Kuai, Le; Zhang, Jing-Ting; Deng, Yu; Xu, Shun; Xu, Xun-Zhe; Wu, Min-Feng; Guo, Dong-Jie; Chen, Yu; Wu, Ren-Jie; Zhao, Xing-Qiang; Nian, Hua; Li, Bin; Li, Fu-Lun
2018-01-29
Sheng-ji Hua-yu(SJHY) formula is one of the most useful Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the treatment of the delayed diabetic wound. However, elucidating the related molecular biological mechanism of how the SJHY Formula affects excessive inflammation in the process of re-epithelialization of diabetic wound healing is a task urgently needed to be fulfilled. The objectives of this study is to evaluate the effect of antagonisic expression of pro-/anti-inflammatory factors on transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β) superfamily (activin and follistatin) in the process of re-epithelialization of diabetic wound healing in vivo, and to characterize the involvement of the activin/follistatin protein expression regulation, phospho-Smad (pSmad2), and Nuclear factor kappa B p50 (NF-kB) p50 in the diabetic wound healing effects of SJHY formula. SJHY Formula was prepared by pharmaceutical preparation room of Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine. Diabetic wound healing activity was evaluated by circular excision wound models. Wound healing activity was examined by macroscopic evaluation. Activin/follistatin expression regulation, protein expression of pSmad2 and NF-kB p50 in skin tissue of wounds were analyzed by Real Time PCR, Western blot, immunohistochemistry and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Macroscopic evaluation analysis showed that wound healing of diabetic mice was delayed, and SJHY Formula accelerated wound healing time of diabetic mice. Real Time PCR analysis showed higher mRNA expression of activin/follistatin in diabetic delayed wound versus the wound in normal mice. Western Blot immunoassay analysis showed reduction of activin/follistatin proteins levels by SJHY Formula treatment 15 days after injury. Immunohistochemistry investigated the reduction of pSmad2 and NF-kB p50 nuclear staining in the epidermis of diabetic SJHY versus diabetic control mice on day 15 after wounding. H&E staining revealed that SJHY Formula
Künnap, Ago, 1941-
2010-01-01
Arvustus: Gao Jingyi. Han yu yu bei Ou yu yan : Han yu yu Wula'er yu yan ji Yin Ou yu yan tong yuan tan jiu = Chinese language and languages of northern Europe. Beijing : Zhongguo she hui ke xue chu ban she, 2008
Merge of terminological resources
Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna
2012-01-01
In our globalized world, the amount of cross-national communication increases rapidly, which also calls for easy access to multi-lingual high quality terminological resources. Sharing of terminology resources is currently becoming common practice, and efficient strategies for integration...... – or merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates...... in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects....
David, Alexandre
2005-01-01
In this paper we present different algorithms to reduce the number of DBMs in federations by merging them. Federations are unions of DBMs and are used to represent non-convex zones. Inclusion checking between DBMs is a limited technique to reduce the size of federations and how to choose some DBMs...... to merge them into a larger one is a combi-natorial problem. We present a number of simple but efficient techniques to avoid searching the combinations while still being able to merge any number of DBMs...
Determination of Onramp Weaving Length for Resolving Merging Dilemma
Chiu Liu
2012-03-01
Full Text Available It is physically known that onramp merging may turn out to be difficult if the onramp (weaving/merging length is too short because a driver under certain driving circumstances may find that either merging ahead or merging behind a neighboring vehicle on the adjacent highway lane cannot be completed. Various existing guidelines or design manuals provide no clear physical understanding and explanations to the design onramp weaving length but often based on evolved empirical experiences. By integrating human factors, vehicle dynamic characteristics, roadway surface condition, and the onramp weaving design into a single unified analytic framework, the onramp length required for a driver to merge into the highway traffic successfully is determined exactly with formulas and physical solutions to avoid the merging dilemma and enhance driving safety at highway interchanges. The design onramp weaving length is examined and evaluated with various foreseeable merging scenarios and physical examples. This analytic framework sheds light on the understanding of the onramp weaving the first time strictly on a physical human-vehicle-roadway interaction setting. Practitioners can easily apply these user friendly formulae and equations derived from the unified framework to calculate the onramp weaving length to resolve the merging dilemma and enhance driving safety for any highway interchanges.
Osterwalder, Andreas [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute for Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Lausanne (Switzerland)
2015-12-15
A detailed description of a merged beam apparatus for the study of low energy molecular scattering is given. This review is intended to guide any scientist who plans to construct a similar experiment, and to provide some inspiration in describing the approach we chose to our goal. In our experiment a supersonic expansion of paramagnetic particles is merged with one of polar molecules. A magnetic and an electric multipole guide are used to bend the two beams onto the same axis. We here describe in detail how the apparatus is designed, characterised, and operated. (orig.)
Carvalho, Fausto de; Morgado, Leonel
2017-01-01
This article addresses some interesting challenges and business opportunities within the promising merged reality ecosystem, which offers the vision of bringing together virtual, augmented and physical realities, seamlessly. The article also links the current status of this field with exploratory research and development work carried out by Altice Labs. Altice Labs info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion
Plan Merging : Experimental results
De Weerdt, M.M.; Van der Krogt, R.P.J.; Zutt, J.
2003-01-01
In this paper we discuss the results of a plan merging algorithm. This algorithm coordinates the plans of multiple, autonomous agents, each able to independently find a plan. This algorithm is evaluated using realistic data from a taxi company. We show that when we allow passengers to be a few
Jing Tong Yu Shu , a traditional Chinese medicine, suppresses IL ...
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a traditional Chinese medicine, Jing Tong Yu Shu (JTYS) on endometriosis in a rat surgical model. Methods: Endometriosis was induced in 40 female rats. The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: three JTYS groups given different doses of the drug, and a saline group. After four ...
Why healthcare providers merge.
Postma, Jeroen; Roos, Anne-Fleur
2016-04-01
In many OECD countries, healthcare sectors have become increasingly concentrated as a result of mergers. However, detailed empirical insight into why healthcare providers merge is lacking. Also, we know little about the influence of national healthcare policies on mergers. We fill this gap in the literature by conducting a survey study on mergers among 848 Dutch healthcare executives, of which 35% responded (resulting in a study sample of 239 executives). A total of 65% of the respondents was involved in at least one merger between 2005 and 2012. During this period, Dutch healthcare providers faced a number of policy changes, including increasing competition, more pressure from purchasers, growing financial risks, de-institutionalisation of long-term care and decentralisation of healthcare services to municipalities. Our empirical study shows that healthcare providers predominantly merge to improve the provision of healthcare services and to strengthen their market position. Also efficiency and financial reasons are important drivers of merger activity in healthcare. We find that motives for merger are related to changes in health policies, in particular to the increasing pressure from competitors, insurers and municipalities.
[Autobiography of modern acupuncturist Yu Shu-zhuang].
Li, Jia-jian' i; Guo, Jing; Yu, Zhen-zhong; Wang, Lin-peng
2014-11-01
Professor YU Shu-zhuang is a distinguished acupuncturist in China. He has practiced the TCM acupuncture-moxibustion clinical, educational and scientific research for 60 years in his life. In clinic, he summarized the experiences "five-ming first"; in treatment, he insisted "dredging" and "regulating", protecting the function of spleen and stomach, and needles should be less but specific. In the meanwhile, he made a deep study on the function and clinical effects of specific acupoints, and used the research results of propagated sensation along channel to guide clinical treatment, forming his special academic points. Professor YU has educated a great number of acupuncture-moxibustion talents in China and foreign countries, making great contribution to the popularization of acupuncture-moxibustion in the worldwide.
Antipov Valerij Ivanovich
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The article gives a modern interpretation of the Fisher formula, the calculated velocity of circulation of money supply M2 in the interval 1995-2013 and forecast of its changes until 2030 when hypotheses about the rate of inflation and GDP. Points to the fallacy of its direct use to control inflation and money supply. For a more detailed understanding of the inflationary process proposes a new frequency formula and the explanation of the situation with the regulation of prices in the economy.
Astrup Jensen, Bjarne
analysis. We use Makeham's formula to decompose the return on a bond investment into interest payments, realized capital gains and accrued capital gains for a variety of accounting rules for measuring accruals in order to study the theoretical properties of these accounting rules, their taxation...... consequences and their implications for the relation between the yield before tax and the yield after tax. We also show how Makeham's formula produces short-cut expressions for the duration and convexity of a bond and facilitates the analytical calculation of the yield in certain cases....
Astrup Jensen, Bjarne
analysis. We use Makeham's formula to decompose the return on a bond investment into interest payments, realized capital gains and accrued capital gains for a variety of accounting rules for measuring accruals in order to study the theoretical properties of these accounting rules, their taxation...
A tangent subsolar merging line
Crooker, N.U.; Siscoe, G.L.; Toffoletto, F.R.
1990-01-01
The authors describe a global magnetospheric model with a single subsolar merging line whose position is determined neither locally by the relative orientations and strengths of the merging fields nor globally by the orientation of a separator line--the governing parameters of most previous models--but by the condition of tangential contact between the external field and the magnetopause. As in previous models, the tilt of the merging line varies with IMF orientation, but here it also depends upon the ratio of Earth's magnetic flux that leaks out of the magnetopause to IMF flux that penetrates in. In the limiting case treated by Alekseyev and Belen'kaya, with no leakage of Earth's field and total IMF penetration, the merging line forms a great circle around a spherical magnetosphere where undeviated IMF lines lie tangent to its surface. This tangent merging line lies perpendicular to the IMF. They extend their work to the case of finite leakage and partial penetration, which distort the IMF into a draped pattern, thus changing the locus of tangency to the sphere. In the special case where the penetrating IMF flux is balanced by an equal amount of Earth flux leakage, the tangent merging line bisects the angle between the IMF and Earth's northward subsolar field. This result is identical to the local merging line model result for merging fields with equal magnitude. Here a global flux balance condition replaces the local equal magnitude condition
Dayside merging and cusp geometry
Crooker, N.U.
1979-01-01
Geometrical considerations are presented to show that dayside magnetic merging when constrained to act only where the fields are antiparallel results in lines of merging that converge at the polar cusps. An important consequence of this geometry is that no accelerated flows are predicted across the dayside magnetopause. Acceleration owing to merging acts in opposition to the magnetosheath flow at the merging point and produces the variably directed, slower-than-magnetosheath flows observed in the entry layer. Another consequence of the merging geometry is that much of the time closed field lines constitute the subsolar region of the magnetopause. The manner in which the polar cap convection patterns predicted by the proposed geometry change as the interplanetary field is rotated through 360 0 provides a unifying description of how the observed single circular vortex and the crescent-shaped double vortex patterns mutually evolve under the influence of a single operating principle
2005-02-01
On February 1, 2005, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) has merged its two observatories, La Silla and Paranal, into one. This move will help Europe's prime organisation for astronomy to better manage its many and diverse projects by deploying available resources more efficiently where and when they are needed. The merged observatory will be known as the La Silla Paranal Observatory. Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's Director General, comments the new development: "The merging, which was planned during the past year with the deep involvement of all the staff, has created unified maintenance and engineering (including software, mechanics, electronics and optics) departments across the two sites, further increasing the already very high efficiency of our telescopes. It is my great pleasure to commend the excellent work of Jorge Melnick, former director of the La Silla Observatory, and of Roberto Gilmozzi, the director of Paranal." ESO's headquarters are located in Garching, in the vicinity of Munich (Bavaria, Germany), and this intergovernmental organisation has established itself as a world-leader in astronomy. Created in 1962, ESO is now supported by eleven member states (Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom). It operates major telescopes on two remote sites, all located in Chile: La Silla, about 600 km north of Santiago and at an altitude of 2400m; Paranal, a 2600m high mountain in the Atacama Desert 120 km south of the coastal city of Antofagasta. Most recently, ESO has started the construction of an observatory at Chajnantor, a 5000m high site, also in the Atacama Desert. La Silla, north of the town of La Serena, has been the bastion of the organization's facilities since 1964. It is the site of two of the most productive 4-m class telescopes in the world, the New Technology Telescope (NTT) - the first major telescope equipped with active optics - and the 3.6-m, which hosts HARPS
Morozov, Dmitriy; Weber, Gunther
2013-01-08
Improved simulations and sensors are producing datasets whose increasing complexity exhausts our ability to visualize and comprehend them directly. To cope with this problem, we can detect and extract significant features in the data and use them as the basis for subsequent analysis. Topological methods are valuable in this context because they provide robust and general feature definitions. As the growth of serial computational power has stalled, data analysis is becoming increasingly dependent on massively parallel machines. To satisfy the computational demand created by complex datasets, algorithms need to effectively utilize these computer architectures. The main strength of topological methods, their emphasis on global information, turns into an obstacle during parallelization. We present two approaches to alleviate this problem. We develop a distributed representation of the merge tree that avoids computing the global tree on a single processor and lets us parallelize subsequent queries. To account for the increasing number of cores per processor, we develop a new data structure that lets us take advantage of multiple shared-memory cores to parallelize the work on a single node. Finally, we present experiments that illustrate the strengths of our approach as well as help identify future challenges.
Dynamics analysis of fractional order Yu-Wang system
Bhalekar, Sachin
2013-10-01
Fractional order version of a dynamical system introduced by Yu and Wang (Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, 2, (2012) 209-215) is discussed in this article. The basic dynamical properties of the system are studied. Minimum effective dimension 0.942329 for the existence of chaos in the proposed system is obtained using the analytical result. For chaos detection, we have calculated maximum Lyapunov exponents for various values of fractional order. Feedback control method is then used to control chaos in the system. Further, the system is synchronized with itself and with fractional order financial system using active control technique. Modified Adams-Bashforth-Moulton algorithm is used for numerical simulations.
van Rossum, Anne C.; Lin, Hai Xiang; Dubbeldam, Johan; van der Herik, H. Jaap
2018-04-01
In machine vision typical heuristic methods to extract parameterized objects out of raw data points are the Hough transform and RANSAC. Bayesian models carry the promise to optimally extract such parameterized objects given a correct definition of the model and the type of noise at hand. A category of solvers for Bayesian models are Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Naive implementations of MCMC methods suffer from slow convergence in machine vision due to the complexity of the parameter space. Towards this blocked Gibbs and split-merge samplers have been developed that assign multiple data points to clusters at once. In this paper we introduce a new split-merge sampler, the triadic split-merge sampler, that perform steps between two and three randomly chosen clusters. This has two advantages. First, it reduces the asymmetry between the split and merge steps. Second, it is able to propose a new cluster that is composed out of data points from two different clusters. Both advantages speed up convergence which we demonstrate on a line extraction problem. We show that the triadic split-merge sampler outperforms the conventional split-merge sampler. Although this new MCMC sampler is demonstrated in this machine vision context, its application extend to the very general domain of statistical inference.
Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding
... for Educators Search English Español Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding What's ... work with a lactation specialist. All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious alternative ...
Yu.S. Osipov's work in mathematical control theory
Kryazhimskiy, Arkady A
2006-01-01
This paper gives an overview of Yu.S. Osipov's work in mathematical control theory, including development of the theory of positional differential games for control systems with time delay; analysis of the phenomenon of infinite dimensionality of the state space of a dynamical system in the context of differential games; development of the theory of dynamical inversion (dynamical regularization) for finite- and infinite-dimensional control systems; applications of methods of the theory of positional differential games beyond the scope of the theory itself; work on new differential-game methods and on methods of control under incomplete information. The author of this overview is the first student of Osipov, and also his longstanding colleague.
Dr. Yu Wang, Director, Natural Science Division, National Science Council, Taiwan
Patrice Loïez
2001-01-01
Photo 01: L. to r.: Dr. Philippe Bloch, CERN CMS ECAL Deputy Project Manager, Dr. Yu Wang, Dr. Etiennette Auffray, CERN, responsible of the CERN ECAL Regional Centre. Photo 02: L. to r.: Dr. Yu Wang, Dr. Philippe Bloch, Dr. Apollo GO, National Central University, Taiwan, Dr. Etiennette Auffray.
