veterans under merit promotion. 335.106 Section 335.106 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROMOTION AND INTERNAL PLACEMENT General Provisions § 335.106 Special selection procedures for certain veterans under merit promotion. Preference eligibles or veterans who have...

  17. 78 FR 50144 - Health Services Research and Development Service, Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    2013-08-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Health Services Research and Development Service, Scientific Merit... management, and nursing research. Applications are reviewed for scientific and technical merit, mission... Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that the Health Services Research and Development Service (HSR&D...

  18. 77 FR 21622 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    2012-04-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit...-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will be held on April 20, 2012, 131 M Street NE., Washington, DC...

  19. 77 FR 42365 - Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting

    2012-07-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit...-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that various subcommittees of the Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will meet on August 28-30, 2012, at the Boston Omni Parker...

  20. 75 FR 72872 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    2010-11-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit...-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will be held on December 13-14, 2010, at the Hilton Alexandria Old...

  1. 78 FR 18680 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting

    2013-03-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Scientific Merit Review... Service, and the Chief Research and Development Officer on the scientific and technical merit, the mission... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that a meeting of the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service...

  2. An Optimization Model for the Allocation of University Based Merit Aid

    Sugrue, Paul K.

    2010-01-01

    The allocation of merit-based financial aid during the college admissions process presents postsecondary institutions with complex and financially expensive decisions. This article describes the application of linear programming as a decision tool in merit based financial aid decisions at a medium size private university. The objective defined for…

  3. The Impact of Merit Pay on Teaching and Research Outcomes of Accounting Programs

    Lindsay, David H.; Campbell, Annhenrie; Tan, Kim B.

    2012-01-01

    Basing the compensation of accounting professors on merit pay in order to encourage better teaching, research and service is controversial. This study uses data from a survey of the 852 accounting programs in the United States to empirically examine the influence of merit-based salary plans. Findings indicate a strong positive association between…

  4. 49 CFR 1103.19 - Advising upon the merits of a client's cause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advising upon the merits of a client's cause. 1103... Practitioner's Duties and Responsibilities Toward A Client § 1103.19 Advising upon the merits of a client's cause. A practitioner shall try to obtain full knowledge of his client's cause before advising thereon...

  5. On the economics of nuclear and coal-fired electric generation

    Pouris, A.

    1987-01-01

    This article addresses the relative merit of nuclear versus coal-fired electricity generation for plants beginning base-load service in South Africa after the year 2000. Emphasis is placed on the economic merits of the two technologies, and environmental and social implications are taken into account only in so far as legislation, security, and other considerations affect the economics of the technologies. It is assumed that nuclear and coal-fired generating plants wil represent the most cost-effective and feasible options for base-load service in the foreseeable future. Socio-political consideration and lack of indigenous oil production forbid the use of oil for the production of electricity, independently of economic merits. Similarly, the absence of local research on alternative renewable technologies, their stage of development abroad and their current economics limit the possibility of their extensive use in the time horizon under examination. The measure of economic merit used in the study is the 'levelized busbar cost' over the lifetime of the station

  6. Market, trading and coal price

    Muller, J.C.; Cornot-Gandolphe, S.; Labrunie, L.; Lemoine, St.; Vandijck, M.

    2006-01-01

    The coal world experienced a true upheaval in the past five years World coal consumption went up 28 % between 2000 and 2005, as a result of the strong growth in Chinese demand. The growth should continue in the coming years: electrical plant builders' orders are mainly for coal. The regained interest in coal is based on the constraints experienced by competing energies (increase in oil and natural gas prices, geopolitical uncertainties, supply difficulties) and by the abundant reserves of coal in the world and the competitiveness of its price. The strong growth in world coal demand comes with a change in rules governing steam coal trading. While long term bilateral agreements were most common until the late nineties, there has been a true revolution in coal marketing since 2000: spot contracts, stock exchange emergence and futures contracts, price indexes. In a few years, the steam coal market has become a true commodities market, overtaking many more goods. The price of coal has also gone through strong variations since 2003. Whereas the price had been stable for decades, in 2004 the strong increase in China' s demand for coal and iron ore resulting in transport shortage, caused a strong increase in CAF coal prices. Since then, prices have gone down, but remain higher than the Eighties and Nineties levels. In spite of the increase, coal remains available at more competitive prices than its competing energies. (authors)

  7. Global thermal coal trade outlook

    Ewart, E.

    2008-01-01

    Wood Mackenzie operates coal consulting offices in several cities around the world and is the number one consulting company in terms of global coal coverage. The company offers a unique mine-by-mine research methodology, and owns a proprietary modeling system for coal and power market forecasting. This presentation provided an overview of global thermal markets as well as recent market trends. Seaborne markets have an impact on price far greater than the volume of trade would imply. Research has also demonstrated that the global thermal coal market is divided between the Pacific and Atlantic Basins. The current status of several major coal exporting countries such as Canada, the United States, Venezuela, Colombia, Indonesia, Australia, China, South Africa, and Russia was displayed in an illustration. The presentation included several graphs indicating that the seaborne thermal coal market is highly concentrated; traditional coal flow and pricing trends shift as Asian demand growth and supply constraints lead to chronic under supply; coal prices have risen to historic highs in recent times; and, the Asian power sector demand is a major driver of future growth. The correlation between oil and gas markets to thermal coal was illustrated along with two scenarios of coal use in the United States in a carbon-constrained world. The impact of carbon legislation on coal demand from selected coal regions in the United States was also discussed. Wood Mackenzie forecasts a very strong growth in global thermal coal demand, driven largely by emerging Asian economies. tabs., figs

  8. Enhancement of the thermoelectric figure of merit in a quantum dot due to external ac field

    Chen, Qiao, E-mail: cqhy1127@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Maths and Physics, Hunan Institute of Engineering, Xiangtan 411104 (China); Wang, Zhi-yong, E-mail: wzyong@cqut.edu.cn [School of Optoelectronic Information, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400054 (China); Xie, Zhong-Xiang [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Hunan Institute of Technology, Hengyang 421002 (China)

    2013-08-15

    We investigate the figure of merit of a quantum dot (QD) system irradiated with an external microwave filed by nonequilibrium Green's function (NGF) technique. Results show that the frequency of microwave field influence the figure of merit ZT significantly. At low temperature, a sharp peak can be observed in the figure of merit ZT as the frequency of ac field increases. As the frequency varies, several zero points and resonant peaks emerge in the figure of merit ZT. By adjusting the frequency of the microwave field, we can obtain high ZT. The figure of merit ZT increases with the decreasing of linewidth function Γ. In addition, Wiedemann–Franz law does not hold, particularly in the low frequency region due to multi-photon emission and absorption. Some novel thermoelectric properties are also found in two-level QD system.

  9. Clean coal technology

    Abelson, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    One of the major technology challenges in the next decade will be to develop means of using coal imaginatively as a source of chemicals and in a more energy-efficient manner. The Clean Air Act will help to diminish the acid rain but will not reduce CO 2 emissions. The Department of Energy (DOE) is fostering many innovations that are likely to have a positive effect on coal usage. Of the different innovations in the use of coal fostered by DOE, two are of particular interest. One is the new pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC) combined-cycle demonstration. The PFBC plant now becoming operational can reduce SO 2 emissions by more than 90% and NO x emissions by 50-70%. A second new technology co-sponsored by DOE is the Encoal mild coal gasification project that will convert a sub-bituminous low-BTU coal into a useful higher BTU solid while producing significant amounts of a liquid fuel

  10. Bright outlook for coal

    Anon

    2001-01-01

    After enduring contract price cuts over the past two years of almost 17% for thermal coal and 23% for hard coking coal, the New South Wales coal industry is looking forward to a reversal of fortune for 2001. Increased export demand, improved prices, significant improvements in mine site productivity, a weak Australian dollar and the probability of a number of new projects or extensions progressing to development are likely to result in an increase in NSW saleable production to around 110 million tonnes (Mt) in 2000-01. Sharply weaker coal prices over the past two years, intensified international competition and the Asian economic downturn had a negative impact on profitability, investment, exports and employment in the NSW coal industry. As a result, the industry has undergone substantial restructuring. The restructuring process has led to a consolidation in ownership, reduced production costs and improved operational efficiency. The outcome is an industry well positioned to take advantage of the positive market conditions and one likely to experience levels of profitability not achieved over the past few years

  11. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, B.

    the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture...

  12. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2006-01-01

    the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture...

  13. The merits of a robot: a Dutch experience.

    Mobach, Mark P

    2006-01-01

    To determine the merits of a robot at the community pharmacy in a quasi-experiment. The applied methods for data-collection were barcode-time measurements, direct observations, time-interval studies, and tally at a Dutch community pharmacy. The topics consisted of workload, waiting times, congestion, slack, general work, counter work, and work at the consultation room. The topics were studied in pre-test and post-test stages, each stage during six weeks. By using these topics and some additional data from the pharmacy, the economics of the robot were also assessed. The workload decreased with 15 prescriptions per person per day. The waiting times decreased with one minute and 18 seconds per dispensing process, reducing the wait until counter contact. The day congestion decreased with one hour 27 minutes and 36 seconds, and the day slack increased with 28 minutes. The analysis of the general work showed no appreciable difference in the bulk of the care-related activities and the other activities. However, some work was re-shuffled: 7% increase at counter work and 7% decrease at logistics. Moreover, statistically significant increases were observed at counter work (5%) and robot work (4%), and significant decreases at telephone (3%) and filling work in presence of the patient (4%). The counter tally study showed a rise in care-related activities with 8%. Moreover, it also illuminated a statistically significant decrease at no information (11%) and an increase at only social (2%). The consultation room was never used during the study. The pharmacy economics of the robot showed that the robot had high estimated costs for purchase, depreciation, and maintenance: EUR 187,024 in the first year. Moreover, the robot had positive impact on waiting times, congestion, staffing, logistics, and care-related work, which was estimated on EUR 91,198 in the first year. The estimated payback time of the robot was three years. An introduction of the robot may indeed have the often

  14. Low-rank coal research

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  15. TEKO returns to coal

    TREND

    2003-01-01

    Slovak government will not grant state long-term credit guarantee sized about 1 billion Slovak crowns, which Geoterm, a.s., Kosice company would like to get from World bank. Loan should be used as for construction of geothermal source in village Durkov near Kosice, which would be connected in Kosice thermal plant TEKO, a.s. Geothermal sources capacity after realization of planned investments should reach half of present output of plant. The nearest TEKO investments should head to changes in plant production process. Plant wants to redirect in heat and thermal energy production from existing dominant gas consumption to black coal incineration. Black coal incineration is more advantageous than natural gas exploitation in spite of ecologic loads. TEKO also will lower gas consumption for at least 30 per cent and rise up present black coal consumption almost twice

  16. Coal liquefaction still a dream

    Overberg, H

    1982-03-19

    Liquefaction of coal is not profitable in West Germany and will not be so far some time to coal. This is true for West German and imported coal. The result may be improved but not changed by combined conversion of coal and top residues of distilleries. These are the main statements of a study carried out by Messrs. Veba Oel AG, Gelsenkirchen, on behalf of the Federal Minister for Research and Technology. The results of the study are presented in 20 volumes.

  17. Coal: the dinosaur wakes up

    Rousseau, Y.; Cosnard, D.

    2005-01-01

    In western countries, coal is considered as an industry of the past, but at the Earth's scale the situation is radically the opposite. Since three years, coal is the faster developing energy source, in particular thanks to China expansion and to the oil crisis which makes coal more competitive. This short paper presents the situation of coal mining in China: projects, working conditions and environmental impact. (J.S.)

  18. Sustainable development with clean coal

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  19. Possibilities for automating coal sampling

    Helekal, J; Vankova, J

    1987-11-01

    Outlines sampling equipment in use (AVR-, AVP-, AVN- and AVK-series samplers and RDK- and RDH-series separators produced by the Coal Research Institute, Ostrava; extractors, crushers and separators produced by ORGREZ). The Ostrava equipment covers bituminous coal needs while ORGREZ provides equipment for energy coal requirements. This equipment is designed to handle coal up to 200 mm in size at a throughput of up to 1200 t/h. Automation of sampling equipment is foreseen.

  20. 78 FR 28242 - Proposed Information Collection; Cleanup Program for Accumulations of Coal and Float Coal Dusts...

    2013-05-14

    ... Program for Accumulations of Coal and Float Coal Dusts, Loose Coal, and Other Combustibles AGENCY: Mine... collection for developing and updating a cleanup program for accumulations of coal and float coal dusts, loose coal, and other combustibles in underground coal mines. DATES: All comments must be postmarked or...

  1. Steel story founded on coal

    1977-01-01

    Paper reports on an iron and steel plant in New Zealand which uses non-coking subbituminuous coal to produce the sponge iron. The transport of the ironsand and the coal to the site and the operation of the kiln in which the ironsand is reduced by the coal is described.

  2. Microscopic coal research in Canada

    Hacquebard, P.A.

    1955-01-01

    Since the industrial developments of Europe and North America in the nineteenth century, coal has been considered as the most important mineral wealth a country could possess. Coal was often referred to as King Coal, and it was not until around 1950 that its position as the major fuel for modern

  3. Competitive edge of western coal

    Keith, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper expresses views on the competitive advantages of one of the nation's most remarkable energy resources--Western coal. It covers utilization of Western coal, and its advantages. The Arkansas Power and Light Company and its demand for coal are also covered

  4. Coal type and burnout performance

    Lester, E.; Cloke, M. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    1999-07-01

    A variety of coals underwent refire tests in a drop tube furnace. Characteristics of the coal fractions, the pyrolysed char fractions and the refired char fractions were compared to determine links between coal composition, intermediate char products and burnout. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. The new deal of coal

    Kalaydjian, F.; Cornot-Gandolphe, S.

    2008-01-01

    While coal appears as an inescapable resource to answer the energy needs of the 21. century, its highly CO 2 emitting combustion represents a major risk with respect to the requirements of the fight against climate change. In the first part of this book, the basic aspects of energy markets are explained and in particular the role that coal is going to play in the world's energy supplies. In the second part, the new coal usages are presented, which, combined with CO 2 capture and sequestration techniques, should allow to conciliate a massive use of coal and the respect of environmental constraints. This book is based on the works presented in February 2008 by the French institute of petroleum (IFP) about the new outlets of coal and the risks for climate change. Content: 1 - coal, energy of the 21. century: abundant and well distributed reserves; growing up world production; exponential world demand; international trade: still limited but in full expansion; 2 - Technologies for a CO 2 -free coal: CO 2 capture and sequestration technologies; towards poly-generation; production of coal-derived liquid fuels; 3 - Appendices: coals formation; coal in China: status and perspectives; coal in the USA: status and perspectives; coal in India: status and perspectives; COACH: an ambitious European project; CBM - E-CBM, status and perspectives. (J.S.)

  6. Reducing coal miner absenteeism

    Peters, R.H.; Clingan, M.R. (Bureau of Mines, PA (USA). Pittsburgh Research Center)

    1989-09-01

    High absenteeism at coal mines can seriously affect safety and hamper productivity. Several effective strategies for achieving high attendance which mine operators may not have considered are presented and a method is proposed for implementing programs for minimizing absenteeism among coal miners. The best strategies for improving attendance will vary according to the needs and circumstances of the particular mine, however, the process for establishing such a program is relatively invariant. A four-stage process is recommended; evaluate data from prior attendance records, communicate attendance goals and policy, develop and implement an attendance promotion program, and recycle. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  7. PNNL Coal Gasification Research

    Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

    2010-07-28

    This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

  8. Coal ash monitoring equipment

    Clayton, C G; Wormald, M R

    1978-10-02

    The monitoring equipment is used to determine the remainder from combustion (ash slack) of coal in wagons designed for power stations. Next to the rails, a neutron source (252 Cf, 241 Am/Be) is situated, which irradiates the coal with neutrons at a known dose, which produces the reaction 27 Al (n ..gamma..) Al 28. The aluminium content is a measure of the remainder. The 1.78 MeV energy is measured downstream of the rail with a detector. The neutron source can only act in the working position of a loaded wagon.

  9. Industrial coal survey

    1992-05-25

    UK industrial coal sales were down 400,000t to 7.1mt in 1991. This was largely due to fall in cement purchases as the construction industry was badly hit in the recession. Increased competition from petroleum coke also had an effect. A brief roundup is presented of sales to the UK's major coal buyers: Alcan, ICI, Blue Circle, Castle Cement, Rugby Cement, British Steel, UK Paper, Courtaulds, Unilever, AHS Emstar, Tate Lyle, and British Sugar. 1 tab.

