WorldWideScience

Sample records for meridians

  1. [Hypothesis of "sinew-meridian system"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nongyu

    2017-01-12

    The author provides the hypothesis on the "sinew-meridian system" in terms of the physiology, pathology, diagnosis and treatment of meridians and sinew-meridians. Meridians are nourished with blood and sinew-meridians are softened with yang qi . Meridians are circulated in linear form and sinew-meridians are distributed in centripetal state. Meridians are communicated externally and internally and sinew-meridians are connected with tendons and bones. Meridians pertain to zangfu organs and sinew-meridians stabilize zangfu organs. Meridians nourish five sensory organs and sinew-meridians moisten nine orifices. Meridians are characterized as nourishment and sinew-meridians as solidity. Meridians emphasize the conditions of either deficiency or excess, and sinew-meridians as either cold or heat. The meridian disorder is located deeply and of complex and sinew-meridian's is located superficially and of simplicity. The meridian disorder is difficult to treat and with poor therapeutic effect and the sinew-meridian disorder is easy to treat and with rapid therapeutic effect. The "sinew-meridian system" composes of meridian-collateral system and tendon-skin system, in which the meridian-collateral system includes the twelve meridians, eight extra meridians and fifteen collaterals, being relevant with nutrition and blood, acting on transporting qi , blood and message; the tendon-skin system includes twelve sinew-meridians and twelve meridians of cutaneous regions, being relevant with defensive qi , acting on governing the motor function and protecting the body.

  2. Study on stability of DMS meridian detector.

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    Yang, Ning; Huang, Li; Yuan, Jiamin; Zhang, Zhifang; Yang, Zhimin

    2016-05-01

    The stability of meridian detector was the basis to study meridian through conductance method. Ancient documents mentioned that the human body's blood could change with the time and meridians. When qi and blood came, the qi and blood would be full of that place; when qi and blood gone, the local skin shining could fade and recess. It liked the tidal fluctuation, then caused the corresponding acupuncture points conductance value changes. Modern studies had reported that meridian detector instrument the skin area of twelve meridians acupuncture points could change along with time within 24 hours. In this circumstance, whether the conductance values changes in human acupuncture points had statistical significance was vital important. DMS meridian detector instruction was adopt to measure the twelve meridian jingyuan acupuncture point in order to analyze the acupuncture point conductance value changes within one day.

  3. Why the Greenwich Meridian Moved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    2003; Murdin 2009), as well as the web sites of the UK’s National Maritime Museum ( Sinclair 1997) and Wikipedia (IERSReferenceMeridian 2014), either...ing certain historical publications to our attention, and David LeDoux, for his assistance with the ERTM2160 data sets. Finally, the authors are... Sinclair A (1997) The longitude of Greenwich. http://www.rmg. co.uk/explore/astronomy-and-time/astronomy-facts/history/ the-longitude-of-greenwich

  4. Investigation of the Lower Resistance Meridian: Speculation on the Pathophysiological Functions of Acupuncture Meridians

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    Weisheng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It was pointed out in the two earlier papers of the present author that the meridians are in fact zones in the loose connective tissue containing richer interstitial fluid and thus are lower-resistance passages for diffusion of meridian-signal carriers or mediators. Moreover, a hypothesis, which incorporates the wide variety of functions of the loose connective tissue, the circulatory system, and the nervous system into the meridian function, has been proposed and in the hypothesis the mast cell plays some key roles. In the present paper, considering also the latest knowledge on cell migration along with some existing experimental results, it is further pointed out that meridians ought to be lower-resistance passages for chemotactic migration of cells and mast cells can indeed migrate longitudinally along meridians. Finally, the present paper points out that if we add the last two points to the hypothesis and keep in mind that mast cells have been known very recently to be versatile regulators of inflammation, tissue remodeling, host defense, and homeostasis, the rich pathophysiological functions of the meridian pointed out by the traditional Chinese medicine can be understood quite naturally.

  5. Electrical impedance along connective tissue planes associated with acupuncture meridians

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    Hammerschlag Richard

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acupuncture points and meridians are commonly believed to possess unique electrical properties. The experimental support for this claim is limited given the technical and methodological shortcomings of prior studies. Recent studies indicate a correspondence between acupuncture meridians and connective tissue planes. We hypothesized that segments of acupuncture meridians that are associated with loose connective tissue planes (between muscles or between muscle and bone visible by ultrasound have greater electrical conductance (less electrical impedance than non-meridian, parallel control segments. Methods We used a four-electrode method to measure the electrical impedance along segments of the Pericardium and Spleen meridians and corresponding parallel control segments in 23 human subjects. Meridian segments were determined by palpation and proportional measurements. Connective tissue planes underlying those segments were imaged with an ultrasound scanner. Along each meridian segment, four gold-plated needles were inserted along a straight line and used as electrodes. A parallel series of four control needles were placed 0.8 cm medial to the meridian needles. For each set of four needles, a 3.3 kHz alternating (AC constant amplitude current was introduced at three different amplitudes (20, 40, and 80 μAmps to the outer two needles, while the voltage was measured between the inner two needles. Tissue impedance between the two inner needles was calculated based on Ohm's law (ratio of voltage to current intensity. Results At the Pericardium location, mean tissue impedance was significantly lower at meridian segments (70.4 ± 5.7 Ω compared with control segments (75.0 ± 5.9 Ω (p = 0.0003. At the Spleen location, mean impedance for meridian (67.8 ± 6.8 Ω and control segments (68.5 ± 7.5 Ω were not significantly different (p = 0.70. Conclusion Tissue impedance was on average lower along the Pericardium meridian, but not

  6. The meridian system and mechanism of acupuncture—A comparative review. Part 1: The meridian system

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    Shyang Chang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, acupuncture has been used to heal various diseases and physiologic malfunctions in clinical practice for more than 2500 years. Due to its efficacy, acupuncture has been recommended by the World Health Organization in 1980 as an effective alternative therapy for 43 different disorders. Over the past few decades, various theories of the meridian system and mechanisms have been proposed to explain how acupuncture might work. Most of these mechanisms, however, cannot yet explain conclusively why acupuncture is efficacious in treating so many different diseases. A plausible mechanism has been unavailable until recently. This is the first of a three-part series that aims to provide a comparative review of the aforementioned topics. Part 1 reviews the current indications for acupuncture, basic concepts of TCM, and the essence of the meridian system. To establish a mathematically rigorous framework of TCM, the chaotic wave theory of fractal continuum is proposed. This theory is then applied to characterize the essence of the meridian system. Parts 2 and 3 will review the possible mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia and acupuncture therapies, respectively, based on biochemical, bioelectromagnetic, chaotic wave, and neurophysiologic approaches. It is sincerely hoped that this series of review articles can promote an understanding of the meridian system and acupuncture mechanisms to help patients in a logical and passionate way.

  7. The Meridians of Reference of Indian Astronomical Canons

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    Mercier, R.

    The canons of Sanskrit astronomy depend on mean motions which are normally postulated to refer to the central meridian of Ujjain. The present work is a statistical analysis of these mean motions designed to discover the optimum position of the meridian, by comparison with modern mean motions. This follows earlier work done by Billard in determining the optimum year.

  8. [Analysis on property of meridian supramolecules by biological evolution path].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kaiwen; Tao, Yeqin; Tang, Wenhan; He, Fuyuan; Liu, Wenlong; Shi, Jilian; Yang, Yantao; Zhou, Yiqun; Chang, Xiaorong

    2017-03-12

    With human placed in the whole nature, by following the biologic evolution path, the property of channel structure for "imprinting template" in meridian and zang-fu was explored with supramolecular chemistry. In the history of biologic evolution, each molecule in "molecule society" gradually developed into various highly-ordered supramolecular bodies based on self-identification, self-assembly, self-organization, self-replicating of"imprinting template", and thereby the original biochemical system was established, and finally evolved into human. In the forming process of supramolecular bodies, the channel structure of"imprinting template" in guest supramolecular bodies would be kept by host supramolecular bodies, and communicate with the outside to exchange materials, energy, information, otherwise life phenomenon could not continue, for which it was the chemical nature of biolo-gical supramolecular bodies for body to develop meridian. Therefore, the human was a gigantic and complicated supramolecules body in biological nature, and possessed the supramolecules "imprinting template" at each stage of evolution, for which the meridians were formed. When meridians converged, acupoints appeared; when acupointsconverged, zang-fu appeared. With the promotion of the blood from heart, according to"imprinting template", the guest supramolecular bodies and host meridian produced qi -analysis, which was the qi -phenomenon of guest in meridian. It presented as zang-fu image of physiology and pathology as well as action regularities of medication and acupuncture tolerance, by which current various meridian viewpoints could be explained and propose the hypothesis of meridian supramolecular bodies. The meridian and its phenomenon was decide by its "imprinting template" of supramolecular bodies and self-reaction regularities, which abided through the living nature. This was the substance for meridian biology.

  9. Comparison of Acupuncture Effect on Blood Perfusion between Needling Nonacupoint on Meridian and Needling Nonacupoint off Meridian

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    Wei-Bo Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To verify the ancient theory of rather missing the acupoint than missing the meridian, acupuncture at nonacupoint on meridian and acupuncture at nonacupoint off meridian were performed, respectively. The blood perfusion (BP on the calf around bladder meridian area was measured with a laser Doppler perfusion imager before, during, and after acupuncture. The whole scanning field was divided into seven subareas, and mean BP on each area was calculated. The ratio of mean BP between a subarea and a reference subarea was gotten, and then the change rate was calculated as ratio change rate (RCR. The results showed that RCR on bladder meridian area and around Chengshan (BL57 during or after acupuncture at nonacupoint on meridian was significantly higher than that at nonacupoint off meridian, which supports the ancient theory. Such differences may be attributable to some factors that can facilitate the signals transmission and produce a better acupuncture effect, such as richer nerve terminals, blood vessels, and mast cells which can produce stronger signals on the acupoints and the low hydraulic resistance channel along meridians which plays a role of signal transmitting channel to get a better effect of acupuncture.

  10. Information Models of Acupuncture Analgesia and Meridian Channels

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    Chang Hua Zou

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture and meridian channels have been major components of Chinese and Eastern Asian medicine—especially for analgesia—for over 2000 years. In recent decades, electroacupuncture (EA analgesia has been applied clinically and experimentally. However, there were controversial results between different treatment frequencies, or between the active and the placebo treatments; and the mechanisms of the treatments and the related meridian channels are still unknown. In this study, we propose a new term of infophysics therapy and develop information models of acupuncture (or EA analgesia and meridian channels, to understand the mechanisms and to explain the controversial results, based on Western theories of information, trigonometry and Fourier series, and physics, as well as published biomedical data. We are trying to build a bridge between Chinese medicine and Western medicine by investigating the Eastern acupuncture analgesia and meridian channels with Western sciences; we model the meridians as a physiological system that is mostly constructed with interstices in or between other physiological systems; we consider frequencies, amplitudes and wave numbers of electric field intensity (EFI as information data. Our modeling results demonstrate that information regulated with acupuncture (or EA is different from pain information, we provide answers to explain the controversial published results, and suggest that mechanisms of acupuncture (or EA analgesia could be mostly involved in information regulation of frequencies and amplitudes of EFI as well as neuronal transmitters such as endorphins.

  11. A discovery of low hydraulic resistance channel along meridians.

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    Zhang, Wei-Bo; Tian, Yu-Ying; Li, Hong; Tian, Jia-He; Luo, Ming-Fu; Xu, Fa-Liang; Wang, Guang-Jun; Huang, Tao; Xu, Yi-Hui; Wang, Rui-Hong

    2008-09-01

    A hydro-mechanic model was put forward to study the fundamental nature of acupuncture meridians. The basic state of low hydraulic resistance was tested on humans and mini pigs using three methods. The first, a modified Guyton's method, proved that there was lower hydraulic resistance on meridians compared with nonmeridians. The second scanning method involved a single pressure transducer that can find the lowest resistance point in tissue, and the third method used two transducers and provided a more stable measurement. Using the latter method, low hydraulic resistance points were found very close to low impedance points along meridians. The transmission of artificial interstitial fluid pressure waves was measured to examine their connection to the low resistance points, with the result that a good connection between the points was confirmed. This means the points form channels along the meridians that we refer to as low hydraulic resistance channels. The channel was imaged through isotopic tracing and a migration of isotope (99m)Te could be found along the channel. The layer of the channel was detected by injecting Alcian blue and the track was found beneath the skin. All of the above experiments suggest the existence of a new type of channel in living tissues that has not yet been described in modern science, but coincides quite well with the Qi channel theory of traditional Chinese medicine.

  12. The effective method for investigation meridian tropism theory in rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This present work describes an effective new method for study traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) on meridian tropism (MT) theory, which plays an essential role in clinical selection of TCM according to syndromes and strengthens the therapeutic effects. The new thread included material basis foundation and its tissue ...

  13. [Theoretical and clinical application of insomnia caused by "stomach disorder could lead to excess of yang-qiao meridian"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jian-Ning

    2013-02-01

    To explore the mechanism of insomnia caused by "stomach disorder could lead to excess of yang-qiao meridian" and clinical application of treating insomnia with acupoints in qiao meridian as the main points. From meridian theory, intersection between stomach meridian of Foot-Yangming and yang-qiao meridian is through Chengqi (ST 1). Qiao meridian for sleep is mainly because it is connected with eyes through the Bladder Meridian of Foot-Taiyang. For Stomach Meridian of Foot-Yangming is intersected with the Bladder Meridian of Foot-Taiyang in Jingming (BL 1), and intersected with yin and yang qiao meridian beside the mouth and under the eye, once functional disorder of the stomach, it can affect qi movements of the whole body and give rise to various pathological changes that cause insomnia. Meanwhile examples are given to explain the clinical application of treating subborn insomnia with corresponding acupoint of stomach and yang-qiao meridian.

  14. Rules of meridians and acupoints selection in treatment of Parkinson's disease based on data mining techniques.

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    Li, Zhe; Hu, Ying-Yu; Zheng, Chun-Ye; Su, Qiao-Zhen; An, Chang; Luo, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Mao-Cai

    2018-01-15

    To help selecting appropriate meridians and acupoints in clinical practice and experimental study for Parkinson's disease (PD), the rules of meridians and acupoints selection of acupuncture and moxibustion were analyzed in domestic and foreign clinical treatment for PD based on data mining techniques. Literature about PD treated by acupuncture and moxibustion in China and abroad was searched and selected from China National Knowledge Infrastructure and MEDLINE. Then the data from all eligible articles were extracted to establish the database of acupuncture-moxibustion for PD. The association rules of data mining techniques were used to analyze the rules of meridians and acupoints selection. Totally, 168 eligible articles were included and 184 acupoints were applied. The total frequency of acupoints application was 1,090 times. Those acupoints were mainly distributed in head and neck and extremities. Among all, Taichong (LR 3), Baihui (DU 20), Fengchi (GB 20), Hegu (LI 4) and Chorea-tremor Controlled Zone were the top five acupoints that had been used. Superior-inferior acupoints matching was utilized the most. As to involved meridians, Du Meridian, Dan (Gallbladder) Meridian, Dachang (Large Intestine) Meridian, and Gan (Liver) Meridian were the most popular meridians. The application of meridians and acupoints for PD treatment lay emphasis on the acupoints on the head, attach importance to extinguishing Gan wind, tonifying qi and blood, and nourishing sinews, and make good use of superior-inferior acupoints matching.

  15. Thermal Imaging Analysis for Acupuncture Needling Study by Thermal Graphic Data Based on the Large Intestine Meridian of Hand Yangming’s and the Lung Meridian of Hand Taiyin’s Acupoints

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    Rung-Sheng Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Meridians systems are the pathways of qi and blood of TCM (Tradition Chinese Medicine. These systems include twelve regular meridians and eight extra meridians. The five Shu-points, namely the Well, Spring, Stream, River, and Sea, are an important grouping of acupuncture points of the twelve regular meridians. Five Shu-points on each Meridian located below the elbow and the knees are therapeutically pivotal in most styles of acupuncture needling. The Sea points of both the Yin and Yang meridians are among the most important acupuncture points for treating disorders. In order to explain the mechanism of meridian theory, infrared imaging (or thermal imaging is one of techniques to investigate the phenomena of sensation transmission along channel in channel vessel theory. Assumed the qi can be shown by the thermal imager, based on the thermal graphic data the thermal imager was used to detect the temperature variation by needling the Sea points of a pair of Yin and Yang meridians named Large Intestine meridian of Hand Yangming and Lung meridian of Hand Taiyin. In this paper, it will show the temperature variations of Stream points of the chosen meridians are different by needling the Sea points of their corresponding meridians. And we can see the needling the Sea point of Yang meridian induced a temperature rising of its correlated Stream point. But needling the Sea point of Yin meridian deduced a temperature falling of its correlated Stream one.

  16. [Action mechanism of electroacupuncture at stomach meridian acupoints for oxidative damage in rats with gastric ulcer].

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    Yang, Zongbao; Wang, Yadong; Liu, Qiong; Liu, Mi; Chen, Huijuan; Chang, Xiaorong

    2016-06-12

    To observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at stomach meridian acupoints on expression of oxidation damage factors in serum and gastric mucosal cells in rats with gastric ulcer, and to explore the mechanism of EA at stomach meridian acupoints for oxidative damage in rats with gastric ulcer. Forty clean-grade SD rats were randomly divided into a normal group, a model group, a stomach meridian group and a gallbladder meridian group, ten rats in each one. Except the normal group, rats in the remaining groups were applied the restraint-cold stress method to establish the model of gastric ulcer. Rats in the normal group and model group received no treatment; rats in the stomach meridian group were treated with EA at "Liangmen" (ST 21) and "Zusanli" (ST 36); rats in the gallbladder meridian group were treated with EA at "Riyue" (GB 24) and "Yanglingquan" (GB 34). The EA was given for 30 min, once a day for 7 days totally. The change of gastric mucosal morphology was observed by routine light microscope; enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the expressions of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-2(IL-2), interleukin-6(IL-6) in serum and gastric mucosal cells of rats. After treatment, compared with the model group, the gastric mucosal damage index was decreased in the stomach meridian group and gallbladder meridian group (both P stomach meridian group (all P stomach meridian group rats ( P stomach meridian acupoints is likely to inhibit the expressions of oxidative damage factors to promote the repair of gastric mucosal injury, which indicates the correlation between meridians and zang-fu .

  17. Wave-induced flow in meridians demonstrated using photoluminescent bioceramic material on acupuncture points.

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    Chen, C Will; Tai, Chen-Jei; Choy, Cheuk-Sing; Hsu, Chau-Yun; Lin, Shoei-Loong; Chan, Wing P; Chiang, Han-Sun; Chen, Chang-An; Leung, Ting-Kai

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms of acupuncture remain poorly understood, but it is generally assumed that measuring the electrical conductivity at various meridians provides data representing various meridian energies. In the past, noninvasive methods have been used to stimulate the acupuncture points at meridians, such as heat, electricity, magnets, and lasers. Photoluminescent bioceramic (PLB) material has been proven to weaken hydrogen bonds and alter the characteristics of liquid water. In this study, we applied the noninvasive PLB technique to acupuncture point irradiation, attempting to detect its effects by using electrical conductivity measurements. We reviewed relevant literature, searching for information on meridians including their wave-induced flow characteristics.

  18. [Research progress on meridian-guiding theory of traditional Chinese medicine].

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    Wu, Juan; Xie, Jin; Zhang, Qun-Lin; Lin, Zhu-Xia; Xie, He; Sun, Bei

    2016-07-01

    Ancient materia medica and medical formularies were consulted to illustrate the development history of meridian-guiding theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The influences of various meridian-guiding drugs (Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, borneol, Bupleuri Radix, Platycodon Radix) on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of other drugs were summarized. Meridian-guiding drugs can promote the absorption and targeted distribution of other drugs and enhance the efficacy of injured tissues. The possible mechanisms of meridian-guiding are related with changing the component of cell membrane, inhibiting the efflux of P-gp, opening physiological barriers, modulating the levels of biochemicals, promoting microcirculation and adjusting the pH of targeted tissues. The chemical components of meridian-guiding drugs are the substance basis of meridian-guiding. The aim of exploring meridian-guiding chemicals is to find a natural targeted delivery system. At the present time, some progress has been made in the research on meridian-guiding field. However, further studies are required for the meridian-guiding theory of TCM. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  19. Bioceramic Resonance Effect on Meridian Channels: A Pilot Study.

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    Leung, Ting-Kai; Chan, Wing P; Tai, Chen-Jei; Cho, Ting-Pin; Yang, Jen-Chang; Lee, Po-Tsung

    2015-01-01

    Bioceramic is a kind of material which emits nonionizing radiation and luminescence, induced by visible light. Bioceramic also facilitates the breakup of large clusters of water molecules by weakening hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bond weakening, which allows water molecules to act in diverse ways under different conditions, is one of the key mechanisms underlying the effects of Bioceramic on biophysical and physical-chemical processes. Herein, we used sound to amplify the effect of Bioceramic and further developed an experimental device for use in humans. Thirteen patients who suffered from various chronic and acute illnesses that severely affected their sleep patterns and life quality were enrolled in a trial of Bioceramic resonance (i.e., rhythmic 100-dB sound waves with frequency set at 10 Hz) applied to the skin surface of the anterior chest. According to preliminary data, a "Propagated Sensation along Meridians" (PSM) was experienced in all Bioceramic resonance-treated patients but not in any of the nine control patients. The device was believed to enhance microcirculation through a series of biomolecular and physiological processes and to subject the specific meridian channels of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to coherent vibration. This noninvasive technique may offer an alternative to needle acupuncture and other traditional medical practices with clinical benefits.

  20. Acupuncture meridians demythified. A study using the radioactive tracer method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.; Esquerre, J.P.; Guiraud, R.; Guiraud, G.; Lazorthes, Y.

    1988-07-01

    Radioactive trajectories can be visualized by injecting a radioactive tracer, technetium 99 m, at the site of acupuncture points. To determine the exact nature of these trajectories we performed several experiments on healthy volunteers, and our results may be summarized as follows. The target organs of technetium 99 m, and notably the thyroid gland, were always visualized. The circulating radioactivity, visible on scintiscans and confirmed by venous blood counts, was not negligible. The radioactive trajectories we observed were often divided at their starting point and did not extend along the whole length of the acupuncture meridians they might have made visible. The radioactive trajectories disappeared after venous blockade to reappear when the blockade was lifted. Finally, the radioactive trajectories obtained were very similar after injection at the acupuncture point and at a control point. These findings indicate a lymphatic and venous drainage of the radioactive tracer at the site of injection followed by transportation through the veins, rather than visualization of acupuncture meridians as suggested by some authors.

  1. Acupuncture meridians demythified. A study using the radioactive tracer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.; Esquerre, J.P.; Guiraud, R.; Guiraud, G.; Lazorthes, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Radioactive trajectories can be visualized by injecting a radioactive tracer, technetium 99 m, at the site of acupuncture points. To determine the exact nature of these trajectories we performed several experiments on healthy volunteers, and our results may be summarized as follows. The target organs of technetium 99 m, and notably the thyroid gland, were always visualized. The circulating radioactivity, visible on scintiscans and confirmed by venous blood counts, was not negligible. The radioactive trajectories we observed were often divided at their starting point and did not extend along the whole length of the acupuncture meridians they might have made visible. The radioactive trajectories disappeared after venous blockade to reappear when the blockade was lifted. Finally, the radioactive trajectories obtained were very similar after injection at the acupuncture point and at a control point. These findings indicate a lymphatic and venous drainage of the radioactive tracer at the site of injection followed by transportation through the veins, rather than visualization of acupuncture meridians as suggested by some authors [fr

  2. Classic and Modern Meridian Studies: A Review of Low Hydraulic Resistance Channels along Meridians and Their Relevance for Therapeutic Effects in Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Bo; Wang, Guang-Jun; Fuxe, Kjell

    2015-01-01

    Meridian theory is one of the core components of the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It gives an integral explanation for how human life works, how a disease forms, and how a therapy acts to treat a disease. If we do not understand the meridians, it is hard to understand the TCM. People in China and abroad had been working hard for 50 years, trying to understand the meridians; then 15 years ago a breakthrough idea appeared when we realized that they are low resistance fluid channels where various chemical and physical transports take place. The channel is called low hydraulic resistance channel (LHRC) and the chemical transport is named volume transmission (VT). This review aims to give a full understanding of the essence of meridian and its works on the therapies of TCM.

  3. Study of the polar current systems using the IMS meridian chains of magnetometers. Pt. 1. Alaska meridian chain

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    Akasofu, S.I.; Ahn, B.H.; Romick, G.J. (Alaska Univ., Fairbanks (USA). Geophysical Inst.)

    1983-12-01

    Magnetic field data from a meridian chain of observatories and the recently developed computer codes constitute a powerful tool in studying substorm current systems in the polar region. In this paper, we summarize some of the results obtained from the IMS Alaska meridian chain of observatories. The basic data are the average daily magnetic field variations for 50 successive days (March 9- April 27, 28) which represent a moderately disturbed period. With the aid of the two computer codes, we obtained the distribution of the following quantities in the polar ionosphere in invariant-MLT coordinates: the total ionospheric current; the Pedersen current; the Hall current; the field-aligned currents; the Pedersen-associated field-aligned currents; the Hall-associated field-aligned currents; the electric potential; the Joule heat production rate; the auroral particle energy injection rate; the total energy dissipation rate. All these quantities are related to each other self-consistently at every point under the initial assumptions used in the computation. By using a model of the magnetosphere, the following quantities in the polar ionosphere are projected onto the equatorial plane and the Y-Z plane at X = -20 Rsub(E): the Pedersen current counterpart; the Hall current counterpart; the electric potential; the Pedersen-associated field-aligned currents; the Hall-associated field-aligned currents. These distributions patterns serve as an important basis for studying the generation mechanisms of substorm current systems and the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling process.

  4. Electrical impedance of acupuncture meridians: the relevance of subcutaneous collagenous bands.

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    Andrew C Ahn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The scientific basis for acupuncture meridians is unknown. Past studies have suggested that acupuncture meridians are physiologically characterized by low electrical impedance and anatomically associated with connective tissue planes. We are interested in seeing whether acupuncture meridians are associated with lower electrical impedance and whether ultrasound-derived measures--specifically echogenic collagenous bands--can account for these impedance differences.In 28 healthy subjects, we assessed electrical impedance of skin and underlying subcutaneous connective tissue using a four needle-electrode approach. The impedances were obtained at 10 kHz and 100 kHz frequencies and at three body sites - upper arm (Large Intestine meridian, thigh (Liver, and lower leg (Bladder. Meridian locations were determined by acupuncturists. Ultrasound images were obtained to characterize the anatomical features at each measured site. We found significantly reduced electrical impedance at the Large Intestine meridian compared to adjacent control for both frequencies. No significant decrease in impedance was found at the Liver or Bladder meridian. Greater subcutaneous echogenic densities were significantly associated with reduced impedances in both within-site (meridian vs. adjacent control and between-site (arm vs. thigh vs. lower leg analyses. This relationship remained significant in multivariable analyses which also accounted for gender, needle penetration depth, subcutaneous layer thickness, and other ultrasound-derived measures.Collagenous bands, represented by increased ultrasound echogenicity, are significantly associated with lower electrical impedance and may account for reduced impedances previously reported at acupuncture meridians. This finding may provide important insights into the nature of acupuncture meridians and the relevance of collagen in bioelectrical measurements.

  5. An information entropy model on clinical assessment of patients based on the holographic field of meridian

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    Wu, Jingjing; Wu, Xinming; Li, Pengfei; Li, Nan; Mao, Xiaomei; Chai, Lihe

    2017-04-01

    Meridian system is not only the basis of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) method (e.g. acupuncture, massage), but also the core of TCM's basic theory. This paper has introduced a new informational perspective to understand the reality and the holographic field of meridian. Based on maximum information entropy principle (MIEP), a dynamic equation for the holographic field has been deduced, which reflects the evolutionary characteristics of meridian. By using self-organizing artificial neural network as algorithm, the evolutionary dynamic equation of the holographic field can be resolved to assess properties of meridians and clinically diagnose the health characteristics of patients. Finally, through some cases from clinical patients (e.g. a 30-year-old male patient, an apoplectic patient, an epilepsy patient), we use this model to assess the evolutionary properties of meridians. It is proved that this model not only has significant implications in revealing the essence of meridian in TCM, but also may play a guiding role in clinical assessment of patients based on the holographic field of meridians.

  6. Visualization of the Meridian System Based on Biomedical Information about Acupuncture Treatment

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    In-Seon Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of the concept of the meridian system is closely connected with the treatment effects of acupuncture, and it serves as an empirical reference system in the clinical setting. Understanding the meridian channels would be a first step in enhancing the clinical efficacy of acupuncture treatment. To understand the relationship between the location of the disease and the sites of relevant acupoints, we investigated acupuncture treatment regimens for low-back pain in 37 clinical studies. We found that the most frequently used acupoints in the treatment of low-back pain were BL23 (51%, BL25 (43%, BL24 (32%, BL40 (32%, BL60 (32%, GB30 (32%, BL26 (28%, BL32 (28%, and GB34 (21%. For the example of low-back pain, we visualized the biomedical information (frequency rates about acupuncture treatment on the meridians of a three-dimensional (3D model of the human body. We found that both local and distal acupoints were used to treat low-back pain in clinical trials based on the meridian theory. We suggest a new model for the visualization of a data-driven 3D meridian system of biomedical information about the meridians and acupoints. These findings may be helpful in understanding the meridian system and revealing the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment.

  7. Visualization of the Meridian System Based on Biomedical Information about Acupuncture Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In-Seon; Lee, Soon-Ho; Kim, Song-Yi; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Hi-Joon; Chae, Younbyoung

    2013-01-01

    The origin of the concept of the meridian system is closely connected with the treatment effects of acupuncture, and it serves as an empirical reference system in the clinical setting. Understanding the meridian channels would be a first step in enhancing the clinical efficacy of acupuncture treatment. To understand the relationship between the location of the disease and the sites of relevant acupoints, we investigated acupuncture treatment regimens for low-back pain in 37 clinical studies. We found that the most frequently used acupoints in the treatment of low-back pain were BL23 (51%), BL25 (43%), BL24 (32%), BL40 (32%), BL60 (32%), GB30 (32%), BL26 (28%), BL32 (28%), and GB34 (21%). For the example of low-back pain, we visualized the biomedical information (frequency rates) about acupuncture treatment on the meridians of a three-dimensional (3D) model of the human body. We found that both local and distal acupoints were used to treat low-back pain in clinical trials based on the meridian theory. We suggest a new model for the visualization of a data-driven 3D meridian system of biomedical information about the meridians and acupoints. These findings may be helpful in understanding the meridian system and revealing the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment.

  8. [Human body meridian spatial decision support system for clinical treatment and teaching of acupuncture and moxibustion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dehua

    2016-01-01

    The spatial position and distribution of human body meridian are expressed limitedly in the decision support system (DSS) of acupuncture and moxibustion at present, which leads to the failure to give the effective quantitative analysis on the spatial range and the difficulty for the decision-maker to provide a realistic spatial decision environment. Focusing on the limit spatial expression in DSS of acupuncture and moxibustion, it was proposed that on the basis of the geographic information system, in association of DSS technology, the design idea was developed on the human body meridian spatial DSS. With the 4-layer service-oriented architecture adopted, the data center integrated development platform was taken as the system development environment. The hierarchical organization was done for the spatial data of human body meridian via the directory tree. The structured query language (SQL) server was used to achieve the unified management of spatial data and attribute data. The technologies of architecture, configuration and plug-in development model were integrated to achieve the data inquiry, buffer analysis and program evaluation of the human body meridian spatial DSS. The research results show that the human body meridian spatial DSS could reflect realistically the spatial characteristics of the spatial position and distribution of human body meridian and met the constantly changeable demand of users. It has the powerful spatial analysis function and assists with the scientific decision in clinical treatment and teaching of acupuncture and moxibustion. It is the new attempt to the informatization research of human body meridian.

  9. [Clinical research of chloasma treated with the meridian cosmetology and the impacts on estrogen and progestin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Zhong-Nan; Wang, Shi-Biao; Chang, Ya-Lin; Wang, Hai-Yan; Mao, Li-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; He, Tian-You

    2012-09-01

    To observe the efficacy difference between meridian cosmetology and western medicine in the treatment of chloasma and explore the impacts of meridian cosmetology on E2 and PRGE. Three hundreds cases of chloasma were randomized into a meridian cosmetology group and a western medication group according to the visit sequence, 150 cases in each one. In the meridian cosmetology group, the meridian regulation, acupuncture based on pattern/syndrome differentiation [at the body acupoints such as Qihai (CV 6), Xuehai (SP 10), Zusanli (ST 36), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Ganshu (BL 18), Pishu (BL 20) and Shenshu (BL 23), etc.] and the local surrounding needling therapy on the chloasma skin lesion were adopted. In the western medication group, the oral administration of Vitamin C and E was prescribed for 3 months. The clinical efficacy was observed for the patients in the two groups. Additionally, 30 cases were collected from the meridian cosmetology group randomly for the detection of estrogen (E2) and progestin (PRGE) before and after treatment. The effective rate in the meridian cosmetology group was 92.6% (126/136), which was superior to 67.0% (75/112) in the western medication group (P cosmetology group, as compared with that before treatment, E2 level was decreased (P cosmetology achieves the superior efficacy as compared with the western medication group for the chloasma and it can regulate the levels of E2 and PRGE.

  10. Evaluating Meridian-Sinew Release Therapy for the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis

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    Song Wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. In recent years, public health experts have concluded that the impact of osteoarthritis is equal in magnitude to that of cardiovascular disease. Osteoarthritis of the knee is prevalent in the elderly population; however, there are currently no effective treatments for this condition. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of “meridian-sinew release,” a newly developed technique which entails using a meridian-sinew scope and a meridian-sinew knife to treat osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods. Patients (N=90 with knee osteoarthritis were prospectively randomized to meridian-sinew release therapy, acupuncture therapy, or drug therapy groups, respectively. Outcome evaluation included pain, stiffness, physiological function, total symptom score, and overall changes in the condition. Results. After 12 weeks, patients' general assessment (GA and doctors' general assessment (GA of the condition were not significantly different among the three groups. However, significant differences in primary endpoint pain, joint stiffness, and total symptom score were found between the meridian-sinew group and the acupuncture group and between the meridian-sinew group and the control group (P<0.05. No adverse events occurred during the trial. Conclusion. Our study suggests that meridian-sinew release therapy can improve knee osteoarthritis, alleviate joint pain, and improve functional movement disorder. It is a safe and effective treatment for knee osteoarthritis.

  11. Bioceramic Resonance Effect on Meridian Channels: A Pilot Study

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    Ting-Kai Leung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioceramic is a kind of material which emits nonionizing radiation and luminescence, induced by visible light. Bioceramic also facilitates the breakup of large clusters of water molecules by weakening hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bond weakening, which allows water molecules to act in diverse ways under different conditions, is one of the key mechanisms underlying the effects of Bioceramic on biophysical and physical-chemical processes. Herein, we used sound to amplify the effect of Bioceramic and further developed an experimental device for use in humans. Thirteen patients who suffered from various chronic and acute illnesses that severely affected their sleep patterns and life quality were enrolled in a trial of Bioceramic resonance (i.e., rhythmic 100-dB sound waves with frequency set at 10 Hz applied to the skin surface of the anterior chest. According to preliminary data, a “Propagated Sensation along Meridians” (PSM was experienced in all Bioceramic resonance-treated patients but not in any of the nine control patients. The device was believed to enhance microcirculation through a series of biomolecular and physiological processes and to subject the specific meridian channels of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM to coherent vibration. This noninvasive technique may offer an alternative to needle acupuncture and other traditional medical practices with clinical benefits.

  12. Intradermal Alcian-Blue Injection Method to Trace Acupuncture Meridians

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    Baeckkyoung Sung

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : In this article, we report on the intradermal Alcian blue staining method for tracing the meridians of acupuncture. Methods : 1% Alcian blue solution was injected into acupoints by using a 0.5mL insulin syringe with a 31-gauge needle, then the skin was incised and was observed under a stereoscopic microscope. The specimens were examined by using immunohistochemical methods and were observed under a confocal laser scanning microscope. Results : A threadlike structure, which was visualized with Alcian blue, existed in dermis layer and proceeded to hypodermis. In this structure, characteristic alignments of rod- shaped nuclei and 1-2μm sized DNA granules were observed. Furthermore, abundant blood capillary plexuses, peripheral nerve endings, and a corpusclelike structure(about 300μm in diameter were visualized in the skin tissues of acupoints. Conclusion : It was concluded that the specific threadlike and corpuscle-like structures corresponded to superficial Bonghan duct and corpuscle, respectively.

  13. Infrared thermography fails to visualize stimulation-induced meridian-like structures

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    Litscher Gerhard

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM the vital energy flows through a system of channels also called meridians. Generally accepted proof for meridians cannot be considered as being given. Goal of this study was to examine whether possible stimulation-induced meridian-like structures, as recently described by other authors, can be visualized and objectified simultaneously at different infrared wavelength ranges. Methods The study analyses evidence for the existence of acupuncture-specific, meridian-like artifacts in 6 healthy volunteers (mean age ± SD 28.7 ± 3.7 years; range 25 – 35 years. Two infrared cameras at different wavelength ranges were used for thermographic control of possible stimulation effects (moxibustion-cigar, infrared warmth stimulation, needle and laserneedle stimulation. In addition to thermography, temperature and microcirculatory parameters were registered at a selected point using laser-Doppler flowmetry. Results and Conclusion After moxibustion (or infrared light stimulation of the body at 2 – 5 μm and 7.5 – 13 μm ranges, different structures appear on thermographic images of the human body which are technical artifacts and which are not identical to what are known as meridians in all textbooks of TCM. Further scientific studies are required regarding the possible visualization of meridians.

  14. Relationship between Tissue Distributions of Modified Wuzi Yanzong Prescription () in Rats and Meridian Tropism Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Lin; Li, Wei-Wei; Wu, Cai-Sheng; Zhang, Jin-Lan; Song, Yi-Xiang; Song, Fang-Jiao; Fu, Hong; Liu, Geng-Xin; Wang, Xue-Mei

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between tissue distributions of modified Wuzi Yanzong prescription (, MWP) in rats and meridian tropism theory. A high-performance liquid chromatography with Fourier transform-mass spectrometry (HPLC-FT) method was used to identify the metabolites of MWP in different tissues of rats after continued oral administration of MWP for 7 days. The relationship between MWP and meridian tropism theory was studied according to the tissue distributions of the metabolites of MWP in rats and the relevant literature. Nineteen metabolites, mainly flavanoid compounds, were detected in the different rat tissues and classified to each herb in MWP. Further, it was able to establish that the tissue distributions of the metabolites of MWP were consistent with the descriptions of meridian tropism of MWP available in literature, this result might be useful in clarifying the mechanism of MWP on meridian tropism. In the long run, these data might provide scientific evidence of the meridian tropism theory to further promote the reasonable, effective utilization, and modernization of Chinese medicine. The tissue distributions of MWP in vivo were consistent with the descriptions of meridian tropism of MWP.

  15. The effective method for investigation meridian tropism theory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, F Q; Feng, Y Y; Guo, L; Guo, G L; Yan, B L

    2013-01-01

    This present work describes an effective new method for study traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) on meridian tropism (MT) theory, which plays an essential role in clinical selection of TCM according to syndromes and strengthens the therapeutic effects. The new thread included material basis foundation and its tissue distribution study. Xiheliu, the most popular TCM on heart tropism, was investigated by simple and accurate high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The analysis of plasma after oral administration the total flavonoid of Xiheliu (TFX) exhibited that tamarixetin and kaempferide had the highest concentration and approximately the highest level within 25 min. The mixture of them could last accelerating the urine excretion more than 7 h after a single dose and could not cause the disorder of ion in rats, which was observed in diuretic activity experiment. In view of the reported biological activities was consistent with the effects of Xiheliu, tamarixetin and kaempferide were likely to be the material basis of it. Tissue distribution study showed that the highest level of analytes was in heart, lung, kidney and liver, and most tissues reached maximum level at 30 min post-dose. Since liver was the most important blood-supply tissue, the result of this experiment was in accordance with the MT record of Xiheliu and confirmed that tamarixetin and kaempferide was the material bases of it on MT. This is the first report for the illumination of material basis and the mechanism of Xiheliu on MT by analysis the record of Xiheliu in Compendium of Materia Medica and experimental study.

  16. Apparent contrast differs across the vertical meridian: visual and attentional factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Stuart; Rodriguez, Ruby Z; Carrasco, Marisa

    2008-01-24

    It is known that visual performance is better on the horizontal than the vertical meridian, and in the lower than the upper region of the vertical meridian (Vertical Meridian Asymmetry, "VMA"), and that exogenous spatial attention increases the apparent contrast of a stimulus. Here we investigate whether the VMA also leads to differences in the subjective appearance of contrast between the upper and lower vertical meridian, and how the effects of exogenous spatial attention on appearance interact with the VMA. Two Gabor stimuli were presented North and South of fixation at 4 degrees eccentricity along the vertical meridian. Observers were asked to report the orientation of the Gabor that was higher in contrast. By assessing which stimulus observers perceived to be higher in contrast, we obtained psychometric functions and their concomitant points of subjective equality (PSE). These functions were measured both when a neutral cue was presented in the middle of the display and transient attention was deployed via a peripheral cue to the location of one of the stimuli. Observers were told that the cues were uninformative as to the stimulus contrast or its orientation. We report two novel findings. First, apparent contrast is higher on the lower vertical meridian than on the upper. Second, the attentional enhancement of apparent contrast is asymmetrical with both low and high contrast stimuli; the effect of exogenous spatial attention is greater on the lower than the upper vertical meridian. As in prior studies, we find no corresponding asymmetry in orientation discrimination. Signal detection-based models explain the asymmetrical appearance effects as a function of differential multiplicative gain factors for the North and South locations, and predict a similar but much smaller asymmetry for orientation discrimination.

  17. [Observation and analysis on the meridian-collateral running track-related anatomical structure in the human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hao-ran; Li, Fang-chun; Zhang, Wei-bo

    2009-06-01

    In the present paper the authors analyze the anatomical structure of the meridian running track by using the dialectical thought and comprehensive analysis of the integrated Chinese and western medicine. It has been observed that the "Qi-passages" of the 14 meridians of Chinese medicine are located in the connective tissue among the interspace of the muscles, etc. distributing longitudinally. The "Qi-passages" of the 15 Luomai (collaterals of the meridians) are located in the connective tissue among the interspace of the muscles, etc. distributing transversally, while those of the small branches of the meridian collaterals are located in the interspace mesenchyme of the muscle bundles distributing in the whole body. The "Qi-passages" of the tiny branches of the meridian collaterals are located in the mesenchyme of the intracellular space, such as the muscle fibers in the whole body. The authors hold that the so-called "Mai Qi" of the meridian-collaterals is the liquid-Qi flowing in the vertical and horizontal tissue interspaces. The "Qi-passage" of the meridian-collaterals of Chinese medicine is the pathway of the liquid-Qi of the tissue interspaces. The structure of the meridian-collaterals is the tissue interspace. The meridian-collateral system is a regulation-control system in the human body where the Qi-passages communicate with each other, and is, in fact, the protoplasm, the liquid-Qi circulating in the tissue interspaces.

  18. [Preliminary study on lacquer figure with meridian-points marked of the western Han dynasty unearthed in Laoguanshan, Chengdu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fanrong; Zeng Fang; Zhou, Xinglan; Xie, Tao; Lu, Yinke; Wang, Yi; Jiang, Zhang-hua

    2015-01-01

    The lacquer figure with meridian-points marked of the western Han dynasty, unearthed in Tianhui town, Jinniu district, Chengdu in 2012, has been the earliest and the most complete human figure of meridian-acupoints in China so far. There were over ten courses of meridians, and over 100 visible acupoints as well as multiple intaglio inscriptions. All of them are valuable in academic study. The writers introduced the lacquer figure un- earthed in Laoguanshan in terms of the briefs and characteristics of meridian and acupoint distributions, which give the references to the future studies.

  19. A primary study on meridian-stretching of injected FDG using PET MPItool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yijie; Tian Jiahe; Chen Yingmao; Yin Dayi; Zhang Jinming; Zhang Shuwen; Shao Mingzhe; Yao Shulin; Ding Weimin; Liu Zilai

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To show the images of tracer-stretching along the acupuncture meridian by use of PET with multipurpose imaging tool (MPItool's) fusion function. Methods: On 5 healthy volunteers, the authors measured the classical acupuncture points accurately with the biophysical measuring method. 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was injected into the selected points, the others points along the same meridian were labelled with 18 F-FDG applied on the correspondent skin area of 2 . With the same body position, the transmission image and emission image was acquired respectively and fused with MPItool and its 3D display system. Results: The authors clearly showed not only the meridian-stretching images of the tracer, but also figured out the depth of the study points. The depth at SHANGJUXU point was about 3.8 cm and at ZUSANLI point was about 5,0 cm. The depths basically fit the classically documented ones of the correspondent acupuncture points. Conclusions: Using PET MPItool the authors preliminarily demonstrated that the tracer injected at the acupuncture point stretches along the correspondent meridian, and the depths of the meridian and the points (SHANGJUXU, ZUSANLI) detected are almost accordant with the classically documented ones

  20. The existence of propagated sensation along the meridian proved by neuroelectrophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinsen; Zheng, Shuxia; Pan, Xiaohua; Zhu, Xiaoxiang; Hu, Xianglong

    2013-01-01

    Propagated sensation along the meridian can occur when acupoints are stimulated by acupuncture or electrical impulses. In this study, participants with notable propagated sensation along the dian were given electro-acupuncture at the Jianyu (LI15) acupoint of the large intestine meridian. When participants stated that the sensation reached the back of their hand, regular nervous system action discharge was examined using a physiological recording electrode placed on the superficial branch of the radial nerve. The topographical maps of brain-evoked potential in the primary cortical somatosensory area were also detected. When Guangming (GB37) acupoint in the lower limb and Hegu (LI4) acupoint in the upper limb were stimulated, subjects without propagated sensation along the meridian exhibited a high potential reaction in the corresponding area of the brain cortical so-matosensory area. For subjects with a notable propagated sensation along the meridian, the tion area was larger and extended into the face representative area. These electrophysiological measures directly prove the existence of propagated sensation along the meridian, and the pheral stimulated site is consistent with the corresponding primary cortical somatosensory area, which presents a high potential reaction. PMID:25206574

  1. Distribution characteristics of meridian sinew (jingjin) syndrome in 313 cases of whiplash-associated disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ye-meng; Zhao, Yan; Xue, Xiao-lin; Zhang, Qun-ce; Wu, Xiu-yan; Li, Hui; Zheng, Xin; Zhao, Joanna; He, Frank D; Kong, Jun-hui; Wang, Tian-fang

    2015-03-01

    To investigate and analyze the characteristics of Meridian Sinew (Jingjin) syndrome in patients with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). From August 2010 to September 2011, 313 WAD cases from New York and California states were collected. The survey mostly collects the information of "Sinew Knotted Points" and symptoms of four types of Meridian Sinew differentiation-Taiyang, Shaoyin, Shaoyang and Yangming. Among the cases which are on the average of medium injury level, the higher frequency of "Sinew Knotted Points" tenderness were found on Jianwaishu (SI 14), Jianzhongshu (SI 15), Tianchuang (SI 16), C3-6 Spinous Process, Dazhui (GV 14), Fengchi (GB 20), Tianliao (SJ 15) and Tianding (LI 17). The most commonly presented symptoms were widespread spasm and tenderness in the neck (Taiyang), difficulty in lateral flexion (Shaoyang), problems of extension and flexion (Taiyang), and stiffness and pain during neck movement (Yangming). Among the cases, 237 cases (75.72%) were related to Taiyang Meridian Sinew syndrome, 82 cases (26.20%) to Shaoyin syndrome and 175 (55.91%) and 176 (56.23%) cases to Shaoyang and Yangming syndrome respectively. The most of cases presented in a combination format. The syndrome distribution under Grade I, II and III reflected that more combination of the Meridian Sinew syndromes in the whiplash injury patients which is resulted from more severity of injury. It is practical to identify the location of abnormality through Meridian Sinew differentiation, considering both "Sinew Knotted Points" tenderness and corresponding symptoms, for the local neck symptoms of WAD.

  2. Series Expansion for Direct and Inverse Solutions of Meridian in Terms of Different Latitude Variables

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    GUO Jiachun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Formulas for direct solutions of meridian written by the reduced and geocentric latitudes respectively were derived by series expansion. Meanwhile, according to Lagrange inversion theorem, formulas for inverse solutions of the issue were also expressed in terms of the same latitudes. These two formulas were structurally consistent with that expressed by geodetic latitude ones. In these sets of formulas, internal connection between meridian and three different types of latitude were realized. Analysis and numerical calculation showed that the direct and inverse meridional solution with reduced latitude was of higher precision than that with geodetic latitude, and furthermore, there had a unified theory between meridian theory and classical geodetic problems expressed by reduced latitude.

  3. [Application of problem-based learning in teaching practice of Science of Meridians and Acupoints].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Tang, Jiqin; Ying, Zhenhao; Zhang, Yongchen

    2015-02-01

    Science of Meridians and Acupoints is the bridge between basic medicine and clinical medicine of acupuncture and moxibustion. This teaching practice was conducted in reference to the teaching mode of problembased learning (PBL), in association with the clinical design problems, by taking as the students as the role and guided by teachers. In order to stimulate students' active learning enthusiasm, the writers implemented the class teaching in views of the typical questions of clinical design, presentation of study group, emphasis on drawing meridian running courses and acupoint locations, summarization and analysis, as well as comprehensive evaluation so that the comprehensive innovative ability of students and the teaching quality could be improved.

  4. Theoretical basis, application, reliability, and sample size estimates of a Meridian Energy Analysis Device for Traditional Chinese Medicine Research

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    Ming-Yen Tsai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The Meridian Energy Analysis Device is currently a popular tool in the scientific research of meridian electrophysiology. In this field, it is generally believed that measuring the electrical conductivity of meridians provides information about the balance of bioenergy or Qi-blood in the body. METHODS AND RESULTS: PubMed database based on some original articles from 1956 to 2014 and the authoŕs clinical experience. In this short communication, we provide clinical examples of Meridian Energy Analysis Device application, especially in the field of traditional Chinese medicine, discuss the reliability of the measurements, and put the values obtained into context by considering items of considerable variability and by estimating sample size. CONCLUSION: The Meridian Energy Analysis Device is making a valuable contribution to the diagnosis of Qi-blood dysfunction. It can be assessed from short-term and long-term meridian bioenergy recordings. It is one of the few methods that allow outpatient traditional Chinese medicine diagnosis, monitoring the progress, therapeutic effect and evaluation of patient prognosis. The holistic approaches underlying the practice of traditional Chinese medicine and new trends in modern medicine toward the use of objective instruments require in-depth knowledge of the mechanisms of meridian energy, and the Meridian Energy Analysis Device can feasibly be used for understanding and interpreting traditional Chinese medicine theory, especially in view of its expansion in Western countries.

  5. The effects of meridian exercise on anxiety, depression, and self-esteem of female college students in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwuy Bun; Cohen, Susan M; Oh, Hye Kyung; Sok, Sohyune R

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effects of meridian exercise on anxiety, depression, and self-esteem of female college students in Korea. The effects of meridian exercise on anxiety, depression, and self-esteem were statistically significant (t = -7.982, P= .000; t= -8.814, P = .000; t = 9.649, P = .000) between the experimental and control group.

  6. Statistical analysis of 4 types of neck whiplash injuries based on classical meridian theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yemeng; Zhao, Yan; Xue, Xiaolin; Li, Hui; Wu, Xiuyan; Zhang, Qunce; Zheng, Xin; Wang, Tianfang

    2015-01-01

    As one component of the Chinese medicine meridian system, the meridian sinew (Jingjin, (see text), tendino-musculo) is specially described as being for acupuncture treatment of the musculoskeletal system because of its dynamic attributes and tender point correlations. In recent decades, the therapeutic importance of the sinew meridian has become revalued in clinical application. Based on this theory, the authors have established therapeutic strategies of acupuncture treatment in Whiplash-Associated Disorders (WAD) by categorizing four types of neck symptom presentations. The advantage of this new system is to make it much easier for the clinician to find effective acupuncture points. This study attempts to prove the significance of the proposed therapeutic strategies by analyzing data collected from a clinical survey of various WAD using non-supervised statistical methods, such as correlation analysis, factor analysis, and cluster analysis. The clinical survey data have successfully verified discrete characteristics of four neck syndromes, based upon the range of motion (ROM) and tender point location findings. A summary of the relationships among the symptoms of the four neck syndromes has shown the correlation coefficient as having a statistical significance (P syndrome factors are more related to the Liver, as originally described in classical theory. The hypothesis of meridian sinew syndromes in WAD is clearly supported by the statistical analysis of the clinical trials. This new discovery should be beneficial in improving therapeutic outcomes.

  7. Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR) and Frisson: Mindfully Induced Sensory Phenomena That Promote Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Campo, Marisa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    There are many important phenomena involved in human functioning that are unnoticed, misunderstood, not applied, or do not pique the interest of the scientific community. Among these, "autonomous sensory meridian response" ("ASMR") and "frisson" are two very noteworthy instances that may prove to be therapeutically…

  8. Principle Study of Head Meridian Acupoint Massage to Stress Release via Grey Data Model Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ya-Ting

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the scientific study of the effectiveness and action principle of head meridian acupoint massage by applying the grey data model analysis approach. First, the head massage procedure for massaging the important head meridian acupuncture points including Taiyang, Fengfu, Tianzhu, Fengqi, and Jianjing is formulated in a standard manner. Second, the status of the autonomic nervous system of each subject is evaluated by using the heart rate variability analyzer before and after the head massage following four weeks. Afterward, the physiological factors of autonomic nerves are quantitatively analyzed by using the grey data modeling theory. The grey data analysis can point out that the status of autonomic nervous system is greatly improved after the massage. The order change of the grey relationship weighting of physiological factors shows the action principle of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves when performing head massage. In other words, the grey data model is able to distinguish the detailed interaction of the autonomic nervous system and the head meridian acupoint massage. Thus, the stress relaxing effect of massaging head meridian acupoints is proved, which is lacked in literature. The results can be a reference principle for massage health care in practice.

  9. [Construction of the study platform for Meridians and Acupoints and the application in the flipped classroom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rong

    2016-11-12

    To construct the study platform for meridians and acupoints by analyzing the status and current problems of teaching Meridians and Acupoints and in accordance with the principles as "knowledge fragmentation, game breakthrough and overall assessment" and observe the application effect in the flipped classroom. Totally two hundred and five 2014 grade bachelor candidates from four classes of the department of acupuncture-moxibustion and tuina were selected from Hunan Junior College of TCM. They were randomized into an observation group (102 cases) and a control group (103 cases). in the observation group, the flipped classroom was performed by adopting the study platform of meridians and acupoints. Additionally, the team cooperation learning and overall assessment were conducted. In the control group, the traditional teaching system was adopted, in which, the mode of "teacher's demonstration-to-discussion in group-to-teachers' assessment" and the operation check at the end of the semester were applied. The learning effect and the self-learning ability were evaluated at the end of semester in the two groups. The satisfaction survey was conducted in the observation group. In the observation group, the drawing of meridian running course and locating the acupoints, as well as the self-learning ability were better than those in the control group, indicating the significant differences (all P flipped classroom and the satisfaction of participation were slightly low. The study platform of learning Meridians and Acupoints was applied in the flipped classroom and has effectively improved the practical manipulation results and self-learning ability. However, the interestingness and interactivity of the platform are expected to be improved. The effective teaching design should be adopted in the flipped classroom to improve the students' desire of participation.

  10. [Analysis of clinical characteristics of traditional Chinese and Western medicine in Professor Jiang Liangduo's theory of "sanjiao meridian stasis"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Yan; Jiang, Liang-Duo; Ma, Qing; Xu, Dong; Tang, Shi-Huan; Luo, Zeng-Gang

    2017-12-01

    In the clinical practice, Professor Jiang Liangduo, a national senior Chinese medicine doctor, has created the theory of "sanjiao meridian stasis" from the theory of meridian dialectics and from the overall state. In this paper, the traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine clinical characteristics of sanjiao meridian stasis theory which is often used by Professor Jiang Liangduo in the treatment of out-patient syndrome differentiation, were first studied and summarized to investigate its inherent regularity. First, the source of data and research methods were introduced, and then the Traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance Support System was used with the method of data mining to retrospectively analyze the disease characteristics of Chinese and Western medicine in 279 patients with sanjiao meridian stasis diagnosed by Professor Jiang in 2014. Then the following main conclusions were made after research: sanjiao meridian stasis was more common in women as well as young and middle-aged population. Often manifested by prolonged treatment course, red tongue with yellowishfur, with good correlation between modern Western medicine diagnosis and TCM differentiation syndrome. The symptoms of sanjiao meridian stasis syndrome are mostly of heat syndromes, and middle-aged patients are the most common patients with stasis and stasis of sanjiao. Related information of Western medicine diagnosis can help to diagnose the "sanjiao meridian stasis". Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. Chōng meridian an ancient Chinese description of the vascular system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Vivien

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this research are, first, to establish if the extraordinary acupuncture meridian known as Chōng, Penetrating Vessel or Sea of Blood, is in essence a description of certain macroscopic parts of the underlying vascular system and, second, by extension, to show that it is likely that cadaveric dissection would have been used as a tool to arrive at this understanding. Generally accepted scholarly opinion holds that the ancient Chinese rarely used dissection in order to explore the anatomy of the human body, and that the meridians are therefore invisible metaphysical structures corresponding to lines drawn on the body. However, the seminal text, 'The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine', describes using palpation to examine the living and dissection to examine the dead. This implies that the original authors of these texts were observing physical structures visible to the naked eye. Dissection has therefore been used to compare the descriptions of the Chōng meridian in 'The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine' with the vascular anatomy of the human body. Fifteen acupuncture points located on various different ordinary meridians but bearing the same name, Chōng, were also examined to see if they bore any relationship to the vascular system. The dissections clearly show that the Chōng meridian correlates to certain main blood vessels in the body, in particular the vena cava. Similarly, most Chōng acupuncture points have a strong correspondence with blood vessels, marking terminal arteries on the hands, feet and forehead and anastomoses on the face, body and feet. These findings strongly suggest that the ancient Chinese texts relating to this meridian are likely to have been a 'description' of the vascular system. Furthermore, the ancient Chinese apparently had a high degree of anatomical skill in the practice of dissection and acute powers of observation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where

  12. [Exploration and practice on teaching Meridian, collateral and acupoints to international students in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingyue; Xu, Yilan; Guo, Yi; Xu, Li

    2015-11-01

    Meridian, collateral and acupoints is the basic course of acupuncture and moxibustion and even is the core for training excellent acupuncture physician. Associated with the characters of international students, the writers had the preliminary exploration and practice on teaching this course. For the acupoint names, the international codes of acupoints and Chinese pinyin were applied in combination and the meanings of acupoint were explained to deepen the understanding of acupoints. For acupoint location, the international standards and classical medical works were combined and the experiences in acupoint location were introduced additionally to open the approach to acupoint location. For acupoint effect, the major functions and ancient medical cases were combined to improve the learning interests. For acupoint location practice, the demonstration by teachers was combined with practice and drawing of acupoints and meridians was supplemented to consolidate the foundational knowledge.

  13. Patterns of Energy Imbalance of the Meridians in Patients with Temporomandibular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera L. Rasera Zotelli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD is a set of changes that affects the muscles of mastication, temporomandibular joint, teeth, and associated periodontal and orofacial structures. According to Traditional Chinese Medicine, the imbalance of energy (Qi circulating in the acupuncture meridians is always the primary etiologic cause of any physical manifestation. The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of Qi imbalance in patients with TMD by means of an objective measurement. The clinical study was conducted at the Piracicaba Dental School (FOP/Unicamp, in Piracicaba-SP, Brazil. We evaluated 40 adult volunteers with TMD. The Qi measurement was carried out by the researcher using the Ryodoraku method using 24 points representing the 12 acupuncture meridians: LU9 (Taiyuan, PC7 (Daling, HT7 (Shemen, SI5 (Yanggu, TE4 (Yangchi, LI5 (Yangxi, SP3 (Taibai, LR3 (Taichong, KI3 (Taixi, BL64 (Jinggu, GB40 (Qiuxu, and ST42 (Chongyang. The average total Qi of 40 volunteers (21.7 μA ± 1.5, was below the normal range (40–60 μA and was classified as deficiency of Qi (empty. The coupled meridians that showed the highest Qi imbalance were the kidney (29.4 μA ± 2.8 and bladder (13.8 μA ± 1. The Qi planes with greatest imbalance were the Shao Yang and Shao Yin. In conclusion, volunteers with TMD presented a pattern of Qi deficiency, and the most prevalent imbalance patterns identified were in the kidney and bladder coupled meridians and in the energetic planes Shao Yin (heart/kidney and Shao Yang (triple energizer/gall bladder.

  14. Trace elements in bottom sediments of the Barents Sea on the standard section "Kola Meridian"

    OpenAIRE

    Lapteva A. M.; Plotitsyna N. F.

    2017-01-01

    The levels of trace metals (Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Mn, Co, Pb, Cd, Hg) and arsenic (As) in samples of bottom sediments from the Barents Sea on eight stations of the standard section "Kola Meridian" have been investigated. Trace elements have been determined on atomic absorption spectrophotometer AA-6800 with mercury-hydride attachment HVG-1 of the company Shimadzu (Japan) by the methods of flaming (acetylene – air) and electrothermal atomization. Common and very toxic trace elements incl...

  15. Patterns of Energy Imbalance of the Meridians in Patients with Temporomandibular Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasera Zotelli, Vera L; Grillo, Cássia M; Bressiani Gil, Maria L; Wada, Ronaldo S; Sato, Jorge E; de Sousa, Maria da Luz R

    2018-02-01

    Temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) is a set of changes that affects the muscles of mastication, temporomandibular joint, teeth, and associated periodontal and orofacial structures. According to Traditional Chinese Medicine, the imbalance of energy (Qi) circulating in the acupuncture meridians is always the primary etiologic cause of any physical manifestation. The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of Qi imbalance in patients with TMD by means of an objective measurement. The clinical study was conducted at the Piracicaba Dental School (FOP/Unicamp), in Piracicaba-SP, Brazil. We evaluated 40 adult volunteers with TMD. The Qi measurement was carried out by the researcher using the Ryodoraku method using 24 points representing the 12 acupuncture meridians: LU9 (Taiyuan), PC7 (Daling), HT7 (Shemen), SI5 (Yanggu), TE4 (Yangchi), LI5 (Yangxi), SP3 (Taibai), LR3 (Taichong), KI3 (Taixi), BL64 (Jinggu), GB40 (Qiuxu), and ST42 (Chongyang). The average total Qi of 40 volunteers (21.7 μA ± 1.5), was below the normal range (40-60 μA) and was classified as deficiency of Qi (empty). The coupled meridians that showed the highest Qi imbalance were the kidney (29.4 μA ± 2.8) and bladder (13.8 μA ± 1). The Qi planes with greatest imbalance were the Shao Yang and Shao Yin. In conclusion, volunteers with TMD presented a pattern of Qi deficiency, and the most prevalent imbalance patterns identified were in the kidney and bladder coupled meridians and in the energetic planes Shao Yin (heart/kidney) and Shao Yang (triple energizer/gall bladder). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Variations in energy metabolism along the pericardium meridian and its relationship with visceral function adjustments during electroacupuncture

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Shu-Xia; Pan, Xiao-Hua; Xu, Jin-Sen; Xiu, Chun-Ying; Dong, Ya-Qin; Zhu, Xiaoxiang

    2014-01-01

    Background Electroacupuncture (EA) is a traditional Chinese medicine treatment guided by meridian theory. As it gradually gains more worldwide acceptance, a clarification of its mechanisms is extremely urgent. We observed variations in transcutaneous oxygen pressure/carbon dioxide pressure ( tcp O2/ tcp CO2) and microcirculation blood perfusion units (BPU) along the pericardium meridian, and cardiac function during EA at Neiguan (PC6) to explore variations in energy metabolism and its relatio...