Comments on Yu N Parkhomenko's paper 'Role of aberration effects in dispersive cavities'
Anokhov, S P
1999-01-01
The legitimacy of the approach, proposed by Yu N Parkhomenko for dealing with the operation of solid-state lasers with dispersive cavities, is discussed. Additional information is provided on the neodymium glass laser, used in the present author's experiment. Comment on A Yu N Parkhomenko 1998 Quantum Electron. 28 1102. (discussion)
Correlation order, merging and diversification
Dhaene, J.; Denuit, M.; Vanduffel, S.
2009-01-01
We investigate the influence of the dependence between random losses on the shortfall and on the diversification benefit that arises from merging these losses. We prove that increasing the dependence between losses, expressed in terms of correlation order, has an increasing effect on the shortfall,
Orbital Picture of Yu-Shiba-Rusinov Multiplets
Heinrich, Benjamin W.; Ruby, Michael; Franke, Katharina J.; Peng, Yang; von Oppen, Felix
Magnetic impurities on an s-wave superconductor induce Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) bound states within the excitation gap of the superconductor. Here, we investigate single manganese (Mn) atoms adsorbed on different surface orientations of superconducting lead (Pb) and the nature of their YSR states. Depending on the adsorption site and surface, we detect a distinct number and characteristic patterns of YSR states around the Mn atoms. We show that the YSR states inherit their properties from the Mn d levels, which are split by the surrounding crystal field. The periodicity of the long-range YSR oscillations allows us to identify a dominant coupling of the d states to the outer Fermi sheet of the two-band superconductor Pb. The long-range and directional nature of the states are promising for the design of coupled adatom structures, which could bear topological phases. We acknowledge funding by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through Grant No. FR2726/4 and through collaborative research Grants No. Sfb 658, No. CRC 183, and No. SPP 1666, as well as by the European Research Council through Consolidator Grant NanoSpin.
Simulations of Merging Helion Bunches on the AGS Injection Porch
Gardner, C. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.
2014-08-29
During the setup of helions for the FY2014 RHIC run it was discovered that the standard scheme for merging bunches on the AGS injection porch required an injection kicker pulse shorter than what was available. To overcome this difficulty, K. Zeno proposed and developed an interesting and unusual alternative which uses RF harmonic numbers 12, 4, 2 (rather than the standard 8, 4, 2) to merge 8 helion bunches into 2. In this note we carry out simulations that illustrate how the alternative scheme works and how it compares with the standard scheme. This is done in Sections 13 and 14. A scheme in which 6 bunches are merged into 1 is simulated in Section 15. This may be useful if more helions per merged bunch are needed in future runs. General formulae for the simulations are given in Sections 9 through 12. For completeness, Sections 1 through 8 give a derivation of the turn-by-turn equations of longitudinal motion at constant magnetic field. The derivation is based on the work of MacLachlan. The reader may wish to skip over these Sections and start with Section 9.
Simulations of Merging Helion Bunches on the AGS Injection Porch
Gardner, C. J.
2014-01-01
During the setup of helions for the FY2014 RHIC run it was discovered that the standard scheme for merging bunches on the AGS injection porch required an injection kicker pulse shorter than what was available. To overcome this difficulty, K. Zeno proposed and developed an interesting and unusual alternative which uses RF harmonic numbers 12, 4, 2 (rather than the standard 8, 4, 2) to merge 8 helion bunches into 2. In this note we carry out simulations that illustrate how the alternative scheme works and how it compares with the standard scheme. This is done in Sections 13 and 14. A scheme in which 6 bunches are merged into 1 is simulated in Section 15. This may be useful if more helions per merged bunch are needed in future runs. General formulae for the simulations are given in Sections 9 through 12. For completeness, Sections 1 through 8 give a derivation of the turn-by-turn equations of longitudinal motion at constant magnetic field. The derivation is based on the work of MacLachlan. The reader may wish to skip over these Sections and start with Section 9.
Spheromak Merging Experiments on SSX
Brown, M. R.; Kornack, T. W.; Sollins, P. K.; Luh, W. J.
1997-11-01
Spheromak merging experiments are underway at the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment (SSX) at Swarthmore College. The spheromaks are formed by identical magnetized plasma guns and equilibrium is established in close fitting 0.5 m diameter copper flux conservers. Partial merging is achieved through openings in the back wall. We observe the formation of a reconnection boundary layer at the interface of the two spheromaks using a linear probe array. The characteristic scale of the flux reversal is about 1 cm (consistent with the diffusion scale δ_diff, the ion Larmor radius ρi and the ion inertial length c/ω_pi). Movies of the formation and evolution of the layer will be presented. Correlations between reconnection events and pulses of soft x-rays and energetic particles will be presented if available. Plans for 2D and 3D imaging of the layer will also be discussed.
Modeling cooperative driving behavior in freeway merges.
2011-11-01
Merging locations are major sources of freeway bottlenecks and are therefore important for freeway operations analysis. Microscopic simulation tools have been successfully used to analyze merging bottlenecks and to design optimum geometric configurat...
Automatic generation of data merging program codes.
Hyensook, Kim; Oussena, Samia; Zhang, Ying; Clark, Tony
2010-01-01
Data merging is an essential part of ETL (Extract-Transform-Load) processes to build a data warehouse system. To avoid rewheeling merging techniques, we propose a Data Merging Meta-model (DMM) and its transformation into executable program codes in the manner of model driven engineering. DMM allows defining relationships of different model entities and their merging types in conceptual level. Our formalized transformation described using ATL (ATLAS Transformation Language) enables automatic g...
On optimal quadrature formulae
Lanzara Flavia
2000-01-01
Full Text Available A procedure to construct quadrature formulae which are exact for solutions of linear differential equations and are optimal in the sense of Sard is discussed. We give necessary and sufficient conditions under which such formulae do exist. Several formulae obtained by applying this method are considered and compared with well known formulae.
Walkenbach, John
2013-01-01
Maximize the power of Excel 2013 formulas with this must-have Excel reference John Walkenbach, known as ""Mr. Spreadsheet,"" is a master at deciphering complex technical topics and Excel formulas are no exception. This fully updated book delivers more than 800 pages of Excel 2013 tips, tricks, and techniques for creating formulas that calculate, developing custom worksheet functions with VBA, debugging formulas, and much more. Demonstrates how to use all the latest features in Excel 2013 Shows how to create financial formulas and tap into the power of array formulas
Yu Kilchun’s Concept of Reform of the Tax System in the Korean Empire
Jinah Yang
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Yu Kilchun in “Semubu (Tax Department” criticizes the trend of the tax system, in which the authority to impose and collect taxes had been taken away from the local magistrates and the isŏ class (composed of hyangni, local functionaries, and sŏri, petty clerks during the Kabo Reform was once again returned to them. Yu Kilchun devised a concept of tax system reform on the premise of the reorganization of the administrative districts into the chu-kun-hyang-ri (state-county-district-village system. Yu’s idea was to make myŏn (hyang, district a governing administrative unit, placed under direct government control. To fund the operation of local governments, Yu proposed to create local taxes, chu taxes and hyang. Tax amounts were to be determined by local assemblies, chuhoe and hyanghoe, which were given the authority to deliberate on budget. The authority to review tax sources, levy and collect taxes was given to hyang, a small unit of administrative division. By imbuing this authority to hyang, Yu Kilchun planned to exclude local magistrates and the isŏ class in the tax collection process. Since “Semubu” discusses the reorganization of administrative divisions and local tax administration, as well as local tax system reform, the discovery of this text is significant, as it expands the range of the reform ideas proposed by Yu Kilchun, and furthermore the Enlightenment Party.
Is merging and acquisition profitable?
Skjeret, Frode; Soergard, Lars
2002-01-01
This report deals with mergers and acquisitions in the electricity sector in Norway. The background is the fact that the profitability of these activities proves to be low. In buying, it is typically the selling shareholder who profits from the transaction, while the buying company does not really earn much. This result appears to be a robust result both in different countries, between sectors and independent of methodology. The report provides theoretical justification for merging and buying up and empirical evaluations of the effects of company integration. It is asserted that what can be learned in general from the literature may also occur in the European power sector. Furthermore, the report discusses the challenges faced by the companies if they want to expand through mergers and acquisitions
Morphology of magnetic merging at the magnetopause
Crooker, N.U.
1990-01-01
To illustrate the basic features of magnetospheric topology, the development of a global model is traced from the superposition of dipole and uniform fields to the effects of adding, in turn, diffusion regions, surface currents, and a magnetic field component normal to the magnetopause. The subsolar, antiparallel, tearing, and patchy merging geometries proposed in the past all emerge under various conditions, but models tht deduce merging geometry from global boundary conditions are lacking. An exception is a model in which the external field merges wherever it falls tangent to the magnetopause. The result is a subsolar merging line that has all the characteristics of early sketches based on local arguments. Magnetosheath plasma beta affects magnetospheric topology and, consequently, merging geometry. Low, high, and variable beta favor subsolar, tearing, and patchy merging, respectively. Proposed flux transfer event models of burst reconnection from a single merging line, flux ropes from multiple merging lines, and flux tube elbows from patches can also be categorized by plasma beta in the same respective order. The topological modeling reviewed here may prove to be most useful for interpreting merging results from MHD simulations. (author)
Merging By Decentralized Eventual Consistency Algorithms
Ahmed-Nacer Mehdi
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Merging mechanism is an essential operation for version control systems. When each member of collaborative development works on an individual copy of the project, software merging allows to reconcile modifications made concurrently as well as managing software change through branching. The collaborative system is in charge to propose a merge result that includes user’s modifications. Theusers now have to check and adapt this result. The adaptation should be as effort-less as possible, otherwise, the users may get frustrated and will quit the collaboration. This paper aims to reduce the conflicts during the collaboration and im prove the productivity. It has three objectives: study the users’ behavior during the collaboration, evaluate the quality of textual merging results produced by specific algorithms and propose a solution to improve the r esult quality produced by the default merge tool of distributed version control systems. Through a study of eight open-source repositories totaling more than 3 million lines of code, we observe the behavior of the concurrent modifications during t he merge p rocedure. We i dentified when th e ex isting merge techniques under-perform, and we propose solutions to improve the quality of the merge. We finally compare with the traditional merge tool through a large corpus of collaborative editing.
YU Ren-cun(郁仁存)——A Famous Oncologist in Integrative Medicine
2008-01-01
@@ YU Ren-cun was born on August 1,1934.After graduating from Jiangxi Medical College in 1955,he took part in the very first Western Doctors' Class for Learning Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) held in Beijing from March 1959 to December 1961.Prof.YU systematically learned TCM while taking this class.Since 1962,he has been working in the Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine,eventually being promoted to a Chief Physician by the Beijing Municipal Government in May of 1981.In 1997,Prof.YU was selected as a well-known veteran for the National TCM Doctor Inheritance Work by the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine (SATCM).The State Council of China has awarded him a special subsidy every month for his excellent work.
Higher Education Funding Formulas.
McKeown-Moak, Mary P.
1999-01-01
One of the most critical components of the college or university chief financial officer's job is budget planning, especially using formulas. A discussion of funding formulas looks at advantages, disadvantages, and types of formulas used by states in budgeting for higher education, and examines how chief financial officers can position the campus…
Walkenbach, John
2011-01-01
Everything you need to know about* Mastering operators, error values, naming techniques, and absolute versus relative references* Debugging formulas and using the auditing tools* Importing and exporting XML files and mapping the data to specific cells* Using Excel 2003's rights management feature* Working magic with array formulas* Developing custom formulas to produce the results you needHere's the formula for Excel excellenceFormulas are the lifeblood of spreadsheets, and no one can bring a spreadsheet to life like John Walkenbach. In this detailed reference guide, he delves deeply into unde
The 2003 Merged Model for Vietnam
Jensen, Henning Tarp; Tarp, Finn
This monograph documents the 2003 Merged Model for Vietnam. The initialization and calibration of the model is based on a financial 2003 SAM framework and an auxiliary 2002-3 data set. The recursive nature of the solution of the Merged Model is discussed with reference to the four main sectors...
Anon.
1997-01-01
Negotiations are being conducted on the creation of a joint venture between British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) and the German company Siemens. The venture would merge Siemens' nuclear fuel, engineering and construction services businesses with BNFL's Magnox and AGR fuel fabrication business which is based at Springfields in Lancashire. It would incorporate Siemens' share of Nuclear Power International, a joint venture with the French company Framatone which is developing the European Pressurised Water Reactor project, and its US subsidiary Siemens' Power Corp. BNFL's mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication business, its stake in the Dutch-German-UK uranium enrichment company Urenco and its nuclear waste reprocessing business would not be involved. There is already speculation that Siemens' greater input will lead to it taking a majority stake in what will be the world's second largest nuclear fuel manufacturer. Reaction to the news is reported. This has been muted in the United Kingdom, mixed in Germany and adverse in France because of the implications for the Siemens' Framatone collaboration. (UK)
Orbital Mechanics near a Rotating Asteroid Yu Jiang1,2,∗ & Hexi ...
The Hamilton function can then be written as (Yu & Baoyin 2012a). H = 1. 2 .... The symplectic structure is a differential exterior 2-form defined on a ..... The disadvantage of Poisson-bracket, Poisson and cohomology forms is unavailable for ...
Jing Tong Yu Shu, a traditional Chinese medicine, suppresses IL-1β ...
Zhang et al. 2953. Tropical ... Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a traditional Chinese medicine, Jing Tong Yu Shu (JTYS) on endometriosis in a ..... Flower A, Liu JP, Chen S, Lewith G, Little P. Chinese ... Mol Hum Reprod 2000; 6: 269-275. 18.
Time-varying mixed logit model for vehicle merging behavior in work zone merging areas.
Weng, Jinxian; Du, Gang; Li, Dan; Yu, Yao
2018-08-01
This study aims to develop a time-varying mixed logit model for the vehicle merging behavior in work zone merging areas during the merging implementation period from the time of starting a merging maneuver to that of completing the maneuver. From the safety perspective, vehicle crash probability and severity between the merging vehicle and its surrounding vehicles are regarded as major factors influencing vehicle merging decisions. Model results show that the model with the use of vehicle crash risk probability and severity could provide higher prediction accuracy than previous models with the use of vehicle speeds and gap sizes. It is found that lead vehicle type, through lead vehicle type, through lag vehicle type, crash probability of the merging vehicle with respect to the through lag vehicle, crash severities of the merging vehicle with respect to the through lead and lag vehicles could exhibit time-varying effects on the merging behavior. One important finding is that the merging vehicle could become more and more aggressive in order to complete the merging maneuver as quickly as possible over the elapsed time, even if it has high vehicle crash risk with respect to the through lead and lag vehicles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yennie, D. R.
1963-06-15
The Rosenbluth formula, defined as the theoretical expression for the differential cross section for electronproton scattering under one-photon- exchange, is discussed. Electron-proton amd positron-proton scattering are compared using the formula. Some possible corrections to the Rosenbluth formula are discussed. The effects of nonelectromagnetic interactions and two-photon- exchange, with the possibility of Regge pole behavior, are also discussed. (R.E.U.)
Further simulations of merging galaxies
White, S.D.M.