  10. Determinación de nitrógeno inorgánico y fosfatos a distintas profundidades de suelo bajo pilas de abonos Determination of inorganic nitrogen and phosphates at different soil depths beneath manure piles

    Javier Luis Ferrari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En la región Andino-patagónica frecuentemente la reposición de nutrientes para diferentes cultivos se lleva a cabo mediante el uso de estiércoles mezclados con viruta, comúnmente denominados abonos. Los mismos son acumulados en pilas de 1,5-2 m de altura. Al permanecer durante un período de tiempo al aire libre puede producirse un compostaje parcial, lo cual sería beneficioso. El compostaje es un proceso biooxidativo que involucra un sustrato orgánico, una etapa termofílica que debe alcanzar los 55 °C y una etapa de maduración. Si los abonos permanecen a la intemperie los nutrientes pueden ser transportados por el agua de percolación (particularmente en los meses de invierno de mayor precipitación, perdiéndose del suelo. Con el objetivo de determinar si ocurre un movimiento de fosforó extractable en NaHCO3 0,5M (P-Ol de fósforo Olsen y nitrógeno inorgánico (Nin de nitrógeno inorgánico, amonio más nitratos bajo pilas de abono, se tomaron muestras compuestas de suelos de tres bloques a distintas profundidades en un establecimiento cercano a la localidad del Bolsón. Se estudió también la relación entre P-Ol (índice agronómico y fósforo extractable en 0,01M de CaCl2 (índice ambiental. Se tomaron las temperaturas de las pilas de abono en distintas estaciones del año. Para Nin se observó una alta dispersión en los datos y valores promedio excesivamente altos hasta 200 cm de profundidad. Los valores promedio (de tres bloques encontrados para P exceden el umbral límite de 60 mg kg-1 P-Ol solo en la primera fecha de muestreo, aunque valores puntuales por bloque llegaron a 52 mg kg-1 a una profundidad de 40-60 cm. Se encontró una regresión lineal estadísticamente significativa entre P-Ol y P-CaCl2 en suelos y un umbral entre 50/60 mg kg-1 P-Ol similar al observado en la bibliografía. Se encontraron valores muy altos para ambas variables en los abonos. Es recomendable proteger las pilas de abono de las lluvias en los

  11. Bio-coal briquettes using low-grade coal

    Estiaty, L. M.; Fatimah, D.; Widodo

    2018-02-01

    The technology in using briquettes for fuel has been widely used in many countries for both domestic and industrial purposes. Common types of briquette used are coal, peat, charcoal, and biomass. Several researches have been carried out in regards to the production and the use of briquettes. Recently, researches show that mixing coal and biomass will result in an environmentally friendly briquette with better combustion and physical characteristics. This type of briquette is known as bio-coal briquettes. Bio-coal briquettes are made from agriculture waste and coal, which are readily available, cheap and affordable. Researchers make these bio-coal briquettes with different aims and objectives, depending on the issues to address, e.g. utilizing agricultural waste as an alternative energy to replace fossil fuels that are depleting its reserves, adding coal to biomass in order to add calorific value to bio-coal briquette, and adding biomass to coal to improve its chemical and physical properties. In our research, biocoal briquettes are made to utilize low grade coal. The biomass we use, however, is different from the ones used in past researches because it has undergone fermentation. The benefits of using such biomass are 1. Fermentation turns the hemi cellulose into a simpler form, so that the burning activation energy decreases while the calorific value increases. 2. Enzym produced will bind to heavy metals from coal as co-factors, forming metals that are environmentally friendly.

  12. Coking coal outlook from a coal producer's perspective

    Thrasher, E.

    2008-01-01

    Australian mine production is recovering from massive flooding while Canadian coal shipments are limited by mine and rail capacity. Polish, Czech, and Russian coking coal shipments have been reduced and United States coking coal shipments are reaching their maximum capacity. On the demand side, the Chinese government has increased export taxes on metallurgical coal, coking coal, and thermal coal. Customers seem to be purchasing in waves and steel prices are declining. This presentation addressed the global outlook for coal as well as the challenges ahead in terms of supply and demand. Supply challenges include regulatory uncertainty; environmental permitting; labor; and geology of remaining reserves. Demand challenges include global economic uncertainty; foreign exchange values; the effect of customers making direct investments in mining operations; and freight rates. Consolidation of the coal industry continued and several examples were provided. The presentation also discussed other topics such as coking coal production issues; delayed mining permits and environmental issues; coking coal contract negotiations; and stock values of coking coal producers in the United States. It was concluded that consolidation will continue throughout the natural resource sector. tabs., figs

  13. Industrial use of coal and clean coal technology

    Leibson, I; Plante, J J.M.

    1990-06-01

    This report builds upon two reports published in 1988, namely {ital The use of Coal in the Industrial, Commercial, Residential and Transportation Sectors} and {ital Innovative Clean Coal Technology Deployment}, and provides more specific recommendations pertaining to coal use in the US industrial sector. The first chapter addresses industrial boilers which are common to many industrial users. The subsequent nine chapters cover the following: coke, iron and steel industries; aluminium and other metals; glass, brick, ceramic, and gypsum industries; cement and lime industries; pulp and paper industry; food and kindred products; durable goods industry; textile industry; refining and chemical industry. In addition, appendices supporting the contents of the study are provided. Each chapter covers the following topics as applicable: energy overview of the industry sector being discussed; basic processes; foreign experience; impediments to coal use; incentives that could make coal a fuel of choice; current and projected use of clean coal technology; identification of coal technology needs; conclusions; recommendations.

  14. Reactions to merit pay increases: a longitudinal test of a signal sensitivity perspective.

    Shaw, Jason D; Duffy, Michelle K; Mitra, Atul; Lockhart, Daniel E; Bowler, Matthew

    2003-06-01

    The relationships among merit pay raises, trait positive affectivity (PA), and reactions to merit pay increases (pay attitudes and behavioral intentions) were explored in a longitudinal study of hospital employees. Drawing on signal sensitivity theory, the authors expected that PA would moderate the relationship between merit pay raise size and reactions to the increase such that pay raise size would be more strongly related to pay attitudes and behavioral intentions among those low in PA. Results strongly supported the predictions in the case of reactions to the raise amount (happiness and effort intentions) but not for pay level satisfaction. Implications of the results and directions for future research are identified.

  15. Measuring ash content of coal

    Clayton, C.G.; Wormald, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the ash content of coal is claimed. It comprises a means for irradiating a known quantity of coal in a transport container with a known dose of neutrons, a means for detecting γ-rays having a predetermined energy emitted by the irradiated coal, the γ-rays being indicative of the presence of an ash-forming element in the coal, a means for producing a signal related to the intensity of the γ-ray emission and a means responsive to the signal to provide an indication of the concentration of the ash-forming element in the coal

  16. Kinetics of coal pyrolysis

    Seery, D.J.; Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M. (United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (USA)); Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.; Hsu, J.; Hajaligol, M.; Sarofim, A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA)); Jenkins, R.; Mallin, J.; Espindola-Merin, B. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (USA)); Essenhigh, R.; Misra, M.K. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (USA))

    1989-07-01

    This report contains results of a coordinated, multi-laboratory investigation of coal devolatilization. Data is reported pertaining to the devolatilization for bituminous coals over three orders of magnitude in apparent heating rate (100 to 100,000 + {degree}C/sec), over two orders of magnitude in particle size (20 to 700 microns), final particle temperatures from 400 to 1600{degree}C, heat transfer modes ranging from convection to radiative, ambient pressure ranging from near vacuum to one atmosphere pressure. The heat transfer characteristics of the reactors are reported in detail. It is assumed the experimental results are to form the basis of a devolatilization data base. Empirical rate expressions are developed for each phase of devolatilization which, when coupled to an awareness of the heat transfer rate potential of a particular devolatilization reactor, indicate the kinetics emphasized by a particular system reactor plus coal sample. The analysis indicates the particular phase of devolatilization that will be emphasized by a particular reactor type and, thereby, the kinetic expressions appropriate to that devolatilization system. Engineering rate expressions are developed from the empirical rate expressions in the context of a fundamental understanding of coal devolatilization developed in the course of the investigation. 164 refs., 223 figs., 44 tabs.

  17. Coal belt options

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Whether moving coal long distances overland or short distances in-plant, belt conveyors will always be in demand. The article reports on recent systems developments and applications by Beumer, Horizon Conveyor Equipment, Conveyor Dynamics, Doppelmayr Transport Technology, Enclosed Bulk Systems, ContiTech and Bateman Engineered Technologies. 2 photos.

  18. World coking coal markets

    McCloskey, G.

    2010-01-01

    This article discussed conditions in world coking coal markets. There is increased demand from Asia for metallurgical coal imports. World iron production was up 22 percent in first 7 months of 2010. Supply is up in Australia, the United States, Canada, New Zealand, Russia, and Mongolia, but the unexpected surge in supply caused prices to drop following a robust start to the year. Coking coal exports are up for the United States and Australia, but a delay in expanded production is expected until 2014. There is increased demand from Brazil, India, Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan as well as new plants in Thailand, Indonesia, and Brazil. Unexpectedly, Australia is backing out of the Chinese market but increasing exports to Japan and South Korea. India is seeing flat performance in iron production and imports, and the United States has surged back into Asia. A considerable increase is expected in the seaborne import requirement by 2020. Prices are expected to fall and then rise. This presentation also discussed whether coking coal index pricing is impossible or inevitable. 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  19. Occupational coal tar dermatitis

    Conde-Salazar, L; Guimaraens, D; Romero, L V; Gonzalez, M A

    1987-04-01

    The paper describes the allergic reaction to coal tar of a man handling it in a factory. The reaction appeared in the form of eczema on his trunk, arms and legs, but his hands were not affected as he had been wearing gloves. 1 ref.

  20. Shell coal gasification process

    Hennekes, B. [Shell Global Solutions (US) Inc. (United States). Technology Marketing

    2002-07-01

    The presentation, on which 17 slides/overheads are included in the papers, explained the principles of the Shell coal gasification process and the methods incorporated for control of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulates and mercury. The economics of the process were discussed. The differences between gasification and burning, and the differences between the Shell process and other processes were discussed.

  1. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V. (GVSt), Herne (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    International the coal market in 2014 was the first time in a long time in a period of stagnation. In Germany, the coal consumption decreased even significantly, mainly due to the decrease in power generation. Here the national energy transition has now been noticable affected negative for coal use. The political guidances can expect a further significant downward movement for the future. In the present phase-out process of the German hard coal industry with still three active mines there was in 2014 no decommissioning. But the next is at the end of 2015, and the plans for the time after mining have been continued. [German] International war der Markt fuer Steinkohle 2014 erstmals seit langem wieder von einer Stagnation gekennzeichnet. In Deutschland ging der Steinkohlenverbrauch sogar deutlich zurueck, vor allem wegen des Rueckgangs in der Stromerzeugung. Hier hat sich die nationale Energiewende nun spuerbar und fuer die Steinkohlennutzung negativ ausgewirkt. Die politischen Weichenstellungen lassen fuer die Zukunft eine weitere erhebliche Abwaertsbewegung erwarten. Bei dem im Auslaufprozess befindlichen deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau mit noch drei aktiven Bergwerken gab es 2014 keine Stilllegung. Doch die naechste steht zum Jahresende 2015 an, und die Planungen fuer die Zeit nach dem Bergbau sind fortgefuehrt worden.

  2. Proximate Analysis of Coal

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  3. La adaptación de la forma a las cargas en el arte estructural: desde las pilas y el arco, a la torre

    Serrano-López, R.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The shape of the Eiffel Tower has been discussed several times, seeking for physical and mathematical relationships. This article aims to address this analysis from a different point of view: the historical and sequential evolution of design over the course of the Eiffel company. Thus, the relationship between the experience gained in different works and technicians can be verified. The paper also tries to give merit to work of all the collaborators of Eiffel over those years. In short, the final solution of the Tower is contrasted and corroborated as a great example of structural art, as has been described in the past.La forma de la Torre Eiffel ha sido varias veces analizada, buscando relaciones físicas y matemáticas. Este artículo pretende abordar este análisis desde un punto de vista diferente, la evolución histórica y secuencial del diseño a lo largo de la trayectoria de la empresa de Eiffel. De esta manera, puede comprobarse la relación entre la experiencia acumulada en diferentes obras y técnicos. Se intenta además atribuir los méritos que corresponden a todos los colaboradores de Eiffel a lo largo de esos años. En definitiva, se contrasta y corrobora de esta manera a la solución final de la Torre como un magnífico ejemplo de arte estructural, como ya ha sido descrito en otras ocasiones.

  4. National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

  5. China's coal export and inspection

    Xiaodong Li

    1993-01-01

    With the development of world's business and trade, coal has become a large part of the import and export goods in the international market. The total amount of coal trade has risen a lot. China is rich in coal resources. According to the estimate made by some experts, the reserve which has been explored recently could be exploited hundreds of years. China's output of raw coal has risen a lot during the past forty years. China coal industry has developed rapidly since the 1980s. It is possible for China to become a big coal export country since it has rich resources and increasing output. The paper suggests four steps which must be taken to expand coal exports in China: improve the level of management and administration of coal mines so as to raise the economic benefit; the follow-up production capacity of the present mines must be enhanced rapidly; step up construction of new large-scale mines; and China's coal washing capacity must be improved speedily since the low capacity has seriously influenced the improvement of coal quality. The paper describes the inspection bureaus and companies that have developed to perform inspection of exports in order to guarantee the quality of export coal

  6. The shell coal gasification process

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  7. Hydrothermal pretreatment of coal

    Ross, D.S.

    1989-12-21

    We have examined changes in Argonne Premium samples of Wyodak coal following 30 min treatment in liquid water at autogenous pressures at 150{degrees}, 250{degrees}, and 350{degrees}C. In most runs the coal was initially dried at 60{degrees}C/1 torr/20 hr. The changes were monitored by pyrolysis field ionization mass spectrometry (py-FIMS) operating at 2.5{degrees}C/min from ambient to 500{degrees}C. We recorded the volatility patterns of the coal tars evolved over that temperature range, and in all cases the tar yields were 25%--30% of the starting coal on mass basis. There was essentially no change after the 150{degrees}C treatment. Small increases in volatility were seen following the 250{degrees}C treatment, but major effects were seen in the 350{degrees} work. The tar quantity remained unchanged; however, the volatility increased so the temperature of half volatility for the as-received coal of 400{degrees}C was reduced to 340{degrees}C. Control runs with no water showed some thermal effect, but the net effect from the presence of liquid water was clearly evident. The composition was unchanged after the 150{degrees} and 250{degrees}C treatments, but the 350{degrees} treatment brought about a 30% loss of oxygen. The change corresponded to loss of the elements of water, although loss of OH'' seemed to fit the analysis data somewhat better. The water loss takes place both in the presence and in the absence of added water, but it is noteworthy that the loss in the hydrothermal runs occurs at p(H{sub 2}O) = 160 atm. We conclude that the process must involve the dehydration solely of chemically bound elements of water, the dehydration of catechol is a specific, likely candidate.

  8. Coal resources availability in Botswana

    Modisi, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that Southern Africa, and Botswana in particular, is well-endowed with relatively large reserves of coal. The existence of coal in Botswana has been known since the end of the last century. Exploration activities by the Geological Survey and the private sector led to the discovery of major deposits and by the late 1960s reserves capable of supporting a mine at Morupule for the domestic market has been confirmed. The oil crises of 1973-74 and 1978-79 stimulated increased interest in coal exploration the world over and Botswana attracted several private sector companies looking for coal that could be traded on the international market. As a result vast resources and reserves of low to medium quality bituminous coal, suitable for the export market, were proved. Resources amounting to 21,680 million tonnes of in situ coal had been revealed by 1987. Reserves of possible economic exploitation are estimated at 10,180 million tonnes in two coal field areas, namely the Morupule Coal Field and the Mmamabula Coal Field. Since the collapse of oil prices and consequently coal prices in the mid-1980s, enthusiasm for coal exploration has plummeted and relatively little prospecting has taken place. The coal occurs within the Upper Carboniferous to Jurassic Karoo Supergroup which underlies some 60 percent of the country's land surface. The western part of the country is mantled by the Kalahari beds, a top layer of unconsolidated sands masking bedrock geology. Although coal seams have been intersected in boreholes in this western area, most exploration activity has taken place in the eastern part of the country where the Morupule and Mmamabula coal fields are located. It is in the east that most of the population is concentrated and infrastructure has been developed

  9. Buckets of money for coal

    Anon

    2001-01-01

    The revival of coal prices is providing record profits for Australian coal producers. As the world's largest coal exporter, any move in coal prices has significant ramifications for the Australian economy. The coal boom of the mid-1980s resulted in a massive increase in mine capacity and subsequently excess supply. This resulted in the decade between 1990 and 2000 seeing benchmark prices for coking coal in Japan plummeting to $US 39 a tonne (down from around the $US 52 mark) and a price of $US 28 for a tonne of steaming coal. Asia's financial problems, late in the decade coupled with a rapid fall in Asian steel making, also added to our coal export woes. As a result for most of the 1990s, Australia's coal sector delivered inadequate returns, was seen as over-capitalised and suffered from a profound investor indifference. But the sector is now seeing a definite turnaround in fortunes. Prices for thermal coal are on the rise and the benchmark coking coal prices to Asia have also jumped. Market analysts reported the price for contract deliveries of thermal coal in April this year were $US 34.50 ($AUD 69.35) up by $US 5.75 from the same time last year. The increased production is expected on the back of a continued rise in export demand, further improvement in prices, significant improvements in mine productivity, a weak Australian dollar and the probability of new projects and mine extensions going into operation. The improved returns have also flowed into rising valuations for listed coal miners. Over the last year, coal miners such as MIM and Gympie Gold, have delighted in share price gains of 12 per cent and 55 per cent respectively. These sort of performances are being repeated across the Australian industry

  10. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  11. 77 FR 9731 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    2012-02-17

    ...--Rehabilitation Engineering and Prosthetics/Orthotics. March 7--Career Development Award Program. March 13--Spinal... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit...-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Rehabilitation Research and Development...

  12. 76 FR 5650 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    2011-02-01

    ... Rehabilitation. March 1--Rehabilitation Engineering and Prosthetics/Orthotics. March 1-2--Psychological Health... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit...-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Rehabilitation Research and Development...

  13. 77 FR 40412 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting

    2012-07-09

    ...: August 7 Aging and Neurodegenerative Disease; Rehabilitation Engineering and Prosthetics/Orthotics; and... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit...-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that subcommittees of the Rehabilitation Research and Development...

  14. Characterization of Coal Porosity for Naturally Tectonically Stressed Coals in Huaibei Coal Field, China

    Li, Xiaoshi; Hou, Quanlin; Li, Zhuo; Wei, Mingming

    2014-01-01

    The enrichment of coalbed methane (CBM) and the outburst of gas in a coal mine are closely related to the nanopore structure of coal. The evolutionary characteristics of 12 coal nanopore structures under different natural deformational mechanisms (brittle and ductile deformation) are studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and low-temperature nitrogen adsorption. The results indicate that there are mainly submicropores (2~5 nm) and supermicropores (coal and mesopores (10~100 nm) and micropores (5~10 nm) in brittle deformed coal. The cumulative pore volume (V) and surface area (S) in brittle deformed coal are smaller than those in ductile deformed coal which indicates more adsorption space for gas. The coal with the smaller pores exhibits a large surface area, and coal with the larger pores exhibits a large volume for a given pore volume. We also found that the relationship between S and V turns from a positive correlation to a negative correlation when S > 4 m2/g, with pore sizes coal. The nanopore structure (coal. PMID:25126601

  15. Advanced combustion, emission control, health impacts, and fuels merit review and peer evaluation

    None, None

    2006-10-01

    This report is a summary and analysis of comments from the Advisory Panel at the FY 2006 DOE National Laboratory Advanced Combustion, Emission Control, Health Impacts, and Fuels Merit Review and Peer Evaluation, held May 15-18, 2006 at Argonne National Laboratory. The work evaluated in this document supports the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE in making its funding decisions for the upcoming fiscal year.