  17. Full Meridian of Glory Perilous Adventures in the Competition to Measure the Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Murdin, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The Paris Meridian is the name of the line running north-south through the astronomical observatory in Paris. One of the original intentions behind the founding of the Paris Observatory was to determine and measure this line. To that end, the French government financed the Paris Academy of Sciences to do so in the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries employing both astronomers – people who study and measure the stars – and geodesists – people who study and measure the Earth. This book is about what they did and why. Full Meridian of Glory is the first English language presentation of this historical material in its entirety. It is an attractively written story of the scientists who created the Paris Meridian. They collaborated and worked together in alliances, like scientists everywhere; they also split into warring factions. They transcended national and political disputes, as scientists do now, their eyes fixed on ideals of accuracy, truth and objectivity. Yet also when their work served national inter...

  18. Effects of Meridian Acupressure Massage on Body Composition, Edema, Stress, and Fatigue in Postpartum Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Geum-Sook; Choi, In-Ryoung; Kang, Hee-Young; Choi, Eun-Young

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of meridian acupressure massage on body composition, edema, stress, and fatigue in postpartum women. A quasi-experimental design with a nonequivalent control group was utilized. The Postpartum Care Center of Women's Hospital in Gwangju City, Republic of Korea. The study group consisted of 39 postpartum women, 19 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group, recruited from the postpartum care center of Women's Hospital in Gwangju city, South Korea. The experimental group was provided with meridian acupressure massage for 90 min daily over 5 days as an experimental therapy. Body composition (body weight, BMI, total body water, ECW ratio, LBM, and body fat) Edema (subjective edema, average girth of the upper limbs, and average girth of the lower limbs), Stress (psychological stress and physical stress), and Fatigue. The experimental group demonstrated a significantly larger decrease compared with the control group in measures of body composition, edema, total subjective stress, psychological stress, and subjective fatigue. Meridian acupressure massage can hasten the return to original body composition after childbirth.

  19. Possible role of epidermal keratinocytes in the construction of acupuncture meridians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denda, Mitsuhiro; Tsutsumi, Moe

    2014-04-01

    Acupuncture meridians consist of a network of acupuncture points on the skin, stimulation of which is well established to have a variety of physiological effects. We have previously demonstrated that epidermal keratinocytes contain multiple sensory systems for temperature, mechanical stimuli, electric potentials and other stimuli. These sensory systems generate changes in the calcium-ion concentration in the epidermis, so epidermal keratinocytes can generate spatially-localized electro-physiological patterns in the skin. We have previously demonstrated signaling between epidermal keratinocytes and peripheral nerve systems. Therefore, stimuli sensed by epidermal keratinocytes might be transferred to the unmyelinated nerve fibers that are known to exist in the epidermis and, thence, to the spinal cord and brain. We propose that epidermal keratinocytes form an information-gathering network in the skin and that this network plays a key role in whole-body homeostasis in response to the changing environment. We also hypothesize that this network corresponds to the acupuncture meridians. As supporting examples, we present some striking calcium propagation patterns observed in cultured human keratinocytes after adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) stimulation. These results support the ideas that keratinocytes can generate spatially-restricted signaling patterns after environmental stimulation and that the cultures might be in-vitro models of meridians as an information-gathering network in skin. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Pathological Changes in Internal Organs after Blocking Low Hydraulic Resistance Channels along the Stomach Meridian in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Ting; Jia, Shu-Yong; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Tian, Yu-Ying; Wang, Guang-Jun; Huang, Tao; Pang, Li; Zhou, Yong-Sheng; Sun, Xue-Yan; Zhang, Wei-Bo

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The correlation between meridians and organs (Zang-fu) is an important aspect of meridian theory. The objective of this paper is to investigate the pathological changes in the organs resulting from blocking low hydraulic resistance channel (LHRC) along the stomach meridian by injecting gel in pigs so as to offer some insight into the correlation between meridians and internal organs. Methods. Four white piglets and twelve black minipigs were divided into four batches and were observed in different periods. Each batch included two pairs of pigs and each pair matched two pigs with similar conditions among which gel was injected into 6~8 low hydraulic resistance points along the the stomach meridian in the experimental pig and the same amount of saline was injected into the same points in the control pig. The state of stomach and intestine was observed 6~10 weeks after the blocking model was developed. Results. The results showed that there were bloated stomach or/and intestine in all the experimental pigs while there were normal states in seven control pigs except one dead during the experiment. Conclusion. The findings confirmed that the blockage of LHRC along the stomach meridian can influence the state of stomach and intestine, leading to a distension on stomach or/and intestine.

  1. [Dendritic projections from meridian-related motoneurons to sympathic preganglion neurons in the spinal cord of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; Duan, Wan-Ru; Ma, Chao; Xie, Yi-Kuan

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies indicated a close involvement of reflex activities of motoneurons in the spinal cord in the mechanism of meridian phenomena. The present study was designed to investigate the dendrite projections of meridian-related motoneurons among the motoneurons and sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the spinal cord. A total of 41 Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the present study. Cholera toxin B-subunit conjugated horseradish peroxidase (CB-HRP) containing 1.0% HRP was respectively injected to acupoint "Chengman" (ST 20), "Liangmen" (ST 21), "Guanmen" (ST 22), "Taiyi" (ST 23), "Huaroumen" (ST 24), "Tianshu" (ST 25) and "Wailing" (ST 26) of the Stomach Meridian, and "Ganshu" (BL 18), "Danshu" (BL 19), "Pishu" (BL 20), "Weishu" (BL 21) and "Sanjiaoshu" (BL 22) of the Bladder Meridian, and "Daimai" (GB 26), "Wushu" (GB 27), "Weidao" (GB 28), "Juliao" (GB 29), "Huantiao" (GB 30), "Fengshi" (GB 31), "Zhongdu" (GB 32), "Xiyangguan" (GB 33) and "Yanglingquan" (GB 34) of the Gallbladder Meridian (for labeling preganglionic neurons), and the celiac ganglion and superior mesenteric ganglion for labeling sympathetic preganglionic neurons. Three days after injection, the animals anesthetized were transcardia-cally perfused with 1.5% paraformaldehyde, the spinal cord was removed to be fixed routinely and then cut into sections for observing the labeled cells under microscope. In the ipsilateral ventral horn of the spinal cord, the motoneurons retrogradely labeled by CB-HRP formed dendritic projections oriented only to those motoneurons innervating the same meridian. In the longitudinal sections of spinal cord, the labeled motoneurons formed a bead-like column with a prominent network of longitudinal dendrites connecting the motoneurons innervating acupoints from the same meridian. In the transverse sections of spinal cord, two groups of dendrites from the labeled motoneurons projected to the identified sympathetic preganglionic regions: one group extended dorsolateraly

  2. Comparing complementary alternative treatment for chronic shoulder pain of myofascial origin: Collateral meridian therapy versus local tender area-related meridians therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ru-Yu; Hsu, Yung-Chi; Wong, Chih-Shung; Lin, Shinn-Long; Li, Tsung-Ying; Cherng, Chen-Hwan; Ko, Shan-Chi; Yeh, Chun-Chang

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the short-term outcomes between 2 different treatments for unilateral chronic shoulder pain of myofascial origin, that is, local tender area related meridians (LTARMs) treatment and collateral meridian therapy (CMT), which were performed 6 times over a period of 4 weeks.Seventy patients with unilateral shoulder pain of chronic myofascial origin were enrolled. The patients were randomly assigned to 2 different treatment groups: 1 group received CMT (n = 35) and the other received LTARM (n = 35). Before and after the 2 treatment processes, all patients rated their overall pain intensity on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a validated 13-question shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI) questionnaire was used to measure shoulder pain and functional impairment after therapy for 4 weeks.After CMT, the pain intensity was reduced after CMT. VAS score is reduced from 5.90 ± 2.07 (a mean of 5.90 and standard deviation of 2.07) to 3.39 ± 1.2. This was verified by the SPADI pain subscale scores (from 0.58 ± 0.193 to 0.33 ± 0.14). The pain-relief effect of CMT was significantly better than that of LTARM (VAS score from 5.78 ± 1.64 to 4.58 ± 1.40; P pain subscale score from 0.58 ± 0.16 to 0.45 ± 0.14, P pain, whereas the VAS scores for moderate pain were even higher in the LTARM group in 75% of patients (P chronic shoulder pain of myofascial origin than the LTARM treatment, where treatment with the former resulted in better functional recovery after 4 weeks than the latter.

  3. [Study on characteristics of pharmacological effects of traditional Chinese medicines distributing along stomach meridian based on medicinal property combination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bai-Xia; Gu, Hao; Guo, Hong-Ling; Ma, Li; Wang, Yun; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2014-07-01

    At present, studies on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) properties are mostly restricted to a single or two kinds of medicinal properties, but deviated from the holism of the theoretical system of TCMs. In this paper, the characteristics of pharmacological effects of different property combinations of TCMs distributing in the stomach meridian were take as the study objective. The data of properties of TCMs distributing in the stomach meridian was collected from the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (2005). The data of pharmacological effects of TCMs distributing in the stomach meridian was collected from all of literatures recorded in Chinese Journal Full-text Database (CNKI) since 1980, Science of Chinese Materia Medica (Yan Zhenghua, People's Medical Publishing House, 2006) and Clinical Science of Chinese Materia Medica (Gao Xuemin, Zhong Gansheng, Hebei Science and Technology Publishing House, 2005). The corresponding pharmacological effects of property combinations of TCMs distributing in the stomach meridian was mined by the method of association rules. The results of the association rules were consistent with the empirical knowledge, and showed that different medicinal property combinations had respective pharmacological characteristics, including differences and similarities in pharmacological effects of different medicinal property combinations. Medicinal property combinations with identical four properties or five tastes showed similar pharmacological effects; whereas medicinal property combinations with different four properties or five tastes showed differentiated pharmacological effects. However, medicinal property combinations with different four properties or five tastes could also show similar pharmacological effects. In this study, the medicinal property theory and the pharmacological effects of TCMs were combined to reveal the main characteristics and regularity of pharmacological effects of TCMs distributing in the stomach meridian

  4. What's the Original Concept of Meridian and Acupuncture Point in Oriental Medicine? - A Perspective of Medical History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YIN Chang- Shik

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Meridian and acupuncture point(MAP is a core theory of acupuncture and essential building blocks of oriental medicine. There still continue theoretic or experimental arguments and controversies on the origination or original concept of MAP, without any definite approval or disapproval of a hypothesis. The theory of MAP is an historic product and has never been outside of historic influences. This study discusses the original concept of meridian and acupuncture point theory and its historical evolution, based on the review of classic literatures on meridian including the mawangdui medical texts of Han dynasty. The concept of MAP served as a empirical reference system in clinical settings irrespective of the anatomical entity of MAP.

  5. Interstitial Fluid Flow: The Mechanical Environment of Cells and Foundation of Meridians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using information from the deep dissection, microobservation, and measurement of acupoints in the upper and lower limbs of the human body, we developed a three-dimensional porous medium model to simulate the flow field using FLUENT software and to study the shear stress on the surface of interstitial cells (mast cells caused by interstitial fluid flow. The numerical simulation results show the following: (i the parallel nature of capillaries will lead to directional interstitial fluid flow, which may explain the long interstitial tissue channels or meridians observed in some experiments; (ii when the distribution of capillaries is staggered, increases in the velocity alternate, and the velocity tends to be uniform, which is beneficial for substance exchange; (iii interstitial fluid flow induces a shear stress, with magnitude of several Pa, on interstitial cell membranes, which will activate cells and lead to a biological response; (iv capillary and interstitial parameters, such as capillary density, blood pressure, capillary permeability, interstitial pressure, and interstitial porosity, affect the shear stress on cell surfaces. The numerical simulation results suggest that in vivo interstitial fluid flow constitutes the mechanical environment of cells and plays a key role in guiding cell activities, which may explain the meridian phenomena and the acupuncture effects observed in experiments.

  6. Electrical Characterization of Proposed Transpositional Acupoints on the Urinary Bladder Meridian in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jung Han

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific electrical characteristicsof acupointswere investigated on the urinary bladder (BL meridian in 14 rats. BL acupointsand non-acupoints on the back were selected and their electrical voltages were measured by using aSPACsystem.The mean voltages of each point or each line were statistically analyzed by using the ANOVA test.The BL meridian showed voltages higher than those of the reference line (P<.05. Bilateral 1st BL lines presented higher voltages than bilateral 2nd BL lines (P<.05. Most BL acupoints had voltageshigher than those for the corresponding reference points (P<.05. In particular, theright BL16 exhibited the biggest difference from the reference point, followed by the left extra BL point-2, the right BL27, the left BL17, and theleft BL45. Additionally, the distributions of neurofilamentsfor several points were investigated by using immunohistochemistry. There was a trend for the BL acupoints to have larger numbers of neurofilaments than the reference points, and that trend seemed to be directly proportional to the difference in voltage between the points.In conclusion, BL acupoints on the back in ratsexhibited specific electric and histologic characteristics. Therefore, those acupointsmay be utilized to investigate the efficacy of acupuncturewith laboratory animals.

  7. The western coast of Africa in Ptolemy's Geography and the location of his prime meridian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Christian

    2016-03-01

    A controversial question concerning ancient geography is the location of the prime meridian which underlies the position data in Ptolemy's Geography and runs through the Fortunate Islands. An answer to this question is derived by means of a localisation of the places given by Ptolemy at the African western coast, i.e. in Mauritania Tingitana and Libya Interior, whose modern identifications are often uncertain or unknown. The origination of Ptolemy's positions from the distance data of seafarings is considered. A comparison of his data with distances reported by Pliny yields a satisfactory agreement. The localisation of Ptolemy's places is based on distances derived from Ptolemy's coordinates and partly on further information by ancient authors. Through it previous identifications are confirmed and new identifications are found. It shows that the Fortunate Islands correspond to several eastern islands of the Canary Islands. Explanations are given for the errors of Ptolemy's position data. A likely error by Ptolemy barely considered is his repetition of a part of Mauritania Tingitana in his description of Libya Interior. The existence of this repetition is confirmed by an adjustment of a transformation between the positions of the duplicated places and a statistical test of the arranged model. A comparison of longitudinal distances in different ancient sources reveals that the position of Ptolemy's prime meridian is based on distances given by Marinos and Eratosthenes.

  8. [Study on characteristics of pharmacological effects of traditional Chinese medicines distributing along lung meridian based on medicinal property combination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hao; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Wang, Yun; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2014-07-01

    Medicinal properties are the basic attribute of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), while the medicinal property theory is the core theoretical foundation of TCM formula combination. In this particle, authors studied the characteristics of pharmacological effects of property combination of traditional Chinese medicines distributing along meridians, with the aim to introduce the medicinal property combination regularity into the design and optimization process of compound TCMs, and bring the medicinal property theory into full play in guiding the formula combination. In this paper, TCMs distributing along "the lung meridian" was taken for example. The medicinal property combinations of TCMs distributing along "the lung meridian" recorded in Pharmacopeia (2010) was collected and processed. Besides, Chinese journal full-text database (CNKI) was used to collect all of pharmacological study literatures concerning the above TCMs that have been published since 1980. The pharmacological information was also supplemented by reference to Science of Chinese Materia Medica and Clinical Science of Chinese Materia Medica. TCMs distributing along the lung meridian with different properties and tastes showed significant differences in pharmacological effects. For example, mild-sweet-lung medicines could lower blood sugar levels, decrease anoxia and enhance immunity; Mild-bitter-lung medicines showed anti-bacterial, anti-hypertension, anti-oxidation effects; Hot-sweet-lung medicines showed antibechic and anti-bacterial effects. And Hot-bitter-lung medicines showed phlegm eliminating and anti-inflammatory effects. Meanwhile, TCMs distributing along the lung meridian had similar pharmacological characteristics, such as anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects, which is consistent with lung's feature in susceptibility to exogenous pathogenic factors. In this study, authors discovered pharmacological characteristics of different TCMs distributing along the lung meridian, which

  9. An Evaluation of the Fitness, Academic, and Self-Esteem Training Program at Meridian School 1984-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Samuel G.; Saccone, Peter P.

    This paper reports the results of a pilot program, "Fitness, Academics, and Self-Esteem Training" (FAST), conducted during the 1984/85 school year at Meridian School to test the hypotheses that a program of aerobic exercise with the focus on running, conducted by the classroom teacher, would result in a higher rate of academic achievement, better…

  10. Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR: a flow-like mental state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L. Barratt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR is a previously unstudied sensory phenomenon, in which individuals experience a tingling, static-like sensation across the scalp, back of the neck and at times further areas in response to specific triggering audio and visual stimuli. This sensation is widely reported to be accompanied by feelings of relaxation and well-being. The current study identifies several common triggers used to achieve ASMR, including whispering, personal attention, crisp sounds and slow movements. Data obtained also illustrates temporary improvements in symptoms of depression and chronic pain in those who engage in ASMR. A high prevalence of synaesthesia (5.9% within the sample suggests a possible link between ASMR and synaesthesia, similar to that of misophonia. Links between number of effective triggers and heightened flow state suggest that flow may be necessary to achieve sensations associated with ASMR.

  11. Numerical simulation of the subsolar magnetopause current layer in the sun-earth meridian plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, H.

    1993-01-01

    The formation and stability of the magnetopause current layer near the subsolar point in the sun-earth meridian plane are examined using a 2D electromagnetic particle simulation. For the case of zero IMF, the simulation results show that the current layer remains stable and is essentially the same as in the 1D simulation. The width of the current layer is given by the electron-ion hybrid gyroradius which is much smaller than the ion gyroradius. The current layer is found to remain stable for the northward IMF as well. As in the 1D simulation, the jump of the magnetic field at the current layer for the northward IMF remains small. For the southward IMF, collisionless magnetic reconnection is found to develop, leading to the formation of magnetic islands and density peaking within the current layer.

  12. Sensory determinants of the autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR: understanding the triggers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L. Barratt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR is an atypical sensory phenomenon involving electrostatic-like tingling sensations in response to certain sensory, primarily audio-visual, stimuli. The current study used an online questionnaire, completed by 130 people who self-reported experiencing ASMR. We aimed to extend preliminary investigations into the experience, and establish key multisensory factors contributing to the successful induction of ASMR through online media. Aspects such as timing and trigger load, atmosphere, and characteristics of ASMR content, ideal spatial distance from various types of stimuli, visual characteristics, context and use of ASMR triggers, and audio preferences are explored. Lower-pitched, complex sounds were found to be especially effective triggers, as were slow-paced, detail-focused videos. Conversely, background music inhibited the sensation for many respondents. These results will help in designing media for ASMR induction.

  13. A comparison of three different corneal marking methods used to determine cyclotorsion in the horizontal meridian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin HY

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hung-Yuan Lin,1–3 Yi-Ting Fang,4 Ya-Jung Chuang,5 Justin N Karlin,6 Hsin-Yang Chen,7 Szu-Yuan Lin,8 Pi-Jung Lin,9 Ming Chen10 1Universal Eye Center, Zhong-Li, Taiwan, Republic of China; 2Department of Optometry, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Fu-Jian Medical University, People’s Republic of China; 4Universal Eye Center, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 5Universal Eye Center, Long-Tan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 6Department of Ophthalmology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA; 7Department of Ophthalmology, Ningbo First Hospital, People’s Republic of China; 8Department of Ophthalmology, Cathay General Hospital, 9Universal Eye Center, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China; 10Department of Surgery, Division of Ophthalmology, John A Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA Abstract: During toric intraocular lens (IOL implantation, surgeons must take particular care to ensure that inaccurate preoperative measurement and intraoperative misalignment do not cause unexpected postoperative residual astigmatism. This retrospective, comparative case series study aimed to analyze the rotational deviation, or cyclotorsion, of three corneal marking methods: VERION digital marker (VDM; reference, horizontal slit beam marking (HSBM, and subjective direct visual marking (SDVM on the table (using a bevel knife tip. Subjects included 81 eyes of 61 patients (mean age: 65.70±13.14 years; range: 32–91 years undergoing scheduled cataract surgery. A preoperative reference image was taken of each eye. Subsequently, a slit lamp with the light beam turned to the horizontal meridian was used to align the seated patient’s head, and two reference marks were placed at the 3- and 9-o’clock positions of the corneal limbus using a 27-gauge needle and marking pen (HSBM. Upon transfer to the surgical table, the VDM was used to display a real

  14. Trace elements in bottom sediments of the Barents Sea on the standard section "Kola Meridian"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapteva A. M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The levels of trace metals (Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Mn, Co, Pb, Cd, Hg and arsenic (As in samples of bottom sediments from the Barents Sea on eight stations of the standard section "Kola Meridian" have been investigated. Trace elements have been determined on atomic absorption spectrophotometer AA-6800 with mercury-hydride attachment HVG-1 of the company Shimadzu (Japan by the methods of flaming (acetylene – air and electrothermal atomization. Common and very toxic trace elements include Pb, Cd, As, and Hg. It is believed that 90 % of lead, 70–80 % of cadmium, and arsenic, over 30 % of mercury in the atmosphere are of anthropogenic origin, and emissions of these elements in the atmosphere are almost completely manufactured in the Northern Hemisphere. The main sources of income in the Barents Sea are waters of the North Atlantic current and the large-scale atmospheric transport from industrialized Central Europe. As a rule the spatial distribution of trace elements is in good agreement with the granulometric composition of bottom sediments and the content of organic carbon. The contents of most of the listed trace elements in samples of bottom sediments on the standard section "Kola Meridian" in the Norwegian classification are consistent with background levels with the exception of Ni, Cr, and As. Their content in bottom sediments at some stations has met the criteria for "slight" and "moderate" pollution. The obtained results confirm the insignificant levels of contamination of bottom sediments of some trace elements. On the status of stocks of commercial species of aquatic biological resources, the observed levels of contamination of bottom sediments in the investigated areas of the Barents Sea will have no significant effect

  15. Anatomical study on The Arm Greater Yang Small Intestine Meridian Muscle in Human

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    Kyoung-Sik, Park

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried to identify the component of Small Intestine Meridian Muscle in human, dividing the regional muscle group into outer, middle, and inner layer. the inner part of body surface were opened widely to demonstrate muscles, nerve, blood vessels and the others, displaying the inner structure of Small Intestine Meridian Muscle. We obtained the results as follows; 1. Small Intestine Meridian Muscle is composed of the muscle, nerve and blood vessels. 2. In human anatomy, it is present the difference between a term of nerve or blood vessels which control the muscle of Meridian Muscle and those which pass near by Meridian Muscle. 3. The inner composition of meridian muscle in human arm is as follows ; 1 Muscle ; Abd. digiti minimi muscle(SI-2, 3, 4, pisometacarpal lig.(SI-4, ext. retinaculum. ext. carpi ulnaris m. tendon.(SI-5, 6, ulnar collateral lig.(SI-5, ext. digiti minimi m. tendon(SI-6, ext. carpi ulnaris(SI-7, triceps brachii(SI-9, teres major(SI-9, deltoid(SI-10, infraspinatus(SI-10, 11, trapezius(Sl-12, 13, 14, 15, supraspinatus(SI-12, 13, lesser rhomboid(SI-14, erector spinae(SI-14, 15, levator scapular(SI-15, sternocleidomastoid(SI-16, 17, splenius capitis(SI-16, semispinalis capitis(SI-16, digasuicus(SI-17, zygomaticus major(Il-18, masseter(SI-18, auriculoris anterior(SI-19 2 Nerve ; Dorsal branch of ulnar nerve(SI-1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, br. of mod. antebrachial cutaneous n.(SI-6, 7, br. of post. antebrachial cutaneous n.(SI-6,7, br. of radial n.(SI-7, ulnar n.(SI-8, br. of axillary n.(SI-9, radial n.(SI-9, subscapular n. br.(SI-9, cutaneous n. br. from C7, 8(SI-10, 14, suprascapular n.(SI-10, 11, 12, 13, intercostal n. br. from T2(SI-11, lat. supraclavicular n. br.(SI-12, intercostal n. br. from C8, T1(SI-12, accessory n. br.(SI-12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, intercostal n. br. from T1,2(SI-13, dorsal scapular n.(SI-14, 15, cutaneous n. br. from C6, C7(SI-15, transverse cervical n.(SI-16, lesser occipital n. & great auricular n. from

  16. The San Fernando Automatic Meridian Circle in Argentina: Present state, FIRS T results and future plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallamaci, C. C.; Muiqos, J. L.; Pirez, J. A.; Belizsn, F.; Vallejo, M.; Gallego, M.; Marmolejo, L. F.; Navarro, J. L.; Sedeqo, J. A.

    1998-11-01

    Thanks to a Co-operation and Support Agreement, signed between the National University of San Juan (Argentina) and the Royal Institute and Observatory of the Army in San Fernando (Cadiz, Spain), an Automatic Meridian Circle was settled up in the province of San Juan, in July of 1996. This instrument is "twin" of another already installed in El Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (Astrophysical Institute of Canaries) in La Palma Island. In the current state of the instrument, with a photomultiplier as main detector, it is possible to observe about 400-600 stars per night (depending on the time of the year, summer or winter) up to magnitude 15.5, approximately. At present we are carrying out an observation program of stars and Solar System bodies (planets, satellites and asteroids), whose results will yield our first catalogue of positions of celestial objects. As by-product of the observations, the catalogue will also include the magnitudes of the observed objects, obtained by means of the photomultiplier counts. The stability of the instrument and the quality of the observations are good, though we keep working in fine adjustments of the telescope. The future plans for the telescope include the complete renewal of the computer system and the replacement of the photomultiplier and the slit micrometer for a CCD camera. The first of these changes implies the substitution of the current 2113 and A700 HP computers by a modern Pentium PC, and will be made by the end of 1998. The replacement of the sensor will be carried out, probably, during the first semester of 1999. The latter improvement will introduce a substantial change in the philosophy of observation and reduction, and will bring about the whole renewal of the software. All these changes will considerably increase the accuracy in the operation of the instrument, specially because of the significant reduction in mechanical component, since the mechanical movements decrease to a minimum. The handling of the

  17. Review of Evidence Suggesting That the Fascia Network Could Be the Anatomical Basis for Acupoints and Meridians in the Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Bai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical basis for the concept of meridians in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has not been resolved. This paper reviews the evidence supporting a relationship between acupuncture points/meridians and fascia. The reviewed evidence supports the view that the human body's fascia network may be the physical substrate represented by the meridians of TCM. Specifically, this hypothesis is supported by anatomical observations of body scan data demonstrating that the fascia network resembles the theoretical meridian system in salient ways, as well as physiological, histological, and clinical observations. This view represents a theoretical basis and means for applying modern biomedical research to examining TCM principles and therapies, and it favors a holistic approach to diagnosis and treatment.

  18. Infrared thermography fails to visualize stimulation-induced meridian-like structures: comment by Rixin Chen and Zhimai Lv and reply from Gerhard Litscher

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    A comment on G. Litscher: Infrared thermography fails to visualize stimulation-induced meridian-like structures. Biomed. Eng. OnLine 2005, 4:38 (15 June 2005), with a response by the author. PMID:21906400

  19. THE STUDY OF DYNAMICS OF CHANGE OF THE ABSCISSA AND ORDINATE OF THE POINT AT THE FAR MERIDIAN SIX DEGREE ZONE IN THE PROJECTION GAUSS-KRUGER

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    S. N. Mamedbekov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the dynamics of the abscissa and ordinate points in the far zone meridian six degree conformal Gauss-Kruger projection. Performed calculations and graphical representation of the classic formulas of conformal projection. 

  20. Research advances in treatment of neurological and psychological diseases by acupuncture at the Acupuncture Meridian Science Research Center

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Bombi; Kim, Seung-Nam; Park, Hi-Joon; Lee, Hyejung

    2014-01-01

    Acupuncture is an ancient therapeutic intervention that can be traced back at least 2100 years and is emerging worldwide as one of the most widely used therapies in the field of complementary and alternative medicine. Due to limitations associated with Western medicine's focus on the treatment of diseases rather than on their causes, interests are shifting to complementary and alternative medicines. The Acupuncture and Meridian Science Research Center (AMSRC) was established in 2005 to elucid...

  1. An examination of the default mode network in individuals with autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen D; Katherine Fredborg, Beverley; Kornelsen, Jennifer

    2017-08-01

    Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR) is a perceptual condition in which specific visual and auditory stimuli consistently trigger tingling sensations on the scalp and neck, sometimes spreading to the back and limbs. These triggering stimuli are often social, almost intimate, in nature (e.g., hearing whispering, or watching someone brush her hair), and often elicit a calm and positive emotional state. Surprisingly, despite its prevalence in the general population, no published study has examined the neural underpinnings of ASMR. In the current study, the default mode network (DMN) of 11 individuals with ASMR was contrasted to that of 11 matched controls. The results indicated that the DMN of individuals with ASMR showed significantly less functional connectivity than that of controls. The DMN of individuals with ASMR also demonstrated increased connectivity between regions in the occipital, frontal, and temporal cortices, suggesting that ASMR was associated with a blending of multiple resting-state networks. This atypical functional connectivity likely influences the unique sensory-emotional experiences associated with ASMR.

  2. A birdcage model for the Chinese meridian system: part III. Possible mechanism of magnetic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Kaung-Ti

    2005-01-01

    Based on the electromagnetic model of the transmission line for the channel and the birdcage resonator for the meridian network, we interpret two effects, seemingly incomprehensible in terms of current Western physiology, the lasting effect and the remote effect. For the lasting effect, acupuncture enhances the amplitude of the Qi standing wave, and this increased amplitude is retained and thus is able to sustain a gradual remodeling of the extracellular matrix in interstitial connective tissues, resulting in a lasting therapeutic effect. For the remote effect (acupuncture effect far from the site of needle insertion), our model puts the mechanism of magnetic therapy on an equal footing with that of acupuncture. It may not be a coincidence that accounts of investigators in both acupuncture and magnetotherapy about the depth of the effective site--along cleavage planes between muscles, or between muscle and bone or tendon--are in accord with that of the Huang Di Nei Jing about the course of channels: "they are embedded and travel between interstitial muscles, deep and invisible." A possible magnetic field generated outside the birdcage may be manipulated to produce local areas of higher temperature or very strong fields.

  3. Gnomon shadow lengths recorded in the Zhoubi Suanjing: the earliest meridian observations in China?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yong; Sun Xiaochun

    2009-01-01

    The Zhoubi Suanjing, one of the most important ancient Chinese books on mathematical astronomy, was compiled about 100 BC in the Western Han dynasty (BC 206 - AD 23). We study the gnomon shadow lengths for the 24 solar terms as recorded in the book. Special attention is paid to the so-called law of 'cun qian li', which says the shadow length of a gnomon of 8 chi (about 1.96 m) high will increase (or decrease) 1 cun (1/10 chi) for every 1000 li (roughly 400 km) the gnomon moves northward (or southward). From these data, one can derive the time and location of the observations. The results, however, do not fit historical facts. We suggest that compilers of the Zhoubi Suanjing must have modified the original data according to the law of 'cun qian li'. Through reversing the situation, we recovered the original data, our analysis of which reveals the best possible observation time as 564 BC and the location of observation as 35.78 deg. N latitude. We conclude that this must be the earliest records of solar meridian observations in China. In the meantime, we give the errors of solar altitudes for the 24 solar terms. The average deviation is 5.22 deg., and the mean absolute deviation is 5.52 deg., signifying the accuracy of astronomical calculations from that time.

  4. Gnomon shadow lengths recorded in the Zhoubi Suanjing: the earliest meridian observations in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Sun, Xiao-Chun

    2009-12-01

    The Zhoubi Suanjing, one of the most important ancient Chinese books on mathematical astronomy, was compiled about 100 BC in the Western Han dynasty (BC 206 - AD 23). We study the gnomon shadow lengths for the 24 solar terms as recorded in the book. Special attention is paid to the so-called law of 'cun qian li', which says the shadow length of a gnomon of 8 chi (about 1.96 m) high will increase (or decrease) 1 cun (1/10 chi) for every 1000 li (roughly 400 km) the gnomon moves northward (or southward). From these data, one can derive the time and location of the observations. The results, however, do not fit historical facts. We suggest that compilers of the Zhoubi Suanjing must have modified the original data according to the law of 'cun qian li'. Through reversing the situation, we recovered the original data, our analysis of which reveals the best possible observation time as 564 BC and the location of observation as 35.78° N latitude. We conclude that this must be the earliest records of solar meridian observations in China. In the meantime, we give the errors of solar altitudes for the 24 solar terms. The average deviation is 5.22°, and the mean absolute deviation is 5.52°, signifying the accuracy of astronomical calculations from that time.

  5. [Study on pharmacologic action characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines distributed along liver meridian based on medicinal properties combinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hong-Ling; Gu, Hao; Wang, Yun; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2014-07-01

    To establish a characterization system of traditional Chinese medicinal properties in line with modern scientific cognition regularity, in order to reveal properties of traditional Chinese medicines distributed along liver meridian and relations of effects of medicinal properties. By collecting data about traditional Chinese medicinal properties recorded in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (2005 Edition), literature and data about pharmacological effects of traditional Chinese medicines recorded in the Chinese Materia Medica, by using the method of association rules, the authors dug pharmacological effect rules corresponds to relevant medicinal property combinations, with the medicinal property combination of traditional Chinese medicines distributed along liver meridian as the target. It was found that either obvious different pharmacological effects or identical pharmacological characteristics existed in traditional Chinese medicines distributed along liver meridian. With the aim to explore the correlations between traditional Chinese medicine medicinal properties and pharmacological effects, the authors linked the traditional Chinese medicine theory with modern research achievements, in order to provide the ideas and methods for interpreting mechanisms of medicinal properties.

  6. Meridian-scanning photometer, coherent HF radar, and magnetometer observations of the cusp: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the cusp region and post-noon sector for an interval of predominantly IMF By, Bz < 0 nT are studied with the CUTLASS Finland coherent HF radar, a meridian-scanning photometer located at Ny Ålesund, Svalbard, and a meridional network of magnetometers. The scanning mode of the radar is such that one beam is sampled every 14 s, and a 30° azimuthal sweep is completed every 2 minutes, all at 15 km range resolution. Both the radar backscatter and red line (630 nm optical observations are closely co-located, especially at their equatorward boundary. The optical and radar aurora reveal three different behaviours which can interchange on the scale of minutes, and which are believed to be related to the dynamic nature of energy and momentum transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere through transient dayside reconnection. Two interpretations of the observations are presented, based upon the assumed location of the open/closed field line boundary (OCFLB. In the first, the OCFLB is co-located with equatorward boundary of the optical and radar aurora, placing most of the observations on open field lines. In the second, the observed aurora are interpreted as the ionospheric footprint of the region 1 current system, and the OCFLB is placed near the poleward edge of the radar backscatter and visible aurora; in this interpretation, most of the observations are placed on closed field lines, though transient brightenings of the optical aurora occur on open field lines. The observations reveal several transient features, including poleward and equatorward steps in the observed boundaries, "braiding" of the backscatter power, and 2 minute quasi-periodic enhancements of the plasma drift and optical intensity, predominantly on closed field lines.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; plasma convection · Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause · cusp · and boundary layers

  7. Sustantial Observation on Foot Taeyang Meridian Muscle in Human Lower Limb from a Anatomical Viewpoint

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    Kyoung-Sik Park

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was carried to identify the anatomical component of FTMM(Foot Taeyang Meridian Muscle in human lower limb, and further to help the accurate application to real acupuncture. Methods : FTM at the surface of the lower limb was labelled with latex. And cadaver was stripped off to demonstrate muscles, nerves and the others and to display the internal structures of FTMM, being divided into outer, middle, and inner layer. Results : FTMM in human lower limb is composed of muscles, nerves, ligaments etc. The internal composition of the FTMM in human lower limb are as follows : 1 Muscle : Gluteus maximus. biceps femoris, semitendinosus, gastrocnemius, triceps calf, fibularis brevis tendon, superior peroneal retinacula, calcaneofibular ligament, inferior extensor retinaculum, abductor digiti minimi, sheath of flexor tendon at outer layer, biceps femoris, semimembranosus, plantaris, soleus, posterior tibialis, fibularis brevis, extensor digitorum brevis, flexor digiti minimi at middle layer, and for the last time semimembranosus, adductor magnus, plantaris, popliteus, posterior tibialis, flexor hallucis longus, dorsal calcaneocuboidal ligament at inner layer. 2 Nerve : Inferior cluneal nerve, posterior femoral cutaneous n., sural cutaneous n., proper plantar branch of lateral plantar n. at outer layer, sciatic nerve, common peroneal n., medial sural cutaneous n., tibial n. at middle layer, and for the last time tibial nerve, flexor hallucis longus branch of tibial n. at inner layer. Conclusions : This study proves comparative differences from already established studies from the viewpoint of constituent elements of FTMM in the lower limb, and also in the aspect of substantial assay method. We can guess that there are conceptional differences between terms (that is, nerves which control muscles of FTMM and those which pass near by FTMM in human anatomy.

  8. Structural Dynamics in Metal Tris-hydroxyquinolines: Interconversion of Meridianal and Facial Alq3 Isomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Kim; Sapochak, Linda; Burrows, Paul; Rodovsky, Deanna; Marmolejo, Theresa

    2004-03-01

    While previous work investigating the charge transport properties of Alq3 has indicated that the meridianal (mer) conformation of Alq3 is predominant species, recent work suggesting identification of a facial (fac) form raises again the question of heterogeneity. Electronic structure computations from our group have noted that the energy difference(in parenthesis) between the mer and fac conformations is highly sensitive to basis set description (8.6 kcal/mol//3-21g*/SCF; 6.9 kcal/mol//6-31g*/SCF), electron correlation (6.0 kcal/mol//3-21g*/MP2; 4.7 kcal/mol//6-31g*/MP2), and solvent effects (4.4 kcal/mol/3-21g*/SCF/DMSO). Given these small energy differences, we have conducted a series of Hartree-Fock and first principles electronic structure computations on the interconversion of these structural forms, and will report on the structural and energetic aspects of the transformation. The likely reaction path involves lengthening of the Al-N bond to the point where a pentacoordinate intermediate or transition state would be formed, followed by flipping of the ligand through rotation around the Al-O bond. Following Schmidbauer's earlier work, we note that transformation involving only one ligand will actually lead to a facial isomer. Preliminary characterization of this transition state suggests that the activation energy is approximately 20-25 kcal/mol above the mer conformation. The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from PNNL Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project and the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Materials Sciences Division.

  9. Spatial Patterns of the Indications of Acupoints Using Data Mining in Classic Medical Text: A Possible Visualization of the Meridian System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Mo Jung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The indications of acupoints are thought to be highly associated with the lines of the meridian systems. The present study used data mining methods to analyze the characteristics of the indications of each acupoint and to visualize the relationships between the acupoints and disease sites in the classic Korean medical text Chimgoogyeongheombang. Using a term frequency-inverse document frequency (tf-idf scheme, the present study extracted valuable data regarding the indications of each acupoint according to the frequency of the cooccurrences of eight Source points and eighteen disease sites. Furthermore, the spatial patterns of the indications of each acupoint on a body map were visualized according to the tf-idf values. Each acupoint along the different meridians exhibited different constellation patterns at various disease sites. Additionally, the spatial patterns of the indications of each acupoint were highly associated with the route of the corresponding meridian. The present findings demonstrate that the indications of each acupoint were primarily associated with the corresponding meridian system. Furthermore, these findings suggest that the routes of the meridians may have clinical implications in terms of identifying the constellations of the indications of acupoints.

  10. Probing the mystery of Chinese medicine meridian channels with special emphasis on the connective tissue interstitial fluid system, mechanotransduction, cells durotaxis and mast cell degranulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fung Peter

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article hypothesizes that the Chinese medicine meridian system is a special channel network comprising of skin with abundant nerves and nociceptive receptors of various types, and deeper connective tissues inside the body with the flowing interstitial fluid system. These meridian channels provide efficient migratory tracks mainly due to durotaxis (also including chemotaxis for mast cells, fibroblasts and other cells to migrate and carry out a number of physiological functions. Acupuncture acting on meridian channel causes cytoskeletal remodeling through mechanotransduction, leading to regulation of gene expression and the subsequent production of related proteins. Also, stimulation on cell surface can trigger Ca2+ activities, resulting in a cascade of intra- and inter-cellular signaling. Moreover, nerve endings in the meridian channels interact with mast cells and induce the degranulation of these cells, leading to the release of many specific biomolecules needed for homeostasis, immune surveillance, wound healing and tissue repair. Acupoint along a meridian channel is a functional site to trigger the above functions with specificity and high efficiency.

  11. Anatomical Features of the Interscapular Area Where Wet Cupping Therapy Is Done and Its Possible Relation to Acupuncture Meridians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshanak Ghods

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although wet cupping has been a treatment for centuries, its mechanism of action is not well understood. Because the anatomical features of the wet-cupping area might play a role in its mechanism, we focus on the features of the interscapular area in which a common type of wet-cupping therapy (WCT, called Hijamat-e-Aam in Iranian medicine, is usually applied and discuss the possible relation of those features to the acupuncture meridians. We gathered and analyzed data from reliable textbooks on modern medicine with a focus on the anatomical features of the interscapular area, topics related to WTC in Iranian medicine, and acupuncture sources obtained by searching PubMed, Google-Scholar, and Science Direct. The interscapular area used for WCT was found to have special features: brown adipose tissue, immediate proximity to sympathetic ganglia, passage of the thoracic duct, two important acupuncture meridians, and proximity to the main vessel divisions carrying blood from the heart and the brain. These features indicate that the interscapular application of WCT not only discharges waste materials through a shifting of blood to the site after application of a traction force but also invigorates the body’s metabolism, increases immunity, and regulates blood biochemistry, which are desired therapeutic effects of WCT.

  12. Anatomical Features of the Interscapular Area Where Wet Cupping Therapy Is Done and Its Possible Relation to Acupuncture Meridians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghods, Roshanak; Sayfouri, Nasrin; Ayati, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-12-01

    Although wet cupping has been a treatment for centuries, its mechanism of action is not well understood. Because the anatomical features of the wet-cupping area might play a role in its mechanism, we focus on the features of the interscapular area in which a common type of wet-cupping therapy (WCT), called Hijamat-e-Aam in Iranian medicine, is usually applied and discuss the possible relation of those features to the acupuncture meridians. We gathered and analyzed data from reliable textbooks on modern medicine with a focus on the anatomical features of the interscapular area, topics related to WTC in Iranian medicine, and acupuncture sources obtained by searching PubMed, Google-Scholar, and Science Direct. The interscapular area used for WCT was found to have special features: brown adipose tissue, immediate proximity to sympathetic ganglia, passage of the thoracic duct, two important acupuncture meridians, and proximity to the main vessel divisions carrying blood from the heart and the brain. These features indicate that the interscapular application of WCT not only discharges waste materials through a shifting of blood to the site after application of a traction force but also invigorates the body's metabolism, increases immunity, and regulates blood biochemistry, which are desired therapeutic effects of WCT. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Refractive variation under accommodative demand: curvital and scaled torsional variances and covariance across the meridians of the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gool, R D; Harris, W F

    1997-06-01

    Autorefractor measurements were taken on the right eye of 10 students with an external target at vergences -1.00 and -3.00 D. The refractive errors in the form of sphere, cylinder, and axis were converted to vectors h and variance-covariance matrices calculated for different reference meridians. Scatter plots are drawn in symmetric dioptric power space. The profiles of curvital and scaled torsional variances, the scaled torsional fraction, and the scaled torsional-curvital correlation are shown using a polar representation. This form of representation provides a meridional pattern of variation under accommodative demand. The profile for scaled torsional variance is characteristically in the form of a pair of rabbit ears. At both target vergences curvital variance is larger than scaled torsional variance in all the meridians of the eye: the relative magnitudes are quantified by the scaled torsional fraction. An increase in accommodative demand generally results in an increase in variance. The rabbit ears usually become larger but less well divided. The correlation between curvital and torsional powers is usually positive in the first quadrant and negative in the second quadrant. Typical, atypical, and mean typical responses are discussed.

  14. Analysis of Double Meridian Distance for a Closed Traverse Area towards Developing a Contour Map and Land Title

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. U. Ganiron Jr

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to analyze double meridian distance for a closed traverse area in developing a land title for a propose gymnasium in Qassim University. Theodolite, leveling rod and steel tape plays an important role in measuring elevations, bearings and distances of the boundaries of a lot. Contour map is necessary to determine the traces of level surfaces of successive elevation. This will enable to identify the type of contour map and type of contour lines necessary for this project. Corel draw software is used to draw contour map and guide to interpret the significance of the variables. It is essential to check the error of closure for interior angles and for both latitude and departure before applying the Double Meridian Distance (DMD method to obtain the total area of the lot. Technical descriptions of the land such as distance, bearing, boundaries and area are necessary to visualize the shape & exact location of the land. Developing a land title will be obtained using the technical descriptions of the lot in preparation for the type of gymnasium necessary for Qassim University.

  15. Shoulder tip pain after laparoscopic surgery analgesia by collateral meridian acupressure (shiatsu) therapy: a report of 2 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chun-Chang; Ko, Shan-Chi; Huh, Billy K; Kuo, Chang-Po; Wu, Ching-Tang; Cherng, Chen-Hwan; Wong, Chih-Shung

    2008-01-01

    This article describes 2 cases of collateral meridian acupressure (shiatsu) therapy (CMAT) for treatment of shoulder tip pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Both cases showed marked pain relief with reduction of skin temperature (1 degrees C) of the affected shoulder after CMAT. A 32- and a 53-year-old female presented with right shoulder tip pain after LC surgery. The repeated dose of intravenous ketorolac 30 mg and meperidine 50 mg did not improve the pain. Because of persistent pain and episodes of nausea and vomiting after intravenous nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioid medications, patients refused to take more analgesics, and we were consulted for pain management. After informed written consent obtained, CMAT was performed using acupoints located on the contralateral (left) kidney meridian to treat affected (right) shoulder pain. Postoperatively, patients' pain intensity was measured using a numeric pain scale. The infrared thermography of shoulder tip was obtained before and after the CMAT. Both patients reported immediate pain relief after the CMAT, with pain scores decreased from 5 to 1 of 10 and 5 to 0 of 10, respectively. Moreover, the local skin temperature of affected shoulders were significantly decreased in both patients after the CMAT. Similarly, the temperature difference between patients' affected and nonpainful shoulders were also significant after the CMAT. The results of these 2 cases suggest that the CMAT may be effective in reducing patients' post-LC shoulder tip pain without medication. An associated reduction of skin temperature of the painful shoulder with CMAT warrants further investigation.

  16. Laser Marking of the Meridian of Retinal Breaks at the Ora: A Novel Technique for Pneumatic Retinopexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Peng; Minaker, Samuel; Mandelcorn, Efrem D

    2016-06-01

    Localization of retinal breaks in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) after pneumatic retinopexy (PR) can be challenging once the retina is reattached. Laser can be applied to the pigmented and always-attached ora serrata in the meridian of the retinal breaks prior to pneumatic retinopexy, resulting in subsequent rapid localization of the breaks even in the presence of a gas bubble or media opacity. Ten cases of indirect laser photocoagulation marking at the ora prior to intraocular gas injection in PR for RRD. Subsequent laser retinopexy was completed 48 hours after utilizing the landmarks at the ora to localize the reattached retinal breaks. In all 10 cases, laser photocoagulation marking was easily applied to the ora in the meridian of the retinal breaks prior to gas injection with no complications. The retinal breaks were subsequently identified 48 hours after gas injection. Laser marking of the ora prior to pneumatic retinopexy is a rapid and effective way to localize the re-attached retina breaks. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:570-572.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. The 100th Meridian Climate Divide & Its Present and Future Impact on the Human Geography of the American Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, J. R.; Seager, R.; Ting, M.; Lis, N.

    2016-12-01

    The 100th meridian has been viewed historically as a symbolic boundary between the more arid western plains in the Midwestern United States, and the more humid eastern half of the country. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the true climatic characteristics of this divide, and to determine its implications for landscape and land use, with a focus on agriculture. An aridity index is first defined as precipitation divided by the potential evapotranspiration, P/PET, where PET is calculated with the Penman-Monteith equation using data from the North American Land Data Assimilation System Phase 2 (NLDAS-2) for the period 1979-2015. The NLDAS-2 is a compilation of observed climate data and output from three land surface models: NOAH, VIC, and MOSAIC. The three models agreed on a clear west-east gradient in aridity, with a boundary dryland boundary at approximately the 100th meridian. The aridity index was then compared to the soil moisture from each model, to determine how it impacts water storage, and the soil moisture was consistent both annually and seasonally. Using USDA data from the 2012 census, the longitudinal distribution of agricultural variables, such as farm size and percent corn of total cropland, were examined. Clear differences were observed in these variables across the aridity boundary, especially in the Northern Plains. We performed regressions between these variables and the aridity index, and found a close relationship between the aridity index and the percent of corn and wheat grown, as well as farm size. To project the potential future changes in agricultural practices due to changes in aridity, we used CMIP5 projections of the aridity index changes over the plains in the period 2040-2060. In tandem with the regression relation, we were able to predict that the percent corn of total cropland may decrease by as much as 20% at all longitudes, and it may not even be feasible to grow east of the 100th meridian. Farm size is expected to increase

  18. DETERMINATION OF AVERAGED AXISYMMETRIC FLOW SURFACES AND MERIDIAN STREAMLINES IN THE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP USING NUMERICAL SIMULATION RESULTS

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    Jasmina Bogdanović-Jovanović

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important aims in the turbo pump design is to achieve an optimal design of the pump impeller. The basic assumption in the design procedure of the impeller is that of the axisymmetric fluid flow. It can be confirmed or disputed by using the method presented in the paper, which uses the results of numerical simulation of fluid flow in the pump impeller. The method is actually a procedure for determining averaged axisymmetric flow surfaces and meridian streamlines. Furthermore, according to the obtained streamlines, a correction of the impeller blade geometry can be made (if the streamlines deviate significantly from the assumed axisymmetric ones. It is also possible to calculate the specific works of the elementary stages and compare them with the previous assumptions. The pump impeller torque can be calculated as well.

  19. Investigation of the effect of non-precessional equinox motion from the 1925 - 1982 meridian observations of the Sun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozel, O. V.

    The Washington and Greenwich 1925 - 1982 meridian observations of the Sun were used to estimate the angles of relative orientation of the coordinate systems realized by FK5, DE200, and DE403 and the corrections to the Earth's orbital elements. Good agreement of these estimates for DE200 and DE403 is evidence that the difference between these theories of motion is insignificant. It is inferred that the non-precessional equinox motion does exist and this effect was overestimated in constructing the FK5. The effect estimates and their accuracy depend on the investigation procedure, inaccuracy in the constant of precession used, and irregularities of the Brouwer time scale. The angles of relative orientation of the ICRS and DE403 coordinate systems are determined.

  20. Studying the effect of non-precessional equinox motion from the meridian observations of the sun in 1925 - 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozel, O. V.

    1999-02-01

    Based on the Washington and Greenwich meridian observations of the Sun made in 1925 - 1982 the author estimated the angles of mutual orientation of the axes of the coordinate systems realized by FK5, DE200, and DE403, as well as the corrections for the Earth's orbital elements. Good agreement between these estimates for the theories DE200 and DE403 testifies the differences between these theories of motion are insignificant. The conclusion is made that the effect of non-precessional equinox motion is real and the magnitude of the effect adopted in the construction of FK5 is overestimated. The estimates of the effect and their accuracy are found to depend on the technique and the accuracy of the constant of precession adopted as well as on the irregularity of Brouwer's time scale. The angels of mutual orientation of coordinate axes of the ICRS system and the system realized by DE403 are determined.

  1. Biometry of anterior segment of human eye on both horizontal and vertical meridians during accommodation imaged with extended scan depth optical coherence tomography.

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    Lin Leng

    Full Text Available To determine the biometry of anterior segment dimensions of the human eye on both horizontal and vertical meridians with extended scan depth optical coherence tomography (OCT during accommodation.Twenty pre-presbyopic volunteers, aged between 24 and 30, were recruited. The ocular anterior segment of each subject was imaged using an extended scan depth OCT under non- and 3.0 diopters (D of accommodative demands on both horizontal and vertical meridians. All the images were analyzed to yield the following parameters: pupil diameter (PD, anterior chamber depth (ACD, anterior and posterior surface curvatures of the crystalline lens (ASC and PSC and the lens thickness (LT. Two consecutive measurements were performed to assess the repeatability and reproducibility of this OCT. They were evaluated by calculating the within-subject standard deviation (SD, a paired t-test, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC and the coefficient of repeatability/reproducibility (CoR.There were no significant differences between two consecutive measurements on either horizontal or vertical meridians under both two different accommodative statuses (P>0.05. The ICC for all parameters ranged from 0.775 to 0.998, except for the PSC (0.550 on the horizontal meridian under the non-accommodative status. In addition, the CoR for most of the parameters were excellent (0.004% to 4.89%. In all the parameters, only PD and PSC were found different between the horizontal and vertical meridians under both accommodative statuses (P<0.05. PD, ACD, ASC and PSC under accommodative status were significantly smaller than those under the non-accommodative status, except that the PSC at the vertical meridian did not change. In addition, LT was significantly increased when accommodation.The extended scan depth OCT successfully measured the dimensions of the anterior eye during accommodation with good repeatability and reproducibility on both horizontal and vertical meridians. The asymmetry

  2. [Antirheumatic substance and meridian tropism of Loranthus parasiticus based on "syndrome-efficacy-analysis of biological samples"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling-Ling; Wang, Jing; Cui, Ying; Wen, Pu; Guan, Jun; Yang, Shu; Ma, Kai

    2016-05-01

    To study the antirheumatic substance of Loranthus parasiticus and observe the relationship between its in vivo distribution and meridian tropism in rats by establishing adjuvant arthritis models corresponding to effectiveness. All rats except the negative control group were injected with 0.1 mL Freund's complete adjuvant on the left foot. After 8 days, the rats in negative control group and model group were given with normal saline while the rats in positive control group were given with tripterygium glycosides suspension 10 mg•kg-1, and the rats in L. parasiticus treatment groups were given with high(10 g•kg ⁻¹), medium(5 g•kg ⁻¹) and low(2.5 g•kg ⁻¹) dose decoction for 21 days. The left rear ankle joint diameter of rats were measured every 7 days from the 9th day of modeling. On the 22nd day, eyeball blood of part rats in L. parasiticus high-dose group was taken at different time points, and then they were sacrificed to take heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, stomach, large intestine, small intestine and brain tissues. For the remaining rats, eyeball blood was taken 30 min after drug treatment, and their left rear ankle joints were taken to detect interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels in serum by ELISA method; rutin, avicularin and quercitrin levels in the tissues of high-dose group were detected by HPLC; pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed by using DAS 2.0. Our results showed that L. parasiticus decoction could significantly improve the paw edema situation of adjuvant arthritis model rats, and reduce IL-1β and TNF-α levels in rat serum. The in vivo efficacy substance analysis in rats showed that rutin was only present in the stomach with a small amount. AUC0-t of avicularin was stomach > small intestine > kidney, and the duration time in vivo was kidney=stomach > small intestine > lung > heart. AUC0-t of quercitrin was stomach > kidney > liver > heart > lung > spleen > small intestine > brain > large intestine

  3. [Clinical observation of peptic ulcer treated with acupuncture based on theory of "the compatibility of the five meridians" in Huxiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiying; Li, Jinxiang; Pan, Shimin; Zhang, Xi; Li, Ying

    2017-08-12

    To compare the effects differences for peptic ulcer between acupuncture based on the theory of "the compatibility of the five meridians" in Huxiang and conventional western medication. Sixty patients with peptic ulcer of liver-stomach disharmony type (LSDT) and weakness of spleen and stomach type (WSST) were assigned into an observation group and a control group by block randomization according to syndrome differentiation.Finally,28 cases (17 with LSDT and 11 with WSST) in the observation group,29 cases (18 with LSDT and 11 with WSST) in the control group were included.In the observation group,patients with LSDT were treated with acupuncture at Zhongwan (CV 12),Taichong (LR 3),Xingjian (LR 2),Qimen (LR 14),Zusanli (ST 36),Gongsun (SP 4),Shaofu (HT 8),Jingqu (LU 8),Neiguan (PC 6); those with WSST,at Zhongwan (CV 12),Dadu (SP 2),Taibai (SP 3),Yinlingquan (SP 9),Zusanli (ST 36),Shaofu (HT 8), Taichong (LR 3),Yingu (KI 10),Taixi (KI 3),Taiyuan (LU 9) according to the theory of "the compatibility of the five meridians" in Huxiang .Reinforcing and reducing were according to syndrome differentiation.The treatment was given once a day with needle retained for 30 min,5 days a week,2 days at interval.In the control group,the conventional triple drugs (omeprazole,amoxicillin and clarithromycin) were prescribed orally for Hp positive patients,and omeprazole for Hp negative patients.All the patients were treated for 4 weeks.The clinical syndrome score,ulcer healing under gastroscope,anti-Hp infection and Hp negative conversion ratio rate were observed in the two groups before and after treatment as well as 1 month after treatment.The total effects were evaluated. The syndrome scores after treatment and at 1 month ofter treatment decreased in the two groups (all P 0.05).The scores within the group between the two syndromes showed no significance in the two groups (both P >0.05).The cure rates under gastroscope,anti-Hp infection rates and the total rates had no statistically

  4. Health economic evaluation of acupuncture along meridians for treating migraine in China: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhu-qing; Zheng, Hui; Zhao, Ling; Zhou, Si-yuan; Li, Ying; Liang, Fan-rong

    2012-06-14

    To evaluate different types of acupuncture treatment for migraine in China from the perspective of health economics, particularly the comparison between treatment of specific acupoints in Shaoyang meridians and penetrating sham acupoints treatment. Data were obtained from a multicenter, randomized controlled trial of acupuncture treatment in patients with migraine. Four-hundred eighty migraineurs were randomly assigned to 3 arms of treatment with genuine acupoints and 1 arm of penetrating sham acupoints. The primary outcome measurement was the cost-effectiveness ratio (C/E), expressed as cost per 1 day reduction of headache days from baseline to week 16. Cost-comparison analyses, differences in the migraine-specific quality of life questionnaire (MSQ), and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio were taken as secondary outcome measurements. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was conducted. The total cost per patient was ¥1273.2 (95% CI 1171.3-1375.1) in the Shaoyang specific group, ¥1427.7 (95% CI 1311.8-1543.6) in the Shaoyang non-specific group, ¥1490.8 (95% CI 1327.1-1654.6) in the Yangming specific group, and ¥1470.1 (95% CI 1358.8-1581.3) in the sham acupuncture group. The reduced days with migraine were 3.972 ± 2.7, 3.555 ± 2.8, 3.793 ± 3.6, and 2.155 ± 3.7 in these 4 groups (P vs the sham group), respectively, at week 16. The C/Es of the 4 groups were 320.5, 401.6, 393.1, and 682.2, respectively. Results of the sensitivity analysis were consistent with that of the cost-effectiveness analysis. The Shaoyang specific group significantly improved in all 3 MSQ domains compared with the sham acupuncture group. Treatment of specific acupoints in Shaoyang meridians is more cost-effective than that of non-acupoints, representing a dramatic improvement in the quality of life of people with migraine and a significant reduction in cost. Compared with the other 3 groups, Shaoyang-specific acupuncture is a relatively cost-effective treatment for migraine

  5. Health economic evaluation of acupuncture along meridians for treating migraine in China: results from a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Zhu-qing

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate different types of acupuncture treatment for migraine in China from the perspective of health economics, particularly the comparison between treatment of specific acupoints in Shaoyang meridians and penetrating sham acupoints treatment. Methods Data were obtained from a multicenter, randomized controlled trial of acupuncture treatment in patients with migraine. Four-hundred eighty migraineurs were randomly assigned to 3 arms of treatment with genuine acupoints and 1 arm of penetrating sham acupoints. The primary outcome measurement was the cost-effectiveness ratio (C/E, expressed as cost per 1 day reduction of headache days from baseline to week 16. Cost-comparison analyses, differences in the migraine-specific quality of life questionnaire (MSQ, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio were taken as secondary outcome measurements. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was conducted. Results The total cost per patient was ¥1273.2 (95% CI 1171.3-1375.1 in the Shaoyang specific group, ¥1427.7 (95% CI 1311.8-1543.6 in the Shaoyang non-specific group, ¥1490.8 (95% CI 1327.1-1654.6 in the Yangming specific group, and ¥1470.1 (95% CI 1358.8-1581.3 in the sham acupuncture group. The reduced days with migraine were 3.972 ± 2.7, 3.555 ± 2.8, 3.793 ± 3.6, and 2.155 ± 3.7 in these 4 groups (P  Conclusions Treatment of specific acupoints in Shaoyang meridians is more cost-effective than that of non-acupoints, representing a dramatic improvement in the quality of life of people with migraine and a significant reduction in cost. Compared with the other 3 groups, Shaoyang-specific acupuncture is a relatively cost-effective treatment for migraine prophylaxis in China. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT00599586

  6. Research advances in treatment of neurological and psychological diseases by acupuncture at the Acupuncture Meridian Science Research Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bombi; Kim, Seung-Nam; Park, Hi-Joon; Lee, Hyejung

    2014-06-01

    Acupuncture is an ancient therapeutic intervention that can be traced back at least 2100 years and is emerging worldwide as one of the most widely used therapies in the field of complementary and alternative medicine. Due to limitations associated with Western medicine's focus on the treatment of diseases rather than on their causes, interests are shifting to complementary and alternative medicines. The Acupuncture and Meridian Science Research Center (AMSRC) was established in 2005 to elucidate the neurophysiological mechanisms of acupuncture for neurological diseases based on multidisciplinary research supported by the Korean Ministry of Science and Technology. In the AMSRC, resultant research articles have shown that acupuncture can improve neurological and psychological problems, including Parkinson's disease, pain, and depression, in animal models. Basic research studies suggest its effectiveness in treating various problems such as depression, drug addiction, epilepsy, ischemia, dementia, Parkinson's disease, and pain. We strongly believe that these effects, evident from the AMSRC research results, can play leading roles in the use of acupuncture for treating neurological diseases, based on collaboration among various academic fields such as neurophysiology, molecular genetics, and traditional Korean medicine.