1979-01-01
Galaxy collisions and the structure of the resulting merger remnants are studied using a large number of numerical simulations. These experiments extend earlier calculations of mergers between pairs of similar 'galaxies'. The tidal coupling in collisions is found to depend strongly on the rotational properties of the 'galaxies' involved. It is greatly enhanced if their spin vectors are aligned with that of their orbit, and it is suppressed if this alignment is reversed. The structure of a merger product depends only weakly on that of its progenitors. Such remnants are typically axisymmetric oblate systems with radially decreasing velocity dispersions and density profiles which have near power-law form over two decades in radius. This density structure is reasonably well described by de Vaucouleurs' empirical formula for the surface brightness distribution of elliptical galaxies. The flattening of merger remnants may be partly supported by an anisotropic pressure distribution, but the systems studied here nevertheless rotate considerably more rapidly than most observed elliptical galaxies, and a natural preference for nearly head-on collisions must be invoked if all ellipticals are to be identified as merger remnants. Mass and energy losses are found to be very small for mergers between bound or marginally unbound 'galaxies'. Escapers can, however, carry away a significant amount of angular momentum. (author)
Bogdany, Melvin
This manual is designed to help baking students learn to use formulas in the preparation of baking products. Tested and proven formulas are, for the most part, standard ones with only slight modifications. The recipes are taken mainly from bakery product manufacturers and are presented in quantities suitable for school-shop use. Each recipe…
Vandenplas, Yvan; Greef, Elisabeth De; Veereman, Gigi
2014-01-01
The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited. PMID:25535999
Formula misasi?! / Sten Soomlais
Soomlais, Sten
2008-01-01
Formula Student on kõrgkoolide masinaehituse ja/või autotehnika tudengite meeskondade vaheline iga-aastane tootearendusvõistlus, mis kujutab endast väikese vormelauto projekteerimist, ehitamist ja võidusõitmist ringrajal. Lisa: Formula Student Eestis
Manin matrices and Talalaev's formula
Chervov, A; Falqui, G
2008-01-01
In this paper we study properties of Lax and transfer matrices associated with quantum integrable systems. Our point of view stems from the fact that their elements satisfy special commutation properties, considered by Yu I Manin some 20 years ago at the beginning of quantum group theory. These are the commutation properties of matrix elements of linear homomorphisms between polynomial rings; more explicitly these read: (1) elements of the same column commute; (2) commutators of the cross terms are equal: [M ij , M kl ] [M kj , M il ] (e.g. [M 11 , M 22 ] = [M 21 , M 12 ]). The main aim of this paper is twofold: on the one hand we observe and prove that such matrices (which we call Manin matrices in short) behave almost as well as matrices with commutative elements. Namely, the theorems of linear algebra (e.g., a natural definition of the determinant, the Cayley-Hamilton theorem, the Newton identities and so on and so forth) have a straightforward counterpart in the case of Manin matrices. On the other hand, we remark that such matrices are somewhat ubiquitous in the theory of quantum integrability. For instance, Manin matrices (and their q-analogs) include matrices satisfying the Yang-Baxter relation 'RTT=TTR' and the so-called Cartier-Foata matrices. Also, they enter Talalaev's remarkable formulae: det(∂ z -L gaudin (z)), det(1-e -∂z T Yangian (z)) for the 'quantum spectral curve', and appear in the separation of variables problem and Capelli identities. We show that theorems of linear algebra, after being established for such matrices, have various applications to quantum integrable systems and Lie algebras, e.g. in the construction of new generators in Z(U crit (gl-hat n )) (and, in general, in the construction of quantum conservation laws), in the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equation, and in the problem of Wick ordering. We propose, in the appendix, a construction of quantum separated variables for the XXX-Heisenberg system
Bouncing and Merging of Liquid Jets
Saha, Abhishek; Li, Minglei; Law, Chung K.
2014-11-01
Collision of two fluid jets is a technique that is utilized in many industrial applications, such as in rocket engines, to achieve controlled mixing, atomization and sometimes liquid phase reactions. Thus, the dynamics of colliding jets have direct impact on the performance, efficiency and reliability of such applications. In analogy with the dynamics of droplet-droplet collision, in this work we have experimentally demonstrated, for n-alkane hydrocarbons as well as water, that with increasing impact inertia obliquely colliding jets also exhibit the same nonmonotonic responses of merging, bouncing, merging again, and merging followed by disintegration; and that the continuous entrainment of the boundary layer air over the jet surface into the colliding interfacial region leads to two distinguishing features of jet collision, namely: there exists a maximum impact angle beyond which merging is always possible, and that merging is inhibited and then promoted with increasing pressure. These distinct response regimes were mapped and explained on the bases of impact inertia, deformation of the jet surface, viscous loss within the jet interior, and the thickness and pressure build-up within the interfacial region in order to activate the attractive surface van der Waals force to effect merging.
NONE
2001-03-01
This is a detailed geological survey report on Yu Hsien coalfield for the period beginning in 1987 and ending in March, 2001. The survey elucidated the structures, beds, coal seams, coal property, hydro-geological features, and other mining technological conditions in Beiyang Zhuang mining area. In addition, as a result of coal reserves calculation, the total of A, B and C class coal reserves was 328.34 million tons, of which No.1 and No.5 coal seams were 259.79 million tons, taking 79.1% of the entire reserves. The average coal seam thickness of the No.1 and No.5 coal seams, which are the principal minable coal seams, are each 3.10 m and 2.66 m, with the existing depth usually 300-711 m; the coal properties are classified into low-medium ash, low sulfur, low phosphorus, and medium heating value. The coal category is long flame coal, with the use applicable to cement, electric power, gasification, etc. As the infrastructure, Beiyang Zhuang mining area is one of the three mines for which development has been decided in Yu Hsien coalfield. with the planned coal output scheduled for 1.8 million tons, and with a road or a dedicated railroad for coal maintained leading to large and medium cities such as Changkiakow, Suanhwa and Beijing. Further, railway construction is in progress, so that transportation conditions are extremely favorable. Preliminary investigation of industries and construction of coal pits should be considered. (NEDO)
Interlayer magnetoresistance in multilayer Dirac electron systems: motion and merging of Dirac cones
Assili, M; Haddad, S
2013-01-01
We theoretically study the effect of the motion and the merging of Dirac cones on the interlayer magnetoresistance in multilayer graphene-like systems. This merging, which can be induced by a uniaxial strain, gives rise in a monolayer Dirac electron system to a topological transition from a semi-metallic phase to an insulating phase whereby Dirac points disappear. Based on a universal Hamiltonian, proposed to describe the motion and the merging of Dirac points in two-dimensional Dirac electron crystals, we calculate the interlayer conductivity of a stack of deformed graphene-like layers using the Kubo formula in the quantum limit where only the contribution of the n = 0 Landau level is relevant. A crossover from a negative to a positive interlayer magnetoresistance is found to take place as the merging is approached. This sign change of the magnetoresistance can also result from a coupling between the Dirac valleys, which is enhanced as the magnetic field amplitude increases. Our results describe the behavior of the magnetotransport in the organic conductor α-(BEDT) 2 I 3 and in a stack of deformed graphene-like systems. The latter can be simulated by optical lattices or microwave experiments in which the merging of Dirac cones can be observed. (paper)
Interlayer magnetoresistance in multilayer Dirac electron systems: motion and merging of Dirac cones
Assili, M.; Haddad, S.
2013-09-01
We theoretically study the effect of the motion and the merging of Dirac cones on the interlayer magnetoresistance in multilayer graphene-like systems. This merging, which can be induced by a uniaxial strain, gives rise in a monolayer Dirac electron system to a topological transition from a semi-metallic phase to an insulating phase whereby Dirac points disappear. Based on a universal Hamiltonian, proposed to describe the motion and the merging of Dirac points in two-dimensional Dirac electron crystals, we calculate the interlayer conductivity of a stack of deformed graphene-like layers using the Kubo formula in the quantum limit where only the contribution of the n = 0 Landau level is relevant. A crossover from a negative to a positive interlayer magnetoresistance is found to take place as the merging is approached. This sign change of the magnetoresistance can also result from a coupling between the Dirac valleys, which is enhanced as the magnetic field amplitude increases. Our results describe the behavior of the magnetotransport in the organic conductor α-(BEDT)2I3 and in a stack of deformed graphene-like systems. The latter can be simulated by optical lattices or microwave experiments in which the merging of Dirac cones can be observed.
Assili, M; Haddad, S
2013-09-11
We theoretically study the effect of the motion and the merging of Dirac cones on the interlayer magnetoresistance in multilayer graphene-like systems. This merging, which can be induced by a uniaxial strain, gives rise in a monolayer Dirac electron system to a topological transition from a semi-metallic phase to an insulating phase whereby Dirac points disappear. Based on a universal Hamiltonian, proposed to describe the motion and the merging of Dirac points in two-dimensional Dirac electron crystals, we calculate the interlayer conductivity of a stack of deformed graphene-like layers using the Kubo formula in the quantum limit where only the contribution of the n = 0 Landau level is relevant. A crossover from a negative to a positive interlayer magnetoresistance is found to take place as the merging is approached. This sign change of the magnetoresistance can also result from a coupling between the Dirac valleys, which is enhanced as the magnetic field amplitude increases. Our results describe the behavior of the magnetotransport in the organic conductor α-(BEDT)2I3 and in a stack of deformed graphene-like systems. The latter can be simulated by optical lattices or microwave experiments in which the merging of Dirac cones can be observed.
Merged ozone profiles from four MIPAS processors
Laeng, Alexandra; von Clarmann, Thomas; Stiller, Gabriele; Dinelli, Bianca Maria; Dudhia, Anu; Raspollini, Piera; Glatthor, Norbert; Grabowski, Udo; Sofieva, Viktoria; Froidevaux, Lucien; Walker, Kaley A.; Zehner, Claus
2017-04-01
The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) was an infrared (IR) limb emission spectrometer on the Envisat platform. Currently, there are four MIPAS ozone data products, including the operational Level-2 ozone product processed at ESA, with the scientific prototype processor being operated at IFAC Florence, and three independent research products developed by the Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara (ISAC-CNR)/University of Bologna, Oxford University, and the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology-Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research/Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (KIT-IMK/IAA). Here we present a dataset of ozone vertical profiles obtained by merging ozone retrievals from four independent Level-2 MIPAS processors. We also discuss the advantages and the shortcomings of this merged product. As the four processors retrieve ozone in different parts of the spectra (microwindows), the source measurements can be considered as nearly independent with respect to measurement noise. Hence, the information content of the merged product is greater and the precision is better than those of any parent (source) dataset. The merging is performed on a profile per profile basis. Parent ozone profiles are weighted based on the corresponding error covariance matrices; the error correlations between different profile levels are taken into account. The intercorrelations between the processors' errors are evaluated statistically and are used in the merging. The height range of the merged product is 20-55 km, and error covariance matrices are provided as diagnostics. Validation of the merged dataset is performed by comparison with ozone profiles from ACE-FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer) and MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder). Even though the merging is not supposed to remove the biases of the parent datasets, around the ozone volume mixing ratio peak the merged product is found to have a smaller (up to 0.1 ppmv
Fundamental formulas of physics
1960-01-01
The republication of this book, unabridged and corrected, fills the need for a comprehensive work on fundamental formulas of mathematical physics. It ranges from simple operations to highly sophisticated ones, all presented most lucidly with terms carefully defined and formulas given completely. In addition to basic physics, pertinent areas of chemistry, astronomy, meteorology, biology, and electronics are also included.This is no mere listing of formulas, however. Mathematics is integrated into text, for the most part, so that each chapter stands as a brief summary or even short textbook of
Development of the SONIX software for the YuMO instrument at the IBR-2 reactor
Kirilov, A.S.; Litvinenko, E.I.; Astakhova, N.V.; Murashevich, S.M.; Petukhova, T.B.; Yudin, V.E.; Gordelij, V.I.; Islamov, A.Kh.; Kuklin, A.I.
2003-01-01
The main results of the modernization of the software complex of the YuMO spectrometer are described. The comparison of the previous MS-DOS based software and new OS-9 based one is carried out. The advantages and disadvantages of each program are described. The main features of the new software complex and the results of its long-term operation are presented. It is shown that the software upgrade essentially improved the spectrometer control. (author)
... Private Wells Infant Formula Fluorosis Public Health Service Recommendation Water Operators & Engineers Water Fluoridation Additives Shortages of Fluoridation Additives Drinking Water Pipe Systems CDC-Sponsored Water Fluoridation Training Links to Other ...
Formulae as Scientific Stories
Horsewell, Ian
2017-01-01
In science lessons many students struggle to apply the principles of rearranging formulae, even after coverage in maths. A structured approach is suggested that focuses on describing a narrative linking cause and effect before explicit mathematical terms are introduced.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly available...
Contributions to multidimensional quadrature formulas
Guenther, C.
1976-11-01
The general objective of this paper is to construct multidimensional quadrature formulas similar to the Gaussian Quadrature Formulas in one dimension. The correspondence between these formulas and orthogonal and nonnegative polynomials is established. One part of the paper considers the construction of multidimensional quadrature formulas using only methods of algebraic geometry, on the other part it is tried to obtain results on quadrature formulas with real nodes and, if possible, with positive weights. The results include the existence of quadrature formulas, information on the number resp. on the maximum possible number of points in the formulas for given polynomial degree N and the construction of formulas. (orig.) [de
Cosmic ray modulation and merged interaction regions
Burlaga, L.F.; Goldstein, M.L.; Mcdonald, F.B.
1985-01-01
Beyond several AU, interactions among shocks and streams give rise to merged interaction regions in which the magnetic field is turbulent. The integral intensity of . 75 MeV/Nuc cosmic rays at Voyager is generally observed to decrease when a merged interaction region moves past the spacecraft and to increase during the passage of a rarefaction region. When the separation between interaction regions is relatively large, the cosmic ray intensity tends to increase on a scale of a few months. This was the case at Voyager 1 from July 1, 1983 to May 1, 1984, when the spacecraft moved from 16.7 to 19.6 AU. Changes in cosmic ray intensity were related to the magnetic field strength in a simple way. It is estimated that the diffusion coefficient in merged interaction regions at this distance is similar to 0.6 x 10 to the 22nd power sq cm/s
Application studies of spherical tokamak plasma merging
Ono, Yasushi; Inomoto, Michiaki
2012-01-01
The experiment of plasma merging and heating has long history in compact torus studies since Wells. The study of spherical tokamak (ST), starting from TS-3 plasma merging experiment of Tokyo University in the late 1980s, is followed by START of Culham laboratory in the 1900s, TS-4 and UTST of Tokyo University and MAST of Culham laboratory in the 2000s, and last year by VEST of Soul University. ST has the following advantages: 1) plasma heating by magnetic reconnection at a MW-GW level, 2) rapid start-up of high beta plasma, 3) current drive/flux multiplication and distribution control of ST plasma, 4) fueling and helium-ash exhaust. In the present article, we emphasize that magnetic reconnection and plasma merging phenomena are important in ST plasma study as well as in plasma physics. (author)
Interpreting quantum discord through quantum state merging
Madhok, Vaibhav; Datta, Animesh
2011-01-01
We present an operational interpretation of quantum discord based on the quantum state merging protocol. Quantum discord is the markup in the cost of quantum communication in the process of quantum state merging, if one discards relevant prior information. Our interpretation has an intuitive explanation based on the strong subadditivity of von Neumann entropy. We use our result to provide operational interpretations of other quantities like the local purity and quantum deficit. Finally, we discuss in brief some instances where our interpretation is valid in the single-copy scenario.
Merging history of three bimodal clusters
Maurogordato, S.; Sauvageot, J. L.; Bourdin, H.; Cappi, A.; Benoist, C.; Ferrari, C.; Mars, G.; Houairi, K.