  16. Risk Aversion and Support for Merit Pay: Theory and Evidence from Minnesota's Q Comp Program. Working Paper #09-05

    Nadler, Carl; Wiswall, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Recent research attributes the lack of merit pay in teaching to the resistance of teachers. This paper examines whether the structure of merit pay affects the types of teachers who support it. We develop a model of the relative utility teachers receive from merit pay versus the current fixed schedule of raises. We show that if teachers are risk…

  17. 75 FR 25885 - The Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) is Providing Notice of the Opportunity to File Amicus...

    2010-05-10

    ... MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD The Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) is Providing Notice of the Opportunity to File Amicus Briefs in the Matter of Larry L. Evans v. Department of Veterans Affairs, MSPB Docket Number AT-3330-09-0953- I-1. AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection Board. ACTION: Notice...

  18. 75 FR 20007 - The Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) Is Providing Notice of the Opportunity To File Amicus...

    2010-04-16

    ... MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD The Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) Is Providing Notice of the Opportunity To File Amicus Briefs in the Matter of Hyginus U. Aguzie v. Office of Personnel Management, MSPB Docket Number DC-0731- 09-0261-R-1 AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection Board. ACTION: Notice...

  19. 75 FR 6728 - The Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) is Providing Notice of the Opportunity to File Amicus...

    2010-02-10

    ... MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD The Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) is Providing Notice of the Opportunity to File Amicus Briefs in the Matters of Conyers v. Department of Defense, Docket No...: Merit Systems Protection Board. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: On January 25, 2010, the MSPB published in the...

  20. The effective communication methodology and influence of merit information on nuclear power

    Oiso, Shinichi

    2007-01-01

    It was found by the survey the author carried out in 2005 that there is a possibility that even the person who opposes nuclear power generation may change his or her opinion after understanding the advantage of nuclear power. Then, how should merit information be transmitted? Is there a possibility that people feel repulsion after receiving merit information? What is the influence of providing merit information of nuclear power? Those kinds of questions were investigated in 2006. As a result, it was found that the use of magazine and NPO/NGO is effective. The utilization of all-night television broadcasting, iPod, energy environmental education in schools and science cafe have an effect too, especially for young generation. It was also found that 20% or less of the people feel repulsion for providing merit information of nuclear power. Concerning people's attitude towards nuclear power utilization, it was found that the number of those who support nuclear power generation tended to increase significantly by providing information depicting merits or benefits of nuclear power, however, it did not increase by explaining electric power companies' effort to promote nuclear power. Further more, concerning to the image of a nuclear power station site, it became clear that merit information of nuclear power provided positive effect for some items in explaining nuclear power generation. (author)

  1. Coal slurries: An environmental bonus?

    Basta, N.; Moore, S.; Ondrey, G.

    1994-01-01

    Developers and promoters of coal-water slurries and similar CWF (coal-water fuel) technologies have had a hard time winning converts since they unveiled their first commercial processes in the 1970s. The economic appeal of such processes, marginal at best, varies with the price of oil. Nevertheless, the technology is percolating, as geopolitics and environmental pressures drive new processes. Such fuels are becoming increasingly important to coal-rich, oil-poor nations such as China, as they attempt to build an onshore fuel supply. Meanwhile, improvements are changing the way coal-fired processes are viewed. Where air pollution regulations once discouraged the use of coal fuels, new coal processes have been developed that cut nitrous oxides (NOx) emissions and provide a use for coal fines, previously viewed as waste. The latest developments in the field were all on display at the 19th International Technical Conference on Coal Utilization and Fuel Systems, held in Clearwater, Fla., on March 21--24. At this annual meeting, sponsored by the Coal and Slurry Technology Association, (Washington, D.C.) and the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Dept. of Energy (PETC), some 200 visitors from around the work gathered to discuss the latest developments in coal slurry utilization--new and improved processes, and onstream plants. This paper presents highlights from the conference

  2. The Charfuel coal refining process

    Meyer, L.G.

    1991-01-01

    The patented Charfuel coal refining process employs fluidized hydrocracking to produce char and liquid products from virtually all types of volatile-containing coals, including low rank coal and lignite. It is not gasification or liquefaction which require the addition of expensive oxygen or hydrogen or the use of extreme heat or pressure. It is not the German pyrolysis process that merely 'cooks' the coal, producing coke and tar-like liquids. Rather, the Charfuel coal refining process involves thermal hydrocracking which results in the rearrangement of hydrogen within the coal molecule to produce a slate of co-products. In the Charfuel process, pulverized coal is rapidly heated in a reducing atmosphere in the presence of internally generated process hydrogen. This hydrogen rearrangement allows refinement of various ranks of coals to produce a pipeline transportable, slurry-type, environmentally clean boiler fuel and a slate of value-added traditional fuel and chemical feedstock co-products. Using coal and oxygen as the only feedstocks, the Charfuel hydrocracking technology economically removes much of the fuel nitrogen, sulfur, and potential air toxics (such as chlorine, mercury, beryllium, etc.) from the coal, resulting in a high heating value, clean burning fuel which can increase power plant efficiency while reducing operating costs. The paper describes the process, its thermal efficiency, its use in power plants, its pipeline transport, co-products, environmental and energy benefits, and economics

  3. US and world coal trade

    Stevens, B

    1988-07-01

    This paper reviews the US's coal trade with other countries in the world. Despite being pressed to support domestic coal producers, US utilities are looking towards Colombia for more of their supplies. Whilst the amount of Colombian coal imported into the US is small, it is a combination of this and coal imported from Australia, Canada and China which is causing concern. Studies indicate that the volume of coal imported into the US may rise to 3 Mt/year within three years. Coal exports may suffer if Brazil bans the import of significant quantities of US coking coal in retaliation against American trade sanctions against Brazilian computer import barriers. Also, Romania is expected to impose tariffs on US imports which will have an impact on US coal exported to Romania. US remains the top coal exporter to the European Communities but its lead was cut back due to a big rise of Australian export. A portion of EC market has also been lost to the USSR and Poland. Meanwhile, Japan is resisting buying US's steam coal because it is too expensive.

  4. Utilisation of chemically treated coal

    Bežovská Mária

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The numerous application of coal with high content of humic substances are known. They are used in many branches of industry. The complex study of the composition of coal from upper Nitra mines has directed research to its application in the field of ecology and agriculture. The effective sorption layers of this coal and their humic acids can to trap a broad spectrum of toxic harmful substances present in industrial wastes, particularly heavy metals. A major source of humic acids is coal - the most abundant and predominant product of plant residue coalification. All ranks of coal containt humic acids but lignite from Nováky deposit represents the most easily available and concentrated form of humic acids. Deep oxidation of coal by HNO3 oxidation - degradation has been performed to produce water-soluble-organic acids. The possibilities of utilisation of oxidised coal and humic acids to remove heavy metals from waste waters was studied. The residual concentrations of the investigated metals in the aqueous phase were determined by AAs. From the results follows that the samples of oxidised coal and theirs humic acids can be used for the heavy metal removal from metal solutions and the real acid mine water.Oxidised coal with a high content of humic acids and nitrogen is used in agriculture a fertilizer. Humic acids are active component in coal and help to utilize almost quantitatively nitrogen in soil. The humic substances block and stabiliz toxic metal residues already present in soil.

  5. Coal industry statistics for 1977

    1978-01-01

    In 1977 Belgian coal production reached 7,068,000 t, a drop of 170,000 t (2.3%) on the previous year. Production from the Campine coalfield had risen by 160,000 t while in the South, where two pits had been shut down during the year, there was a fall in output of 330,000 t. On 31st December 1977 the number of underground personnel totalled 17,681 as against 19,154 at the same time in 1976. Underground output continued to decline in the South while in the Campine there was an increase of 7.6%. Pit-head stocks fell by 400,000 t, to 721,000 t, 658,000 t of this being held in the Campine collieries. As regards Belgian coal disposals, the only increase (+52.0%) was in coal sent to power stations. Import figures stood at 6,592,000 t, a drop of 10.5% over the previous year. Includes figures for apparent coal consumption, a com parison of coal figures for 1976 and 1977 and the mined-coal production. Shows how coal production has evolved in the various coalfields and the number of pits in operation. Production is classified into coal types. Also covers the shutting-down of production capacities; manpower and OMS; coal briquette production; briquette output and disposals; end-of-year pit-head stocks according to coalfields, grades and types of coal. Figures for apparent consumption of coal and coal briquettes; exports and imports 1973-77 and countries of origin. Gives delivery figures for Belgian and imported coal to the domestic market. (In French)

  6. Black coal in Australia 1985-86

    1986-01-01

    The annual publication contains comprehensive statistical details of the Australian black coal industry. Included are statistics on coal supply and disposal, production plant and equipment, coal preparation, capital expenditure, employees, exports, coal consumption, resources. Maps of mine locations are included, also tables showing coal supply and disposal, production figures, plant and equipment, employees, exports, resources.

  7. Bulk analysis of coal

    Sowerby, B.D.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear techniques used in the coal industry to determine specific energy, ash and moisture are outlined. Ash analysis by radioisotope X-ray techniques include a single X-ray measurement using a transmission or backscatter geometry and techniques with compensation for iron variations. Neutron techniques can be used to measure the concentration of some specific elements in coal. The measurement of specific energy, ash and moisture then depends on the correlation of the particular parameter with the measured elemental composition. Carbon can be determined by a combination of a measurement of 4.43 MeV 12 C gamma-rays from neutron inelastic scattering with a separate 60 Co gamma-ray scattering measurement. Sulphur meters are based on the measurement of 5.42 MeV neutron capture of gamma rays

  8. Coal refuse reclamation project

    Zellmer, S.D.

    1979-04-06

    A 13.8 ha abandoned coal refuse site in southwestern Illinois was reclaimed by recontouring the refuse material and covering it with a minimum 30 cm of soil. The reclamation procedure included determination of the site's final land use, collection of preconstruction environmental data, and development and implementation of engineering plans. The project is demonstrating methods that can be used to reclaim abandoned coal refuse sites, and a multidisciplinary approach is being used to evaluate postconstruction environmental and economic effects of the reclamation effort. Surface water quality has shown significant improvement and plant cover is becoming established on the site. Soil microbial populations are developing and wildlife habitats are forming. The economic value of the site and adjacent properties has increased substantially and the area's aesthetic value has been enhanced. This project is providing valuable design data for future reclamation efforts of this type.

  9. Pulverized coal devolatilization prediction

    Rojas, Andres F; Barraza, Juan M

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the two bituminous coals devolatilization at low rate of heating (50 Celsius degrade/min), with program FG-DVC (functional group Depolymerization. Vaporization and crosslinking), and to compare the devolatilization profiles predicted by program FG-DVC, which are obtained in the thermogravimetric analyzer. It was also study the volatile liberation at (10 4 k/s) in a drop-tube furnace. The tar, methane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide, formation rate profiles, and the hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur, elemental distribution in the devolatilization products by FG-DVC program at low rate of heating was obtained; and the liberation volatile and R factor at high rate of heating was calculated. it was found that the program predicts the bituminous coals devolatilization at low rate heating, at high rate heating, a volatile liberation around 30% was obtained

  10. Coal mine subsidence

    Rahall, N.J.

    1991-05-01

    This paper examines the efficacy of the Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement's (OSMRE) efforts to implement the federally assisted coal mine subsidence insurance program. Coal mine subsidence, a gradual settling of the earth's surface above an underground mine, can damage nearby land and property. To help protect property owners from subsidence-related damage, the Congress passed legislation in 1984 authorizing OSMRE to make grants of up to $3 million to each state to help the states establish self-sustaining, state-administered insurance programs. Of the 21 eligible states, six Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, West Virginia, and Wyoming applied for grants. This paper reviews the efforts of these six states to develop self-sustaining insurance programs and assessed OSMRE's oversight of those efforts

  11. 75 FR 18015 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    2010-04-08

    ..., Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and... coal production, and Indian coal production under section 45. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Philip... Coal, and Indian Coal:'', Line 26, the language ``is 2.15 cents per kilowatt hour on the'' is corrected...

  12. 78 FR 20176 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    2013-04-03

    ..., Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and... renewable electricity production, refined coal production, and Indian coal production under section 45... resources, and to 2013 sales of refined coal and Indian coal produced in the United States or a possession...

  13. 77 FR 21835 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    2012-04-11

    ..., Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and... electricity production, refined coal production, and Indian coal production under section 45. DATES: The 2012... sales of refined coal and Indian coal produced in the United States or a possession thereof. Inflation...

  14. Health impacts of coal and coal use: Possible solutions

    Finkelman, R.B.; Orem, W.; Castranova, V.; Tatu, C.A.; Belkin, H.E.; Zheng, B.; Lerch, H.E.; Maharaj, S.V.; Bates, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    Coal will be a dominant energy source in both developed and developing countries for at least the first half of the 21st century. Environmental problems associated with coal, before mining, during mining, in storage, during combustion, and postcombustion waste products are well known and are being addressed by ongoing research. The connection between potential environmental problems with human health is a fairly new field and requires the cooperation of both the geoscience and medical disciplines. Three research programs that illustrate this collaboration are described and used to present a range of human health problems that are potentially caused by coal. Domestic combustion of coal in China has, in some cases, severely affected human health. Both on a local and regional scale, human health has been adversely affected by coals containing arsenic, fluorine, selenium, and possibly, mercury. Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), an irreversible kidney disease of unknown origin, has been related to the proximity of Pliocene lignite deposits. The working hypothesis is that groundwater is leaching toxic organic compounds as it passes through the lignites and that these organics are then ingested by the local population contributing to this health problem. Human disease associated with coal mining mainly results from inhalation of particulate matter during the mining process. The disease is Coal Worker's Pneumoconiosis characterized by coal dust-induced lesions in the gas exchange regions of the lung; the coal worker's "black lung disease". ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Coal blending preparation for non-carbonized coal briquettes

    Widodo; Fatimah, D.; Estiaty, L. M.

    2018-02-01

    Referring to the national energy policy targets for the years 2025, the government has launched the use of coal briquettes as an alternative energy replacement for kerosene and firewood. Non-carbonized briquettes in the form of coal briquettes as well as bio-coal briquettes are used in many small-medium industries and households, and are rarely used by large industries. The standard quality of coal briquettes used as raw material for non-carbonized briquettes is a minimum calorific value of 4,400 kcal/kg (adb); total sulfur at a maximum of 1% (adb), and water content at plants), the environment of deposition, and the geological conditions of the surrounding area, so that the coal deposits in each region will be different as well as the amount and also the quality. Therefore, the quantity and the quality of coal in each area are different to be eligible in the making of briquettes to do blending. In addition to the coal blending, it is also necessary to select the right materials in the making of coal briquettes and bio-coal briquettes. The formulation of the right mixture of material in the making of briquettes, can be produced of good quality and environmental friendly.

  16. Method to liquefy coal

    Cronauer, D.C.; Kehl, W.L.

    1977-06-08

    In a method to liquify coal in the presence of hydrogen and hydrogen-transfer solvents, a hydrogenation catalyst is used in which an amorphous aluminium phosphate is taken as catalyst carrier. The particular advantage of aluminium phosphate catalyst carriers is their property of not loosing their mechanical strength even after manifold oxidizing regeneration (burning off the deposited carbon). The quantity of carbon deposited on the catalyst when using an aluminium phosphate carrier is considerably loss than with usual catalyst carriers.

  17. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  18. Predicted coal production trends in Kentucky: The results of available coal resources, coal quality demands, and regulatory factors

    Watson, W.D.