  7. Moxibustion in Early Chinese Medicine and Its Relation to the Origin of Meridians: A Study on the Unearthed Literatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiankang; Han, Li; Liu, Juntian; Yu, Mengyun

    2017-01-01

    Moxibustion is an integral part of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). It achieved higher level of recognition and had more general application in ancient times than in contemporary life. As the vital historical sources, the records of unearthed literatures offered precious insights to Chinese social life pattern and medical practice in Qin and Han dynasties (221 BC–220 AD). There was no surprise that the bamboo and silk documents excavated from Mawangdui (马王堆) tomb, Hantanpo (旱滩坡) tomb, and other relics had a large amount of texts relevant to moxibustion. This research sorted moxibustion recordings from seven unearthed literatures and discovered that moxibustion had been developed into different modalities and utilized to treat many diseases at that time. In addition, the indications, contraindications of moxibustion, and the method of postmoxibustion care were also discussed. On this basis, some hints were provided to support the hypothesis that the practice of moxibustion led to the discovery of meridians. All our preliminary results in the research have drawn attention for this old therapy and given a new source for its application in clinic and scientific research. PMID:28298936

  8. [Effects of abdominal meridian massage with aroma oils on relief of constipation among hospitalized children with brain related disabilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Mi Jung; Bang, Young Ie; Kim, Tae Im

    2013-04-01

    This study was done to evaluate the effects of 3 times/week and 5 times/week abdominal meridian massage with aroma oils (AMMAO) on the relief of constipation among hospitalized children with disabilities involving the brain lesions (cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and others). The participants were 33 hospitalized children with a disability involving the brain (15 were in the 5 times/week of AMMAO group and 18 were in the 3 times/week of AMMAO group). Data were collected from March 21 to May 1, 2011. Chi-square test, t-test, and repeated measures ANOVA with SPSS 18.0 were used to evaluate the effects of AMMAO. While there was no significant difference between the two groups, there was a significant difference within groups between baseline and the end of the intervention period for the following, frequency of suppository use or enemas, amount of stool, and number of bowel movements. The results of this study indicate that AMMAO is an effective nursing intervention in relief of constipation for hospitalized children with a disability involving the brain. Therefore it is recommended that AMMAO be used in clinical practice as an effective nursing intervention for relief of constipation to these children.

  9. Research advances in treatment of neurological and psychological diseases by acupuncture at the Acupuncture Meridian Science Research Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bombi Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is an ancient therapeutic intervention that can be traced back at least 2100 years and is emerging worldwide as one of the most widely used therapies in the field of complementary and alternative medicine. Due to limitations associated with Western medicine's focus on the treatment of diseases rather than on their causes, interests are shifting to complementary and alternative medicines. The Acupuncture and Meridian Science Research Center (AMSRC was established in 2005 to elucidate the neurophysiological mechanisms of acupuncture for neurological diseases based on multidisciplinary research supported by the Korean Ministry of Science and Technology. In the AMSRC, resultant research articles have shown that acupuncture can improve neurological and psychological problems, including Parkinson's disease, pain, and depression, in animal models. Basic research studies suggest its effectiveness in treating various problems such as depression, drug addiction, epilepsy, ischemia, dementia, Parkinson's disease, and pain. We strongly believe that these effects, evident from the AMSRC research results, can play leading roles in the use of acupuncture for treating neurological diseases, based on collaboration among various academic fields such as neurophysiology, molecular genetics, and traditional Korean medicine.

  10. The presence of large sunspots near the central solar meridian at the times of modern Japanese auroral observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Willis

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The validity of a technique developed by the authors to identify historical occurrences of intense geomagnetic storms, which is based on finding approximately coincident observations of sunspots and aurorae recorded in East Asian histories, is corroborated using more modern sunspot and auroral observations. Scientific observations of aurorae in Japan during the interval 1957–2004 are used to identify geomagnetic storms that are sufficiently intense to produce auroral displays at low geomagnetic latitudes. By examining white-light images of the Sun obtained by the Royal Greenwich Observatory, the Big Bear Solar Observatory, the Debrecen Heliophysical Observatory and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft, it is found that a sunspot large enough to be seen with the unaided eye by an "experienced" observer was located reasonably close to the central solar meridian immediately before all but one of the 30 distinct Japanese auroral events, which represents a 97% success rate. Even an "average" observer would probably have been able to see a sunspot with the unaided eye before 24 of these 30 events, which represents an 80% success rate. This corroboration of the validity of the technique used to identify historical occurences of intense geomagnetic storms is important because early unaided-eye observations of sunspots and aurorae provide the only possible means of identifying individual historical geomagnetic storms during the greater part of the past two millennia.

  11. [Impacts of acupuncture at Jing-well points on the differentiated meridians and temple-three-needle therapy on P300 of patients with early vascular cognitive impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Cai, Rong-Lin; Zhai, Liang; Gao, Kang; Yang, Jun

    2013-09-01

    To observe the efficacy on post-stroke mild cognitive impairment (MCI) treated with acupuncture at Jing-well points on the differentiated meridians and temple-three-needle therapy. Seventy-three of stroke patients were randomized into an acupuncture group (37 cases) and a conventional treatment group (36 cases). Twenty healthy aged people in physical examination were collected as a control group. In the acupuncture group, on the basis of the conventional treatment of internal medication, the acupuncture at Jing-well points on the differentiated meridians and temple-three-needle therapy were applied. In the conventional treatment group, no any therapy was used except the conventional treatment of internal medication. In the control group, no any intervention was adopted. Neuroscan Nuamps electroencephalogram recording analysis system was used to determine the event-related potentials P300, and the amplitude and mini mental state examination (MMSE) score was observed before and after treatment in both groups. After treatment, in the acupuncture group, P300 latent stage was shortened, and the amplitude and the score of MMSE were increased (P 0.05). Compared with the conventional treatment group, the differences in P300 latent stage, amplitude and MMSE score were remarkable in the acupuncture group (P acupuncture at Jing-well points on the differentiated meridians and temple-three-needle therapy improves the cognitive function of the patients with MCI.

  12. Closing the Knowledge Gap: Effects of Land Use Conversion on Belowground Carbon near the 100th Meridian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, S. E.; Phillips, R. L.; Dell, R.; Suddick, E. C.

    2012-12-01

    Native prairie of the northern Great Plains near the 100th meridian is currently under land use conversion pressure due to high commodity prices. From 2002 to 2007, approximately 303,515 hectares of prairie were converted to crop production in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) from Montana to the Dakotas. The spatiotemporal effects of land-use conversion on soil organic matter are still unclear for the PPR. Effects will vary with management, soil properties and time, making regional experiments and simulation modeling necessary. Grassland conservationists are interested in soil carbon data and soil carbon simulation models to inform potential voluntary carbon credit programs. These programs require quantification of changes in soil carbon associated with land-use conversion and management. We addressed this issue by 1) designing a regional-scale experiment, 2) collecting and analyzing soil data, and 3) interviewing producers about land management practices, as required for regional, process-based biogeochemical models. We selected farms at random within a 29,000 km2 area of interest and measured soil properties at multiple depths for native prairie and adjacent annual crop fields. The cores were processed at six different depths (between 0 and 100 cm) for bulk density, pH, texture, total carbon, inorganic carbon, and total nitrogen. We found that the largest difference in soil organic carbon occurred at the 0-10 cm depth, but the magnitude of the effect of land use varied with soil properties and land management. Results from this project, coupled with regional model simulations (Denitrification-Decomposition, DNDC) represent the baseline data needed for future voluntary carbon credit programs and long-term carbon monitoring networks. Enrollment in such programs could help ranchers and farmers realize a new income stream from maintaining their native prairie and the carbon stored beneath it.

  13. The presence of large sunspots near the central solar meridian at the times of major geomagnetic storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Willis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A further study is made of the validity of a technique developed by the authors to identify historical occurrences of intense geomagnetic storms, which is based on finding approximately coincident observations of sunspots and aurorae recorded in East Asian histories. Previously, the validity of this technique was corroborated using scientific observations of aurorae in Japan during the interval 1957–2004 and contemporaneous white-light images of the Sun obtained by the Royal Greenwich Observatory, the Big Bear Solar Observatory, the Debrecen Heliophysical Observatory, and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft. The present investigation utilises a list of major geomagnetic storms in the interval 1868–2008, which is based on the magnitude of the AA* magnetic index, and reconstructed solar images based on the sunspot observations acquired by the Royal Greenwich Observatory during the shorter interval 1874–1976. It is found that a sunspot large enough to be seen with the unaided eye by an "experienced" observer was located reasonably close to the central solar meridian for almost 90% of these major geomagnetic storms. Even an "average" observer would easily achieve a corresponding success rate of 70% and this success rate increases to about 80% if a minority of ambiguous situations are interpreted favourably. The use of information on major geomagnetic storms, rather than modern auroral observations from Japan, provides a less direct corroboration of the technique for identifying historical occurrences of intense geomagnetic storms, if only because major geomagnetic storms do not necessarily produce auroral displays over East Asia. Nevertheless, the present study provides further corroboration of the validity of the original technique for identifying intense geomagnetic storms. This additional corroboration of the original technique is important because early unaided-eye observations of sunspots and aurorae provide the only

  14. The presence of large sunspots near the central solar meridian at the times of major geomagnetic storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Willis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A further study is made of the validity of a technique developed by the authors to identify historical occurrences of intense geomagnetic storms, which is based on finding approximately coincident observations of sunspots and aurorae recorded in East Asian histories. Previously, the validity of this technique was corroborated using scientific observations of aurorae in Japan during the interval 1957–2004 and contemporaneous white-light images of the Sun obtained by the Royal Greenwich Observatory, the Big Bear Solar Observatory, the Debrecen Heliophysical Observatory, and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft. The present investigation utilises a list of major geomagnetic storms in the interval 1868–2008, which is based on the magnitude of the AA* magnetic index, and reconstructed solar images based on the sunspot observations acquired by the Royal Greenwich Observatory during the shorter interval 1874–1976. It is found that a sunspot large enough to be seen with the unaided eye by an "experienced" observer was located reasonably close to the central solar meridian for almost 90% of these major geomagnetic storms. Even an "average" observer would easily achieve a corresponding success rate of 70% and this success rate increases to about 80% if a minority of ambiguous situations are interpreted favourably. The use of information on major geomagnetic storms, rather than modern auroral observations from Japan, provides a less direct corroboration of the technique for identifying historical occurrences of intense geomagnetic storms, if only because major geomagnetic storms do not necessarily produce auroral displays over East Asia. Nevertheless, the present study provides further corroboration of the validity of the original technique for identifying intense geomagnetic storms. This additional corroboration of the original technique is important because early unaided-eye observations of sunspots and aurorae provide the only

  15. First-line bevacizumab plus paclitaxel in Japanese patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer: subgroup results from the randomized Phase III MERiDiAN trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Norikazu; Takahashi, Masato; Nakagami, Kazuhiko; Okumura, Yasuhiro; Nakayama, Takahiro; Sato, Nobuaki; Kanatani, Kazumitsu; Tajima, Kosei; Kashiwaba, Masahiro

    2017-05-01

    In the double-blind placebo-controlled randomized Phase III MERiDiAN trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01663727), adding bevacizumab to paclitaxel for HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer (mBC) significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS; stratified hazard ratio [HR] 0.68, 99% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-0.91). We assessed the efficacy and tolerability of first-line bevacizumab-paclitaxel in the subset of Japanese patients in MERiDiAN. Eligible patients had HER2-negative mBC previously untreated with chemotherapy. Plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A was measured before randomization to paclitaxel 90 mg/m2 on Days 1, 8 and 15 with either placebo or bevacizumab 10 mg/kg on Days 1 and 15, repeated every 4 weeks until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity or consent withdrawal. Stratification factors were: baseline plasma VEGF-A level, prior adjuvant chemotherapy, hormone receptor status and geographic region. Co-primary endpoints were investigator-assessed PFS in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population and in the subgroup with high plasma VEGF-A. This exploratory analysis evaluated efficacy and safety in the subpopulation treated in Japanese centers. Of 481 patients randomized in MERiDiAN, 54 (11%) were Japanese. The stratified PFS HR in the Japanese subgroup was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.29-1.40). Median PFS was 9.2 months with placebo-paclitaxel (n = 30) versus 12.7 months with bevacizumab-paclitaxel (n = 24). Bevacizumab was associated with increased incidences of Grade ≥3 neutropenia, peripheral sensory neuropathy and hypertension, but there was no Grade ≥3 proteinuria, bleeding or gastrointestinal perforation. Bevacizumab-paclitaxel efficacy in Japanese patients was consistent with the MERiDiAN ITT population. No new safety signals were seen and tolerability was consistent with previous experience. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Acupuncture Effect on Pain, Mouth Opening Limitation and on the Energy Meridians in Patients with Temporomandibular Dysfunction: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera LR. Zotelli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Temporomandibular disorders (TMD, recognized as the most common conditions of chronic orofacial pain, have a multifactorial etiology. Acupuncture can help to relieve the pain and discomfort associated with these conditions, because it can rebalance the energy (Qi circulating in the meridians. The aim of the study was to verify the effectiveness of acupuncture in treating the pain; mouth opening limitation, and energy circulating in the meridians of patients with TMD of muscular or mixed origin. This was a controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trial conducted at the Piracicaba Dental School (FOP/Unicamp, in Piracicaba SP, Brazil. The Treatment Group received acupuncture with real penetration of the needle, and the Placebo Group received a sham treatment without needle penetration. The acupoints used were: ST6, ST7, SI18, GV20, GB20, BL10, and LI4, during treatment performed for four weekly sessions. The TMD and mouth opening were evaluated according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC. The measurements of the energy at the meridians were performed by the Ryodoraku method, before and after acupuncture in all of the sessions in both groups. The results showed no decrease in pain in the Treatment Group when compared with the Placebo Group (p = 0.2261. There was no increase in the oral opening limit in the Treatment Group compared with the Placebo Group (p > 0.05. Regarding the energy levels, after acupuncture, there was a decrease in Yang energy in all sessions (p < 0.05, in both groups, however, only real acupuncture was effective in maintaining the Yin energy average throughout the four sessions, with significant difference between groups (p = 0.0198. In conclusion, volunteers with TMD presented a pattern of energy deficiency and the most prevalent imbalance patterns identified were in the meridians coupled to the kidney and bladder, and in the Shao Yin (heart/kidney and Shao Yang (triple

  17. Acupuncture Effect on Pain, Mouth Opening Limitation and on the Energy Meridians in Patients with Temporomandibular Dysfunction: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotelli, Vera Lr; Grillo, Cássia M; Gil, Maria Lb; Wada, Ronaldo S; Sato, Jorge E; da Luz Rosário de Sousa, Maria

    2017-10-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD), recognized as the most common conditions of chronic orofacial pain, have a multifactorial etiology. Acupuncture can help to relieve the pain and discomfort associated with these conditions, because it can rebalance the energy (Qi) circulating in the meridians. The aim of the study was to verify the effectiveness of acupuncture in treating the pain; mouth opening limitation, and energy circulating in the meridians of patients with TMD of muscular or mixed origin. This was a controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trial conducted at the Piracicaba Dental School (FOP/Unicamp), in Piracicaba SP, Brazil. The Treatment Group received acupuncture with real penetration of the needle, and the Placebo Group received a sham treatment without needle penetration. The acupoints used were: ST6, ST7, SI18, GV20, GB20, BL10, and LI4, during treatment performed for four weekly sessions. The TMD and mouth opening were evaluated according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC). The measurements of the energy at the meridians were performed by the Ryodoraku method, before and after acupuncture in all of the sessions in both groups. The results showed no decrease in pain in the Treatment Group when compared with the Placebo Group (p = 0.2261). There was no increase in the oral opening limit in the Treatment Group compared with the Placebo Group (p > 0.05). Regarding the energy levels, after acupuncture, there was a decrease in Yang energy in all sessions (p acupuncture was effective in maintaining the Yin energy average throughout the four sessions, with significant difference between groups (p = 0.0198). In conclusion, volunteers with TMD presented a pattern of energy deficiency and the most prevalent imbalance patterns identified were in the meridians coupled to the kidney and bladder, and in the Shao Yin (heart/kidney) and Shao Yang (triple energizer/gall bladder) energetic planes. The acupuncture

  18. The first winter solstice observed at the meridian line of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Rome. (Italian Title: Il primo solstizio d'inverno alla meridiana di S. Maria degli Angeli in Roma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigismondi, C.

    2014-09-01

    The great meridian line in the Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Rome was built in 1701/1702 with the scope to measure the Obliquity of the Earth's orbit in the following eight centuries, upon the will of pope Clement XI. During the winter solstice of 1701 the first measurements of the obliquity have been realized by Francesco Bianchini, the astronomer who designed the meridian line, upgrading the similar instrument realized by Giandomenico Cassini in San Petronio, Bononia. In this paper the accuracy of the data observed by Francesco Bianchini is discussed and compared with up-to-date ephemerides. The modern situation of this historical instrument is also presented.

  19. Direct observation of increasing CO 2 in the Weddell Gyre along the Prime Meridian during 1973-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heuven, Steven M. A. C.; Hoppema, Mario; Huhn, Oliver; Slagter, Hans A.; de Baar, Hein J. W.

    2011-12-01

    The World Ocean takes up a large portion of the anthropogenic CO 2 emitted into the atmosphere. Determining the resulting increase in dissolved inorganic carbon ( CT, expressed in μmol kg -1) is challenging, particularly in the sub-surface and deep Southern Ocean where the time rate of change of CT (in μmol kg -1 decade -1) is commonly expected to be low. We present a determination of this time trend of CT in a dataset of measurements that spans 35 years comprising 10 cruises in the 1973-2008 period along the 0°-meridian in the Weddell Gyre. The inclusion of many cruises aims to generate results that are more robust than may be obtained by taking the difference between only one pair of cruises, each of which may suffer from errors in accuracy. To further improve consistency between cruises, data were adjusted in order to obtain time-invariant values of CT (and other relevant parameters) over the 35 years in the least ventilated local water body, this comprising the deeper Warm Deep Water (WDW) and upper Weddell Sea Deep Water (WSDW). It is assumed that this normalization procedure will allow trends in CT in the more intensely ventilated water masses to be more clearly observed. Time trends were determined directly in measurements of CT, and alternatively in back-calculated values of preformed CT ( CT0; i.e., the CT of the water at the time that it lost contact with the atmosphere). The determined time trends may be attributed to a combination of natural variability (in hydrography or biogeochemistry) and increased uptake of anthropogenic CO 2 from the atmosphere. In order to separate these natural and anthropogenic components, an analysis of the residuals of a multivariate linear regression (MLR), involving the complete time series of all 10 cruises, was additionally performed. This approach is referred to as the Time Series Residuals (TSR) approach. Using the direct method, the time trends of CT in the WSDW are quite small and non-significant at +0.176±0.321

  20. The effects of ten weeks of resistance and combined plyometric/sprint training with the Meridian Elyte athletic shoe on muscular performance in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratamess, Nicholas A; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S; French, Duncan N; Rubin, Martyn R; Gómez, Ana L; Newton, Robert U; Maresh, Carl M

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the combined effects of resistance and sprint/plyometric training with or without the Meridian Elyte athletic shoe on muscular performance in women. Fourteen resistance-trained women were randomly assigned to one of 2 training groups: (a) an athletic shoe (N = 6) (AS) group or (b) the Meridian Elyte (N = 8) (MS) group. Training was performed for 10 weeks and consisted of resistance training for 2 days per week and 2 days per week of sprint/plyometric training. Linear periodized resistance training consisted of 5 exercises per workout (4 lower body, 1 upper body) for 3 sets of 3-12 repetition maximum (RM). Sprint/plyometric training consisted of 5-7 exercises per workout (4-5 plyometric exercises, 40-yd and 60-yd sprints) for 3-6 sets with gradually increasing volume (8 weeks) followed by a 2-week taper phase. Assessments for 1RM squat and bench press, vertical jump, broad jump, sprint speed, and body composition were performed before and following the 10-week training period. Significant increases were observed in both AS and MS groups in 1RM squat (12.0 vs. 14.6 kg), bench press (6.8 vs. 7.4 kg), vertical jump height (3.3 vs. 2.3 cm), and broad jump (17.8 vs. 15.2 cm). Similar decreases in peak 20-, 40-, and 60-m sprint times were observed in both groups (20 m: 0.14 vs. 0.11 seconds; 40 m: 0.29 vs. 0.34 seconds; 60 m: 0.45 vs. 0.46 seconds in AS and MS groups, respectively). However, when sprint endurance (the difference between the fastest and slowest sprint trials) was analyzed, there was a significantly greater improvement at 60 m in the MS group. These results indicated that similar improvements in peak sprint speed and jumping ability were observed following 10 weeks of training with either shoe. However, high-intensity sprint endurance at 60 m increased to a greater extent during training with the Meridian Elyte athletic shoe.

  1. Stratum Corneum Hydration and Skin Surface pH Variation Indicate that Organ Blood Flow Is Regulated by Meridian Activity at Certain Hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Fan Chuang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Day and night are regular occurrences in nature, and the organs and tissues in living bodies follow this cycle. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS at various time points regulates organ excitation to maintain healthy functions in the living body. The energy required from basal metabolism can be used to explain living organisms according to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM concept of relationships between meridian directions and organs at various times (organs “at rest” and organs “in operation”. By monitoring skin reactions after applying a cream, we speculated regular blood flow changes, and established an animated hourglass-shaped trajectory diagram to visualize these changes. A combination of TCM and physiological perspectives were considered to explain how the cardiovascular system produces energy. These two perspectives were applied to interpret the correlation between the SNS and organ metabolism.

  2. Stellar and Solar Positions in 1701-1703 Observed by Francesco Bianchini at the Clementine Meridian Line in the Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Rome, and its Calibration Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2008-09-01

    Stellar aberration is the largest special relativistic effect discovered in astronomy (in 1727 by James Bradley), involving the speed of light when composed with Earth orbital motion. This effect with nutation affected the measurement of latitude with Polaris uppper and lower transits in the first week of January, 1701 made by Francesco Bianchini (1662-1729). Equinoxes and Solstices of 1703 were measured by timing solar and stellar transits at the Meridian Line of Pope Clement XI built in the Basilica of S. Maria degli Angeli in Rome. Original Eastward 4' 28.8" ± 0.6" deviation of the Line affects all measurements. The calibration curve of Clementine Line -here firstly published after 2 years of measurements- includes also local deviations of the Line, and it is used to correct solar and lunar ephemerides at 0.3 s level of accuracy, when meridian transits are there observed and timed.

  3. Examining the Electric Fields of the Evening Equatorial Ionosphere When the Solar Terminator is Aligned and Not Aligned with the Magnetic Meridian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, J. V.

    2014-12-01

    The electric field structure of the equatorial ionosphere near sunset has implications on the development of plasma irregularities. The details of the development of the electric fields are examined using a global ionosphere-electrodynamics model. The results of simulations of simplified conditions show the influence of the arrangement of the solar terminator with the magnetic meridian. The relationships of the Curl-Free mechanism, the Hall Current Divergence mechanism, and the role of the Equatorial Electorjet region control the magnitude and timing of the Prereversal Enhancement of the zonal electric field as well as its altitude profile above the F region bottomside. Realistic conditions for 'equinox' and 'solstice' solar terminator arrangments are presented. The stability of the low-latitude ionosphere has a demonstrated relationship with the solar terminator alignment [Tsunoda, JGR, 1981]. The profile of the vertical and zonal electric field below the bottomside is then examined using the global model to explore the controlling elements of the electric field structure and the growth rates of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and Collisional Shear instability.Tsunoda, R. T. (1985), Control of the seasonal and longitudinal occurrence of equatorial scintillations by the longitudinal gradient in integrated E region Pedersen conductivity, J. Geophys. Res., 90(A1),447-456, doi:10.1029/JA090iA01p00447.

  4. Global distribution of ionospheric and field-aligned currents during substorms as determined from six IMS meridian chains of: initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamide, Y.; Ahn, B.; Akasofu, S.

    1982-10-01

    As a part of the joint efforts of operating six meridian chains of magnetometers during the IMS, magnetic records from 70 stations are used to deduce patterns of electric fields and currents in high latitudes on March 17, 18, 19, 1978. First of all this data set is used to examine the fidelity of the measure of the total westward electrojet intensity. The coefficients for the two correlations are found to be more than 0.8. Then the distribution of both ionospheric currents and field-aligned currents, as well as the electric field, are for the first time determined with a time resolution of 5 min by using an appropriate conductivity distribution model. Although much improvement is still needed for better accuracy, especially in the estimation of ionospheric conductivity, it has now become possible to study the growth and decay of the three-dimensional current system over the north polar region during individual magnetospheric substorms with sufficient time resolution. Our initial results show that the gross features of the instantaneous distributions of the ionospheric and field-aligned currents are remarkably similar to the daily average pattern during a very weak activity and at different substorm epochs and that the large-scale current pattern grows and decays systematically as a whole. There are, however, significant changes in local scales.

  5. [Functional magnetic resonance imaging on acupuncturing Yuan-Source and He-Sea acupoints of stomach Meridian of Foot-Yangming].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-Bin; Liu, Cheng; Wu, Le-Bin; Yan, Bin; Gao, Shu-Zhong; Shao, Guang-Rui; Lü, Qing-Chao

    2009-04-01

    To explore the functional brain localization with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after acupuncturing the Yuan-Source and He-Sea acupoints of Stomach Meridian of Foot-Yangming (ST). The study was performed in 30 healthy volunteers who underwent acupuncture at Yuan-Source acupoint (Chongyang, ST42) and He-Sea acupoint (Zusanli, ST36) (ST group). Ten of these were also underwent acupuncture at the non-acupoints as the control group. Blood oxygenation level dependent functional MRI was performed. In the ST group, signal increasing areas were demonstrated in bilateral superior temporal gyri (Broadmann 22), bilateral supramarginal gyri (Broadmann 40), bilateral cerebellar hemispheres, bilateral cingulate gyri and isthmus of cingulate gyri (Broadmann 32, 30), bilateral superior parietal lobules (Broadmann 7); signal decreasing areas were shown in bilateral orbital gyri (Broadmann 11), bilateral temporal pole (Broadmann 38), right inferior frontal gyrus (Broadmann 47) and right medial occipitotemporal gyrus (Broadmann 36). In the control group, signal increases areas were demonstrated in superior temporal gyri, precentral gyri, cingulate gyri, thalamus, insula and cerebellum. The size, signal intensity and number of increasing areas in control group are less than in ST group. Combined acupuncture of Yuan-Source and He-Sea acupoints of ST can activate and decrease the multiple brain regions of "splanchnic brain" and thus reach a new functional balance to relieve pain.

  6. Electroacupuncture at the governor vessel and bladder meridian acupoints improves postmenopausal osteoporosis through osteoprotegerin/RANKL/RANK and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xuefeng; Wu, Guangwen; Nie, Yan; Lin, Yanping

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that pretreatment with electroacupuncture (EA) at the zusanli/ST36 and sanyinjiao/SP6 acupoints prevents ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats; however, the therapeutic effects of EA at the governor vessel (GV) and bladder meridian (BL) acupoints remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of EA at the GV4, GV6, BL20 and BL23 acupoints on the bones of ovariectomized (OVX) rats were investigated to identify the pathways that mediate the action of EA on the bones. A postmenopausal osteoporosis model was established by performing an ovariectomy in six-month-old female Sprague Dawley rats. Following the ovariectomy, EA treatment was administered once per day for 90 days, with an interval of 5 days per 10 days. The changes in the serum levels of estradiol (E2) and the bone turnover markers, osteocalcin (OC) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b), were determined, while the bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar vertebra and the histomorphology of the femur were observed. Furthermore, the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), which are involved in the OPG/RANKL pathway, were detected by ELISA. In addition, the protein expression levels of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) 5, β-catenin and runt-related transcription factor (Runx) 2, which are involved in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, were detected by western blot analysis. The results revealed that the GV and BL EA treatment groups significantly increased the serum levels of E2 and OC, decreased the serum levels of TRACP 5b and increased the BMD of the lumbar vertebra when compared with the OVX group. With regard to the histomorphology of the bone tissue, an ordered arrangement and a slight thinning of the trabeculae, with no evident hairline fractures, was observed in the femurs following EA treatment in the OVX rats. Furthermore, histomorphological analysis revealed that

  7. Modelling of the meridian flow in nominal and partial flow in axial and helico-centrifugal turbomachinery; Modelisation en regime nominal et partiel de l'ecoulement meridien dans les turbomachines axiales et helicocentrifuges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ercolino, J.

    2001-01-15

    In this study, a fast analysis code for the meridian flow inside turbo-machineries has been developed. This code is based on the resolution of the averaged dynamical equations controlling the internal stationary and non-viscous flow in the relative reference frame. A linear combination of momentum equations has been used in the axial and radial directions to avoid the source term of the equations to become singular. The model developed is particularly adapted to the general case of compression machines, i.e.the mixed machines. Starting with the hypothesis of a finite number of blading and assuming an axisymmetric flow, the equations allowing to calculate the blading forces and the simplified kinematics of blade-to-blade flow have been developed. This kinematics takes into consideration the geometrical data supplied by manufacturers or by global design softwares. This last approach ensures a very efficient link in the framework of turbomachine design projects where the blades geometry is introduced in a very simple way for a first optimization approach. The results obtained seem to be very consistent in nominal flow but also in partial flow conditions as shown by the qualitative comparisons with test results. (J.S.)

  8. A French Imperial Meridian, 1814–1870

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, David

    2011-01-01

    The period stretching from the restoration of Louis XVIII in 1814 until the fall of Napoleon III in 1870 remains the terra incognita of the history of French global ambitions. Even the volume of L’Aventure coloniale de la France, covering the years 1789–1870, stresses that the French ‘cautiously withdrew into themselves’ after the collapse of the first Napoleonic Empire.1 Such a view, this article argues, relies on an extraordinary neglect for the resilience of French formal and, above all, i...

  9. Bioceramic Resonance Effect on Meridian Channels: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Ting-Kai; Chan, Wing P.; Tai, Chen-Jei; Cho, Ting-Pin; Yang, Jen-Chang; Lee, Po-Tsung

    2015-01-01

    Bioceramic is a kind of material which emits nonionizing radiation and luminescence, induced by visible light. Bioceramic also facilitates the breakup of large clusters of water molecules by weakening hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bond weakening, which allows water molecules to act in diverse ways under different conditions, is one of the key mechanisms underlying the effects of Bioceramic on biophysical and physical-chemical processes. Herein, we used sound to amplify the effect of Bioceramic and...

  10. High Capacity Optical Channels for Bioinformation Transfer: Acupuncture Meridians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Jiří; Martan, Tomáš; Foletti, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2012), s. 34-41 ISSN 2005-2901 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP102/11/0649 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Electromagnetic fields * Cellular biophysics * Cancer Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  11. The effective method for investigation meridian tropism theory in rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was in accordance with the MT record of Xiheliu and confirmed that tamarixetin and kaempferide was the material bases of it on MT. This is the first report for the illumination of material basis and the mechanism of Xiheliu on MT by analysis the record of Xiheliu in Compendium of Materia Medica and experimental study.

  12. Variation in meroplankton along 78 degrees E Meridian

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, T.; Peter, K.J.

    degrees S, 5 degrees S-15 degrees S and 15 degrees S-23 degrees S). Fish eggs showed variations within the zones, having a maximum of 1 to 5 in Zone B. While greater variations of 1 to 4 were shown in Zone B by the bivalve larvae, it was less in other...

  13. African Meridian B-Field Education and Research (AMBER) Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yizengaw, E.; Moldwin, M. B.

    2009-04-01

    The AMBER array contains four magnetometers and spans across the geomagnetic equator from L of 1 to an L of 1.4. In addition to filling the largest land-based gap in global magnetometer coverage, the AMBER array will address two fundamental areas of space physics: (1) the processes governing electrodynamics of the equatorial ionosphere as a function of latitude (or L-shell), local time, longitude, magnetic activity, and season, and (2) ULF pulsation strength and its connection with equatorial electrojet strength at low/mid-latitude regions. Satellite observations show unique equatorial ionospheric structures in the African sector, though these have not been confirmed by observation from the ground due to lack of ground-based instruments in the region. In order to have a complete global understanding of equatorial ionosphere motions, deployment of ground-based magnetometers in Africa is essential. One focus of IHY is the deployment of networks of small instruments, including the development of research infrastructure in developing nations through the United Nations Basic Space Science (UNBSS) Small Instrument Array. Therefore, AMBER magnetometer array in partnership with parallel US funded GPS receivers in Africa will allow us to understand the electrodynamics that governs equatorial ionosphere motions. While AMBER routinely observes the F region plasma drift mechanism ( E × B drift), the GPS stations will monitor the structure of plasma at low/mid-latitudes in the African sectors. In addition to new scientific discoveries and advancing the space science research into Africa by establishing scientific collaborations between scientists in the developing and developed nations, the AMBER project also contributes to developing the basic science of heliophysics through cross-disciplinary studies of universal process. This includes the creation of sustainable research/training infrastructure within the developing nations (Africa).

  14. Installation Restoration Program. Preliminary Assessment: 186th Tactical Reconnaissance Group, Mississippi Air National Guard, Meridian Airport, Key Field, Meridian, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    Base.I o There has not been extensive use or storage of pesticides /herbicides on the Base. IIV-17 V. CONCLUSIMNS 1 o Information obtained through...1976 PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE 1988-Present Automated Sciences Group, Inc. Senior Enviromental Engineer, Hazardous Waste Minimization for Rbins Air

  15. A birdcage model for the Chinese meridian system: Part V: Applications to animals and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Kaung-Ti

    2005-01-01

    Since we all belong to the Kingdom Animalia, it is not surprising that animals in general benefit from the healing art of acupuncture that helps humans. Consequently, any proposed mechanism of Qi and acupuncture for humans based on animal physiology is probably applicable to animals as well, yet none is capable of explaining most of the complicated physiological effects observed. Not much attention was paid to the effects of Qi and acupuncture on plants (Kingdom Plantae) and on enoki mushrooms (Kingdom Fungi) by the TCM community, probably because they cannot be explained in terms of neurochemistry or connective tissue structures. However, our transmission and birdcage model is in principle applicable across Kingdom boundaries, because it is based on physical properties underlying the biological structure, thus its explanatory power is not restricted by categories of biology. We estimate several possible parameters of the birdcage model for animals and plants and give a possible interpretation for the sound fertilization phenomenon.

  16. Simple Acupoints Prescription Flow Chart Based on Meridian Theory: A Retrospective Study in 102 Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Ho Jeong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To help the clinicians prescribe acupoints easily and effectively, we developed one simple flow chart to select acupoints. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of flow chart to select acupoints in dogs. Total 102 dogs showing intervertebral disc disease (IVDD (n=12, vomiting (n=11, diarrhea (n=2, abdominal pain (n=5, cough (n=66, or epilepsy (n=6 received acupuncture treatment according to the chart, and its outcomes were evaluated as regards clinical symptoms, duration, treatment numbers, and recovery time. Dogs (8/8 with IVDD from grades I to III recovered over periods of 5 days to 6 weeks after 1–12 treatments, while 1/4 dogs with grade IV recovered over 7 weeks after 15 treatments. Vomiting dogs with acute/subacute (n=8 and chronic symptoms (n=3 required about 1 and 7 treatments to recover fully, respectively. All dogs (n=5 with abdominal pain showed fast relief within 24 hours after acupuncture. Two diarrhea cases recovered over 2–9 days after 1-2 treatments. Fifty-four of 66 coughing dogs were recovered by 1-2 treatments. And 5 of 6 epilepsy dogs under a regular acupuncture treatment had no epileptic episode during followup of 12 months. These results suggest that this flow chart can help the clinicians prescribe acupoints effectively.

  17. Dynamics of ionosphere disturbances along the Eastern-Asian meridian from auroral to equatorial latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirog, Olga; Zherebtsov, Gelii; Kurkin, Vladimir; Shi, J. K.; Wang, Xiao

    The research results of ionosphere variation in the Eastern-Asian sector observed at the decay and minimum of solar activity (SA) in the period 2004-2007 during geomagnetic disturbances are presented. Data from ionospheric stations located within the latitude-longitude sector (20-70N, 90-160E), oblique-incidence sounding on the radio paths Magadan-Irkutsk and No-rilsk -Irkutsk and results of total electron content (TEC) measurements at the network of GPS ground-based receivers are used to analyze the variations in ionospheric parameters. Data of zenith photometers are applied to investigate the disturbances of atmospheric emissions. Four groups of anomalous ionospheric disturbances observed during the low solar activity are re-vealed: falls of electron density in the evening hour connected with the formation of equatorial wall of MIT, large-scale ionospheric disturbances, wavelike disturbances with the period of two days, and sharp short-term fluctuations in the electron density more intensive at the middle latitudes during the storm main phase. It was also found that often there was no direct con-nection between ionospheric disturbances and geomagnetic activity during moderate magnetic storms in solar minimum. Observed disturbances can be induced by the joint action of a few factors: the increase in electric field of magnetospheric convection, the generation of AGWs in the auroral zone and their propagation southwestward, and the disturbed neutral winds generated by the large-scale storm-induced thermospheric circulation in addition to TADs as-sociated with winds. The reason for occurrence of the wavelike disturbance with the periods from two till seven days can be the planetary atmospheric waves. The numerical model for ionosphere-plasmasphere coupling was used to interpret the certain of observed data. It is ob-tained that use of empirical models of electron precipitation, magnetospheric convection and thermospheric parameters with the correction by the observed data in general provides a good agreement between calculated and measured values of foF2.

  18. Platelet-rich plasma versus dry needling of myofascial meridian trigger points in the treatment of plantar fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem El Mallah

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion PRP injection is a promising line of treatment for chronic PF with documented ultrasonographic healing effect. Dry needling is a simple and safe technique for treating pain associated with PF, yet it is more invasive and less effective compared with PRP injection.

  19. ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG THE WORKING POPULATION OF RYAZAN REGION (ACCORDING TO THE STUDY MERIDIAN-RO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. V. Filippov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the levels of PA and its relationship with other risk factors among the working population of the Ryazan Region. Material and methods. The MERIDIAN­RO study was conducted as a prospective cohort with cross­sectional and retrospective study in­ cluded a sample of biochemical, ECG and a survey using a standardized questionnaire. The level of physical activity was assessed by ques­ tionnaire CINDI and then was revised by questionnaire IPAQ. In a study from 2011 it included 1,622 people (in 1220 – a city, 402 – village aged 25–64 years (mean age – 43,4 ± 11,4 years, of which 42.6 % were male, 53.8 % – female. Results. The level of low PA in the Ryazan Region, measured by questionnaire IPAQ was 22.9 % (24.3 % in urban and 18.4 % in rural areas, p = 0.014. With multinomial logistic regression were established association between the PA and the low presence of higher education (OR 3.63; 95 % CI 2,26–5,85, p = 0.0001, Wald 28.172, smoking (OR 1.32, 95 % CI 1,01–1,72, p = 0.045, Wald 4,031 and elevated levels of Lp (a more than 30 mg/dl (OR 1.38, 95 % CI 1,04–1,83, p = 0.024, Wald 5.119. It was also revealed a high demand for advice on improving the PA (74.5 %. Conclusion. The low level of PA in the Ryazan Region, as measured by the IPAQ questionnaire was 22.9 % (24.3 % in urban and 18.4 % in rural areas, p = 0.014, which is lower than Russian average. High demand for advice on improving the FA and created conditions for in­ creasing its level in the region indicate the need to intensify work among the population in this area. 

  20. The afternoon counter-electrojet current system along the 75°E meridian during the IEEY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, S. K.; Subba Rao, P. B. V.

    2017-07-01

    In the present study, the technique of principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to analyze the hourly mean values of geomagnetic field components D, H, and Z along an Indo-Russian chain of stations during the International Equatorial Electrojet Year (IEEY) from January 1992 to June 1993. This technique (PCA) is found to be suitable for separating the normal electrojet (NEJ) and counter-electrojet (CEJ) variations, and the first two principal components (PCs) are able to describe the characteristics of NEJ- and CEJ-related field variations. It is found that the first principal component (PC-1) for H, D, and Z varies as a function of time with latitude and depicts the well-known Sq variations, whereas PC-2(H) does not show any variations at all latitudes during NEJ days. On CEJ days, PC-2(H) shows a large negative excursion at equatorial stations (KAN to BAN). The NEJ- and CEJ-related current systems are determined by combining the hourly inequalities in D and H. PC-1 brings out a well-defined anticlockwise loop for NEJ days, with its focus near the dip latitude ( 35°N), and a clockwise loop for CEJ days with a well-defined focus near the dip latitude ( 20°N) around noon local time. The CEJ-related current system is marked by intense westward current flow in the equatorial belt and is shown to close its path by forming a clockwise loop extending from the dip equator to midlatitudes. Comparison with a numerically simulated current system, caused by various tidal modes, emphasizes the significance of antisymmetric semidiurnal tidal modes in the generation of CEJ events.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. the GFCE-Meridian Good Practice Guide on Critical Information Infrastructure Protection for governmental policy-makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; Schie, T.C.C. van; Ruijven, T.W.J. van; Huistra, A.W.W.

    2016-01-01

    Critical Information Infrastructure Protection (CIIP) is a complex but important topic for nations. Nations at large critically depend on Critical Infrastructure (CI) services such as energy supply, telecommunications, financial systems, drinking water, and governmental services. Critical

  2. Compression testing spherical particles for strength: Theory of the meridian crack test and implementation for microscopic fused quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejchal, Václav; Žagar, Goran; Charvet, Raphaël; Dénéréaz, Cyril; Mortensen, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    We show that uniaxial compression testing of spherical particles can give unambiguous access to their tensile strength as governed by surface flaws if one uses pairs of elasto-plastic platens, tailoring their hardness in order to control the relative area of particle-to-platen contact during the test. This eliminates the development of contact microcracks that are typically found to govern particle fracture when hard platens are used. We show that, if the platen materials are well chosen, one can probe a range of stress states for which it is known that particle failure was initiated along the surface, under elevated hoop stress within a region situated remote from the points of load application. Specifically, platens must be chosen such that particles tend to fracture when the ratio of projected contact area radius to particle radius exceeds a specific value that depends on the Poisson ratio of the particles. With fused quartz of Poisson ratio 0.17, this specific ratio value equals 0.65. We demonstrate the approach using microscopic fused quartz spheres 40±20 μm in diameter as a testbench material; with those particles hardened steel serves as an appropriate platen material. Their strength values are statistically distributed; this is addressed using several platen materials. The resulting bank of data is interpreted using established survival-analysis methods, namely the non-parametric product-limit estimator. We also give a maximum likelihood estimation of the particle strength Weibull distribution parameters derived from the ensemble of data after left-truncation and/or right-censoring of data points situated inside of the range of unambiguous surface fracture strength measurement for each platen material. This gives a Weibull modulus of 6.3 and characteristic strength of 890 MPa for the fused quartz particles. These values are significantly lower than what is produced in high-strength fused quartz fibers of comparable diameter; the difference is most likely a result of surface damage caused during powder storage and manipulation in the absence of a protective coating.

  3. 78 FR 68107 - Order Exempting Broker-Dealers Participating in the Proposed Global Offering of Meridian Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... maintenance of credit, on shares of new issue securities, if the broker-dealer participated in the distribution of the new issue securities within the preceding 30 days. The Joint Lead Managers and their U.S... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-70349] Order Exempting Broker-Dealers...

  4. Distribution pattern of macrozooplankton along the 140°E meridian in the Southern Ocean during austral summer 2002 and 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Tanimura

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Field surveys were conducted along 140°E in the Southern Ocean north of Terre Adelie during three cruises: the KH cruise by RV Hakuho Maru, and TC1 and TC2 cruises by RV Tangaroa during the austral summers of 2002 and 2003. Macrozooplankton were sampled using a Rectangular Midwater Trawl (RMT 8: mesh size: 4.5mm; effective mouth area: 8m2 along each transect. Macrozooplankton communities were separated by the Southern Boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (SB-ACC based on cluster analysis. North of the SB-ACC, macrozooplankton assemblages comprised species of the northern oceanic community characterized by Salpa thompsoni, Euphausia frigida and Themisto gaudichaudii, while south of the SB-ACC, macrozooplankton assemblages were numerically dominated by Euphausia superba and/or Euphausia crystallorophias. It is suggested that the SB-ACC functions as the major biogeographic barrier to separate the macrozooplankton communities, and the contributions of macro- and meso-zooplankton to total zooplankton abundance varies seasonally as well as regionally in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean crossing the SB-ACC.

  5. 75 FR 3782 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Interstate 84 Highway in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... Garrity interchange to Meridian Road interchange, and from Meridian Road interchange to just east of Five... the Meridian Road Interchange westbound on-ramp. Addition of a westbound auxiliary lane between the Eagle Road Interchange westbound on-ramp and the Meridian Road Interchange westbound off-ramps. Addition...

  6. 75 FR 1609 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Beddown of Training F-35A Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ..., February 10, 2010, at Meridian Middle School Foyer/Auditorium, 1507 W. Eighth Street, Meridian, Idaho...; Tucson International Airport Air Guard Station: Monday, March 1, 2010, at Sunnyside High School Foyer...

  7. Rezaei et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2012) 9(4):599-606

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    Qi, meridians, and acupoints are important issues in Chinese medicine. One of the theories claims that acupuncture points and meridians have unique electrical properties. The associations between acupuncture points or meridians and special electrical properties are still under debate. In the current study, we introduced ...

  8. The Meanings and Prospects of Primo Vascular System from the Viewpoint of Historical Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongwook Jeon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this overview is to evaluate the primo vascular system research in the context of the history of meridian theory and the modern meanings of it. The 12 meridian systems were naturally presupposed in the conventional study of the meridians and acupuncture. But the excavations of Mawang-tui old documents and Sichuan Mianyang wooden puppet revealed the primordial concepts of meridians uncolored by the numerological cosmology of Han era. Further, the meridian map of horse, cow and hawk show another resemblance to the primordial type of meridians. Modern meridian theory has been challenged by the material based scientific theory and the primo vascular theory presents the most radical answer for it. It aims to reveal the anatomical entity of meridians. However, the study of primo vascular system is unexpectedly opening the new horizon of scientific integration of East and West beyond the mere searching for anatomical entity of meridians. Conclusions we have drawn from the historical reviews are, (1 the surface structure of the body reflects the physiopathological changes of inside the body, (2 by stimulating specific sites on the surface, it is possible to acquire therapeutic effects of certain symptoms, and (3 numbers and locations of meridian acupoints are variable among traditional meridian theories.

  9. The accuracy of multimeridional refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, W F

    1981-12-01

    The accuracy of meridional refraction using equally spaced preselected meridians was investigated by using populations of computer-simulated patients. The number of meridians refracted, patient refractive error, and the coarseness of phoroptor steps were varied. Results indicate that the accuracy of meridional refraction is independent of the relative orientation of the axis of the patient's astigmatism and the preselected meridians, that little is to be gained by use of a phoropter with steps finer than the usual 0.25 D, and that with a sufficient number of meridians, meridional refraction can be as accurate as more conventional techniques.

  10. [Relationship between opposite acupoints and acupoint effect from acupoint effect of Sanyinjiao (SP 6)-Xuanzhong (GB 39)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Siyuan; Yang, Zhixin; Guo, Jianen; Lu, Hongtong; Wang, Pei; Pang, Jia; Zhang, Huan

    2017-10-12

    The acupoint effect of Sanyinjiao (SP 6) and Xuanzhong (GB 39) as well as the internal relation of Sanyinjiao (SP 6)-Xuanzhong (GB 39) were analyzed in this paper to explore the relationship between opposite acupoints and acupoint effect. It was found both Sanyinjiao (SP 6) and Xuanzhong (GB 39) had acupoint effects, and the two acupoints had close relationship in acupoint effects (specificity along meridian and specificity of acupoints), acupoint-meridian relationship (anatomical locations, meridians and organs, indications). It is indicated the opposite acupoint of Sanyinjiao (SP 6)-Xuanzhong (GB 39) had related aspects in acupoint effects, which is related with acupoint effect through specificity and relationship of acupoint-meridian.

  11. Kinopojezd poidjot na Vostok

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Venemaal elustatakse nõukogude avangardse dokumentaalkino traditsioone : kuus filmigruppi sõidab rongiga Moskvast Vladivostokki, filmides dokumentaalkroonikat, mis esitatakse festivalil Pacific Meridian Vladivostokis 13-19. septembrini

  12. Network pharmacology of medicinal attributes and functions of Chinese herbal medicines: (II Relational networks and pharmacological mechanisms of medicinal attributes and functions of Chinese herbal medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In present study, the database, CHM-DATA, with 1127 Chinese herbal medicines mainly having recorded chemical composition, involving 7 taste attributes, 5 medicinal properties, 1 toxicity attribute, 22 chemical composition categories, 12 meridians and collaterals (Gui Jing, and 78 medicinal functions (Gong Xiao, was used to calculate point correlations between these 125 attributes. Totally four relational networks, i.e., the networks for medicinal attributes and functions, for chemical composition and meridians and collaterals, for meridians and collaterals and medicinal functions, and for meridians and collaterals were constructed based on the significant point correlations. Network analysis indicated that the former three ones are scale-free complex networks and the last one tends to be a random network. Node degrees of the four networks follow power-law distribution. Detailed between-attribute relationships and medicinal mechanisms were revealed. For example, concerning chemical composition categories, alkaloids and amines have positive correlation / correspondence. More alkaloids correspond to more amines. Alkaloids negatively correlate with volatile oils / ordinary oils, carbohydrates / starch, ketones / flavonoids, and olefins. Alkaloids mainly function in decrease internal heat, dry dampness, etc. Organic acids and alkaloids have negative correlation. More organic acids mean the less alkaloids. Organic acids mainly act on large intestine meridians and collaterals, and function in moisten dryness. As for meridians and collaterals, kidney meridians and collaterals negatively correlate with lung meridians and collaterals, stomach meridians and collaterals, and large intestine meridians and collaterals. Kidney meridians and collaterals positively function in consolidate or warm kidney, invigorate male impotence (Yang or strengthen male essence, strengthen bones and muscles, stop diarrheal, regulate menstruation or promote blood flow, relieve

  13. 78 FR 7449 - Boundary Revision of Minuteman Missile National Historic Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... Hills Meridian, Jackson County, South Dakota, and being more particularly described as follows... Black Hills Meridian, in Jackson County, South Dakota, described as follows: Beginning at the Northwest... from another Federal agency. Dated: December 20, 2012. Michael T. Reynolds, Regional Director, Midwest...

  14. 46 CFR 42.30-20 - Seasonal Tropical Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Zone; on the east by the coast of Australia; on the south by the parallel of latitude 15° S. from... Australia; on the west by the meridian of longitude 51°30′ E. (i) Seasonal periods: Tropical: May 1 to... the Tropic of Capricorn from the east coast of Australia to longitude 150° W.; thence by the meridian...

  15. Computer analysis of multicircuit shells of revolution by the field method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    The field method has been presented previously for shells of revolution with open branched meridians. The main purpose of the present paper is to extend this work to the case of meridians which contain circuits. Also, a new method for the treatment of arbitrary kinematic constraints is presented. (Auth.)

  16. Conservation Laws, Equivalence Principle and Forbidden Radiation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hair on a coconut”. ical wavefront. Hence if we start from some point on the equator and move E (say tangent to the meridian) and B (say tangent to the parallel) northwards along a meridian, we get a certain orientation of E and B, still mutually perpendicular, at the north pole. However, a different starting point on the equator ...

  17. [Study on the bamboo slips of Maishu in the Han Dynasty excavated in Laoguanshan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Longxiang

    2018-01-12

    The bamboo slips of medicine, from No. 361 to No. 628, unearthed in Laoguanshan are of the same specification, which shall be the same one as Maishu (《》) of the Han Dynasty from Zhangjiashan in terms of the basic constitution and style. Hence, the medical slips, from No. 361 to No. 628, unearthed in Laoguanshan shall be titled as Maishu of Laoguanshan version, in which, the text on the "twelve meridians" is the combination and adaption from Y inyang Shiyi Mai Jiujiang (《》 Moxibustion Therapy on the Eleven Meridians of Yin and Yang ) and Zubi Shiyimai Jiujing (《》 Moxibustion Therapy on the Eleven Meridians of Legs and Arms ) in the slips of Maishu of the Han Dynasty from Zhangjiashan. The two chapters on "derived meridians" have compiled the names, running courses and differentiated disorders of the 12 meridians in the different eras at the early stage, and in the 9 of these 12 meridians, the prescriptions for moxibustion therapy have been attached for the treatment of the differentiated disorders, which reflexes the characteristics of mai (meridian) at different evolution stages before the formation of the concept of meridian. Regarding the descriptions on "pulse diagnostic method", two different methods are included, one is relevant with the decision of survival span, and another is with the localization of disorders.

  18. 76 FR 70481 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ...] Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; South Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. [[Page...: 5th Principal Meridian, South Dakota T. 124 N., R. 53 W. The plat, in two sheets, representing the... Principal Meridian, South Dakota, was accepted October 28, 2011. We will place a copy of the plat, in two...

  19. 78 FR 76176 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... Filing of Plats of Survey; North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of.... The lands we surveyed are: Fifth Principal Meridian, North Dakota T. 152 N., R. 100 W. The plat, in... lottings, Township 152 North, Range 100 West, Fifth Principal Meridian, North Dakota, was accepted November...

  20. 78 FR 23952 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... Filing of Plats of Survey; North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... determine Federal Leasable Mineral Lands. The lands we surveyed are: Fifth Principal Meridian, North Dakota... dividing Lot 1 of section 29, Township 148 North, Range 95 West, Fifth Principal Meridian, North Dakota...

  1. Original Article Effect of Soft Contact Lens Materials on Tear Film ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of soft contact lens material on the corneal radius of curvature and the tear film stability. ... The disruption of the tear film by soft ... The power of the vertical meridian was read off the vertical power drum while the power of horizontal meridian was. Sierra Leone J Biomed Res 2011| Vol. 3 No.

  2. [New opinion on the mechanism of Dazhu (BL 11) for gonalgia with flexion-extension dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Hang; Peng, Wannian

    2017-09-12

    The effect of Dazhu (BL 11) for gonalgia with flexion-extension dysfunction is remarkable, and its mechanism of action is interpreted as the influential point of bone treating bone diseases. However, through the exploration of a variety of literature, the relevant classical research, the views of senior experts, and combined with the author's experience, we put forward some new ideas and views for reference. Through in-depth analysis about pathogenesis of gonalgia with flexion-extension dysfunction and the functional attributes of Dazhu (BL 11), combining meridian tendons differentiation and myofascial meridians, we consider that Dazhu (BL 11), with its unique "location" advantage, plays the role of regulating multiple viscera, meridians, meridian tendons and myofascial meridians, which is the mechanism for gonalgia with flexion-extension dysfunction.

  3. [Acupoints selection rules analysis of ancient acupuncture for urinary incontinence based on data mining technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Tan, Zhigao; Cao, Juanshu; Gong, Houwu; Qin, Zuoai; Zhong, Feng; Cao, Yue; Wei, Yanrong

    2015-12-01

    Based on ancient literature of acupuncture in Canon of Chinese Medicine (4th edition), the articles regarding acupuncture for urinary incontinence were retrieved and collected to establish a database. By Weka data mining software, the multi-level association rules analysis method was applied to analyze the acupoints selection characteristics and rules of ancient acupuncture for treatment of urinary incontinence. Totally 356 articles of acupuncture for urinary incontinence were collected, involving 41 acupoints with a total frequency of 364. As a result, (1) the acupoints in the yin-meridian of hand and foot were highly valued, as the frequency of acupoints in yin-meridians was 2.6 times than that in yang-meridians, and the frequency of acupoints selected was the most in the liver meridian of foot-jueyin; (2) the acupoints in bladder meridian of foot-taiyang were also highly valued, and among three yang-meridians of foot, the frequency of acupoints in the bladder meridian of foot-taiyang was 54, accounting for 65.85% (54/82); (3) more acupoints selected were located in the lower limbs and abdomen; (4) specific acupoints in above meridians were mostly selected, presenting 73.2% (30/41) to the ratio of number and 79.4% (289/364) to the frequency, respectively; (5) Zhongji (CV 3), the front-mu point of bladder meridian, was seldom selected in the ancient acupuncture literature, which was different from modern literature reports. The results show that urinary incontinence belongs to external genitalia diseases, which should be treated from yin, indicating more yin-meridians be used and special acupoints be focused on. It is essential to focus inheritance and innovation in TCM clinical treatment, and applying data mining technology to ancient literature of acupuncture could provide classic theory basis for TCM clinical treatment.

  4. [Theoretical origin and clinical application of wrist-ankle acupuncture therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiong; Zhou, Qinghui

    2017-05-12

    The theory of wrist-ankle acupuncture is consistent with traditional meridian-collateral theory. For example, the body divisions of wrist-ankle acupuncture are corresponding to the distribution of 12 cutaneous regions of meridians, the needling sites of it are to the running courses of 12 meridians; the indications of it are to those of 12 meridians. The needling sites of wrist-ankle acupuncture are relevant with some special acupoints of acupuncture theory. For example, the 12-needling sites of wrist-ankle acupuncture are located similar to those of 12 meridian points and have very similar indications. The needling sites of it are located in the wrist and ankle regions, in which the five- shu points are located nearby, for meridian disorders. Most luo -connecting points are located near to the needling sites of wrist-ankle acupuncture or the needle tip points to. Additionally, the needling method of wrist-ankle acupuncture is consistent with some of the subcutaneous needling methods in traditional acupuncture therapy. On the basis of the aspects mentioned above, it is explained that wrist-ankle acupuncture is the development of traditional acupuncture and cannot be independent from the traditional theories of acupuncture and meridians. It is necessary to seek for the evidence from the traditional theories of TCM. The traditional theories of TCM are summarized from clinical practice, which can be newly verified from the practice of wrist-ankle acupuncture.

  5. [Characteristics of acupoint selection of acupuncture-moxibustion for vertigo in history: a data mining research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Shou, Yi-Xia; Ren, Yu-Lan; Liang, Fan-Rong

    2014-05-01

    The data mining technique is adopted to analyze characteristics and rules of acupoint and meridian selection of acupuncture-moxibustion for treatment of vertigo at different time periods in the ancient. The data is collected from literature regarding acupuncture-moxibustion from the pre-Qin period to the end of Qing Dynasty, so as to establish a clinical literature database of ancient acupuncture-moxibustion for treatment of vertigo. Data mining method is applied to analyze the commonly used meridians, acupoints and special acupoints in different dynasties, also possible rules are explored. Totally 82 pieces of prescription of acupuncture-moxibustion for treatment of vertigo are included. In the history the leading selection of acupoitns are Fengchi (GB 20), Hegu (LI 4), Shangxing (GV 23) and Jiexi (ST 41) while that of meridians are mainly three yang meridians of foot and the Governor Vessel, especially the acupoints on the Bladder Meridian of foot yangming had the highest utilization rate, accounting for 23.04%. The acupoint selection is characterized by special acupoint, accounting for 80.6%, among which the crossing points are the most common choice. Distal-proximal acupoints combination is the most frequent method. The results indicate that the ancient acupuncture-moxibustion for treatment of vertigo focused on acupoints in the yang meridians, and the specific acupoints play an essential role in prescription; also the principle of syndrome differentiation and selecting acupoints along the meridians could be seen.

  6. 76 FR 18245 - West Tavaputs Plateau Road Restriction Order, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Road Salt Lake Meridian, Utah T. 11 S., R. 18 E., sec. 27, SE\\1/4\\SE\\1/4\\; sec. 33, S\\1/2\\SE\\1/4\\; sec... Road Salt Lake Meridian, Utah T. 13 S., R. 17 E., sec. 8, S\\1/2\\SW\\1/4\\; sec. 17, NW\\1/4\\NW\\1/4\\; sec...\\. Jack Ridge Road Salt Lake Meridian, Utah T. 13 S., R. 16 E., sec. 8, NE\\1/4\\; sec. 9, SE\\1/4\\NE\\1/4...

  7. Research on the modern clinical herbal administration rules in TCM treatment of ovarian cysts based on data mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya'nan Song

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Medicinal herbs for promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis, resolve hard lumps, for strengthening the spleen, eliminating phlegm, and relieving liver qi stagnation were highly used in the treatment of OCs; Herbs attributed to the Liver Meridian, the Spleen Meridian and the Heart Meridian were highly used in OCs; The compatibility of herbs for promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis and resolve hard lumps were highly used; Guizhi Fuling Wan (GFW was often used and combined with other herbs in the treatment of OCs.

  8. 76 FR 67246 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ...] in the horizontal meridian in each eye, and the ability to recognize the colors of traffic signals..., including enucleation, prosthesis, complete loss of vision, macular scarring, retinal and iris coloboma...

  9. 77 FR 75494 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ... least 70[deg] in the horizontal meridian in each eye, and the ability to recognize the colors of traffic... vision, iris damage, and complete loss of vision. In most cases, their eye conditions were not recently...

  10. Water characteristics and transport of the Antarctic circumpolar current in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; Mathew, B.

    Geostrophic velocities are computed across meridians 37 degrees E and 105 degrees E using hydrographic data. The estimated mass transport is represented on a temperature - salinity diagram. The characteristics of the water within the Antarctic...

  11. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-02-13

    UTAR), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. *Corresponding ... of the stomach meridian on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical Na99mTcO4. Wistar rats were divided into control (CG) and experimental groups (EG). The EG were ...

  12. Reducing mathematics anxiety among students with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the findings, Educational Psychologists, Counselling Psychologist and other educational related bodies could adopt the packages for educational diagnosis to improve academic performance of students with academic phobia. Keywords: Numerical Cognition, Emotional Freedom (Meridian-based Intervention), ...

  13. 77 FR 18835 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ...: http://www.bakeraecom.com/index.php/kentucky/pike/ City of Coal Run Village Coal Run Village City Hall.... Tax Assessor's Office, 500 Constitution Avenue, Meridian, MS 39301. Oneida County, Wisconsin, and...

  14. [Experimental study on conduction of Gong tonality vibromusic sound wave in the healthy human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-lin; Tu, Yi-wen; Liang, Tian-tian; Han, Biao; Liu, Wei

    2005-02-01

    To study the conduction of Gong tonality vibromusic sound wave along meridians in healthy human body, and investigate differences of the sensitivity of different meridians and genders to this vibromusic message. Emit the Gong tonality music signal under the water and then investigate the responses of different acupoints and control points at the tissue of the same level to the vibromusic sound wave. There were differences of sensitivity to music waves at source acupoints on the foot, sensitivity of Zusanli (ST 36) was significantly higher than its control point (P music sound wave. Gong tonality vibromusic sound wave can conduct along meridians in healthy human body, and there are differences between different meridians and different genders in the sensitivity to the music sound wave.

  15. Multi-Platform Sensor Surveillance Network for Range Control, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Prioria (Gainesville, FL) and its partners Aerial Products (Deland, FL) and Meridian Systems LLC (Titusville, FL) propose to develop a revolutionary new type of...

  16. 78 FR 72061 - Notice of Petitions by Firms for Determination of Eligibility To Apply for Trade Adjustment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ..., LLC 1550 S Tech Lane, 11/22/2013 The firm manufactures Meridian, ID 83642. electronic wire harnesses... American Fork, UT 84003. vitamins, minerals, sport nutrition formulas, herbs and tea products. Esco...

  17. 77 FR 514 - Correction for Conveyance of Public Lands for Recreation and Public Purposes in Clark County, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... April 26, 2004, (69 FR22547-22548), which listed an incorrect legal land description for the South Hills..., line 6. The legal land description is corrected to read: Mount Diablo Meridian T. 22 S., R. 61 E., Sec...

  18. 78 FR 58555 - Public Land Order No. 7821; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for Steamboat Rock Picnic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Picnic Grounds: Black Hills National Forest Black Hills Meridian T. 2 N., R. 5 E., sec. 1, S\\1/2\\NW\\1/4... the Steamboat Rock Picnic Grounds within the Black Hills National Forest in South Dakota. DATES...

  19. The Irregularity of the Earth's Rotation as a Planetary Geomorphological and Geotectonic Factor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stovas, M. V

    1963-01-01

    Though the idea has not been much discussed for the last fifty years, variation in the rotation of the earth must be accompanied by change of the earth's equatorial and polar radii, change of meridian...

  20. Ecology of coccolithophores in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mohan, R.; Mergulhao, L.P.; Guptha, M.V.S.; Rajakumar, A.; Thamban, M.; AnilKumar, N.; Sudhakar, M.; Ravindra, R.

    The ecology of coccolithophores (including species’ absolute abundance) in the water column (0-200 m) was studied in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean, along the 45 degrees E meridian south of Madagascar to Antarctica, during austral summer...

  1. U.S. Topographic Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — isotop.bin - topographic data for conterminous U.S. projected on an 8 km grid. Projection is Albers, central meridian = 96 degrees West, base latitude = 0 degrees...