2011-01-01
We present a combined X-ray and optical analysis of three bimodal galaxy clusters selected as merging candidates at z ~ 0.1. These targets are part of MUSIC (MUlti-Wavelength Sample of Interacting Clusters), which is a general project designed to study the physics of merging clusters by means of multi-wavelength observations. Observations include spectro-imaging with XMM-Newton EPIC camera, multi-object spectroscopy (260 new redshifts), and wide-field imaging at the ESO 3.6 m and 2.2 m telescopes. We build a global picture of these clusters using X-ray luminosity and temperature maps together with galaxy density and velocity distributions. Idealized numerical simulations were used to constrain the merging scenario for each system. We show that A2933 is very likely an equal-mass advanced pre-merger ~200 Myr before the core collapse, while A2440 and A2384 are post-merger systems (~450 Myr and ~1.5 Gyr after core collapse, respectively). In the case of A2384, we detect a spectacular filament of galaxies and gas spreading over more than 1 h-1 Mpc, which we infer to have been stripped during the previous collision. The analysis of the MUSIC sample allows us to outline some general properties of merging clusters: a strong luminosity segregation of galaxies in recent post-mergers; the existence of preferential axes - corresponding to the merging directions - along which the BCGs and structures on various scales are aligned; the concomitance, in most major merger cases, of secondary merging or accretion events, with groups infalling onto the main cluster, and in some cases the evidence of previous merging episodes in one of the main components. These results are in good agreement with the hierarchical scenario of structure formation, in which clusters are expected to form by successive merging events, and matter is accreted along large-scale filaments. Based on data obtained with the European Southern Observatory, Chile (programs 072.A-0595, 075.A-0264, and 079.A-0425
Iwayama, I.; Iwayama, A.
1982-04-10
A fuel formula that includes a homogenous mixture of benzine, aromatic ether oils, perfume and other perfuming agents, as well as the lowest possible aliphatic alcohol as a component solvent, surfactant, and possibly, a soluble pigment that colors the formula an appropriate color. This formula is used as an aromatic fuel for cigarette lights. The ether oils can be musk, amber, camomille, lavender, mint, anise, rose, camphor, and other aromatic oils; the perfuming agents are: geraniol, linalool, menthol, camphor, benzyl or phenetyl alcohols, phenylacetaldehyde, vanillin, coumarin, and so forth; the pigments are: beta-carotene, sudan dyes, etc.; the low aliphatic alcohols are EtOH, iso-PrOH. Example: 70 parts benzine, 10 parts EtOH, 15 parts oxide mezithylene and 5 parts borneol form a clear liquid that has a camphor aroma when it is lit.
Hojsak, Iva; Bronsky, Jiri; Campoy, Cristina
2018-01-01
Young child formulae (YCF) are milk-based drinks or plant protein-based formulae intended to partially satisfy the nutritional requirements of young children ages 1 to 3 years. Although widely available on the market, their composition is, however, not strictly regulated and health effects have...... not been systematically studied. Therefore, the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) Committee on Nutrition (CoN) performed a systematic review of the literature to review the composition of YCF and consider their role in the diet of young children...... for the routine use of YCF in children from 1 to 3 years of life, but they can be used as part of a strategy to increase the intake of iron, vitamin D, and n-3 PUFA and decrease the intake of protein compared with unfortified cow's milk. Follow-on formulae can be used for the same purpose. Other strategies...
Attractor merging crisis in chaotic business cycles
Chian, Abraham C.-L.; Borotto, Felix A.; Rempel, Erico L.; Rogers, Colin
2005-01-01
A numerical study is performed on a forced-oscillator model of nonlinear business cycles. An attractor merging crisis due to a global bifurcation is analyzed using the unstable periodic orbits and their associated stable and unstable manifolds. Characterization of crisis can improve our ability to forecast sudden major changes in economic systems
Modeling merging behavior at lane drops.
2015-02-01
In work-zone configurations where lane drops are present, merging of traffic at the taper presents an operational concern. In : addition, as flow through the work zone is reduced, the relative traffic safety of the work zone is also reduced. Improvin...
Algorithm 426 : Merge sort algorithm [M1
Bron, C.
1972-01-01
Sorting by means of a two-way merge has a reputation of requiring a clerically complicated and cumbersome program. This ALGOL 60 procedure demonstrates that, using recursion, an elegant and efficient algorithm can be designed, the correctness of which is easily proved [2]. Sorting n objects gives
Cluster Physics with Merging Galaxy Clusters
Sandor M. Molnar
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Collisions between galaxy clusters provide a unique opportunity to study matter in a parameter space which cannot be explored in our laboratories on Earth. In the standard LCDM model, where the total density is dominated by the cosmological constant ($Lambda$ and the matter density by cold dark matter (CDM, structure formation is hierarchical, and clusters grow mostly by merging.Mergers of two massive clusters are the most energetic events in the universe after the Big Bang,hence they provide a unique laboratory to study cluster physics.The two main mass components in clusters behave differently during collisions:the dark matter is nearly collisionless, responding only to gravity, while the gas is subject to pressure forces and dissipation, and shocks and turbulenceare developed during collisions. In the present contribution we review the different methods used to derive the physical properties of merging clusters. Different physical processes leave their signatures on different wavelengths, thusour review is based on a multifrequency analysis. In principle, the best way to analyze multifrequency observations of merging clustersis to model them using N-body/HYDRO numerical simulations. We discuss the results of such detailed analyses.New high spatial and spectral resolution ground and space based telescopeswill come online in the near future. Motivated by these new opportunities,we briefly discuss methods which will be feasible in the near future in studying merging clusters.
Electromagnetic shielding formulae
Dahlberg, E.
1979-02-01
This addendum to an earlier collection of electromagnetic shielding formulae (TRITA-EPP-75-27) contains simple transfer matrices suitable for calculating the quasistatic shielding efficiency for multiple transverse-field and axial-field cylindrical and spherical shields, as well as for estimating leakage fields from long coaxial cables and the normal-incidence transmission of a plane wave through a multiple plane shield. The differences and similarities between these cases are illustrated by means of equivalent circuits and transmission line analogies. The addendum also includes a discussion of a possible heuristic improvement of some shielding formulae. (author)
Preparation for electron ring - plasma ring merging experiments in RECE-MERGE
Taggart, D.; Sekiguchi, A.; Fleischmann, H.H.
1986-01-01
The formation of a mixed-CT using relativistic electron rings and gun-produced plasma rings by MERGE-ing them axially is simulated. This process is similar to the axial stacking of relativistic electron rings in RECE-Christa. The results of their first plasm production experiment are reported here. After study of the gun-produced plasma's properties is completed, the gun will be mounted at the downstream end of the vacuum tank and the source of relativistic electron rings will be at the upstream end. The two rings, formed at opposite ends of the tank, will be translated axially and merged
The Near-Earth Encounter of Asteroid 308635 (2005 YU55): Thermal IR Observations
Lim, Lucy F.; Emery, J. P.; Moskovitz, N. A.; Busch, M. W.; Yang, B.; Granvik, M.
2012-10-01
The near-Earth approach (0.00217 AU, or 0.845 lunar distances) of the C-type asteroid 308635 (2005 YU55) in November 2011 presented a rare opportunity for detailed observations of a low-albedo NEA in this size range. As part of a multi-telescope campaign to measure visible and infrared spectra and photometry, we obtained mid-infrared ( 8 to 22 micron) photometry and spectroscopy of 2005 YU55 using Michelle [1] on the Gemini North telescope on UT November 9 and 10, 2011. An extensive radar campaign [2] together with optical lightcurves [3,4] established the rotation state of YU55. In addition, the radar imaging resulted in a shape model for the asteroid, detection of numerous boulders on its surface, and a preliminary estimate of its equatorial diameter at 380 +/- 20 m. In a preliminary analysis, applying the radar and lightcurve-derived parameters to a rough-surface thermophysical model fit to the Gemini/Michelle thermal emission photometry results in a thermal inertia range of approximately 500 to 1500 J m-2 s-1/2 K-1, with the low-thermal-inertia solution corresponding to the small end of the radar size range and vice versa. Updates to these results will be presented and modeling of the thermal contribution to the measured near-infrared spectra from Palomar/Triplespec and IRTF/SpeX will also be discussed. The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of observatory staff and the support of the NASA NEOO program (LFL and JPE), the Carnegie fellowship (NAM), and NASA AES, NSF, and the NRAO Jansky Fellowship (MWB). [1] De Buizer, J. and R. Fisher, Proc. Hris (2005), pp. 84-87. [2] Busch, M.W. et al., ACM (2012), abstract #6179. [3] Warner, B., MPBull 39 (2), 84 [4] Pravec, P.
S.Yu. Witte's Customs Policy and Regulation of State Import of Industrial Equipment
Антон Юрьевич Петров
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The article considers state import of industrial equipment in the context of the customs regulation of Russia’s foreign trade under S.Yu. Witte as the Minister of Finance (1892–1903. The analysis of archival data reveals the motives which drove various ministries of the Russian empire when they gave preference to foreign producers rather than domestic ones. In the 1890s the Ministry of Finance, on the one hand, and other ministries, on the other hand, were debating the necessity of orders for foreign industrial equipment made by the Russian governmental bodies. The article studies the course and results of this interdepartmental struggle.
N. Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560 064, India. 2Indian Institute of ... for rational functions φ with poles off R. In [5,16], Koplienko's trace formula was derived ... be a sequence of complex numbers such that ..... Again if we set the sum of the second and fourth term inside the integral in (2.3) to be. I2 ≡.
Koekoek, J.; Koekoek, R.
1999-01-01
We look for differential equations satisfied by the generalized Jacobi polynomials which are orthogonal on the interval [-1,1] with respect to the weight function [Enlarge Image] where >-1, ß>-1M=0 and N=0. In order to find explicit formulas for the coefficients of these differential equations we
Hughes, B.D.; Frankel, N.E.; Ninham, B.W.
1990-01-01
An alternative view is presented of the Chen's generalization of a formula of classic algebraic number theory, based on the Mellin transformation and Reimann's zeta function. The advantages of the Mellin transform, as a method with a primary role in asymptotic analysis, are outlined. 10 refs
Observation of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] decays.
Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Arnau Romeu, J; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Babuschkin, I; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baker, S; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Baszczyk, M; Batozskaya, V; Batsukh, B; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Bel, L J; Bellee, V; Belloli, N; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bertolin, A; Betancourt, C; Betti, F; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bezshyiko, Ia; Bifani, S; Billoir, P; Bird, T; Birnkraut, A; Bitadze, A; Bizzeti, A; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Boettcher, T; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Bordyuzhin, I; 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2017-01-01
The decays [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are observed for the first time using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb[Formula: see text], collected by the LHCb experiment in proton-proton collisions at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8[Formula: see text]. The branching fractions relative to that of [Formula: see text] are measured to be [Formula: see text]where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second are systematic.
The Astrophysics of Merging Black Holes
Schnittman, Jeremy D.
2011-01-01
When two supermassive black holes (SMBHs) approach within 1-10 mpc, gravitational wave (GW) losses begin to dominate the evolution of the binary, pushing the system to merge in a relatively small time. During this final inspiral regime, the system will emit copious energy in GWs, which should be directly detectable by pulsar timing arrays and space-based interferometers. At the same time, any gas or stars in the immediate vicinity of the merging 5MBHs can get heated and produce bright electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to the GW signals. We present here a number of possible mechanisms by which simultaneous EM and GW signals will yield valuable new information about galaxy evolution, accretion disk dynamics, and fundamental physics in the most extreme gravitational fields.
Team Climate Inventory with a merged organization.
Dackert, Ingrid; Brenner, Sten-Olof; Johansson, Curt R
2002-10-01
The present study examines the team climate for innovation in work teams within a newly merged organization. Four teams working at a regional head office of a Social Insurance organization answered the Team Climate Inventory. The results were compared to those of a study by Agrell and Gustafson of more stable teams. The comparison showed that participative safety and support for innovation were rated lower and that vision was rated higher in the newly merged teams. The 38-item original inventory was used and based on the results, a 1999 proposed shortened version of 14 items by Kivimäki and Elovainio was compared with the original one. Analysis indicated that the short version can be a valid alternative to the original version but that further testing of the short version is needed.
Zhang, Ruixian; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jian; Liang, Fei
2014-05-01
Altogether 15 terms for Guang dong xin yu (New Sayings of Guangdong) were used in Ben cao gang mu shi yi (Supplements to Compendium of Materia Medica), including Yue yu (Cantonese sayings), Chong yu (Sayings from Insect Drug), Jie yu (Sayings from Crustacean Drug), Xin yu (New Sayings), Yue hai xiang yu (Fragrant Sayings from Cantonese Region), Yue zhi mu yu (Sayings from Plants in Cantonese Annals), Guang dong suo yu (Trivial Sayings from Guangdong), Yue shan lu (Records of Cantonese Mountains), Yue lu (Cantonese Records), Jiao guang lu (Joint Guangdong Records), Yue cao zhi (Records of Cantonese Grasses), Guang guo lu (Records of Guangdong Fruits), Nan yue suo ji (Trivial Records of Southern Canton), Guang zhi (Guangdong Records), Yue zhi (Cantonese Records) etc. dealing with 57 sorts of drugs (with individual overlapping ones), the author of Xin yu was Qu Dajun, a surviving fogy of the Ming Dynasty actively involved in the activities to restore the old dynasty and resist the Qing Dynasty, and was persecuted in the literary inquisition in which his works were burnt so that Zhao Xuemin, when quoting his texts, had to go in a roundabout way.
Modeling merging behavior at lane drops : [tech transfer summary].
2015-02-01
A better understanding of the merging behavior of drivers will lead : to the development of better lane-drop traffic-control plans and : strategies, which will provide better guidance to drivers for safer : merging.
Merging Digital Surface Models Implementing Bayesian Approaches
Sadeq, H.; Drummond, J.; Li, Z.
2016-06-01
In this research different DSMs from different sources have been merged. The merging is based on a probabilistic model using a Bayesian Approach. The implemented data have been sourced from very high resolution satellite imagery sensors (e.g. WorldView-1 and Pleiades). It is deemed preferable to use a Bayesian Approach when the data obtained from the sensors are limited and it is difficult to obtain many measurements or it would be very costly, thus the problem of the lack of data can be solved by introducing a priori estimations of data. To infer the prior data, it is assumed that the roofs of the buildings are specified as smooth, and for that purpose local entropy has been implemented. In addition to the a priori estimations, GNSS RTK measurements have been collected in the field which are used as check points to assess the quality of the DSMs and to validate the merging result. The model has been applied in the West-End of Glasgow containing different kinds of buildings, such as flat roofed and hipped roofed buildings. Both quantitative and qualitative methods have been employed to validate the merged DSM. The validation results have shown that the model was successfully able to improve the quality of the DSMs and improving some characteristics such as the roof surfaces, which consequently led to better representations. In addition to that, the developed model has been compared with the well established Maximum Likelihood model and showed similar quantitative statistical results and better qualitative results. Although the proposed model has been applied on DSMs that were derived from satellite imagery, it can be applied to any other sourced DSMs.
MERGING DIGITAL SURFACE MODELS IMPLEMENTING BAYESIAN APPROACHES
H. Sadeq
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this research different DSMs from different sources have been merged. The merging is based on a probabilistic model using a Bayesian Approach. The implemented data have been sourced from very high resolution satellite imagery sensors (e.g. WorldView-1 and Pleiades. It is deemed preferable to use a Bayesian Approach when the data obtained from the sensors are limited and it is difficult to obtain many measurements or it would be very costly, thus the problem of the lack of data can be solved by introducing a priori estimations of data. To infer the prior data, it is assumed that the roofs of the buildings are specified as smooth, and for that purpose local entropy has been implemented. In addition to the a priori estimations, GNSS RTK measurements have been collected in the field which are used as check points to assess the quality of the DSMs and to validate the merging result. The model has been applied in the West-End of Glasgow containing different kinds of buildings, such as flat roofed and hipped roofed buildings. Both quantitative and qualitative methods have been employed to validate the merged DSM. The validation results have shown that the model was successfully able to improve the quality of the DSMs and improving some characteristics such as the roof surfaces, which consequently led to better representations. In addition to that, the developed model has been compared with the well established Maximum Likelihood model and showed similar quantitative statistical results and better qualitative results. Although the proposed model has been applied on DSMs that were derived from satellite imagery, it can be applied to any other sourced DSMs.