    1993-01-01

    Many factors affect the viability of regional coal production markets including (1) coal quality and recoverable tonnage, (2) coal mining cost, (3) the regional and time varying patterns of coal demand growth, (4) regulations and other institutional constraints that affect coal demand and utilization, and (5) the regional array of coal transport modes and rates. This analysis integrates these factors into an assessment of coal production prospects (separately) for eastern and western Kentucky coal producing counties for the decade of the 90's. The integration indicates that eastern Kentucky coal production will peak and begin to decline by the end of the decade whereas western Kentucky coal production will continue to grow. No single factor explains these trends. There is plenty of available minable coal. The combination of changes in environmental regulations, some increase in coal mining costs, and the mining-out of low sulfur reserves are the main factors that account for the production trends

  19. Mass transport in a PEMFC fuel battery using combinations of monopolar plates and reaction-diffusion medium; Transporte de masa en una pila a combustible tipo PEMFC utilizando combinaciones de platos monopolares y medios de difusion de reactivos

    Rosas Paleta, M. G. Araceli [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Bautista Rodriguez, C. Moises [Alter-Energias Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)] email: celso.bautista@thyssenkrupp.com; Rivera Marquez, J. Antonio; Tepale Ochoa, Nancy [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    The efficiency of a PEMFC fuel battery is limited due to a variety of mass transport-related phenomena that take place while it is operating. The electromotive force of the PEM fuel battery is related to the generation of concentration gradients resulting from the distribution of the reactants on the active sites of the electrode. The reactant gases supplied to the PEMFC are distributed over the diffusion layer of the electrodes through the channels of the polar plates. They then spread toward the active layer where the semi-reactions take place. Another important aspect is the presence of water molecules, a product of the reaction. When they accumulate, they cover the porosity of the electrodes, involving the reduction in the flow of reactants, even at high current density values and, combined with the diffusion phenomena involved, cause the PEMFC to complete cease functioning. The critical parameters for the transport phenomena are porosity, the diameter of the pore in the diffusion layer and the characteristics of the distribution of the reactants. The present works includes an experimental design of two distribution media and two diffusion media of the reactant gases in a PEMFC, involving three case studies. The results show significantly notable interactions between the diameter of the pore, the type of diffusion layer applied and the type of distributor applied. The combination in the second case significantly reduces the ohmic resistance and moderately reduces the diffusion resistances. While the combination in case three notably increases the ohmic resistance, diffusion resistance is significantly reduced. [Spanish] La eficiencia de una pila a combustible tipo PEMFC es limitada por diversos fenomenos de transporte de masa presentes durante su funcionamiento. La fuerza electromotriz de la pila a combustible tipo PEM esta relacionada con la generacion de gradientes de concentracion los cuales se dan como resultado de la distribucion de los reactivos sobre los

  20. AKTIVITAS ENZIM KOMERSIAL, EKSTRAK KASAR ENZIM DARI VISCERA KEONG MAS (Pila polita, ABALON (Haliotis asinina, DAN BEKICOT (Achatina fulica UNTUK LISIS JARINGAN RUMPUT LAUT Kappaphycus alvarezii PADA KULTUR PROTOPLAS

    Sri Redjeki Hesti Mulyaningrum

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Dalam usaha perbaikan kualitas bibit rumput laut Kappaphycus alvarezii dilakukan kultur protoplas dengan isolasi protoplas menggunakan enzim. Untuk mendapatkan sumber enzim yang ekonomis sebagai alternatif pengganti enzim komersial dan untuk mengetahui perbandingan konsentrasi enzim komersial yang optimum agar menghasilkan jumlah protoplas yang maksimum, dilakukan karakterisasi terhadap enzim dari berbagai sumber. Aktivitas ekstrak kasar enzim dari viscera bekicot (Achatina fulica tidak berbeda nyata dengan enzim komersial (P>0,05 dengan aktivitas sebesar 0,729 unit/mL; enzim komersial 0,354 unit/mL; ekstrak kasar enzim dari viscera keong mas (Pila polita 0,048 unit/mL; dan ekstrak kasar enzim dari viscera abalon (Haliotis asinina 0,014 unit/mL. Perbandingan enzim komersial yang optimum adalah 2:1 menghasilkan protoplas sebanyak 1,26 x 108 sel/mL; kemudian 1:2 dengan jumlah protoplas 1,22 x 108 sel/mL; perbandingan 1:1 menghasilkan protoplas sebanyak 8,36 x 107 sel/mL; perbandingan 0:1 menghasilkan protoplas sebanyak 6,33 x 107 sel/mL; dan perbandingan 1:0 menghasilkan protoplas sebanyak 9,55 x 106 sel/mL. Rumput laut asal Takalar memiliki protoplas dengan kepadatan tertinggi sebesar 3,7 x 108 sel/mL. Effort to improve the quality of seaweed seed Kappaphycus alvarezii has been done by protoplast culture with protoplast isolation using enzyme. To find out economical enzyme sources as alternatives to substitute the expensive commercial enzyme and to determine the optimum concentration ratio of commercial enzyme to produce maximum amount of protoplast, characterization was executed to several potential sources. Activity of crude extract enzyme from viscera of garden snail (Achatina fulica was not significantly different with commercial enzyme (P>0.05 it was 0.729 unit/mL, commercial enzyme 0.354 unit/mL activity; crude extract enzyme from viscera of golden snail (Pila polita 0.048 unit/mL activity and crude extract enzyme from viscera of abalone

  1. Indian coal tars. II

    Basu, A N; Bhatnagar, J N; Roy, A K

    1954-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out on these efforts: (1) rank and specific-gravity fractions on tar yield; (2) addition of water to the coal charge, or steam during carbonization, on yield of tar and tar acids; (3) the presence of a cracking agent (shale) with and without steam addition on the yield of tar and tar acids (the particular shale used without steam reduced the yield, and the restricted use of steam brought the yield to the former noncatalyzed level); and (4) catalytic effect of three different samples of shale, firebrick, quartz, coke, and silica-alumina on the cracking of tar acids (the most active were two of the shales, a freshly-prepared coke, and the Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-SiO/sub 2/ catalysts that gave conversion up to 98%). The products were mainly carbon, aromatic hydrocarbons of the naphthalene series and gases (CO and H/sub 2/). The yield of the tar becomes less as coal of lower specific gravity is used or when higher temperatures are used for carbonization. The mineral matter associated with Indian coals acts as a decomposition catalyst for tar acids, as shown by experiments on the decomposition of PhOH at temperatures above 800/sup 0/.

  2. Coal: a human history

    Freese, B.

    2002-12-01

    Prized as 'the best stone in Britain' by Roman invaders who carved jewellery out of it, coal has transformed societies, powered navies, fueled economies, and expanded frontiers. It made China a twelfth-century superpower, inspired the writing of the Communist Manifesto, and helped the northern states win the American Civil War. Yet the mundane mineral that built our global economy - and even today powers our electrical plants - has also caused death, disease, and environmental destruction. As early as 1306, King Edward I tried to ban coal (unsuccessfully) because its smoke became so obnoxious. Its recent identification as a primary cause of global warming has made it a cause celebre of a new kind. In this book, Barbara Freese takes us on an historical journey that begins three hundred million years ago and spans the globe. From the 'Great Stinking Fogs' of London to the rat-infested coal mines of Pennsylvania, from the impoverished slums of Manchester to the toxic city streets of Beijing, this book describes an ordinary substance that has done extraordinary things.

  3. Research of coal flash hydropyrolysis

    Zhu, Z.; Zhu, H.; Wu, Y.; Tang, L.; Cheng, L.; Xu, Z. [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2001-02-01

    Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses the organic sufur of seven different Chinese coals and their semi-cokes from flash hydropyrolysis were studied. The results showed that the organic sulfur in coal was alkyal sulfur and thiophene with the peak of XPS located in 163.1-163.5 eV and 164.1-164.5 eV. The relative thiophene content in coal increased with the coal rank. The type of organic sulfur in semi-coke in flash hydropyrolysis was generally thiophene species; its XPS peak also located in 164.1-164.5 eV, and was in accord with its corresponding coal. Total alkyl sulfur and some thiophene sulfur were removed during the flash hydropyrolysis process. The alkyl sulfur had very high activity in hydrogenation reaction. Flash hydropyrolysis was an important new clean-coal technique and had notable desulfurization effect. 13 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Cleaning and dewatering fine coal

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Eraydin, Mert K.; Freeland, Chad

    2017-10-17

    Fine coal is cleaned of its mineral matter impurities and dewatered by mixing the aqueous slurry containing both with a hydrophobic liquid, subjecting the mixture to a phase separation. The resulting hydrophobic liquid phase contains coal particles free of surface moisture and droplets of water stabilized by coal particles, while the aqueous phase contains the mineral matter. By separating the entrained water droplets from the coal particles mechanically, a clean coal product of substantially reduced mineral matter and moisture contents is obtained. The spent hydrophobic liquid is separated from the clean coal product and recycled. The process can also be used to separate one type of hydrophilic particles from another by selectively hydrophobizing one.

  5. La restauración en situaciones límite de pérdida estructural. La imponente pila bautismal renacentista de la Iglesia de Santa María de Ontinyent (Valencia

    Xavier Mas i Barberà

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta el conjunto de estudios previos y tratamientos llevados a cabo en la emblemática pila bautismal renacentista de la iglesia de Santa María, de la población de Ontinyent (Valencia. Se trata de una pieza de grandes dimensiones (150x160x160 cm, labrada en soporte pétreo, concretamente mármol de Carrara. La pieza presentaba una importante fracturación del fuste, que ponía en riesgo su permanencia, por lo que se hacía indispensable un exhaustivo diagnóstico del material y un sistema de refuerzo estructural. Este tratamiento se realizó atendiendo al difícil problema de tamaño, peso y emplazamiento de la propia obra, por lo que se diseñó una estructura de sostén móvil que desplazara el tazón y elevara el conjunto por medio de dispositivos hidráulicos. Ello permitió intervenir en la fuerte fragmentación del fuste y proporcionar estabilidad y solidez material a la obra. Asimismo, se diseñó una estructura de sacrificio reversible, como medida preventiva, que permitía restablecer su funcionalidad y garantizar la estabilidad del material original. En definitiva, este proyecto ha permitido recuperar una obra única y verdadero ejemplo de valor excepcional. La obra fue intervenida en el laboratorio de conservación y restauración de Materiales Pétreos y Ornamentales del Instituto Universitario de Restauración del Patrimonio de la Universidad Politécnica de Valencia.

  6. Ambitious coal to gasoline plan

    Taffe, P

    1979-06-20

    A design study carried out by Badger Energy concludes that the first US commercial gasoline from coal facility could be completed in eight years. The cost of gasoline would be 1.09 US dollars/gal. in 1990 with coal at 25 US dollars/ton. The process involves oxygen-blown coal gasification, conversion to methanol by the Mobil process, gas fractionation and HF alkylation.

  7. CVFA: Coal vendor financial advisor

    Goote, W.G.; Andersen, S.

    1992-01-01

    An expert system for determining coal vendor financial viability in fuel purchasing contracts at an electric utility is described. The system blends rules, data objects, and financial knowledge to provide a rational basis for accepting or rejecting coal contracts given the financial capability of the coal vendor. The discussion concludes with a critique of managerial issues in the development of the system and its use in decision making. 3 refs., 1 fig

  8. Causes of coal degradation at working faces

    Sikora, W

    1985-01-01

    Coal comminution by shearer loaders at working faces and factors influencing it are analyzed. Three groups of factors are evaluated: coal mechanical properties, design and specifications of shearer loaders and mining schemes. On the basis of analyses, recommendations for increasing proportion of coarse coal and reducing coal comminution in underground coal mines in Poland are made. Increasing output of coarse coal in coal seams with a high proportion of dull coal is most economic. Increasing power of drive systems for shearer loaders to 500 kW or more decisively influences grain size distribution of coal and increases proportion of coarse coal, especially in seams of dull coal. Gradually increasing cutting depth of a shearer loader negatively influences haulage speed and coarse coal output. Replacing gradual cutting depth increase by attack at the full cutting depth increases proportion of coarse coal. When medium or thick coal seams are mined a coal bench from 0.3 to 0.5 m thick should be left in the roof or between 2 benches cut by 2 cutting drums. The coal bench left in the face disintegrates under the influence of gravity and the proportion of coarse coal increases. Optimizing yield strength of powered supports at a working face is a further method for improving grain size distribution of coal and increasing proportion of coarse coal. 2 references.

  9. Coal resources of Indiana

    Spencer, Frank Darwyn

    1953-01-01

    The Indiana coal field forms the eastern edge of the eastern interior coal basin, which is near some of the most densely populated and highly productive manufacturing areas of the United States. (See fig. 1. ) For this reason Indiana coal reserves are an important State and National asset. In dollar value the coal mining industry is the largest of Indiana's natural-resource-producing industries. The total value of coil production for the year 1950 was more than 100 million dollars, or more than that of all other natural-resource industries in the State combined. As estimated herein, the original coal reserves of Indiana total 37,293 million tons, of which 27,320 million tons is contained in beds more than 42 inches thick; 7,632 million tons in beds 28 to 49. inches thick; and 2,341 million tons in beds 14 to 28 inches thick. The remaining reserves as of January 1951, total 35,806 million tons, of which 18,779 million tons is believed to be recoverable. The distribution of the reserves in these several categories is summarized by counties in table 1. Of the total original reserves of 37,293 million tons, 6,355 million tons can be classified as measured; 8,657 million tons as indicated; and 22,281 million tons as inferred. Strippable reserves constitute 3,524 million tons, or 9.5 percent of the total original reserves. The distribution of the strippable and nonstrippable original reserves is summarized in tables 2 and 3 by counties and by several categories, according to the thickness of the beds and the relative abundance and reliability of the information available for preparing the estimates. The distribution of the estimated 18,779 million tons of recoverable strippable and nonstrippable reserves in Indiana is further summarized by counties in table 4, and the information is presented graphically in figures 2 and 3. The tables i to 4 and figures 2 and 3 include beds in the 14- to 28-inch category, because thin beds have been mined in many places. However, many

  10. Coal, energy and environment: Proceedings

    Mead, J.S.; Hawse, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    This international conference held in Czechoslovakia was a bold attempt to establish working relationships among scientists and engineers from three world areas: Taiwan, the United States of America, and Czechoslovakia. The magic words unifying this gathering were ''clean coal utilization.'' For the ten nationalities represented, the common elements were the clean use of coal as a domestic fuel and as a source of carbon, the efficient and clean use of coal in power generation, and other uses of coal in environmentally acceptable processes. These three world areas have serious environmental problems, differing in extent and nature, but sufficiently close to create a working community for discussions. Beyond this, Czechoslovakia is emerging from the isolation imposed by control from Moscow. The need for each of these nations to meet and know one another was imperative. The environmental problems in Czechoslovakia are extensive and deep-seated. These proceedings contain 63 papers grouped into the following sections: The research university and its relationship with accrediting associations, government and private industry; Recent advances in coal utilization research; New methods of mining and reclamation; Coal-derived waste disposal and utilization; New applications of coal and environmental technologies; Mineral and trace elements in coal; Human and environmental impacts of coal production and utilization in the Silesian/Moravian region; and The interrelationships between fossil energy use and environmental objectives. Most papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  11. The Global Value of Coal

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Coal plays an essential role in our global energy mix, particularly for power generation; and through that to the alleviation of energy poverty. The use of coal continues to grow rapidly and will continue, together with other fuels, to support world economic and social development particularly in rapidly developing world economies such as China and India. The purpose of this paper is to highlight for policy makers the value of coal to world economic and social development and so encourage development of a policy environment that will allow the coal and electricity industries to make the necessary investments in production capacity and CO2 emissions reduction technologies.

  12. Coal pre-feasibility assessment

    1994-03-01

    It examines the feasibility of using coal from the Delbi-Moya reserve for domestic or institutional cooking, industrial process heating and electricity generation. It indicates as coal can be mined from the Delbi reserve at a cost of EB110/tonne, can be processed for EB400/tonne and transported to Addis Ababa for 150/tonne. The wholesale price of coal briquettes in Addis Ababa would be EB750/tonne. Domestic users can save EB475 per year by switching from charcoal to coal briquettes. And for a 50MW plant annual saving would be of the order of EB30 million per year. 11 tab. 4 figs. 6 appendex

  13. Methane emissions from coal mining

    Boyer, C.M.; Kelafant, J.R.; Kuuskraa, V.A.; Manger, K.C.; Kruger, D.

    1990-09-01

    The report estimates global methane emissions from coal mining on a country specific basis, evaluates the technologies available to degasify coal seams and assesses the economics of recovering methane liberated during mining. 33 to 64 million tonnes were liberated in 1987 from coal mining, 75 per cent of which came from China, the USSR, Poland and the USA. Methane emissions from coal mining are likely to increase. Emission levels vary between surface and underground mines. The methane currently removed from underground mines for safety reasons could be used in a number of ways, which may be economically attractive. 55 refs., 19 figs., 24 tabs

  14. World coal perspectives to 2030

    Brendow, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    In Summer 2004, The World Energy Council published a Study on 'Sustainable Global Energy Development: the Case of Coal'. The Study aims at developing an internationally consistent reply to the question whether and to what extent coal use could be economic and sustainable in meeting global energy demand to 2030 and beyond. It covers markets, trade and demand, mining and combustion technologies, restructuring and international policies, and perspectives. It considers both, the contribution that coal could make to economic development as well as the need for coal adapt to the exigencies of security of supply, local environmental protection and mitigation of climate change. (Author)

  15. Gaseous emissions from coal stockpiles

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    Stockpiled coal undergoes atmospheric oxidation and desorption processes during open air storage. These processes release gases to the environment which may effect health and safety by their toxicity and flammability. In extreme cases, this could lead to a fire. This report discusses gaseous emissions from coal stockpiles. It covers gas emission mechanisms, and gas sampling and testing methods, before examining in more detail the principal gases that have been emitted. It concludes that there is limited research in this area and more data are needed to evaluate the risks of gaseous emissions. Some methods used to prevent coal self-heating and spontaneous combustion can be applied to reduce emissions from coal stockpiles.

  16. Hydrotreating of coal-derived liquids

    Lott, S.E.; Stohl, F.V.; Diegert, K.V. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    To develop a database relating hydrotreating parameters to feed and product quality by experimentally evaluating options for hydrotreating whole coal liquids, distillate cuts of coal liquids, petroleum, and blends of coal liquids with petroleum.

  17. 1980 Australian coal conference. Conference papers

    1980-01-01

    Papers were presented under the following headings: supply and demand for coal; government policies - coal development; mining finance and taxation; Australian coal mining practices; research and development; infrastructure and transportation; legislation and safe working practices; and industrial relations.

  18. Southern Coal Corporation Clean Water Settlement

    Southern Coal Corporation is a coal mining and processing company headquartered in Roanoke, VA. Southern Coal Corporation and the following 26 affiliated entities are located in Alabama, Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia and West Virginia

  19. Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COAL WORKERS' HEALTH SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases Coal mining-related respiratory ...

  20. Firing a sub-bituminous coal in pulverized coal boilers configured for bituminous coals

    N. Spitz; R. Saveliev; M. Perelman; E. Korytni; B. Chudnovsky; A. Talanker; E. Bar-Ziv [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2008-07-15

    It is important to adapt utility boilers to sub-bituminous coals to take advantage of their environmental benefits while limiting operation risks. We discuss the performance impact that Adaro, an Indonesian sub-bituminous coal with high moisture content, has on opposite-wall and tangentially-fired utility boilers which were designed for bituminous coals. Numerical simulations were made with GLACIER, a computational-fluid-dynamic code, to depict combustion behavior. The predictions were verified with full-scale test results. For analysis of the operational parameters for firing Adaro coal in both boilers, we used EXPERT system, an on-line supervision system developed by Israel Electric Corporation. It was concluded that firing Adaro coal, compared to a typical bituminous coal, lowers NOx and SO{sub 2} emissions, lowers LOI content and improves fouling behavior but can cause load limitation which impacts flexible operation. 21 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Effects of fractal pore on coal devolatilization

    Chen, Yongli; He, Rong [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering; Wang, Xiaoliang; Cao, Liyong [Dongfang Electric Corporation, Chengdu (China). Centre New Energy Inst.

    2013-07-01

    Coal devolatilization is numerically investigated by drop tube furnace and a coal pyrolysis model (Fragmentation and Diffusion Model). The fractal characteristics of coal and char pores are investigated. Gas diffusion and secondary reactions in fractal pores are considered in the numerical simulations of coal devolatilization, and the results show that the fractal dimension is increased firstly and then decreased later with increased coal conversions during devolatilization. The mechanisms of effects of fractal pores on coal devolatilization are analyzed.