  2. Use of the Visante™ OCT to measure the sagittal depth and scleral shape of keratoconus compared to normal corneae: Pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigina Sorbara

    2013-07-01

    Conclusions: Measurement of the sagittal depth and the corneal-scleral junction angle in the steepest meridian at either the HVID or at 15 mm are two metrics that significantly differentiate normals from keratoconics.

  3. 77 FR 38705 - Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance; Chan Gurney Municipal Airport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... action may be reviewed at this same location or at the City of Yankton Finance Office, 416 Walnut Street... quarter of section 31, Township 31 North, Range 55 West of the 5th Principle Meridian. The parcels are...

  4. Evaluation of Women with Myofascial Abdominal Syndrome Based on Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Mitidieri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study used semiology based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM to investigate vital energy (Qi behavior in women with abdominal myofascial pain syndrome (AMPS. Methods: Fifty women diagnosed with chronic pelvic pain (CPP secondary to AMPS were evaluated by using a questionnaire based on the theories of “yin-yang,” “zang-fu”, and “five elements”. We assessed the following aspects of the illness: symptomatology; specific location of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs; onset, cause, duration and frequency of symptoms; and patient and family history. The patients tongues, lips, skin colors, and tones of speech were examined. Patients were questioned on various aspects related to breathing, sweating, sleep quality, emotions, and preferences related to color, food, flavors, and weather or seasons. Thirst, gastrointestinal dysfunction, excreta (feces and urine, menstrual cycle, the five senses, and characteristic pain symptoms related to headache, musculoskeletal pain, abdomen, and chest were also investigated. Results: Patients were between 22 and 56 years old, and most were married (78%, possessed a elementary school (66%, and had one or two children (76%. The mean body mass index and body fat were 26.86 kg/ cm2 (range: 17.7 — 39.0 and 32.4% (range: 10.7 — 45.7, respectively. A large majority of women (96% exhibited alterations in the kidney meridian, and 98% had an altered gallbladder meridian. We observed major changes in the kidney and the gallbladder Qi meridians in 76% and 62% of patients, respectively. Five of the twelve meridians analyzed exhibited Qi patterns similar to pelvic innervation Qi and meridians, indicating that the paths of some of these meridians were directly related to innervation of the pelvic floor and abdominal region. Conclusion: The women in this study showed changes in the behavior of the energy meridians, and the paths of some of the meridians were directly related to innervation of the

  5. Evaluation of Women with Myofascial Abdominal Syndrome Based on Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitidieri, Andréia; Gurian, Maria Beatriz; Silva, Ana Paula; Tawasha, Kalil; Poli-Neto, Omero; Nogueira, Antônio; Reis, Francisco; Rosa-E-Silva, Júlio

    2015-12-01

    This study used semiology based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to investigate vital energy (Qi) behavior in women with abdominal myofascial pain syndrome (AMPS). Fifty women diagnosed with chronic pelvic pain (CPP) secondary to AMPS were evaluated by using a questionnaire based on the theories of "yin-yang," "zang-fu", and "five elements". We assessed the following aspects of the illness: symptomatology; specific location of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs); onset, cause, duration and frequency of symptoms; and patient and family history. The patients tongues, lips, skin colors, and tones of speech were examined. Patients were questioned on various aspects related to breathing, sweating, sleep quality, emotions, and preferences related to color, food, flavors, and weather or seasons. Thirst, gastrointestinal dysfunction, excreta (feces and urine), menstrual cycle, the five senses, and characteristic pain symptoms related to headache, musculoskeletal pain, abdomen, and chest were also investigated. Patients were between 22 and 56 years old, and most were married (78%), possessed a elementary school (66%), and had one or two children (76%). The mean body mass index and body fat were 26.86 kg/ cm2 (range: 17.7 - 39.0) and 32.4% (range: 10.7 - 45.7), respectively. A large majority of women (96%) exhibited alterations in the kidney meridian, and 98% had an altered gallbladder meridian. We observed major changes in the kidney and the gallbladder Qi meridians in 76% and 62% of patients, respectively. Five of the twelve meridians analyzed exhibited Qi patterns similar to pelvic innervation Qi and meridians, indicating that the paths of some of these meridians were directly related to innervation of the pelvic floor and abdominal region. The women in this study showed changes in the behavior of the energy meridians, and the paths of some of the meridians were directly related to innervation of the pelvic floor and abdominal region.

  6. French Geodetic and Scientific Expedition to Lapland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Solarić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes surveying a part of the meridian arc in Lapland (border of Sweden and Finland. The field team had great difficulty with the climate and terrain configuration. However, they managed to prove that the Earth is roughly shaped as a rotational ellipsoid and confirm theoretical assumptions on Newton and Huygens that the arc length of one meridian degree near a pole is greater than at smaller latitudes.

  7. Electrodermal Screening of Asthmatics with AcuGraph 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuntal Ghosh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese Medicine holds that acupuncture meridian activity is correlated with quality of function of specific organs. This study sets out to determine acupuncture meridian characteristics of subjects with moderate asthma distinguishing them from healthy subjects. Fifty asthma patients (age 35.36 ± 8.68 years and fifty similarly aged (34.11 ± 7.29 years healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. Electrodermal conductances at Jing Well points were measured with Acugraph 4 and also Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR for the asthma group. All mean meridian conductances were lower for the asthma group, significance differences were in Lung and right Bladder meridians. In contrast, all but two of the standard deviations of group meridian conductances for the Asthma group were higher than those for the Healthy group. Difference in mean PEFR values between Asthma and Healthy groups was significant. These suggest that group measures of electrical conductance at Jing Well points can distinguish asthma from healthy individuals. The study provides support for the usefulness of meridian energy measurements to assess organ related dysfunction and for the idea that pathology groups exhibit higher standard deviations i.e. lower quality of regulation.

  8. An Acupuncture Research Protocol Developed from Historical Writings by Mathematical Reflections: A Rational Individualized Acupoint Selection Method for Immediate Pain Relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Schroeder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While balancing yin and yang is one basic principle of Chinese medicine, balancing methods for combination of meridians and acupoints had been described throughout the history of Chinese medicine. We have identified six historical systems for combinations of acupuncture points in historical writings. All of them represent symmetrical combinations which are defined by the steps in the Chinese Clock. Taking the historical systems as a basis, we calculated the possible combinations that fit into these systems they revealed, leading to a total of 19 systems offering new balancing combinations. Merging the data of these 19 systems, there are 7 combinatorial options for every meridian. On the basis of this data, we calculated 4-meridian combinations with an ideal balance pattern, which is given when all meridians balance each other. We identified 5 of these patterns for every meridian, so we end up with 60 patterns for all the 12 meridians but we find multiple overlapping. Finally, 15 distinct patterns remain. By combining this theoretical concept with the Image and Mirror Concept, we developed an acupuncture research protocol. This protocol potentially solves some problems of acupuncture trials because it represents a rational reproducible procedure independent of examiner experience, but the resulting treatment is individualized.

  9. Harmony of the Local System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatsova, R. B.; Anisimova, G. B.

    2003-04-01

    An analytical representation and observational verification of a new harmonic scheme for the local system are presented. In it massive shell structures (spurs) play a dominant role, in combination with belts of stars, gas and dust. The geometry of the triaxial local system is closely coupled to the ecliptic coordinate system. Each axis has its own equator and its own discrete, periodic system of meridians. The largest axis, z, is normal to the S plane passing through the cores of four spurs (I-IV). Six meridians intersect along this axis, including the Gould belt (GB), the Vaucouleurs-Dolidze (V-D) belt, and the G plane, which is perpendicular to the ecliptic E at the solstice points. Four meridians, including E and S, intersect along the middle axis x, which coincides with the equinoctial line. The z axis is inclined by H"45° to E and by H"21° to the galactic plane. The overall number of nonrepeating principal planes in the local system is nine. Counts of stars brighter than V=9m confirms that they are concentrated along all the principal planes. As a symmetry plane, the meridian perpendicular to the Gould belt ( GB) divides the system of spurs into two groups: (I, IV, Dor) and (II, III, Eri). Each encompasses a grid of 5 halves of the z meridians and isolates a group and the spurs within the group. At the same time, as bridges the x meridians and their equator G couple the cores of some of the spurs with the shells of others both within their own and in opposite groups. The convergence of the meridians (belts) to the X, Y, and Z poles couples all the details with the local system as a whole. The symmetry of the local system with its discrete elements resembles a crystal.

  10. [Study on the excavated wooden carved acupuncture statue of the Western Han Dynasty in Laoguanshan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L X

    2017-05-28

    The painted red lines on the wooden carved acupuncture statue of Western Han Dynasty in Laoguanshan, illustrate the running courses of the"eleven meridians"on the body surface in the early meridian doctrine. The carved white lines show the body surface running courses of the"twelve meridians"in the meridian doctrine and the Sanjiao images in Sanjiao doctrine. The dots on the wooden carved acupuncture statue are of two categories, one of them is of regulatory, round and concave spots, which are carved before the process of lacquer undercoat. The other category is of different sizes and in irregular forms, which are carved simultaneously with those white lines. Altogether there are over one hundred dots in these two categories, representing the mai shu (transport point of vessels). The wooden carved acupuncture statue reflects the distinct characteristics on the running courses of meridians, Sanjiao doctrine, the nomenclature and localization of" mai shu "in Bianque medicine, which provides the most powerful evidence for the confirmation of the correlation between Laoguanshan excavated documents and Bianque medicine.

  11. A Chinese Decoction, Kuan-Sin-Yin, Improves Autonomic Function and Cancer-Related Symptoms of Metastatic Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Tsai-Ju; Liu, Chia-Yu; Ko, Pin-Hao; Hsu, Chung-Hua

    2016-03-01

    Kuan-Sin-Yin (KSY) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) decoction, which has been shown to have cytostatic effects on cancer cells and involved in the TCM theory of promoting yin-yang balance.Sonce many cancer patients suffer from autonomic dysfunction (AD), which correspond to yin-yang imbalance in TCM. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible effect of KSY in metastatic colon cancer (mCRC) patients with AD. We conducted a single-group experiment. Total 52 qualified patients were enrolled. Participants took the KSY daily for 2 weeks. The primary outcome was KSY efficacy as reflected in the heart rate variability (HRV) and electrical conductivity (µA) over 12 meridian points. Autonomic function was examined before and after the KSY intervention. The vagal and sympathetic tone were recorded by HRV; 12 meridian energies were measured using a meridian energy analysis device. Secondary outcomes were cancer-related symptoms and patient quality of life (QoL). The results showed that the KSY intervention improved AD via increasing the vagal tone (HF: P = .041), but not the sympathetic tone (LF: P = .154); total autonomic activity was significantly enhanced (HRV activity: P = .013). Intriguingly, energy increased more over the yin meridian (P = .010) than over the yang meridian (P = .015). Cancer-related symptoms and QoL were significantly improved (P yin-yang concept of energy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. [Discussion on acupuncture for flaccid paralysis from "treating flaccid paralysis by yangming alone"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Shendan; Zong, Lei

    2015-09-01

    Theories regarding"treating flaccid paralysis by yangming alone" are summarized, and the treatment effects of "yangming is the sea of five viscera and six organs", "yangming is in charge of smoothing the tendon and muscle, while tendon and muscle is in charge of connecting bones and movement" and "tendon and muscle is the crossing point of yin meridians and yang meridians, which is converged in yangming" are explained. With medical cases from later generations, it is summarized that besides "using yangming alone", "mainly using yang-ming" and "multiple meridians and acupoints" can also be recommend, indicating that focus should be paid not only on yangming, but also on,syndrome differentiation and treatment, and accompanying symptoms should be emphasized to regulate the body. The commonly used acupoints for flaccid paralysis are summarized to guide the clinical treatment and manipulation.

  13. The Geopolitics of Tropical Diseases A Geo - epidemiological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEE Jong- Chan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Meridian and acupuncture point(MAP is a core theory of acupuncture and essential building blocks of oriental medicine. There still continue theoretic or experimental arguments and controversies on the origination or original concept of MAP, without any definite approval or disapproval of a hypothesis. The theory of MAP is an historic product and has never been outside of historic influences. This study discusses the original concept of meridian and acupuncture point theory and its historical evolution, based on the review of classic literatures on meridian including the mawangdui medical texts of Han dynasty. The concept of MAP served as a empirical reference system in clinical settings irrespective of the anatomical entity of MAP.

  14. Therapeutic efficacy of Traditional Chinese medicine, "Kuan-Sin-Yin", in patients undergoing chemotherapy for advanced colon cancer - A controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Tsai-Ju; Liu, Chia-Yu; Lu, Ruey-Hwa; Kuo, Chin-Wei; Lin, Yang-Chao; Hsu, Chung-Hua

    2016-12-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been used increasingly as complementary medicine in cancer care. Kuan-Sin-Yin (KSY) is a TCM decoction containing seven herbs known to cause immunomodulation or anticancer activity, and which are associated with the TCM concept of Qi and energy supply. Kuan-Sin-Yin has cytostatic effects on cancer cells in animal models. The aim of this study is to evaluate the level of improvement in meridian energy and heart-rate variability (HRV) and to assess whether these observations are compatible with TCM theory. A non-randomized controlled trial was designed with monitoring of the meridian electro-conductivity and heart-rate variability (HRV) to compare the efficacy of Kuan-Sin-Yin in the control and experimental groups. 52 patients were enrolled in this study. We also measured cancer-related symptoms and quality of life as secondary outcomes. We found that colon cancer patients who received KSY as complementary therapy benefitted with enhancement of meridian energy (Yin meridian: 27.90:35.45μA; p=0.014; Yang meridian: 27.09:33.55μA; p=0.024) and increases in HRV activity (78.40:129.04ms; SDNN: p=0.001) and parasympathetic tone(HF:1644.80:3217.92 ms 2 ; p=0.003; RMMSD:99.76:164.52ms; p=0.002). Cancer-related symptoms decreased (ECOG>1:46.2:7.7%; p=0.0001), and quality of life (KSY group: PCS 35.46:42.12, p=0.0001; MCS: 44.50:47.55, p=0.209) was improved with statistical significance. The correlation of positive results reflected in meridian energy and HRV activity confirms the positive role of complementary medicine of Kuan-Sin-Yin in cancer care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An analysis of the mechanical behaviour of a detaching retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakawicz, Joseph M; Bottega, William J; Prenner, Jonathan L; Fine, Howard F

    2015-06-01

    An improved solution to the mechanics-based mathematical model for retinal detachment developed by Bottega et al. (2013, Math. Med. Biol., 30, 287-310) is found by removing the simplifying assumption of negligible meridian displacement employed in that study. The model considers retinas with and without central tears and takes contraction of the vitreous and extension of its fibrils, along with a pressure difference across the retina, as the impetus for detachment propagation. Exact analytical solutions are established for the meridian and radial displacements of detaching retinas with and without tears, and numerical simulations are performed based on these solutions. Inclusion of the meridian displacements is seen to result in substantially larger radial displacements without affecting the 'dimpling' behaviour of the detaching retina observed previously. However, the critical stress for detachment propagation is substantially decreased by the inclusion of the meridian displacement. The effects of changes in material and geometric parameters, as well as the influence of the presence and size of the retinal tear on detachment propagation are also studied. The model predicts that retinal detachment propagates catastrophically, which is in agreement with the results found by Bottega et al. (2013, Math. Med. Biol., 30, 287-310) and also with clinical observations. Results show that the inclusion of the meridian displacements enhances the previously seen stabilizing effect a retinal tear can have with regard to detachment propagation. The meridian displacement is similarly seen to enhance the influence that the size of the tear has on this effect. © The Authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  16. [Characteristics of acupoint application for the sub-healthy condition treated with ancient and modern acupuncture based on data mining exploration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Liyan; Wu, Jie; Ma, Tingting; Yang, Lijie

    2015-10-01

    The acupoint selection was retrieved from the ancient and modern literature on the treatment of sub-healthy condition with acupuncture. The law of acupoint application was analyzed so as to provide a certain reference to the determination of acupoint prescription in clinical acupuncture. The ancient literature was retrieved from Chinese basic ancient literature database. The modern literature was retrieved from Cochrane Library, Medline, PubMed, Ovid evidence-based medicine database, Chinese biomedical literature database, China journal full-text database, VIP journal full-text database and Wanfang database. The database mining software was adopted to explore the law of acupoint application in treatment of sub-healthy conditions with ancient and modern acupuncture. The acupoint use frequency, compatibility association rule, law for meridian use and the use regularity of specific points were analyzed. In the ancient treatment for sub-healthy condition, the top five commonly used acupoints are Shenmen (HT 7), Zhaohai (KI 6), Taibai (SP 3), Daling (PC 7) and Taixi (KI 3). The most commonly combined points are Zhangmen (LR 13), Taibai (SP 3) and Zhaohai (KI 6). The most commonly used meridians are the bladder meridian of foot-taiyang, kidney meridian of foot-shaoyin and liver meridian of foot-jueyin. The most commonly used specific points are the five-shu points. The most commonly used acupoints are located in the lower limbs. In the modern treatment, the top five commonly used acupoints are Zusanli (ST 36), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Baihui (GV 20), Shenshu (BL 23) and Guanyuan (CV 4). The most commonly supplemented points are Hegu (LI 4) and Taichong (LR 3). The most commonly used meridians are the bladder meridian of foot-taiyang, the conception vessel and the governor vessel. The most commonly used specific points are the back-shu points. The most commonly used acupoints are located in the lower limbs. After the systematic comprehension of the relevant ancient and modern

  17. Partial Fourier analysis of time-harmonic Maxwell's equations in axisymmetric domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkemzi, Boniface

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the Fourier method for treating time-harmonic Maxwell's equations in three-dimensional axisymmetric domains with non-axisymmetric data. The Fourier method reduces the three-dimensional boundary value problem to a system of decoupled two-dimensional boundary value problems on the plane meridian domain of the axisymmetric domain. The reduction process is fully described and suitable weighted spaces are introduced on the meridian domain to characterize the two-dimensional solutions. In particular, existence and uniqueness of solutions of the two-dimensional problems is proved and a priori estimates for the solutions are given. (author)

  18. The origin of luminescence blueshifts in Alq{sub 3} composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldacchini, G., E-mail: baldacchini@frascati.enea.i [ENEA, Department of Physical Technologies and New Materials, Frascati Research Center, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Chiacchiaretta, P. [ENEA, Department of Physical Technologies and New Materials, Frascati Research Center, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Reisfeld, R.; Zigansky, E. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2009-12-15

    Recently, tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq{sub 3}) has been diluted into various sol-gel matrices, and a strong blueshift with respect to the well-known emission band of amorphous thin films has been observed. This result has been explained by the absence of interactions among molecules that are isolated in the microscopic pores of glasses. The same explanation is also working in analogous measurements performed lately in various matrices, where the blueshift was wrongly attributed to a mixing of facial and meridianal isomers. Indeed, it is shown here that the Alq{sub 3} meridianal isomer alone can explain the experimental results.

  19. The origin of luminescence blueshifts in Alq3 composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldacchini, G.; Chiacchiaretta, P.; Reisfeld, R.; Zigansky, E.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq 3 ) has been diluted into various sol-gel matrices, and a strong blueshift with respect to the well-known emission band of amorphous thin films has been observed. This result has been explained by the absence of interactions among molecules that are isolated in the microscopic pores of glasses. The same explanation is also working in analogous measurements performed lately in various matrices, where the blueshift was wrongly attributed to a mixing of facial and meridianal isomers. Indeed, it is shown here that the Alq 3 meridianal isomer alone can explain the experimental results.

  20. [Impacts of numerology on acupuncture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Wu, Changqiu; Wu, Xueyi

    2016-04-01

    Numerology has a long history in China and has the profound impacts on every academic field in TCM, with acupuncture involved. In this paper, the impacts on acupuncture were discussed in different aspects such as the numbers of meridians, the length of meridian, the time taboo of acupuncture, acupuncture manipulation and time acupuncture. It was found that numerology had laid the critical impact on acupuncture and had the profound imprint nowadays. It is of great significance to study the numerology theory in its impacts on acupuncture, in the exploration on the theories behind acupuncture as well as the comprehensive understanding of acupuncture.

  1. An isoparametric shell of revolution finite element for harmonic loadings of any order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.J.; Charman, C.M.

    1981-01-01

    A general isoparametric shell of revolution finite element subjected to any order harmonic loading is presented. Derivation of the element properties, its implementation in a general purpose finite element program, and its application to a sample problem are discussed. The element is isoparametric, that is, the variation of the displacements along the meridian of the shell and the shape of the meridian itself are approximated in an identical manner. The element has been implemented in the computer program MODSAP. A sample problem of a cooling tower subjected to wind loading is presented. (orig./HP)

  2. China-Brazil Joint Laboratory for Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengyu

    2016-07-01

    The Joint Laboratory for Space Weather in South America, jointly constructed by National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NSSC, CAS) and Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) plays a key role in the formation of International Space Weather Meridian Circle Programme (ISWMCP). This Lab is responsible for the joint Meridian chains observation and data converging in the west hemisphere, the joint space environment exploration and research in the low latitude area both in the east and west hemisphere, as well as the bridge for Sino-Brazilian culture exchanges.

  3. The Trapped Radiation Handbook. Change 5,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-21

    Absorption Wave Angular momentum, 3-8, 9 (sve Wave absorption/amplifi- Anisotropy , 5-82, 86, 103 cation) Annealing, 8-10, 17, 38 Absorption center...decay, 1-I I; 5-25 IT; 7-1 IT Mechanical force equation, 3-41; 5-33 (see Nuclear decay, fission ) Meridian; Meridian plane, 3-9 ff Neutron diffusion...poinlt:urninp (see Fission ... ) point) Prompt neutron , II-8 magnetic. 3-1-3, 21 Il’, 5-57 (see Fission ... neutron . 7-2 Propagation wave. 5-71. 74. 75

  4. Network pharmacology of medicinal attributes and functions of Chinese herbal medicines: (III Canonical correlation functions between attribute classes and linear eignmodels of Chinese herbal medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In present study I used the data from CHM-DATA, the interactive database of 1127 Chinese herbal medicines. Canonical correlation functions were determined for taste attribute class (7 taste attributes, medicinal property class (5 medicinal properties, chemical composition class (22 chemical composition categories, meridians and colleterals class (12 meridians and colleterals, and medicinal function class (77 medicinal functions. Linear eignmodels were also developed for Chinese herbal medicines. Theoretically the attribute values of any Chinese herbal medicines meet the corresponding linear eignmodel. Matlab codes for canonical correlation analysis and linear eignmodel were given. Finally, the canonical correlation network for attribute classes of Chinese herbal medicines was constructed.

  5. A Failure Criterion for Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, N. S.

    1977-01-01

    A four-parameter failure criterion containing all the three stress invariants explicitly is proposed for short-time loading of concrete. It corresponds to a smooth convex failure surface with curved meridians, which open in the negative direction of the hydrostatic axis, and the trace in the devi......A four-parameter failure criterion containing all the three stress invariants explicitly is proposed for short-time loading of concrete. It corresponds to a smooth convex failure surface with curved meridians, which open in the negative direction of the hydrostatic axis, and the trace...

  6. 76 FR 77551 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... Filing of Plats of Survey, New Mexico AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... filed in the New Mexico State Office, Bureau of Land Management, Santa Fe, New Mexico, thirty (30) calendar days from the date of this publication. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: New Mexico Principal Meridian...

  7. 76 FR 52012 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... Filing of Plats of Survey, New Mexico AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... filed in the New Mexico State Office, Bureau of Land Management, Santa Fe, New Mexico, thirty (30) calendar days from the date of this publication. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: New Mexico Principal Meridian...

  8. 77 FR 17092 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... Filing of Plats of Survey, New Mexico AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... filed in the New Mexico State Office, Bureau of Land Management, Santa Fe, New Mexico, thirty (30) calendar days from the date of this publication. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: New Mexico Principal Meridian...

  9. Numerical analysis of stiffened shells of revolution. Volume 3: Users' manual for STARS-2B, 2V, shell theory automated for rotational structures, 2 (buckling, vibrations), digital computer programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svalbonas, V.

    1973-01-01

    The User's manual for the shell theory automated for rotational structures (STARS) 2B and 2V (buckling, vibrations) is presented. Several features of the program are: (1) arbitrary branching of the shell meridians, (2) arbitrary boundary conditions, (3) minimum input requirements to describe a complex, practical shell of revolution structure, and (4) accurate analysis capability using a minimum number of degrees of freedom.

  10. Laser stimulation of the acupoint 'Zusanli' (ST.36) on the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-02-13

    Feb 13, 2016 ... point (a sensation such as heaviness, an electrical current, or a 'Deqi' sensation) is necessary. The action mechanism related to the stimulation of the. ST.36 in LA in the thyroid in not fully understood, such as the influence of the stomach meridian that passes close to the thyroid (figure 2). Nevertheless, this ...

  11. 75 FR 55824 - Land Acquisitions; Nisqually Indian Tribe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Ben Burshia, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Chief, Division of Real Estate Services, MS-4639... 18 North, Range 1 East, Willamette Meridian, lying northerly of the north right-of-way line of Yelm Highway SE and southwesterly of the southwest right-of-way line of Olympia-Yelm Road being State Highway...

  12. [Effects of acupuncture on different acupoints in combination with rehabilitation on hemiplegic muscle spasticity in hemiplegia patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun-Yan; Tu, Wen-Zhan; Zheng, Dan-Ying; Xie, Wen-Xia; Li, Jin-Min; Jiang, Song-He

    2010-07-01

    To observe the clinical effect of hemiplegic muscle spasticity treated with acupuncture on different acupoints in combination with rehabilitation. Ninety cases of post-stroke muscle spasticity were randomized into a corresponding and central axis acupuncture group (group A), a conventional acupuncture group (group B) and a rehabilitation group (group C), 30 cases in each one. In group A, the acupoints on the Governor Vessel were mainly selected, as well as those on Hand-Shaoyang meridian and Foot-Taiyang meridian. In group B, the conventional needling and rehabilitation training were applied in combination, of which, the acupoints were mainly from Hand and Foot-Yangming meridians, associated with the acupoints of Shaoyang meridian. In group C, only rehabilitation training was applied. The assessments according to modified Ashworth scale and CSS score were performed before treatment, after 2 weeks and 4 weeks treatment respectively. The level of modified Ashworth scale of the flexor of elbow and wrist was reduced apparently after treatment in group A as compared with that before treatment (P treatment in group C as compared with that before treatment (P treatment (P treatment (P treatment in group A was apparent as compared with the other two groups (P < 0.01). The corresponding and central axis acupuncture can improve muscle tone of hemiplegic limb, which is superior to the effect achieved by the conventional acupuncture in combination with rehabilitation training and the simple rehabilitation training.

  13. [Nomenclature of Feiyang (BL 58) and its connotation exploration based on A-B Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shuangshuang; Hou, Zhongwei

    2018-04-12

    A - B Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion ( Zhen Jiu Jia Yi Jing ) is the earliest and existed well-known work on acupuncture and moxibustion, with irreplaceable literature values and huge impacts on the later generations. Feiyang (BL 58) is the luo -connecting point of the bladder meridian and recorded 11 times in A - B Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion . This book is the representative for the exploration on the acupoint nomenclature and clinical connotation. Through the investigation on the textual connotation of the specified terms and the alias of Feiyang (BL 58), it was discovered that the nomenclature of this acupoint was based on the main symptoms, the characters of the running course of meridian and acupuncture effects. It was proved that the unique property of this acupoint was as rising, dispersing and flying of meridian qi . In comparison of Huangdi Three - Version of A - B Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion ( Huangdi Sanbu Zhen Jiu Jia Yi Jing ) of the printed edition of the Song Dynasty version and Meridian - Collateral and Acupoints ( Zhen Jiu Shu Xue Xue ), it was found that the indications and connotation of Feiyang (BL 58) were more extensively richer than the records in teaching materials. Those study results contribute to the extension of the clinical application of this acupoint.

  14. Rapid invasion of anthropogenic CO2 into the deep circulation of the Weddell Gyre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heuven, S.M.A.C.; Hoppema, M.; Jones, E.M.; de Baar, H.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Data are presented for total carbon dioxide (TCO2), oxygen and nutrients from 14 cruises covering two repeat sections across the Weddell Gyre, from 1973 to 2010. Assessments of the rate of increase in anthropogenic CO2 (Cant) are made at three locations. Along the Prime Meridian, TCO2 is observed to

  15. Interactions of dissolved CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Baar, H.J.W.; van Heuven, S.M.A.C.; Abouchami, W.; Xue, Z.; Galer, S.J.G.; Rehkämper, M.; Middag, R.; van Ooijen, J.

    2017-01-01

    Here we report the first ever observations of a strong correlation in ocean surface waters of the dissolved δ114Cdwith dissolved CO2. This is observed in the Southern Ocean along the 0°W meridian in both the AntarcticCircumpolar Current and the Weddell Gyre, as well as in the Weddell Sea proper,

  16. 75 FR 30068 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Fabricator, Addis, LA: December 22, 2008 TA-W-73,167: Veeco Process Equipment, Inc., Mechanical Process... Company, Waterford, MI: July 8, 2008 TA-W-71,759: Meridian Automotive Systems, Inc., Shelbyville, IN: July...-73,545: TG California Automotive Sealing Inc., Toyoda Gosei Co., Leased Workers from Aerotek...

  17. Study on anti-atherosclerotic effect of suxiao jiuxin pill and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Suxiao Jiuxin Pill is composed of Ligusticum wallichii, Borneolum Syntheticum and other drugs; it has qi promoting and blood circulation activating, meridian dredging and pain relieving efficacies. The objective of this paper is to study the effect of Suxiao Jiuxin Pill (quick-acting heart reliever), in atherosclerosis ...

  18. Blue-shifted photoluminescence of Alq3 dispersed in PMMA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Curioni et al 1998b). Along with the ... that the phase consists of facial Alq3 molecules, whereas all other phases contain only meridianal isomers (Cölle .... isolated in the microscopic pores of glasses. Recently,. Baldacchini et al (2009) found that ...

  19. Driven: Bringing German Auto Concepts to the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adney, Cara

    2012-01-01

    A world away from the red dirt of Oklahoma, David Shields and Shelly Smith felt right at home. A national grant took the Meridian Technology Center automotive teachers on a trip to Germany that car lovers only dream about. The tour to the major automakers last summer has them geared up and bringing fresh ideas to the classroom. They spent four…

  20. Materials Research at Stanford University, 1 July 1980-30 June 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    monitor the meridian’s condition for human diagnostics. At present, three significant pieces of equipment are on the market and are being used by medical ...Jasinski and .1. 1. Brauman, "Rates of Proton Transfer Between Pyridine Bascs Ln thle Gas Phase. Steric and I sotope Effects," .1. Ami. Chem. Soc. 102, 2906

  1. Ionospheric response to X-class solar flares in the ascending half of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    on the solar disc, and hence proximity to the central meridian alone may not play the dominating role. Further, the X-ray peak flux, when corrected for the earth zenith angle effect, did not improve the correlation between ΔX-ray and ΔTEC. 1. Introduction. Solar flares abruptly emit large amounts of electro- magnetic energy at ...

  2. 75 FR 10324 - Investigations Regarding Certifications of Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Ingersoll-Rand/Harrow Bristol, CT 02/02/10 01/26/10 Products (State). 73397 Remy, Inc. (Comp) Meridian, MS 02/02/10 02/01/10 73398 Fuel Total Systems Lathrop, CA 02/02/10 02/01/10 California Corporation..., Inc. (Comp). 73410 Industrial Machining Fort Smith, AR......... 02/03/10 02/02/10 Corporation (Comp...

  3. 77 FR 43115 - Notice of Temporary Closure of Betty's Kitchen Wildlife and Interpretive Area, Yuma County, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Road, Yuma, Arizona 85365, via email at [email protected] , or telephone 928-317-3200. Persons who use a... Salt River Meridian Township 7 South, Range 22 West, Section 14, SE\\1/4\\SW\\1/4\\ (within), SW\\1/4\\SE\\1/4... will enhance visitor enjoyment and safety when completed. Immediately after the [[Page 43116

  4. 76 FR 33357 - Notice of Realty Action; Recreation and Public Purposes Act Classification; and Notice of Intent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... made is described as follows: Gila and Salt River Meridian T. 20 N., R. 16 W., Sec. 1, lot 5. The area... application and removal of its fire station would significantly reduce the effectiveness of the District's..., operate, and terminate a road, as granted in right-of-way AZA 33596, and the rights to construct, operate...

  5. USSR Report Earth Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-22

    specialists overlay them with a meridian grid to prepare weather maps. Copies of the maps are sent to weather services in Afghanistan, India , Iraq...regions. The authors of the discovery think that it will become possible in the future to build plants for producing oil and natural gas from lignites

  6. Research on Curriculum Plan and Learning Achievement for Aromatherapy with the Concept of the Chinese Five Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pei-Ching

    2012-01-01

    In Taiwan, people are getting more aware of beauty treatments and the concept of health care. This study hopes to bring all relevant concepts such as Aromatherapy, essential scented oils, medical foods, human meridians, Chinese five elements therapy, and beauty business management into the curriculum design, and seriously considered many factors…

  7. Yin and yang surfaces: an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, David

    2014-12-01

    A search of the Chinese medicine literature reveals several conflicting explanations of the division of the body into yin and yang surfaces. This paper attempts to clarify this basic concept and reconcile the differing descriptions of it through an exploration of material from other disciplines. A remarkable similarity exists between the surfaces on the human body that are defined by the pathways of the yin and yang meridians and those that have evolved from the ventral and the dorsal aspects of early vertebrate structure. Many of the evolutionary changes described have parallels in our embryological development and are evident in the underlying anatomy of our limbs. The degree of convergence between the two descriptions strongly supports the definition of the yin and yang surfaces as those traversed by the yin and yang meridians. It also goes a long way towards reconciling the conflicting definitions found in the literature. Finding a solution to this question of yin and yang surfaces that is based on anatomy and evolutionary theories has several advantages. It can throw light on differences in the clinical effects of points on the yin and yang meridians and enable the identification of anomalies in the pathways of the main meridian network. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. EAP and LLNP Students: Common Problems and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Minh Phuong

    2010-01-01

    As English learners originate from many cultural and language backgrounds, they come to class with different circumstances. This paper examines the backgrounds, common problems and solutions for English for Academic Purposes (EAP) students and Language, Literacy, and Numeracy Programme (LLNP) students. EAP students are from Meridian International…

  9. 76 FR 315 - Sisters Ranger District; Deschutes National Forest; Oregon; Popper Vegetation Management Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ...; Oregon; Popper Vegetation Management Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on a proposed action to manage forest fuels and forest stand densities... location is Townships 16 and 17 south and Range 9 east, Willamette Meridian. The project area is managed...

  10. 76 FR 50318 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ...] in the horizontal meridian in each eye, and the ability to recognize the colors of traffic signals.... Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Electronic Access You may see... restricting him or her to driving in intrastate commerce. To evaluate the effect of these exemptions on safety...

  11. 26th December 2004 great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake: Co-seismic and post-seismic motions in northern Sumatra

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sibuet, J.-C.; Rangin, C.; Le Pichon, X.; Singh, S; Cattaneo, A; Graindorge, D.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Lin, J.-Y; Malod, J.; Maury, T.; Schneider, J.-L.; Sultan, N; Umber, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Apprioual, R.; Aryanto, N; Begot, J.; Chauhan, A.; Creach, R.; Crozon, J.; Domzig, A.; Falleau, N.; Harmegnies, F.; Haryadi, Y.; Krishna, K.S.; Landure, J.-Y.; Le Lann, C.; Normand, A.; Oggian, G.; Galih, D.R.; Taufik, M.

    that the post-seismic motion is partitioned along two thrust faults, the Lower and Median Thrust Faults, the latter being right-laterally offset by a N-S lower plate fracture zone located along the 93.6 degrees N meridian Between February 2005 and August 2005...

  12. Interannual controls on Weddell Sea surface water fCO2 during the autumn–winter transition phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellerby, Richard G.J.; Hoppema, Mario; Fahrbach, Eberhard; Baar, Hein J.W. de; Stoll, Michel H.C.

    2004-01-01

    The fugacity of carbon dioxide (fCO2) of the surface waters of the Weddell Sea along the prime meridian has been described for the austral autumn in 1996 and 1998. For individual years, fCO2 has a strong linear relationship with sea surface temperature, although the relationships cannot be

  13. 75 FR 41514 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Greater Natural Buttes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... and 22 East (Salt Lake Meridian) in Uintah County, Utah. The Draft EIS analyzes a proposal by KMG to... drilled as infill to productive formations, including but not limited to, the Green River Formation, Wasatch Formation, Mesaverde Group (including the Blackhawk Formation), Mancos Shale, and Dakota Sandstone...

  14. Chemical constituents of Cyperus rotundus L. and their inhibitory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Xiang Fu (Cyperus rotundus L) enters the liver, spleen and triple warmer meridians, and has qi stagnation-removing, qi circulation-promoting, menstruation-regulating and pain-relieving effects. Besides, it can improve ovarian function, and has hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic and neuroprotective actions.

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Xu, FQ. Vol 10, No 2 (2013) - Articles The effective method for investigation meridian tropism theory in rats. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0189-6016. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact ...

  16. 76 FR 38206 - Notice of Application for Disclaimer of Interest; Pennington County, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Hills National Forest. Public Sale Patent No. 3863 dated June 1, 1898, conveyed T. 2 N., R. 6 E., Black... application is for the surface and subsurface estate in the following described land: Black Hills Meridian T. 2 N., R. 6 E., Sec. 7, SE\\1/4\\SE\\1/4\\. The parcel located within the above described land contains 6...

  17. 75 FR 51110 - Notice of Proposed Withdrawal and Opportunity for Public Meeting; South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Forest Black Hills Meridian T. 3 S., R. 2 E., Sec. 34, S\\1/2\\S\\1/2\\. T. 4 S., R. 2 E., Sec. 2, lot 4, SW.... ADDRESSES: Comments and meeting requests should be sent to the Forest Supervisor's Office, Black Hills... the following-described National Forest System land within the Black Hills National Forest for a...

  18. 75 FR 27362 - Notice of Temporary Order Restricting Dogs From Public Lands in the Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Temporary Order Restricting Dogs From Public Lands in the Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument in... dogs from public lands within the 5,610- acre Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument. This order... persons with dogs is prohibited on public land in New Mexico Prime Meridian, T. 16 N., R. 5 E., and T. 17...

  19. The elements of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey P. Fedotov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Article "Elements of Life" offers a hypothesis about the relationship of the phenomenon of traditional Chinese medicine with the physical laws. It shows the principle of forming a sequence of daily activity of the acupuncture meridians as a consequence of the Doppler effect in the process of flowing around the planet Earth by cosmic wind (by Ether. In accordance with this specification the daily structure of meridians had been built. It is suggested that the essence of the Chinese Qi (Chi are vibrations of a certain range in the medium. Consequently, it became possible to set the interrelation of frequencies of the visible spectrum with certain meridians. It is shown that the topological relationship of ancient (barrier points of the Five Elements (Wu-Shu points are associated with the wave lengths of the so-called Qi. It is shown also that the essence of the Wu-Xing law is based on daily circulation patterns of meridians. The examples of the surrounding world, including pulses processes in the human body, are confirming the above mentioned theses. A correlation diagram between the main elements by Dr. Samohotsky A.S. (dissertation "The experience of the definition of medical laws", 1946 and the Five Elements of traditional Chinese philosophy is established. The above represented hypotheses are yet introduced in practice in form of pulse spectral analysis system.

  20. Fe (III) speciation in the high nutrient, low chlorophyll Pacific region of the Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolting, R.F.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Swagerman, M.J.W.; Timmermans, K.R.; Baar, H.J.W. de

    1998-01-01

    Fe speciation was measured with competitive ligand equilibration adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry in the Pacific part of the Southern Ocean between 58° and 68°30′S along the 90°W meridian. The conditional stability constant (K′ with respect to [Fe3+]) was between 10^20.6 and 10^21.6 when

  1. 77 FR 22610 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ...] Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; South Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION..., Great Plains Region, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Aberdeen, South Dakota, and was necessary to determine individual and tribal trust lands. The lands we surveyed are: 5th Principal Meridian, South Dakota T. 124 N...

  2. 77 FR 38321 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ...] Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; South Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION... Director, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Great Plains Region, Aberdeen, South Dakota, and was necessary to determine tribal and trust lands. The lands we surveyed are: Sixth Principal Meridian, South Dakota T. 38 N...

  3. 78 FR 25464 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Filing of Plats of Survey; South Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of..., Bureau of Indian Affairs, Great Plains Region, Aberdeen, South Dakota and was necessary to determine trust and tribal lands. The lands we surveyed are: Sixth Principal Meridian, South Dakota T. 45 N., R...

  4. Global Space Weather Observational Network: Challenges and China's Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.

    2017-12-01

    To understand space weather physical processes and predict space weather accurately, global space-borne and ground-based space weather observational network, making simultaneous observations from the Sun to geo-space (magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere), plays an essential role. In this talk, we will present the advances of the Chinese space weather science missions, including the ASO-S (Advanced Space-borne Solar Observatory), MIT (Magnetosphere - Ionosphere- Thermosphere Coupling Exploration), and the ESA-China joint space weather science mission SMILE (Solar wind - Magnetosphere - Ionosphere Link Explore), a new mission to image the magnetosphere. Compared to satellites, ground-based monitors are cheap, convenient, and provide continuous real-time data. We will also introduce the Chinese Meridian Project (CMP), a ground-based program fully utilizing the geographic location of the Chinese landmass to monitor the geo-space environment. CMP is just one arm of a larger program that Chinese scientists are proposing to the international community. The International Meridian Circle Program (IMCP) for space weather hopes to connect chains of ground-based monitors at the longitudinal meridians 120 deg E and 60 deg W. IMCP takes advantage of the fact that these meridians already have the most monitors of any on Earth, with monitors in Russia, Australia, Brazil, the United States, Canada, and other countries. This data will greatly enhance the ability of scientists to monitor and predict the space weather worldwide.

  5. 75 FR 39580 - Notice of Realty Action; Direct Sale of Public Lands in Minidoka County, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... the owners of the surrounding private land for the appraised fair market value of $85,200. The private... amended (43 U.S.C. 1713 and 1719), at not less than the appraised fair market value: Boise Meridian T. 6 S... fair market value is $85,200. The public land is identified as suitable for disposal in the 1985 BLM...

  6. 75 FR 13303 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Lands in Riverside County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ....37 acres in Riverside County. The appraised fair market value is $2,102,000. The public land is... market value of $2,102,000. DATES: Comments regarding the proposed sale must be received by the BLM on or... market value: San Bernardino Meridian T. 3 S., R. 4 E., Sec. 34, those remaining public lands in the N...

  7. 75 FR 35083 - Notice of Realty Action; Direct Sale of Public Lands in Lincoln County, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... of the surrounding private land for the appraised fair market value of $14,000. The private land... fair market value: Boise Meridian T. 6 S., R. 22 E, Sec. 29, SW\\1/4\\SW\\1/4\\. The area described contains 40 acres in Lincoln County. The appraised fair market value is $14,000. The public land is...

  8. 75 FR 65649 - Notice of Realty Action: Segregation To Consider Proposed Sale of Public Lands in Blaine County, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... Policy Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA), at no less than the appraised fair market value. DATES: In order...), and implementing regulations at 43 CFR part 2710 and 2720, at no less than the appraised fair market value: Boise Meridian T. 1 S., R. 20 E., Sec. 15, that portion of public lands in the NW\\1/4\\SW\\1/4...

  9. 75 FR 71143 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Blaine County, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... Wood River Valley (Animal Shelter) for the appraised fair market value of $18,700. DATES: Comments... 1719), at no less than the appraised fair market value: Boise Meridian T. 2 N., R. 18 E., Sec. 17, lots 5, 6, and 7. The area described contains 17 acres in Blaine County. The appraised fair market value...

  10. 76 FR 29784 - Notice of Realty Action; Direct Sale of Public Lands in Jerome County, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... adjacent private land, Todd and Bridget Buschhorn, for the appraised fair market value of $5,600. DATES... fair market value: Boise Meridian T. 10 S., R. 19 E., sec. 25, lot 10. The area described contains 7.45 acres in Jerome County. The appraised fair market value is $5,600. The public land is identified as...

  11. 75 FR 444 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Lands in Tehama County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... surrounding private land for the appraised fair market value of $28,000. The private land surrounding the... not less than the appraised fair market value: Mount Diablo Meridian, T. 27 N., R. 2 W., Sec. 8, lots 3, 4, and 5. The area described contains 70.72 acres in Tehama County and its appraised fair market...

  12. 77 FR 130 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Intercontinental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... at: http://www.blm.gov/nm/st/en/fo/Carlsbad_Field_Office.html . To be included in the Draft EIS, all... southeast of Carlsbad, New Mexico, and 20 miles west of Jal, New Mexico. The proposed project would occur on portions of the following townships and ranges: New Mexico Prime Meridian T. 22 S., R. 33 E., T. 22 S., R...

  13. Evaluation of Upland Disposal of Oakland Harbor, California, Sediment; Volume I: Turning Basin Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    earthworms, Eisenia foetida , was obtained from a commercial bait supplier, Briggs Bait Farm, in Meridian, MS. The worms were transferred to a horse manure...Adema, D. M. M., Roza, P., and Henzen, R. 1989. "Rate and Effects of PCB Accumulation on Eisenia foetida ," Technical Report R89/339, Technology for

  14. Design and Optimization of Filament Wound Composite Pressure Vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zu, L.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important issues for the design of filament-wound pressure vessels reflects on the determination of the most efficient meridian profiles and related fiber architectures, leading to optimal structural performance. To better understand the design and optimization of filament-wound

  15. Capillary meniscus dynamometry - Method for determining the surface tension of drops and bubbles with isotropic and anisotropic surface stress distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danov, K.D.; Stanimirova, R.D.; Kralchevsky, P.A.; Marinova, K.G.; Alexandrov, N.A.; Stoyanov, S.D.; Blijdenstein, T.B.J.; Pelan, E.G.

    2015-01-01

    The stresses acting in interfacial adsorption layers with surface shear elasticity are, in general, anisotropic and non-uniform. If a pendant drop or buoyant bubble is covered with such elastic layer, the components of surface tension acting along the "meridians" and "parallels", σs

  16. 75 FR 10309 - Announcement of National Geospatial Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Geospatial Advisory Committee (NGAC) will meet on March 24-25, 2010 at the One Washington Circle Hotel, 1 Washington Circle, NW., Washington, DC 20037. The meeting will be held in the Meridian Room. The NGAC, which... to the public, seating may be limited due to room capacity. DATES: The meeting will be held from 8:30...

  17. Corneal reshaping and wavefront aberrations during overnight orthokeratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yan; Shen, Meixiao; Huang, Shenghai; Yuan, Yimin; Wang, Yaozeng; Zhu, Dexi; Jiang, Jun; Mao, Xinjie; Wang, Jianhua; Lu, Fan

    2014-05-01

    To investigate changes of corneal thickness at the vertical and horizontal meridians and of wavefront aberrations (WA) over a 30-day period of overnight myopia orthokeratology (OK) lens wear. Sixteen subjects (11 women, 5 men, 26.3±3.2 years) were enrolled and fitted for OK lenses. Long scan depth optical coherence tomography was used to measure corneal thickness profiles at both horizontal and vertical meridians at baseline and on days 1, 7, and 30 days. Corneal and ocular WA of a 6-mm pupil were measured and the root-mean-square (RMS) of the astigmatism, coma, spherical aberration (SA), and total higher-order aberrations (HOAs) were determined. During the 30-day period, the central cornea thinned in the horizontal and vertical meridians, whereas corneal thickening occurred in the temporal, nasal, and inferior mid-peripheries. In contrast, the cornea thinned in the mid-peripheral superior. There were significant increases in RMS for astigmatism, SA, coma, and positive horizontal coma during the study period. After OK, there were significant positive correlations between the midperipheral-central thickness change difference and the changes in corneal and ocular RMS of total HOAs and SA (r range: 0.281 to 0.492, POK caused unique changes in corneal thickness profiles at the vertical and horizontal meridians and increased corneal and ocular HOAs related to corneal reshaping.

  18. 78 FR 33240 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Fishing Restrictions in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ....gov , or fax to (202) 395-7285. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Heidi Taylor, NMFS SWR, 562-980-4039... ensure for conservation and management of highly migratory species of fish in the Convention Area.... parallels, and the 150[deg] W. meridian. The IATTC has maintained a scientific research and fishery...

  19. First report of the white pine blister rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola, infecting Ribes inerme in north-central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. R. Vogler; B. W. Geils; K. Coats

    2017-01-01

    Cronartium ribicola Fisch. has not been found infecting any of the five-needle white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) in Utah, despite being established on both white pine and Ribes hosts in the other 10 western states, defined as those west of the 102° meridian.

  20. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to piercing with a sharp instrument. The practice uses the concept of 12 primary meridians or energy channels along which are distributed 360 acupuncture points. Each point is located in an area of low electrical resistance, and sites used to treat bladder dysfunction appear to coincide with innervation by spinal sacral ...

  1. A Failure Criterion for Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, N. S.

    1977-01-01

    A four-parameter failure criterion containing all the three stress invariants explicitly is proposed for short-time loading of concrete. It corresponds to a smooth convex failure surface with curved meridians, which open in the negative direction of the hydrostatic axis, and the trace...... are given for three typical ratios. A review of some earlier proposed failure criteria is included....

  2. Large-scale Flow and Transport of Magnetic Flux in the Solar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Abstract. Horizontal large-scale velocity field describes horizontal displacement of the photospheric magnetic flux in zonal and meridian directions. The flow systems of solar plasma, constructed according to the velocity field, create the large-scale cellular-like patterns with up-flow in the center and the down-flow on the ...

  3. assessment of soil wash and soil erodibility indices on miniature

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    1976-02-03

    Feb 3, 1976 ... Greenwich Meridian in the savanna region with Aw type of climate. The study site at ... negative geomorphic processes such as accelerated .... The Aw climate is characterised by six months dry season from. November to April and six months rainy season from May to October. The vegetation is southern.

  4. Performance evaluation of TDT soil water content and watermark soil water potential sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the performance of digitized Time Domain Transmissometry (TDT) soil water content sensors (Acclima, Inc., Meridian, ID) and resistance-based soil water potential sensors (Watermark 200, Irrometer Company, Inc., Riverside, CA) in two soils. The evaluation was performed by compar...

  5. Laser stimulation of the acupoint 'Zusanli'(ST. 36) on the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... ... the effects of the laser (904 nm) at the 'Zusanli' acupoint (ST.36) of the stomach meridian on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical Na 99mTcO4. Wistar rats were divided into control (CG) and experimental groups (EG). The EG were exposed daily to the laser (904 nm) at ST.36 with 1 joule/min (40 ...

  6. 77 FR 45690 - Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Plains Financial, Inc. Employee Stock Ownership Plan, 2012-15; D-11649, Meridian Medical Associates, S.C. Employees' Retirement Plan and Trust, 2012-16; D- 11668, TIB Financial Corp. Employee Stock Ownership Plan...: (1) Is either a debt instrument (generally with a long-term nominal maturity) or preferred stock; and...

  7. [Post-stroke unilateral spatial neglect treated with acupuncture and rehabilitation: a randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanli; Xu, Jimin; Liu, Lanqun; Li, Mingyu; Lu, Huying; Chen, Honglei; Li, Huilan; Chen, Zhigang

    2017-09-12

    To observe the impacts on post-stroke unilateral spatial neglect treated with acupuncture for "regaining consciousness, benefiting marrow and opening orifices" and rehabilitation. Forty patients of post-stroke unilateral spatial neglect were randomized into an observation group and a control group, 20 cases in each one. In the observation group, acupuncture was applied to the acupoints for "regaining consciousness, benefiting marrow and opening orifices", named Baihui (GV 20), Sishencong (EX-HN 1), Benshen (GB 13), Shenting (GV 24), and the bilateral yuan -primary points and luo -connecting points of the heart meridian, pericardium meridian and kidney meridian, as well as the acupoints along the affected meridians. Additionally, the rehabilitation was provided. In the control group, acupuncture at the acupoints along the affected meridians and rehabilitation were adopted. The treatment was given once a day, 5 times a week. After 8 weeks of treatment the evaluation was made. the indexes of unilateral spatial neglect such as line bisection test, the score of the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), the score of simple Fugl-Meyer motor function assessment and the modified Barthel indexes were adopted for the assessment of the severity of unilateral spatial neglect, cognitive function, motor function, and the activities of daily living. After treatment, the indexes of unilateral spatial neglect (line bisection test, line cancellation test, clock-drawing test and copying drawing test), MMSE score, the simple Fugl-Meyer motor function assessment and modified Barthel indexes were all improved as compared with those before treatment in the two groups (all P neglect and improves the motor function and the activities of daily living in the patients.

  8. Distribution of cone density, spacing and arrangement in adult healthy retinas with adaptive optics flood illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legras, Richard; Gaudric, Alain; Woog, Kelly

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse cone density, spacing and arrangement using an adaptive optics flood illumination retina camera (rtx1™) on a healthy population. Cone density, cone spacing and packing arrangements were measured on the right retinas of 109 subjects at 2°, 3°, 4°, 5° and 6° of eccentricity along 4 meridians. The effects of eccentricity, meridian, axial length, spherical equivalent, gender and age were evaluated. Cone density decreased on average from 28 884 ± 3 692 cones/mm2, at 2° of eccentricity, to 15 843 ± 1 598 cones/mm2 at 6°. A strong inter-individual variation, especially at 2°, was observed. No important difference of cone density was observed between the nasal and temporal meridians or between the superior and inferior meridians. However, the horizontal and vertical meridians differed by around 14% (T-test, p<0.0001). Cone density, expressed in units of area, decreased as a function of axial length (r2 = 0.60), but remained constant (r2 = 0.05) when cone density is expressed in terms of visual angle supporting the hypothesis that the retina is stretched during the elongation of the eyeball. Gender did not modify the cone distribution. Cone density was slightly modified by age but only at 2°. The older group showed a smaller density (7%). Cone spacing increased from 6,49 ± 0,42 μm to 8,72 ± 0,45 μm respectively between 2° and 6° of eccentricity. The mosaic of the retina is mainly triangularly arranged (i.e. cells with 5 to 7 neighbors) from 2° to 6°. Around half of the cells had 6 neighbors.

  9. Astrometry and early astrophysics at Kuffner Observatory in the late 19th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habison, Peter

    The astronomer and mathematician Norbert Herz encouraged Moriz von Kuffner, owner of the beer brewery in Ottakring, to finance a private scientific observatory in the western parts of Vienna. In the years 1884-87 the Kuffner Observatory was built at the Gallitzinberg in Wien-Ottakring. It was an example of enlighted patronage and noted at the time for its rapid acquisition of new instruments and by increasing international recognition. It contained the largest heliometer in the world and the largest meridian circle in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire. Of the many scientists who worked here we mention Leo de Ball, Gustav Eberhard, Johannes Hartmann and we should not forget Karl Schwarzschild. Here in Vienna he published papers on celestial mechanics, measuring techniques, optics and his fundamental papers concerning photographic photometry, in particular the quantitative determination of the departure of the reciprocity law. The telescope and the associated camera with which he carried out his measurements are still in existence at the observatory. The observatory houses important astronomical instruments from the 19th century. All telescopes were made by Repsold und Söhne in Hamburg, and Steinheil in Munich. These two German companies were best renowned for quality and precision in high standard astronomical instruments. The Great Refractor (270/3500 mm) is still the third largest refractor in Austria. It was installed at the observatory in 1886 and was used together with the Schwarzschild Refractor for early astrophysical work including photography. It is this double refractor, where Schwarzschild carried out his measurements on photographic photometry. The Meridian Circle (132/1500 mm) was the largest meridian passage instrument of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Today it is the largest meridian circle in Austria and still one of the largest in Europe. The telescope is equipped with one of the first impersonal micrometers of that time. First observations were carried

  10. [Discussing the relationship among theashipoint, tender point and myofascial trigger point].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Decheng; Yang, Guanhu; Wang, Fuchun; Qi, Wei

    2017-02-12

    The conception and the history of ashi point, tender point and myofascial trigger point are described in the paper. All of three kinds of point are the reaction of musculoskeletal pain and visceral diseases. Theoretically, ashi point originates from the theory of muscle region of meridian, tender point from the theory of soft tissue and muscles and myofascial trigger point from the theory of muscular fasciae. Anatomically, ashi point is localized in the muscle region of meridian, on the boundary between muscles, tender point is on the muscular attachment to skeleton (the starting and ending points) and myofascial trigger point is on the motor point of neuromuscles. Pathologically, ashi point reflects the disorders of soft tissue and internal organ, tender point reflects the disorders of soft tissue and myofascial trigger point reflects the disorders of soft tissue and few disorders of internal organ. To identify the relationship among them is very significant in the target treatment with acupuncture.

  11. [Gao Yuchun's experience of facial paralysis treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjun; Cui, Linhua; Yuan, Jun; He, Li; Xie, Zhanqing; Xue, Weihua; Li, Mei; Zhang, Zhenwei; Gao, Yuchun; Kang, Suobin

    2015-05-01

    To introduce professor Gao Yuchun's clinical experience and treating characteristics of facial paralysis treated with acupuncture and moxibustion. Professor Gao pays attention to yangming when he selects acupoints for clinical syndrome, and directs acupoints selection based on syndrome differentiation in different levels of jingjin, meridians and zangfu; he praises opposing needling technique and reinforcing the deficiency and reducing the excess highly; the acupuncture manipulation is gentle,shallow and slow for reducing the healthy side and reinforcing the affected side, and through losing its excess to complement its deficiency; besides, he stresses needle retaining time and distinguishes reinforcing and reducing. Facial paralysis is treated with key factors such as acupoints selecting based on yangming, acupuncture manipulation, needle retaining time, etc. And the spleen and stomach is fine and good at transportation and transformation; the meridians is harmonious; the qi and blood is smooth. The clinical efficacy is enhanced finally.

  12. [Acupuncture therapy for regaining consciousness in terms of acupoint location, needle insertion and needle manipulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xianggang; Gu, Wenlong; Ma, Fen; Du, Yuzheng; Zhao, Qi

    2015-03-01

    Acupuncture therapy for regaining consciousness activates soreness, numbness, distention, heaviness, radiating and moving, electric shock and ant climbing sensations at the specific acupoints in the stroke patients. Radiating and moving sensations are the summary of needling sensations such as soreness, numbness and twitching presenting during lifting and thrusting manipulation. These sensations are the essential factors of the therapeutic effect of regaining consciousness. Radiating sensation refers to the conduction along meridians and radiation of soreness and numbness. Moving sensation refers to the local muscular twitching at acupoints and the involuntary movement of limbs, joints and the distal. Acupuncture at the specific acupoints achieves radiating and moving sensations for promoting the circulation in meridians, regulating qi and mind and balancing yin and yang in stroke patients. This therapy was introduced in the paper in view of acupoint location, needle insertion and manipulation.

  13. [Acupuncture direction and analgesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lu; Kou, Renzhong; Liu, Lanqing; Fan, Gangqi

    2017-03-12

    The acupuncture direction is closely related with the efficacy of acupuncture analgesia. In this article, the relationship between efficacy of acupuncture analgesia and factors, such as whether the needle towards disease location, whether the needle towards meridian direction, whether the needle following spinal cord direction and whether the needle following muscle direction, were analyzed. The previous clinical and literature research indicated that the needle towards disease location was superior to reverse direction, however, the efficacy of analgesia between needle following and reversing meridian, needle towards and at disease location, needles following and reversing spinal cord direction, needles following and reversing muscle direction was controversial. Therefore, the solutions to these problems will benefit the optimized acupuncture treatment plan for pain disorders.

  14. The effect of the egg's shape on the stress distribution in the eggshell at internal pressure loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the eggshell shape on the stress distribution under internal pressure is studied. A mathematical description of the hen's eggshell is proposed. The analytical expressions for the membrane solution are presented. Obtained results are used for the evaluation of a set of domestic hen's eggs. 28 eggs were analysed in this study. The weight of eggs ranged from 49.55 g to 61.08 g, the egg shape ranged from 72.82 % to 84.94 %, the average eggshell thickness ranged from 0.343 to 0.433 mm. The eggshell strength is given namely by the maximum values both of meridian and circumferential forces. The dependence of the meridian force maximum on the egg shape index has some tendency to increase with egg shape index. The outlined linear dependence is very weak, the coefficient of correlation is about 0.45.

  15. Two Case of Patient with the Pain of Popliteal Part Treated by Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-woo Choi

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study is to report the effect of Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture on two patients suffering from the pain of popliteal part. Methods : We treated the patients with the pain of popliteal part by acupuncture according to meridian(Taeyang and Soyang-Meridian, and we injected 0.10.2cc of Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture to his pain site. And then we evaluated their pain by VAS(Visual Analog Scale. Results : 1. A combined treatment-Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture and Acupucture- had a very excellent effect on relieving pain of popliteal part originated from trigger point and referred pain of Popliteus or Biceps Femoris. 2. It appears that Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture is very effective against trigger point of muscle and pain site fixed.

  16. On the association of magnetic clouds with disappearing filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.M.; Hildner, E.

    1986-01-01

    We present evidence that an interplanetary magnetic cloud preceding an interaction region, observed at earth January 24, 1974, is associated with the eruptive filament or disparition brusque (DB) near central meridian on January 18. The DB also was associated with a long-decay soft X ray transient (LDE) and a long-duration gradual-rise-and-fall (GRF) radio burst. To assess whether magnetic clouds are generally associated with DBs, we present results from statistical testing of the relation of 33 magnetic clouds (and 33 control samples without magnetic clouds) to disappearing filaments near central meridian (approx. 99% confidence. There is a suggestion that clouds following shocks, probably launched at times of solar flares, are not as strongly associated with disappearing filaments as are clouds launched less violently

  17. The tracking motion of the Large Sky Area Multi-object Fibre Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dingqiang; Wang, Yanan

    1997-07-01

    The Large Sky Area Multi-object Fibre Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) is a special reflecting Schmidt telescope. The main optical axis lies in the plane of meridian and is inclined at an angle of 25° with the horizontal. The sky area to be observed is -10° ≤ δ ≤ +90°. Observing is limited to the time interval around meridian passage with a duration of 1.5 hours. There are three tracking motions: the rotation around the axes of altitude and azimuth of the correcting plate on the alt-azimuth mounting and the rotation of the focal surface. All these motions have no blind area. In this paper, all formulae for calculating angular displacements, angular velocities and angular accelerations are derived and calculations have been done for the sky area and observing time mentioned above.

  18. The correlative study between acupoint stimulations and corresponding brain cortices on functional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Cheng; Chen Min; Cai Kui; Wang Wenchao; Yang Zhenghan; Zhao Weifeng; Li Guozhen; Wang Jiazhou; Tian Lifang; Zhou Tiangang; Lai Song

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the cortical activation of acupuncture with BOLD-based fMRI technique. Methods: The study was performed in 31 healthy volunteers (27 men, 4 women; age range 21-48 years) with acupuncture of points along the stomach meridian of Foot-Yangming and the gallbladder meridian of Foot-Shaoyang. The acupoints of the stomach meridian of Foot-Yangming included Futu (S 32) in 7 volunteers and Zusanli (S 36) in 9 volunteers; and the acupoints of the gallbladder meridian of Foot-Shaoyang included Yanglingquan (G34) in 7 volunteers and Guangming (G37) in 8 volunteers. MRI data were acquired on a GE 1.5 T Signa Horizon/Echo-speed scanner. 12 oblique axial slices paralleled to the AC-PC line were scanned. T 2 * images were acquired using EPI technique. Data sets of sequential images were analyzed with software package AFNI. Results: Acupuncture at points S32 and S36 resulted in activation of the hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampal complex, and frontal gyri, and the average enhancement in the above activated areas was (4.28 ± 1.50)%. Acupuncture at vision-related points G34 and G37 resulted in activation of the occipital lobe as well as other cortices such as pons, basal ganglion, temporal lobe, and frontal lobe, and the BOLD signal changes of the visual cortex were (3.31 ± l.2)%. Conclusion: These preliminary fMRI results demonstrate strong regional BOLD signal changes in the brain upon acupuncture, hence demonstrates physiological evidence of acupuncture effect. (authors)

  19. Environmental design criteria. [analysis of upper atmospheric wind observed by Low-G accelerometer flown on Agena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.