In-depth analysis of drivers' merging behavior and rear-end crash risks in work zone merging areas.
Weng, Jinxian; Xue, Shan; Yang, Ying; Yan, Xuedong; Qu, Xiaobo
2015-04-01
This study investigates the drivers' merging behavior and the rear-end crash risk in work zone merging areas during the entire merging implementation period from the time of starting a merging maneuver to that of completing the maneuver. With the merging traffic data from a work zone site in Singapore, a mixed probit model is developed to describe the merging behavior, and two surrogate safety measures including the time to collision (TTC) and deceleration rate to avoid the crash (DRAC) are adopted to compute the rear-end crash risk between the merging vehicle and its neighboring vehicles. Results show that the merging vehicle has a bigger probability of completing a merging maneuver quickly under one of the following situations: (i) the merging vehicle moves relatively fast; (ii) the merging lead vehicle is a heavy vehicle; and (iii) there is a sizable gap in the adjacent through lane. Results indicate that the rear-end crash risk does not monotonically increase as the merging vehicle speed increases. The merging vehicle's rear-end crash risk is also affected by the vehicle type. There is a biggest increment of rear-end crash risk if the merging lead vehicle belongs to a heavy vehicle. Although the reduced remaining distance to work zone could urge the merging vehicle to complete a merging maneuver quickly, it might lead to an increased rear-end crash risk. Interestingly, it is found that the rear-end crash risk could be generally increased over the elapsed time after the merging maneuver being triggered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Density of states, Poisson's formula of summation and Walfisz's formula
Fucho, P.
1980-06-01
Using Poisson's formula for summation, we obtain an expression for density of states of d-dimensional scalar Helmoholtz's equation under various boundary conditions. Likewise, we also obtain formulas of Walfisz's type. It becomes evident that the formulas obtained by Pathria et al. in connection with ideal bosons in a finite system are exactly the same as those obtained by utilizing the formulas for density of states. (author)
Oded Stark
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This paper looks at the integration of regions and nations through the prism of the merger of populations (societies. The paper employs a particular index of social stress. Stylized examples of the merging of two populations suggest that with integration, the social stress index will increase. The examples form the basis for the development of new formulas for calculating the social stress of an integrated population as a function of the levels of social stress of the constituent populations when apart. The formulas reveal that the social stress of an integrated population is higher than the sum of the levels of social stress of the constituent populations when apart. This raises the distinct possibility that the merging of populations may be a social liability: integration may fail to give the populace a sense of improved wellbeing.
Changes in thunderstorm characteristics due to feeder cloud merging
Sinkevich, Andrei A.; Krauss, Terrence W.
2014-06-01
Cumulus cloud merging is a complex dynamical and microphysical process in which two convective cells merge into a single cell. Previous radar observations and numerical simulations have shown a substantial increase in the maximum area, maximum echo top and maximum reflectivity as a result of the merging process. Although the qualitative aspects of merging have been well documented, the quantitative effects on storm properties remain less defined. Therefore, a statistical assessment of changes in storm characteristics due to merging is of importance. Further investigation into the effects of cloud merging on precipitation flux (Pflux) in a statistical manner provided the motivation for this study in the Asir region of Saudi Arabia. It was confirmed that merging has a strong effect on storm development in this region. The data analysis shows that an increase in the median of the distribution of maximum reflectivity was observed just after merging and was equal to 3.9 dBZ. A detailed analysis of the individual merge cases compared the merged storm Pflux and mass to the sum of the individual Feeder and Storm portions just before merging for each case. The merged storm Pflux increased an average of 106% over the 20-min period after merging, and the mass increased on average 143%. The merged storm clearly became larger and more severe than the sum of the two parts prior to merging. One consequence of this study is that any attempts to evaluate the precipitation enhancement effects of cloud seeding must also include the issue of cloud mergers because merging can have a significant effect on the results.
Alfredo Bregni
2013-04-01
innovation to the main process functioning. As a result, the proposed algorithm copes better with demand uncertainty, lowers the system nervousness and also removes the need for continuous forecast adjustments, thereby improving the ease in managing the material flow, allowing the development of new forms of collaboration among different supply chain partners and the creation of new business networks. The algorithm is presented in formulas to describe in detail each procedure step and calculations.
Lung Shih-Chun Candice [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan); Guo Yu-Liang Leon; Chang Ho-Yuan [Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health, Coll. of Medicine, National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan)
2004-09-15
In 1979, about two thousand people in central Taiwan were intoxicated by consumption of the rice oil that was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This ''Yu-cheng'' incident was one of the two human tragedies which people ingested substantial amounts of PCBs within a short period of time. Some of the follow-up epidemiological studies focused on the children born to the exposed mothers, the Yu-cheng children, since they could be exposed to PCBs via breast-feeding or transplacental transfer. This report presents the results of the serum PCB levels of the 21 Yu-cheng children with a congener-specific analysis. On the other hand, fish consumption is thought to be the single most important exposure route to PCBs to the general public; thus, it is crucial to understand PCB exposure from fish consumption. In a separated study to assess PCB contamination in fish, PCB congener concentrations in tilapia (Oreochromis hybrids), the most popular fish in Taiwan, were evaluated. The consumption quantity of tilapia is the highest throughout the Island. It is mostly farmed in fresh water but can also be bred in saltwater. This report presents the concentrations and profiles in the serums of the Yu-cheng children. The congener profile is compared with PCB profile in the serum of Yu-cheng women reported previously and that in one of the potentially significant exposure source, tilapia, conducted in a separated work. Remarkable similarity between the profile of Yu-cheng children and that of the tilapia is revealed and discussed.
Kant's universal law formula revisited
Nyholm, S.
2015-01-01
Kantians are increasingly deserting the universal law formula in favor of the humanity formula. The former, they argue, is open to various decisive objections; the two are not equivalent; and it is only by appealing to the human- ity formula that Kant can reliably generate substantive implications
La fuerza expresiva del deseo en Lan Yu de Stanley Kwan .
David L. Eng
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Stanley Kwan's Lan Yu configures the emergence of homosexuality in contemporary China far beyond its validation in recognizably Western identitarian terms: the affirmation of an existing but misrecognized minority population; the defense of sexual "perversion"; the positing of sexual freedom, legal recognition, and political rights; the justification of a bourgeois consumer lifestyle, or even the expression of a universalizing and bindingtove bringing togethertwo abstract individuáis. Instead, in Kwan's film, homosexuality and its expressive desire mark the emergence of a new humanism in (postsocialist China under the shadows of global capitalism and neoliberal development. Gays and lesbians, that is, are harbingers of a new modernity, helping to situate China in its proper place within a cosmopolitan globalized world. From this perspective, homosexuality functions as a critical tool for organizing and evaluating the historical continuities and ruptures among China's (semicolonial past, its revolutionary aspirations for a socialist modernity, and its present investments in a neoliberal capitalist world order.
Iida, Y.; Yokoyama, T. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Hagenaar, H. J. [Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Org. ADBS, Building 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)
2012-06-20
Frequencies of magnetic patch processes on the supergranule boundary, namely, flux emergence, splitting, merging, and cancellation, are investigated through automatic detection. We use a set of line-of-sight magnetograms taken by the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board the Hinode satellite. We found 1636 positive patches and 1637 negative patches in the data set, whose time duration is 3.5 hr and field of view is 112'' Multiplication-Sign 112''. The total numbers of magnetic processes are as follows: 493 positive and 482 negative splittings, 536 positive and 535 negative mergings, 86 cancellations, and 3 emergences. The total numbers of emergence and cancellation are significantly smaller than those of splitting and merging. Further, the frequency dependence of the merging and splitting processes on the flux content are investigated. Merging has a weak dependence on the flux content with a power-law index of only 0.28. The timescale for splitting is found to be independent of the parent flux content before splitting, which corresponds to {approx}33 minutes. It is also found that patches split into any flux contents with the same probability. This splitting has a power-law distribution of the flux content with an index of -2 as a time-independent solution. These results support that the frequency distribution of the flux content in the analyzed flux range is rapidly maintained by merging and splitting, namely, surface processes. We suggest a model for frequency distributions of cancellation and emergence based on this idea.
Formation of the oil composition of the Yu0 Bazhenov formation, Salym oil field
E.V. Soboleva
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The Bazhenov horizon of Western Siberia has been studied in considerable detail from different perspectives and different methods, a large number of studies have been devoted to a wide range of issues related to the lithological composition of rocks, their reservoir properties, the study of organic matter, properties and composition of oil at various analytical levels, and many others. This work is devoted to restoring conditions for the formation of oil properties and composition of the Yu0 Salym oil field, based mainly on the geochemical aspects of the study of oil changes both in area and in the section within the productive layer of Salym structure, using some geological data, such as structural plan for the reflecting horizon B (the roof of the Bazhenov formation, having a complex configuration, reservoir temperatures and pressure, well flow rates, and others. There is no single reservoir at the Salym field in the Yu0 formation. For the conclusions of the geological-geochemical interpretation, a sampling of 61 samples of oil from exploration, appraisal and production wells of the initial stages of production was used, since in the future when oil is extracted, the ecology in the deposits changes, and 21 samples of oil from other fields in the West Siberian oil and gas basin. Conventionally, three types of oils are distinguished, differing in their physicochemical parameters, group hydrocarbon and molecular composition. It was suggested that in addition to the own organic matter of the Bazhenov formation, hydrocarbon fluids of the Vasyugan, Tyumen formations and possibly Paleozoic rocks were involved in the formation of the oil composition. The flow of light liquid hydrocarbons and gases occurred along the zones of faults of different genesis and duration of existence.
Analysis of straightening formula
Devadatta M. Kulkarni
1988-01-01
standard bitableaux (or the set of standard monomials in minors gives a free basis for a polynomial ring in a matrix of indeterminates over a field. The straightening formula expresses a nonstandard bitableau as an integral linear cobmbination of standard bitableaux. In this paper we analyse the exchanges in the process of straightening a nonstandard pure tableau of depth two. We give precisely the number of steps required to straighten a given violation of a nonstandard tableau. We also characterise the violation which is eliminated in a single step.
Tejera R, A.; Cortes P, A.; Becerril V, A.
1990-03-01
For the practical application of the method proposed by J. Bryant, the authors carried out a series of small corrections, related with the bottom, the dead time of the detectors and channels, with the resolution time of the coincidences, with the accidental coincidences, with the decay scheme and with the gamma efficiency of the beta detector beta and the beta efficiency beta of the gamma detector. The calculation of the correction formula is presented in the development of the present report, being presented 25 combinations of the probability of the first existent state at once of one disintegration and the second state at once of the following disintegration. (Author)
Borzenko, V.A.; Koltovskiy, L.V.; Koshelyov, Yu.I.; Kuzovlyev, G.F.; Lebedyev, S.I.; Sitnikov, S.A.; Telegin, V.D.
1979-12-30
To improve operation of scrubbers that operate in crystallizers for deparaffinization of oil products, a formula is being suggested which contains siliceous fibers, and a type of thermoactive resin - phenol-formaldehyde laquer, with the following component ration (% weight): carbon fiber 20-25, siliceous fibers 20-30, dry lubricant 10-15, phenolformaldehyde laquer up to 100. Phys.-mech. characteristics are flexure, compression, Ak of the suggested and known compositions (kgs/cm/sup 2/) 2150-2450 and 2550-2700, 32-37 and 1750, 2150 and 27 operation resource 2100:2500 and 1400.
Gordely, Valentin; Kuklin, Alexander; Balasoiu, Maria
2012-03-01
The Second International Workshop 'SANS-YuMO User Meeting at the Start-up of Scientific Experiments on the IBR-2M Reactor', devoted to the 75th anniversary of the birth of Professor Yu M Ostanevich (1936-1992), an outstanding neutron physicist and the founder of small-angle neutron scattering (field, group, and instrument) at JINR FLNPh, was held on 27-30 May at the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics. The first Workshop was held in October 2006. Research groups from different neutron centers, universities and research institutes across Europe presented more than 35 oral and poster presentations describing scientific and methodological results. Most of them were obtained with the help of the YuMO instrument before the IBR-2 shutdown in 2006. For the last four years the IBR-2 reactor has been shut down for refurbishment. At the end of 2010 the physical launch of the IBR-2M reactor was finally realized. Nowadays the small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique is applied to a wide range of scientific problems in condensed matter, soft condensed matter, biology and nanotechnology, and despite the fact that there are currently over 30 SANS instruments in operation worldwide at both reactor and spallation sources, the demand for beam-time is considerably higher than the time available. It must be remembered, however, that as the first SANS machine on a steady-state reactor was constructed at the Institute Laue Langevin, Grenoble, the first SANS instrument on a 'white' neutron pulsed beam was accomplished at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at the IBR-30 reactor, beamline N5. During the meeting Yu M Ostanevich's determinative and crucial contribution to the construction of spectrometers at the IBR-2 high-pulsed reactor was presented, as well as his contribution to the development of the time-of-flight (TOF) small-angle scattering technique, and a selection of other scientific areas. His leadership and outstanding scientific achievements in applications of the
Carter, Merilyn; Cooper, Tom; Anderson, Robyn
2016-01-01
This paper describes the pedagogical framework used by YuMi Deadly Maths, a school change process used to improve mathematics teaching and thus enhance employment and life chances for socially disadvantaged students. The framework, called the RAMR cycle, is capable of being used by mathematics teachers for planning and delivering lessons and units…
Lung, S.-C. Candice [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan 115 (China); Guo, Y.-L.L. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 138 Sheng-Li Rd., Tainan, Taiwan 70428 (China); Chang, H.-Y.[Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 138 Sheng-Li Rd., Tainan, Taiwan 70428 (China)]. E-mail: h7154@mail.ncku.edu.tw
2005-07-15
In 1979, about 2000 people in central Taiwan were intoxicated via rice oil consumption that was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This 'Yu-cheng' incident was one of the two known major human PCB intoxication episodes. Twenty years after the intoxication, serum samples of 435 Yu-cheng victims, 414 adults and 21 children, were collected. Sixteen PCB congeners were analyzed with a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector. We found the median concentration of total PCBs in the adult serum was 1500 ng/g lipid, still substantially higher than that of the general population in Taiwan (3.7-fold) and most seafood consumers in the world. Most of analyzed PCB congeners in children were below or around the detection limits. Congener no. 138, however, had the highest concentrations, approximately accounting for 55% and 29% in the child and adult groups, respectively. Given that PCBs are persistent organic pollutants and endocrine disruptors, the concentrations and congener-specific profiles regarding the Yu-cheng victims provide valuable information for the investigation of such chemicals in humans. - Total serum PCBs in the Yu-cheng adult victims twenty years after the incident were still higher than that of the general population in Taiwan.
ISOON + SOLIS: Merging the Data Products
Radick, R.; Dalrymple, N.; Mozer, J.; Wiborg, P.; Harvey, J.; Henney, C.; Neidig, D.
2005-05-01
The combination of AFRL's ISOON and NSO's SOLIS offers significantly greater capability than the individual instruments. We are working toward merging the SOLIS and ISOON data products in a single central facility. The ISOON system currently includes both an observation facility and a remote analysis center (AC). The AC is capable of receiving data from both the ISOON observation facility as well as external sources. It archives the data and displays corrected images and time-lapse animations. The AC has a large number of digital tools that can be applied to solar images to provide quantitative information quickly and easily. Because of its convenient tools and ready archival capability, the ISOON AC is a natural place to merge products from SOLIS and ISOON. We have completed a preliminary integration of the ISOON and SOLIS data products. Eventually, we intend to distribute viewing stations to various users and academic institutions, install the AC software tools at a number of user locations, and publish ISOON/SOLIS data products jointly on a common web page. In addition, SOLIS data products, separately, are and will continue to be fully available on the NSO,s Digital Library and SOLIS web pages, and via the Virtual Solar Observatory. This work is being supported by the National Science Foundation and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.