  2. Too Much Coal, Too Little Oil

    Frederick van der Ploeg; Cees Withagen

    2011-01-01

    Optimal climate policy is studied. Coal, the abundant resource, contributes more CO2 per unit of energy than the exhaustible resource, oil. We characterize the optimal sequencing oil and coal and departures from the Herfindahl rule. "Preference reversal" can take place. If coal is very dirty compared to oil, there is no simultaneous use. Else, the optimal outcome starts with oil, before using oil and coal together, and finally coal on its own, The "laissez-faire" outcome uses coal forever or ...

  3. Testing MV-4 hydraulic supports on shearer faces with gradients of over 40 degrees. Ensayode pilas hidraulicas tipo MV-4 para talleres con buzamiento mayor de 40 degree con Rozadora

    Garcia Villa, M

    1990-10-01

    The Minas de Figaredo company forms part of the INI coal-mining group which is located in the Central Asturias coalfield. Production has recently increased by 56% as a result of coal face mechanisation. A vertical powered support, known as the MV-4, has been supplied by EMCOR and tested in steeply-dipping seams on face no. 28. This type of support was chosen not only to improve safety during both support setting and coal cutting but also to increase unit production and underground productivity. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Slagging behavior of upgraded brown coal and bituminous coal in 145 MW practical coal combustion boiler

    Akiyama, Katsuya; Pak, Haeyang; Takubo, Yoji [Kobe Steel, Ltd, Kobe (Japan). Mechanical Engineering Research Lab.; Tada, Toshiya [Kobe Steel, Ltd, Takasago (Japan). Coal and Energy Technology Dept.; Ueki, Yasuaki [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Energy Science Div.; Yoshiie, Ryo; Naruse, Ichiro [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Science and Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantitatively evaluate behaviors of ash deposition during combustion of Upgraded Brown Coal (UBC) and bituminous coal in a 145 MW practical coal combustion boiler. A blended coal consisting 20 wt% of the UBC and 80 wt% of the bituminous coal was burned for the combustion tests. Before the actual ash deposition tests, the molten slag fractions of ash calculated by chemical equilibrium calculations under the combustion condition was adopted as one of the indices to estimate the tendency of ash deposition. The calculation results showed that the molten slag fraction for UBC ash reached approximately 90% at 1,523 K. However, that for the blended coal ash became about 50%. These calculation results mean that blending the UBC with a bituminous coal played a role in decreasing the molten slag fraction. Next, the ash deposition tests were conducted, using a practical pulverized coal combustion boiler. A water-cooled stainless-steel tube was inserted in locations at 1,523 K in the boiler to measure the amount of ash deposits. The results showed that the mass of deposited ash for the blended coal increased and shape of the deposited ash particles on the tube became large and spherical. This is because the molten slag fraction in ash for the blended coal at 1,523 K increased and the surface of deposited ash became sticky. However, the mass of the deposited ash for the blended coal did not greatly increase and no slagging problems occurred for 8 days of boiler operation under the present blending conditions. Therefore, appropriate blending of the UBC with a bituminous coal enables the UBC to be used with a low ash melting point without any ash deposition problems in a practical boiler.

  5. Coal chemistry and technology. Komur Kimyasi ve Teknolojisi

    Kural, O [ed.

    1988-01-01

    The 18 chapters cover the following topics: mining in Turkey; formation, petrography and classification of coal; chemical and physical properties of coal; mechanical properties of coal; spontaneous combustion of coal and the methods of prevention; sampling of coal; coal preparation and plants; desulfurization of coal; bituminous coal and its consumption; lignite and its consumption; world coal trade and transportation; other important carbon fuels; briquetting of coal; carbonization and coking formed coke; liquefaction of coal; gasification of coal; underground gasification of coal; and combustion models, fluidized-bed combustion, furnaces. An English-Turkish coal dictionary is included. 641 refs., 244 figs., 108 tabs.

  6. Measuring Provider Performance for Physicians Participating in the Merit-Based Incentive Payment System.

    Squitieri, Lee; Chung, Kevin C

    2017-07-01

    In 2017, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services began requiring all eligible providers to participate in the Quality Payment Program or face financial reimbursement penalty. The Quality Payment Program outlines two paths for provider participation: the Merit-Based Incentive Payment System and Advanced Alternative Payment Models. For the first performance period beginning in January of 2017, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services estimates that approximately 83 to 90 percent of eligible providers will not qualify for participation in an Advanced Alternative Payment Model and therefore must participate in the Merit-Based Incentive Payment System program. The Merit-Based Incentive Payment System path replaces existing quality-reporting programs and adds several new measures to evaluate providers using four categories of data: (1) quality, (2) cost/resource use, (3) improvement activities, and (4) advancing care information. These categories will be combined to calculate a weighted composite score for each provider or provider group. Composite Merit-Based Incentive Payment System scores based on 2017 performance data will be used to adjust reimbursed payment in 2019. In this article, the authors provide relevant background for understanding value-based provider performance measurement. The authors also discuss Merit-Based Incentive Payment System reporting requirements and scoring methodology to provide plastic surgeons with the necessary information to critically evaluate their own practice capabilities in the context of current performance metrics under the Quality Payment Program.

  7. CoalVal-A coal resource valuation program

    Rohrbacher, Timothy J.; McIntosh, Gary E.

    2010-01-01

    CoalVal is a menu-driven Windows program that produces cost-of-mining analyses of mine-modeled coal resources. Geological modeling of the coal beds and some degree of mine planning, from basic prefeasibility to advanced, must already have been performed before this program can be used. United States Geological Survey mine planning is done from a very basic, prefeasibility standpoint, but the accuracy of CoalVal's output is a reflection of the accuracy of the data entered, both for mine costs and mine planning. The mining cost analysis is done by using mine cost models designed for the commonly employed, surface and underground mining methods utilized in the United States. CoalVal requires a Microsoft Windows? 98 or Windows? XP operating system and a minimum of 1 gigabyte of random access memory to perform operations. It will not operate on Microsoft Vista?, Windows? 7, or Macintosh? operating systems. The program will summarize the evaluation of an unlimited number of coal seams, haulage zones, tax entities, or other area delineations for a given coal property, coalfield, or basin. When the reader opens the CoalVal publication from the USGS website, options are provided to download the CoalVal publication manual and the CoalVal Program. The CoalVal report is divided into five specific areas relevant to the development and use of the CoalVal program: 1. Introduction to CoalVal Assumptions and Concepts. 2. Mine Model Assumption Details (appendix A). 3. CoalVal Project Tutorial (appendix B). 4. Program Description (appendix C). 5. Mine Model and Discounted Cash Flow Formulas (appendix D). The tutorial explains how to enter coal resource and quality data by mining method; program default values for production, operating, and cost variables; and ones own operating and cost variables into the program. Generated summary reports list the volume of resource in short tons available for mining, recoverable short tons by mining method; the seam or property being mined

  8. Promotive study on preparation of basis for foreign coal import. Study on coal renaissance

    Muraoka, Yoji [Japan Economic Research Institute, Tokyo

    1988-09-16

    This is an interim report on the coal renaissance study carried out in 1987 as a part of the Promotive Study on Preparation of Basis for Foreign Coal Import. The background and ideology of coal renaissance, future aspect of demand for coal, problems pertaining to the expansion of application, and a proposal for the expansion of coal usage are described in order. The role of coal expected as an alternate fuel for petroleum, development of new application fields for coal, conversion to coal, contribution of Japan to the stablization of international coal supply are outlined. Coal renaissance aims, based on technology, at stimulation of coal demand, change in the image of coal, and the utilization of the accumulated abundant knowhow. The aspect of coal demand in 2000, solution and current status of various restricting factors relating to the use of coal in general industry, and the remaining problems are discussed. 6 figures, 10 tables.

  9. Coal pillar design procedures

    York, G

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Final Project Report Coal pillar design procedures G. York, I. Canbulat, B.W. Jack Research agency: CSIR Mining Technology Project number: COL 337 Date: March 2000 2 Executive Summary Examination of collapsed pillar cases outside of the empirical... in strength occurs with increasing specimen size. 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 UNIAX IA L COMPR EHEN SIV E S TR ENG TH (M Pa ) CUBE SIZE (cm) Figure 1...

  10. Distilling coal, etc

    Thompson, W P

    1906-01-11

    Substances containing hydrocarbons, such as cannel coal, lignite, and shale, are destructively distilled by dividing the charge into small bodies confined in an air-tight chamber through which the products of combustion from a contiguous furnace are passed, the furnace serving also to heat the chamber. The temperature is kept below red heat so that the initial products, such as vapors of heavy oils, paraffin, waxes, naphthas, phenols, and cresols, are not decomposed and there is no formation of gaseous products such as naphthalene and benzol. The operation is of short duration, and large amounts of good coke are produced.

  11. Coal gasification plant

    1977-09-29

    The proposal concerns a stage in the process of cooling the synthetic gas produced in a coal gasification plant at temperatures above 900/sup 0/C. The purpose is to keep the convection heating surface of the subsequent waste heat plant free of dirt. According to the invention, the waste heat plant has a radiation area connected before it, on the heating surfaces of which the slack carried over solidifies. This radiation area has a hydraulic and thermal cleaning system, which can be raised or lowered in a water bath. The subclaims concern all the constructional characteristics of this cleaning system, which causes the solidified slack to crack.

  12. WATER- AND COAL GASIFICATION

    N. S. Nazarov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the results of gas analysis it has been established that water- and coal gasification is rather satisfactorily described by three thermo-chemical equations. One of these equations is basic and independent and the other two equations depend on the first one.The proposed process scheme makes it possible to explain the known data and also permits to carry out the gasification process and obtain high-quality hydrogen carbon-monoxide which is applicable for practical use.

  13. Carbonizing etc. , coal etc

    Duckham, A M; Rider, D; Watts, J S

    1924-01-17

    In drying, carbonizing, and distilling coal, shale, etc., by passage through a heated retort, the material is spread in a thin layer over the heating surface by a conveying-screw with a shallow thread. The retort is heated by a bath of molten metal, and the conveyingscrew intermeshes with a scraper screw of smaller diameter, and of a different hand; the screws are mounted on shafts geared together by wheels. The material after passing through the retort is delivered into a chute closed at the bottom by an arc-shaped water seal carried on arms and opened periodically by a lever.

  14. Distilling coal, etc

    Nelson, J

    1917-12-21

    Coals of various kinds such as shales, bitumens, and oil sand, peat, etc. are distilled at 350 to 450/sup 0/C and in the presence of vapors and gases obtained by cracking hydrocarbon oils, or the gases obtained by separating the condensable hydrocarbons therefrom, and, if desired, with the addition of superheated steam. The hydrocarbons are properly cracked by passing through molten lead as described in Specification 116,304. According to the Provisional Specification, superheated steam alone may be used to effect the distillation.

  15. Universal Curve of Optimum Thermoelectric Figures of Merit for Bulk and Low-Dimensional Semiconductors

    Hung, Nguyen T.; Nugraha, Ahmad R. T.; Saito, Riichiro

    2018-02-01

    This paper is a contribution to the Physical Review Applied collection in memory of Mildred S. Dresselhaus. Analytical formulas for thermoelectric figures of merit and power factors are derived based on the one-band model. We find that there is a direct relationship between the optimum figures of merit and the optimum power factors of semiconductors despite of the fact that the two quantities are generally given by different values of chemical potentials. By introducing a dimensionless parameter consisting of the optimum power factor and lattice thermal conductivity (without electronic thermal conductivity), it is possible to unify optimum figures of merit of both bulk and low-dimensional semiconductors into a single universal curve that covers many materials with different dimensionalities.

  16. A Review of NASA Human Research Program's Scientific Merit Processes: Letter Report

    Pawelczyk, James A. (Editor); Strawbridge, Larisa M. (Editor); Schultz, Andrea M. (Editor); Liverman, Catharyn T. (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    At the request of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Institute of Medicine (IOM) convened the Committee on the Review of NASA Human Research Program's (HRP's) Scientific Merit Assessment Processes in December 2011. The committee was asked to evaluate the scientific merit assessment processes that are applied to directed research tasks2 funded through the HRP and to determine best practices from similar assessment processes that are used in other federal agencies. This letter report and its recommendations are the product of a 10-member ad hoc committee, which included individuals who had previously conducted research under the HRP, were familiar with the HRP s research portfolio and operations, had specific knowledge of peer review processes, or were familiar with scientific merit assessment processes used in other organizations and federal agencies, such as the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR); National Institutes of Health (NIH); National Science Foundation (NSF); and U.S. Departments of Agriculture (USDA), Defense (DOD), and Transportation.

  17. The revolutionary importance of coal

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Alan Macfarlane discusses the coal revolution, the change from energy harvested from the sun through plants and animals, to the stored carbon energy of millions of years of sunlight. Filmed on a coal heap in Coalbrookdale, where the industrial revolution in England began.

  18. Utilisation of chemically treated coal

    Bezovska, M.

    2002-01-01

    The numerous application of coal with high content of humic substances are known. They are used in many branches of industry. The complex study of the composition of coal from upper Nitra mines has directed research to its application in the field of ecology and agriculture. The effective sorption layers of this coal and their humic acids can trap a broad spectrum of toxic harmful substances present in industrial wastes, particularly heavy metals. A major source of humic acids is coal - the most abundant and predominant product of plant residue coalification. All ranks of coal contain humic acids but lignite from Novaky deposit represents the most easily available and concentrated from of humic acids. The possibilities of utilisation of humic acids to remove heavy metals from waste waters was studied. The residual concentrations of the investigated metals in the aqueous phase were determined by AAs. From the results follows that the samples of coals humic acids can be used for the heavy metal removal from metal solutions and the real acid mine water. Oxidised coal with high content of humic acids and nitrogen is used in agriculture as fertilizer. Humic acids are active component in coal and can help to utilize almost quantitatively nitrogen in soil. The humic substances block and stabilize toxic metal residues already present in soil. (author)

  19. Brown coal gasification made easy

    Hamilton, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Few Victorians will be aware that gas derived from coal was first used in 1849 to provide lighting in a baker's shop in Swanston Street, long before electric lighting came to the State. The first commercial 'gas works' came on stream in 1856 and Melbourne then had street lighting run on gas. By 1892 there were 50 such gas works across the State. Virtually all were fed with black coal imported from New South Wales. Brown coal was first discovered west of Melbourne in 1857, and the Latrobe Valley deposits were identified in the early 1870s. Unfortunately, such wet brown coal did not suit the gas works. Various attempts to commercialise Victorian brown coal met with mixed success as it struggled to compete with imported New South Wales black coal. In June 1924 Yallourn A transmitted the first electric power to Melbourne, and thus began the Latrobe Valley's long association with generating electric power from brown coal. Around 1950, the Metropolitan Gas Company applied for financial assistance to build a towns gas plant using imported German gasification technology which had been originally designed for a brown coal briquette feed. The State Government promptly acquired the company and formed the Gas and Fuel Corporation. The Morwell Gasification Plant was opened on 9 December 1956 and began supplying Melbourne with medium heating value towns gas

  20. Centrifuge treatment of coal tar

    L.A. Kazak; V.Z. Kaidalov; L.F. Syrova; O.S. Miroshnichenko; A.S. Minakov [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    New technology is required for the removal of water and heavy fractions from regular coal tar. Centrifuges offer the best option. Purification of coal tar by means of centrifuges at OAO NLMK permits the production of pitch coke or electrode pitch that complies with current standards.

  1. Coal Mine Methane in Russia

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This paper discusses coal mine methane emissions (CMM) in the Russian Federation and the potential for their productive utilisation. It highlights specific opportunities for cost-effective reductions of CMM from oil and natural gas facilities, coal mines and landfills, with the aim of improving knowledge about effective policy approaches.

  2. Uranium content of Philippine coals

    De la Rosa, A.M.; Sombrito, E.Z.; Nuguid, Z.S.; Bulos, A.M.; Bucoy, B.M.; De la Cruz, M.

    1984-01-01

    Uranium content of coal samples from seven areas in the Philippines, i.e. Cebu, Semirara, Bislig, Albay, Samar, Malangas and Polilio Is. was found to contain trace quantities of uranium. The mean value of 0.401 ppm U is lower than reported mean uranium contents for coal from other countries. (ELC)

  3. Coal: Energy for the future

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to a request by the US Department of energy (DOE). The principal objectives of the study were to assess the current DOE coal program vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), and to recommend the emphasis and priorities that DOE should consider in updating its strategic plan for coal. A strategic plan for research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD and C) activities for coal should be based on assumptions regarding the future supply and price of competing energy sources, the demand for products manufactured from these sources, technological opportunities, and the need to control the environmental impact of waste streams. These factors change with time. Accordingly, the committee generated strategic planning scenarios for three time periods: near-term, 1995--2005; mid-term, 2006--2020; and, long-term, 2021--2040. The report is divided into the following chapters: executive summary; introduction and scope of the study; overview of US DOE programs and planning; trends and issues for future coal use; the strategic planning framework; coal preparation, coal liquid mixtures, and coal bed methane recovery; clean fuels and specialty products from coal; electric power generation; technology demonstration and commercialization; advanced research programs; conclusions and recommendations; appendices; and glossary. 174 refs.

  4. Power Generation from Coal 2011

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report focuses mainly on developments to improve the performance of coal-based power generation technologies, which should be a priority -- particularly if carbon capture and storage takes longer to become established than currently projected. A close look is taken of the major ongoing developments in process technology, plant equipment, instrumentation and control. Coal is an important source of energy for the world, particularly for power generation. To meet the growth in demand for energy over the past decade, the contribution from coal has exceeded that of any other energy source. Additionally, coal has contributed almost half of total growth in electricity over the past decade. As a result, CO2 emissions from coal-fired power generation have increased markedly and continue to rise. More than 70% of CO2 emissions that arise from power generation are attributed to coal. To play its role in a sustainable energy future, its environmental footprint must be reduced; using coal more efficiently is an important first step. Beyond efficiency improvement, carbon capture and storage (CCS) must be deployed to make deep cuts in CO2 emissions. The need for energy and the economics of producing and supplying it to the end-user are central considerations in power plant construction and operation. Economic and regulatory conditions must be made consistent with the ambition to achieve higher efficiencies and lower emissions. In essence, clean coal technologies must be more widely deployed.