    1974-01-01

    Wind velocities at 140-200 km altitude were observed by a Low-G Accelerometer Calibration System (LOGACS) flown on an Agena satellite during a geomagnetic storm. An interesting wind reversal observed by the satellite at auroral latitudes is satisfactorily explained by the neutral air motion caused by the E x B drift deduced from the ground-based geomagnetic data recorded at stations near the meridian of the satellite orbit.

  20. An analysis of the upper atmospheric wind observed by LOGACS. [satellite Low-G Accelerometer Calibration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.; Matsushita, S.; Devries, L. L.

    1974-01-01

    Wind velocities at 140 to 200 km altitude were observed by a low-g accelerometer calibration system (LOGACS) flown on an Agena satellite during a geomagnetic storm. An interesting wind reversal observed by the satellite at auroral latitudes is satisfactorily explained by the neutral air motion caused by the E x B drift deduced from the ground-based geomagnetic data recorded at stations near the meridian of the satellite orbit.

  1. The Ladies' Diary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    This becomes cos(HA) = – tan tan ,. (B2) where is the latitude of the place and , the declination of the sun (which is 23.5 on June 22). Let A and B be two places on the same meridian (Figure B2). As shown in the figure, PABQ is the longitude circle. Angle BOQ (written as BQ) is the latitude of B; AOQ (written as AQ) is.

  2. 75 FR 45661 - Notice of Permanent Closure on Public Lands in Ada County, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLIDB00100 L17110000.PH0000 241A 4500013040] Notice of Permanent Closure on Public Lands in Ada County, ID AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior.../2\\NW\\1/4\\ NW\\1/4\\ and N\\1/2\\SW\\1/4\\ NW\\1/4\\ of Section 32, T.1 S., R.3 E., Boise Meridian, Ada...

  3. Quality of Tourism and Hospitality Management Systems in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina N. Markaryan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the features of quality standards (ISO, their application in Russia, analyzes Quality Awards, awarded to Russian producers, such as the Award of the Government of the Russian Federation in the field of Quality, National Tourism Award named after Yu. Senkevich, Travel Award «Golden Meridian», Moscow “Guiding Star” Award. The objectives of management system for Sochi resorts and hotels were determined

  4. A comparison of optical and coherent HF radar backscatter observations of a post-midnight aurora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    Full Text Available A poleward-progressing 630 nm optical feature is observed between approximately 0100 UT and 0230 UT (0400 MLT to 0530 MLT by a meridian-scanning photometer (MSP located at Ny Ålesund, Svalbard. Simultaneous coherent HF radar measurements indicate a region of poleward-expanding backscatter with rapid sunward plasma flow velocity along the MSP meridian. Spatial maps of the backscatter indicate a stationary backscatter feature aligned obliquely with respect to the MSP meridian, which produces an impression of poleward-expansion as the MSP progresses to later MLT. Two interpretations of the observations are possible, depending on whether the arc system is considered to move (time-dependent or to be stationary in time and apparent motion is produced as the MSP meridian rotates underneath it (time-independent. The first interpretation is as a poleward motion of an east-west aligned auroral arc. In this case the appearance of the region of backscatter is not associated with the optical feature, though the velocities within it are enhanced when the two are co-located. The second interpretation is as a polar arc or theta aurora, common features of the polar cap under the prevailing IMF northwards conditions. In this case the backscatter appears as an approximately 150 km wide region adjacent to the optical arc. In both interpretations the luminosity of the optical feature appears related to the magnitude of the plasma flow velocity. The optical features presented here do not generate appreciable HF coherent backscatter, and are only identifiable in the backscatter data as a modification of the flow by the arc electrodynamics.

  5. Acupuncture at Waiguan (SJ5) and sham points influences activation of functional brain areas of ischemic stroke patients: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Ji; Chen, Junqi; Huang, Yong; Lai, Xinsheng; Tang, Chunzhi; Yang, Junjun; Chen, Hua; Qu, Shanshan

    2014-01-01

    Most studies addressing the specificity of meridians and acupuncture points have focused mainly on the different neural effects of acupuncture at different points in healthy individuals. This study examined the effects of acupuncture on brain function in a pathological context. Sixteen patients with ischemic stroke were randomly assigned to true point group (true acupuncture at right Waiguan (SJ5)) and sham point group (sham acupuncture). Results of functional magnetic resonance imaging revea...

  6. 77 FR 14417 - Notice of Temporary Closure on Public Lands in Gooding and Elmore Counties, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... burned August 15, 2011, by the Blair Fire, 1 mile north of King Hill, Idaho. The legal description of the affected public lands is: Boise Meridian, Idaho T. 3 S., R. 10 E., Sec. 35. T. 4 S., R. 10 E., Secs. 1 and...., R. 10 E., Secs. 3 and 4. T. 3 S., R. 11 E., Secs. 31 and 33. T. 4 S., R. 11 E., Secs. 3 to 15...

  7. Evaluation of Three Commercial Assays for Detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium Organisms in Fecal Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Stephanie P.; Ballard, Melissa M.; Beach, Michael J.; Causer, Louise; Wilkins, Patricia P.

    2003-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for diagnostic testing for Giardia intestinalis (G. lamblia) and Cryptosporidium parvum, with a priority being placed on obtaining diagnostic results in an efficient and timely manner. Several commercial companies have developed rapid diagnostic tests that are simple to perform and can be completed in less time than traditional methods for detecting Giardia and Cryptosporidium. We compared one of these rapid tests, the ImmunoCard STAT! (Meridian Bioscience, Inc.)...

  8. Report of the IAU/IAG/COSPAR Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements of the Planets and Satellites - 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, M. E.; Abalakin, V. K.; Brahic, A.; Bursa, M.; Chovitz, B. H.; Lieske, J. H.; Seidelmann, P. K.; Sinclair, A. T.; Tiuflin, I. S.

    1992-01-01

    Revised values are presented for the directions of the north poles of rotation, the prime meridians, and for the sizes and shapes of the planets and satellites. Also presented are definitions of rotational elements and the cartographic coordinate systems. These revised values and definitions are the results of a report provided every three years by an international working group with members from IAU, IAG, and COSPAR.

  9. jfewr ©2017 - jfewr Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi

    o 44′. 02.2′′ of the equator and longitude E 008o 31′ 21.9′′ of the meridian using Garmin GPS map 76Cx geographical positioning device. Sample Collection. The garden soil used in the study was collected from an open farm land opposite cabinet office, Barracks. Road, Makurdi. The spent engine oil was obtained.

  10. Misura del ritardo accumulato dalla rotazione terrestre, DUT1, alla meridiana clementina della Basilica di Santa Maria degli Angeli in Roma

    OpenAIRE

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2011-01-01

    The Clementine Gnomon is a solar meridian telescope dedicated to solar astrometry operating as a giant pinhole dark camera, being the basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli the dark room. This instrument built in 1701-1702 by the will of pope Clement XI by Francesco Bianchini (1662-1729) gives solar images free from distortions, excepted atmospheric refraction, because the pinhole is opticsless. Similar historical instruments are in Florence (Duomo, by Toscanelli and Ximenes), Bologna (San Petr...

  11. The evidence for Shiatsu: a systematic review of Shiatsu and acupressure

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Nicola; Lorenc, Ava; Liao, Xing

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Shiatsu, similar to acupressure, uses finger pressure, manipulations and stretches, along Traditional Chinese Medicine meridians. Shiatsu is popular in Europe, but lacks reviews on its evidence-base. Methods Acupressure and Shiatsu clinical trials were identified using the MeSH term 'acupressure' in: EBM reviews; AMED; BNI; CINAHL; EMBASE; MEDLINE; PsycARTICLES; Science Direct; Blackwell Synergy; Ingenta Select; Wiley Interscience; Index to Theses and ZETOC. References of...

  12. Waverly Plantation: Ethnoarchaeology of a Tenant Farming Community,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-16

    34 given genre designations such as tales, anecdotes, legends, ballads , beliefs, customs, and the like. These traditions are * collected from a number...West Point connection. Trips were sometimes made to surrounding towns like .Meridian. Tupelo, and Birmingham , Alabama. Visits to the State Capitol in...would include such important centers as Memphis and Chattanooga, Tennessee, Birmingham and Mobile, Alabama, and Jackson, Mississippi. This arbitrary

  13. General Rotational Surfaces in Pseudo-Euclidean 4-Space with Neutral Metric

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksieva, Yana; Milousheva, Velichka; Turgay, Nurettin Cenk

    2016-01-01

    We define general rotational surfaces of elliptic and hyperbolic type in the pseudo-Euclidean 4-space with neutral metric which are analogous to the general rotational surfaces of C. Moore in the Euclidean 4-space. We study Lorentz general rotational surfaces with plane meridian curves and give the complete classification of minimal general rotational surfaces of elliptic and hyperbolic type, general rotational surfaces with parallel normalized mean curvature vector field, flat general rotati...

  14. Induction of Hyperalgesia in Pigs through Blocking Low Hydraulic Resistance Channels and Reduction of the Resistance through Acupuncture: A Mechanism of Action of Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bo Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the classic theory of Chinese medicine, pain is due to the blockage in meridian channels, and acupuncture was invented to treat pain by “dredging” the channels. To test the theory, a hyperalgesia model was made by injecting hydrogel into low hydraulic resistance channel (LHRC in 12 anaesthetized minipigs. Tail-flick threshold and ear-flick threshold were measured using a thermal radiation dolorimeter, and relative flick threshold (RFT was calculated. Hydraulic resistance (HR was measured with a biological HR measuring instrument on low HR points on LHRC and on control points with higher HR located outside LHRC; readings were recorded before, during, and after acupuncture treatment. RFT decreased after blocking the LRHC and was still significantly decreased 2 days and 4 days afterwards. No significant changes occurred when injecting saline into the same points or injecting gel into points outside the channel. Subsequent acupuncture reduced HR on LRHC along meridians but had no significant effect on sites with higher HR located outside LHRC. One of the mechanisms of action of acupuncture treatment for chronic pain may be that acupuncture affects peripheral tissue by reducing the HR in LHRC along meridians, improving the flow of interstitial fluid and removing algogenic substances and thereby relieving pain.

  15. Induction of Hyperalgesia in Pigs through Blocking Low Hydraulic Resistance Channels and Reduction of the Resistance through Acupuncture: A Mechanism of Action of Acupuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Bo; Xu, Yi-Hui; Tian, Yu-Ying; Li, Hong; Wang, Guang-Jun; Huang, Tao; Jia, Shu-Yong

    2013-01-01

    According to the classic theory of Chinese medicine, pain is due to the blockage in meridian channels, and acupuncture was invented to treat pain by "dredging" the channels. To test the theory, a hyperalgesia model was made by injecting hydrogel into low hydraulic resistance channel (LHRC) in 12 anaesthetized minipigs. Tail-flick threshold and ear-flick threshold were measured using a thermal radiation dolorimeter, and relative flick threshold (RFT) was calculated. Hydraulic resistance (HR) was measured with a biological HR measuring instrument on low HR points on LHRC and on control points with higher HR located outside LHRC; readings were recorded before, during, and after acupuncture treatment. RFT decreased after blocking the LRHC and was still significantly decreased 2 days and 4 days afterwards. No significant changes occurred when injecting saline into the same points or injecting gel into points outside the channel. Subsequent acupuncture reduced HR on LRHC along meridians but had no significant effect on sites with higher HR located outside LHRC. One of the mechanisms of action of acupuncture treatment for chronic pain may be that acupuncture affects peripheral tissue by reducing the HR in LHRC along meridians, improving the flow of interstitial fluid and removing algogenic substances and thereby relieving pain.

  16. [The method and application to construct experience recommendation platform of acupuncture ancient books based on data mining technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuyun; Hong, Jiaming; Zhou, Weilin; Lin, Guohua; Wang, Zhengfei; Zhang, Qufei; Lu, Cuina; Lu, Lihong

    2017-07-12

    To construct a knowledge platform of acupuncture ancient books based on data mining technology, and to provide retrieval service for users. The Oracle 10 g database was applied and JAVA was selected as development language; based on the standard library and ancient books database established by manual entry, a variety of data mining technologies, including word segmentation, speech tagging, dependency analysis, rule extraction, similarity calculation, ambiguity analysis, supervised classification technology were applied to achieve text automatic extraction of ancient books; in the last, through association mining and decision analysis, the comprehensive and intelligent analysis of disease and symptom, meridians, acupoints, rules of acupuncture and moxibustion in acupuncture ancient books were realized, and retrieval service was provided for users through structure of browser/server (B/S). The platform realized full-text retrieval, word frequency analysis and association analysis; when diseases or acupoints were searched, the frequencies of meridian, acupoints (diseases) and techniques were presented from high to low, meanwhile the support degree and confidence coefficient between disease and acupoints (special acupoint), acupoints and acupoints in prescription, disease or acupoints and technique were presented. The experience platform of acupuncture ancient books based on data mining technology could be used as a reference for selection of disease, meridian and acupoint in clinical treatment and education of acupuncture and moxibustion.

  17. [Effectiveness of acupuncture and moxibustion therapy for the treatment of refractory interstitial cystitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Yuichi; Nakahara, Kozue; Shitamura, Takahiro; Mukai, Shoichiro; Wakeda, Hironobu; Yamashita, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Katsumi; Nose, Kiyotaka; Kamoto, Toshiyuki

    2013-05-01

    The efficacy of acupuncture and moxibustion treatment was examined on eight female patients with refractory interstitial cystitis (IC) who had been treated conservatively with hydrodistension, intravesical instillation of dimethyl sulfoxide, or oral medication. These patients had received hydrodistension on an average of 2.3±1.8 times. Moxa needles were applied to Ciliao in bladder meridian 32 and Xialiao in bladder meridian 34, and electroacupuncture was performed on Zhongliao in bladder meridian 33 at 3 Hz for 20 min once a week. The bladder condition was assessed by the visual analogue scale (VAS) score, the O'Leary-Sant Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index (ICSI), the Interstitial Cystitis Problem Index (ICPI), and the maximum voided volume (MVV). After 3 months, patients who showed a reduction of >2 in their VAS score, reduction of 100 ml MVV were considered responders. There were three responders, and after repeated therapy to maintain these effects, they no longer required hydrodistension. Two responders had no recurrence for 48 months or more. Acupuncture and moxibustion resulted in improvement in 38% of the patients (3/8) with refractory IC, and repeated therapy maintained the therapeutic effects. This therapy is traditional and relatively noninvasive. Although its precise mechanism of action is unclear, this study suggests that acupuncture and moxibustion treatment may be a complementary and alternative therapeutic option for refractory IC.

  18. Historical Review about Research on “Bonghan System” in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ling Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The meridian-collateral theory is the theoretical basis of acupuncture-moxibustion therapy. Professor Bonghan Kim, a professor of the Pyongyang Medical University of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, claimed that he found the anatomical structure of meridian-collaterals, named Bonghan corpuscles (BHCs and Bonghan ducts (BHDs system or primo vascular system (PVS, in 1962. From 1963 to 1965, researchers from our institute conducted a series of comparative anatomical experiments, trying to reproduce the so-called BHC- and BHD-like structures in different strains of animals. In the present paper, the authors introduced their research findings about BHC- and BHD-like structures in the young rabbit’s umbilicus including its external appearance, ectoplasm and endoplasm, and about strip-like and node-like objects in the blood vessels and lymph vessels near the larger abdominal and cervical blood vessels and chromaffin tissue in the back wall of the rabbit’s abdominal cavity and between the bilateral kidneys. In spite of existence of the BHC- and BHD-like structures in the rabbit, there has been no proved evidence for their association with the meridian-collateral system described in acupuncture medicine. In the present historical review, the authors also make a discussion about the significance of those findings.

  19. Fascia and Primo Vascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical basis for the concept of acupuncture points/meridians in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has not been resolved. This paper reviews the fascia research progress and the relationship among acupuncture points/meridians, primo vascular system (PVS, and fascia. Fascia is as a covering, with common origins of layers of the fascial system despite diverse names for individual parts. Fascia assists gliding and fluid flow and holds memory and is highly innervated. Fascia is intimately involved with nourishment of all cells of the body, including those of disease and cancer. The human body’s fascia network may be the physical substrate represented by the meridians of TCM. The PVS is a newly found circulatory system; recent increased interest has led to new research and new discoveries in the anatomical and functional aspects of the PVS. The fasciology theory provides new insights into the physiological effects of acupuncture needling on basic cellular mechanisms including connective tissue mechanotransduction and regeneration. This view represents a theoretical basis and means for applying modern biomedical research to examining TCM principles and therapies, and it favors a holistic approach to diagnosis and treatment.

  20. [Contributions of professor Xue Chong-cheng in acupuncture and neuropsychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiu-li; Liu, Wan-ting; Xu, Rui

    2008-07-01

    Professor Xue Chong-cheng devotes himself in clinical and research of integrative works of TCM, acupuncture, neuropsychiatry, neurosurgery and medicopsychology for more than 70 years. He firstly confirmed acupoints are identical with nerve and motor points, found propagating meridian sensation on phantom limbs of acquired and congenital amputates. The sensation can pass over fresh incision wound and it exits and disappears with the cortical sensation. He proposed a central theory that a meridians model is present in the brain. He suggested examination of general afferent system, cortical sensation and deep pain of syringomyelia with acupuncture as they are absent in routine methods but still present during needling. He firstly reported meridian type of sensory epilepsy and it was recognized by the Epilepsy Center of the USA. He treated psychosis with electroacupuncture convulsive therapy, the dosage of current used was less than 4% of the conventional method. The Journal of Psychiatry of USA recognized it is a dramatic progress for more than 40 years. He compiled first integrative medical questionnaire for assessment of pain. According to TCM theories and modern method of standardization he established inventories and national norms of personality and constitution for the corresponding examinations. They fulfill the gap of China. He firstly proposed the model of TCM is temporo-spatio-socio-psycho-biological. Now he is nearly ninety years old but is still struggling on the first line.

  1. Revisiting the impact of atmospheric dispersion and differential refraction on widefield multiobject spectroscopic observations. From VLT/VIMOS to next generation instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Janssen, R.; Mieske, S.; Selman, F.; Bristow, P.; Hammersley, P.; Hilker, M.; Rejkuba, M.; Wolff, B.

    2014-06-01

    Context. Atmospheric dispersion and field differential refraction impose severe constraints on widefield, multiobject spectroscopic (MOS) observations, where the two joint effects cannot be continuously corrected. Flux reduction and spectral distortions must then be minimised by a careful planning of the observations, which is especially true for instruments that use slits instead of fibres. This is the case of VIMOS at the VLT, where MOS observations have been restricted, since the start of operations, to a narrow two-hour range from the meridian to minimise slit losses, the so-called two-hour angle rule. Aims: We revisit in detail the impact of atmospheric effects on the quality of VIMOS-MOS spectra with the aim of enhancing the instrument's overall efficiency, and improving the scheduling of observations. Methods: We model slit losses across the entire VIMOS field of view as a function of target declination. We explore two different slit orientations at the meridian: along the parallactic angle (north-south), and perpendicular to it (east-west). Results: We show that, for fields culminating at zenith distances larger than 20 degrees, slit losses are minimised with slits oriented along the parallactic angle at the meridian. The two-hour angle rule holds for these observations using north-south orientations. Conversely, for fields with zenith angles smaller than 20 degress at culmination, losses are minimised with slits oriented perpendicular to the parallactic angle at the meridian; MOS observations can be effectively extended to plus/minus three hours from the meridian in these cases. In general, night-long observations of a single field will benefit from using the east-west orientation. All-sky or service mode observations, however, require a more elaborate planning that depends on the target declination, and the hour angle of the observations. Conclusions: We establish general rules for the alignment of slits in MOS observations that will increase target

  2. [Impact on the gait time cycle of ischemic stroke in the treatment with yin-yang respiratory reinforcing and reducing needling technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Tian, Fu-Ling; Liu, Guo-Rong; Zheng, De-Song; Chen, Jin-Ming; Ma, Shu-Riang; Cui, Jian-Mei; Wang, Hong-Bin; Li, Xue-Qing

    2014-03-01

    To compare the difference in the efficacy on gait time cycle of ischemic stroke between yin-yang respiratory reinforcing and reducing needling technique (yin-yang needling) and the conventional acupuncture. Sixty cases of ischemic stroke were randomized into a conventional acupuncture group and a yin-yang needling group, 30 cases in each one. The basic treatment (the control of blood pressure, blood sugar and blood lipid, the intravenous drops of ginkgo leaf extract and dipyridamole injection and vinpocetine injection) were applied in the two groups. Additionally, in the conventional acupuncture group, the acupoints of the Stomach Meridian of Foot-Yangming [Biguan (ST 31), Liangqiu (ST 34), Zusanli (ST 36), Shangjuxu (ST 37), Xiajuxu (ST 39), etc.] were selected and stimulated with the even needling technique. In the yin-yang needling group, the acupoints of yin meridians such as Zuwuli (LR 10), Xuehai (SP 10), Yinlingquan (SP 9) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6), etc. and the acupoints of yang meridians such as Biguan (ST 31), Liangqiu (ST 34) and Yanglingquan (GB 34), etc. were selected. The reducing manipulation of respiratory reinforcing and reducing technique was applied to the acupoints of yin meridians and the reinforcing manipulation was applied to the acupoints of yang meridians. The kinematics time parameters were determined and compared before and 4 weeks after treatment. After treatment, the differences in the gait cycle, the phase time of standing (%), the phase time of single support (%), the phase time of unilateral sway (%) on the affected (healthy) foot and phase time of double support (%) were significant as compared with those before treatment in the patients of the two groups (all P yin-yang needling group were improved much obviously after treatment as compared with those in the conventional acupuncture group. The differences in support phase time (%), single support phase time (%) and sway phase time (%) were significant between the affected limb and

  3. Vernal Point and Seismic Activity in Tibet Mountains and Andes Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Sumarriva, Israel; Chavez-Campos, Teodosio; Chavez S, Nadia

    2014-05-01

    The gravitational influence of the sun and moon on the equatorial bulges of the mantle of the rotating earth causes the precession of the earth. The retrograde motion of the vernal point through the zodiacal band is 26,000 years and passes through each constellation in an average of 2000 years (Milankovitch subcycle). The vernal point retrogrades one precessional degree approximately in 72 years (Gleissberg-cycle), and approximately enters into the Aquarius constellation (declination 11.5° S) on March 20, 1940. On earth this entry was verify through: a) stability of the magnetic equator in the south central zone of Peru and in the north zone of Bolivia (11.5º South latitude) since 1940 b) the greater intensity of equatorial electrojet (EEJ) in Peru and Bolivia since 1940. Besides, there was a long history of studies of coupling between earthquake-ionosphere. In IUGG (Italy-2007), Cusco was proposed as a prime meridian that was based on: (1) the new prime meridian (72º W == 0º) was parallel to the Andes and its projection the meridian (108° E == 180º) intersects the Tibetan plate (Asia). (2) On earth these two areas present the greatest thickness of the crust with an average depth of 70 kilometers. The aim was to synchronize the earth sciences phenomena (e.g. geology, geophysics, etc.). The coordinate system had the vernal point from meridian (72º W== 0º) and March 20, 1940. The retrograde movement of the vernal point was the first precessional degree (2012 = 1940 + 72). The west coast of South America (parallel to meridian 72º W== 0º) was a segment of the circum-pacific seismic belt where more than two thirds of major earthquakes in the world happened. During the first precessional degree (1940 +72 ==2012) seismic activity were: (a) near the new prime meridian (72° W == 0°) occurs in: (a1) Haiti (18.4° N, 72.5° W), January 12, 2010 with magnitude of 7.0 Mw. (a2) Chile (36.28° S, 73.23° W), February 27, 2010 with Magnitude of 8.8 Mw. (a3) Chile (35

  4. The Review on the Prostate Disease-related Studies with Acupuncture Therapy in PubMed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Sueb Song

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was to review on the prostate disease-related studies with Acupuncture therapy in renowned medical internet site of PubMed, and to make master plan of the study, especially, on Bee Venom Acupuncture(BVA of Prostate disease and then to devise the idealistic therapeutic ways of it. Method : We made the internet search with the key words of bee venom(bee venom therapy, apitoxin, apitherapy, bee sting, bee sting therapy, acupuncture, prostate, prostatitis, prostrate cancer in Pubmed, from June 1st to July 1st,2004. Results : 1.25 papers were found in 19 publised jounals. of which two named'Urology'and Prostate' had three papars, two called 'JUrology' and 'Cancer Immunol Immunother' had two papers, and the others had a paper respectively. 2. In the classification by papers' types, Review papers were 8 and Original were 17 where there were 5 clinical trials, 11 experimental studies and 1 epidemiologic paper. Of 5 clinical trials, 2 belonged to Randomized Control Study, and of 11 experimental studies, 4 belonged to in vitro and 7 belonged to in vivo with in viro studies, and 1 epidemeologic belonged to meta-analysis. 3. In the classification by prostate diseases, 4 were about prostatitis, 3 were about prostate related symptoms, 16 were about prostate cancer, and two were about the others. 4. In the classification by applied treatment methods, 5 were related with Acupuncture, 10 were related with BVA(Bee Venom, Bee, and 10 were related with the others. Of 5 related with Acupuncture, 3 used general acupuncture, 1 used electrical acupuncture, and 1 used general acupuncture and electrical acupuncture at the same time. 5. In 2 RCTs of Clinical trials, Control group was set up to the group using different compatible treatment method or using meridians not related with treating prostate disease. Single or double blind methods couldn't be found. 6. In the clinical trials, IPSS, NIH, CPSI or subjective global assessment were used as the

  5. CHROMASSI: a therapy advice system based on chrono-massage and acupression using the method of ZiWuLiuZhu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H P; Le, D L; Tran, Q M; Nguyen, V T; Nguyen, N O

    1995-01-01

    Massage and Acupression have a history of many years of use by the Vietnamese people in the treatment of diseases, and they can give wonderful therapeutic effects in painful syndromes and chronic diseases, etc. On the other hand, some methods of Chrono-Acupuncture based on chronobiological theory and the holistic concept of traditional medicine are studied and applied in clinical applications. This paper presents the therapy advice system based on Chrono-Massage and Acupression using the method of ZiWuLiuZhu called CHROMASSI. The system includes four major parts. Massage and Acupression Teaching: This part can provide the user with some background in Massage and Acupression theory such as the pathology of the meridians, the classification of points and their function, the therapeutic properties of points, the methods of Massage and Acupression (including Pression, Friction, Rubbing, Light Massage, Petrissage, Rolling and Rubbing, Percussion and Vibration), and the direction of the meridians circulation, displaying AcuPoints represented by color pictures of the 12 main meridians and 2 vessels. More than 330 popular AcuPoints are used in the system. Open AcuPoint Calculating: This module can help us to calculate open AcuPoints based on data about days, months, years and hours using the special method of ZiWuLiuZhu. The Points adopted by ZiWuLiuZhu are the Five Shu Points and Source Points including 66 points (all of them are located below the elbows and knees). The effectiveness of these points becomes particularly evident when they are needled or punctured at optimum time intervals. For example, at 9:00 a.m., September 22, 1994, the open Points by the ZiWuLiuZhu method will be the points K2 (Nhien Coc) and K10 (Am Coc). According to the chronotherapeutic method, first we have to pressure (or puncture) the above points in order to attain the sensation RDac KhiS (arrival of energy), then pressure the other treating points as in ordinary Massage and Acupression

  6. Influence of ocular features and incision width on surgically induced astigmatism after cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Wen; Su, Tai-Yuan; Chen, Yao-Lin

    2015-02-01

    To identify factors associated with surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) following phacoemulsification. Six hundred five eyes underwent phacoemulsification with a 2.2-mm (the 2.2-mm group, n = 248) or 2.75-mm (the 2.75-mm group, n = 357) superior limbal incision. Preoperative axial length, anterior chamber depth, corneal curvature, and intra-ocular pressure were measured. Corneal curvature and intraocular pressure were measured at 1 day, 1 week, and 1, 2, and 3 months postoperatively. SIA, corneal flattening, and torque were calculated using the Alpins method. The effect of preoperative corneal astigmatism meridian on SIA was also examined. Differences in SIA between the 2.2- and 2.75-mm groups were explored, and correlations between SIA and preoperative corneal astigmatism, anterior chamber depth, axial length, age, and intraocular pressure were analyzed. SIA, corneal flattening, and torque were smaller in the 2.2-mm group than in the 2.75-mm group at 1 week (P = .003, .006, and .014, respectively), but not statistically different thereafter. Higher preoperative corneal astigmatism, older age, and shallower anterior chamber depth were associated with greater SIA in both groups. The effect of astigmatism meridian on SIA was more noticeable in the 2.75-mm group. Shorter axial length and lower intraocular pressures were associated with greater SIA in the 2.75-mm group but not in the 2.2-mm group. Reducing limbal incision width and considering patient age, the meridian and magnitude of corneal astigmatism, anterior chamber depth, axial length, and intraocular pressure, and adjusting the flattening component of SIA input for toric intraocular lens power calculation could potentially improve the astigmatism control in refractive lens surgery. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Use acupuncture to treat functional constipation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ying

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether acupuncture is effective for patients with functional constipation is still unclear. Therefore, we report the protocol of a randomized controlled trial of using acupuncture to treat functional constipation. Design A randomized, controlled, four-arm design, large-scale trial is currently undergoing in China. Seven hundred participants are randomly assigned to three acupuncture treatment groups and Mosapride Citrate control group in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Participants in acupuncture groups receive 16 sessions of acupuncture treatment, and are followed up for a period of 9 weeks after randomization. The acupuncture groups are: (1 Back-Shu and Front-Mu acupoints of Large Intestine meridians (Shu-Mu points group; (2 He-Sea and Lower He-Sea acupoints of Large Intestine meridians (He points group; (3 Combining used Back-Shu, Front-Mu, He-Sea, and Lower He-Sea acupoints of Large Intestine meridians (Shu-Mu-He points group. The control group is Mosapride Citrate group. The primary outcome is frequency of defecation per week at the fourth week after randomization. The secondary outcomes include Bristol stool scale, the extent of difficulty during defecating, MOS 36-item Short Form health survey (SF-36, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS, and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS. The first two of second outcomes are measured 1 week before randomization and 2, 4, and 8 weeks after randomization. Other second outcomes are measured 1 week before randomization and 2 and 4 weeks after randomization, but SF-36 is measured at randomization and 4 weeks after randomization. Discussion The result of this trial (which will be available in 2012 will confirm whether acupuncture is effective to treat functional constipation and whether traditional acupuncture theories play an important role in it. Trials registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT01411501

  8. Longitudinal study of spherical refractive error in infantile nystagmus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Natasha; McClelland, Julie F; Saunders, Kathryn J; Jackson, A Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    To explore the onset and progression of spherical refractive error in a population with infantile nystagmus syndrome. Retrospective refractive error data were obtained from 147 medical records of children with infantile nystagmus syndrome (albinism n = 98; idiopathic infantile nystagmus n = 49), attending a low vision clinic in Northern Ireland, over a 24 year period (1986-2010). Data were categorised by age to allow for comparisons with published studies. A prospective group of participants with Infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) [n = 22 (albinism n = 18, idiopathic infantile nystagmus n = 4)] (aged 0-4) were also recruited. Cycloplegic streak retinoscopy was performed biannually, over a 3 year period. Spherical equivalent refractive error and most ametropic meridian were analysed. The mean spherical equivalent refractive errors for albinism and idiopathic infantile nystagmus groups (across all age categories) were hypermetropic, with highest levels demonstrated by the participants with albinism aged 1 ≤ 4 years (Mann-Whitney U test, p = 0.013). Mean most ametropic meridian was highest in the albinism group aged 1 ≤ 12 years (Mann-Whitney U test, p refractive errors over time. Prospective participants were hypermetropic at all visits and those with albinism had, on average, higher refractive errors than those with idiopathic infantile nystagmus (IIN). No significant correlations were noted between visual acuity and spherical equivalent refractive errors or most ametropic meridian. Hypermetropia is the most prevalent spherical refractive error in the INS population, irrespective of level of visual acuity. Individuals with infantile nystagmus syndrome fail to demonstrate typical patterns of emmetropisation, particularly in the presence of albinism. © 2014 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2014 The College of Optometrists.

  9. Analysis of the Ocular Refractive State in Fighting Bulls: Astigmatism Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Bueno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the ocular refractive state (ORS of fighting bulls. The study consisted of 90 ophthalmological healthy animals (85 in post-mortem and 5 in living conditions, resp.. The ORS of the eyes (2 per animal was determined using streak retinoscopy. In vivo animals were assessed at a fighting bull farm facility. Post-mortem measurements were carried out at a local arena. The ORS along the horizontal meridian ranged between −1.00 and +2.50 diopters (D, with a mean of +0.66±0.85 D in post-mortem animals. Values for in vivo conditions were similar (+0.75±0.46 D. Left and right eyes were highly correlated in both sets (p<0.001. A fairly good correlation was also observed when comparing living and post-mortem eyes in the same animals. Anisometropia ≥ 1.00 D was diagnosed in 3 animals. Astigmatism (≥+0.5 D was detected in 93% of the eyes. To our knowledge, the ORS of the fighting bull has been reported for the first time. Although values vary among individuals, all eyes presented a marked astigmatism. Whereas the horizontal meridian was slightly hyperopic, the vertical meridian was always closer to emmetropia. These results represent a starting point to understand the ocular optics of this kind of animals, which might benefit the selection of animals at the farm before being sent to the bullfighting arena.

  10. Large-scale evaluation of the immuno-mycologics lateral flow and enzyme-linked immunoassays for detection of cryptococcal antigen in serum and cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jessica; Slechta, E Susan; Gates-Hollingsworth, Marcellene A; Neary, Brandon; Barker, Adam P; Bauman, Sean; Kozel, Thomas R; Hanson, Kimberly E

    2013-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is a systemic infection caused by the pathogenic yeasts Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii. Detection of cryptococcal capsular antigen (CrAg) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) plays an important diagnostic role. We prospectively compared the new Immuno-Mycologics Inc. (IMMY) lateral flow assay (LFA) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to our current CrAg test (Premier EIA; Meridian Bioscience Inc.). Discordant samples were retested with the latex-Cryptococcus antigen test (IMMY) and using serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). A total of 589 serum and 411 CSF specimens were tested in parallel. Qualitative agreement across assays was 97.7%. In all, 56 (41 serum and 15 CSF) samples were positive and 921 (527 serum and 394 CSF) samples were negative by all three assays. The 23 discrepant specimens were all Meridian EIA negative. Of 23 discordant specimens, 20 (87.0%) were positive by both the IMMY LFA and EIA, 2 were LFA positive only, and 1 was EIA positive only. Eleven discrepant specimens had adequate volume for latex agglutination (LA) testing; 8 were LA positive, and 3 were LA negative. LA-negative samples (2 CSF samples and 1 serum) had low IMMY LFA/EIA titers (≤1:10). Serotype-specific MAb analysis of the LA-positive samples suggested that these specimens contained CrAg epitopes similar to those of serotype C strains. In conclusion, the IMMY assays showed excellent overall concordance with the Meridian EIA. Assay performance differences were related to issues of analytic sensitivity and possible serotype bias. Incomplete access to patient-level data combined with low specimen volumes limited our ability to fully resolve discrepant results.

  11. New true-triaxial rock strength criteria considering intrinsic material characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Li, Cheng; Quan, Xiaowei; Wang, Yanning; Yu, Liyuan; Jiang, Binsong

    2018-02-01

    A reasonable strength criterion should reflect the hydrostatic pressure effect, minimum principal stress effect, and intermediate principal stress effect. The former two effects can be described by the meridian curves, and the last one mainly depends on the Lode angle dependence function. Among three conventional strength criteria, i.e. Mohr-Coulomb (MC), Hoek-Brown (HB), and Exponent (EP) criteria, the difference between generalized compression and extension strength of EP criterion experience a firstly increase then decrease process, and tends to be zero when hydrostatic pressure is big enough. This is in accordance with intrinsic rock strength characterization. Moreover, the critical hydrostatic pressure I_c corresponding to the maximum difference of between generalized compression and extension strength can be easily adjusted by minimum principal stress influence parameter K. So, the exponent function is a more reasonable meridian curves, which well reflects the hydrostatic pressure effect and is employed to describe the generalized compression and extension strength. Meanwhile, three Lode angle dependence functions of L_{{MN}}, L_{{WW}}, and L_{{YMH}}, which unconditionally satisfy the convexity and differential requirements, are employed to represent the intermediate principal stress effect. Realizing the actual strength surface should be located between the generalized compression and extension surface, new true-triaxial criteria are proposed by combining the two states of EP criterion by Lode angle dependence function with a same lode angle. The proposed new true-triaxial criteria have the same strength parameters as EP criterion. Finally, 14 groups of triaxial test data are employed to validate the proposed criteria. The results show that the three new true-triaxial exponent criteria, especially the Exponent Willam-Warnke criterion (EPWW) criterion, give much lower misfits, which illustrates that the EP criterion and L_{{WW}} have more reasonable meridian

  12. Mean solar quiet daily variations in the earth’s magnetic field along East African longitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, O. R.; Rabiu, A. B.; Yumoto, K.; Yizengaw, E.

    2014-08-01

    Solar quiet daily (Sq) variation in the earth’s magnetic field along the East African meridian was studied using data of the H, D and Z components recorded with Magnetic Data Acquisition System of SERC. One year data recorded at ten African geomagnetic observatories was used in the analysis of worldwide solar quiet daily variation (Wsq). The study revealed that the focus of Sq (H) in the southern hemisphere lies at the boundary of low and middle latitude region. Noon-time enhancement of Sq (H) was generally noticed at all stations along the meridian, though it is latitudinal dependent in terms of magnitude as it reduces with distance from dip equator. In addition, night-time variations also occur in small magnitude along African meridian in Sq (H) and Sq (Z) which could be attributed to non-ionospheric sources. Semi-diurnal variation was noticed in Sq (D) at all stations except in AAB that is under the influence of electrojet current. Dusk sector calm condition of Sq (D) current was notice in some stations and the same condition was also noticed at dawn sector in some other stations. The usual sunrise maximum and sunset minimum for D component at stations north of dip equator as well as sunrise minimum and sunset maximum was found to increase with distance away from dip equator. Day-time perturbation of Sq current was noticed to be more pronounced in all the three field elements. Mass plots of annual mean hourly value show contrasting phase pattern about the focus in H element and the results of the variations at each region with the associated standard error. It was concluded from the result of correlation coefficients computed that different currents system flowing in opposite directions could be responsible for contrasting patterns.

  13. The AJ-conjecture for the Teichmüller TQFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Malusà, Alessandro

    {A}$-polynomial, evaluated at appropriate $q$-commutative operators. These are obtained via geometric quantisation on the moduli space of flat $\\operatorname{SL}(2,\\mathbb{C})$-connections on a genus-$1$ surface. The construction depends on a parameter $\\sigma$ in the Teichm\\"{u}ller space in a way measured by the Hitchin-Witten...... connection, and results in Hitchin-Witten covariantly constant quantum operators for the holonomy functions $m$ and $\\ell$ along the meridian and longitude. Their action on $J^{(\\mathrm{b},N)}_{M,K}$ is then defined via a trivialisation of the Hitchin-Witten connection and the Weil-Gel'Fand-Zak transform....

  14. Calculation Methods for Criteria Air Pollutant Emission Inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    precursors volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and, to a lesser extent, nitrogen oxides. Ozone-- the primary constituent of smog --aggravates respiratory...formation of tropospheric ozone ( smog ) and acid rain. Combustion processes utilizing natural gas, coal, residual fuels (grades 4/5/6), and aviation fuel are...Newark 10.2 Lexington 9.3 Jackson 7.4 Louisville 8.4 Meridian 6.1 New Mexico Albuque• que 9.1 Louisiana Missouri Rosweli 8.6 Baton Rouge 7.6 Columbia 9.9

  15. Coupes verticales des structures océaniques physiques à 165°E observées au cours de dix campagnes SURTROPAC, 1984-1988

    OpenAIRE

    Eldin, Gérard

    1989-01-01

    In, 1984, the SURTROPAC group from the ORSTOM Center in Noumea has undertaken a series of trans-equatorial biannual cruises, along the 165°E meridian, from 20°S-10°N. These cruises are now part of the international TOGA program, and are scheduled until 1994. Half-way of this series, this report presents sections of temperature (T), salinity (S), potential density, zonal geostrophic currents (Ug), and zonal (u) and meridional (v) components of measured currents, for each of the 10 cruises alre...

  16. Do acupuncture points exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Xiaohui; Zhang Xinyi; Liu Chenglin; Dang, Ruishan; Huang Yuying; He Wei; Ding Guanghong

    2009-01-01

    We used synchrotron x-ray fluorescence analysis to probe the distribution of four chemical elements in and around acupuncture points, two located in the forearm and two in the lower leg. Three of the four acupuncture points showed significantly elevated concentrations of elements Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in relation to levels in the surrounding tissue, with similar elevation ratios for Cu and Fe. The mapped distribution of these elements implies that each acupuncture point seems to be elliptical with the long axis along the meridian. (note)

  17. Territorial ordering in Toay area and surroundings, La Pampa province, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carballo, O.; Sbrocco; J; Calmels, A.; Sotorres, E.; Miglianelli, C.

    2004-01-01

    This present work aims to provide a territorial ordering in an area limited by the 36 grades 39 minutes and 36 grades 43 minutes Southern Parallels and the 64 grades 20 minutes and 64 grades 27 minutes. Meridians from the same hemisphere; within such area, the population from Toay and surroundings are held/contained. The empiric method employed was taken from Gomez Orea (1993). The area was divided into environmental synthesis units and through the use of different proposed tasks it was possible to reach an objective description of the area with the distribution of its varied units [es

  18. Review of International Geothermal Activities and Assessment of US Industry Opportunites: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1987-08-01

    This report contains detailed summaries, with bibliographies, of past, present, and planned geothermal development in 71 selected countries and areas. The report gives a pretty good description of types of work that had been done in each country by the mid 1980s, but does not tell much about which geothermal-provider country did the work. There are maps for most of the countries. There are numbers for market factors, but not for estimated geothermal potential. The information in this document has been superceded by the country summaries in the World Geothermal Congress Transactions of 1995, 2000, and 2005. This report was prepared by Meridian Corporation, Alexandria, VA. (DJE 2005)

  19. Do acupuncture points exist?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Xiaohui; Zhang Xinyi [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (State Key Laboratory), and Synchrotron Radiation Research Center of Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Liu Chenglin [Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers' College, Yancheng 224002 (China); Dang, Ruishan [Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang Yuying; He Wei [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Ding Guanghong [Shanghai Research Center of Acupuncture and Meridian, Pudong, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2009-05-07

    We used synchrotron x-ray fluorescence analysis to probe the distribution of four chemical elements in and around acupuncture points, two located in the forearm and two in the lower leg. Three of the four acupuncture points showed significantly elevated concentrations of elements Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in relation to levels in the surrounding tissue, with similar elevation ratios for Cu and Fe. The mapped distribution of these elements implies that each acupuncture point seems to be elliptical with the long axis along the meridian. (note)

  20. NOTE: Do acupuncture points exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xinyi; Liu, Chenglin; Dang, Ruishan; Huang, Yuying; He, Wei; Ding, Guanghong

    2009-05-01

    We used synchrotron x-ray fluorescence analysis to probe the distribution of four chemical elements in and around acupuncture points, two located in the forearm and two in the lower leg. Three of the four acupuncture points showed significantly elevated concentrations of elements Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in relation to levels in the surrounding tissue, with similar elevation ratios for Cu and Fe. The mapped distribution of these elements implies that each acupuncture point seems to be elliptical with the long axis along the meridian.

  1. Implications of the 1100 UT March 22, 1979 CDAW 6 substorm event for the role of magnetic reconnection in the geomagnetic tail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.A.; Baker, D.N.; McPherron, R.L.; Lennartsson, W.

    1983-01-01

    The event of March 22, 1979 has been the object of a concentrated study effort as a part of the Coordinated Data Analysis Workshop activity designated CDAW-6. Energetic electron and magnetic field measurements from a set of four satellites aligned from 6.6 to 13 R/sub E/ at the 0200 LT meridian at the time of the magnetospheric substorm event of 1100 UT are presented. These data are used to show that a magnetic X-line formed spontaneously in the vicinity of 7 R/sub E/ in response to a steady build-up of magnetic stress in the geomagnetic tail

  2. Comparing the Zeiss Callisto Eye and the Alcon Verion Image Guided System Toric Lens Alignment Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hura, Arjan S; Osher, Robert H

    2017-07-01

    To compare the alignment meridian generated by the Zeiss Callisto Eye (Carl Zeiss AG, Dublin, CA) and the Alcon Verion Image Guided System (Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX). In this retrospective comparative evaluation of technology, intraoperative images were captured at different steps in the same surgery, allowing the comparison of the guidance lines generated by the Verion system to the parallel guidance lines generated by the Callisto Eye system. Measurements of each hemi-meridian were quantified using Adobe Photoshop 2015 CC software (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA). The numbers of degrees separating these alignment meridians were calculated, entered into a database, and analyzed. The authors found that of 98 captured images of 16 eyes, the two technologies were identical in 0 eyes (θ 1 = θ 2 = 0), similar by 3° in 52 (53%) captured images (θ 1 ≠ θ 2 ≠ 0), and different by at least 3° in 46 (47%) captured images (θ 1 ≠ θ 2 ≠ 0). The target meridians were superimposed, the target lines were minimally separated, and the target lines were dissimilar. It was noted that some intraoperative variation occurred from measurement to measurement. Within the small group of 16 cases of routine toric lens implantation in this study, the absolute average number of degrees of misalignment between the Verion and Callisto Eye systems was 3.355 for θ 1 and 3.838 for θ 2 . On average, the intraoperative variation termed "drift" was noted to be 3.963° for θ 1 , and 4.557° for θ 2 . The authors found that small deviations were frequent when comparing two sophisticated technologies. Although deviations greater than 3° occurred in less than 47% of captured images from 16 eyes, smaller but significant variations of less than 3° occurred in 53% of captured images from 16 eyes. It was rare to identify a large deviation. However, the authors identified "drift" in the same eye when measurements were taken at different times. The results indicate that the two

  3. astroplan: Observation planning package for astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brett M.; Tollerud, Erik; Sipocz, Brigitta; Deil, Christoph; Douglas, Stephanie T.; Berlanga Medina, Jazmin; Vyhmeister, Karl; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Jeschke, Eric

    2018-02-01

    astroplan is a flexible toolbox for observation planning and scheduling. It is powered by Astropy (ascl:1304.002); it works for Python beginners and new observers, and is powerful enough for observatories preparing nightly and long-term schedules as well. It calculates rise/set/meridian transit times, alt/az positions for targets at observatories anywhere on Earth, and offers built-in plotting convenience functions for standard observation planning plots (airmass, parallactic angle, sky maps). It can also determine the observability of sets of targets given an arbitrary set of constraints (i.e., altitude, airmass, moon separation/illumination, etc.).

  4. A Graphical Method for Great Circle Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Tien-Pen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A great circle route (GCR is the shortest route on a spherical earth model. Do we have a visual diagram to handle the shortest route? In this paper, a graphical method (GM is proposed to solve the GCR problems based on the celestial meridian diagram (CMD in celestial navigation. Unlike developed algebraic methods, the GM is a geometric method. Appling computer software to graph, the GM does not use any equations but is as accurate as using algebraic methods. In addition, the GM, which emphasizes the rotational surface, can depict a GCR and judge its benefit.

  5. Tropospheric haze and colors of the clear daytime sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Raymond L

    2015-02-01

    To casual observers, haze's visible effects on clear daytime skies may seem mundane: significant scattering by tropospheric aerosols visibly (1) reduces the luminance contrast of distant objects and (2) desaturates sky blueness. However, few published measurements of hazy-sky spectra and chromaticities exist to compare with these naked-eye observations. Hyperspectral imaging along sky meridians of clear and hazy skies at one inland and two coastal sites shows that they have characteristic colorimetric signatures of scattering and absorption by haze aerosols. In addition, a simple spectral transfer function and a second-order scattering model of skylight reveal the net spectral and colorimetric effects of haze.

  6. Evidence of syn tectonic tephrites with nepheline in the Sidi Said Maachou Cambrian basin (coastal Meseta, Morocco); geo dynamic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remmal, T.; Mohsine, A.; El Hatimi, N.

    2009-01-01

    Based on a combined structural, petrographic, and geochemical analysis, a new interpretation of the basic magmatism of Sidi Said Maachou (coastal Meseta) in two stages of emplacement is proposed. The first stage is characterized by transitional pyroclastic flows that have accompanied the opening of the West-Mesetian basin, during the Cambrian; the second stage is made of dykes of basalts, dolerites, and tephrites bearing nepheline. The emplacement of this undersaturated alkaline magma is associated to a sinistral sub meridian shear zone which has been activated at the end of the Caledonian orogenesis, by a mantellic advection. (Author) 32 refs.

  7. Auroral spectrograph data annals of the international geophysical year, v.25

    CERN Document Server

    Carrigan, Anne; Norman, S J

    1964-01-01

    Annals of the International Geophysical Year, Volume 25: Auroral Spectrograph Data is a five-chapter text that contains tabulations of auroral spectrograph data. The patrol spectrograph built by the Perkin-Elmer Corporation for the Aurora and Airglow Program of the IGY is a high-speed, low-dispersion, automatic instrument designed to photograph spectra of aurora occurring along a given magnetic meridian of the sky. Data from each spectral frame were recorded on an IBM punched card. The data recorded on the cards are printed onto the tabulations in this volume. These tabulations are available

  8. 75 FR 442 - Notice of Proposed Withdrawal Extension and Opportunity for Public Meeting; South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... contains 2,387.22 acres in Custer County as follows: Black Hills Meridian Black Hills National Forest T. 3 S., R. 2 E., Sec. 34, S\\1/2\\S\\1/2\\. T. 4 S., R. 2 E., Sec. 2, lot 4, SW\\1/4\\NW\\1/4\\, SW\\1/4.../2\\, and S\\1/2\\; Sec. 10, N\\1/2\\; Sec. 11, N\\1/2\\; Sec. 12, S\\1/2\\N\\1/2\\. T. 4 S., R. 3 E., Sec. 6...

  9. Procedure for the automatic mesh generation of innovative gear teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radicella Andrea Chiaramonte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After having described gear wheels with teeth having the two sides constituted by different involutes and their importance in engineering applications, we stress the need for an efficient procedure for the automatic mesh generation of innovative gear teeth. First, we describe the procedure for the subdivision of the tooth profile in the various possible cases, then we show the method for creating the subdivision mesh, defined by two series of curves called meridians and parallels. Finally, we describe how the above procedure for automatic mesh generation is able to solve specific cases that may arise when dealing with teeth having the two sides constituted by different involutes.

  10. Report of the IAU Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements of the Planets and Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, M.E.; Abalakin, V.K.; Cross, C.A.; Duncombe, R.L.; Masursky, H.; Morando, B.; Owen, T.C.; Seidelmann, P.K.; Sinclair, A.T.; Wilkins, G.A.; Tjuflin, Y.S.

    1980-01-01

    This paper is the entire report of the IAU Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements of the Planets and Satellites, including three annexes. Tables give the recemmended values for the directions of the north poles of rotation and the prime meridians of the planets and satellites. Reference surfaces for mapping these bodies are described. The annexes discuss the guiding principles, given in the body of the report, present explanatory notes, and provide a bibliography of the rotational elements and reference surfaces of the planets and satellites, definitions, and algebraic expressions of relevant parameters. ?? 1980 D. Reidel Publishing Co.

  11. Numerical Model of High Strength Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R. Z.; Wang, C. Y.; Lin, Y. L.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a three-dimensional constitutive model based on the concept of equivalent uniaxial strain. closed Menetrey-Willam (CMW) failure surfaces which combined with Menetrey-Willam meridian and the cap model are introduced in this paper. Saenz stress-strain model is applied and adjusted by the ultimate strength parameters from CMW failure surface to reflect the latest stress or strain condition. The high strength concrete (HSC) under tri-axial non-proportional loading is considered and the model in this paper performed a good prediction.

  12. Nutrient characteristics of the water masses and their seasonal variability in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.; Shetye, S.; Maya, M.V.; Mangala, K.R.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    strait. Journal of Geophysical Research 101(C5), 12455-12464. Baylor, E.R., Sutcliffe, W.H., Hirschfeid D.S., 1962. Adsorption of phosphate onto bubbles. Deep Sea Research 9, 120-124. Deutsch, C., Gruber, N., Key, R.M., Sarmiento, J.L., 2001... meridian the upheaval of the water mass below the mixed layer during spring and summer monsoon (Fig 7 d,e) depressed the nitrate levels at the equator whereas the undercurrent to the north of the equator depressed the nitrate isolines to greater depths...

  13. Verbal Dreamscapes. Dorothea Tanning’s Visual Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glăvan Gabriela

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A Surrealist painter whose artistic vision is equally visible in her literary works, Dorothea Tanning established a solid dialogue between literature and the plastic arts. The corpus of her literary oeuvre is rather small, consisting of a novel, a volume of poetry and her memoir, Between Lives. This paper argues that Tanning can be regarded as an exemplary author of a creative transfer between verbal and plastic imagination. It also explores the tension between the two means of expression, most visible in her novel Chasm: A Weekend. Here, the imagery and enigmatic symbolism of her painting come to life in the story of a strange little girl called Destina Meridian.

  14. Effect of high latitude filtering on NWP skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnay, E.; Takacs, L. L.; Hoffman, R. N.

    1984-01-01

    The high latitude filtering techniques commonly employed in global grid point models to eliminate the high frequency waves associated with the convergence of meridians, can introduce serious distortions which ultimately affect the solution at all latitudes. Experiments completed so far with the 4 deg x 5 deg, 9-level GLAS Fourth Order Model indicate that the high latitude filter currently in operation affects only minimally its forecasting skill. In one case, however, the use of pressure gradient filter significantly improved the forecast. Three day forecasts with the pressure gradient and operational filters are compared as are 5-day forecasts with no filter.

  15. Solar Tracking Error Analysis of Fresnel Reflector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiantao Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the rotational structure of Fresnel reflector, the rotation angle of the mirror was deduced under the eccentric condition. By analyzing the influence of the sun tracking rotation angle error caused by main factors, the change rule and extent of the influence were revealed. It is concluded that the tracking errors caused by the difference between the rotation axis and true north meridian, at noon, were maximum under certain conditions and reduced at morning and afternoon gradually. The tracking error caused by other deviations such as rotating eccentric, latitude, and solar altitude was positive at morning, negative at afternoon, and zero at a certain moment of noon.

  16. Energies of precipitating electrons during pulsating aurora events derived from ionosonde observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDougall, J.W.; Hofstee, J.; Koehler, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The time-history of particle energies and fluxes associated with pulsating auroras in the morning sector is derived from ionosonde measurements. All the pulsating auroras studied showed a similar history with the pulsations occurring during a time interval of the order of an hour during which the average auroral Maxwellian characteristic energy stays relatively constant but the energy flux decreases progressively during the event. A possible explanation for this behaviour in terms of an injection of particles into a magnetospheric 'bottle' near the midnight meridian and the progressive precipitation out of the bottle during the pulsating event is suggested. (auth)

  17. Foreword

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund Mortensen, Peder

    2009-01-01

    Publikationen er et udstillingskatalog for udstillingen Land Architecture People vist 1. september-1. november 2009 i Meldahls Smedie. Introduktion af Pierre d'Avoine og Clare Melhuish. Artikel om udstillingens tema, indhold og baggrund af Daniel Serafimovski. Om værker af tegnestuerne d'Avoine...... Architects og Houlton Architects: Meridian West, Brent Knoll School, Peckham Art Room og Birnbeck Island. Om udstillingens baggrund i den tidligere udstilling Housey-Housey af Pierre d'Avoine. Fotografier af bolig 21 Westgrove Lane i Greenwich, Birnbech Island i Somerset og Bent Knoll School. Fotoserie af...

  18. [Transition of the blind acupuncture and massage industry and its impacts in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    After being introduced to Japan, the Chinese acupuncture and massage therapy has changed a lot, in which the influence aroused by the blind practitioners cannot be ignored. Through analyzing the development and the transition of the blind acupuncture and massage industry in Japan, it is found that the tube needle technique, changeable acupoints concept, technical deviation and the importance on acupoints rather than meridians are still existed commonly today, which are introduced by the blind acupuncture and massage practitioners, the special group in Japan. In the process of development, the interaction with the governmental strategy has played the essential role in the consolidation of the above features.

  19. Novel Electrically Small Spherical Electric Dipole Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel electrically small spherical meander antenna. Horizontal sections of the meander are composed of wire loops, radii of which are chosen so that the whole structure is conformal to a sphere of radius a. To form the meander the loops are connected by wires at a meridian...... plane. The antenna operates as an electric dipole, i.e. it radiates the TM10 spherical mode. The antenna is self-resonant and can be matched to a wide range of input feed lines without an external matching network. In this paper, a spherical meander antenna of the size ka = 0.27 and the input impedance...

  20. Investigation into possible geometrical configurations for scissor-type deployable structures using expandable bars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Daniel Sang-Hoon; Jia, Wenwen; Cai, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    The current paper describes a spin-off investigation from the initially published international research project [1] [2] , which is looking into the design and development of single-meridian grid deployable structure. As a part of the collaborative international project between South Korea (Project...... Engineering in Southeast University in China. The construction of the expandable bar, including the material choice, assembly method, and the construction procedure are described in this paper. The paper describes the relationship between the number of the expandable bars in scissor system and resultant...

  1. HOW TO REPRESENT THE GENETIC CODE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Santos-Magalhães

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The advent of molecular genetic comprises a true revolution of far-reaching consequences for human-kind, which evolved into a specialized branch of the modern-day Biochemistry. The analysis of specicgenomic information are gaining wide-ranging interest because of their signicance to the early diag-nosis of disease, and the discovery of modern drugs. In order to take advantage of a wide assortmentof signal processing (SP algorithms, the primary step of modern genomic SP involves convertingsymbolic-DNA sequences into complex-valued signals. How to represent the genetic code? Despitebeing extensively known, the DNA mapping into proteins is one of the relevant discoveries of genetics.The genetic code (GC is revisited in this work, addressing other descriptions for it, which can beworthy for genomic SP. Three original representations are discussed. The inner-to-outer map buildson the unbalanced role of nucleotides of a codon. A two-dimensional-Gray genetic representationis oered as a structured map that can help interpreting DNA spectrograms or scalograms. Theseare among the powerful visual tools for genome analysis, which depends on the choice of the geneticmapping. Finally, the world-chart for the GC is investigated. Evoking the cyclic structure of thegenetic mapping, it can be folded joining the left-right borders, and the top-bottom frontiers. As aresult, the GC can be drawn on the surface of a sphere resembling a world-map. Eight parallels oflatitude are required (four in each hemisphere as well as four meridians of longitude associated tofour corresponding anti-meridians. The tropic circles have 11.25o, 33.75o, 56.25o, and 78.5o (Northand South. Starting from an arbitrary Greenwich meridian, the meridians of longitude can be plottedat 22.5o, 67.5o, 112.5o, and 157.5o (East and West. Each triplet is assigned to a single point on thesurface that we named Nirenberg-Kohamas Earth. Despite being valuable, usual representations forthe GC can be

  2. Probable Mechanisms of Needling Therapies for Myofascial Pain Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wei Chou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS has been defined as a regional pain syndrome characterized by muscle pain caused by myofascial trigger points (MTrPs clinically. MTrP is defined as the hyperirritable spot in a palpable taut band of skeletal muscle fibers. Appropriate treatment to MTrPs can effectively relieve the clinical pain of MPS. Needling therapies, such as MTrP injection, dry needling, or acupuncture (AcP can effectively eliminate pain immediately. AcP is probably the first reported technique in treating MPS patients with dry needling based on the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM theory. The possible mechanism of AcP analgesia were studied and published in recent decades. The analgesic effect of AcP is hypothesized to be related to immune, hormonal, and nervous systems. Compared to slow-acting hormonal system, nervous system acts in a faster manner. Given these complexities, AcP analgesia cannot be explained by any single mechanism. There are several principles for selection of acupoints based on the TCM principles: “Ah-Shi” point, proximal or remote acupoints on the meridian, and extra-meridian acupoints. Correlations between acupoints and MTrPs are discussed. Some clinical and animal studies of remote AcP for MTrPs and the possible mechanisms of remote effectiveness are reviewed and discussed.

  3. Probable Mechanisms of Needling Therapies for Myofascial Pain Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Li-Wei; Kao, Mu-Jung; Lin, Jaung-Geng

    2012-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) has been defined as a regional pain syndrome characterized by muscle pain caused by myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) clinically. MTrP is defined as the hyperirritable spot in a palpable taut band of skeletal muscle fibers. Appropriate treatment to MTrPs can effectively relieve the clinical pain of MPS. Needling therapies, such as MTrP injection, dry needling, or acupuncture (AcP) can effectively eliminate pain immediately. AcP is probably the first reported technique in treating MPS patients with dry needling based on the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory. The possible mechanism of AcP analgesia were studied and published in recent decades. The analgesic effect of AcP is hypothesized to be related to immune, hormonal, and nervous systems. Compared to slow-acting hormonal system, nervous system acts in a faster manner. Given these complexities, AcP analgesia cannot be explained by any single mechanism. There are several principles for selection of acupoints based on the TCM principles: “Ah-Shi” point, proximal or remote acupoints on the meridian, and extra-meridian acupoints. Correlations between acupoints and MTrPs are discussed. Some clinical and animal studies of remote AcP for MTrPs and the possible mechanisms of remote effectiveness are reviewed and discussed. PMID:23346211

  4. Early and late inhibitions elicited by a peripheral visual cue on manual response to a visual target: Are they based on Cartesian coordinates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio V. Magalhães

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A non-informative cue (C elicits an inhibition of manual reaction time (MRT to a visual target (T. We report an experiment to examine if the spatial distribution of this inhibitory effect follows Polar or Cartesian coordinate systems. C appeared at one out of 8 isoeccentric (7o positions, the C-T angular distances (in polar coordinates were 0º or multiples of 45º and ISI were 100 or 800ms. Our main findings were: (a MRT was maximal when C- T distance was 0o and minimal when C-T distance was 180o and (b besides an angular distance effect, there is a meridian effect. When C and T occurred in the same quadrant, MRT was longer than when T and C occurred at the same distance (45o but on different sides of vertical or horizontal meridians. The latter finding indicates that the spatial distribution of the cue inhibitory effects is based on a Cartesian coordinate system.