Star Formation in Merging Galaxies Using FIRE
Perez, Adrianna; Hung, Chao-Ling; Naiman, Jill; Moreno, Jorge; Hopkins, Philip
2018-01-01
Galaxy interactions and mergers are efficient mechanisms to birth stars at rates that are significantly higher than found in our Milky Way galaxy. The Kennicut-Schmidt (KS) relation is an empirical relationship between the star-forming rate and gas surface densities of galaxies (Schmidt 1959; Kennicutt 1998). Although most galaxies follow the KS relation, the high levels of star formation in galaxy mergers places them outside of this otherwise tight relationship. The goal of this research is to analyze the gas content and star formation of simulated merging galaxies. Our work utilizes the Feedback In Realistic Environments (FIRE) model (Hopkins et al., 2014). The FIRE project is a high-resolution cosmological simulation that resolves star-forming regions and incorporates stellar feedback in a physically realistic way. In this work, we have noticed a significant increase in the star formation rate at first and second passage, when the two black holes of each galaxy approach one other. Next, we will analyze spatially resolved star-forming regions over the course of the interacting system. Then, we can study when and how the rates that gas converts into stars deviate from the standard KS. These analyses will provide important insights into the physical mechanisms that regulate star formation of normal and merging galaxies and valuable theoretical predictions that can be used to compare with current and future observations from ALMA or the James Webb Space Telescope.
Electron-ion recombination in merged beams
Wolf, A.; Habs, D.; Lampert, A.; Neumann, R.; Schramm, U.; Schuessler, T.; Schwalm, D.
1993-01-01
Detailed studies of recombination processes between electrons and highly charged ions have become possible by recent improvements of merged-beams experiments. We discuss in particular measurements with stored cooled ion beams at the Test Storage Ring (TSR) in Heidelberg. The cross section of dielectronic recombination was measured with high energy resolution for few-electron systems up to the nuclear charge of Cu at a relative energy up to 2.6 keV. At low energy (∼0.1 eV) total recombination rates of several ions were measured and compared with calculated radiative recombination rates. Laser-stimulated recombination of protons and of C 6+ ions was investigated as a function of the photon energy using visible radiation. Both the total recombination rates and the stimulated recombination spectra indicate that in spite of the short interaction time in merged beams, also collisional capture of electrons into weakly bound levels (related to three-body recombination) could be important
Aeroacoustics of T-junction merging flow.
Lam, G C Y; Leung, R C K; Tang, S K
2013-02-01
This paper reports a numerical study of the aeroacoustics of merging flow at T-junction. The primary focus is to elucidate the acoustic generation by the flow unsteadiness. The study is conducted by performing direct aeroacoustic simulation approach, which solves the unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations and the perfect gas equation of state simultaneously using the conservation element and solution element method. For practical flows, the Reynolds number based on duct width is usually quite high (>10(5)). In order to properly account for the effects of flow turbulence, a large eddy simulation methodology together with a wall modeling derived from the classical logarithm wall law is adopted. The numerical simulations are performed in two dimensions and the acoustic generation physics at different ratios of side-branch to main duct flow velocities VR (=0.5,0.67,1.0,2.0) are studied. Both the levels of unsteady interactions of merging flow structures and the efficiency of acoustic generation are observed to increase with VR. Based on Curle's analogy, the major acoustic source is found to be the fluctuating wall pressure induced by the flow unsteadiness occurred in the downstream branch. A scaling between the wall fluctuating force and the efficiency of the acoustic generation is also derived.
The genome and structural proteome of YuA, a new Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage resembling M6.
Ceyssens, Pieter-Jan; Mesyanzhinov, Vadim; Sykilinda, Nina; Briers, Yves; Roucourt, Bart; Lavigne, Rob; Robben, Johan; Domashin, Artem; Miroshnikov, Konstantin; Volckaert, Guido; Hertveldt, Kirsten
2008-02-01
Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage YuA (Siphoviridae) was isolated from a pond near Moscow, Russia. It has an elongated head, encapsulating a circularly permuted genome of 58,663 bp, and a flexible, noncontractile tail, which is terminally and subterminally decorated with short fibers. The YuA genome is neither Mu- nor lambda-like and encodes 78 gene products that cluster in three major regions involved in (i) DNA metabolism and replication, (ii) host interaction, and (iii) phage particle formation and host lysis. At the protein level, YuA displays significant homology with phages M6, phiJL001, 73, B3, DMS3, and D3112. Eighteen YuA proteins were identified as part of the phage particle by mass spectrometry analysis. Five different bacterial promoters were experimentally identified using a promoter trap assay, three of which have a sigma54-specific binding site and regulate transcription in the genome region involved in phage particle formation and host lysis. The dependency of these promoters on the host sigma54 factor was confirmed by analysis of an rpoN mutant strain of P. aeruginosa PAO1. At the DNA level, YuA is 91% identical to the recently (July 2007) annotated phage M6 of the Lindberg typing set. Despite this level of DNA homology throughout the genome, both phages combined have 15 unique genes that do not occur in the other phage. The genome organization of both phages differs substantially from those of the other known Pseudomonas-infecting Siphoviridae, delineating them as a distinct genus within this family.
Quadrature formulas for Fourier coefficients
Bojanov, Borislav
2009-09-01
We consider quadrature formulas of high degree of precision for the computation of the Fourier coefficients in expansions of functions with respect to a system of orthogonal polynomials. In particular, we show the uniqueness of a multiple node formula for the Fourier-Tchebycheff coefficients given by Micchelli and Sharma and construct new Gaussian formulas for the Fourier coefficients of a function, based on the values of the function and its derivatives. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Transfer maps and projection formulas
Tabuada, Goncalo
2010-01-01
Transfer maps and projection formulas are undoubtedly one of the key tools in the development and computation of (co)homology theories. In this note we develop an unified treatment of transfer maps and projection formulas in the non-commutative setting of dg categories. As an application, we obtain transfer maps and projection formulas in algebraic K-theory, cyclic homology, topological cyclic homology, and other scheme invariants.
Merging Platform Ecosystems in Technology Acquisitions
Dowie, Jamie; Henningsson, Stefan; Kude, Thomas
2017-01-01
of the merging companies. Given the increasing importance of platforms and value co-creation with third-party providers for companies making technology acquisitions, we complement existing literature by reframing the analysis of technology acquisitions to include the merger of the broader partner ecosystems....... Specifically, we draw on theories of ecosystem governance to analyze how ecosystem tensions unfolded during the ecosystem merger and how the acquirer governed these tensions in SAP SE’s acquisition of the e-commerce provider Hybris AG. Our findings suggest that the governance of ecosystem tensions...... is an important aspect of managing technology acquisitions. We identify the pre-acquisition relation between the acquired company’s ecosystem partners and the acquirer as an important context factor for explaining how a partner company is exposed to the ecosystem tensions during the merger....
Will the urge to merge continue?
Gobert, W.A.
2001-01-01
A review of oil and gas markets was presented along with mergers and acquisitions activity. The objective of the exercise was to determine if the current trend of mergers within the oil industry will continue. The review of oil and gas markets included a historical look at crude oil and natural gas prices as well as on industry activity as a whole. A series of economic indicator graphs demonstrate that buyers wallets are full, oil and gas prices have beat the estimates, purchase prices have inflated and shareholders continue to sell at a discount. This information has led the author to conclude that the trend to merge will definitely continue. 2 tabs., 18 figs
Merging Educational Finance Reform and Desegregation Goals
Deborah M. Kazal-Thresher
1993-06-01
Full Text Available Educational finance reforms and desegregation have both sought to address inequities in educational opportunities for minorities and low income families. The recent methods of addressing desegregation issues have tended to focus on attaining racial balance rather than educational quality, however. This paper explores how desegregation goals can be merged with educational finance reform to more systematically address educational quality in schools serving low income and minority populations. By moving toward centralized control over school financing, the inequity of school outcomes that are based on unequal school resources can be reduced. In addition, state determined expenditures when combined with desegregation monies, would meet the original intention of desegregation funds by clearly providing add-on monies for additional services for minority children, while at the same time, creating a better monitoring mechanism.
Merging and energy exchange between optical filaments
Georgieva, D. A., E-mail: dgeorgieva@tu-sofia.bg [Faculty of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Sofia, 8 Kliment Ohridski Blvd., 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria); Kovachev, L. M. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradcko Chaussee Blvd., 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)
2015-10-28
We investigate nonlinear interaction between collinear femtosecond laser pulses with power slightly above the critical for self-focusing P{sub cr} trough the processes of cross-phase modulation (CPM) and degenerate four-photon parametric mixing (FPPM). When there is no initial phase difference between the pulses we observe attraction between pulses due to CPM. The final result is merging between the pulses in a single filament with higher power. By method of moments it is found that the attraction depends on the distance between the pulses and has potential character. In the second case we study energy exchange between filaments. This process is described through FPPM scheme and requests initial phase difference between the waves.
Maps of Relocation and Poems of Tang Dynasty Poets: Li Bai, Du Fu, and Han Yu
羅鳳珠、白璧玲、廖泫銘、范毅軍 、鄭錦全 Feng-Ju Lo,Pi-Ling Pai,Hsiung-Ming Liao,I-Chun Fan,Chin-Chuan Cheng
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Geographic environments affect literary contents and genre and thus, since ancient times, geographical area has been used to classify Chinese literature. In 1936 Liang Qichao was keenly aware of the relationship between literature and geography and brought up the idea of “literarygeography”. In 1979 Professor Chen Zhengxiang produced maps of birthplaces of Tang and Song poets to show the shift of Chinese cultural center from north to south. Furthermore, in the pastdecade, the attention to research in literary geography and geographical distribution of writersgradually increased. However, most studies focused on geographical distribution of birthplaces of writers and very few focused on the relationship between poets’ journey and the contents of their writings and their geographic environment. Meanwhile, geographic information system and aerialphotography have developed quickly and have become useful tools for the study of literary geography.Since then, the academic circles in Taiwan have built a solid foundation in this area. While Li Baiand Du Fu were called poetic immortal and poetic sage of the middle and end periods of the heydayof Tang Dynasty, respectively, Han Yu advocated the classical Chinese movement and becameone of the eight great authors of Tang and Song dynasties. Han Yu was also the best representative of Middle Tang poets. While the styles of these three poets differed from each other, they held key positions in the development and evolution of Tang poetry. Their footprints spread all over the countryand greatly affected later developments and contemporary of poetry. This project makes use of the digital Tang Dynasty maps by Tan Qixiang, Tang Dynasty transportation route maps by Yan Gengwang,aerial maps, the All Tang Poems, and chronicles of the poets to build the three poets’ relocation maps and study their poetic literature, language, geography, and interactions with others, in hopesof opening a new research direction
Fabrication of welded pipes of the KhN45Yu alloy
Lyapunov, A.I.; Krichevskij, E.M.; L'vov, V.N.; Kozlov, N.N.; Kireeva, T.S.
1977-01-01
A highly heat-resistant KhN45Yu (EP 747) alloy has been developed; the alloy is designed to withstand prolonged service in the temperature range of 1000-1300 deg C, or short-term service at 1300-1400 deg C. The satisfactory ductility and good weldability of the alloy have made it possible to obtain sheets and pipes (32 x 2.0 mm) by argon arc welding. The ductility of pipes from EP 747 alloy exceeds that of pipes from KhN78T (EI 435) alloy by 5.10%, the strength being approximately equal. In regard to strength the welded joint differs little from the base metal. The ductility characteristics up to 900 deg C are also equal, since failure occurs in the base metal. At higher temperatures the welded joint fails in the metal of the weld, and its ductility drops sharply. The grain size of the base metal corresponds to No. 3-4. The welded joint has a cast structure with a grain size larger than No. 1, but its ductility characteristics are satisfactory. This structure ensures an increased long-term strength of the material at 1000-1200 deg C
Kondo Effect of U Impurities in Dilute (YU)2Zn17
Takagi, Shigeru; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Anzai, Kousuke
2001-10-01
Extending previous work on single-site properties of U ions in (LaU)2Zn17, we have investigated, from ρ(T), χ(T) and Cp(T) on single crystals, (Y1-xUx)2Zn17 with x=0.025 and 0.050, which has almost the same unit-cell volume as an antiferromagnetic heavy-electron compound U2Zn17. Remarkable features in the dilute-impurity limit have been clarified, which include Kondo behavior of ρ(T), large and almost isotropic χimp(T), and strongly enhanced Cimp(T)/T with gigantic γimp=2.02 2.05 J/K2·mole-U as T→0 due to a low characteristic energy-scale of the system. It is shown that gross features of the data are explained in terms of the conventional Kondo effect in the presence of the crystal field with the U3+ \\varGamma6 doublet ground state. It is also shown that the variation of γ with the unit-cell volume in related systems is not explained as a volume effect on TK and that even the behavior of fictitious “paramagnetic” U2Zn17 is not described as a collection of U impurities in dilute (YU)2Zn17.
Grouping Minerals by Their Formulas
Mulvey, Bridget
2018-01-01
Minerals are commonly taught in ways that emphasize mineral identification for its own sake or maybe to help identify rocks. But how do minerals fit in with other science content taught? The author uses mineral formulas to help Earth science students wonder about the connection between elements, compounds, mixtures, minerals, and mineral formulas.…
Statistics Using Just One Formula
Rosenthal, Jeffrey S.
2018-01-01
This article advocates that introductory statistics be taught by basing all calculations on a single simple margin-of-error formula and deriving all of the standard introductory statistical concepts (confidence intervals, significance tests, comparisons of means and proportions, etc) from that one formula. It is argued that this approach will…
Discontinuity formulas for multiparticle amplitudes
Stapp, H.P.
1976-03-01
It is shown how discontinuity formulas for multiparticle scattering amplitudes are derived from unitarity and analyticity. The assumed analyticity property is the normal analytic structure, which was shown to be equivalent to the space-time macrocausality condition. The discontinuity formulas to be derived are the basis of multi-particle fixed-t dispersion relations
Observations and Modeling of Merging Galaxy Clusters
Golovich, Nathan Ryan
Context: Galaxy clusters grow hierarchically with continuous accretion bookended by major merging events that release immense gravitational potential energy (as much as ˜1065 erg). This energy creates an environment for rich astrophysics. Precise measurements of the dark matter halo, intracluster medium, and galaxy population have resulted in a number of important results including dark matter constraints and explanations of the generation of cosmic rays. However, since the timescale of major mergers (˜several Gyr) relegates observations of individual systems to mere snapshots, these results are difficult to understand under a consistent dynamical framework. While computationally expensive simulations are vital in this regard, the vastness of parameter space has necessitated simulations of idealized mergers that are unlikely to capture the full richness. Merger speeds, geometries, and timescales each have a profound consequential effect, but even these simple dynamical properties of the mergers are often poorly understood. A method to identify and constrain the best systems for probing the rich astrophysics of merging clusters is needed. Such a method could then be utilized to prioritize observational follow up and best inform proper exploration of dynamical phase space. Task: In order to identify and model a large number of systems, in this dissertation, we compile an ensemble of major mergers each containing radio relics. We then complete a pan-chromatic study of these 29 systems including wide field optical photometry, targeted optical spectroscopy of member galaxies, radio, and X-ray observations. We use the optical observations to model the galaxy substructure and estimate line of sight motion. In conjunction with the radio and X-ray data, these substructure models helped elucidate the most likely merger scenario for each system and further constrain the dynamical properties of each system. We demonstrate the power of this technique through detailed analyses
NONE
2000-03-01
This project is based on the (agreement of the joint exploitation project for Yu Xian block in Yu Xian coal mine, Province of Hepei by Japan's NEDO and China's Coal Geological Bureau), signed on October 4, 1996. The joint project mainly comprises seismic exploitation and test drilling, Japan being mainly responsible for the former and China for the latter. The final report will be drawn jointly for the geological survey results necessary for designing coal mines. The Yu Xian block contains the Jurassic coal seams, which are covered by the Quaternary bed and not exposed to the surface. The Quaternary bed base is 50 to 400 m deep from the surface, and coal seams are 300 to 700 m deep also from the surface. A total of 11 coal seams are located in the Xiahuayuan strata as the coal-bearing strata. The first and fifth seams are most promising ones. In particular, the fifth seam is thick (0.2 to 6.91 m thick) and distributed throughout the block. It is estimated that 8 coal seams have a total coal quantity of approximately 346 million tons. (NEDO)
Yu et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2013) 10(6):551-554 ...
cadewumi
the cell survival rate was calculated according to the following formula: Cell survival rate = (OD value of the experimental group - OD value of the blank control group) / (OD value of the control group - OD value of the blank control group) x 100%. Four replicate wells were set up for each concentration at each time point, the ...