  5. Coke from partially briquetted preheated coal mixtures

    Belitskii, A.N.; Sklyar, M.G.; Toryanik, Eh.I.; Bronshtein, A.P.

    1988-07-01

    Analyzes effects of partial coal charge briquetting on coking and on quality of coke for metallurgy. Effects of mixing hot coal briquets on temperature and moisture of coal were investigated on an experimental scale in a coking plant. Coal with a moisture content of 12% was used. Coking mixture consisted of 30% briquets and 70% crushed coal. Fifteen minutes after briquet mixing with coal, the mean coal charge temperature increased to 100-105 C and moisture content was lower than 2-5%. Results of laboratory investigations were verified by tests on a commercial scale. Experiments showed briquetting of weakly caking or non-caking coal charge components to be an efficient way of preventing coke quality decline. Adding 15-20% briquets consisting of weakly caking coal did not influence coke quality. Mixing hot coal briquets reduced moisture content in crushed coal, increased its temperature and reduced coking time.

  6. Coal: a revival for France?

    Brones, W.

    2007-01-01

    All energy consumption forecasts indicate a world production peak of fossil fuels around 2030 followed by a rapid decline. The oil peak should probably occur earlier. In this context the huge worldwide reserves of coal represent a fantastic opportunity to meet the world power demand which should double between 2002 and 2030 with in particular a huge growth in China and India. If promising alternate technologies (coal liquefaction..) exist which would allow to replace petroleum by coal, the main question remains the management of CO 2 . Capture and sequestration techniques are already implemented and tested and the search for new coal deposits is going on, in particular in France in the Nievre area. Economic studies about the profitability of coal exploitation in France stress on the socio-economical advantage that a revival of this activity would represent, in particular in terms of employment. (J.S.)

  7. Coal liquids -- Who needs them?

    Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G.

    1995-01-01

    The paper discusses the global energy demand situation as presented at the last World Energy Congress. The total energy demand was calculated for each country and projected to 2100. The paper then discusses the energy situation in the United States, especially the forecasted demand for crude oil and natural gas liquids. Imports will be needed to make up the shortfall in domestic production. The shortfall in conventional petroleum could be supplied by converting coal into liquid fuels. Currently the cost of high quality coal liquids is too high to compete with petroleum, but trends suggest that the price will be competitive in the year 2030 using current technology. Continuing research on coal liquefaction will reduce the price of coal liquids so that coal liquids could play a significant role sooner

  8. The power of Indonesian coal

    Rosiak, T. [Duke/Fluor Daniel (United States)

    2003-02-01

    The paper presents three Indonesian projects carried out by Duke/Fluor Daniel whose unique construction and operation have demonstrated the versatility and value of coal-fired power generation. These are: the construction of units 7 and 8 of the Paiton Private Power Project, a 1230 MW pulverised coal plant in Paiton, East Java; construction of a coal fired generation plant and transmission system to provide power for the expansion of a copper and gold mine on the island of Papua; and construction of four 28 MW pulverized coal units to provide 'heavy lifting' for a new mine at Batu Hijau on the island of Sumbawa. Coal was found to cost less than diesel for power generation. 2 photos.

  9. Indian coal industry: Growth perspective

    Sachdev, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    Growth perspective of Indian coal industry and their environmental aspects, are discussed. The complete coal chain comprises of mining including preparation and processing, transport, usage and disposal of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes. Proper environmental protection measures are therefore, required to be integrated at every stage. At mining stage, land reclamation, restoration of surface damaged by subsidence and proper treatment of effluents are the minimum requirement for effective environmental protection. Since coal will continue to be the major source of commercial energy in coming decades initiative will have to be taken in making coal a clean fuel from the point of view of its usage in different industries. Washing of high ash coals for reducing the ash content will go a long way in reducing the atmospheric pollution through better plant performance and reduced environmental pollution at the power plants. (author)

  10. Temperature profiles of coal stockpiles

    Sensogut, C.; Ozdeniz, A.H.; Gundogdu, I.B. [Dumlupinar University, Kutahya (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department

    2008-07-01

    Excess of produced coals should be kept in the stockyards of the collieries. The longer the duration time for these coals, the greater possibility for spontaneous combustion to take place. Spontaneously burnt coals result in economical and environmental problems. Therefore, taking the necessary precautions before an outburst of the spontaneous combustion phenomenon is too important in terms of its severe results. In this study, a stockpile having industrial dimensions was formed in coal stockyard. The effective parameters on the stockpiles of coal such as temperature and humidity of the weather, time, and atmospheric pressure values were measured. The interior temperature variations of these stockpiles caused by the atmospheric conditions were also measured. The interior temperature distribution maps of the stockpile together with maximum and minimum temperature values were expressed visually and numerically by the assistance of obtained data.

  11. DOE Hydrogen Program: 2007 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Milliken, J.

    2007-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the FY 2007 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 14-18, 2007, in Washington, D.C. The projects evaluated support the Department of Energy and President Bush's Hydrogen Initiative. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE to make funding decisions. Project areas include hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; and systems analysis.

  12. Exact Solution of a Constraint Optimization Problem for the Thermoelectric Figure of Merit

    Wolfgang Seifert

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the classical theory of thermoelectricity, the performance integrals for a fully self-compatible material depend on the dimensionless figure of merit zT. Usually these integrals are evaluated for constraints z = const. and zT = const., respectively. In this paper we discuss the question from a mathematical point of view whether there is an optimal temperature characteristics of the figure of merit. We solve this isoperimetric variational problem for the best envelope of a family of curves z(TT.

  13. Exact Solution of a Constraint Optimization Problem for the Thermoelectric Figure of Merit.

    Seifert, Wolfgang; Pluschke, Volker

    2012-03-21

    In the classical theory of thermoelectricity, the performance integrals for a fully self-compatible material depend on the dimensionless figure of merit zT. Usually these integrals are evaluated for constraints z = const. and zT = const., respectively. In this paper we discuss the question from a mathematical point of view whether there is an optimal temperature characteristics of the figure of merit. We solve this isoperimetric variational problem for the best envelope of a family of curves z(T)T.

  14. Measurement of the figure of merit M for 1-C3F6/SF6 mixtures

    Christensen, Jørn Erik Berril; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1997-01-01

    High precision measurements of the linear part of the Paschen curve are reported for 1-C3F6/SF6 mixtures. From these measurements, values for the pressure-reduced limiting electric field strength (E/p)lim and the associated figure of merit M are derived. These two parameters can be used to charac......High precision measurements of the linear part of the Paschen curve are reported for 1-C3F6/SF6 mixtures. From these measurements, values for the pressure-reduced limiting electric field strength (E/p)lim and the associated figure of merit M are derived. These two parameters can be used...

  15. DOE Hydrogen Program: 2006 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Milliken, J.

    2006-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the FY 2006 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 16-19, 2006, in Arlington, Virginia. The projects evaluated support the Department of Energy and President Bush's Hydrogen Initiative. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE to make funding decisions. Project areas include hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; and systems analysis.

  16. DOE Hydrogen Program: 2005 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Chalk, S. G.

    2005-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the FY 2005 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 23-26, 2005, in Arlington, Virginia. The projects evaluated support the Department of Energy and President Bush's Hydrogen Initiative. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE to make funding decisions. Project areas include hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; and systems analysis.

  17. Coal pile leachate treatment

    Davis, E C; Kimmitt, R R

    1982-09-01

    The steam plant located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory was converted from oil- to coal-fired boilers. In the process, a diked, 1.6-ha coal storage yard was constructed. The purpose of this report is to describe the treatment system designed to neutralize the estimated 18,000 m/sup 3/ of acidic runoff that will be produced each year. A literature review and laboratory treatability study were conducted which identified two treatment systems that will be employed to neutralize the acidic runoff. The first, a manually operated system, will be constructed at a cost of $200,000 and will operate for an interim period of four years. This system will provide for leachate neutralization until a more automated system can be brought on-line. The second, a fully automated system, is described and will be constructed at an estimated cost of $650,000. This automated runoff treatment system will ensure that drainage from the storage yard meets current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Standards for pH and total suspended solids, as well as future standards, which are likely to include several metals along with selected trace elements.

  18. Coal mine subsidence

    Darmody, R.G.; Hetzler, R.T.; Simmons, F.W.

    1992-01-01

    Longwall coal mining in southern Illinois occurs beneath some of the best agricultural land in the U.S. This region is characterized by highly productive, nearly level, and somewhat poorly drained soils. Subsidence from longwall mining causes changes in surface topography which alters surface and subsurface hydrology. These changes can adversely affect agricultural land by creating wet or ponded areas that can be deleterious to crop production. While most subsided areas show little impact from subsidence, some areas experience total crop failure. Coal companies are required by law to mitigate subsidence damage to cropland. The objective of this paper is to test the effectiveness of mitigation in restoring grain yields to their pre-mined levels. The research was conducted on sites selected to represent conventional mitigation techniques on the predominate soils in the area. Corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max.(L.) Merr] yields in 1988, 1989, 1990, and 1991 from mitigated areas were compared to yields from nearby undisturbed areas

  19. Comparative emissions from Pakistani coals and traditional coals

    Du, Y X [Guangzhou Medical College (China). Dept. of Hygiene; Huang, L F [Guangzhou Health and Anti-epidemic Station (China)

    1994-12-31

    Briquette coal has been widely used for domestic cooking and heating in many Chinese cites over the last two decades. To determine whether burning briquette coal contributes significantly to indoor air pollution, a study was performed in cities-of Southern China in which the measured levels of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, TSP, SD, B(a)P in the kitchens of coal burning families were compared with levels obtained in families using gas. Significantly higher contentions of these pollutants, whose peaks correlated with daily cooking episodes, were detected in coal burning families. The levels of TSP and B(a)P were further found to be dependent on cooking methods, with deep frying and stir-frying of meat generating the most indoor TSP and B(a)P. Briquette coal burning was found to be the source of B(a)P contamination in food. A higher incidence of chronic pharyngitis as well as a suppressed salivary bacteriolytic enzyme activity were found in children of coal burning families. Epidemiologic and laboratory studies also show a close association between coal burning and the incidence of lung cancer in females. (author)

  20. Geochemistry of coals, coal ashes and combustion wastes from coal-fired power stations

    Vassilev, S.V.; Vassileva, C.G.

    1997-01-01

    Contents, concentration trends, and modes of occurrence of 67 elements in coals, coal ashes, and combustion wastes at eleven Bulgarian thermoelectric power stations (TPS) were studied. A number of trace elements in coal and coal ash have concentrations greater than their respective worldwide average contents (Clarke values). Trace elements are concentrated mainly in the heavy accessory minerals and organic matter in coal. In decreasing order of significance, the trace elements in coal may occur as: element-organic compounds; impurities in the mineral matter; major components in the mineral matter; major and impurity components in the inorganic amorphous matter; and elements in the fluid constituent. A number of trace elements in the waste products, similar to coal ashes, exceed known Clarke contents. Trace elements are mainly enriched in non-magnetic, heavy and fine-grained fractions of fly ash. They are commonly present as impurities in the glass phases, and are included in the crystalline components. Their accessory crystalline phases, element-organic compounds, liquid and gas forms, are of subordinate importance. Some elements from the chalcophile, lithophile and siderophile groups may release into the atmosphere during coal burning. For others, the combustion process appears to be a powerful factor causing their relative enrichment in the fly ash and rarely in the bottom ash and slag. 65 refs., 1 fig., 11 tabs

  1. Asia's coal and clean coal technology market potential

    Johnson, C.J.; Binsheng Li

    1992-01-01

    The Asian region is unique in the world in having the highest economic growth rate, the highest share of coal in total primary energy consumption and the highest growth rate in electricity generation capacity. The outlook for the next two decades is for accelerated efforts to control coal related emissions of particulates and SO 2 and to a lessor extent NO x and CO 2 . Only Japan has widespread use of Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) however a number of economies have plans to install CCTs in future power plants. Only CCTs for electricity generation are discussed, and are defined for the purpose of this paper as technologies that substantially reduce SO 2 and/or NO x emissions from coal-fired power plants. The main theses of this paper are that major increases in coal consumption will occur over the 1990-2010 period, and this will be caccompanied by major increases in coal related pollution in some Asian economies. Coal fired electricity generation is projected to grow at a high rate of about 6.9 percent per year over the 1990-2010 period. CCTs are projected to account for about 150 GW of new coal-fired capacity over the 1990-2010 period of about one-third of all new coal-fired capacity. A speculative conclusion is that China will account for the largest share of CCT additions over the 1990-2010 period. Both the US and Japan have comparative advantages that might be combined through cooperation and joint ventures to gain a larger share of the evolving CCT market in Asia. 5 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Australia's export coal industry: a project of the Coal Australia Promotion Program. 2. ed.

    1995-01-01

    This booklet presents an overview of the Australian coal industry, emphasises the advantages of using Australian coal and outlines government policies, both Commonwealth and State, which impact on coal mine development, mine ownership and coal exports. It also provides information on the operations and products of each producer supplying coal and coke to export markets and gives contact details for each. The emphasis is on black coal, but information on coal briquettes and coke is also provided. Basic information on the rail networks used for the haulage of export coal and on each of the bulk coal loading terminals is also included.(Author). 3 figs., photos

  3. The complex using of coals of Ekibastuz coal basin and wastes of their development

    Gorlov, E.G.; Kost, L.A.; Lebedeva, L.N.; Shpirt, M.Ya.

    2013-01-01

    Present article is devoted to main directions of complex using of coals of Ekibastuz coal basin and wastes of their development. It was found that gasification of Ekibastuz coals is the perspective way of their using. It is defined that coal gasification could solve the ecological problems which arise at industrial combustion of coal. Therefore, the thermodynamic and experimental researches were conducted.

  4. Development of I and C system for the coal feeder of coal firing plant

    Kim, Teak Soo; Park, Chan Ho [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1996-12-31

    KECC(Kepco Coal Feeder Control System) receives coal weight, conveyor speed and boiler demand signals. It controls coal flow by generating speed signal of feeder which conveys coal in hopper to pulverizer, displaying measured coal quantity and providing local auto and manual manipulator (author). 33 figs.

  5. COAL OF THE FUTURE (Supply Prospects for Thermal Coal by 2030-2050)

    2007-01-01

    The report, produced by Messrs. Energy Edge Ltd. (the U.K.) for the JRC Institute for Energy, aims at making a techno-economic analysis of novel extraction technologies for coal and their potential contribution to the global coal supply. These novel extraction technologies include: advanced coal mapping techniques, improved underground coal mining, underground coal gasification and utilisation of coalmine methane gas.

  6. Study of mechanically activated coal combustion

    Burdukov Anatolij P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion and air gasification of mechanically activated micro-ground coals in the flux have been studied. Influence of mechanically activated methods at coals grinding on their chemical activeness at combustion and gasification has been determined. Intense mechanical activation of coals increases their chemical activeness that enables development of new highly boosted processing methods for coals with various levels of metamorphism.

  7. Australian coal year book 1984-1985

    Aylward, A [ed.

    1984-01-01

    The first edition of this new publication provides comprehensive data on the Australian coal industry. Apart from a mine directory which lists technical details for each mine, other subjects include; coal export facilities; annual coal statistics; buyers guide; suppliers directory; addresses of relevant organizations and an index of coal mine owners.

  8. Formation and retention of methane in coal

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  9. Clean coal technology challenges for China

    Mao, J. [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering

    2001-01-01

    China is rich in coal reserves and also the largest coal producer and consumer in the world. Coal constitutes over 70% of the total energy consumption, some 86% of coal production is burned directly, which causes serious air pollution problems. However, based on China's specific energy structure, coal utilisation will remain the dominant means of energy usage and clean coal technology must be the way forward if the environmental problems are to be resolved. This article discusses China's Clean Coal Technology Program, its implementation, including the clean coal technologies being developed and introduced, with reference to the key R & D institutes for each of the coal-using sectors. The article is an edited version of the 2000 Robens Coal Science Lecture, delivered in London in October 2000. The China Coal Technology Program for the 9th Five-Year Plan (1996-2000) was approved in 1997. The technologies included in the Program considered in this article are in: coal washing and grading, coal briquette, coal water slurry; circulating fluidised bed technology; pressurised fluidised bed combined cycle; integrated gasification combined cycle; coal gasification, coal liquefaction and flue gas desulfurisation. 4 tabs.

  10. Coal: the future in South Africa

    1976-07-01

    The whole issue is devoted to the future of coal in South Africa, and includes articles on the Petrick report, coal conversion research in South Africa, the activities of the Fuel Research Institute (on beneficiation, briquetting, carbonization, fluidized bed combustion), Sasol's production of chemical feedstocks from coal, mining methods, and the coal requirements of the electric and chemical industries.

  11. Coal supply and transportation model (CSTM)

    1991-11-01

    The Coal Supply and Transportation Model (CSTM) forecasts annual coal supply and distribution to domestic and foreign markets. The model describes US coal production, national and international coal transportation industries. The objective of this work is to provide a technical description of the current version of the model

  12. Enrichment of coal pulps by selective flocculation

    Blaschke, Z

    1977-01-01

    The results are presented of selective flocculation of coal pulps using different reagents. In some tests the coal particles were flocculated, and in others the coal remained in suspension and the dirt was flocculated. Selective flocculation makes it possible to obtain coal concentrates with a very low ash content from slurries with a high ash content. (In Polish)

  13. Enrichment of coal pulps by selective flocculation

    Blaschke, Z

    1977-01-01

    The results are presented of selective flocculation of coal pulps using different reagents. In some tests the coal particles were flocculated, and in others the coal remained in suspension and the dirt was flocculated. Selective flocculation makes it possible to obtain coal concentrates with a very low ash content from slurries with a high ash content.

  14. 78 FR 71592 - National Coal Council

    2013-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Coal Council AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy..., notice is hereby given that the National Coal Council (NCC) will be renewed for a two-year period. The... matters relating to coal issues. Additionally, the renewal of the National Coal Council has been...