  5. Characterisation of the porcine eyeball as an in-vitro model for dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menduni, Francesco; Davies, Leon N; Madrid-Costa, D; Fratini, Antonio; Wolffsohn, James S

    2018-02-01

    To characterise the anatomical parameters of the porcine eye for potentially using it as a laboratory model of dry eye. Anterior chamber depth and angle, corneal curvature, shortest and longest diameter, endothelial cell density, and pachymetry were measured in sixty freshly enucleated porcine eyeballs. Corneal steepest meridian was 7.85±0.32mm, corneal flattest meridian was 8.28±0.32mm, shortest corneal diameter was 12.69±0.58mm, longest corneal diameter was 14.88±0.66mm and central corneal ultrasonic pachymetry was 1009±1μm. Anterior chamber angle was 28.83±4.16°, anterior chamber depth was 1.77±0.27mm, and central corneal thickness measured using OCT was 1248±144μm. Corneal endothelial cell density was 3250±172 cells/mm 2 . Combining different clinical techniques produced a pool of reproducible data on the porcine eye anatomy, which can be used by researchers to assess the viability of using the porcine eye as an in-vitro/ex-vivo model for dry eye. Due to the similar morphology with the human eye, porcine eyeballs may represent a useful and cost effective model to individually study important key factors in the development of dry eye, such as environmental and mechanical stresses. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Systems Pharmacology Dissection of the Integrated Treatment for Cardiovascular and Gastrointestinal Disorders by Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Tao, Qin; Guo, Zihu; Fu, Yingxue; Chen, Xuetong; Shar, Piar Ali; Shahen, Mohamed; Zhu, Jinglin; Xue, Jun; Bai, Yaofei; Wu, Ziyin; Wang, Zhenzhong; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Yonghua

    2016-09-01

    Though cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and gastrointestinal disorders (GIDs) are different diseases associated with different organs, they are highly correlated clinically. Importantly, in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), similar treatment strategies have been applied in both diseases. However, the etiological mechanisms underlying them remain unclear. Here, an integrated systems pharmacology approach is presented for illustrating the molecular correlations between CVDs and GIDs. Firstly, we identified pairs of genes that are associated with CVDs and GIDs and found that these genes are functionally related. Then, the association between 115 heart meridian (HM) herbs and 163 stomach meridian (SM) herbs and their combination application in Chinese patent medicine was investigated, implying that both CVDs and GIDs can be treated by the same strategy. Exemplified by a classical formula Sanhe Decoration (SHD) treating chronic gastritis, we applied systems-based analysis to introduce a drug-target-pathway-organ network that clarifies mechanisms of different diseases being treated by the same strategy. The results indicate that SHD regulated several pathological processes involved in both CVDs and GIDs. We experimentally confirmed the predictions implied by the effect of SHD for myocardial ischemia. The systems pharmacology suggests a novel integrated strategy for rational drug development for complex associated diseases.

  7. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography for the quantitative evaluation of the anterior segment following Boston keratoprosthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joann J Kang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively evaluate the anterior segment using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT following Boston keratoprosthesis type 1. METHODS: A retrospective study consisted of AS-OCT imaging at a single time point postoperatively in 52 eyes. Main outcomes measures include anatomical and functional anterior chamber depth (ACD, angle (ACA and peripheral and proximal synechiae. RESULTS: The mean time point of imaging was 19.3 months postoperatively. Average anatomical and functional ACD was 2.0 and 0.21 mm respectively, and mean ACA ranged from 2.5° to 6.14° in representative meridians. An average of 8.7 clock hours of angle closure was observed in the 25 eyes in which all meridians were imaged. The majority of eyes showed peripheral (86.5% and proximal (67.3% synechiae. CONCLUSIONS: AS-OCT is a useful tool for quantitative evaluation of anterior segment and angle after keratoprosthesis, which is otherwise poorly visible. The majority of eyes showed shallow ACD, extensive angle closure and synechiae formation.

  8. [Discussion on the key points of building modern theory of acupuncture treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang

    2013-10-01

    Acupuncture treatment is different from treatment of materia medica. However, syndrome differentiation system of internal medicine is adopted all the time for the present acupuncture textbooks. It is held that the characteristics of acupuncture can not be fully reflexed, and advantages of acupuncture can not be brought into full play. Therefore, it's urgent to build up a modem theory on acupuncture treatment which is fit for the clinical practice of acupuncture and can give a better play for the treatment of acupuncture. A clear target is one of the characteristics of acupuncture treatment. And it is based on the understanding of the location of disease, therefore, disease differentiation is held as the basis of acupuncture treatment. The aim of meridian differentiation is to select distal effective points on the base of diseases differentiation, which is also taken as the characteristics of acupuncture treatment. Syndrome differentiation is a process of understanding the general pathological states of the human body, it is an important process to enhance the therapeutic effect of acupuncture. Thus, the key point for establishing the modern acupuncture theory is clarifying the values of disease differentiation, meridian differentiation and syndrome differentiation.

  9. Image mosaic and topographic map of the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Trent M.; Hayward, Rosalyn K.; Blue, Jennifer S.; Archinal, Brent A.

    2015-01-01

    Sheet 1: This image mosaic is based on data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide Angle Camera (WAC; Robinson and others, 2010), an instrument on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft (Tooley and others, 2010). The equatorial WAC images were orthorectified onto the Global Lunar Digital Terrain Mosaic (GLD100, WAC-derived 100 m/pixel digital elevation model; Scholten and others, 2012) while the polar images were orthorectified onto the lunar LOLA polar digital elevation models (Neumann and others, 2010). The Mercator projection is used between latitudes ±57°, with a central meridian at 0° longitude and latitude equal to the nominal scale at 0°. The Polar Stereographic projection is used for the regions north of the +55° parallel and south of the –55° parallel, with a central meridian set for both at 0° and a latitude of true scale at +90° and -90°, respectively. All named features greater than 85 km in diameter or length were included unless they were not visible on the map. Some selected well-known features less than 85 km in size were also included. For listed references, please open the full PDF.

  10. On solution of Lame equations in axisymmetric domains with conical points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkemzi, Boniface

    2003-10-01

    Partial Fourier series expansion is applied to the Dirichlet problem for the Lame equations in axisymmetric domains Ω-circumflex is a subset of R 3 with conical points on the rotation axis. This leads to dimension reduction of the three-dimensional boundary value problem resulting to an infinite sequence of two-dimensional boundary value problems on the plane meridian domain Ω a is a subset of R + 2 of Ω-circumflex with solutions u n (n = 0,1,2, ...) being the Fourier coefficients of the solution u-circumflex of the 3D BVP. The asymptotic behavior of the Fourier coefficients u n (n = 0,1,2, ...) near the angular points of the meridian domain Ω a is fully described by singular vector-functions which are related to the zeros α n of some transcendental equations involving Legendre functions of the first kind. Equations which determine the values of α n are given and a numerical algorithm for the computation of α n is proposed with some plots of values obtained presented. The singular vector functions for the solution of the 3D BVP is obtained by Fourier synthesis. (author)

  11. Sky-distribution of intensity of synchrotron radio emission of relativistic electrons trapped in Earth’s magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimenko V.V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the calculations of synchrotron radio emission intensity from Van Allen belts with Gaussian space distribution of electron density across L-shells of a dipole magnetic field, and with Maxwell’s relativistic electron energy distribution. The results of these calculations come to a good agreement with measurements of the synchrotron emission intensity of the artificial radiation belt’s electrons during the Starfish nuclear test. We have obtained two-dimensional distributions of radio brightness in azimuth — zenith angle coordinates for an observer on Earth’s surface. The westside and eastside intensity maxima exceed several times the maximum level of emission in the meridian plane. We have also constructed two-dimensional distributions of the radio emission intensity in decibels related to the background galactic radio noise level. Isotropic fluxes of relativistic electrons (Е~1 MeV should be more than 107 cm–2s–1 for the synchrotron emission intensity in the meridian plane to exceed the cosmic noise level by 0.1 dB (riometer sensitivity threshold.

  12. Scleral topography analysed by optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandlitz, Stefan; Bäumer, Joachim; Conrad, Uwe; Wolffsohn, James

    2017-08-01

    A detailed evaluation of the corneo-scleral-profile (CSP) is of particular relevance in soft and scleral lenses fitting. The aim of this study was to use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to analyse the profile of the limbal sclera and to evaluate the relationship between central corneal radii, corneal eccentricity and scleral radii. Using OCT (Optos OCT/SLO; Dunfermline, Scotland, UK) the limbal scleral radii (SR) of 30 subjects (11M, 19F; mean age 23.8±2.0SD years) were measured in eight meridians 45° apart. Central corneal radii (CR) and corneal eccentricity (CE) were evaluated using the Oculus Keratograph 4 (Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany). Differences between SR in the meridians and the associations between SR and corneal topography were assessed. Median SR measured along 45° (58.0; interquartile range, 46.8-84.8mm) was significantly (ptopography and may provide additional data useful in fitting soft and scleral contact lenses. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Zhu Lian's cognition on theory and method of acupuncture and moxibustion under background of western medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Su-yun; Zhang, Li-jian; Liu, Bing

    2014-11-01

    With new acupuncture and moxibustion as the study object, based on the basic composition of acupuncture-moxibustion theory, from 3 aspects of meridian-acupoint theory, acupuncture-moxibustion method theory and acupuncture-moxibustion treatment theory, under the background of western medicine, ZHU Lian's different opinions on theory and method of acupuncture and moxibustion were discussed. It was believed by ZHU Lian that the distribution of 14-meridians was approximately identical to that of nerves, so with modern neuroanatomy knowledge to understand the meaning of acupoint; the acupuncture function could be explained from the angle of neurophysiology. Clinical diagnosis and treatment method could be established by modern classification methods of diseases. ZHU Lian's cognition that was different from traditional theory and method of acupuncture and moxibustion was combined with updated physiology and anatomy knowledge at that time, and was involved with Pavlov's advanced nerve theory, so she firstly put forward the opinion that acupuncture therapy can't work without the involvement of cerebral cortex.

  14. [Study on medical records of acupuncture-moxibustion in The Twenty-four Histories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kai-Wen

    2012-03-01

    Through the combination of manual retrieval and computerized retrieval, medical records of acupuncture-moxibustion in The Twenty-Four Histories were collected. Acupuncture cases from the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 B.C.) to the end of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)were retrieved. From the medical records of acupuncture-moxibustion in Chinese official history books, it can be found that systematic diseases or emergent and severe diseases were already treated by physicians with the combination of acupuncture and medicine as early as in the Spring and Autumn Period as well as the Warring States Period(475-221 B.C.). CANG Gong, a famous physician of the Western Han Dynasty (206 B. C.-A. D. 24), cured diseases by selecting points along the running courses of meridians where the illness inhabited, which indicates that the theory of meridians and collaterals was served as a guide for clinical practice as early as in the Western Han Dynasty. Blood letting therapy, which has surprising effect, was often adopted by physicians of various historical periods to treat diseases. And treatment of diseases with single point was approved to be easy and effective.

  15. Was acupuncture developed by Han Dynasty Chinese anatomists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Vivien; Mclennan, Amy K

    2016-05-01

    Anatomical dissection has begun to reveal striking similarities between gross anatomical structures and the system of nomenclature used in traditional Chinese acupuncture. This paper argues that acupuncture point nomenclature is rooted in systematic anatomical investigation of cadaveric specimens, and that acupuncture points and meridians are purposefully named to reflect observable physical form. Two types of evidence are compared: observations of physical structures based on anatomical dissection, and translation and analysis of original Chinese texts. Evidence is contextualized through in-depth practical understanding of acupuncture. Points designated as [Chinese character] tian (heavenly/superior), [Chinese character] xia (below/inferior), [Chinese character] liao (bone-hole), [Chinese character] fei (flying), [Chinese character] wei (bend), and [Chinese character] xi (mountain stream/ravine) are investigated. These acupuncture point names: (a) specify position; (b) reflect function and/or form; (c) indicate homologous structures; (d) mark unusual structures; and/or (e) describe the physical appearance of a deep (dissected) structure by likening it to a homologous everyday object. Results raise intriguing possibilities for developing an understanding of acupuncture points and meridians firmly based in the material and functional anatomy of the human body. Such an understanding has the potential to open new fields of thought about functional anatomy. It also has implications for future investigations into the mechanisms of acupuncture, and gives some insights into the possible origins of this iconic area of Chinese medicine. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Topography of ganglion cell production in the cat's retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, C.; Polley, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ganglion cells of the cat's retina form several classes distinguishable in terms of soma size, axon diameter, dendritic morphology, physiological properties, and central connections. Labeling with [ 3 H]thymidine shows that the ganglion cells which survive in the adult are produced as several temporally shifted, overlapping waves: medium-sized cells are produced before large cells, whereas the smallest ganglion cells are produced throughout the period of ganglion cell generation. Large cells and medium-sized cells show the same distinctive pattern of production, forming rough spirals around the area centralis. The oldest cells tend to lie superior and nasal to the area centralis, whereas cells in the inferior nasal retina and inferior temporal retina are, in general, progressively younger. Within each retinal quadrant, cells nearer the area centralis tend to be older than cells in the periphery, but there is substantial overlap. The retinal raphe divides the superior temporal quadrant into two zones with different patterns of cell addition. Superior temporal retina near the vertical meridian adds cells only slightly later than superior nasal retina, whereas superior temporal retina near the horizontal meridian adds cells very late, contemporaneously with inferior temporal retina. The broader wave of production of smaller ganglion cells seems to follow this same spiral pattern at its beginning and end. The presence of the area centralis as a nodal point about which ganglion cell production in the retinal quadrants pivots suggests that the area centralis is already an important retinal landmark even at the earliest stages of retinal development

  17. INTRAOCULAR LENS POSITION IN COMBINED PHACOEMULSIFICATION AND VITREORETINAL SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozates, Serdar; Kiziltoprak, Hasan; Koc, Mustafa; Uzel, Mehmet Murat; Teke, Mehmet Yasin

    2017-10-09

    To assess the decentration and angle of tilt of the intraocular lens (IOL) according to the intravitreal tamponade types used in combined phacoemulsification and vitreoretinal surgery. This prospective and randomized clinical study involved 73 eyes of 69 patients who underwent combined vitreoretinal surgery. Eyes with intravitreal tamponades formed the study group and eyes without intravitreal tamponades formed the control group. The study group was further divided into silicone oil and gas tamponade subgroups. Cross-sectional IOL images were captured using a Pentacam HR (Oculus, Germany) and tilt and decentration were calculated with Adobe Photoshop software (Adobe, San Jose, CA). The mean angle of tilt and decentration at the vertical meridian were significantly higher in both tamponade groups than in the control group (P 0.05). When comparing the silicone oil and gas tamponade subgroups, no significant differences were noted on the position of IOL at both meridians (P > 0.05 for all). Intravitreal tamponades have an important effect on the position of IOL in combined vitreoretinal surgery. Silicone oil and gas tamponades may induce postoperative tilt and decentration of one-piece acrylic IOLs.

  18. Fading of Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Michael A.; Orton, Glenn; Baines, Kevin; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma

    2011-01-01

    One of Jupiter's most dominant features, the South Equatorial Belt, has historically gone through a "fading" cycle. The usual dark, brownish clouds turn white, and after a period of time, the region returns to its normal color. Understanding this phenomenon, the latest occurring in 2010, will increase our knowledge of planetary atmospheres. Using the near infrared camera, NSFCAM2, at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii, images were taken of Jupiter accompanied by data describing the circumstances of each observation. These images are then processed and reduced through an IDL program. By scanning the central meridian of the planet, graphs were produced plotting the average values across the central meridian, which are used to find variations in the region of interest. Calculations using Albert4, a FORTRAN program that calculates the upwelling reflected sunlight from a designated cloud model, can be used to determine the effects of a model atmosphere due to various absorption, scattering, and emission processes. Spectra that were produced show ammonia bands in the South Equatorial Belt. So far, we can deduce from this information that an upwelling of ammonia particles caused a cloud layer to cover up the region. Further investigations using Albert4 and other models will help us to constrain better the chemical make up of the cloud and its location in the atmosphere.

  19. A Quadrantic Bias in Prefrontal Representation of Visual-Mnemonic Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Matthew L; Pieper, Florian; Sachs, Adam J; Martinez-Trujillo, Julio C

    2017-06-09

    Single neurons in primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dLPFC) are known to encode working memory (WM) representations of visual space. Psychophysical studies have shown that the horizontal and vertical meridians of the visual field can bias spatial information maintained in WM. However, most studies and models have tacitly assumed that dLPFC neurons represent mnemonic space homogenously. The anatomical organization of these representations has also eluded clear parametric description. We investigated these issues by recording from neuronal ensembles in macaque dLPFC with microelectrode arrays while subjects performed an oculomotor delayed-response task. We found that spatial WM representations in macaque dLPFC are biased by the vertical and horizontal meridians of the visual field, dividing mnemonic space into quadrants. This bias is reflected in single neuron firing rates, neuronal ensemble representations, the spike count correlation structure, and eye movement patterns. We also found that dLPFC representations of mnemonic space cluster anatomically in a nonretinotopic manner that partially reflects the organization of visual space. These results provide an explanation for known WM biases, and reveal novel principles of WM representation in prefrontal neuronal ensembles and across the cortical surface, as well as the need to reconceptualize models of WM to accommodate the observed representational biases. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Correlated observations of several auroral substorms on February 17, 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hones, E.W. Jr.; Akasofu, S.; Wolcott, J.H.; Bame, S.J.; Fairfield, D.H.; Meng, C.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to correlate in detail auroral activity with the corresponding disturbances in the magnetotail. The auroral data were recorded by optical instruments aboard an airplane flying over the Arctic Ocean along the Alaska meridian and by the Alaska meridian chain of all-sky cameras. The corresponding magnetotail observations were made by various instruments on Vela 6A and Imp 5; the interplanetary magnetic field was monitored concurrently by Explorer 35 (Imp E). Three successive substorms were observed on February 17, 1971. Each substorm was readily identified by the classical auroral and magnetic signatures which accompanied its onset. The observed variations of plasma and magnetic field in the magnetotail were consistent with the idea that a neutral line formed in the range approx.-12 R/subE/>X/subS//subM/>-18 R/subE/ at the onset of each substorm expansive phase and then moved tailward past X/subS//subM/=-18 R/subE/ some tens of minutes afterward. The Z component of the tail magnetic field decreased rather steadily for a period of 1--21/2 hours after each substorm and until the onset of the next expansive phase, reaching a minimum value just before each onset. This taillike development of the field is more appropriately regarded as the normal evolutionary pattern of variation between substorms than as a 'growth phase' preceding each substorm

  1. The Peculiar Behavior of Halo Coronal Mass Ejections in Solar Cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Xie, H.; Akiyama, S.; Makela, P.; Yashiro, S.; Michalek, G.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the remarkable finding that the halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in cycle 24 are more abundant than in cycle 23, although the sunspot number in cycle 24 has dropped by approx. 40%. We also find that the distribution of halo-CME source locations is different in cycle 24: the longitude distribution of halos is much flatter with the number of halos originating at a central meridian distance greater than or equal to 60deg twice as large as that in cycle 23. On the other hand, the average speed and associated soft X-ray flare size are the same in both cycles, suggesting that the ambient medium into which the CMEs are ejected is significantly different. We suggest that both the higher abundance and larger central meridian longitudes of halo CMEs can be explained as a consequence of the diminished total pressure in the heliosphere in cycle 24. The reduced total pressure allows CMEs to expand more than usual making them appear as halos.

  2. Surgically induced astigmatism after phacoemulsification with and without correction for posture-related ocular cyclotorsion: randomized controlled study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dooley, Ian

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To report the impact of posture-related ocular cyclotorsion on one surgeon\\'s surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) results and the variance in SIA. SETTING: Institute of Eye Surgery, Whitfield Clinic, Waterford, Ireland. METHODS: This prospective randomized controlled study included eyes that had phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation. Eyes were randomly assigned to have (intervention group) or not have (control group) correction for posture-related ocular cyclotorsion. In the intervention group, the clear corneal incision was placed precisely at the 120-degree meridian with instruments designed to correct posture-related ocular cyclotorsion. In the control group, the surgeon endeavored to place the incision at the 120-degree meridian, but without markings. RESULTS: The intervention group comprised 41 eyes and the control group, 61 eyes. The mean absolute SIA was 0.74 diopters (D) in the intervention group and 0.78 D in the control group; the difference between groups was not statistically significant (P>.5, unpaired 2-tailed Student t test). The variance in SIA was 0.29 D(2) and 0.31 D(2), respectively; the difference between groups was not statistically significant (P>.5, unpaired F test). CONCLUSIONS: Attempts to correct for posture-related ocular cyclotorsion did not influence SIA or its variance in a single-surgeon series. These results should be interpreted with full appreciation of the limitations of currently available techniques to correct for posture-related ocular cyclotorsion in the clinical setting.

  3. 50 Years of Bong-Han Theory and 10 Years of Primo Vascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Sup Soh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The primo vascular system (PVS was first introduced by Bong-Han Kim via his five research reports. Among these the third report was most extensive and conclusive in terms of the PVS anatomy and physiology relating to the acupuncture meridians. His study results, unfortunately, were not reproduced by other scientists because he did not describe the materials and methods in detail. In 2002, a research team in Seoul National University reinitiated the PVS research, confirmed the existence of PVS in various organs, and discovered new characteristics of PVS. Two important examples are as follows: PVS was found in the adipose tissue and around cancer tissues. In parallel to these new findings, new methods for observing and identifying PVS were developed. Studies on the cell and material content inside the PVS, including the immune function cells and stem cells, are being progressed. In this review, Bong-Han Kim’s study results in his third report are summarized, and the new results after him are briefly reviewed. In the last section, the obstacles in finding the PVS in the skin as an anatomical structure of acupuncture meridian are discussed.

  4. Identification of Primo-Vascular System in Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue Layer of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae Jeong Lim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primo-vascular system (PVS is a novel network identified in various animal tissues. However, the PVS in subcutaneous tissue has not been well identified. Here, we examined the putative PVS on the surface of abdominal subcutaneous tissue in rats. Hemacolor staining revealed dark blue threadlike structures consisting of nodes and vessels, which were frequently observed bundled with blood vessels. The structure was filled with various immune cells including mast cells and WBCs. In the structure, there were inner spaces (20–60 µm with low cellularity. Electron microscopy revealed a bundle structure and typical cytology common with the well-established organ surface PVS, which were different from those of the lymphatic vessel. Among several subcutaneous (sc PVS tissues identified on the rat abdominal space, the most outstanding was the scPVS aligned along the ventral midline. The distribution pattern of nodes and vessels in the scPVS closely resembled that of the conception vessel meridian and its acupoints. In conclusion, our results newly revealed that the PVS is present in the abdominal subcutaneous tissue layer and indicate that the scPVS tissues are closely correlated with acupuncture meridians. Our findings will help to characterize the PVS in the other superficial tissues and its physiological roles.

  5. An Einstein survey of the 1 keV soft X-ray background in the Galactic plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, John M.; Caillault, Jean-Pierre

    1994-01-01

    We have analyzed 56 Einstein Observatory Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) observations within +/- 3 deg of the Galactic plane in order to determine the low-latitude soft X-ray background flux in the 0.56-1.73 keV band. Any detected X-ray point source which fell within our regions of study was removed from the image, enabling us to present maps of the background flux as a function of Galactic latitude along 18 meridians. These maps reveal considerable structure to the background in the Galactic plane on an angular scale of approximately 1 deg. Our results are compared with those of an earlier study of the 1 keV X-ray background along l = 25 deg by Kahn & Caillault. The double-peaked structure they found is not discernible in our results, possibly because of the presence of solar backscattered flux in their data. A model which takes into account contributions to the background by extragalactic and stellar sources, the distribution of both atomic and molecular absorbing material with the Galaxy, the energy dependence of the cross section for absorption of X-rays, and the energy dependence of the detector has been constructed and fitted to these new data to derive constraints on the scale height, temperature, and volume emissivity of the unaccounted-for X-ray-emitting material. The results of this model along l = 25 deg are roughly similar to those of the model of Kahn & Caillault along the same meridian.

  6. Peripheral vision and perceptual asymmetries in young and older martial arts athletes and nonathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muiños, Mónica; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2014-11-01

    The present study investigated peripheral vision (PV) and perceptual asymmetries in young and older martial arts athletes (judo and karate athletes) and compared their performance with that of young and older nonathletes. Stimuli were dots presented at three different eccentricities along the horizontal, oblique, and vertical diameters and three interstimulus intervals. Experiment 1 showed that although the two athlete groups were faster in almost all conditions, karate athletes performed significantly better than nonathlete participants when stimuli were presented in the peripheral visual field. Experiment 2 showed that older participants who had practiced a martial art at a competitive level when they were young were significantly faster than sedentary older adults of the same age. The practiced sport (judo or karate) did not affect performance differentially, suggesting that it is the practice of martial arts that is the crucial factor, rather than the type of martial art. Importantly, older athletes lose their PV advantage, as compared with young athletes. Finally, we found that physical activity (young and older athletes) and age (young and older adults) did not alter the visual asymmetries that vary as a function of spatial location; all participants were faster for stimuli presented along the horizontal than for those presented along the vertical meridian and for those presented at the lower rather than at the upper locations within the vertical meridian. These results indicate that the practice of these martial arts is an effective way of counteracting the processing speed decline of visual stimuli appearing at any visual location and speed.

  7. Relationship between full-thickness macular hole and retinal break/lattice degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinglin; Li, Yonghao; Zhao, Xiujuan; Cai, Yu; Yu, Xiling; Lu, Lin

    2015-12-01

    The purpose is to investigate the relationship between full-thickness macular hole (MH) and retinal break (RB) and/or lattice degeneration. Patients diagnosed as full-thickness MH and referred to Dr. Lin Lu from January 2009 to December 2013 were evaluated. All patients underwent general ophthalmologic examinations, fundus examination and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The RB and/or lattice degeneration were recorded. Totally 183 eyes of 167 patients were included. The sex ratio of men to women was 1:2.88. A total of 17 eyes were pseudophakic and 166 eyes were phakic. RB and/or lattice degeneration were found in 62 eyes (33.88%). The prevalence of RB and/or lattice degeneration was similar between men and women (P = 0.344 > 0.05). There was no statistical difference between the pseudophakic eyes and phakic eyes (P = 0.138 > 0.05). All of the RB and/or lattice degeneration were located near or anterior to the equator. The inferior quadrants and the vertical meridian were affected more often than the superior quadrants and the horizontal meridian. We identified a high incidence of RB/lattice degeneration in cases of full-thickness MH. Carefully examination of the peripheral retina and prophylactic treatment of RB and/or lattice degeneration are critical.

  8. Into the night: camera traps reveal nocturnal activity in a presumptive diurnal primate, Rhinopithecus brelichi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chia L; Yang, Yeqin; Niu, Kefeng

    2013-01-01

    Most living primates exhibit a daytime or nighttime activity pattern. Strict diurnality is thought to be the rule among anthropoids except for owl monkeys. Here we report the diel activity pattern of an Asian colobine, the Guizhou snub-nosed monkey Rhinopithecus brelichi, based on a methodology that relied on using 24-h continuously operating camera traps. We conducted the study in Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve in Guizhou, China from March 22 to May 19 and from June 17 to October 14, 2011. After standardizing all time elements to a meridian-based time according to the geographic coordinates of the study site, we showed unequivocally that the monkeys, though predominantly diurnal, exhibited activity beyond daylight hours throughout the study. Specifically, their activity at night and during twilight periods suggests a complex interplay of behavioral adaptations, among others, to living in a temperate environment where day length and food resources fluctuate substantially across seasons. We contend that, under prevailing ecological conditions, so-called strictly diurnal primates may adjust their activity schedule opportunistically in order to increase energy intake. We also discuss the advantages of using camera traps in primate studies, and how the standardized use of meridian-based time by researchers would benefit comparisons of diel activity patterns among primates.

  9. Relative contribution of ionospheric conductivity and electric field to the auroral electrojets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamide, Y.; Vickrey, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    Data from continuous scans of the Chatanika radar beam along the magnetic meridian plane are used to the determine the latitudinal profile of height-integrated ionospheric conductivities and horizontal electric fields, from which the latitudinal distribution of ionospheric currents is deduced. The observations cover invariant latitudes between 62 0 and 68 0 , where the IMS Alaska meridian chain of magnetometers was also in operation. Although the conductivities and the electric fields are interrelated, the relative importance of the two in driving the eastward and westward auroral electrojet currents can be assessed. It is found that for moderate and large current densities (i.e., > or approx. =0.2 A/m), the northward electric field strength increases as the magnitude of the eastward electrojet in the evening sector increases. The height-integrated Hall conductivity stays generally at the level of 10 mhos even when the current density becomes as large as 1 A/m. However, when the eastward electrojet is small, substantial electric fields of 10-20 mV/m may still exist as if the magnetosphere has a persistent voltage source. There appear to be two distinct components to the westward electrojet. In the midnight and early morning sestors (>0300 MLT) intensity is characterized by a weak southward electric field and a high Hall conductivity, whereas its late morning portion (>0300 MLT) is dominated by a strong southward electric field

  10. Covert spatial attention is functionally intact in amblyopic human adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Mariel; Cymerman, Rachel; Smith, R. Theodore; Kiorpes, Lynne; Carrasco, Marisa

    2016-01-01

    Certain abnormalities in behavioral performance and neural signaling have been attributed to a deficit of visual attention in amblyopia, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a diverse array of visual deficits following abnormal binocular childhood experience. Critically, most have inferred attention's role in their task without explicitly manipulating and measuring its effects against a baseline condition. Here, we directly investigate whether human amblyopic adults benefit from covert spatial attention—the selective processing of visual information in the absence of eye movements—to the same degree as neurotypical observers. We manipulated both involuntary (Experiment 1) and voluntary (Experiment 2) attention during an orientation discrimination task for which the effects of covert spatial attention have been well established in neurotypical and special populations. In both experiments, attention significantly improved accuracy and decreased reaction times to a similar extent (a) between the eyes of the amblyopic adults and (b) between the amblyopes and their age- and gender-matched controls. Moreover, deployment of voluntary attention away from the target location significantly impaired task performance (Experiment 2). The magnitudes of the involuntary and voluntary attention benefits did not correlate with amblyopic depth or severity. Both groups of observers showed canonical performance fields (better performance along the horizontal than vertical meridian and at the lower than upper vertical meridian) and similar effects of attention across locations. Despite their characteristic low-level vision impairments, covert spatial attention remains functionally intact in human amblyopic adults. PMID:28033433

  11. Neural bandwidth of veridical perception across the visual field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Michael O.; Anderson, Roger S.; Bradley, Arthur; Thibos, Larry N.

    2016-01-01

    Neural undersampling of the retinal image limits the range of spatial frequencies that can be represented veridically by the array of retinal ganglion cells conveying visual information from eye to brain. Our goal was to demarcate the neural bandwidth and local anisotropy of veridical perception, unencumbered by optical imperfections of the eye, and to test competing hypotheses that might account for the results. Using monochromatic interference fringes to stimulate the retina with high-contrast sinusoidal gratings, we measured sampling-limited visual resolution along eight meridians from 0° to 50° of eccentricity. The resulting isoacuity contour maps revealed all of the expected features of the human array of retinal ganglion cells. Contours in the radial fringe maps are elongated horizontally, revealing the functional equivalent of the anatomical visual streak, and are extended into nasal retina and superior retina, indicating higher resolution along those meridians. Contours are larger in diameter for radial gratings compared to tangential or oblique gratings, indicating local anisotropy with highest bandwidth for radially oriented gratings. Comparison of these results to anatomical predictions indicates acuity is proportional to the sampling density of retinal ganglion cells everywhere in the retina. These results support the long-standing hypothesis that “pixel density” of the discrete neural image carried by the human optic nerve limits the spatial bandwidth of veridical perception at all retinal locations. PMID:26824638

  12. [Analysis on composition and medication regularities of prescriptions treating hypochondriac pain based on traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system inheritance support platform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan-qing; Teng, Jing

    2015-03-01

    To analyze the composition and medication regularities of prescriptions treating hypochondriac pain in Chinese journal full-text database (CNKI) based on the traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system, in order to provide a reference for further research and development for new traditional Chinese medicines treating hypochondriac pain. The traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support platform software V2. 0 was used to build a prescription database of Chinese medicines treating hypochondriac pain. The software integration data mining method was used to distribute prescriptions according to "four odors", "five flavors" and "meridians" in the database and achieve frequency statistics, syndrome distribution, prescription regularity and new prescription analysis. An analysis were made for 192 prescriptions treating hypochondriac pain to determine the frequencies of medicines in prescriptions, commonly used medicine pairs and combinations and summarize 15 new prescriptions. This study indicated that the prescriptions treating hypochondriac pain in Chinese journal full-text database are mostly those for soothing liver-qi stagnation, promoting qi and activating blood, clearing heat and promoting dampness, and invigorating spleen and removing phlem, with a cold property and bitter taste, and reflect the principles of "distinguish deficiency and excess and relieving pain by smoothening meridians" in treating hypochondriac pain.

  13. Effects of intermittent traction therapy in an experimental spinal column model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jeong-Hun; Jun, Seung-lyul; Lee, Young-Jun; Kim, Jae-Hyo; Hwang, Sung-Yeoun; Ahn, Seong-Hun

    2014-04-01

    Traction therapy, which is known to be a treatment method for scoliosis, one of many muscles disease, has been used since Hippocrates introduced it. However, the effects of traction therapy are still not clear. In addition, the meridian sinew theory, which is related to muscle treatment and is mentioned in the book on meridian sinews in the Miraculous Pivot of Huangdi's Internal Classic, has not been the subject of much study. For these reasons, experimental spinal models were made for this study to observe and analyze the lengths of vertebral interspaces after intermittent traction therapy, which is known to be excellent among muscle treatment methods, with various tensile forces. The results showed that the effects of intermittent traction therapy were unclear and that it might be harmful, especially when the pain was induced by muscle weakness. Because the results of this study on intermittent traction therapy were different from those expected from osteopathy or craniosacral theory, better studies of the subject are necessary. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Electroacupuncture Improved the Function of Myocardial Ischemia Involved in the Hippocampus-Paraventricular Nucleus-Sympathetic Nerve Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Cui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the hippocampus-paraventricular nucleus- (PVN- sympathetic nerve pathway in electroacupuncture (EA at the heart meridian for the treatment of myocardial ischemia by observing PVN neuronal discharge, sympathetic nerve discharge, and hemodynamics parameters. Sprague Dawley (SD rats were equally divided into four groups: Sham, Model, Model + EA, and Model + EA + Lesion. The model rat was established by ligating the left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery. Changes in the sympathetic nerve discharge and hemodynamic parameters were observed. The Model + EA exhibited a significantly lower discharge frequency of PVN neurons compared with the Model. The Model + EA + Lesion had a significantly higher discharge frequency compared with the Model + EA. The total discharge frequency of PVN neurons and interneurons were positively correlated with the sympathetic nerve discharge. The total discharge frequency of PVN neurons was positively correlated with heart rate (HR and negatively correlated with mean arterial pressure (MAP and rate pressure product (RPP. The discharge frequency of interneurons was positively correlated with HR and negatively correlated with MAP and RPP. The hippocampus-PVN-sympathetic nerve pathway is involved in electroacupuncture at the heart meridian and interneurons are the key neurons in PVNs.

  15. Revealing historic invasion patterns and potential invasion sites for two non-native plant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob N Barney

    Full Text Available The historical spatio-temporal distribution of invasive species is rarely documented, hampering efforts to understand invasion dynamics, especially at regional scales. Reconstructing historical invasions through use of herbarium records combined with spatial trend analysis and modeling can elucidate spreading patterns and identify susceptible habitats before invasion occurs. Two perennial species were chosen to contrast historic and potential phytogeographies: Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum, introduced intentionally across the US; and mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris, introduced largely accidentally to coastal areas. Spatial analysis revealed that early in the invasion, both species have a stochastic distribution across the contiguous US, but east of the 90(th meridian, which approximates the Mississippi River, quickly spread to adjacent counties in subsequent decades. In contrast, in locations west of the 90(th meridian, many populations never spread outside the founding county, probably a result of encountering unfavorable environmental conditions. Regression analysis using variables categorized as environmental or anthropogenic accounted for 24% (Japanese knotweed and 30% (mugwort of the variation in the current distribution of each species. Results show very few counties with high habitat suitability (>/=80% remain un-invaded (5 for Japanese knotweed and 6 for mugwort, suggesting these perennials are reaching the limits of large-scale expansion. Despite differences in initial introduction loci and pathways, Japanese knotweed and mugwort demonstrate similar historic patterns of spread and show declining rates of regional expansion. Invasion mitigation efforts should be concentrated on areas identified as highly susceptible that border invaded regions, as both species demonstrate secondary expansion from introduction loci.

  16. Interhemispheric Asymmetry of the Sunward Plasma Flows for Strongly Dominant IMF BZ > 0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakymenko, K. N.; Koustov, A. V.; Fiori, R. A. D.

    2018-01-01

    Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) convection maps obtained simultaneously in both hemispheres are averaged to infer polar cap ionospheric flow patterns under strongly dominant positive interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz component. The data set consisted of winter observations in the Northern Hemisphere simultaneously with summer observations in the Southern Hemisphere. Long-lasting high-latitude dayside reverse convection cells are shown to have faster sunward flows at near-magnetic noon hours in the summer/Southern Hemisphere. Sunward flows typically deviate from the midnight-noon meridian toward 10-11 h of magnetic local time in the summer/Southern Hemisphere and are more aligned with the midnight-noon meridian in the winter/Northern Hemisphere. Flow deviations in the winter/Northern Hemisphere can be both toward prenoon and postnoon hours, and there is no clear relationship between flow deviation and the IMF By component. No strong preference for the sunward flow occurrence depending on the IMF Bx polarity was found. In addition, the rate of the sunward flow speed increase in response to an increase in driving conditions was found to be comparable for the IMF Bx > 0 and Bx < 0.

  17. A Modern Clinical Approach of the Traditional Korean Saam Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manyong Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Saam acupuncture is one of the original therapeutic modalities representing traditional Korean medicine. It was originally described in a manuscript that is estimated to be published at some point between 1644 and 1742, in the middle of the Cho Sun dynasty, by a Korean Buddhist monk whose name is unknown. The principle of combining five shu points is based on the theory of Nan-jing. The treatment and diagnosis concepts in Saam acupuncture were mainly influenced by Dongeuibogam and Chimgoogyeong-heombang. The basic characteristic of combining five shu points in Saam acupuncture is the selection of the tonification and sedation points along the self-meridian and other meridians based on creation and governor relationships. Saam acupuncture clinical studies have mainly focused on musculoskeletal pain and autonomic nervous system regulation. From a neurophysiological perspective, Saam acupuncture, which involves five shu points as the main treatment aspect, has the advantage of increasing parasympathetic nerve activation and adjusting the balance of the autonomic nervous system. Inserting a needle into the skin layer while considering the respiratory phase and stimulating the needle gently and lightly could maximize the effect of Saam acupuncture. The specific Saam acupuncture prescribed should be identified on the basis of the neurobiological perspective.

  18. Corneal optics after reading, microscopy and computer work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michael J; Buehren, Tobias; Bece, Andrej; Voetz, Stephanie C

    2006-04-01

    To compare lid-induced changes in corneal optics following reading, microscopy and computer work. Nine subjects with normal ocular health were recruited for the study. Five subjects were myopic, two were emmetropic, one was astigmatic and one was hyperopic. Corneal topography was measured before and after 60 mins of reading a novel, performing a blood cell counting task on a microscope and Internet searching. Corneal topography data were used to derive the corneal wavefront Zernike coefficients up to the fourth order. A meridian analysis of instantaneous corneal power along the upper 90-degree semi-meridian was performed to examine local changes caused by eyelid pressure. Digital photography was used to capture body posture and eyelid position during the tasks. Each of the three tasks showed systematically different effects on both the characteristics and location of corneal topography changes. Reading and microscopy generally exhibited larger and more centrally located changes compared with the computer task. Differences in wavefront aberration characteristics between the three tasks were apparent in both lower and higher order aberrations. The location of corneal distortions differed significantly between microscopy and computer work, with microscopy causing distortions to occur closer to the videokeratoscope measurement axis compared with computer work (p = 0.015). Reading, microscopy and computer work have different effects on corneal aberrations. The results are in agreement with the hypothesis that lid-induced corneal aberrations may play a role in myopia development.

  19. Orientation-defined boundaries are detected with low efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Joshua A; Morgan, Michael J

    2017-09-01

    When compared with other summary statistics (mean size, size variance, orientation variance), visual estimates of average orientation are inefficient. Observers act as if they use information from no more than two or three items. We hypothesised that observers would attain greater sampling efficiency when their task did not require an explicit representation of mean orientation. We tested this hypothesis using a texture-segmentation task. Two arrays of 32 wavelets each were presented; one left and one right of fixation. Orientations in the target array were sampled from wrapped normal distributions having two different means with the same variance. One distribution defined orientations above the horizontal meridian, the other defined orientations below the meridian. All orientations in the other array were defined by a single wrapped normal distribution having the same variance as each of the distributions in the target array. Contrary to our hypothesis, results indicate that observers effectively ignored all but one item from the top and bottom of each array. In fact, we found no change in the threshold difference between the target's two means when all but one item from the top and bottom of each array were removed. We are forced to conclude that the visual system does not compute the average of more than a few orientations, even for texture segmentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Study on the white channel system carved on the wooden acupoint figurine of Laoguanshan: comments on lacquer-coating acupoint figure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengzhong

    2018-02-12

    There are two systems as the red channel system and the white channel system carved or painted on the wooden figurine of Laoguanshan of Benque school. The two systems are horizontally staggered each other without overlapped. The red channel system, similar to Shuangbaoshan wooden figurine, have channels, but without points. For the white channel system, the running courses of channels result from the sensation distributions of the points after optional stimulation. The Laoguanshan wooden figurine focuses on the illustration of the white channel system, named as white channel figurine. Compared with the Shuangbaoshan red channel figurine, together with examples, such as the running course of the white channel related to the meridian of heart-transfer-point, the white channel related to the belt vessel linking to lung-transfer-point, stomach-transfer-point and kidney-transfer-point, as well as the corresponding photographs. It is indicated that the Laoguanshan white channel figurine is a training aid for testing the sensation marching along channel (SMC) caused by transfer-point stimulation. The white channel system is a flexible way of channel. The study aims to observe the QI /SMC reaching the affected area and contributes to clinical practice. This discovery is not related to the "intermediate link theory" in the Yellow Emperor meridian system.

  1. Acupuncture analgesia: The complementary pain management in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurachman Abdurachman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pain is the most common reason for medical consultation in the United States. Pain is a major symptom in many medical conditions, and can significantly interfere with a person’s quality of life and general functioning. One of the very unpleasant pain is toothache. Conventional treatments for toothache are improving oral hygiene, prescribing analgesics, anti-inflammatory, and also antibiotics if there are infection even extractions are performed if necessary. Another way to conventional approaches, patients may consider acupuncture method. Acupuncture involves the insertion of needles with the width of a human hair along the precise points throughout the body. This process triggers body’s energy normal flow through extra anatomy pathway called meridian. Purpose: This case report is aimed to emphasize the existence of teeth-organ relationships through communication channels outside the lines of communication that has been known in anatomy. Case: Two patients with toothache complaints in the lower right molars came to an acupuncturist who was a medical practitioner. In these cases pain were relieved by acupuncture analgesia. Case management: Two patients were subjected to acupuncture analgesia with different acupuncture points that were customized to the affected tooth, case 1 with the large intestine-4 (Li-4 which located in the hand and case 2 with bladder-25 (Bl-25 which located in the back of the body. Ninety percent of pain was relieved in 40 seconds. Conclusion: Pain in toothache can be relieved using acupuncture analgesia technique, using meridian as an extra anatomy pathway. Nevertheless, treating the source of pain by dental practitioner is mandatory.Latar belakang: Nyeri adalah alasan paling umum yang menyebabkan orang datang berkonsultasi kepada profesional medis di Amerika Serikat. Nyeri merupakan gejala utama dalam kasus medis, dan dapat mengganggu kualitas hidup dan kegiatan umum seseorang secara signifikan. Salah satu

  2. Ultrasonic measurement of scleral cross-sectional strains during elevations of intraocular pressure: method validation and initial results in posterior porcine sclera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Junhua; Liu, Jun

    2012-09-01

    Scleral biomechanical properties may be important in the pathogenesis and progression of glaucoma. The goal of this study is to develop and validate an ultrasound method for measuring cross-sectional distributive strains in the sclera during elevations of intraocular pressure (IOP). Porcine globes (n = 5) were tested within 24 hs postmortem. The posterior scleral shells were dissected and mounted onto a custom-built pressurization chamber. A high-frequency (55-MHz) ultrasound system (Vevo660, VisualSonics Inc., Toronto) was employed to acquire the radio frequency data during scans of the posterior pole along both circumferential and meridian directions. The IOP was gradually increased from 5 to 45 mmHg. The displacement fields were obtained from correlation-based ultrasound speckle tracking. A least-square strain estimator was used to calculate the strains in both axial and lateral directions. Experimental validation was performed by comparing tissue displacements calculated from ultrasound speckle tracking with those induced by an actuator. Theoretical analysis and simulation experiments were performed to optimize the ultrasound speckle tracking method and evaluate the accuracy and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in strain estimation. Porcine sclera exhibited significantly larger axial strains (e.g., -5.1 ± 1.5% at 45 mmHg, meridian direction) than lateral strains (e.g., 2.2 ± 0.7% at 45 mmHg, meridian direction) during IOP elevations (P's estimation SNR on the strain level, as well as signal processing parameters such as kernel size. Simulation results showed that ultrasound speckle tracking had a high accuracy for estimating strains of 1-5% and a high SNR for strains of 0.5-5%. A new experimental method based on ultrasound speckle tracking has been developed for obtaining cross-sectional strain maps of the posterior sclera. This method provides a useful tool to examine distributive strains through the thickness of the sclera during elevations of IOP.

  3. New Planetary Energy Balance, Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction and their Effects on Extreme Events in North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrouk, Mohammed-Said

    2016-04-01

    Global warming has now reached the energetic phase of H2O's return to the ground after the saturation of the atmosphere in evaporation since the 80s and 90s of the last century, which were characterized by severe droughts, mainly in Africa. This phase is the result of the accumulation of thermal energy exchanges in the Earth-Ocean-Atmosphere system that resulted in the thrust reversal of the energy balance toward the poles. This situation is characterized by a new thermal distribution: above the ocean, the situation is more in surplus compared to the mainland, or even opposite when the balance is negative on the land, and in the atmosphere, warm thermal advection easily reach the North Pole (planetary crests), as well as cold advection push deep into North Africa and the Gulf of Mexico (planetary valleys). This "New Ground Energy Balance" establishes a "New Meridian Atmospheric Circulation (MAC)" with an undulating character throughout the year, including the winter characterized by intense latitudinal very active energy exchanges between the surplus areas (tropical) and the deficit (polar) on the one hand, and the atmosphere, the ocean and the continent on the other. The excess radiation balance increases the potential evaporation of the atmosphere and provides a new geographical distribution of H2O worldwide: the excess water vapor is easily converted by cold advection (polar vortex) to heavy rains that cause floods or snow storms that paralyze the normal functioning of human activities, which creates many difficulties for users and leaves damage and casualties, but ensures water availability missing since a long time in many parts of the world, in Africa, Europe and America. The new thermal distribution reorganizes the geography of atmospheric pressure: the ocean energy concentration is transmitted directly to the atmosphere, and the excess torque is pushed northward. The Azores anticyclone is strengthened and is a global lock by the Atlantic ridge at Greenland

  4. The morphology of corneal cap and its relation to refractive outcomes in femtosecond laser small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE with anterior segment optical coherence tomography observation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the morphology of corneal caps in femtosecond laser small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE and its relation to the refractive outcomes. METHODS: A prospective study of fifty-four corneal caps created with VisuMax femtosecond laser were examined using an Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography at 1 day, 1 week, 1 month and 6 months after SMILE. The cap thickness at nine points on each of the four meridians (0°, 45°, 90°, 135° and the diameter were measured. Cap morphology, changes over time and its correlation with refractive outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: The mean achieved central cap thickness were (108.74±5.06 µm at 6 months and (107.32±4.81 µm at 1 month postoperatively, significantly thinner than that at 1 day (110.81±7.95 µm and 1 week (109.58±7.48 µm (P<0.05. The mean diameter on 0° meridian was (7.61±0.07 mm, significantly larger than that on 90° meridian (7.57±0.06 mm (P = 0.001. Cap morphology showed good regularity, except that the differences of points in two pairs were significant at 1 day postoperatively. The uniformity was consistent over time and the central cap thickness was thinner than those in the paracentral and peripheral areas. The refractive outcomes stabilized within 1 month. Uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA was correlated to the central cap thickness at 1 day and 1 week (both rs  = 0.33, p<0.05. The uniformity index was correlated with UDVA (rs  = 0.34, p<0.05 and corrected distance visual acuity (rs  = 0.32, p<0.05 at 1 week postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: Corneal caps of SMILE are predictable with good reproducibility, regularity and uniformity. Cap morphology might have a mild effect on refractive outcomes in the early stage. Further study should focus on the impact on the visual quality.

  5. [Analysis on research projects for acupuncture and moxibustion supported by NSFC during the 11th 5-year-plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chang-Long; Jing, Xiang-Hong; Li, Yu-Qing; Li, Liang; Rong, Pei-Jing; Wang, Chang-En

    2012-08-01

    In the present paper, the authors introduce the approved and finished research projects for acupuncture and moxibustion therapies supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) during the 11th 5-year-plan. A total of 194 research projects were subsidized by NSFC from 2006 to 2010. These projects include 6 aspects: meridian-collaterals, acupoint theory, acupuncture analgesia, mechanisms underlying improvement of different clinical problems, clinical trials, and moxibustion therapy. The research on acupoints has been becoming a new hotspot in recent years. Majority of the research projects focus on the mechanism of acu-moxibustion underlying improvement of different clinical problems, while fewer projects on clinical trials. During the 11th 5-year-plan, 119 projects were completed; most of them involved meridian-collateral theory, acupoint theory, mechanism of acu-moxibustion underlying improvement of clinical problems and acupuncture manipulations. Following analysis of the finished research projects, we find that 1) many neurobiological methods and techniques are commonly used in the research on meridian-collateral theory; 2) the research on acupoint theory is changing from observing the local morphological structure to identifying characteristics of the regional activated receptors, particularly under the circumstances of visceral pathological conditions and efficacies of acupoints; 3) researches on the underlying mechanism of acu-moxibusiton for improving clinical disorders mainly focused on its cerebral protective effects against cerebral ischemia, in addition, researches about other diseases on clinical conditions have been also carried out, but the related mechanisms are far from understanding; 4) In many research projects, various new methods and techniques, such as fMRI, position emission tomography, genomics, proteomics, molecular biology, nerve stem cell, etc. were widely used; 5) Randomized controlled multi-center clinical trials are

  6. Magnetic Field Observations at Purcell, Oklahoma Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, P. J. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Gibson, J. P. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The campaign “Magnetic Field Observations at Purcell, Oklahoma” installed a ground-based magnetometer at Purcell’s U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility boundary installation at the Kessler Atmospheric and Ecological Field Station, University of Oklahoma, to measure local magnetic field variations. It is a part of the nine stations of the Mid-continent MAgnetoseismic Chain (McMAC) placed as close to the 330° magnetic longitude as possible. This is the meridian in the world where land covers the greatest continuous range in magnetic latitude. Figure 1 shows the map of the magnetometer stations along the 330th magnetic meridian, including the Purcell (PCEL) station. The main scientific objective of the campaign is to detect the field line resonance (FLR) frequencies of the magnetic field line connected to the Purcell station. This magnetic field line extends from Purcell to the outer space at distances as far as 2 Earth radii (RE). To accurately identify FLR frequencies, however, simultaneous measurements at slightly different latitudes along the same meridian are necessary to allow the use of the cross-phase technique. This consideration explains the arrangement to operate magnetometers at the Americus (AMER) and Richardson (RICH) stations nearby. The measured resonant frequency can infer the plasma mass density along the field line through the method of normal-mode magnetoseismology. The magnetometer at the Purcell station can detect many other types of magnetic field fluctuations associated with the changes in the electric currents in the ionosphere and the magnetosphere, which by large are affected by the solar activity. In other words, the magnetic field data collected by this campaign are also useful for understanding space weather phenomena. The magnetometer was installed at Purcell’s ARM boundary facility in March 27, 2006. The construction of the triaxial fluxgate magnetometer used by the

  7. Ionospheric convection response to changes of interplanetary magnetic field B-z component during strong B-y component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, C.S.; Murr, D.; Sofko, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    enough, the B-z reorientation causes changes in the flow intensity but not in the shape of the convection pattern. The results show the characteristics of ionospheric convection response during strong B-y and suggest that the convection reconfiguration is not only determined by the changing B-z but also...... the dawn-dusk meridian plane, which is interpreted as propagation or expansion of newly generated convection cells in the cusp region. Other studies showed that the change in convection pattern in response to IMF reorientations is spatially fixed. In this paper, we investigate the ionospheric convection...... response to IMF Bz changes during strong IMF BZ. On March 23, 1995, B-x was small, B-y was strongly positive (7-11 nT), and the B-z polarity changed several times after 1300 UT. The dayside ionospheric convection is dominated by a large clockwise convection cell. The cell focus (the "eye" of the convection...

  8. Experimental tests on buckling of ellipsoidal vessel heads subjected to internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.L.; Alix, M.

    1980-05-01

    Tests were performed on 17 ellipsoidal vessel heads of three different materials and different geometries. The results include the following: 1) Accurate definition of the geometry and particularly a direct measurement of the thickness along the meridian. 2) The properties of the material of each head, obtained from test specimens cut from the head itself after the test. 3) The recording of deflection/pressure curves with indication of the pressure at which buckling occurred. These results can be used for validation and qualification of methods for calculating the buckling load when plasticity occurs before buckling. It was possible to develop an empirical equation representing the experimental results obtained with satisfactory accuracy. This equation may be useful in pressure vessel design

  9. Comparison of F-region electron density observations by satellite radio tomography and incoherent scatter methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nygrén

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available In November 1995 a campaign of satellite radiotomography supported by the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar and several other instruments was arranged in Scandinavia. A chain of four satellite receivers extending from the north of Norway to the south of Finland was installed approximately along a geomagnetic meridian. The receivers carried out difference Doppler measurements using signals from satellites flying along the chain. The EISCAT UHF radar was simultaneously operational with its beam swinging either in geomagnetic or in geographic meridional plane. With this experimental set-up latitudinal scans of F-region electron density are obtained both from the radar observations and by tomographic inversion of the phase observations given by the difference Doppler experiment. This paper shows the first results of the campaign and compares the electron densities given by the two methods.

  10. Response of the convecting high-latitude F layer to a powerful HF wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Mingaleva

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available A numerical model of the high-latitude ionosphere, which takes into account the convection of the ionospheric plasma, has been developed and utilized to simulate the F-layer response at auroral latitudes to high-power radio waves. The model produces the time variations of the electron density, positive ion velocity, and ion and electron temperature profiles within a magnetic field tube carried over an ionospheric heater by the convection electric field. The simulations have been performed for the point with the geographic coordinates of the ionospheric HF heating facility near Tromso, Norway, when it is located near the midnight magnetic meridian. The calculations have been made for equinox, at high-solar-activity, and low-geomagnetic-activity conditions. The results indicate that significant variations of the electron temperature, positive ion velocity, and electron density profiles can be produced by HF heating in the convecting high-latitude F layer.

  11. Stability Analysis of Hypersonic Boundary Layer over a Cone at Small Angle of Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Ji

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An investigation on the stability of hypersonic boundary layer over a cone at small angle of attack has been performed. After obtaining the steady base flow, linear stability theory (LST analysis has been made with local parallel assumption. The growth rates of the first mode and second mode waves at different streamwise locations and different azimuthal angles are obtained. The results show that the boundary layer stability was greatly influenced by small angles of attack. The maximum growth rate of the most unstable wave on the leeward is larger than that on the windward. Moreover, dominating second mode wave starts earlier on the leeward than that on the windward. The LST result also shows that there is a “valley” region around 120°~150° meridian in the maximum growth rates curve.

  12. From elongated spanning trees to vicious random walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsky, A.; Nechaev, S.; Poghosyan, V. S.; Priezzhev, V. B.

    2013-05-01

    Given a spanning forest on a large square lattice, we consider by combinatorial methods a correlation function of k paths (k is odd) along branches of trees or, equivalently, k loop-erased random walks. Starting and ending points of the paths are grouped such that they form a k-leg watermelon. For large distance r between groups of starting and ending points, the ratio of the number of watermelon configurations to the total number of spanning trees behaves as r-ν log r with ν = (k2 - 1) / 2. Considering the spanning forest stretched along the meridian of this watermelon, we show that the two-dimensional k-leg loop-erased watermelon exponent ν is converting into the scaling exponent for the reunion probability (at a given point) of k (1 + 1)-dimensional vicious walkers, ν˜ =k2 / 2. At the end, we express the conjectures about the possible relation to integrable systems.

  13. Instabilities in coaxial rotating jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanic, Tanja; Foucault, Eric; Pecheux, Jean; Gilard, Virginie

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this study is the characterization of the cylindrical mixing layer resulting from the interaction of two coaxial swirling jets. The experimental part of this study was performed in a cylindrical water tunnel, permitting an independent rotation of two coaxial jets. The rotations are generated by means of 2×36 blades localized in two swirling chambers. As expected, the evolution of the main instability modes presents certain differences compared to the plane-mixing-layer case. Experimental results obtained by tomography showed the existence of vortex rings and streamwise vortex pairs in the near field region. This method also permitted the observation of the evolution and interaction of different modes. PIV velocity measurements realized in the meridian plans and the plans perpendicular to the jet axis show that rotation distorts the typical top-hat axial velocity profile. The transition of the axial velocity profile from jet-like into wake-like is also observed.

  14. The rotational elements of Mars and its satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, R. A.; Konopliv, A. S.; Park, R. S.; Folkner, W. M.

    2018-03-01

    The International Astronomical Union (IAU) defines planet and satellite coordinate systems relative to their axis of rotation and the angle about that axis. The rotational elements of the bodies are the right ascension and declination of the rotation axis in the International Celestial Reference Frame and the rotation angle, W, measured easterly along the body's equator. The IAU specifies the location of the body's prime meridian by providing a value for W at epoch J2000. We provide new trigonometric series representations of the rotational elements of Mars and its satellites, Phobos and Deimos. The series for Mars are from a least squares fit to the rotation model used to orient the Martian gravity field. The series for the satellites are from a least squares fit to rotation models developed in accordance with IAU conventions from recent ephemerides.

  15. Regiomontanus or learning how to play with science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marian, Anca-Catalina

    2016-04-01

    Although at the international school competitions, Romanian students are in the top, but few students decide to learn science in school. The major problem is "how to motivate students to study science?" In cooperation with Meridian Zero Astroclub, Oradea, we provide students non-formal space where non-formal activities can approach them to the work of a researcher. Five days in September, ten to fifteen students are invited in a journey through the science world. • Formation of the Moon's craters • Solar radiation • Solar cycles • Constellations • Solar System • Eratosthenes experiment These topics are examples from our activities. Working with students from 4 years old to 18 years old, all activities are developed in the form of games, combining mathematical skills with physics or astronomy. Older students are put in the position of teachers for younger students. Results: A better understanding of physical processes, a higher interest in science, a better application of mathematical concepts in class.

  16. On the determination of heliographic positions and rotation velocities of sunspots. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balthasar, H.

    1983-01-01

    Using sunspot positions of small sunspots observed at Debrecen and Locarno as well as positions of recurrent sunspots taken from the Greenwich Photoheliographic Results (1940-1976) the influence of the Wilson depression on the rotation velocities was investigated. It was found that the Wilson depression can be determined by minimizing errors of the rotation velocities or minimizing the differences of rotation velocities determined from disk passages and central meridian passages. The Wilson depressions found were between 765 km and 2500 km for the first sample while they were between 0 km and several 1000 km for the second sample. The averaged Wilson depression for the second sample is between 500 km and 965 km depending on the reduction method. A dependence of the Wilson depression on the age of the spots investigated seems not to exist. (orig.)

  17. [Supplementing the international acupuncture and moxibustion in bilingual teaching of Acupuncture and Moxibustion Science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Kaiyu; Ma, Qiaolin; Ren, Shan; Liu, Fang

    2016-04-01

    Bilingual teaching is a innovative method of higher education of China to gear the need of the world. Acupuncture and Moxibustion, a higher international TCM course, has been the model of bilingual teaching in many colleges and universities of TCM successively. To meet the aim and original intention of bilingual education in China, we have supplemented international acupuncture and moxibustion in teaching program for many years. The related contents about acupuncture and moxibustion of World Health Organization (WHO) and International Standardization Organization(ISO) have been added into the chapters of introduction, meridians and acupoints, the technology of acupuncture and moxibustion, the therapy of acupuncture and moxibustion. Teaching international acupuncture and moxibustion not only enlarges the international perspective of students, but also makes them more interested in learning Acupuncture and Moxibustion with a bigger sense of mission.

  18. Intensity variation of ELF hiss and chorus during isolated substorms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, R.M.; Fiske, K.F.; Church, S.R.

    1974-01-01

    Electromagnetic ELF emissions (100-1000 Hz) observed on the polar-orbiting OGO-6 satellite within three hours of the dawn-dusk meridian consistently exhibit a predictable response to isolated substorm activity. Near dawn, the emissions intensify during the substorm and then subside following the magnetic activity; the waves are most intense at L greater than 4, exhibit considerable structure and have been primarily identified as chorus. At dusk, the response is entirely different; the wave intensity falls to background levels during substorm activity but subsequently intensifies, usually reaching levels well in excess of that before the disturbance. The emissions near dusk extend to low L, are relatively featureless, and have been identified as plasmaspheric hiss. These features are interpreted in terms of changes in the drift orbits of outer-zone electrons which cyclotron resonate with ELF waves. (U.S.)

  19. Auroral bright spot sequence near 14 MLT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandholt, P.E.; Lybekk, B.

    1990-08-01

    Optical observations of a dayside auroral brightening sequence, by means of all-sky TV cameras and meridian scanning photometers, have been combined with EISCAT ion drift observations within the same invariant latitude - MLT sector. The reported events, covering a 35 min interval around 14 MLT, are embedded within a longer period of similar auroral activity between 0830 (1200 MLT) and 1300 UT (1600 MLT). These observations are discussed in relation to recent models of boundary layer plasma dynamics and the associated magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. The ionospheric events may correspond to large-scale wavelike motions of the low-latitude boundary layer. Based on this interpretation the observed spot size, speed and repetition period (∼ 10 min) give a wavelenght ∼ 900 km in the present case. The events can also be explained as ionospheric signatures of newly opened flux tubes associated with reconnection bursts at the magnetopause near 1400 MLT. 46 refs., 11 figs

  20. The effect of pauh kijang (Irvingia malayana Oliv ex. A. Benn in decreasing parasitemia percentage in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAPTIWI

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the influence of pauh kijang (Irvingia malayana Oliv. stem bark ethanol extract in decreasing parasitemia in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. Mice were divided into 6 groups as treatments: (1 negative control (CMC, pauh kijang ethanol extract with the concentration of (21, (310, (4100, (5 1000 mg/kg BW, and (6 quinine as positive control. The result showed that meridian effective dose (ED50 of pauh kijang ethanol extract was 36.95 mg/kg BW. Treatment of 100 mg/kg BW lowered parasitemia level by 63.8%, and this treatment did not give significant different (P>0.05 compared to positive control. The result suggests that pauh kijang ethanol extract had antiplasmodial activity since this extract reduces parasitemia more than 30%.