Learning to merge search results for efficient Distributed Information Retrieval
Tjin-Kam-Jet, Kien; Hiemstra, Djoerd
2010-01-01
Merging search results from different servers is a major problem in Distributed Information Retrieval. We used Regression-SVM and Ranking-SVM which would learn a function that merges results based on information that is readily available: i.e. the ranks, titles, summaries and URLs contained in the
Olga V. Shatalova
2017-10-01
Full Text Available In article the communicative and linguistic parameters of the speech of the publicist of the XX century Yu. Senkevich which are declared as a sample for formation of the language personality in the conditions of development of the modern information and communicative environment are designated. On the example of the analysis of the book «On “Ra” through Atlantic» locates the fact of that Yu.N. Senkevich’s creativity corresponds to the main criteria of popular scientific journalism: high degree of reliability, authoritativeness of the publicist; dynamism, dramatic nature, intelligence of a statement. The unostentatious enlightenment based on updating of scientific knowledge for the addressee and a dialogization of a publicistic discourse, the high level of psychological and philosophical generality, the declaration of humanistic values form specific rhetoric which is supported by the formal and grammatical organization of the speech of the publicist. Priority of syntactic designs of a certain type, stylistic ladders and figures – dynamism of a statement and scale of representation of material define. The humour and easy self-irony as significant characteristics of the language personality define a basis of the rhetorical and stylistic canon realized in publicistic works Yu.N. Senkevich – «the human view of people and society» that in the modern information and communicative environment becomes a necessary reference point.
Merging startup experiments on the UTST spherical tokamak
Yamada, Takuma; Kamio, Shuji; Imazawa, Ryota
2010-01-01
The University of Tokyo Spherical Tokamak (UTST) was constructed to explore the formation of ultrahigh-beta spherical tokamak (ST) plasmas using double null plasma merging. The main feature of the UTST is that the poloidal field coils are located outside the vacuum vessel to demonstrate startup in a reactor-relevant situation. Initial operations used partially completed power supplies to investigate the appropriate conditions for plasma merging. The plasma current of the merged ST reached 100 kA when the central solenoid coil was used to assist plasma formation. Merging of two ST plasmas through magnetic reconnection was successfully observed using two-dimensional pickup coil arrays, which directly measure the toroidal and axial magnetic fields inside the UTST vacuum vessel. The resistivity of the current sheet was found to be anomalously high during merging. (author)
Experiments on CT plasma merging in the CTCC-1
Watanabe, K.; Ikegami, K.; Nishikawa, M.; Ozaki, A.; Satomi, N.; Uyama, T.
1982-01-01
A compact toroid (CT) plasma merging experiment has been tried preliminarily in the CTCC-1 experiment as a method for further-heating of CT, on producing two CT plasmas in the flux conserver successively. Two CT plasmas were observed really to merge with each other in the flux conserver. In the merging process, it is found that the field reconnection of surface magnetic field lines of CT is completed until 30 μs after the second CT injection, but magnetic field lines around the center of CT merge slowly, taking about 100 μs. Experimental results indicate that merging of CT results in doubled addition of toroidal fluxes and no-addition of poloidal fluxes
Merging Galaxy Clusters: Analysis of Simulated Analogs
Nguyen, Jayke; Wittman, David; Cornell, Hunter
2018-01-01
The nature of dark matter can be better constrained by observing merging galaxy clusters. However, uncertainty in the viewing angle leads to uncertainty in dynamical quantities such as 3-d velocities, 3-d separations, and time since pericenter. The classic timing argument links these quantities via equations of motion, but neglects effects of nonzero impact parameter (i.e. it assumes velocities are parallel to the separation vector), dynamical friction, substructure, and larger-scale environment. We present a new approach using n-body cosmological simulations that naturally incorporate these effects. By uniformly sampling viewing angles about simulated cluster analogs, we see projected merger parameters in the many possible configurations of a given cluster. We select comparable simulated analogs and evaluate the likelihood of particular merger parameters as a function of viewing angle. We present viewing angle constraints for a sample of observed mergers including the Bullet cluster and El Gordo, and show that the separation vectors are closer to the plane of the sky than previously reported.
Contact Binaries on Their Way Towards Merging
Gazeas, K.
2015-07-01
Contact binaries are the most frequently observed type of eclipsing star system. They are small, cool, low-mass binaries belonging to a relatively old stellar population. They follow certain empirical relationships that closely connect a number of physical parameters with each other, largely because of constraints coming from the Roche geometry. As a result, contact binaries provide an excellent test of stellar evolution, specifically for stellar merger scenarios. Observing campaigns by many authors have led to the cataloging of thousands of contact binaries and enabled statistical studies of many of their properties. A large number of contact binaries have been found to exhibit extraordinary behavior, requiring follow-up observations to study their peculiarities in detail. For example, a doubly-eclipsing quadruple system consisting of a contact binary and a detached binary is a highly constrained system offering an excellent laboratory to test evolutionary theories for binaries. A new observing project was initiated at the University of Athens in 2012 in order to investigate the possible lower limit for the orbital period of binary systems before coalescence, prior to merging.
Luo, Qiulan; Zhang, Claire Shuiqing; Yang, Lihong; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Guo, Xinfeng; Xue, Charlie Changli; Lu, Chuanjian
2017-11-06
Chinese herbal medicine formula Yu ping feng san (YPFS) is commonly used for allergic rhinitis (AR). Previous review had summarized the effectiveness and safety of YPFS, however without any subgroup analysis performed to provide detailed evidence for guiding clinical practice. YPFS was recommended for the management of AR by Chinese medicine clinical practice guideline, but the treatment duration of YPFS was also not specified. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of YPFS in treating adult AR with the most recent evidence, and attempt to specify the duration of utilisation through subgroup meta-analyses. Seven databases were searched from their inceptions to September 2017. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating YPFS for adult AR were included. Methodological quality of studies was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Meta-analysis and subgroup meta-analyses were conducted for evaluating the effectiveness of YPFS. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used for rating the quality of evidence. Twenty-two RCTs involving 23 comparisons were included in this review. YPFS was compared to placebo, pharmacotherapy, and used as an add-on treatment compared to pharmacotherapy. Meta-analyses were feasible for the outcomes of four individual nasal symptom scores and "effective rate". Four individual nasal symptom scores decreased after YPFS' combination treatment: itchy nose (MD-0.46, 95% CI[-0.50, -0.42]), sneezing (MD-0.41, 95% CI[-0.47, -0.35]), blocked nose (MD-0.46, 95% CI[-0.54, -0.39]) and runny nose (MD-0.42, 95% CI[-0.58, -0.26]). Based on "effective rate", meta-analysis showed that YPFS did not achieve better effect than pharmacotherapy (RR1.07, 95%CI [0.94, 1.22), but its combination with pharmacotherapy seemed more effective than pharmacotherapy alone (RR1.27, 95%CI [1.19, 1.34]) (low quality). Subgroup analysis suggested that YPFS was not superior to the second
Larisa N. Kuznetsova
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The article considers M.Yu. Lermontov’s linguistic / literary personality through perspective of linguistic personality perception by Great Russian scientist-philologist and linguist, Academician V.V. Vinogradov.
Trace formulae for arithmetical systems
Bogomolny, E.B.; Georgeot, B.; Giannoni, M.J.; Schmit, C.
1992-09-01
For quantum problems on the pseudo-sphere generated by arithmetic groups there exist special trace formulae, called trace formulae for Hecke operators, which permit the reconstruction of wave functions from the knowledge of periodic orbits. After a short discussion of this subject, the Hecke operators trace formulae are presented for the Dirichlet problem on the modular billiard, which is a prototype of arithmetical systems. The results of numerical computations for these semiclassical type relations are in good agreement with the directly computed eigenfunctions. (author) 23 refs.; 2 figs
Tachibana, Takahiro [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Advanced Research Center for Science and Engineering
1997-07-01
Wapstra and Audi`s Table is famous for evaluation of experimental data of atomic nuclear masses (1993/1995 version) which estimated about 2000 kinds of nuclei. The error of atomic mass of formula is 0.3 MeV-0.8 MeV. Four kinds of atomic mass formula: JM (Jaenecke and Masson), TUYY (Tachibana, Uno, Yamada and Yamada), FRDM (Moeller, Nix, Myers and Swiatecki) and ETFSI (Aboussir, Pearson, Dutta and Tondeur) and their properties (number of parameter and error etc.) were explained. An estimation method of theoretical error of mass formula was presented. It was estimated by the theoretical error of other surrounding nuclei. (S.Y.)
Pravendra Kumar
2016-09-01
Full Text Available : The present work is focused to characterize numerically the merged and non-merged flame emanating from the cavities in downstream of twin cavity Annular Trapped Vortex Combustor (ATVC.The isotherm corresponding to the auto-ignition temperature is used to locate the merging point of the flame in the mainstream region along the combustor length. In present study, the cavity flame is said to be merged only if this isotherm corresponding to self-ignition temperature of methane is located within 20 percentage of the combustor length from aft wall of cavities. It is interesting to note that on increasing the power loading parameter (PLP in mainstream for a constant power loading parameter ratio (outer to inner cavity, the merging point gets shifted towards the cavity aft-wall. This leads to the reduction of combustor length and subsequent reduction in overall weight of the gas turbine engine.
FDA Abbott Infant Formula Recall
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — On September 22, 2010, Abbott issued a voluntary recall of certain Similac powdered infant formula after identifying a common warehouse beetle (both larvae and...
Quadrature formulas for Fourier coefficients
Bojanov, Borislav; Petrova, Guergana
2009-01-01
We consider quadrature formulas of high degree of precision for the computation of the Fourier coefficients in expansions of functions with respect to a system of orthogonal polynomials. In particular, we show the uniqueness of a multiple node
Marchal, O; Cafasso, M
2011-01-01
In this paper, we show that the double-scaling-limit correlation functions of a random matrix model when two cuts merge with degeneracy 2m (i.e. when y ∼ x 2m for arbitrary values of the integer m) are the same as the determinantal formulae defined by conformal (2m, 1) models. Our approach follows the one developed by Bergère and Eynard in (2009 arXiv:0909.0854) and uses a Lax pair representation of the conformal (2m, 1) models (giving a Painlevé II integrable hierarchy) as suggested by Bleher and Eynard in (2003 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 36 3085). In particular we define Baker–Akhiezer functions associated with the Lax pair in order to construct a kernel which is then used to compute determinantal formulae giving the correlation functions of the double-scaling limit of a matrix model near the merging of two cuts
Marchal, O.; Cafasso, M.
2011-04-01
In this paper, we show that the double-scaling-limit correlation functions of a random matrix model when two cuts merge with degeneracy 2m (i.e. when y ~ x2m for arbitrary values of the integer m) are the same as the determinantal formulae defined by conformal (2m, 1) models. Our approach follows the one developed by Bergère and Eynard in (2009 arXiv:0909.0854) and uses a Lax pair representation of the conformal (2m, 1) models (giving a Painlevé II integrable hierarchy) as suggested by Bleher and Eynard in (2003 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 36 3085). In particular we define Baker-Akhiezer functions associated with the Lax pair in order to construct a kernel which is then used to compute determinantal formulae giving the correlation functions of the double-scaling limit of a matrix model near the merging of two cuts.
Controlling inclusive cross sections in parton shower + matrix element merging
Plaetzer, Simon
2012-11-01
We propose an extension of matrix element plus parton shower merging at tree level to preserve inclusive cross sections obtained from the merged and showered sample. Implementing this constraint generates approximate next-to-leading order (NLO) contributions similar to the LoopSim approach. We then show how full NLO, or in principle even higher order, corrections can be added consistently, including constraints on inclusive cross sections to account for yet missing parton shower accuracy at higher logarithmic order. We also show how NLO accuracy below the merging scale can be obtained.
Controlling inclusive cross sections in parton shower + matrix element merging
Plaetzer, Simon
2012-11-15
We propose an extension of matrix element plus parton shower merging at tree level to preserve inclusive cross sections obtained from the merged and showered sample. Implementing this constraint generates approximate next-to-leading order (NLO) contributions similar to the LoopSim approach. We then show how full NLO, or in principle even higher order, corrections can be added consistently, including constraints on inclusive cross sections to account for yet missing parton shower accuracy at higher logarithmic order. We also show how NLO accuracy below the merging scale can be obtained.
Merged Land and Ocean Surface Temperature, Version 3.5
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The historical Merged Land-Ocean Surface Temperature Analysis (MLOST) is derived from two independent analyses, an Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature...
2013 NOAA Coastal California TopoBathy Merge Project
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project merged recently collected topographic, bathymetric, and acoustic elevation data along the entire California coastline from approximately the 10 meter...
Objectness Supervised Merging Algorithm for Color Image Segmentation
Haifeng Sima
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Ideal color image segmentation needs both low-level cues and high-level semantic features. This paper proposes a two-hierarchy segmentation model based on merging homogeneous superpixels. First, a region growing strategy is designed for producing homogenous and compact superpixels in different partitions. Total variation smoothing features are adopted in the growing procedure for locating real boundaries. Before merging, we define a combined color-texture histogram feature for superpixels description and, meanwhile, a novel objectness feature is proposed to supervise the region merging procedure for reliable segmentation. Both color-texture histograms and objectness are computed to measure regional similarities between region pairs, and the mixed standard deviation of the union features is exploited to make stop criteria for merging process. Experimental results on the popular benchmark dataset demonstrate the better segmentation performance of the proposed model compared to other well-known segmentation algorithms.
Seamless-merging-oriented parallel inverse lithography technology
Yang Yiwei; Shi Zheng; Shen Shanhu
2009-01-01
Inverse lithography technology (ILT), a promising resolution enhancement technology (RET) used in next generations of IC manufacture, has the capability to push lithography to its limit. However, the existing methods of ILT are either time-consuming due to the large layout in a single process, or not accurate enough due to simply block merging in the parallel process. The seamless-merging-oriented parallel ILT method proposed in this paper is fast because of the parallel process; and most importantly, convergence enhancement penalty terms (CEPT) introduced in the parallel ILT optimization process take the environment into consideration as well as environmental change through target updating. This method increases the similarity of the overlapped area between guard-bands and work units, makes the merging process approach seamless and hence reduces hot-spots. The experimental results show that seamless-merging-oriented parallel ILT not only accelerates the optimization process, but also significantly improves the quality of ILT.