  15. Un método para el tratamiento de las pilas y baterías domésticas usadas de tamaño medio. III Parte. Propuesta de un método para su tratamiento

    de Juan, D.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A method for the primary treatment of spent batteries and domestic cells is proposed. Basic processes for the secondary treatment, metals recovering and detoxifying wastes are developed. Iron is directly recovered in the primary treatment as a ferrous scrap. Zinc is recovered from ammoniacal solution obtained in primary treatment by means of a hydrothermal process. For recovering cadmium, copper and nickel, a cementation with zinc dusts is proposed along with the application of the COCADEX process. Detoxifying the fraction bioxide obtained and the mercury recovered are made by heat treatment at 300- 400°C. The heat treatment wastes and the non ferrous fraction can be treated in a Waelz furnace, for the simultaneous recovery of zinc and cadmium contained in the waste as a Waelz oxide.

    Se propone un método para llevar a cabo el tratamiento primario de las pilas y baterías domésticas usadas. Se desarrollan los procesos necesarios para realizar el tratamiento secundario, recuperar los metales contenidos y separar los componentes tóxicos de los residuos. En el tratamiento primario se recupera el hierro directamente como una chatarra férrea. El cinc se recupera de la disolución amoniacal procedente del tratamiento primario mediante un proceso hidrotermal. Para la recuperación del cadmio, cobre y níquel se propone su cementación con polvo de cinc y posterior aplicación del proceso COCADEX. La eliminación de los productos tóxicos de la fracción bióxido resultante, así como la recuperación del mercurio se realizan mediante calcinación a 300-400 °C. El residuo de calcinación y la fracción no férrea se pueden tratar conjuntamente en un horno Waelz para recuperar simultáneamente el cinc y el cadmio residual como óxido Waelz.

  16. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan

    1995-01-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A ampersand E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton's initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force

  17. Coal supply shortage - buyers beware

    Moth, M; Phillips, K

    1988-08-01

    Since the commencement of 1988, the world coal market has witnessed a number of quite remarkable shifts and realignments that have ostensibly resulted from import demand surges, notably in Europe and the Pacific Rim but perhaps more significantly also from constraints on supply, most obviously in Australia but also seen elsewhere in the PRC, Colombia, Poland, and South Africa. Consequently, this has left the USA as the only remaining reliable surplus supplier of high volume quality steam and metallurgical coals to the world market. Importantly, it has to be recognised that these existing supply/demand factors will not disappear overnight. What has been a very strong buyers' market for coal throughout at least the last six years is now no longer the case. Coal purchasers around the globe have to be prepared for an extended and indeed a refreshing period of 'seller power' with scarcity of supply and higher coal prices forecast to extend well into next year and maybe even longer. The message for coal importers who have not yet woken up to the new order of things is very clear, 'today is possibly already too late to secure coal purchases for delivery in 1988 because many exporters report they are sold out. But more important with tight supply expected to prevail, buyers should be securing their purchases now for 1989 imports requirements and delivery'. 2 figs.

  18. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  19. 78 FR 50144 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meetings

    2013-08-16

    ... Review Board; Notice of Meetings The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) gives notice under the Federal... Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will meet from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. on the dates indicated below: Subcommittee Date(s) Location Career Development Award Program.... August 6, 2013........ VHA National...

  20. Cui Bono? On the Relative Merits of Technology-Enhanced Learning and Teaching in Higher Education

    Mykhnenko, Vlad

    2016-01-01

    This article provides evidence from a 4-year longitudinal study on the comparative use of illustrative video podcasts during Economic Geography lectures vis-à-vis traditional educational methods in order to guide pedagogic practice and future research on the relative merits of technology-enhanced learning in higher education. Key benefits derived…

  1. The Effect of Merit Aid on Enrollment: A Regression Discontinuity Analysis of Iowa's National Scholars Award

    Leeds, Daniel M.; DesJardins, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    The cost of attending college has risen steadily over the past 30 years, making financial aid an important determinant of college choice for many students and a subject of concern for colleges and state governments. In this paper, we estimate the effect of rule-based merit aid assignment on students' enrollment decisions at the University of Iowa.…

  2. Optimization of Nonlinear Figure-of-Merits of Integrated Power MOSFETs in Partial SOI Process

    Fan, Lin; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Knott, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art power semiconductor industry uses figure-of-merits (FOMs) for technology-to-technology and/or device-to-device comparisons. However, the existing FOMs are fundamentally nonlinear due to the nonlinearities of the parameters such as the gate charge and the output charge versus...

  3. 78 FR 9455 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting

    2013-02-08

    .... Rehabilitation Engineering and February 20, 2013 Courtyard DC/U.S. Prosthetics/Orthotics. Capitol. Brain Injury... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit... Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that the subcommittees of the Rehabilitation Research and...

  4. High figure-of-merit SOI power LDMOS for power integrated circuits

    Yashvir Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The structural modifications in the conventional power laterally diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (LDMOS are carried out to improve the breakdown voltage, on-resistance, gate-charge and figure-of-merits of the device with reduced cell pitch. The modified device has planer structure implemented on silicon-on-insulator which is suitable for low to medium voltage power integrated circuits. The proposed LDMOS consists of two gate electrodes placed vertically in two separate trenches build in the drift region and single source and drain contacts are taken on the top. The trench structure reduces the electric field inside the drift region and allow increased drift layer doping concentration leading to higher breakdown voltage, lower specific on-resistance, reduced gate-drain charge, and substantial improvement in the figure-of-merits. Using two-dimensional simulations, the performance of the proposed LDMOS is optimized and results are compared with the conventional LDMOS. Our simulation results show that the proposed device exhibits 110% higher breakdown voltage, 40% reduction in cell pitch, 19% lower specific on-resistance, 30% lower gate-to-drain charge leading to 5.5 times improvement in Baliga's figure-of-merit and 43% reduction in dynamic figure-of-merit over the conventional device.

  5. 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    none,

    2015-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 8-12, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  6. 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 9-13, 2011, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  7. 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    none,

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 7-11, 2010, in Washington, DC. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; and systems analysis.

  8. DOE Hydrogen Program: 2010 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    2010-12-01

    This document summarizes the comments provided by peer reviewers on hydrogen and fuel cell projects presented at the FY 2010 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), held June 7-11, 2010 in Washington, D.C.

  9. Islands Unto Themselves: How Merit Pay Schemes May Undermine Positive Teacher Collaboration

    Brewer, T. Jameson; Myers, P. S.; Zhang, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Educational reforms have become the new policy mainstay in educational discourse and policy. Without doubt, "fixing" teachers and increasing student test scores have both been a large component of much of the reform rhetoric. Moreover, calls for implementing merit pay schemes have uniquely combined reformer's efforts to "fix"…

  10. Blocked, Diluted, and Co-Opted: Interest Groups Wage War against Merit Pay

    Buck, Stuart; Greene, Jay P.

    2011-01-01

    According to the latest "Education Next" poll, public support for merit pay gained significant ground over the past year and now outdistances opposition by a 2:1 margin. Replacing the standardized salary schedule, where the only factors that determine teacher salaries are the number of years on the job and academic credentials, seems a…

  11. 76 FR 6197 - Health Services Research and Development Service Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    2011-02-03

    ... Board will be held March 2-3, 2011, at the Hilton San Francisco Financial District, 750 Kearny Street... management, and nursing research. Applications are reviewed for scientific and technical merit... subcommittee on Nursing Research Initiatives will convene from 8 a.m. to 2 p.m.; the subcommittee for pilot...

  12. A figure of merit for selective absorbers in flat plate solar water heaters

    Roberts, DE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We derive from first principles an analytical expression for a figure of merit (FM) for a selective solar absorber in a single glazed flat plate water heater. We first show that the efficiency of a collector with an absorber with absorptance α...

  13. Lifetime Net Merit vs. annualized net present value as measures of profitability of selection

    Current USDA linear selection indexes such as Lifetime Net Merit (NM$) estimate lifetime profit given a combination of 13 traits. In these indexes, every animal gets credit for 2.78 lactations of the traits expressed per lactation, independent of its productive life (PL). Selection among animals wit...

  14. Handover training: does one size fit all? The merits of mass customisation

    Kicken, Wendy; Van der Klink, Marcel; Barach, Paul; Boshuizen, Els

    2012-01-01

    Kicken, W., Van der Klink, M., Barach, P., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2012). Handover training: does one size fit all? The merits of mass customisation. British Medical Journal Quality & Safety, 21, i84-i88. doi:10.1136/bmjqs-2012-001164

  15. 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    none,

    2013-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 13-17, 2013, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  16. 76 FR 17846 - Objective Merit Review of Discretionary Financial Assistance and Other Transaction Authority...

    2011-03-31

    .... 2. Merit Review Panel Member Selection. The DOE Senior Procurement Executive (SPE) has the ultimate.... Reviewers shall not accept any invitations, gratuities (i.e., meals, gifts, favors, etc.), or job offers... single case deviation, while the Director, Procurement and Assistance Management (Senior Procurement...

  17. 77 FR 8330 - Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    2012-02-14

    ... Disorders; HCR 2--Substance Use Disorders; HCR 3--Rehabilitation/Rural; HCR 4--Women's Health; HCR 5--Pain... Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will meet on March 6-8, 2012, at the Hilton New Orleans... to the Chief Research and Development Officer. On March 6, the subcommittee on Nursing Research...

  18. Reflections on receiving the ASIS&T 2016 Award of Merit

    Ingwersen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    At the ASIS&T Annual Meeting in Copenhagen, Peter Ingwersen expressed surprise and gratitude for being honored with the Association’s 2016 Award of Merit. The professor emeritus from Denmark’s Royal School of Library and Information Science thanked peers for recognizing him as a mentor and research...

  19. Research on the Effects of Rewards: Implications for Annual Merit Pay.

    Burke, Richard R.

    Some research suggests reduced cooperation and collaboration among college faculty may result when annual pay increments are based on merit evaluations. Various theories and principles have been put forward to explain these effects. The overjustification theory suggests that extrinsically presented rewards become more salient than one's intrinsic…

  20. Walter Scandale receives the decoration of Knight of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic

    2008-01-01

    On 9 December 2008, Walter Scandale, a member of the EN Department, received the decoration of Knight of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic, one of Italy's highest decorations. He was awarded the medal by the Consul-General of Italy in Geneva.

  1. Performance Appraisal and Merit Compensation. Community Colleges: Quality Education for a Learning Society. Round Table Talk.

    Anderson, Robert A., Jr.

    Detailed information is provided on the Performance Appraisal/Salary System adopted by the New Mexico Junior College (NMJC) Board in 1981 as the basis for the performance evaluation of all college employees. Introductory material discusses the concepts of performance appraisal and merit compensation and provides an update on changes in NMJC's…

  2. The Role of Merit-Based Scholarships in Meeting Affordability Goals

    Pugh, Susan L.; Thompson, Roger J.

    2010-01-01

    Institutions across the country continue to ponder and evaluate strategies for aligning financial aid to complement their enrollment goals. Two Indiana University enrollment managers examine the purposeful application of institutional aid in financial aid packaging. In response to the debate about the of merit-based aid vs. the appropriate share…

  3. 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    none,

    2014-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 16-20, 2014, in Washington, DC. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  4. 2008 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    none,

    2008-06-13

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2008 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 9-13, 2008, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; systems analysis; and manufacturing.

  5. 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Satyapal, S. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 18-22, 2009, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; education; safety, codes, and standards; technology validation; systems analysis; and manufacturing R&D.

  6. 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    none,

    2012-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 14-18, 2012, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  7. Minimización de una función normal-merit mediante un algoritmo convergente globalmente

    Gómez Suárez, M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo presentamos dos conceptos relacionados con la solución de sistemas de ecuaciones no lineales y con desigualdades. El primer concepto es el de una función normal merit, que resume las propiedades básicas que tienen distintas funciones merit conocidas. El segundo concepto es el de un operador Newtoniano, cuyos valores generalizan el concepto de Hessiana para la función normal merit. Combinando el resultado del método generalizado de Newton con ciertos métodos de primer orden, obtenemos un algoritmo de convergencia global para minimizar funciones normales merit.

  8. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  9. Clean coal technologies: A business report

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The book contains four sections as follows: (1) Industry trends: US energy supply and demand; The clean coal industry; Opportunities in clean coal technologies; International market for clean coal technologies; and Clean Coal Technology Program, US Energy Department; (2) Environmental policy: Clean Air Act; Midwestern states' coal policy; European Community policy; and R ampersand D in the United Kingdom; (3) Clean coal technologies: Pre-combustion technologies; Combustion technologies; and Post-combustion technologies; (4) Clean coal companies. Separate abstracts have been prepared for several sections or subsections for inclusion on the data base

  10. Surface chemical problems in coal flotation

    Taylor, S. R.; Miller, K. J.; Deurbrouck, A. W.

    1981-02-01

    As the use of coal increases and more fine material is produced by mining and processing, the need for improved methods of coal beneficiation increases. While flotation techniques can help meet these needs, the technique is beset with many problems. These problems involve surface chemical and interfacial properties of the coal-mineral-water slurry systems used in coal flotation. The problems associated with coal flotation include non-selectivity, inefficient reagent utilization, and excessive variablity of results. These problems can be broadely classified as a lack of predictability. The present knowledge of coal flotation is not sufficient, in terms of surface chemical parameters, to allow prediction of the flotation response of a given coal. In this paper, some of the surface chemical properties of coal and coal minerals that need to be defined will be discussed in terms of the problems noted above and their impact on coal cleaning.

  11. A remote coal deposit revisited

    Bojesen-Kofoed, Jørgen A.; Kalkreuth, Wolfgang; Petersen, Henrik I.

    2012-01-01

    discovery. The outcrops found in 2009 amount to approximately 8 m of sediment including a coal seam of 2 m thickness. More outcrops and additional coal deposits most certainly are to be found, pending further fieldwork. The deposits are Middle Jurassic, Callovian, in age and were deposited in a floodplain...... environment related to meandering river channels. Spores and pollen in the lower fluvial deposits reflect abundant vegetation of ferns along the river banks. In contrast, a sparse spore and pollen flora in the coals show a mixed vegetation of ferns and gymnosperms. Based on proximate and petrographic analyses...

  12. Clean coal technology. Coal utilisation by-products

    NONE

    2006-08-15

    The need to remove the bulk of ash contained in flue gas from coal-fired power plants coupled with increasingly strict environmental regulations in the USA result in increased generation of solid materials referred to as coal utilisation by-products, or CUBs. More than 40% of CUBs were sold or reused in the USA in 2004 compared to less than 25% in 1996. A goal of 50% utilization has been established for 2010. The American Coal Ash Association (ACCA) together with the US Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPPI) and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) sponsor a number of projects that promote CUB utilization. Several are mentioned in this report. Report sections are: Executive summary; Introduction; Where do CUBs come from?; Market analysis; DOE-sponsored CUB demonstrations; Examples of best-practice utilization of CUB materials; Factors limiting the use of CUBs; and Conclusions. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs., 14 photos.

  13. Clean coal technology: coal's link to the future

    Siegel, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    Coal, the world's most abundant fossil fuel, is very important to the world's economy. It represents about 70% of the world's fossil energy reserves. It produces about 27% of the world's primary energy, 33% of the world's electricity, and it is responsible for about $21 billion in coal trade - in 1990, 424 million tons were traded on the international market. And, most importantly, because of its wide and even distribution throughout the world, and because of its availability, coal is not subject to the monopolistic practices of other energy options. How coal can meet future fuel demand in an economical, efficient and environmentally responsive fashion, with particular reference to the new technologies and their US applications is discussed. (author). 6 figs

  14. Coal transportation road damage

    Burtraw, D.; Harrison, K.; Pawlowski, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy trucks are primarily responsible for pavement damage to the nation's highways. In this paper we evaluate the pavement damage caused by coal trucks. We analyze the chief source of pavement damage (vehicle weight per axle, not total vehicle weight) and the chief cost involved (the periodic overlay that is required when a road's surface becomes worn). This analysis is presented in two stages. In the first section we present a synopsis of current economic theory including simple versions of the formulas that can be: used to calculate costs of pavement wear. In the second section we apply this theory to a specific example proximate to the reference environment for the Fuel Cycle Study in New Mexico in order to provide a numerical measure of the magnitude of the costs

  15. Distilling shale and coal

    Edwards, H; Young, G

    1923-01-09

    In a process of recovering oil from shale or coal the material is ground and may be subjected to a cleaning or concentrating process of the kind described in Specification 153,663 after which it is distilled in a furnace as described in Specification 13,625/09 the sections of the furnace forming different temperature zones, and the rate of the passage of the material is regulated so that distillation is complete with respect to the temperature of each zone, the whole distillation being accomplished in successive stages. The vapors are taken off at each zone and superheated steam may be passed into the furnace at suitable points and the distillation terminated at any stage of the process.

  16. Nuclear energy versus coal

    Storm van Leeuwen, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is given of the consequences resulting from the Dutch government's decision to use both coal and uranium for electricity production. The energy yields are calculated for the total conversion processes, from the mine to the processing of waste and the demolition of the installations. The ecological aspects considered include the nature and quantity of the waste produced and its effect on the biosphere. The processing of waste is also considered here. Attention is given to the safety aspects of nuclear energy and the certainties and uncertainties attached to nuclear energy provision, including the value of risk-analyses. Employment opportunities, the economy, nuclear serfdom and other social aspects are discussed. The author concludes that both sources have grave disadvantages and that neither can become the energy carrier of the future. (C.F.)

  17. Coal distillation plant

    Overton, P C

    1937-05-20

    To fractionally condense the vapours derived from the distillation of coal or shale, an apparatus comprises a low temperature carbonisation retort having a plurality of differently heating zones therein which connect with a manifold in which said gas oil vapours can expand. A dephlegmator, cold water jacketted and centrally air heated, causes the heavier matters of the vapours to settle out and the lighter oil gas vapours are conveyed to the bottom of an electrically operated fractionating apparatus comprising a column furnished with a plurality of compartments each heated by electrical elements connected to source of current by lead wires. Annular launders in the compartments collect the derived liquids at the various levels and deliver same by pipes to separate sump while pipe at head of column draws off incondensible gases for return to retort.