  1. On solution of Maxwell's equations in axisymmetric domains with edges. Part II: Numerical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkemzi, Boniface

    2003-10-01

    In this paper we consider the Fourier-finite-element method for treating the Maxwell's equations in three-dimensional axisymmetric domains with reentrant edges. By means of partial Fourier analysis, the 3D BVP is decomposed into an infinite sequence of 2D variational equations in the plane meridian domain of the axisymmetric domain, a finite number of which is considered and treated using nodal H 1 -conforming finite elements. For domains with reentrant edges, the singular field method is employed to compensate the singular behavior of the solutions. Emphases are given to estimates of the Fourier-finite-element approximation error and convergence analysis in the H 1 -norm under different regularity assumptions. (author)

  2. ARMAGH OBSERVATORY – HISTORIC BUILDING INFORMATION MODELLING FOR VIRTUAL LEARNING IN BUILDING CONSERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Murphy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the recording and design for a Virtual Reality Immersive Model of Armagh Observatory is presented, which will replicate the historic buildings and landscape with distant meridian markers and position of its principal historic instruments within a model of the night sky showing the position of bright stars. The virtual reality model can be used for educational purposes allowing the instruments within the historic building model to be manipulated within 3D space to demonstrate how the position measurements of stars were made in the 18th century. A description is given of current student and researchers activities concerning on-site recording and surveying and the virtual modelling of the buildings and landscape. This is followed by a design for a Virtual Reality Immersive Model of Armagh Observatory use game engine and virtual learning platforms and concepts.

  3. Traditional Chinese Medicine diagnostic evaluation of stress symptoms treated by auriculotherapy: a clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonice Fumiko Sato Kurebayashi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this clinical trial was to identify the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM diagnoses for stress symptoms that responded to auriculotherapy. Subjects were 75 nursing professionals of a teaching hospital, with average and high stress scores according to Vasconcelos’ List of Stress Symptoms. The subjects were randomized into three groups (control without treatment, auriculotherapy with needles, and auriculotherapy with seeds, treated weekly in the Kidney, Brain stem and Shenmen, for eight sessions. Analysis of variance showed significant differences after treatment (p=0.023 only between the needle and group controls, with 21 symptoms showing differences (p<0.05 in the Student’s t-test. In conclusion, auriculotherapy reduced stress with best result for needles than seeds, and the main identified diagnoses were: Stagnation of Qi in the chest, Stagnation of the Liver and the tendinomuscular meridians, Yin Deficiency of the Liver, Kidneys and Xue (Blood. Descriptors: Nursing; Auriculotherapy; Medicine, Chinese Traditional; Diagnosis.

  4. Effects of acupuncture in moderate, stable angina pectoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballegaard, Søren; Pedersen, F; Pietersen, A

    1990-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of acupuncture in moderate, stable angina pectoris, 49 patients were randomized to either genuine or sham acupuncture. In sham acupuncture needles were inserted into points within the same spinal segment as in genuine acupuncture, but outside the Chinese meridian...... system. The effect was evaluated from exercise tests, anginal attack rate and nitroglycerin consumption. There were no significant differences between the effects of genuine and sham acupuncture either on exercise test variables or on subjective variables. In patients receiving genuine acupuncture...... there was a significant increase in exercise tolerance (median 9%) and in delay of onset to pain (median 10%). No significant changes were observed in patients receiving sham acupuncture. Within both groups there was a median reduction of 50% in anginal attack rate and nitroglycerin consumption...

  5. Isolated homonymous hemianopsia due to presumptive cerebral tubercular abscess as the initial manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Gharai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of isolated homonymous hemianopsia due to presumptive cerebral tubercular abscess as the initial manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. A 30-year-old man presented to our outpatient department with sudden loss of visibility in his left visual field. He had no other systemic symptoms. Perimetry showed left-sided incongruous homonymous hemianopsia denser above the horizontal meridian. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed irregular well-marginated lobulated lesions right temporo-occipital cerebral hemisphere and left high fronto-parietal cerebral hemisphere suggestive of brain tubercular abscess. Serological tests for HIV were reactive, and the patient was started only on anti-tubercular drugs with the presumptive diagnosis of cerebral tubercular abscess. Therapeutic response confirmed the diagnosis. Atypical ophthalmic manifestations may be the initial presenting feature in patients with HIV infection. This highlights the need for increased index of suspicion for HIV infection in young patients with atypical ophthalmic manifestations.

  6. Reconstruindo o Mapa das Capitanias Hereditárias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pimentel Cintra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the classic map of hereditary captaincies of Portuguese America when it was created, in the first half of the sixteenth century. We point out some of its shortcom - ings, and propose a new design on primary sources, namely: charts of donation and forais, as well as the cartography of the time, particularly the map of Bartolomeu Velho. The main changes proposed refer to: boundary lines of the northern captaincies, which should follow the meridians and not the parallels; the particular configuration of the southern captaincies, with lines following northwest direction; the division into portions, named quinhões, of the captaincies of Aires da Cunha and Joao de Barros and finally the existence of undistributed lands.

  7. Holocene excursions of the Northwest European geoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Walter S.; Baeteman, Cecile

    Computer-assisted analyses of more than 600 radiocarbon-dated sea-level indicators from northwestern Europe, concentrated around the North Sea margin, indicate that vertical crustal movements are more important that eustatic sea-level change in determining the locus of Holocene shoreline positions through time. For the past 14,000 radiocarbon years, the divergence of sea-level data for the northwest European sectors exceeds the maximum estimated sea-level rise by a factor of two or more. Projecting these data to a single meridian demonstrates the remarkable variety of vertical crustal movement in northwestern Europe. Accumulating radiocarbon-dated sea-level indicators into millennial cohorts, we generate isobase maps which begin to specify areas of notable vertical crustal mobility. These isobase maps appear to confirm that eustatic sea-level rise is subordinate to postglacial geoidal excursions in determining the locus of contemporary northwestern European shorelines.

  8. Spatial monitoring of auroral emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, Aa.

    1983-12-01

    A ground based technique to monitor the three-dimensional distribution of auroral emissions is presented. The system is composed of two subsystems. A monochromatic imaging system with digitizing capability monitors the two-dimensional variation of auroral intensity with 50 degree field of view. A second height measuring system obtains in real time the height distribution of the auroral luminosity within the field of view of the imaging system. This paper is a report of the stepwise development of the complete system. The measurements will be carried out in the magnetic meridian plane through the EISCAT-site in Norway and the Kiruna Geophysical Institute. The operation of the optical system will as much as possible be combined with incoherent scatter radar measurements. (author)

  9. F-layer irregularities and plasma drifts associated with spread-F echoes during distinct solar activity periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candido, Claudia; Batista, Inez

    2013-04-01

    Equatorial F-layer irregularities are extensively reported to occur after post-sunset times presenting occurrence peaks in equinoxes and December Solstice in Brazilian sector. One of their most singular features is its seasonal dependence, associated with the alignment between the terminator and magnetic field meridian. On the other hand, during low and early ascending solar activity plasma irregularities are frequently observed to occur around midnight/ post-midnight hours, especially in June solstice. They present distinct features, such as westward propagation and distinct morphology, as observed by digisondes and other instruments. In this work we present studies of the plasma drifts obtained from a special mode operation of the digisonde DPS-4, associated with F-layer irregularities observed during distinct levels of solar activity. We discuss the ionospheric climatology associated with the irregularities using data from digisondes installed at equatorial and low latitude region: Sao Luis, Fortaleza and Cachoeira Paulista.

  10. Rapid Passenger Transport in North America in 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Tietze

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of outstanding transport innovations maylead to monumental reconstruction in large urbanised regionssuch as North America. The decisive factor in this is the introductionofTransrapid, a new rapid transport technology basedon the principle of magnetic levitation (Maglev.This paper uses the urban network of North America Eastof the 1 O(Jh meridian, together with the smaller region of California,to demonstrate the advantages of innovative transporttechnology as the optimal link between road and air transport.Despite requiring less energy input, achieving better adaptationto the topography of the country, causing less noise and beingsubject to less wear and tear, Transrapid achieves almost twicethe speed of conventional trains.

  11. A PC board photometer controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sten, T.A.

    1987-01-01

    The 4-S/D meridian scanning photometer (MSP) reffered to in this report was originally built at the Uppsala Ionospheric Observatory, Uppsala, Sweden. After several years of reliable operation at the Norwegian Institute of Cosmic Physics, Oslo from 1969, the electronics was completely re-designed in 1985, using a CDP 1802 microprocessor and a FP1100 CASIO personal computer (PC) for control and data acquisition. The MSP was then set into operation at the Polish Academy of Science's Polar Station at Hornsund, Spitzbergen. This system was again changed in 1986 as described in the following, providing a greater flexibility and data-handling capacity. The new MSP controller (based on a PC board) is easier to build, utilizing the microprocessor and the direct memory acess controller of the PC

  12. Differential Deposition for Surface Figure Corrections in Grazing Incidence X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Brian D.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Atkins, Carolyn; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Broadway, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Differential deposition corrects the low- and mid- spatial-frequency deviations in the axial figure of Wolter-type grazing incidence X-ray optics. Figure deviations is one of the major contributors to the achievable angular resolution. Minimizing figure errors can significantly improve the imaging quality of X-ray optics. Material of varying thickness is selectively deposited, using DC magnetron sputtering, along the length of optic to minimize figure deviations. Custom vacuum chambers are built that can incorporate full-shell and segmented Xray optics. Metrology data of preliminary corrections on a single meridian of full-shell x-ray optics show an improvement of mid-spatial frequencies from 6.7 to 1.8 arc secs HPD. Efforts are in progress to correct a full-shell and segmented optics and to verify angular-resolution improvement with X-ray testing.

  13. [Version and compilation ofHarikyuuhousouyouof Vietnamese medical book].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fengjuan; Xiao, Yongzhi

    2018-02-12

    Harikyuuhousouyou (《》)was written in 1827 and the author is unknown. The book has only one version which is collected by the National Library of Vietnam. The book contains one volume and includes contraindication of acupuncture and moxibustion, meridian points, point locations, indications and the therapeutic methods at extraordinary points. They are mainly cited from Zhen Jiu Da Quan (《》 Great Compendium on Acupuncture and Moxibustion ) by XU Feng , Yi Xue Ru Men (《》 Elementary Medicine ) by LI Chan and Shou Shi Bao Yuan (《》 Longevity and Health Preservation ) by GONG Tingxian in the Ming Dynasty. In the paper, in view of the characteristics of version and compilation, the hand-coped book was introduced. It was explored that Vietnam acupuncture absorbed Chinese medicine and emphasized clinical practice rather than theoretic statement.

  14. [Protocol of Miao medical LIU's infant tuina genre "Tui Wu Jing" in western Hunan province for prevention of asthma recurrence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongzheng; Jia, Yuanbin; Guo, Jing; Wang, Xiaojun; Su, Shaomin; Liu, Yingying; Deng, Yu; Liu, Liangjing; Shi, Weikun; Yang, Renda

    2017-07-12

    The Miao medical LIU 's ( LIU Kaiyun ) infant tuina genre in western Hunan Province is one of the most famous infant tuina genres in China. Based on physiological and pathological characteristics of infants, generation-inhibition theory of five-elements and Miao medical's promotion-inhibition theory of five-meridians, the tuina protocol of " Tui Wu Jing " was flexibly adjusted; according to different constitution types, including lung-deficiency type, spleen-deficiency type, kidney-deficiency type, qi -deficiency type, yin -deficiency type, yang -deficiency type, phlegm-wet type, phlegm-heat type, different protocols were adopted to prevent or reduce the asthma recurrence and reach the aim of regulating constitution and disease prevention.

  15. Corrugated Membrane Nonlinear Deformation Process Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Nikolaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elastic elements are widely used in instrumentation. They are used to create a particular interference between the parts, for accumulating mechanical energy, as the motion transmission elements, elastic supports, and sensing elements of measuring devices. Device reliability and quality depend on the calculation accuracy of the elastic elements. A corrugated membrane is rather common embodiment of the elastic element.The corrugated membrane properties depend largely on its profile i.e. a generatrix of the meridian surface.Unlike other types of pressure elastic members (bellows, tube spring, the elastic characteristics of which are close to linear, an elastic characteristic of the corrugated membrane (typical movement versus external load is nonlinear. Therefore, the corrugated membranes can be used to measure quantities, nonlinearly related to the pressure (e.g., aircraft air speed, its altitude, pipeline fluid or gas flow rate. Another feature of the corrugated membrane is that significant movements are possible within the elastic material state. However, a significant non-linearity of membrane characteristics leads to severe complicated calculation.This article is aimed at calculating the corrugated membrane to obtain the elastic characteristics and the deformed shape of the membrane meridian, as well as at investigating the processes of buckling. As the calculation model, a thin-walled axisymmetric shell rotation is assumed. The material properties are linearly elastic. We consider a corrugated membrane of sinusoidal profile. The membrane load is a uniform pressure.The algorithm for calculating the mathematical model of an axisymmetric corrugated membrane of constant thickness, based on the Reissner’s theory of elastic thin shells, was realized as the author's program in C language. To solve the nonlinear problem were used a method of changing the subspace of control parameters, developed by S.S., Gavriushin, and a parameter marching method

  16. Acupuncture therapy for the treatment of intractable, idiopathic epilepsy in five dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klide, A M; Farnbach, G C; Gallagher, S M

    1987-01-01

    Five epileptic dogs, nonresponsive to high levels of anticonvulsants were presented to the acupuncture clinic at the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania for treatment. Acupuncture was performed by placing small gold implants subcutaneously over the calvaria at acupuncture points on the Governing Vessel (GV), Gall Bladder (GB), and Bladder (B) meridians and left in place to provide constant stimulation to the points. Each of the five dogs treated showed a change in seizure patterns following gold implant placement. Two dogs had decreases in seizure frequency with their medication continued as before acupuncture, but they reverted to their previous pattern approximately five months after treatment. Three dogs continued to have decreased numbers of seizures and were maintained on decreased levels of anticonvulsants.

  17. [Brain governing mind theory in traditional chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhen-Ting

    2012-07-01

    The "Heart Governing Mind" theory has been in the mainstream of visceral manifestation State Doctrine for a long time, but the "Brain Governing Mind" theory is also the traditional thought in Chinese culture. A large number of recordings about the brain in medical or non-medical books from Pre-Qin to the Qing dynasty reflected people's deeper and deeper understanding of the relation between the brain and mind. In order to provide a theoretical guidance for cerebral pathology, we should have a correct understanding of the important role of the brain in life activities, keep developing the "Brain Governing Mind" theory and understand the relationship between the brain and taiji, yinyang, wuxing, viscera, meridians and Guanqiao five apertures and nine orifices.

  18. Report of the IAU/IAG Working Group on cartographic coordinates and rotational elements: 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidelmann, P.K.; Archinal, B.A.; A'Hearn, M.F.; Conrad, A.; Consolmagno, G.J.; Hestroffer, D.; Hilton, J.L.; Krasinsky, G.A.; Neumann, G.; Oberst, J.; Stooke, P.; Tedesco, E.F.; Tholen, D.J.; Thomas, P.C.; Williams, I.P.

    2007-01-01

    Every three years the IAU/IAG Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements revises tables giving the directions of the poles of rotation and the prime meridians of the planets, satellites, minor planets, and comets. This report introduces improved values for the pole and rotation rate of Pluto, Charon, and Phoebe, the pole of Jupiter, the sizes and shapes of Saturn satellites and Charon, and the poles, rotation rates, and sizes of some minor planets and comets. A high precision realization for the pole and rotation rate of the Moon is provided. The expression for the Sun's rotation has been changed to be consistent with the planets and to account for light travel time ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  19. The Improvement Two Cases Coughing and Sputum sign Sequela of Pneumonia by Homins Placenta Aqua-Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim, Eun-Gon

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Coughing and sputum are symptoms of sequela of Pneumonia. Oriental medicine call it Hae su. Hae su is common sign of lung disease. Hominis Placenta is the dried placenta of a healthy women. The nature of Hominis Placenta is warm and its taste sweet-salty. It has correspondence to the meridians of lung and kindey. Hominis Placenta acupuncture therapy has effect on invigoration of vital energy nourishing blood and tonifying the essence. It can be applied to the disease as Asthma, pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, degenerative change and cerebrovascular disease. We treated two cases coughing and sputum sign Sequela of Pneumonia by Hominis Placenta Aqua-Acupuncture. The symptoms was improved and the patients satisfied

  20. Danger of injudicious use of tui-na therapy in ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Gen; Wang, Guyi; Li, Jinxiu; Wu, Guobao; Huang, Jia; Huang, Siyang

    2017-05-01

    Tui-na is a very important component of Chinese medicine. It is a well-respected treatment modality known to be helpful and safe for a wide range of conditions. It can be considered as a certain kind of massage which is performed at acupoints, meridians, and collaterals by pushing, finger twisting, grasping thumb waving pressing, patting, palm twisting, and other manipulation techniques. At present, it is extensively used for relieving pain and stiffness associated with ankylosing spondylitis in China, even though there is a lack of evidence to support its validation and feasibility. The patient in this case was treated by tui-na massage at acute flare-up of ankylosing spondylitis and ended up with catastrophic results.

  1. A Study on the Optimal Duration of Daylight Saving Time (DST in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeong-Hee Mihn

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Daylight saving time aims at spending effective daylight in summer season. Korea had enforced daylight saving time twelve times from 1948 to 1988. Since 1988, it is not executed, but it is recently discussed the resumption of DST. In this paper, we investigate the trend of DST in other countries, review the history of DST in Korea, and suggest the optimal DST duration in terms of astronomical aspects (times of sunrise and sunset. We find that the starting day of DST in Korea is apt for the second Sunday in Mayor the second Sunday in April according to the time of sunrise or to the difference between Korean standard meridian and observer`s, respectively. We also discuss time friction that might be caused by time difference between DST and Korea Standard Time (KST.

  2. O Mapa das Cortes: perspectivas cartográficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pimentel Cintra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a thorough analysis of the Map of the Courts based on criteria used in cartography, particularly mathematical cartography. As such, it takes into account the following elements: author, scale, projection, the prime meridian, colors, conventions, symbology, and other. After a qualitative morphological analysis, we move on to a quantitative examination by comparing the said map with a quite accurate present-day chart, using a digital cartography software application and spreadsheet to match the geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude of over 430 points. The systematic and detailed quantification of errors in various areas, from the Atlantic coast to the Amazon region, revealed surprising aspects as to how skillfully the Map of the Courts was constructed. This analysis enabled us to quantify the distortions more accurately and thus identify the locations where they were introduced as well their unquestionable intentional character.

  3. [Surgical solutions to luxation of the IOL--capsular bag--capsular tension ring complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthout, A; Turut, P; Taboureau, E; Denimal, F; Milazzo, S

    2007-02-01

    The spontaneous luxation of the intraocular lens-capsular bag-capsular tension ring complex is a serious but fortunately rare complication. The authors report a combined surgical procedure to reposition the complex in a patient who was operated on for bilateral lens subluxation 4 years before and whose enophthalmia made surgery difficult. Two surgical techniques can be considered to reposition the complex and avoid explantation. The McCannel modified stitch can capture the complex with the help of a transcorneal point and then a transscleral suture on the 12 o'clock meridian, despite the enophthalmia of the patient; the Moreno transscleral stitch. Both techniques suture the complex to the ciliary sulcus. Moreno's technique is easy and safe for the endothelium and must therefore be attempted first. In case of failure, the McCannel modified stitch remains a useful and satisfying procedure allowing transscleral fixation of the complex to the sulcus at the cost of a minimal corneal trauma.

  4. From elongated spanning trees to vicious random walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorsky, A.; Nechaev, S.; Poghosyan, V.S.; Priezzhev, V.B.

    2013-01-01

    Given a spanning forest on a large square lattice, we consider by combinatorial methods a correlation function of k paths (k is odd) along branches of trees or, equivalently, k loop-erased random walks. Starting and ending points of the paths are grouped such that they form a k-leg watermelon. For large distance r between groups of starting and ending points, the ratio of the number of watermelon configurations to the total number of spanning trees behaves as r −ν logr with ν=(k 2 −1)/2. Considering the spanning forest stretched along the meridian of this watermelon, we show that the two-dimensional k-leg loop-erased watermelon exponent ν is converting into the scaling exponent for the reunion probability (at a given point) of k(1+1)-dimensional vicious walkers, ν -tilde= k 2 /2. At the end, we express the conjectures about the possible relation to integrable systems

  5. Brazil Geologic Basic Survey Program - Limoeiro - Sheet SB.25-Y-C-V -Pernambuco State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Limoeiro map-sheet (SB.25-Y-C-V;1:100,000 scale), State of Pernambuco is delimited by the meridians 35 0 00'W to 35 0 30' W and parallels 7 0 30' S to 8 0 00' S. The sheet covers an area of about 3,000 km 2 . The basement rocks probable Archaean age consist of gneiss and migmatite. The basement rocks are overlain by Lower Proterozoic metasediments (schist and para gneiss), locally with flows (amphibolite), metamorphosed in the middle to high amphibolite facies. Geochemical surveys including stream sediment sampling and rock chip sampling were carried out. Ground geophysics included magnetometer, gravity and radiometric (scintillometer) surveys. A provisional metallogenetic map at 1:100,000 scale was prepared on which areas with potential for economic deposits of gold, apatite, barium copper, nickel, cobalt, zinc, niobium, iron, titanium and vanadium are shown. (author)

  6. Preferential processing of cardinal over oblique orientations in human vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westheimer, Gerald

    2017-11-01

    The oblique effect-poorer performance when contours are in oblique meridians-is here extended from the discrimination of line-orientation to the tilt illusion and to the detection and contextual induction of curvature. The distinction is made between a contour's susceptibility to contextual perturbation and its capacity to induce such perturbation, for which the oblique effect is only about one half. That the cardinal/oblique superiority is retained for the orientation of illusory borders and for the implicit orientation of shapes lacking explicit rectilinear delineation has implications for its neural substrate. To the extent that a geometrical-visual illusion, such as Poggendorff's or Hering's, depends on interaction in the domain of contour orientation, it manifests a corresponding orientational anisotropy. On the other hand, visual functions that govern whether and how well a boundary is visible are invariant with orientation.

  7. astroplan: An Open Source Observation Planning Package in Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brett M.; Tollerud, Erik; Sipőcz, Brigitta; Deil, Christoph; Douglas, Stephanie T.; Berlanga Medina, Jazmin; Vyhmeister, Karl; Smith, Toby R.; Littlefair, Stuart; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Gee, Wilfred T.; Jeschke, Eric

    2018-03-01

    We present astroplan—an open source, open development, Astropy affiliated package for ground-based observation planning and scheduling in Python. astroplan is designed to provide efficient access to common observational quantities such as celestial rise, set, and meridian transit times and simple transformations from sky coordinates to altitude-azimuth coordinates without requiring a detailed understanding of astropy’s implementation of coordinate systems. astroplan provides convenience functions to generate common observational plots such as airmass and parallactic angle as a function of time, along with basic sky (finder) charts. Users can determine whether or not a target is observable given a variety of observing constraints, such as airmass limits, time ranges, Moon illumination/separation ranges, and more. A selection of observation schedulers are included that divide observing time among a list of targets, given observing constraints on those targets. Contributions to the source code from the community are welcome.

  8. Network pharmacology of medicinal attributes and functions of Chinese herbal medicines: (I Basic statistics of medicinal attributes and functions for more than 1100 Chinese herbal medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China, Chinese Materia Medica, and other resources, I collected a total of 1127 Chinese herbal medicines mainly with recorded chemical composition. Of which 210 families and approximately 2000 species of medicinal plants and fungi were involved. According to the comparison, in total of 69 medicinal attributes (Shu Xing and 78 medicinal functions (Gon Xiao, including 22 medicinal organs or tissues, 7 taste attributes, 5 medicinal properties, 1 toxicity attribute, 22 chemical composition categories, 12 meridians and collaterals (Gui Jing, and 78 medicinal functions were determined. All of the Chinese herbal medicines were numerically coded according to drug name, species, family, 69 medicinal attributes and 78 medicinal functions. Finally, an interactive coding database, CHM-DATA, which contains 8 tables, was obtained. Statistics, e.g., totals, frequencies or probabilities, percentages, etc., were calculated on the basis of total population of medicines and families.

  9. A novel wireless health monitor by using a wearable rubber glove with three-dimensional scanning elastic electrodes to measure acupuncture bio-potentials and impedances of a whole palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jium-Ming; Lin, Cheng-Hung; Chen, Run-Shing

    2015-09-10

    This paper proposes a novel wearable wireless-sensing technology on a glove to measure the bio-potentials and impedances of acupunctures on a whole palm in a non-invasive manner. Moreover, the device can transmit the information to a remote cloud server to learn at normal condition, and take measurement later for health condition analysis and monitoring. An example is given how to measure the acupuncture impedances and bio-potentials on a palm. One can see if certain acupuncture's impedance or bio-potential is not follow the Ohm's law or voltage divider rule along a meridian, then the health condition of the corresponding organ maybe with some problem. This discovery is not found in the previous literatures.

  10. [Analysis on standardization of patient posture for acupuncture treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonghui

    2018-02-12

    The standardization of patient posture for acupuncture treatment was discussed. According to the opinions in Neijing ( Inner Canon of Huangdi ), combined with the clinical practice of acupuncture, it was believed that the patient posture for acupuncture treatment should be standardized based on Neijing . The standardized patient posture was the foundation of acupuncture, the need of blood flow and requirement of acupuncture technique. The combination of three elements was beneficial for the traveling of spirit- qi through meridian-acupoint, which could regulate balance of yin and yang to treat disease. In addition, the principles and methods of standardization of patient posture was proposed, and the important clinical significance of standardization of patient posture for acupuncture treatment was highlighted.

  11. Monitoring changes of optical attenuation coefficients of acupuncture points during laser acupuncture by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yimei; Yang, Hongqin; Wang, Yuhua; Zheng, Liqin; Xie, Shusen

    2010-11-01

    The physical properties of acupuncture point were important to discover the mechanism of acupuncture meridian. In this paper, we used an optical coherence tomography to monitor in vivo the changes of optical attenuation coefficients of Hegu acupuncture point and non-acupuncture point during laser irradiation on Yangxi acupuncture point. The optical attenuation coefficients of Hegu acupuncture point and non-acupuncture point were obtained by fitting the raw data according to the Beer-Lambert's law. The experimental results showed that the optical attenuation coefficient of Hegu acupuncture point decreased during the laser acupuncture, in contrast to a barely changed result in that of non-acupuncture point. The significant change of optical attenuation coefficient of Hegu acupuncture point indicated that there was a correlation between Hegu and Yangxi acupuncture points to some extent.

  12. Effects of acupuncture in moderate, stable angina pectoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballegaard, Søren; Pedersen, F; Pietersen, A

    1990-01-01

    there was a significant increase in exercise tolerance (median 9%) and in delay of onset to pain (median 10%). No significant changes were observed in patients receiving sham acupuncture. Within both groups there was a median reduction of 50% in anginal attack rate and nitroglycerin consumption......In order to evaluate the effects of acupuncture in moderate, stable angina pectoris, 49 patients were randomized to either genuine or sham acupuncture. In sham acupuncture needles were inserted into points within the same spinal segment as in genuine acupuncture, but outside the Chinese meridian...... system. The effect was evaluated from exercise tests, anginal attack rate and nitroglycerin consumption. There were no significant differences between the effects of genuine and sham acupuncture either on exercise test variables or on subjective variables. In patients receiving genuine acupuncture...

  13. Unifying Visual Space Across the Left and Right Hemifields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhimin; Kosovicheva, Anna; Wolfe, Benjamin; Cavanagh, Patrick; Gorea, Andrei; Whitney, David

    2018-01-01

    Visual space is perceived as continuous and stable even though visual inputs from the left and right visual fields are initially processed separately within the two cortical hemispheres. In the research reported here, we examined whether the visual system utilizes a dynamic recalibration mechanism to integrate these representations and to maintain alignment across the visual fields. Subjects adapted to randomly oriented moving lines that straddled the vertical meridian; these lines were vertically offset between the left and right hemifields. Subsequent vernier alignment judgments revealed a negative aftereffect: An offset in the same direction as the adaptation was required to correct the perceived misalignment. This aftereffect was specific to adaptation to vertical, but not horizontal, misalignments and also occurred following adaptation to movie clips and patterns without coherent motion. Our results demonstrate that the visual system unifies the left and right halves of visual space by continuously recalibrating the alignment of elements across the visual fields.

  14. PECULIARITIES OF THE EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES OF THE VISIBLE RANGE ON LIVING ORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Gulyar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Our experimental studies and a set of the published data allow one to conclude that animals and humans can perceive visible light not only with mediation of the visual sensory system, but also due to the existence of specific extraocular photoreceptors. In the latter system, we can classify three separate stable levels of interaction with exogeneous electromagnetic waves (EMW of the visible range. The first, most simple level is the cellular level (cells possessing sensor proteins reactable to EMW. The next, higher level is based on interaction of EVW with specialized electromagnetoreceptors; acupuncture points and meridians providing the maintenance of electromagnetic homeostasis of the organism cam be considered such a receptor system. Finally, the most complex level involves specialized sensory pathways and central brain structures controlling general homeostasis of the organism with mediation of the processes of metabolism.

  15. Armagh Observatory - Historic Building Information Modelling for Virtual Learning in Building Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M.; Chenaux, A.; Keenaghan, G.; GIbson, V..; Butler, J.; Pybusr, C.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper the recording and design for a Virtual Reality Immersive Model of Armagh Observatory is presented, which will replicate the historic buildings and landscape with distant meridian markers and position of its principal historic instruments within a model of the night sky showing the position of bright stars. The virtual reality model can be used for educational purposes allowing the instruments within the historic building model to be manipulated within 3D space to demonstrate how the position measurements of stars were made in the 18th century. A description is given of current student and researchers activities concerning on-site recording and surveying and the virtual modelling of the buildings and landscape. This is followed by a design for a Virtual Reality Immersive Model of Armagh Observatory use game engine and virtual learning platforms and concepts.

  16. Transequatorial magnetic flux loops on the sun: a possible new source of geomagnetic storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Saito

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the traditional way of expression, geomagnetic storms have been classified into three types; flare-type Sc storms, CH-type Sg storms, and DB-type Sc storms (Sc:sudden commencement;CH:coronal hole;g:gradual;DB:disparition brusque.We have discovered that some transequatorial loops (TEL give rise to geomagnetic storms, when the TEL explodes near the central meridian of the sun. The axial magnetic direction of the TEL can be inferred, since TELs connect sunspot groups or remnant magnetic regions between the northern and southern hemispheres. Since the axial fields tend to have a large Bz component in interplanetary space, we have examined various effects on the configuration of geomagnetic storms. Topics are proposed for future works on the TEL-type Sc storms.

  17. Generation and self-healing of vector Bessel-Gauss beams with variant state of polarizations upon propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Sheng; Cheng, Huachao; Han, Lei; Wu, Dongjing; Zhao, Jianlin

    2017-03-06

    We propose a generalized model for the creation of vector Bessel-Gauss (BG) beams having state of polarization (SoP) varying along the propagation direction. By engineering longitudinally varying Pancharatnam-Berry (PB) phases of two constituent components with orthogonal polarizations, we create zeroth- and higher-order vector BG beams having (i) uniform polarizations in the transverse plane that change along z following either the equator or meridian of the Poincaré sphere and (ii) inhomogeneous polarizations in the transverse plane that rotate during propagation along z. Moreover, we evaluate the self-healing capability of these vector BG beams after two disparate obstacles. The self-healing capability of spatial SoP information may enrich the application of BG beams in light-matter interaction, polarization metrology and microscopy.

  18. A Technique to Salvage Big-Bubble Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty after Inadvertent Full-Thickness Trephination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Zarei-Ghanavati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we describe a technique for management of large inadvertent full-thickness trephination during deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty using the big-bubble technique without converting to penetrating keratoplasty. First, the anterior chamber is formed with an ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD. Then, the full-thickness wound is secured with one X-type 10-0 nylon suture. A 27-gauge needle is attached to a 2 ml air-filled syringe and inserted into the corneal stroma in the meridian opposite to the site of full-thickness trephination. Air is gently injected to produce a limited area of "big-bubble" detaching Descemet′s membrane (DM from the corneal stroma. The "big bubble" is slowly expanded with injection of OVD. Finally, the recipient stroma is removed, the donor lenticule is placed and the DM tear is secured with one full thickness 10-0 nylon suture.

  19. [The Theory and Practice of Health Cultivation Qigong Exercise in Traditional Chinese Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Ying

    2015-12-01

    The health cultivation qigong exercise in traditional Chinese medicine refers to a traditional, integrated method of illness prevention and body strengthening, which promotes the functions of qi and the blood, smooths the meridians (energy channels), and balances the viscera and bowels through the regulation of the mind, the breathing, and the body. The concept of using qi to cultivate human life is part of the health cultivation practices of ancient Chinese codes and of Chinese medicine. This concept includes the principles, methods, essences, and clinical applications of the practice. In addition, traditional health cultivation references the concepts of yinyang, viscera and bowels, qi and blood, meridians, and essential energy spirit theory in order to explain the human biological phenomena, the theoretical and practical perspectives of qigong, and the basis of the treatment principle. The health cultivation qigong exercise of Chinese medicine utilizes the concept of the "unity of nature and human beings" in traditional Chinese thinking in its practice, which emphasizes the conformity to nature and seasons. In order to fully leverage the benefits from the purpose of health cultivation in qigong practice, the priority is to understand the health cultivation mechanism, the essentials/matters, and the precautions of qigong practices. Recently, the evidence regarding both the biological and the psychological benefits of qigong practices have been demonstrated in numbers of research articles. In particular, qigong is currently considered to be one of the best mild exercises that is suited to all age groups. Professional nurses are suggested to include the health cultivation qigong exercise as part of activities that target health improvement and illness prevention. Due to the diversity in qigong as practiced by different health cultivation qigong exercise sects, it is essential to accumulate more clinical evidence by conducting greater numbers of rigorous studies

  20. Comparison and significance of auroral studies during the Swedish and Russian bilateral expedition to Spitsbergen in 1899–1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chernouss

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Results of measurements and visual observations of aurora at Spitsbergen, carried out by the joint Swedish-Russian expedition during 1899–1900, are described. Auroral observations took place during the great bilateral Arc-of-Meridian expedition, which was patronized by the Swedish Royal Family and the Russian Imperial Family. The Russian-Swedish Arc-of-Meridian measurements were closely coordinated but auroral measurements from the two sites in the Spitsbergen Archipelago were almost independent of each other. The basic auroral data for our presentation are reports of the Russian astronomer Josef Sykora and the Swedish geophysicist Jonas Westman. Both scientists used similar types of photo cameras and spectrographs, which were the best at that time and were made in Potsdam by Toepfer. Detailed descriptions of the optical devices and the system of spectral calibration are presented. A Toepfer spectrograph, possibly the one used by Westman, is still kept at IRF in Kiruna. We present a comparative analysis of auroral data from the Russian and Swedish stations on three themes: visual observations of aurora, describing features of auroral forms and giving us statistical data on aurora occurrence and the heights of aurora, photos of aurora, and auroral spectra. It is shown that the observations contain enough data to construct an auroral oval and to determine the heights of aurora. The expedition obtained the first photographic observations of the aurora in the Arctic. The auroral spectra demonstrate a high spectral resolution and show not only the main auroral emissions in the blue-green spectral range but also some weak emissions in the violet and ultraviolet region. All data are interpreted from a modern point of view. The Russian-Swedish 1899–1900 expedition carried out the first complex auroral investigations in the Arctic using optical instruments and presented well documented data and new results.

  1. Probe experiment characterizing 30-MHz radio wave scatter in the high-latitude ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, M.; Gorokhov, N.; Tanaka, Y.; Yamagishi, H.; Hansen, T.

    1999-07-01

    A probe experiment, consisting of radio links between a common 30-MHz transmitter located at Murmansk, Russia, and two receivers used as the imaging riometer (two-dimensional 64 multiple-beam antenna) located at Ny Ålesund, Svalbard, and Tjornes, Iceland, was carried out to characterize wave scatter in the high-latitude ionosphere. They are nearly aligned with and perpendicular to the geomagnetic meridian, respectively. In experiments conducted in March-April 1994, the 30-MHz probe signals were identified at nighttime more frequently than during the day at both receiver stations during periods of increased geomagnetic activity near the path midpoints, indicating that a relationship between the propagation path and the location of the auroral oval controls signal identification. For the nighttime propagation paths within or crossing through the auroral oval, duty cycles of the probe signals were roughly correlated with increases in geomagnetic activity. Their arrival directions showed a spread with a dominant power on the low elevation and a normal distribution in azimuth. These results indicate that the probe signals are characterized as nonmeteoric "auroral E" scatter caused by irregular, large-scale profiles of electron density enhancements at the lower edge of the ionosphere. However, on 2 days of weak geomagnetic activity, strong probe signals with bursty behavior were identified by an extremely high duty cycle (˜98%) for the nighttime meridian path only, and their arrival directions showed an isotropic spread in azimuth. Such nonmeteoric probe signals are characterized as "coherent" scatter caused by small-scale (˜5 m) field-aligned irregularities in electron density in the E region ionosphere, related to "sporadic E" occurrence.

  2. A Multimedia Medical Communication Link Between A Radiology Department And An Emergency Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Morris; Robertson, John G.; Belanger, Garry; Georganas, Nicolas D.; Mastronardi, Jim; Cohn-Sfetcu, Sorin; Dillon, Richard F.; Tombaugh, Jo W.

    1989-05-01

    The most critical aspect of a radiologist's work is the communication of his findings to the attending physician responsible for the patient's care. This is also the part of the process that is least well organized and the most subject to failure. At the University of Ottawa Medical Communications Research Centre we are investigating technical means to improve communications between radiologists and attending physicians. We first introduce the radiology communication service problem and show why it is essentially a multimedia communication problem. We then briefly describe a multimedia communication system designed and implemented by our research team. The multimedia system consists of several workstations linked by the Hospital's LAN. Each physician workstation comprises a Compaq 386/20 Mhertz microcomputer with 16 Mbytes of RAM, a 500 Mbyte image disk, an image memory which drives a 1000 line monochrome monitor. The images are digitized using a Konica laser-based film digitizer (2430 by 2000 10-bit pixels for a standard chest radiograph). The multimedia file server manager station is built around a PC-AT compatible with a Northern Telecom MERIDIAN SL-1ST digital PBX and a Meridian Mail digital voice messaging system. This last device is used to store voice data and is linked via the PBX to the workstations' digital telephones. A SYTEK 6000 local area network (LAN) links all workstations to the file server. All data, image and graphic information is transmitted via this network, while the twisted pair connections linking the digital PBX to the telephone sets are used for transmitting voice data. Finally, we provide details of an in-hospital trial linking the Department of Radiological Sciences and the Emergency Department at the Ottawa Civic Hospital, a 950 bed tertiary care teaching hospital.

  3. Self-excited multi-scale skin vibrations probed by optical tracking micro-motions of tracers on arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Chia; Chen, Hsiang-Ying; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Tian, Yong; I, Lin

    2017-07-01

    The self-excited multi-scale mechanical vibrations, their sources and their mutual coupling of different regions on the forearms of supine subjects, are experimentally investigated, using a simple noncontact method, optical video microscopy, which provides 1 μm and 25 ms spatiotemporal resolutions. It is found that, in proximal regions far from the radial artery, the vibrations are the global vibrations of the entire forearm excited by remote sources, propagating through the trunk and the limb. The spectrum is mainly composed of peaks of very low frequency motion (down to 0.05 Hz), low frequency respiration modes, and heartbeat induced modes (about 1 Hz and its harmonics), standing out of the spectrum floor exhibiting power law decay. The nonlinear mode-mode coupling leads to the cascaded modulations of higher frequency modes by lower frequency modes. The nearly identical waveforms without detectable phase delays for a pair of signals along or transverse to the meridian of regions far away from the artery rule out the detectable contribution from the propagation of Qi, some kind of collective excitation which more efficiently propagates along meridians, according to the Chinese medicine theory. Around the radial artery, in addition to the global vibration, the local vibration spectrum shows very slow breathing type vibration around 0.05 Hz, and the artery pulsation induced fundamental and higher harmonics with descending intensities up to the fifth harmonics, standing out of a flat spectrum floor. All the artery pulsation modes are also modulated by respiration and the very slow vibration.

  4. Les principes de la restauration d’instruments scientifiques : le cas du cercle méridien Gautier de l’observatoire de Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Granato

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Après l’énoncé de quelques principes concernant la restauration d’instruments scientifiques et la présentation de la politique mise en place au musée d’astronomie du Brésil (MAST, nous dressons un bref historique de l’Observatoire national de Rio de Janeiro et présentons l’histoire de l’un de ses grands instruments, un cercle méridien commandé à la fin du XIXe siècle au célèbre constructeur français d’instruments de précision Paul Gautier. Nous relatons ensuite comment ce cercle méridien - démonté dans les années 1960 - a fait l’objet d’une importante opération de restauration, opération dont l’aboutissement fut l’inauguration en 2006 du nouvel espace muséal qui abrite désormais l’instrument.This article opens with some general remarks on the principles of restoring scientific instruments and on the presentation of the restoration policies of the Brazilian museum of astronomy (MAST. It then gives a brief history of the astronomical observatory at Rio de Janeiro and presents in particular the history of one of its major instruments, a meridian circle built for the observatory at the end of the 19th century by the celebrated French maker of scientific instruments Paul Gautier. It describes how this meridian circle, dismantled during the 1960s and given to the museum of astronomy (MAST has recently been the object of an important restoration programme. This operation led to the inauguration, in 2006, of a new space in the museum devoted to this instrument.

  5. Profile of refractive errors in European Caucasian children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder; increased prevalence and magnitude of astigmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anketell, Pamela M; Saunders, Kathryn J; Gallagher, Stephen; Bailey, Clare; Little, Julie-Anne

    2016-07-01

    Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by impairment of communication, social interaction and repetitive behaviours. Only a small number of studies have investigated fundamental clinical measures of vision including refractive error. The aim of this study was to describe the refractive profile of a population of children with ASD compared to typically developing (TD) children. Refractive error was assessed using the Shin-Nippon NVision-K 5001 open-field autorefractor following the instillation of cyclopentolate hydrochloride 1% eye drops. A total of 128 participants with ASD (mean age 10.9 ± 3.3 years) and 206 typically developing participants (11.5 ± 3.1 years) were recruited. There was no significant difference in median refractive error, either by spherical equivalent or most ametropic meridian between the ASD and TD groups (Spherical equivalent, Mann-Whitney U307 = 1.15, p = 0.25; Most Ametropic Meridian, U305 = 0.52, p = 0.60). Median refractive astigmatism was -0.50DC (range 0.00 to -3.50DC) for the ASD group and -0.50DC (Range 0.00 to -2.25DC) for the TD group. Magnitude and prevalence of refractive astigmatism (defined as astigmatism ≥1.00DC) was significantly greater in the ASD group compared to the typically developing group (ASD 26%, TD 8%, magnitude U305 = 3.86, p = 0.0001; prevalence (χ12=17.71 , p refractive profile of a population of European Caucasian children with ASD compared to a TD population of children. Unlike other neurodevelopmental conditions, there was no increased prevalence of spherical refractive errors in ASD but astigmatic errors were significantly greater in magnitude and prevalence. This highlights the need to examine refractive errors in this population. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.

  6. Prevalence and associations of steep cornea/keratoconus in Greater Beijing. The Beijing Eye Study.

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    Liang Xu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence and associated factors of steep cornea/keratoconus in the adult Chinese population. METHODS: The population-based Beijing Eye Study 2011 included 3468 individuals with a mean age of 64.6±9.8 years (range: 50-93 years. A detailed ophthalmic examination was performed including optical low-coherence reflectometry. Steep cornea/keratoconus were defined as an anterior corneal refractive power exceeding 48 diopters. RESULTS: Mean refractive power of the cornea was 43.16±1.45 diopters (range: 36.51 to 48.46 diopters; flattest meridian and 43.98±1.52 diopters (range: 37.00 to 52.88 diopters; steepest meridian. A steep cornea/keratoconus defined as corneal refractive power of ≥48 diopters and ≥49 diopters was detected in 27 subjects (prevalence rate: 0.9±0.2% and 6 (0.2± 0.1% subjects, respectively. Presence of steep cornea/keratoconus was associated with shorter axial length (P<0.001, smaller interpupillary distance (P = 0.038, lower best corrected visual acuity (P = 0.021, higher cylindrical refractive error (P<0.001 and more myopic refractive error (P<0.001. It was not significantly associated with gender, body height, psychic depression, cognitive function, blood concentrations of glucose, lipids, creatinine and C-reactive protein, blood pressure and quality of life score, nor with intraocular pressure, dry eye feeling, and lens thickness. CONCLUSIONS: A steep cornea/keratoconus defined as corneal refractive power of 48+ diopters has a prevalence of 0.9±0.2% among Chinese aged 50 years and above. Its prevalence was significantly associated with the ocular parameters of shorter axial length, smaller interpupillary distance, higher cylindrical and myopic refractive error and lower best corrected visual acuity, however, with none of the systemic parameters tested.

  7. Plasma drifts associated with a system of sun-aligned arcs in the polar cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mende, S.B.; Doolittle, J.H.; Robinson, R.M.; Vondrak, R.R.; Rich, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    A series of four sun-aligned arcs passed over Sondre Stromfjord, Greenland, on the night of the 17th and 18th of February, 1985. Observations of these arcs were made using the Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar and an intensified all-sky imaging TV system that was operated at the radar site. The first of the four arcs crossed the Sondre Stromfjord meridian just before local midnight moving westward, and the other three arcs followed at approximately half-hour intervals. When we account for the earth's rotation, the arc drift in an inertial frame was eastward, or dusk to dawn. The half-hour interval between meridian crossings of the arcs implies that the mean spacing between the arcs was 180 km. A Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F6 satellite pass at 0110 UT revealed the presence of highly structured electron and ion precipitation throughout the polar cap. The DMSP visible imager detected a single, sun-aligned arc associated with the largest peak in precipitating electron flux. This arc was also observed at Thule, Greenland, with an intensified film camera. These observations suggest that at least one of the arcs that were observed at Sondre Stromfjord extended across a large part of the polar cap. The radar at Sondre Stromfjord measured electron density and ion drift velocities associated with the four arcs. The radar drift measurements were superimposed on the all-sky video images to determine the location of the measurements relative to the arcs. Plasma drifts outside the arcs were found to be both sunward and antisunward, while within the arcs the drifts were predominantly antisunward. The variability of the drifts in the direction parallel to the arcs indicates that the electric fields were highly structured even though the configuration and motion of the arcs were well behaved

  8. Kelvin Helmholtz Instability at the Equatorial Magnetotail Boundary: MHD Simulation and Comparison with Geotail Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfield, Donald H.; Otto, A.

    1999-01-01

    On March 24, 1995 the Geotail spacecraft observed large fluctuations of the magnetic field and plasma properties in the Low Latitude Boundary Layer (LLBL) about 15 R(sub E) tailward of the dusk meridian. Although the magnetospheric and the magnetosheath field were strongly northward, the B(sub z) component showed strong short duration fluctuations in which B(sub z) could even reach negative values. We have used two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations with magnetospheric and magnetosheath input parameters specifically chosen for this. Geotail event to identify the processes which cause the observed boundary properties. It is shown that these fluctuations can be explained by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability if the k vector of the instability has a component along the magnetic field direction. The simulation results show many of the characteristic properties of the Geotail observations. In particular, the quasi-periodic strong fluctuations are well explained by satellite crossings through the Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices. It is illustrated how the interior structure of the Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices leads to the rapid fluctuations in the Geotail observations. Our results suggest an average Kelvin-Helmholtz wavelength of about 5 R(sub E) with a vortex size of close to 2 R(sub E) for an average repetition time of 2.5 minutes. The growth time for these waves implies a source region of about 10 to 16 R(sub E) upstream from the location of the Geotail spacecraft (i.e., near the dusk meridian). The results also indicate a considerable mass transport of magnetosheath material into the magnetosphere by magnetic reconnection in the Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices.

  9. Associations of Anisometropia with Unilateral Amblyopia, Interocular Acuity Difference and Stereoacuity in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Gui-shuang; Huang, Jiayan; Maguire, Maureen; Quinn, Graham; Kulp, Marjean Taylor; Ciner, Elise; Cyert, Lynn; Orel-Bixler, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relation of anisometropia with unilateral amblyopia, interocular acuity difference (IAD) and stereoacuity, among Head Start preschoolers, using both clinical notation and vector notation analyses. Design Multicenter, cross-sectional study. Participants 3- to 5-year-old participants in the Vision In Preschoolers (VIP) Study (N=4040). Methods Secondary analysis of VIP data from participants who had comprehensive eye examinations including monocular visual acuity (VA) testing, stereoacuity testing, and cycloplegic refraction. VA was retested with full cycloplegic correction when retest criteria were met. Unilateral amblyopia was defined as IAD ≥2 lines in logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution (logMAR). Anisometropia was defined as ≥0.25 D (diopter) difference in spherical equivalent (SE) or in cylinder power, and also two approaches using power vector notation. The percentage with unilateral amblyopia, mean IAD, and mean stereoacuity were compared between anisometropic and isometropic children. Main Outcomes Measures The percentage with unilateral amblyopia, mean IAD, and mean stereoacuity. Results Compared with isometropic children, anisometropic children had a higher percentage of unilateral amblyopia (8% vs. 2%), larger mean IAD (0.07 vs. 0.05 logMAR) and worse mean stereoacuity (145 vs.117 arc sec) (all pamblyopia, larger IAD, and worse stereoacuity (trend pamblyopia was significantly increased with spherical equivalent (SE) anisometropia >0.5 D, cylindrical anisometropia >0.25 D, the vertical/horizontal meridian (J0) or oblique meridian (J45) >0.125 D, or vector dioptric distance (VDD) >0.35 D (all pamblyopia than cylinder, SE, J0 and J45 (pamblyopia, larger IAD and worse stereoacuity. The threshold level of anisometropia at which unilateral amblyopia becomes significant was lower than current guidelines. VDD is more accurate than spherical equivalent anisometropia or cylindrical anisometropia in identifying preschoolers with

  10. Assessment and statistics of surgically induced astigmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeser, Kristian

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the thesis was to develop methods for assessment of surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) in individual eyes, and in groups of eyes. The thesis is based on 12 peer-reviewed publications, published over a period of 16 years. In these publications older and contemporary literature was reviewed(1). A new method (the polar system) for analysis of SIA was developed. Multivariate statistical analysis of refractive data was described(2-4). Clinical validation studies were performed. The description of a cylinder surface with polar values and differential geometry was compared. The main results were: refractive data in the form of sphere, cylinder and axis may define an individual patient or data set, but are unsuited for mathematical and statistical analyses(1). The polar value system converts net astigmatisms to orthonormal components in dioptric space. A polar value is the difference in meridional power between two orthogonal meridians(5,6). Any pair of polar values, separated by an arch of 45 degrees, characterizes a net astigmatism completely(7). The two polar values represent the net curvital and net torsional power over the chosen meridian(8). The spherical component is described by the spherical equivalent power. Several clinical studies demonstrated the efficiency of multivariate statistical analysis of refractive data(4,9-11). Polar values and formal differential geometry describe astigmatic surfaces with similar concepts and mathematical functions(8). Other contemporary methods, such as Long's power matrix, Holladay's and Alpins' methods, Zernike(12) and Fourier analyses(8), are correlated to the polar value system. In conclusion, analysis of SIA should be performed with polar values or other contemporary component systems. The study was supported by Statens Sundhedsvidenskabeligt Forskningsråd, Cykelhandler P. Th. Rasmussen og Hustrus Mindelegat, Hotelejer Carl Larsen og Hustru Nicoline Larsens Mindelegat, Landsforeningen til Vaern om Synet

  11. Parametric fitting of corneal height data to a biconic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janunts, Edgar; Kannengießer, Marc; Langenbucher, Achim

    2015-03-01

    As the average corneal shape can effectively be approximated by a conic section, a determination of the corneal shape by biconic parameters is desired. The purpose of the paper is to introduce a straightforward mathematical approach for extracting clinically relevant parameters of corneal surface, such as radii of curvature and conic constants for principle meridians and astigmatism. A general description for modeling the ocular surfaces in a biconic form is given, based on which an implicit parametric surface fitting algorithm is introduced. The solution of the biconic fitting is obtained by a two sequential least squares optimization approach with constrains. The data input can be raw information from any corneal topographer with not necessarily a uniform data distribution. Various simulated and clinical data are studied including surfaces with rotationally symmetric and non-symmetric geometries. The clinical data was obtained from the Pentacam (Oculus) for the patient having undergone a refractive surgery. A sub-micrometer fitting accuracy was obtained for all simulated surfaces: 0,08 μm RMS fitting error at max for rotationally symmetric and 0,125 μm for non-symmetric surfaces. The astigmatism was recovered in a sub-minutes resolution. The equality in rotational symmetric and the superiority in non-symmetric surfaces of the presented model over the widely used quadric fitting model is shown. The introduced biconic surface fitting algorithm is able to recover the apical radii of curvature and conic constants in principle meridians. This methodology could be a platform for advanced IOL calculations and enhanced contact lens fitting. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  12. Chronological Review on Scientific Findings of Bonghan System and Primo Vascular System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung A

    In 1962, Bonghan Kim in North Korea published a report on a new vascular system in mammals, which he claimed as the acupuncture meridian. He soon named it the Bonghan System. Between 1962 and 1965, he published five reports, with detailed descriptions on the system. Kim also described the self-regenerating nature of a unique cell type Sanals in the system and these cells are now confirmed to be a type of stem cells. According to his findings, the system appears to have vital roles in maintaining mammalian lives. Kim disappeared in around 1965 and the research on this system also completely stopped. In 2002, Kwang-Sup Soh reported re-discovery of the system and, since then, his team has been leading the research on the system. The Soh team has confirmed many of Kim's findings to be valid, although so many of Kim's results are still to be verified. In 2010, the system was renamed the Primo Vascular System (PVS). Soh and researchers trained by Soh have also been reporting new scientific facts on the system. The PVS exists throughout the entire body, including inside the blood and lymphatic vessels. Recent reports revealed more evidence for it to be the acupuncture meridian, where some acupuncture therapies are applied for the blood pressure control. Thus, the PVS is expected to have roles in the oxygen transport in tissues. Many study results also suggest that the PVS may have roles in body homeostasis and regeneration. This article chronologically reviews Kim's scientific findings on the Bonghan System, which were verified by the PVS scientists (after 2000), and also the new findings reported by the PVS scientists.

  13. Kinematics of visually-guided eye movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard J M Hess

    Full Text Available One of the hallmarks of an eye movement that follows Listing's law is the half-angle rule that says that the angular velocity of the eye tilts by half the angle of eccentricity of the line of sight relative to primary eye position. Since all visually-guided eye movements in the regime of far viewing follow Listing's law (with the head still and upright, the question about its origin is of considerable importance. Here, we provide theoretical and experimental evidence that Listing's law results from a unique motor strategy that allows minimizing ocular torsion while smoothly tracking objects of interest along any path in visual space. The strategy consists in compounding conventional ocular rotations in meridian planes, that is in horizontal, vertical and oblique directions (which are all torsion-free with small linear displacements of the eye in the frontal plane. Such compound rotation-displacements of the eye can explain the kinematic paradox that the fixation point may rotate in one plane while the eye rotates in other planes. Its unique signature is the half-angle law in the position domain, which means that the rotation plane of the eye tilts by half-the angle of gaze eccentricity. We show that this law does not readily generalize to the velocity domain of visually-guided eye movements because the angular eye velocity is the sum of two terms, one associated with rotations in meridian planes and one associated with displacements of the eye in the frontal plane. While the first term does not depend on eye position the second term does depend on eye position. We show that compounded rotation - displacements perfectly predict the average smooth kinematics of the eye during steady- state pursuit in both the position and velocity domain.

  14. Kinematics of visually-guided eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Bernhard J M; Thomassen, Jakob S

    2014-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of an eye movement that follows Listing's law is the half-angle rule that says that the angular velocity of the eye tilts by half the angle of eccentricity of the line of sight relative to primary eye position. Since all visually-guided eye movements in the regime of far viewing follow Listing's law (with the head still and upright), the question about its origin is of considerable importance. Here, we provide theoretical and experimental evidence that Listing's law results from a unique motor strategy that allows minimizing ocular torsion while smoothly tracking objects of interest along any path in visual space. The strategy consists in compounding conventional ocular rotations in meridian planes, that is in horizontal, vertical and oblique directions (which are all torsion-free) with small linear displacements of the eye in the frontal plane. Such compound rotation-displacements of the eye can explain the kinematic paradox that the fixation point may rotate in one plane while the eye rotates in other planes. Its unique signature is the half-angle law in the position domain, which means that the rotation plane of the eye tilts by half-the angle of gaze eccentricity. We show that this law does not readily generalize to the velocity domain of visually-guided eye movements because the angular eye velocity is the sum of two terms, one associated with rotations in meridian planes and one associated with displacements of the eye in the frontal plane. While the first term does not depend on eye position the second term does depend on eye position. We show that compounded rotation - displacements perfectly predict the average smooth kinematics of the eye during steady- state pursuit in both the position and velocity domain.

  15. Color dissociation artifacts in double Maddox rod cyclodeviation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, K; Arnoldi, K; Brown, M H

    1994-12-01

    The double Maddox rod test, based on a red Maddox rod in front of one eye and a clear Maddox rod in front of the other, is used to measure cyclodeviation, typically in patients with superior oblique muscle pareses. Discrepant results between the double Maddox rod test and other torsion measures, and reports of "paradoxic" cyclodeviation in the normal eye of some patients with superior oblique paresis, suggest the two-color format of the double Maddox rod test may produce artifactual torsion measures. Forty patients with superior oblique paresis were tested twice using the double Maddox rod test, reversing the red and white Maddox rods between eyes for the second test, and 18 were tested further with same-color red or clear Maddox rods in front of both eyes. With the standard double Maddox rod test, 33 (83%) of 40 patients localized their cyclodeviation to the eye viewing through the red Maddox rod, irrespective of laterality of the paresis or fixation preference. In all 33 patients, laterality of the perceived torsion changed between eyes when testing was repeated with red and white Maddox rods interchanged between eyes. With same-color Maddox rods before both eyes, 17 (94%) of 18 patients localized extorsion to the paretic eye. There was 7.6:1 ratio of luminance transmission and a 1.6:1 ratio of grating spatial frequency bandpass in the plano meridian between the clear and red Maddox rods, which appear to be responsible for the double Maddox rod test artifact. The traditional double Maddox rod test may produce artifactual cyclodeviation measurements. An alternative version of the test, based on same-color Maddox rods in front of both eyes, is proposed. The relatively high spatial frequency bandpass characteristics of the plano meridian of the Maddox rod (as high as 20/25 Snellen equivalent resolution through the clear Maddox rod) also suggests double Maddox rod testing should be conducted in a dark room to avoid biases from visual environment cues.

  16. Signatures of interplanetary transients behind shocks and their associated near-surface solar activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bravo

    Full Text Available Interplanetary transients with particular signatures different from the normal solar wind have been observed behind interplanetary shocks and also without shocks. In this paper we have selected four well-known transient interplanetary signatures, namely: magnetic clouds, helium enhancements and bidirectional electron and ion fluxes, found in the solar wind behind shocks, and undertaken a correlative study between them and the corresponding solar observations. We found that although commonly different signatures appear in a single interplanetary transient event, they are not necessarily simultaneous, that is, they may belong to different plasma regions within the ejecta, which suggests that they may be generated by complex processes involving the ejection of plasma from different solar regions. We also found that more than 90% of these signatures correspond to cases when an Hα flare and/or the eruption of a filament occurred near solar central meridian between 1 and 4 days before the observation of the disturbance at 1 AU, the highest association being with flares taking place between 2 and 3 days before. The majority of the Hα flares were also accompanied by soft X-ray events. We also studied the longitudinal distribution of the associated solar events and found that between 80% and 90% of the interplanetary ejecta were associated with solar events within a longitudinal band of ±30° from the solar central meridian. An east-west asymmetry in the associated solar events seems to exist for some of the signatures. We also look for coronal holes adjacent to the site of the explosive event and find that they were present almost in every case.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics · Interplanetary shocks · Solar wind plasma · Solar physics · Flares and mass ejections

  17. Investigation of electrical responses to acupuncture stimulation: the effect of electrical grounding and insulation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Heum; Ryu, Yeon-Hang; Jung, Byungjo

    2009-03-01

    Acupuncture in Oriental medicine has been widely used as a core therapeutic method due to its minimal side-effects and therapeutic efficacy. However, the electrical response to acupuncture stimulation (ERAS) has not been clearly studied under acupuncture conditions that might affect the efficacy of acupuncture therapy. In this study, the ERAS was objectively investigated by measuring meridian electric potentials (MEPs) when the electrical grounding conditions of the operator and subject were varied, and when the insulation conditions of acupuncture needle were varied. MEPs between Sang-geoheo (ST37) and Ha-geoheo (ST39) of the Stomach Meridian (ST) were measured by stimulating Jok-samni (ST36) with an acupuncture needle. For non-insulated acupuncture stimulation (NIAS), the average MEP peak was 148.6 +/- 20.6 when neither the operator nor the subject were electrically grounded, 23.1 +/- 8.8 when the subject only was electrically grounded, 348 +/- 76.8 when the operator only was electrically grounded, and 19.9 +/- 4.7 when both the operator and the subject were electrically grounded. The MEPs presented various magnitudes and patterns depending on the electrical grounding conditions. The MEP pattern was very similar to that of the charge and discharge of a capacitor. For insulated acupuncture stimulation (IAS), the average MEP peak was 20 +/- 4 in all electrical grounding conditions, which is not a significant electric response for acupuncture stimulation. In terms of electricity, this study verified that acupuncture therapy might be affected by acupuncture conditions such as (1) the electrical grounding condition of the operator and the subject and (2) the insulation condition of the acupuncture needle.