  18. Distilling coal, shale, etc

    Bussey, C C

    1916-07-17

    In the extraction of vovolatile ingredients from coal, shale, lignite, and other hydrocarbonaceous materials by passing through the material a heating-agent produced by burning at the base of the charge a portion of the material from which the volatile ingredients have been extracted, the temperature of the heating agent is maintained constant by continuously removing the residue from the bottom of the apparatus. The temperature employed is 800/sup 0/F or slightly less, so as to avoid any breaking-down action. As shown the retort is flared downwardly, and is provided at the base with a fireplace, which is in communication with the interior of the retort through flues fitted with screens and dampers. Beneath the bottom of the retort is mounted a movable grate carried on endless sprocket chains, which are preferably set so that the grate inclines downwardly towards the coke, etc.

  19. Coal mine site reclamation

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Coal mine sites can have significant effects on local environments. In addition to the physical disruption of land forms and ecosystems, mining can also leave behind a legacy of secondary detrimental effects due to leaching of acid and trace elements from discarded materials. This report looks at the remediation of both deep mine and opencast mine sites, covering reclamation methods, back-filling issues, drainage and restoration. Examples of national variations in the applicable legislation and in the definition of rehabilitation are compared. Ultimately, mine site rehabilitation should return sites to conditions where land forms, soils, hydrology, and flora and fauna are self-sustaining and compatible with surrounding land uses. Case studies are given to show what can be achieved and how some landscapes can actually be improved as a result of mining activity.

  20. An empirically derived figure of merit for the quality of overall task performance

    Lemay, Moira

    1989-01-01

    The need to develop an operationally relevant figure of merit for the quality of performance of a complex system such as an aircraft cockpit stems from a hypothesized dissociation between measures of performance and those of workload. Performance can be measured in terms of time, errors, or a combination of these. In most tasks performed by expert operators, errors are relatively rare and often corrected in time to avoid consequences. Moreover, perfect performance is seldom necessary to accomplish a particular task. Moreover, how well an expert performs a complex task consisting of a series of discrete cognitive tasks superimposed on a continuous task, such as flying an aircraft, does not depend on how well each discrete task is performed, but on their smooth sequencing. This makes the amount of time spent on each subtask of paramount importance in measuring overall performance, since smooth sequencing requires a minimum amount of time spent on each task. Quality consists in getting tasks done within a crucial time interval while maintaining acceptable continuous task performance. Thus, a figure of merit for overall quality of performance should be primarily a measure of time to perform discrete subtasks combined with a measure of basic vehicle control. Thus, the proposed figure of merit requires doing a task analysis on a series of performance, or runs, of a particular task, listing each discrete task and its associated time, and calculating the mean and standard deviation of these times, along with the mean and standard deviation of tracking error for the whole task. A set of simulator data on 30 runs of a landing task was obtained and a figure of merit will be calculated for each run. The figure of merit will be compared for voice and data link, so that the impact of this technology on total crew performance (not just communication performance) can be assessed. The effect of data link communication on other cockpit tasks will also be considered.

  1. Coal distribution, January--June 1990

    1990-10-17

    The Coal Distribution report provides information on coal production, distribution, and stocks in the United States to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This issue presents information for January through June 1990. Coal distribution data are shown (in tables 1--34) by coal-producing state of origin, consumer use, method of transportation, and state of destination. 6 figs., 34 tabs.

  2. Coal competition: prospects for the 1980s

    1981-03-01

    This report consists of 10 chapters which present an historical overview of coal and the part it has played as an energy source in the economic growth of the United States from prior to World War II through 1978. Chapter titles are: definition of coals, coal mining; types of coal mines; mining methods; mining work force; development of coal; mine ownership; production; consumption; prices; exports; and imports. (DMC)

  3. Steam coal markets forum - the buyers` outlook

    Graybeal, W.R.; Costa, D.; Iyer, S.; Perego, G. [Apex Resources Group (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The session contains four presentations: a talk on the uncertain future of coal, by Bill Graybeal of Apex Resources Group; a talk on coal procurement at the Sines power plant in Portugal, by Duarte Costa of CPPE-EDP group, Portugal; a presentation by Suresh Iyer of NEPCO on coal at the New England Power Company; and a paper by Giovanni Perego of ENEL Spa, Italy on coal imports and coal use by ENEL.

  4. Prospects For Coal And Clean Coal Technologies In Kazakhstan

    NONE

    2011-12-15

    The coal sector in Kazakhstan is said to have enough reserves to last over 100 years, but the forecasted reserves are expected to last several hundreds of years. This makes investing in the fuel and energy sector of the country an attractive option for many international and private organisations. The proven on-shore reserves will ensure extraction for over 30 years for oil and 75 years for gas. The future development of the domestic oil sector depends mainly on developing the Kazakh sector of the Caspian Sea. The coal sector, while not a top priority for the Kazakh government, puts the country among the world's top ten coal-rich countries. Kazakhstan contains Central Asia's largest recoverable coal reserves. In future, the development of the raw materials base will be achieved through enriching and improving the quality of the coal and the deep processing of coal to obtain fluid fuel and synthetic substances. Developing shale is also topical. The high concentration of methane in coal layers makes it possible to extract it and utilise it on a large scale. However, today the country's energy sector, which was largely established in the Soviet times, has reached its potential. Kazakhstan has about 18 GW of installed electricity capacity, of which about 80% is coal fired, most of it built before 1990. Being alert to the impending problems, the government is planning to undertake large-scale modernisation of the existing facilities and construct new ones during 2015-30. The project to modernise the national electricity grid aims to upgrade the power substations to ensure energy efficiency and security of operation. The project will result in installation of modern high-voltage equipment, automation and relay protection facilities, a dispatch control system, monitoring and data processing and energy management systems, automated electricity metering system, as well as a digital corporate telecommunication network.

  5. Nigerian bituminous coal as a fuel-coal. | OGUGBUAJA | Global ...

    Nigerian bituminous coal as a fuel-coal. V O OGUGBUAJA, C L NDIOKWERE, G A DIMARI. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjpas.v6i2.16113 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL ...

  6. Effect of coal soluble constituents on caking property of coal

    Hengfu Shui; Mingdong Zheng; Zhicai Wang; Xunming Li [Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Anhui Educational Department

    2007-07-15

    Three cokemaking bituminous coals were extracted by the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvents with different content of NMP, and the effect of the amount and the component of coal soluble constituents on the caking property of the extracted residues of coals were investigated in this study. The CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent (1:1 by volume) was found to give the maximal extraction yields for the three coals, and the fat coal gave the highest extraction yield of 78.6% (daf) corresponding to its highest caking index of 101. It was found that for coking coal, when the extraction yield got to the maximum of 25.3% in the 1:1 by volume of CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent, the residue extracted still had caking property with the caking index of 19. This means parts of the caking constituents of coal are un-extractible because of covalent bonding or strong associative cross-links. The soluble components extracted by the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent and their effects on the caking indexes of the residues at a similar extraction yield quite differed depending on the NMP content in the mixed solvent. The coal solubles extracted by the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent with NMP less than 50% contained less light constituents with less of oxygen groups. This may lead to the decrease in the caking indexes for the residues obtained at the similar extraction yields compared to those of the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent with NMP more than 50%. 11 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Prospects for coal and clean coal technologies in Vietnam

    Baruya, P. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    Vietnam's energy economy is largely served by traditional biofuels and oil products. Within the power generating sector, hydropower and gas-fired power dominate. However, Vietnam still maintains a 40 Mt/y coal industry, parts of which have recently undergone a long overdue programme of renovation and expansion. Vietnam has been a successful exporter of anthracite, with more than half of the country's production being shipped or barged to steel mills in Japan or power stations in southern China, as well as most other Far Eastern coal importers. The industry is due to take a different form. Opencast mining has recently accounted for around 60% of production but this mining method could be phased out as reserves become more difficult and costly to extract. A shift to underground mining is expected, with a greater emphasis on more modern and mechanised production techniques. Coal is located mainly in the coalfields in Quang Ninh in the north easternmost province of Vietnam. The lower rank reserves located within the Red River coalfields, close to the existing anthracite operations, may yield many more millions of tonnes of coal for exploitation. Underground coal gasification could possibly be exploited in the deeper reserves of the Red River Basin. While coal production could rapidly change in future years, the power generation sector is also transforming with the country's 12,000 MWe development programme for new coal-fired power capacity. The economy suffers from a threat of power shortages due to a lack of generating and transmission capacity, while inefficiencies blight both energy production and end-users. Delivering power to the regions of growth remains difficult as the economy and the demand for power outpaces power generation. While hydroelectric power is being pursued, coal is therefore becoming a growing factor in the future prosperity of the Vietnamese economy. 111 refs., 33 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Retrospective modeling of the merit-order effect on wholesale electricity prices from distributed photovoltaic generation in the Australian National Electricity Market

    McConnell, Dylan; Hearps, Patrick; Eales, Dominic; Sandiford, Mike; Dunn, Rebecca; Wright, Matthew; Bateman, Lachlan

    2013-01-01

    In electricity markets that use a merit order dispatch system, generation capacity is ranked by the price that it is bid into the market. Demand is then met by dispatching electricity according to this rank, from the lowest to the highest bid. The last capacity dispatched sets the price received by all generation, ensuring the lowest cost provision of electricity. A consequence of this system is that significant deployments of low marginal cost electricity generators, including renewables, can reduce the spot price of electricity. In Australia, this prospect has been recognized in concern expressed by some coal-fired generators that delivering too much renewable generation would reduce wholesale electricity prices. In this analysis we calculate the likely reduction of wholesale prices through this merit order effect on the Australian National Electricity Market. We calculate that for 5 GW of capacity, comparable to the present per capita installation of photovoltaics in Germany, the reduction in wholesale prices would have been worth in excess of A$1.8 billion over 2009 and 2010, all other factors being equal. We explore the implications of our findings for feed-in tariff policies, and find that they could deliver savings to consumers, contrary to prevailing criticisms that they are a regressive form of taxation. - Highlights: ► We model the impact of photovoltaic generation on the Australian electricity market. ► Photovoltaic generation depresses electricity prices, particularly in summer peaks. ► Over the course of a year, the depression in wholesale prices has significant value. ► 5 GW of solar generation would have saved $1.8 billion in the market over two years. ► The depression of wholesale prices offsets the cost of support mechanisms

  9. Clean coal technology and advanced coal-based power plants

    Alpert, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    Clean Coal Technology is an arbitrary terminology that has gained increased use since the 1980s when the debate over acid raid issues intensified over emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. In response to political discussions between Prime Minister Brian Mulroney of Canada and President Ronald Reagan in 1985, the US government initiated a demonstration program by the Department of Energy (DOE) on Clean Coal Technologies, which can be categorized as: 1. precombustion technologies wherein sulfur and nitrogen are removed before combustion, combustion technologies that prevent or lower emissions as coal is burned, and postcombustion technologies wherein flue gas from a boiler is treated to remove pollutants, usually transforming them into solids that are disposed of. The DOE Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program is being carried out with $2.5 billion of federal funds and additional private sector funds. By the end of 1989, 38 projects were under way or in negotiation. These projects were solicited in three rounds, known as Clean Coal I, II, and III, and two additional solicitations are planned by DOE. Worldwide about 100 clean coal demonstration projects are being carried out. This paper lists important requirements of demonstration plants based on experience with such plants. These requirements need to be met to allow a technology to proceed to commercial application with ordinary risk, and represent the principal reasons that a demonstration project is necessary when introducing new technology

  10. U.S. coal outlook in Asia

    Johnson, C.J.

    1997-02-01

    Coal exports from the US to Asia are declining over time as a result of (1) increased competition from coal suppliers within the Asia-Pacific region, (2) changing steel making technologies, (3) decreased emphasis on security of coal supplies, and (4) deregulation of the energy industry--particularly electric utilities. There are no major changes on the horizon that are likely to alter the role of the US as a modest coal supplier to the Asia-Pacific region. The downward trend in US coal exports to Asia is expected to continue over the 1997--2010 period. But economic and policy changes underway in Asia are likely to result in periodic coal shortages, lasting a few months to a year, and short term increased export opportunities for US coal. US coal exports to Asia are projected to fluctuate within the following ranges over the 2000--2010 period: 10--17 million tons in total exports, 6--12 million tons in thermal coal exports, and 4--9 million tons in coking coal exports. The most important role for US coal, from the perspective of Asian coal importing countries, is to ensure a major alternative source of coal supplies that can be turned to in the event of unforeseen disruptions in coal supplies from the Asia-Pacific region or South Africa. However, the willingness of consumers to pay a premium to ensure US export capacity is declining, with increased emphasis on obtaining the lowest cost coal supplies

  11. Process for low mercury coal

    Merriam, Norman W.; Grimes, R. William; Tweed, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

  12. Treating effluents; recovering coal, etc

    Jones, F B; Bury, E

    1920-02-18

    Liquor obtained by scrubbing coal gas with sea-water or fresh water, and containing or having added to it finely-divided carbonaceous material in suspension, is subjected to a froth-flotation process to recover the carbonaceous matter and organic materials in the froth, and render the remaining liquor innocuous. Liquor obtained by scrubbing distillation gases, such as coal gas, may be used as a frothing-agent in a froth flotation process for the recovery of carbonaceous substances such as coal from materials containing them, thereby producing a froth containing the coal, etc., and also the organic materials from the liquor. In some cases the effluent may be diluted with sea-water, and, in recovering carbonaceous shales, there may be added to the liquor a small proportion of paraffin oil.

  13. Coal beneficiation by gas agglomeration

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Meiyu, Shen

    2003-10-14

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  14. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  15. NMR investigation of coal extracts

    Lang, I; Sebor, G [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague. Hornicky Ustav; Sebor, G Jr; Hajek, M; Mostecky, J [Vysoka Skola Chemicko-Technologicka, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1978-07-01

    Proton NMR spectroscopy was used for the evaluation of 10% coal extract solutions in deuterated pyridine. Four types of Czechoslovak coal were analyzed. Agreement was found between the aromaticity of coal extracts calculated from /sup 1/H NMR data using Brown's method and Ladner's and Williams' method and the characterization of an average molecule of the coal extract by the number of non-bridge carbon atoms of aromatic rings, by the overall number of aromatic ring carbon atoms and the number of aromatic rings, determined by the Williams and Ferris methods. The methods for calculating carbon distribution from /sup 1/H NMR data, however, contain some constants theoretically estimated or experimentally found using the method which still remain to be verified.

  16. Coal conversion. 1977 technical report

    None

    1978-06-01

    The status and progress in US DOE's projects in coal gasification, liquefaction, and fluidized-bed combustion are reviewed with financing, flowsheets, history, progress and status of each (57 projects). (LTN)

  17. Oxy-coal Combustion Studies

    Wendt, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Lighty, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ring, T. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Thornock, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Y Jia, W. Morris [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Pedel, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Rezeai, D. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wang, L. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-01-06

    The objective of this project is to move toward the development of a predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. This validation research brings together multi-scale experimental measurements and computer simulations. The combination of simulation development and validation experiments is designed to lead to predictive tools for the performance of existing air fired pulverized coal boilers that have been retrofitted to various oxy-firing configurations. In addition, this report also describes novel research results related to oxy-combustion in circulating fluidized beds. For pulverized coal combustion configurations, particular attention is focused on the effect of oxy-firing on ignition and coal-flame stability, and on the subsequent partitioning mechanisms of the ash aerosol.

  18. U.S. Coal Fields

    Department of Homeland Security — This data set shows the coal fields of Alaska and the conterminous United States. Most of the material for the conterminous United States was collected from James...

  19. A spatial analysis of China's coal flow

    Mou Dunguo; Li Zhi

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of China's energy structure and the distribution of its coal resources make coal transportation a very important component of the energy system; moreover, coal transportation acts as a bottleneck for the Chinese economy. To insure the security of the coal supply, China has begun to build regional strategic coal reserves at some locations, but transportation is still the fundamental way to guaranty supply security. Here, we study China's coal transportation quantitatively with a linear programming method that analyses the direction and volume of China's coal flows with the prerequisite that each province's supply and demand balance is guaranteed. First, we analyse the optimal coal transportation for the status quo coal supply and demand given the bottleneck effects that the Daqin Railway has on China's coal flow; second, we analyse the influence of future shifts in the coal supply zone in the future, finding that China's coal flows will also change, which will pressure China to construct railways and ports; and finally, we analyse the possibility of exploiting Yangtze River capacity for coal transportation. We conclude the paper with suggestions for enhancing China's coal transportation security. - Highlights: ► We use linear programming to study China's coal transportation. ► First, analyse the optimal coal flow under the status quo condition. ► Second, analyse influences of coal supply zone shifts to Neimeng and Xinjiang. ► Third, analyse the influence of using Yangtze River for coal transportation. ► At last, we give suggestions about infrastructure construction to guaranty China's long-run coal supply security.

  20. Coal combustion waste management study

    1993-02-01

    Coal-fired generation accounted for almost 55 percent of the production of electricity in the United States in 1990. Coal combustion generates high volumes of ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastes, estimated at almost 90 million tons. The amount of ash and flue gas desulfurization wastes generated by coal-fired power plants is expected to increase as a result of future demand growth, and as more plants comply with Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Nationwide, on average, over 30 percent of coal combustion wastes is currently recycled for use in various applications; the remaining percentage is ultimately disposed in waste management units. There are a significant number of on-site and off-site waste management units that are utilized by the electric utility industry to store or dispose of coal combustion waste. Table ES-1 summarizes the number of disposal units and estimates of waste contained at these unites by disposal unit operating status (i.e, operating or retired). Further, ICF Resources estimates that up to 120 new or replacement units may need to be constructed to service existing and new coal capacity by the year 2000. The two primary types of waste management units used by the industry are landfills and surface impoundments. Utility wastes have been exempted by Congress from RCRA Subtitle C hazardous waste regulation since 1980. As a result of this exemption, coal combustion wastes are currently being regulated under Subtitle D of RCRA. As provided under Subtitle D, wastes not classified as hazardous under Subtitle C are subject to State regulation. At the same time Congress developed this exemption, also known as the ''Bevill Exclusion,'' it directed EPA to prepare a report on coal combustion wastes and make recommendations on how they should be managed