  18. Acupuncture induces divergent alterations of functional connectivity within conventional frequency bands: evidence from MEG recordings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youbo You

    Full Text Available As an ancient Chinese healing modality which has gained increasing popularity in modern society, acupuncture involves stimulation with fine needles inserted into acupoints. Both traditional literature and clinical data indicated that modulation effects largely depend on specific designated acupoints. However, scientific representations of acupoint specificity remain controversial. In the present study, considering the new findings on the sustained effects of acupuncture and its time-varied temporal characteristics, we employed an electrophysiological imaging modality namely magnetoencephalography with a temporal resolution on the order of milliseconds. Taken into account the differential band-limited signal modulations induced by acupuncture, we sought to explore whether or not stimulation at Stomach Meridian 36 (ST36 and a nearby non-meridian point (NAP would evoke divergent functional connectivity alterations within delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands. Whole-head scanning was performed on 28 healthy participants during an eyes-closed no-task condition both preceding and following acupuncture. Data analysis involved calculation of band-limited power (BLP followed by pair-wise BLP correlations. Further averaging was conducted to obtain local and remote connectivity. Statistical analyses revealed the increased connection degree of the left temporal cortex within delta (0.5-4 Hz, beta (13-30 Hz and gamma (30-48 Hz bands following verum acupuncture. Moreover, we not only validated the closer linkage of the left temporal cortex with the prefrontal and frontal cortices, but further pinpointed that such patterns were more extensively distributed in the ST36 group in the delta and beta bands compared to the restriction only to the delta band for NAP. Psychophysical results for significant pain threshold elevation further confirmed the analgesic effect of acupuncture at ST36. In conclusion, our findings may provide a new perspective to lend

  19. Exploring Test–Retest Variability Using High-Resolution Perimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddess, Ted; Matsumoto, Chota; Okuyama, Sachiko; Hashimoto, Shigeki; Nomoto, Hiroki; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Test–retest variability (TRV) of visual field (VF) data seriously degrades our capacity to recognize true VF progression. We conducted repeated high-resolution perimetry with a test interval of 0.5° to investigate the sources of TRV. In particular, we examined whether the spatial variance of the observed sensitivity changes or if their absolute magnitude was of more importance. Methods Sixteen eyes of 16 glaucoma patients were each tested three times at 61 VF locations along the superior-temporal 45° meridian using a modified protocol of the Octopus 900 perimeter. TRV was quantified as the standard deviation of the repeats at each point (retest-SD). We also computed the mean sensitivity at each point (retest-MS) and the running spatial-SD along the tested meridian. Multiple regression models investigated whether any of those variables (and also age, sex, and VF eccentricity) were significant independent determinants of TRV. Results The main independent determinants of TRV were the retest-MS at −0.04 dB TRV/dB loss (P retest-SD at 0.47 dB spatial variance/dB loss (P < 0.0001, t-statistic 12.5). Conclusions The larger effect for the spatial-SD suggested that it was perhaps a stronger determinant of TRV than scotoma depth per se. This might support the hypothesis that interactions between small perimetric stimuli, rapidly varying sensitivity across the field, and normal fixational jitter are strong determinants of TRV. Translational Relevance Our study indicates that methods that might reduce the effects of jagged sensitivity changes, such as increasing stimulus size or better gaze tracking, could reduce TRV. PMID:29046828

  20. Exploring Test-Retest Variability Using High-Resolution Perimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Takuya; Maddess, Ted; Matsumoto, Chota; Okuyama, Sachiko; Hashimoto, Shigeki; Nomoto, Hiroki; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2017-09-01

    Test-retest variability (TRV) of visual field (VF) data seriously degrades our capacity to recognize true VF progression. We conducted repeated high-resolution perimetry with a test interval of 0.5° to investigate the sources of TRV. In particular, we examined whether the spatial variance of the observed sensitivity changes or if their absolute magnitude was of more importance. Sixteen eyes of 16 glaucoma patients were each tested three times at 61 VF locations along the superior-temporal 45° meridian using a modified protocol of the Octopus 900 perimeter. TRV was quantified as the standard deviation of the repeats at each point (retest-SD). We also computed the mean sensitivity at each point (retest-MS) and the running spatial-SD along the tested meridian. Multiple regression models investigated whether any of those variables (and also age, sex, and VF eccentricity) were significant independent determinants of TRV. The main independent determinants of TRV were the retest-MS at -0.04 dB TRV/dB loss ( P retest-SD at 0.47 dB spatial variance/dB loss ( P < 0.0001, t -statistic 12.5). The larger effect for the spatial-SD suggested that it was perhaps a stronger determinant of TRV than scotoma depth per se. This might support the hypothesis that interactions between small perimetric stimuli, rapidly varying sensitivity across the field, and normal fixational jitter are strong determinants of TRV. Our study indicates that methods that might reduce the effects of jagged sensitivity changes, such as increasing stimulus size or better gaze tracking, could reduce TRV.

  1. An application of the multilayer perceptron: Solar radiation maps in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hontoria, L.; Aguilera, J. [Grupo Investigacion y Desarrollo en Energia Solar y Automatica, Dpto. de Ingenieria Electronica, de Telecomunicaciones y Automatica, Escuela Politecnica Superior de Jaen, Campus de las Lagunillas, Universidad de Jaen, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Zufiria, P. [Grupo de Redes Neuronales, Dpto. de Matematica Aplicada a las Tecnologias de la Informacion, ETSI Telecomunicaciones, UPM Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-11-01

    In this work an application of a methodology to obtain solar radiation maps is presented. This methodology is based on a neural network system [Lippmann, R.P., 1987. An introduction to computing with neural nets. IEEE ASSP Magazine, 4-22] called Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) [Haykin, S., 1994. Neural Networks. A Comprehensive Foundation. Macmillan Publishing Company; Hornik, K., Stinchcombe, M., White, H., 1989. Multilayer feedforward networks are universal approximators. Neural Networks, 2(5), 359-366]. To obtain a solar radiation map it is necessary to know the solar radiation of many points spread wide across the zone of the map where it is going to be drawn. For most of the locations all over the world the records of these data (solar radiation in whatever scale, daily or hourly values) are non-existent. Only very few locations have the privilege of having good meteorological stations where records of solar radiation have being registered. But even in those locations with historical records of solar data, the quality of these solar series is not as good as it should be for most purposes. In addition, to draw solar radiation maps the number of points on the maps (real sites) that it is necessary to work with makes this problem difficult to solve. Nevertheless, with the application of the methodology proposed in this paper, this problem has been solved and solar radiation maps have been obtained for a small region of Spain: Jaen province, a southern province of Spain between parallels 38{sup o}25' N and 37{sup o}25' N, and meridians 4{sup o}10' W and 2{sup o}10' W, and for a larger region: Andalucia, the most southern region of Spain situated between parallels 38{sup o}40' N and 36{sup o}00' N, and meridians 7{sup o}30' W and 1{sup o}40' W. (author)

  2. Georeference of the 1:200,000 'degree maps' of Central Europe (about 1910)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timár, G.; Molnár, G.; Crăciunescu, V.

    2009-04-01

    The Institute of Military Geography in Vienna has completed the mapping of central Europe in the scale of 1:200,000 in the first decade of the 20th century. The map sheets cover a one degree (latitude) by one degree (longitude) extent piece of the terrain, that's why these sheets are referred to as 'degree maps'. The longitude is shown with respect to the Ferro prime meridian. The integer degree lines are the horizontal and vertical central lines of the sheets. The map sheets has no uniform projections, not even inside one sheet. The basic units of these maps were the 1:75,000 scale sheets of the cartography of the Habsburg Monarchy, each covering a half degree (longitude) by quarter degree (latitude) piece of terrain. Each 1:75,000 sheets have their own oblique Stereographic projection, with the projection centre at the geometric centre of the sheet. The set of these Stereographic systems is called Lichtenstern-type polyedric projection system. Each degree maps contains eight of the 1:75,000 sheets, without reprojection but simply drawn them in an approximate mosaic. Thus, the exact method of the georeference would be to cut these degree maps into eight pieces along the borders of the 1:75,000 sheets and rectify them separately in their own Stereographic systems. As it raises a huge work, we suggest to define substituting projections. Namely, a sinusoidal projection for each degree column should be defined with a projection center at the crossing of the central meridian and the Equator. The degree maps can be rectified using their corners as control points in the respective sinusoidal projection. After the rectification, we can crop the map content of the sheets and reproject them to any selected projection to make a real map mosaic. Using the georeference, we can provide combinations of these sheets and the modern databases or elevation models.

  3. [Analysis on medication rules of modern traditional Chinese medicines in treating palpitations based on traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhi-Xin; Zhang, Pan-Pan; Gao, Wu-Lin; Dai, Guo-Hua

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the prescription and medication rules of Chinese medicines in the treatment of palpitations in the Chinese journal full text database(CNKI) by using traditional Chinese medicine inheritance system, and provide a reference for further research and development of modern traditional Chinese medicines(TCMs) in treatment of palpitations. In order to give better guidance for clinical mediation, prescriptions used for treatment of palpitations in CNKI were collected, and then were input to the TCM inheritance support system for establishing a Chinese medicine prescription database for palpitations. The software's revised mutual information, complex system entropy clustering and other data mining methods were adopted to analyze the prescriptions according to the frequencies of herbs, "four natures", "five flavors" and "meridians" of the high-frequency medicines in the database, identify the core herbs and application characteristics, and analyze the prescription rules and medication experience. Totally, 545 prescriptions used for palpitation were included in this study and involved 247 Chinese herbs. The analysis results showed that the herbs in prescriptions for palpitation mostly had the warm property, and the herbs in heart and spleen meridian accounted for a larger proportion, indicating that the treatment was mainly to nourish heart and strengthen spleen. The top 11 herbs in usage frequency were consistent with the high-frequency medicines in medication patterns of common herbal pairs; therefore, we considered that these 11 herbs were the core herbs; the core herbal combination included Cassia Twig, Licorice, fossil fragments, Ostreae decoction, and evolved into 9 new prescriptions for treating palpitation. Our results objectively presented the prescription and medication rules for treating palpitation and provided extremely effective guidance for the clinical therapy. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  4. Recurrent Forbush decreases and relationship between active regions and M-regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, G.N.; Kaul, C.L.; Razdan, H.; Bemalkhedkar, M.M.

    1977-01-01

    Recurrent Forbush decreases and recurrent geomagnetic disturbances have been attributed to the solar M-regions, which are sources of high velocity solar plasma streams. A study of recurrent Forbush decreases for the period 1966-75 has been made to examine any possible relationship of M-regions with solar active regions. It is shown that at the onset of the recurrent Forbush decrease at earth, there is a high probability of encountering a class of active regions at central meridian of the sun which give rise to flares of importance >= 28/3N. These active regions are found to be long-lasting and to have large areas as well as high Hsub(α)-intensities. Other active regions, producing flares of only lower importance, are distributed randomly on the sun with respect to the onset of a recurrent Forbush decrease. Using the quasiradial hypervelocity approximation, the base of the leading edge of the high velocity stream, at the onset of a recurrent Forbush decrease at earth, is traced to the solar longitude about 40 deg West of the central meridian. From these results, it is deduced that M-regions are located preferentially to the West of long-lasting, magnetically complex active regions. Earlier studies of the identification of the M-regions on the sun have been re-examined and shown to conform to this positional relationship. A possible mechanism of the development of an M-region to the West of the long-lasting magnetically complex active region is also discussed. (author)

  5. Understanding the Longitudinal Variability of Equatorial Electrodynamics using integrated Ground- and Space-based Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yizengaw, E.; Moldwin, M.; Zesta, E.

    2015-12-01

    The currently funded African Meridian B-Field Education and Research (AMBER) magnetometer array comprises more than thirteen magnetometers stationed globally in the vicinity of geomagnetic equator. One of the main objectives of AMBER network is to understand the longitudinal variability of equatorial electrodynamics as function of local time, magnetic activity, and season. While providing complete meridian observation in the region and filling the largest land-based gap in global magnetometer coverage, the AMBER array addresses two fundamental areas of space physics: first, the processes governing electrodynamics of the equatorial ionosphere as a function of latitude (or L-shell), local time, longitude, magnetic activity, and season, and second, ULF pulsation strength at low/mid-latitude regions and its connection with equatorial electrojet and density fluctuation. The global AMBER network can also be used to augment observations from space-based instruments, such us the triplet SWARM mission and the upcoming ICON missions. Thus, in coordination with space-based and other ground-based observations, the AMBER magnetometer network provides a great opportunity to understand the electrodynamics that governs equatorial ionosphere motions. In this paper we present the longitudinal variability of the equatorial electrodynamics using the combination of instruments onboard SWARM and C/NOFS satellites and ground-based AMBER network. Both ground- and pace-based observations show stronger dayside and evening sector equatorial electrodynamics in the American and Asian sectors compared to the African sector. On the other hand, the African sector is home to stronger and year-round ionospheric bubbles/irregularities compared to the American and Asian sectors. This raises the question if the evening sector equatorial electrodynamics (vertical drift), which is believed to be the main cause for the enhancement of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth rate, is stronger in the

  6. Effects of the "New Climate" warmed in North Africa and Western Mediterranean: the situation of recent meteorological droughts and floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrouk, Mohammed-Said

    2017-04-01

    "New Climate" subjected to North Africa, Western Mediterranean and geoclimatic midlatitude space atmospheric effects of the new regime characterized by the supremacy of the meridian circulation (MAC: Meridian Atmospheric Circulation), by alternating cool conditions (humidity) heat (drought) along the year, and imposes situation of anxiety and perplexity vis-a-vis their socio-economic activities; shoved agricultural calendar, hesitant policymakers, uncertainty and waiting, ... etc. The recent example of the fall-winter 2015-2016 is indicative of the conditions that have left a deep psychological imprint on economic and social Moroccans. During this period, the summer heat has extended to the end of autumn and even winter. And precipitation contracted by more than 51% of accumulated rainfall autumn, compared with the same period a normal year. A slowdown in economic growth has been felt since last December and was extended until the rains return (and snow!) In mid February 2016. Weather conditions during this period were marked by the succession and persistence of very active planetary peaks, projected to the northern borders of Western Europe (Heat Christmas 2015!), Rejecting the negative waves to the east: Algeria, Tunisia, Italy, the Balkans, Anatolia, and even the Middle East. These conditions are the consequences of the "New Climate" warmed, strengthened by the strong El Niño event in 2015 decennial. The identification of hemispheric and regional climate mechanisms of these atmospheric regime systems based on energy balance and atmospheric circulation will be defined, with links of cause and effect, in view of integrating these characters to extreme events in the New Climate Warmed.

  7. [Synopsis about the hypothesis of "information channel" of channel-collateral system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xi-Lang

    2008-10-01

    The author of the present paper founded a theorem about the "incompleteness of single channel structure" (nerve, blood vessel, lymphatic, interspace, aperture, etc.) through quantitative and qualitative analysis about the economic information channel in the human body, which eliminates the probability of single channel structure in the information channel of channel (meridian)-collateral system. After comprehensive analysis on the current researches, the author puts forward a neodoxy, i.e., the body "information channel" structure of the channel-collateral system, mainly follows the distribution regularity of systemic statistics, and is not a single specific entity; various layers of the information channel in the main stems of the channel-collaterals are composed of optimized structure tissues. Hence, the structure of this information channel of channel-collateral system is an overall-optimized, sequential and compatible systemic structure. From this neodoxy, the author brings forward a working principle of channel-collaterals, which is supported theoretically by bio-auxology. The longitudinal distribution of the main stems of meridian-collaterals is considered to result from that in the process of the animal evolution, in the animals moving forward, the microscopic complicated movement of intracorporeal information and energy molecules is related to the forward macroscopic and non-uniform movement of organism in trans-measure. Its impulse and kinetic momentum forms a main vector in the longitudinal direction of the body (the direction of the main stem of channel-collaterals). In order to adapt to and utilize natural regularities, the main stems of the channel-collaterals gradually differentiate and evolve in the living organism, forming a whole system. The "hypothesis of biological origin of channel-collateral system" and "that of information channel of the channel-collaterals in the body" constitute a relatively complete theoretical system framework.

  8. The effect of tail stretching on the ionospheric accessibility of relativistic electron beam experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, J.; Johnson, J.; Sanchez, E. R.; Kaganovich, I.; Greklek-McKeon, M.; Powis, T.

    2017-12-01

    New accelerator technologies have made it possible to install a lightweight electron beam accelerator onto small to medium satellites. Electron beams fired along the geomagnetic field would be able to carry energy flux into the ionosphere if they were fired into the loss cone, making these particles observable from the ground. Such an experiment would provide a way to accurately map field lines. One of the important challenges to utilizing this concept is understanding accessibility of these electrons to the ionosphere. While relativistic electron beams are generally more stable than lower energy beams, they are more sensitive to the effects of field-line curvature, which can significantly modify the loss cone [Porazik et al., 2014] making accessibility to the ionosphere sensitive to the launch angle with respect to the magnetic field. We examine the loss cone for 1 MeV electrons in a realistic magnetospheric geometry considering, in particular, the role of field-line stretching. To map the loss cone, we consider conservation of the first adiabatic invariant to second order in ρ/L using the asymptotic series derived by Gardner [Phys Fluids, 1966], which is valid on the midnight meridian. We investigate the loss cones for different magnetic field models controlled by a stretching parameter over the entire midnight meridian. We found that, because tail stretching increases field line curvature near the midplane but decreases curvature elsewhere, accessibility to the ionosphere is increased by tail stretching in regions above and below the midplane, although accessibility of particles passing through the midplane is reduced. This result implies that satellites armed with electron beam accelerators may be able to visibly affect the atmosphere from distances greater than previously anticipated.

  9. Multipoint analysis of a bursty bulk flow event on April 11, 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelopoulos, V.; Coroniti, F. V.; Kennel, C. F.; Kivelson, M. G.; Walker, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; McPherron, R. L.; Sanchez, E.; Meng, C.-I.; Baumjohann, W.; Reeves, G. D.; Belian, R. D.; Sato, N.; Friis-Christensen, E.; Sutcliffe, P. R.; Yumoto, K.; Harris, T.

    1996-03-01

    In an attempt to place short-lived, high-speed magnetotail flows termed bursty bulk flow events (BBFs) in the context of substorm phenomenology we analyze one such event that took place on April 11, 1985, using data from several spacecraft and many ground stations. The substorm onset, which took place at 0127 UT, had a meridian 2 hours of local time east of AMPTE/IRM. The satellite did not detect high-speed flows at that time. A high-latitude (˜70° corrected geomagnetic) substorm intensification took place at 0202 UT centered ˜0.5 hour of local time west of the AMPTE/IRM meridian. The ISEE 2 satellite at the magnetotail lobe and the LANL 019 satellite at geosynchronous altitude were both at the same meridian as AMPTE/IRM at the time. The 0202 UT substorm intensification was associated with (1) a dipolarization at the ISEE 2 satellite at 0200:30 UT, (2) a BBF oiiset at AMPTE/IRM at 0202 UT accompanied by an intense dipolarization consistent with current wedge formation, (3) an energetic particle injection at geosynchronous altitude that took place at 0204 UT. The plasma acceleration region associated with this substorm intensification was estimated to be ˜ 8 RE tailward of AMPTE/IRM. Thus, during this activity the BBF event was due to an observed tail collapse Earthward of X ˜ -26 RE. The Earthward energy transport measured at AMPTE/IRM can account for the expected magnetospheric power consumption if the BBF has a cross-sectional area of only 1-2 RE2 in the Y-Z direction. Similarly, the Earthward magnetic flux transport rate measured at AMPTE/IRM during the BBF event can result in a potential drop comparable to the expected transpolar cap potential if the BBF event has a size of 1-2 RE in the Y direction. The large amounts of flux transport measured past the satellite necessitate the existence of lobe flux reconnection tailward of AMPTE/IRM. The above results assume the validity of the frozen-in condition over the ˜10-min duration of the BBF event. Although

  10. [Professor Wei Pin-kang's experience in treating chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting: an analysis of herbal medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jun; Wei, Pin-Kang

    2012-04-01

    To summarize the herbal medication by Professor WEI Pin-kang's prescriptions in treating chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). On the basis of outpatient and inpatients' medical records concerning CINV from case-database (keywords: chemotherapy and vomiting), data of 143 patients and 143 effective prescriptions were collected. The herbs and those category, nature, flavor and meridian distribution were summarized by frequency method using SPSS 13.0 Software. The couple herbs were analyzed by hierarchical cluster analysis. A total of 144 herbs were used (2 353 frequencies). Six groups of herbs [ frequency >5%, cumulative relative frequency (CRF) 58.89%] were used frequently as follow: the herbs for regulating qi (17.81%), resolving phlegm (13.51%), invigorating qi (8.07%), relieving food retention (7.44%), calming Gan to stop endogenous wind (7.05%), and warming the interior (5.01%). The most frequently used herbs ( >20 frequencies, CRF 77.31%) had 31 species as follow: the herbs for regulating qi (6 species), calming Gan to stop endogenous wind (4 species), resolving phlegm (3 species), external application (2 species), invigorating qi (2 species), warming the interior (2 species), activating blood and removing blood stasis (2 species), promoting diuresis and resolving dampness (1 species), purgation (1 species), invigorating blood (1 species), relieving exterior syndrome with pungent-warm property (1 species), relieving exterior syndrome with pungent-cool property (1 species), astringent (1 species), resolving dampness with aromatic property (1 species), calming the mind (1 species), eliminating heat and dampness (1 species), relieving food retention (1 species). Frequency of Rhizoma Pinelliae was 127 including Rhizoma Pinelliae (processed with ginger) 83 (65.35%). Frequency of prepared Radix et Rhizoma Rhei was 85 (95.51% of Prea- praed Rhizoma Rhei). These herbs were mostly of warm nature (43.99%). The total frequency of herb-nature was 3 677 and the

  11. Spatial observation and monitoring of the effects of the "New Climate" Warming on Morocco: Situation of the recent urban floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrouk, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Since the nineties of the last century, climatological research following a great scientific advance in the field of prediction, not the variability and evolution of the different climatic parameters was beginning to be clearer!But today, since the beginning of 2005, certainly due to oceanic thermal cumulations, and the shift of climatic zones towards poles in selective forms (more intense on the oceans present on the continents); Climatic events do not evolve according to the usual and expected rhythms: atmospheric circulation, precipitation, temperatures, seasonal phenomena, etc. These conditions are a spatiotemporal evolution and distribution, which characterize the new "global climate", by the new atmospheric regime imposing the Meridian Atmospheric Circulation (MAC), alternating the conditions of Freshness (humidity) and Heat (drought) along the year.In this new situation, Morocco, located in the climate transition zone, is fully affected by the "New Climate". Usually, the atmospheric response to major climatic events (ENSO) in this region such as "El Niño" was characterized by the establishment of the NAO positive index, stability and drought, due to dominance Zonal Atmospheric Circulation in winter. On the other hand, in the "La Niña" episode, the negative index of the NAO and the predominant Meridian Atmospheric Circulation and precipitation became abundant.Since the beginning of this century, qualified meteorological events of "exceptional !" causing floods have continued to occur in Morocco and elsewhere, with increasing recurrence, prompting us to wonder about the "new" mode of hydro-thermal function of the climate system that induces torrential rains, as well as its effect on environments and societies.The latest event is the flood disaster in October 2016 in the Laâyoune region of southern Morocco, which specializes in the unusual return of rain in a region considered dry and Saharan.Thanks to spatial observation and monitoring of meteorological

  12. High-Resolution Imaging of Parafoveal Cones in Different Stages of Diabetic Retinopathy Using Adaptive Optics Fundus Camera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Kamel Soliman

    Full Text Available To assess cone density as a marker of early signs of retinopathy in patients with type II diabetes mellitus.An adaptive optics (AO retinal camera (rtx1™; Imagine Eyes, Orsay, France was used to acquire images of parafoveal cones from patients with type II diabetes mellitus with or without retinopathy and from healthy controls with no known systemic or ocular disease. Cone mosaic was captured at 0° and 2°eccentricities along the horizontal and vertical meridians. The density of the parafoveal cones was calculated within 100×100-μm squares located at 500-μm from the foveal center along the orthogonal meridians. Manual corrections of the automated counting were then performed by 2 masked graders. Cone density measurements were evaluated with ANOVA that consisted of one between-subjects factor, stage of retinopathy and the within-subject factors. The ANOVA model included a complex covariance structure to account for correlations between the levels of the within-subject factors.Ten healthy participants (20 eyes and 25 patients (29 eyes with type II diabetes mellitus were recruited in the study. The mean (± standard deviation [SD] age of the healthy participants (Control group, patients with diabetes without retinopathy (No DR group, and patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR group was 55 ± 8, 53 ± 8, and 52 ± 9 years, respectively. The cone density was significantly lower in the moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR and severe NPDR/proliferative DR groups compared to the Control, No DR, and mild NPDR groups (P < 0.05. No correlation was found between cone density and the level of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c or the duration of diabetes.The extent of photoreceptor loss on AO imaging may correlate positively with severity of DR in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Photoreceptor loss may be more pronounced among patients with advanced stages of DR due to higher risk of macular edema and its sequelae.

  13. TESTING OF NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM OF DETERMINING SOURCES OF MAGNETOSTATIC FIELD IN MAGNETIZED MEDIUM

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    V. M. Mikhailov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Testing of numerical solution algorithm for integral equation for calculation of plane meridian magnetostatic field source distribution at interfaces of piecewise homogeneous magnetized medium by means of electrostatic analogy. Methodology. The piecewise homogeneous medium consists of three regions with different magnetic permeabilities: the shell of arbitrary meridian section, external unlimited medium outside the shell, and the medium inside the shell. For testing external homogeneous magnetic field effect on spherical shell is considered. The analytical solution of this problem on the basis of electrostatic analogy from the solution of the problem uniform electrostatic field effect on dielectric shell is obtained. We have compared results of numerical solution of integral equation with the data obtained by means of analytical solution at the variation of magnetic permeabilities of regions of medium. Results. Integral equation and the algorithm of its numerical solution for calculation of source field distribution at the boundaries of piecewise homogeneous medium is validated. Testing of integral equations correctness for calculation of fictitious magnetic charges distribution on axisymmetric boundaries of piecewise homogeneous magnetized medium and algorithms of their numerical solutions can be carried out by means of analytical solutions of problems of homogeneous electrostatic field effect analysis on piecewise homogeneous dielectric medium with central symmetry of boundaries – single-layer and multilayer spherical shells. In the case of spherical shell in wide range of values of the parameter λk, including close to ± 1, numerical solution of integral equation is stable, and relative error in calculating of fictitious magnetic charges surface density and magnetic field intensity inside the shell is from tenths of a percent up to several percent except for the cases of very small values of these quantities. Originality. The use

  14. Refractive errors and amblyopia in children entering school: Shahrood, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Payman; Fotouhi, Akbar; Hashemi, Hassan; Younesian, Masud; Jafari, Alireza

    2009-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of amblyopia, strabismus, and refractive errors in children entering school. In this cross-sectional population-based study, 6-year-old children enrolling in Shahrood schools were randomly sampled. Those with organic blindness or mental retardation were excluded. Ocular alignment, visual acuity, stereopsis, cover testing, and cycloplegic refraction were recorded for all children by an optometrist. A diagnosis of amblyopia was based on a best-corrected visual acuity of 6/12 or less in one or both eyes, or a bilateral difference of at least two best-corrected visual acuity lines. A total of 902 children were invited for optometry examinations, among which 827 (91.7%) responded and 815 children (98.5%) were included in the study. The prevalence of significantly reduced visual acuity (uncorrected VA amblyopia was 3.6 and 1.7%, respectively. The prevalence of hyperopia (+2.00 D or worse), myopia (-0.50 D or worse), astigmatism (0.75 D or worse), and anisometropia (1.00 D or more) were 20.5, 1.7, 19.6, and 2.2%, respectively. Significant refractive error, defined as hyperopia >+3.50 D, myopia >-3.00 D, astigmatism >1.50 D in the orthogonal meridian or >1.00 D in the oblique meridian, or anisometropia (hyperopic >1.00 D, myopic >3.00 D) was detected in 2.1, 0.1, 5.0, and 0.9% of the sample, respectively. Strabismus was diagnosed in 1.2% of children. Overall, 52 children (6.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.7-8.1%) were at risk of amblyopia; of these, 81% had significant refractive errors, 11% had strabismus, and 8% had both. A considerable proportion of 6-year-old children have strabismus and/or significant, potentially amblyogenic refractive errors. The relatively high rate of hyperopia and astigmatism in the studied population needs more attention. The results of the study emphasize the need for adequate diagnostic and therapeutic eye care services for preschool children.

  15. The effect of acupuncture duration on analgesia and peripheral sensory thresholds

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    Schulteis Gery

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acupuncture provides a means of peripheral stimulation for pain relief. However, the detailed neuronal mechanisms by which acupuncture relieves pain are still poorly understood and information regarding optimal treatment settings is still inadequate. Previous studies with a short burst of unilateral electroacupuncture (EA in the Tendinomuscular Meridians (TMM treatment model for pain demonstrated a transient dermatomally correlated bilateral analgesic effect with corresponding peripheral modality-specific sensory threshold alterations. However, the impact of EA duration on the analgesic effect in this particular treatment model is unknown. To obtain mechanistically and clinically important information regarding EA analgesia, this current prospective cross-over study assesses the effects of EA duration on analgesia and thermal sensory thresholds in the TMM treatment model. Methods Baseline peripheral sensory thresholds were measured at pre-marked testing sites along the medial aspects (liver and spleen meridians of bilateral lower extremities. A 5-second hot pain stimulation was delivered to the testing sites and the corresponding pain Visual Analog Scale (VAS scores were recorded. Three different EA (5Hz stimulation durations (5, 15 and 30 minutes were randomly tested at least one week apart. At the last 10 seconds of each EA session, 5 seconds of subject specific HP stimulation was delivered to the testing sites. The corresponding pain and EA VAS scores of de qi sensation (tingling during and after the EA were recorded. The measurements were repeated immediately, 30 and 60 minutes after the EA stimulation. A four-factor repeat measures ANOVA was used to assess the effect of stimulation duration, time, location (thigh vs. calf and side (ipsilateral vs. contralateral of EA on sensory thresholds and HP VAS scores. Results A significant (P Conclusion Longer durations of EA stimulation provide a more sustainable analgesic benefit

  16. Computerized calculation scheme for toric intraocular lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbucher, Achim; Seitz, Berthold

    2004-06-01

    While a number of intraocular lens (IOL) power prediction formulae are well established for determination of spherical lenses, no common strategy has been published for the computation of toric IOLs. The purpose of this study is to describe a paraxial computing scheme for tracing an axial pencil of rays through the 'optical system eye' containing astigmatic refractive surfaces with their axes at random. The capabilities of this computing scheme are demonstrated with clinical examples. Based on a schematic model eye with spherocylindric surfaces, we use two alternative notations for description of vergences or prescriptions: (1) standard notation (refraction in both cardinal meridians and axis), and (2) component notation (spherical equivalent and cylindric component in 0 degrees and 45 degrees. Refractive surfaces are added to the vergence in component notation, whereas the transformation of the vergence through media is performed in the standard notation for both cardinal meridians. For calculation of the toric lens implant, a pencil of rays is traced through the spectacle and the cornea to the estimated lens position as well as backwards from the retina to the estimated lens position. For calculation of residual spectacle refraction, a pencil of rays is traced backwards from the retina through the toric lens implant and the cornea to the spectacle plane. In example 1 we calculate a 'thin toric lens' for compensation of a corneal astigmatism to achieve a spherical target refraction. In example 2 we compute a 'thick toric lens', which has to compensate for an oblique corneal astigmatism and rotate the spectacle cylinder to the against the rule position to enhance near vision. In example 3 we estimate the residual refraction at the corneal plane after implantation of a thick toric lens, when the cylinder of the lens implant is compensating the corneal cylinder in part and the axis of implantation is not fully aligned with the axis of the corneal astigmatism. This

  17. Dynamics in the Modern Upper Atmosphere of Venus: Zonal Wind Transition to Subsolar-to-Antisolar Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livengood, T. A.; Kostiuk, T.; Hewagama, T.; Fast, K. E.

    2017-12-01

    We observed Venus on 19-23 Aug 2010 (UT) to investigate equatorial wind velocities from above the cloud tops through the lower thermosphere. Measurements were made from the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility using the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Heterodyne Instrument for Planetary Winds and Composition. High-resolution spectra were acquired on a CO2 pressure-broadened absorption feature that probes the lower mesosphere ( 70 km altitude) with a non-LTE core emission of the same transition that probes the lower thermosphere ( 110 km). The resolving power of λ/Δλ≈3×107 determines line-of-sight velocity from Doppler shifts to high precision. The altitude differential between the features enables investigating the transition from zonal wind flow near the cloud tops to subsolar-to-antisolar flow in the thermosphere. The fully-resolved carbon dioxide transition was measured near 952.8808 cm-1 (10.494 µm) rest frequency at the equator with 1 arcsec field-of-view on Venus (24 arcsec diameter) distributed about the central meridian and across the terminator at ±15° intervals in longitude. The non-LTE emission is solar-pumped and appears only on the daylight side, probing subsolar-to-antisolar wind velocity vector flowing radially from the subsolar point through the terminator, which was near the central meridian in these observations and had zero line-of-sight wind projection at the terminator. The velocity of the zonal flow is approximately uniform, with maximum line-of-sight projection at the limb, and can be measured by the frequency of the absorption line on both the daylight and dark side. Variations in Doppler shift between the observable features and the differing angular dependence of the contributing wind phenomena thus provide independent mechanisms to distinguish the dynamical processes at the altitude of each observed spectral feature. Winds up to >100 m/s were determined in previous investigations with uncertainties of order 10 m/s or less.

  18. The integration of acupuncture within medicine in the UK--the British Medical Acupuncture Society's 25th anniversary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldry, Peter

    2005-03-01

    Acupuncture was first used in China, probable about 2000 years ago. When acupuncture first arrived in the West in the 17th century, the principles which the Chinese had used to explain its actions were at variance with current scientific knowledge of the body's structure and function. This led to the rejection of acupuncture by the medical profession in the UK, although individual practitioners adopted it with enthusiasm, usually needling the point of maximal tenderness to treat musculoskeletal pain. Acupuncture was more generally accepted in France and Germany, where the pioneering British physician Felix Mann encountered it in the 1950s. He then taught acupuncture to other medical practitioners and organised regular meetings in London, from which the British Medical Acupuncture Society, BMAS, emerged in 1980. The tradition of biannual scientific meetings has continued since then. The Society has many connections with prominent acupuncturists internationally and is a founder member of the International Council of Medical Acupuncture and Related Techniques (ICMART), and has hosted two world congresses. The Society was involved in standardisation of the meridian nomenclature published in 1990. The Society's scientific journal, Acupuncture in Medicine, was founded in 1981 and has gained international recognition, being indexed on several databases. The Society has established regular teaching courses at different levels, which lead to professional qualifications of Certificate and Diploma. The membership is now open to different health professionals, has grown steadily and now stands at nearly 2500. The Society is administered from offices in Cheshire and London. Many individual members have contributed to the Society's characteristic Western 'medical' approach to acupuncture in which needling is seen as a form of neuromuscular stimulation that owes little to traditional meridians or points. The Society has shown a particular interest in acupuncture for myofascial

  19. Effects of different levels of intraocular stray light on kinetic perimetry findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Hirasawa

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of different levels of intraocular stray light on kinetic perimetry findings.Twenty-five eyes of 25 healthy young participants were examined by automated kinetic perimetry (Octopus 900 using Goldmann stimuli III4e, I4e, I3e, I2e, and I1e. Each stimulus was presented with a velocity of 3°/s at 24 meridians with 15° intervals. Four levels of intraocular stray light were induced using non-white opacity filter (WOF filters and WOFs applied to the clear plastic eye covers of the participants. The visual acuity, pupil diameter, isopter area, and kinetic sensitivity of each meridian were analyzed for each WOF density.Visual acuity deteriorated with increasing WOF densities (p < 0.01. With a visual acuity of 0.1 LogMAR units, the isopter areas for III4e, I4e, I3e, I2e, and I1e decreased by -32.7 degree2 (-0.2%, -255.7 degree2 (-2.6%, -381.2 degree2 (-6.2%, -314.8 degree2 (-12.8%, and -59.2 degree2 (-15.2%, respectively; kinetic sensitivity for those stimuli decreased by -0.1 degree (-0.1%, -0.8 degree (-1.4%, -1.6 degree (-3.7%, -2.7 degree (-9.7%, and -1.7 degree (-16.2%, respectively. The pupil diameter with each WOF density was not significantly different.Kinetic perimetry measurements with a high-intensity stimulus (i.e., III4e were unaffected by intraocular stray light. In contrast, measurements with the I4e, I3e, I2e, and I1e stimuli, especially I2e and I1e, were affected. Changes in the shape of the isopter resulting from opacity must be monitored, especially in cases of smaller and lower-intensity stimuli.

  20. Identification of possible intense historical geomagnetic storms using combined sunspot and auroral observations from East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Willis

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive catalogues of ancient sunspot and auroral observations from East Asia are used to identify possible intense historical geomagnetic storms in the interval 210 BC-AD 1918. There are about 270 entries in the sunspot catalogue and about 1150 entries in the auroral catalogue. Special databases have been constructed in which the scientific information in these two catalogues is placed in specified fields. For the purposes of this study, an historical geomagnetic storm is defined in terms of an auroral observation that is apparently associated with a particular sunspot observation, in the sense that the auroral observation occurred within several days of the sunspot observation. More precisely, a selection criterion is formulated for the automatic identification of such geomagnetic storms, using the oriental records stored in the sunspot and auroral databases. The selection criterion is based on specific assumptions about the duration of sunspot visibility with the unaided eye, the likely range of heliographic longitudes of an energetic solar feature, and the likely range of transit times for ejected solar plasma to travel from the Sun to the Earth. This selection criterion results in the identification of nineteen putative historical geomagnetic storms, although two of these storms are spurious in the sense that there are two examples of a single sunspot observation being associated with two different auroral observations separated by more than half a (synodic solar rotation period. The literary and scientific reliabilities of the East Asian sunspot and auroral records that define the nineteen historical geomagnetic storms are discussed in detail in a set of appendices. A possible time sequence of events is presented for each geomagnetic storm, including possible dates for both the central meridian passage of the sunspot and the occurrence of the energetic solar feature, as well as likely transit times for the ejected solar plasma

  1. Investigation of quinoline-based materials for organic light-emitting diode (OLED) applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changqing

    Blue electroluminescent materials are essential for the development of full-color displays. A blue-emitting quinoline-based material 8,8' -dimethoxy-5,5'-bisquinoline (DMeOBQ) was synthesized and characterized. This material is sublimable and has significantly improved hydrolytic stability as well as promising electron transporting and emitting properties. A blue organic light-emitting diode (OLED) was made with this material. The device configuration is indium tin oxide/NPB/DMeOBQ/CsF/Al. N, N'-bis-(1-naphthyl)-N, N'-diphenyl-1,1 '-biphenyl-4, 4'-diamine (NPB) was used as the hole transporting material, DMeOBQ as the electron transporting and blue emitting material, and CsF/Al as the cathode. The device showed a bright blue emission with a peak wavelength of 425nm (CIE coordinates: x = 0.155, y = 0.10) and narrow EL band (FWHM = 63 nm). The device also showed a low turn on voltage of 2.8 ev. Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) has become one of the most widely used electroluminescent materials in OLEDs because of its good stability and luminescence properties. The existence of various isomers (meridianal and facial) as well as left- and right-handed enantiomers of the meridianal isomer could potentially contribute to structure randomization of Alq3, thereby qualitatively addressing the microcrystaline nature of this material. We studied exchange dynamics of the three inequivalent ligands and the enantiomers in Alq3 complexes. Liquid state NMR spectroscopy was used to quantify the interchange of the three ligands, the temperature dependence of this process and the enantiomers of Alq3 in the presence of a chiral shift reagent. The three inequivalent ligands were found to exchange following a first-order kinetic model. Activation parameters were obtained from the temperature dependence of the reaction rate constants. The activation energies for the flip of the three inequivalent ligands were found to be around 100 kJ/mol. The existence of the two enantiomers of

  2. Anatomical relationship between traditional acupuncture point ST 36 and Omura's ST 36 (True ST 36) with their therapeutic effects: 1) inhibition of cancer cell division by markedly lowering cancer cell telomere while increasing normal cell telomere, 2) improving circulatory disturbances, with reduction of abnormal increase in high triglyceride, L-homocystein, CRP, or cardiac troponin I & T in blood by the stimulation of Omura's ST 36--Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Chen, Yemeng; Lu, Dominic P; Shimotsura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu; Duvvi, Harsha

    2007-01-01

    Using Bi-Digital O-Ring Test Resonance Phenomena between 2 identical substances, Omura, Y. succeeded in making the image of the outline of internal organs without use of standard imaging devices since 1982. When he imaged the outline of the stomach on the abdominal wall, a number of the lines came out from upper and lower parts of stomach wall. When the lines were followed, they were very close to the well-known stomach meridians. Subsequently, he found a method of localizing meridians and their corresponding acupuncture points as well as shapes and diameters accurately. At the anatomical location of ST 36 described in traditional textbooks, Omura, Y. found there is no acupuncture point. However, in the close vicinity, there is an acupuncture point which he named as true ST 36 in the mid 1980s, but it is generally known as Omura's ST 36. When the effects of the acupuncture on these 2 locations were compared, Omura's ST 36 (true ST 36) produced very significant well-known acupuncture beneficial effects including improved circulation and blood chemistry, while in the traditional ST 36, the effects were small. In this article, the anatomical relationship between these two acupuncture points, with a short distance of 0.6 approximately 1.5 cm between the centers of these locations, was described. In early 2000, Omura, Y. found Press Needle Stimulation of Omura's ST 36, using "Press-Release" procedure repeated 200 times, 4 times a day to cancer patients reduced high cancer cell telomere of 600-1500ng and high Oncogen C-fos Ab2 and Integrin alpha5beta1 of 100-700ng BDORT units to close to lyg (= 10(-24) g) BDORT units. In addition there was a significant reduction of Asbestos and Hg from cancer cells, while markedly reduced normal cell telomere of lyg was increased to optimally high amounts of 500-530ng BDORTunits. Thus, cancer cells can no longer divide and cancer activity is inhibited. The authors have successfully applied this method for a variety of cancers as well as

  3. [Post-stroke flaccid limb dysfunction treated with the comprehensive therapy of acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine and rehabilitation: muti-center randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian-Wei; Li, Yi; Yuan, Xiu-Li; Li, Dao-Pi; Fan, Ling; Li, An-Hong; Zhao, Jing-Jing

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the clinical value of the comprehensive therapy of acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine and rehabilitation in the treatment of post-stroke flaccid limb dysfunction. The four-center, single-blind, randomized and controlled research method was adopted, 240 qualified subjects were randomized into a comprehensive therapy group, an acupuncture group, a rehabilitation group and a Chinese herbal medicine group, 60 cases in each one, at the ratio of 1 1. In the comprehensive therapy group, the comprehensive therapy of acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine and rehabilitation was applied. The acupuncture therapy included the scale acupuncture at middle line of vertex, lateral line 1 of vertex, lateral line 2 of vertex, etc. with the single reinforcing and reducing technique by the speed of needle insertion and withdrawal, and the body acupuncture therapy at the acupoints on the antagonistic muscles with the reinforcing and reducing technique by the needle rotation. The Chinese herbal medicine therapy included No. 1 stroke formula for the cases of liver and kidney yin deficiency and the upward disturbance of wind yang, No. 2 stroke formula for qi deficiency and blood stagnation, and the stagnation in meridians and No. 3 stroke formula for the interaction of phlegm and stasis and blockage of meridians according to the pattern/syndrome differentiation. The rehabilitation therapy focused on the promotion technique by putting the healthy limb. The simple acupuncture, rehabilitation and Chinese herbal medicine therapies as the comprehensive therapy group were applied in the acupuncture group, rehabilitation group and Chinese herbal medicine group separately. The Chinese medicine symptom, the limb motor function, the daily life activity, fainting needle reaction, allergic reaction and the others were taken as indices to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the treatment. (1) The results of the four indices named the Chinese medicine symptom, the limb motor function, the

  4. Global Warming, New Climate, New Atmospheric Circulation and New Water Cycle in North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrouk, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Global warming has now reached the energetic phase of H2O's return to the ground after the saturation of the atmosphere in evaporation since the 80s and 90s of the last century, which were characterized by severe droughts, mainly in Africa.This phase is the result of the accumulation of thermal energy exchanges in the Earth-Ocean-Atmosphere system that resulted in the thrust reversal of the energy balance toward the poles. This situation is characterized by a new thermal distribution: above the ocean, the situation is more in surplus compared to the mainland, or even opposite when the balance is negative on the land, and in the atmosphere, warm thermal advection easily reach the North Pole (planetary crests), as well as cold advection push deep into North Africa and the Gulf of Mexico (planetary valleys: Polar Vortex).This "New Ground Energy Balance" establishes a "New Meridian Atmospheric Circulation (MAC)" with an undulating character throughout the year, including the winter characterized by intense latitudinal very active energy exchanges between the surplus areas (tropical) and the deficit (polar) on the one hand, and the atmosphere, the ocean and the continent on the other.The excess radiation balance increases the potential evaporation of the atmosphere and provides a new geographical distribution of Moisture and Water worldwide: the excess water vapor is easily converted by cold advection (Polar Vortex) to heavy rains that cause floods or snow storms that paralyze the normal functioning of human activities, which creates many difficulties for users and leaves damage and casualties, but ensures water availability missing since a long time in many parts of the world, in Africa, Europe and America.The new thermal distribution reorganizes the geography of atmospheric pressure: the ocean energy concentration is transmitted directly to the atmosphere, and the excess torque is pushed northward. The Azores anticyclone is strengthened and is a global lock by the

  5. Longitudinal differences of ionospheric vertical density distribution and equatorial electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yizengaw, E.; Zesta, E.; Moldwin, M. B.; Damtie, B.; Mebrahtu, A.; Valladares, C. E.; Pfaff, R. F.

    2012-07-01

    Accurate estimation of global vertical distribution of ionospheric and plasmaspheric density as a function of local time, season, and magnetic activity is required to improve the operation of space-based navigation and communication systems. The vertical density distribution, especially at low and equatorial latitudes, is governed by the equatorial electrodynamics that produces a vertical driving force. The vertical structure of the equatorial density distribution can be observed by using tomographic reconstruction techniques on ground-based global positioning system (GPS) total electron content (TEC). Similarly, the vertical drift, which is one of the driving mechanisms that govern equatorial electrodynamics and strongly affect the structure and dynamics of the ionosphere in the low/midlatitude region, can be estimated using ground magnetometer observations. We present tomographically reconstructed density distribution and the corresponding vertical drifts at two different longitudes: the East African and west South American sectors. Chains of GPS stations in the east African and west South American longitudinal sectors, covering the equatorial anomaly region of meridian ˜37°E and 290°E, respectively, are used to reconstruct the vertical density distribution. Similarly, magnetometer sites of African Meridian B-field Education and Research (AMBER) and INTERMAGNET for the east African sector and South American Meridional B-field Array (SAMBA) and Low Latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (LISN) are used to estimate the vertical drift velocity at two distinct longitudes. The comparison between the reconstructed and Jicamarca Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) measured density profiles shows excellent agreement, demonstrating the usefulness of tomographic reconstruction technique in providing the vertical density distribution at different longitudes. Similarly, the comparison between magnetometer estimated vertical drift and other independent drift observation, such as

  6. Coordinated videomagnetograph observations by the Big Bear and Huairou Observatories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.; Patterson, A.; Zirin, H.; Ai, G.; Zhang, H.

    1988-01-01

    A videomagnetograph patterned after the BBSO system was installed at Huairou in 1987, and five days of coordinated observing were carried out from September 24 to 29, 1987. The data were combined to make a continuous movie of the fields abnound a stable spot. A 57 hour magnetograph run with two seven hour gaps were achieved from 2330 UT, September 24 to 0830 UT, September 27. The frames were reregistered and justified to eliminate the change of scale with meridian distance. The intensities were corrected for cosine effect. Preliminary examination of the data shows continuous decrease of the total magnetic field during this period by more than 50 percent. The principal loss of flux appears to be due to cancellation at the main neutral line. Some flux disappears due to fragmentation, which makes the elements fall below the threshold, while only a tiny loss due to diffusion can be detected. It is planned to continue this program during Max 1991, including transverse field measurements as well. Several long runs were already obtained in 1988

  7. SYSTEMATIC CENTER-TO-LIMB VARIATION IN MEASURED HELIOSEISMIC TRAVEL TIMES AND ITS EFFECT ON INFERENCES OF SOLAR INTERIOR MERIDIONAL FLOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Junwei; Nagashima, Kaori; Bogart, R. S.; Kosovichev, A. G. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States); Duvall, T. L. Jr. [Solar Physics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-04-10

    We report on a systematic center-to-limb variation in measured helioseismic travel times, which must be taken into account for an accurate determination of solar interior meridional flows. The systematic variation, found in time-distance helioseismology analysis using SDO/HMI and SDO/AIA observations, is different in both travel-time magnitude and variation trend for different observables. It is not clear what causes this systematic effect. Subtracting the longitude-dependent east-west travel times, obtained along the equatorial area, from the latitude-dependent north-south travel times, obtained along the central meridian area, gives remarkably similar results for different observables. We suggest this as an effective procedure for removing the systematic center-to-limb variation. The subsurface meridional flows obtained from inversion of the corrected travel times are approximately 10 m s{sup -1} slower than those obtained without removing the systematic effect. The detected center-to-limb variation may have important implications in the derivation of meridional flows in the deep interior and needs to be better understood.

  8. [Characteristics and principles of acupoint selection in auricular plaster therapy for hypertension based on literature analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan; Li, Chen; Du, Yuzheng; Chen, Aixia; Jin, Jiu; Zhao, Qi

    2017-07-12

    The characteristics and principles of acupoint selection in auricular plaster therapy for hypertension were explored. By searching CNKI (search time from 1950 to November of 2015), VIP database (search time from 1989 to November of 2015) and WanFang Database (search time from 1983 to November of 2015), the clinical research literature regarding auricular plaster therapy for hypertension was collected, and frequency statistics method was used for analysis. As a result, totally 117 articles were included. The auricular points with frequency from high to low were Jiangyagou, Shenmen (TF 4 ), Gan (CO 12 ), Xin (CO 15 ), Shen (CO 10 ), Jiaogan (AH 6a ), Pizhixia (AT 4 ), Jiangyadian and Neifenmi. The TCM syndromes with frequency from high to low were excessive accumulation of phlegm-dampness syndrome, upper hyperactivity of liver yang syndrome, yin deficiency and yang hyperactivity syndrome and excessive liver-fire syndrome. In conclusion, based on cross-reference of TCM and modern medicine combination of zangfu and meridians differentiation and valuing the auricular points from clinical experience, the auricular plaster therapy for hypertension was characterized with "treating the principal and subordinate symptoms simultaneously and respectively" and "differentiation-based selection of auricular points to regulate zangfu ", which could fully take the anti-hypertension advantages of non-pharmacotherapy.

  9. Meditative Movement, Energetic, and Physical Analyses of Three Qigong Exercises: Unification of Eastern and Western Mechanistic Exercise Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Penelope; Picard, George; Baumgarden, Joseph; Schneider, Roger

    2017-09-23

    Abstract : Qigong is the meditative movement and therapeutic exercise of Eastern medicine. A growing body of evidence is validating its health benefits leading to mechanistic questions of how it works. The purpose of this article is to explore mechanisms of action related to Qigong, with the intent of unifying Eastern and Western exercise theory and to present a model for Qigong exercise analysis. Three exercises from a standardized Qigong form: 'Plucking the Stars', 'Lotus Leaves Rustle in the Wind', and 'Pacing Forwards and Backwards' were selected for meditative, energetic, and physical analyses. Meditative aspects include relaxation response, interoception and exteroception. Energetic aspects include stimulation of meridians through mental intent, acupressure, and self-massage. Physical aspects include flexibility, strength, articular stimulation, neuro-integration, respiratory effect, fascial stretch, visceral massage, balance challenge CranioSacral pump, lymphatic and venous return and glandular stimulation, and physiologic response to relaxation. Knowledge of mechanisms of action for specific Qigong exercises can guide operational definition of Qigong, selection of outcomes assessment in future research, inform prescriptive practice addressing clinical health issues, and advance adoption of Qigong practice within integrative health care. The model of analysis demonstrated in this discussion may assist in these endeavors.

  10. Qigong program on insomnia and stress in cancer patients: A case series report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungmo; Lee, Sangnam; Kwon, Osung; Park, Seonghoon; Seo, Jungchul; Kim, Kyungsoon

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in Qigong as an alternative therapy has grown following reports of its ability to regulate psychological factors in cancer patients. This is a case series to evaluate the outcome measures of Qigong when used as an adjunct to standard medical care to treat insomnia and stress in cancer patients. The Qigong program was applied to four cancer patients with insomnia, stress, and anxiety. The program consisted of 30-min sessions involving exercise, patting of the 12 meridians, and spontaneous breathing exercises three times a week for a period of 4 weeks. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was measured as the primary outcome, while the Stress Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Functional Assessment Cancer Therapy-General determined the secondary outcomes. Insomnia, stress, and anxiety levels were examined weekly, while quality of life was examined on the first visit and the last visit. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Stress Scale scores were reduced after conduct of the Qigong program. This study could provide a better understanding of Qigong's influence on insomnia and stress in cancer patients. However, a larger controlled trial should be conducted to confirm these findings.

  11. Remote sensing of the Io torus plasma ribbon using natural radio occultation of the Jovian radio emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Boudjada

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the Jovian hectometric (HOM emissions recorded by the RPWS (Radio and Plasma Wave Science experiment onboard the Cassini spacecraft during its Jupiter flyby. We analyze the attenuation band associated with the intensity extinction of HOM radiation. This phenomenon is interpreted as a refraction effect of the Jovian hectometric emission inside the Io plasma torus. This attenuation band was regularly observed during periods of more than 5 months, from the beginning of October 2000 to the end of March 2001. We estimate for this period the variation of the electron density versus the central meridian longitude (CML. We find a clear local time dependence. Hence the electron density was not higher than 5.0 × 104 cm−3 during 2 months, when the spacecraft approached the planet on the dayside. In the late afternoon and evening sectors, the electron density increases to 1.5 × 105 cm−3 and reach a higher value at some specific occasions. Additionally, we show that ultraviolet and hectometric wavelength observations have common features related to the morphology of the Io plasma torus. The maxima of enhancements/attenuations of UV/HOM observations occur close to the longitudes of the tip of the magnetic dipole in the southern hemisphere (20° CML and in the northern hemisphere (200° CML, respectively. This is a significant indication about the importance of the Jovian magnetic field as a physical parameter in the coupling process between Jupiter and the Io satellite.

  12. Ancient Chinese medicine and mechanistic evidence of acupuncture physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Edward S; Li, Pei-Wen; Nilius, Bernd; Li, Geng

    2011-11-01

    Acupuncture has been widely used in China for three millennia as an art of healing. Yet, its physiology is not yet understood. The current interest in acupuncture started in 1971. Soon afterward, extensive research led to the concept of neural signaling with possible involvement of opioid peptides, glutamate, adenosine and identifying responsive parts in the central nervous system. In the last decade scientists began investigating the subject with anatomical and molecular imaging. It was found that mechanical movements of the needle, ignored in the past, appear to be central to the method and intracellular calcium ions may play a pivotal role. In this review, we trace the technique of clinical treatment from the first written record about 2,200 years ago to the modern time. The ancient texts have been used to introduce the concepts of yin, yang, qi, de qi, and meridians, the traditional foundation of acupuncture. We explore the sequence of the physiological process, from the turning of the needle, the mechanical wave activation of calcium ion channel to beta-endorphin secretion. By using modern terminology to re-interpret the ancient texts, we have found that the 2nd century B.C.: physiologists were meticulous investigators and their explanation fits well with the mechanistic model derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and confocal microscopy. In conclusion, the ancient model appears to have withstood the test of time surprisingly well confirming the popular axiom that the old wine is better than the new.

  13. Magneto-elastic effects and thermodynamic properties of ferromagnetic hcp Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang, Fang-Guang; Kuang, Xiao-Yu; Kang, Shu-Ying; Mao, Ai-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Using first principles projector augmented wave (PAW) potential method, the magneto-elastic effects and thermodynamic properties of ferromagnetic hcp Cobalt at high pressure and temperature are investigated. The calculated elastic constants from PBE+U method demonstrate a noticeable improvement with regard to experimental data. Various physical quantities under high pressure also present significant improvements, such as the bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, Debye temperature, various sound velocities and the normalized acoustic velocities in the meridian plane. That is due to the fact that Cobalt system possesses large correlation effects. Meanwhile, the phonon dispersion curves are in excellent agreement with experimental data. It is not observed any anomaly or instability under compression. However, according to the E 2g -phonon frequencies, the obtained pressure variation of C 44 elastic modulus also suggests that the system has miraculous magneto-elastic effects. Moreover, the pressure and temperature dependence of thermodynamic properties are derived within the quasi-harmonic approximation for the first time. The obtained Grüneisen ratio, Anderon–Grüneisen parameter and the volume dependence of Grüneisen ratio display manifestly temperature and pressure dependences.

  14. Coding Model and Mapping Method of Spherical Diamond Discrete Grids Based on Icosahedron

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    LIN Bingxian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Discrete Global Grid(DGG provides a fundamental environment for global-scale spatial data's organization and management. DGG's encoding scheme, which blocks coordinate transformation between different coordination reference frames and reduces the complexity of spatial analysis, contributes a lot to the multi-scale expression and unified modeling of spatial data. Compared with other kinds of DGGs, Diamond Discrete Global Grid(DDGG based on icosahedron is beneficial to the spherical spatial data's integration and expression for much better geometric properties. However, its structure seems more complicated than DDGG on octahedron due to its initial diamond's edges cannot fit meridian and parallel. New challenges are posed when it comes to the construction of hierarchical encoding system and mapping relationship with geographic coordinates. On this issue, this paper presents a DDGG's coding system based on the Hilbert curve and designs conversion methods between codes and geographical coordinates. The study results indicate that this encoding system based on the Hilbert curve can express space scale and location information implicitly with the similarity between DDG and planar grid put into practice, and balances efficiency and accuracy of conversion between codes and geographical coordinates in order to support global massive spatial data's modeling, integrated management and all kinds of spatial analysis.

  15. [Acupuncture for aphasia: a retrospective analysis of clinical literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jie; Zhang, Hong; Han, Guodong; Ai, Kun; Deng, Shifeng

    2016-04-01

    With the Meta-analysis method, the clinical efficacy of acupuncture and other regular methods for aphasia was evaluated, and the acupoints selection for aphasia was explored. The acupuncture literature of clinical randomized control trials for aphasia published in CNKI, WANFANG, VIP and CBM database was searched; the statistical analysis of clinical efficacy of acupuncture and other regular methods for aphasia was performed by using software Revman 5. 2 provided by Cochrane library. A file of Microsoft Excel was established to perform the analysis of acupoints selection based on frequency analysis method, so as to summarize the characteristics and rules. Totally 385 articles were searched, and 37 articles those met the inclusive criteria was included, involving 1,260 patients in the acupuncture group and 1 238 patients in the control group. The Meta-analysis results showed OR = 3.82, 95% Cl [3.01, 4.85]; rhombus was located on the right side and the funnel plot was nearly symmetry, indicating the treatment effect of the acupuncture group for aphasia was superior to the control group (Z = 11.04, P aphasia is superior to that of speech rehabilitation training and medication treatment alone. The clinical treatment for aphasia focuses on its local effect; the main acupoints are in the head and face, and the meridians are governor vessel, extra channels and conception vessel.

  16. The influence of simulated light scattering on automated perimetric threshold measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, D K; Anderson, D R; Knighton, R W; Feuer, W J; Gressel, M G

    1988-09-01

    The effect of light scattering by ocular media opacities on OCTOPUS and Humphrey perimeter threshold measurements was simulated with randomly ordered sequences of six ground-glass diffusers in the right eyes of five subjects. Threshold measurements were performed at 0 degrees, 5 degrees, 10 degrees, 15 degrees, 20 degrees, and 25 degrees nasally along the 180 degrees meridian with the F4 program on an OCTOPUS perimeter, and with twice-repeated profiles on a Humphrey perimeter. The reduction in differential light sensitivity correlated well with the 2.7-dB to 16.7-dB reduction in stimulus intensity caused by the 46% to 98% scattering of incident light by the diffusers. Contrast sensitivity in the presence of a glare source (Miller-Nadler glare test) was also affected by the diffusers, such that a 75% contrast target was not visible through the strongest diffuser whereas a 5% contrast target was visible without a diffuser. Conversely, the diffusers had very little effect on visual acuity measurements that were performed with projected high-contrast targets in a darkened room. Our data suggest that even minimal light scattering, such as might be caused by a cataract that has a relatively insignificant effect on visual acuity, may influence threshold measurements.

  17. Acupuncture for serum uric acid in patients with asymptomatic hyperuricemia: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yingjuan; Meng, Jun; Sun, Baoguo; Xiang, Ting; Zhou, Xin; Xu, Biyu; Wu, Yingzi; Chen, Zexiong; Zhang, Shijun

    2017-04-01

    Hyperuricemia (HUA) is the most common disease associated with cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and kidney disease. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy, mechanism, and safety of acupuncture on serum uric acid in patients with asymptomatic HUA. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial among 123 patients with asymptomatic HUA was conducted. The acupoints used in the acupuncture group were bilateral Five Shu in Spleen Meridian. Each participant received the intervention once daily for 10 consecutive days. The sham group received the same treatment duration on the same acupoints by the Park Sham Device. All patients underwent measurements of serum or urine creatinine, uric acid, serum lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, xanthine oxidase (XOD) and urate-anion exchanger (URAT-1). At the end of the intervention, the individuals in the acupuncture group were found to have significantly less levels of serum uric acid than those in the sham group [(453±65 vs. 528±81) μmol/L, puric acid level, urine pH value and 24-hour urine volume than the sham treatment (puric acid in a Chinese HUA patient population. The mechanism might be associated with the decrease level of enzyme URAT-1. ChiCTR-TRC-13004122. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Flow Driven by an Archimedean Helical Permanent Magnetic Field. Part I: Flow Patterns and Their Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Xiaodong; Etay, Jacqueline; Na, Xianzhao; Zhang, Xinde; Fautrelle, Yves

    2016-04-01

    In this study, an Archimedean helical permanent magnetic field was constructed and its driving effects on liquid metal were examined. A magnetic stirrer was constructed using a series of arc-like magnets. The helical distribution of its magnetic field, which was confirmed via Gauss probe measurements and numerical simulations, can be considered a combination of rotating and traveling magnetic fields. The characteristics of the flow patterns, particularly the transitions between the meridian secondary flow (two vortices) and the global axial flow (one vortex), driven by this magnetic field were quantitatively measured using ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry. The transient and modulated flow behaviors will be presented in a companion article. The D/ H dimension ratio was used to characterize the transitions of these two flow patterns. The results demonstrated that the flow patterns depend on not only the intrinsic structure of the magnetic field, e.g., the helix lead angle, but also the performance parameters, e.g., the dimensional ratio of the liquid bulk. The notable opposing roles of these two flow patterns in the improvement of macrosegregations when imposing such magnetic fields near the solidifying front were qualitatively addressed.

  19. Technical note: quantitative measures of iris color using high resolution photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Melissa; Gozdzik, Agnes; Ross, Kendra; Miles, Jon; Parra, Esteban J

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the genetic architecture of iris color is still limited. This is partly related to difficulties associated with obtaining quantitative measurements of eye color. Here we introduce a new automated method for measuring iris color using high resolution photographs. This method extracts color measurements in the CIE 1976 L*a*b* (CIELAB) color space from a 256 by 256 pixel square sampled from the 9:00 meridian of the iris. Color is defined across three dimensions: L* (the lightness coordinate), a* (the red-green coordinate), and b* (the blue-yellow coordinate). We applied this method to a sample of individuals of diverse ancestry (East Asian, European and South Asian) that was genotyped for the HERC2 rs12913832 polymorphism, which is strongly associated with blue eye color. We identified substantial variation in the CIELAB color space, not only in the European sample, but also in the East Asian and South Asian samples. As expected, rs12913832 was significantly associated with quantitative iris color measurements in subjects of European ancestry. However, this SNP was also strongly associated with iris color in the South Asian sample, although there were no participants with blue irides in this sample. The usefulness of this method is not restricted only to the study of iris pigmentation. High-resolution pictures of the iris will also make it possible to study the genetic variation involved in iris textural patterns, which show substantial heritability in human populations. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Total ozone decrease in the Arctic after REP events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. C. Roldugin

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Eight periods of relativistic electron precipitation (REP with electron energies of more than 300 keV are identified from VLF data (10-14 kHz monitored along the Aldra (Norway - Apatity (Kola peninsula radio trace. In these cases, anomalous ionization below 55-50 km occurred without disturbing the higher layers of the ionosphere. The daily total ozone values in Murmansk for six days before and six days after the REP events are compared. In seven of eight events a decrease in the total ozone of about 20 DU is observed. In one event of 25 March, 1986, the mean total ozone value for six days before the REP is bigger than that for six days after, but this a case of an extremely high ozone increase (144 DU during the six days. However, on days 3 and 4 there was a minimum of about 47 DU with regard to REP days, so this case also confirms the concept of the ozone decrease after REP. The difference between mean ozone values for periods six days before and six days after the REPs was found also for 23 points in Arctic on TOMS data. The difference was negative only in Murmansk longitudinal sector. Along the meridian of the trace it was negative at high latitudes in both hemispheres and was near zero at low latitudes.Key words: Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere - composition and chemistry - Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (polar meteorology