Satellite and gauge rainfall merging using geographically weighted regression
Q. Hu
2015-05-01
Full Text Available A residual-based rainfall merging scheme using geographically weighted regression (GWR has been proposed. This method is capable of simultaneously blending various satellite rainfall data with gauge measurements and could describe the non-stationary influences of geographical and terrain factors on rainfall spatial distribution. Using this new method, an experimental study on merging daily rainfall from the Climate Prediction Center Morphing dataset (CMOROH and gauge measurements was conducted for the Ganjiang River basin, in Southeast China. We investigated the capability of the merging scheme for daily rainfall estimation under different gauge density. Results showed that under the condition of sparse gauge density the merging rainfall scheme is remarkably superior to the interpolation using just gauge data.
“ABBA” REVISITED: MERGING THE HORIZONS OF HISTORY AND ...
ture of metaphors in terms of their rhetorical functions. The New Rhetoric pro- ... between literal and metaphorical in favour of the merging of another two ho- .... cently in The Dictionary of Classical Hebrew of the Hebrew Bible and the Dead.
LP MOON MERGED TELEMETRY DATA V1.0
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Prospector merged telemetry data set is a result of comparing the two Lunar Prospector telemetry data streams and selecting one of them. The Lunar...
Can double-peaked lines indicate merging effects in AGNs?
Popović L.Č.
2000-01-01
Full Text Available The influence of merging effects in the central part of an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN on the emission spectral line shapes are discussed. We present a model of close binary Broad Line Region. The numerical experiments show that the merging effects can explain double peaked lines. The merging effects may also be present in the center of AGNs, although they emit slightly asymmetric as well as symmetric and relatively stable (in profile shape spectral lines. Depending on the black hole masses and their orbit elements such model may explain some of the line profile shapes observed in AGNs. This work shows that if one is looking for the merging effects in the central region as well as in the wide field structure of AGNs, he should first pay attention to objects which have double peaked lines.
Merging Mixture Components for Cell Population Identification in Flow Cytometry
Greg Finak
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We present a framework for the identification of cell subpopulations in flow cytometry data based on merging mixture components using the flowClust methodology. We show that the cluster merging algorithm under our framework improves model fit and provides a better estimate of the number of distinct cell subpopulations than either Gaussian mixture models or flowClust, especially for complicated flow cytometry data distributions. Our framework allows the automated selection of the number of distinct cell subpopulations and we are able to identify cases where the algorithm fails, thus making it suitable for application in a high throughput FCM analysis pipeline. Furthermore, we demonstrate a method for summarizing complex merged cell subpopulations in a simple manner that integrates with the existing flowClust framework and enables downstream data analysis. We demonstrate the performance of our framework on simulated and real FCM data. The software is available in the flowMerge package through the Bioconductor project.
On-the Fly Merging of Attitude Solutions
Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz
2008-01-01
Recent advances in autonomous attitude determination instrumentation enable even small satellites flying fully autonomous multi head star trackers providing full accurate and robust attitude information. Each sensor provides the full attitude information but for robustness and optimal usage...... of the available information, i.e. optimal accuracy, methods for merging such data should be investigated. The need for and desirability of attitude merging depends on the mission objective and available resources. To enable real-time attitude control and reduce requirements on download budget, on-board merging...... of attitude data will often be advantageous. This should be weighted against the need for post observation reconstruction of attitudes, especially needed when end products are sensitive to optimal attitude reconstruction. Instrument integrated merging algorithms will reduce the complexity of on-board AOCS...
Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Counts, I; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dalseno, J; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Esen, S; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gavardi, L; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianelle, A; Giani, S; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jezabek, M; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Kochebina, O; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lowdon, P; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manzali, M; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, G; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rama, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rotondo, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Simi, G; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spinella, F; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stenyakin, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Stroili, R; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Tellarini, G; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A
The polarisation of prompt [Formula: see text] mesons is measured by performing an angular analysis of [Formula: see text] decays using proton-proton collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0[Formula: see text], collected by the LHCb detector at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The polarisation is measured in bins of transverse momentum [Formula: see text] and rapidity [Formula: see text] in the kinematic region [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], and is compared to theoretical models. No significant polarisation is observed.
Yuan, Na
2018-04-01
With the aid of the symbolic computation, we present an improved ( G ‧ / G ) -expansion method, which can be applied to seek more types of exact solutions for certain nonlinear evolution equations. In illustration, we choose the (3 + 1)-dimensional potential Yu-Toda-Sasa-Fukuyama equation to demonstrate the validity and advantages of the method. As a result, abundant explicit and exact nontraveling wave solutions are obtained including two solitary waves solutions, nontraveling wave solutions and dromion soliton solutions. Some particular localized excitations and the interactions between two solitary waves are researched. The method can be also applied to other nonlinear partial differential equations.
2012-01-01
This collection is dedicated to the 70th jubilee of Yu. N. Savchenko, and presents experimental, theoretical, and numerical investigations written by an international group of well-known authors. The contributions solve very important problems of the high-speed hydrodynamics, such as supersonic motion in water, drag diminishing, dynamics and stability of supercavitating vehicles, water entry and hydrodynamic performances of hydrofoils, ventilated cavities after a disc and under the ship bottom. The book is written for researches, scientists, engineers, and students interested in problems of hydromechanics.
Bolotin, Sergey V [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Treschev, Dmitrii V [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2010-07-27
In his study of periodic orbits of the three-body problem, Hill obtained a formula connecting the characteristic polynomial of the monodromy matrix of a periodic orbit with the infinite determinant of the Hessian of the action functional. A mathematically rigorous definition of the Hill determinant and a proof of Hill's formula were obtained later by Poincare. Here two multidimensional generalizations of Hill's formula are given: for discrete Lagrangian systems (symplectic twist maps) and for continuous Lagrangian systems. Additional aspects appearing in the presence of symmetries or reversibility are discussed. Also studied is the change of the Morse index of a periodic trajectory upon reduction of order in a system with symmetries. Applications are given to the problem of stability of periodic orbits. Bibliography: 34 titles.
Semiclassical structure of trace formulas
Littlejohn, R.G.
1990-01-01
Trace formulas provide the only general relations known connecting quantum mechanics with classical mechanics in the case that the classical motion is chaotic. In particular, they connect quantal objects such as the density of states with classical periodic orbits. In this paper, several trace formulas, including those of Gutzwiller, Balian and Bloch, Tabor, and Berry, are examined from a geometrical standpoint. New forms of the amplitude determinant in asymptotic theory are developed as tools for this examination. The meaning of caustics in these formulas is revealed in terms of intersections of Lagrangian manifolds in phase space. The periodic orbits themselves appear as caustics of an unstable kind, lying on the intersection of two Lagrangian manifolds in the appropriate phase space. New insight is obtained into the Weyl correspondence and the Wigner function, especially their caustic structures
Evaluating four readability formulas for Afrikaans.
Jansen, C. J. M.; Richards, Rose; Van Zyl, Liezl
2017-01-01
For almost a hundred years now, readability formulas have been used to measure how difficult it is to comprehend a given text. To date, four readability formulas have been developed for Afrikaans. Two such formulas were published by Van Rooyen (1986), one formula by McDermid Heyns (2007) and one
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formulas. 5.27 Section 5.27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Formulas § 5.27 Formulas. Formulas are...
NONE
2001-03-01
The geological survey was carried out which is needed for coal mine design in the Yu Xian coal mine area, Yu Xian coal field, Hebei province, China. The term of survey was 5 years from 1996 to 2000. Activities are mainly for seismic survey and boring survey. Japan was in charge of the seismic survey, and China in charge of the boring survey. Both attained the goal. The results of the activities were summed up in the following 7 items: 1) outline of the survey; 2) general investigation; 3) state of the exploration related materials/machinery; 4) field survey; 5) items of survey; 6) results of the survey; 7) conclusion. In 6), the geological analysis, coal quality survey and coal amount survey were conducted. In the geological analysis, analyzed were the succession of strata, geological structure, and the situation of existence of coal seams. In 7), the following were made clear: geological structure of the survey area, coal seam, coal quality, hydrological geology, other conditions of drilling technology, and coal amount. The coal amount was 328.34 million tons in a total of A/B/C class coals. The total coal amount of Nos. 1 and 5 coal seams was 259.79 million tons, which was 79.1% of the total coal amount in all area. The average thickness of Nos. 1 and 5 coal seams, which are the main minable coal seams, was 3.10m and 2.66m, respectively. (NEDO)
Yuánmíng Yuán en el siglo XVIII: Arte entre la diplomacia y la filosofía; entre Europa y Pekín
Pedro Luengo
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Este estudio pretende probar que el Yuánmíng Yuán fue diseñado como una representación del macrocosmos imperial a partir de la filosofía de la China de Qianlong. Para ello se valorará la función simbólica de los palacios de estilo europeo a partir de las descripciones de embajadas orientales y occidentales. Esta información se pondrá en relación con las diferentes representaciones pictóricas del jardín, conservadas tanto en grabados o acuarelas como en pinturas murales. A partir de toda esta información se pretende valorar su utilización en las visitas de diferentes legados diplomáticos extranjeros. En concreto, se intenta comprobar que los palacios europeos se utilizaron eminentemente para impresionar a las misiones orientales, y no tanto a las occidentales.
Review on the Book: Pochekaev R.Yu. The Golden Horde Law (Kazan, 2009. 260 p. » 231
E.G. Sayfetdinova
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This paper contains a review of the R.Yu. Pochekaev’s book “The Golden Horde Law”. The reviewer points out that the Pochekaev’s book is a significant academic research in both the study of the Golden Horde history and the law system of the Eurasian Turkic-Mongol peoples. This book is published by the Center for Research on the Golden Horde Civilization at the Sh.Marjani Institute of History of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan. For several years, the author of this book, R.Yu. Pochekaev, has been concerned with the the history of the Golden Horde State and its law system. He has published a number of works on this topic, the main conclusions of which are reflected in this generalizing work. The study is based on a wide range of sources (annals and chronicles, memoirs of contemporaries, bureaucratic and numismatic materials and numerous studies including the works of foreign specialists in the original language. In his book, the author organically combines the latest achievements of research on both the Golden Horde history and theory and history of law. The book will be of interest to experts of the Golden Horde history and Orientalists, who are often faced with the legal aspects of the material under study.
Merging a Pair of Supermassive Black Holes
Kohler, Susanna
2016-10-01
When galaxies merge, the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at the galaxies centers are thought to coalesce, forming a new, larger black hole. But can this merger process take place on timescales short enough that we could actually observe it? Results from a new simulation suggests that it can!When Galaxies CollideThese stills demonstrate the time evolution of the galaxy merger after the beginning of the authors simulation (starting from z=3.6). The red and blue dots mark the positions of the SMBHs. [Adapted from Khan et al. 2016]At present, its not well understood how the merger of two SMBHs proceeds from the merger of their host galaxies. Whats more, there are concerns about whether the SMBHs can coalesce on reasonable timescales; in many simulations and models, the inspiral of these behemoths stalls out when they are about a parsec apart, in whats known as the final parsec problem.Why are these mergers poorly understood? Modeling them from the initial interactions of the host galaxies all the way down to the final coalescence of their SMBHs in a burst of gravitational waves is notoriously complicated, due to the enormous range of scales and different processes that must be accounted for.But in a recent study, a team of scientists led by Fazeel Khan (Institute of Space Technology in Pakistan) has presented a simulation that successfully manages to track the entire merger making it the first multi-scale simulation to model the complete evolution of an SMBH binary that forms within a cosmological galaxy merger.Stages of aSimulationKhan and collaborators tackled the challenges of this simulation by using a multi-tiered approach.Beginning with the output of a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation, the authors select a merger of two typical massive galaxies at z=3.6 and use this as the starting point for their simulation. They increase the resolution and add in two supermassive black holes, one at the center of each galaxy.They then continue to evolve the galaxies
Individual Subjective Initiative Merge Model Based on Cellular Automaton
Yin-Jie Xu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The merge control models proposed for work zones are classified into two types (Hard Control Merge (HCM model and Soft Control Merge (SCM model according to their own control intensity and are compared with a new model, called Individual Subjective Initiative Merge (ISIM model, which is based on the linear lane-changing probability strategy in the merging area. The attention of this paper is paid to the positive impact of the individual subjective initiative for the whole traffic system. Three models (ISIM, HCM, and SCM are established and compared with each other by two order parameters, that is, system output and average vehicle travel time. Finally, numerical results show that both ISIM and SCM perform better than HCM. Compared with SCM, the output of ISIM is 20 vehicles per hour higher under the symmetric input condition and is more stable under the asymmetric input condition. Meanwhile, the average travel time of ISIM is 2000 time steps less under the oversaturated input condition.
Observations in the Earth's magnetotail relating to magnetic merging
Hones, E.W. Jr.
1976-01-01
For more than a decade there has been growing conviction that the burst of energy from a solar flare is first stored in magnetic fields and is then released rapidly by magnetic field annihilation (magnetic merging). There has also been recognition that magnetic merging may be responsible for the energy release manifested in auroral phenomena at the Earth. The most substantial evidence that magnetic merging does indeed occur in the Earth's magnetosphere and causes the auroral phenomena is provided by recent observations, in the magnetotail, of very rapid (approximately 500 km s -1 ) tailward, then earthward, flow of plasma during magnetospheric substorms. The observations, made with the Vela and IMP satellites, reveal also that the component of the tail magnetic field perpendicular to the tail neutral sheet changes polarity at the time of the reversal of plasma flow. These features are interpreted as indicative of passage of a magnetic neutral line, at which magnetic merging is proceeding, past the observing satellite. This paper describes an example of such observations made with IMP 6. It is anticipated that such systematic measurements of the plasma, energetic particles and magnetic field in the neighborhood of the passing neutral line on many such occasions will provide a general understanding of the magnetic merging process which can be applied to studies of solar flares and other astrophysical phenomena. (Auth.)
Reconnection and merging of positive streamers in air
Nijdam, S; Geurts, C G C; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Ebert, U, E-mail: s.nijdam@tue.n [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)
2009-02-21
Pictures show that streamer or sprite discharge channels emerging from the same electrode sometimes seem to reconnect or merge though their heads carry electric charge of the same polarity; one might therefore suspect that reconnections are an artefact of the two-dimensional projection in the pictures. Here we use stereo photography to investigate the full three-dimensional structure of such events. We analyse reconnection, possibly an electrostatic effect in which a late thin streamer reconnects to an earlier thick streamer channel, and merging, a suggested photoionization effect in which two simultaneously propagating streamer heads merge into one new streamer. We use four different anode geometries (one tip, two tips, two asymmetric protrusions in a plate and a wire), placed 40 mm above a flat cathode plate in ambient air. A positive high voltage pulse is applied to the anode, creating a positive corona discharge. This discharge is studied with a fast ICCD camera, in many cases combined with optics to enable stereoscopic imaging. We find that reconnections as defined above occur frequently. Merging on the other hand was only observed at a pressure of 25 mbar and a tip separation of 2 mm, i.e. for a reduced tip distance of p{center_dot}d = 50 {mu}m bar. In this case the full width at half maximum of the streamer channel is more than 10 times as large as the tip separation. At higher pressures or with a wire anode, merging was not observed.
Reconnection and merging of positive streamers in air
Nijdam, S; Geurts, C G C; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Ebert, U
2009-01-01
Pictures show that streamer or sprite discharge channels emerging from the same electrode sometimes seem to reconnect or merge though their heads carry electric charge of the same polarity; one might therefore suspect that reconnections are an artefact of the two-dimensional projection in the pictures. Here we use stereo photography to investigate the full three-dimensional structure of such events. We analyse reconnection, possibly an electrostatic effect in which a late thin streamer reconnects to an earlier thick streamer channel, and merging, a suggested photoionization effect in which two simultaneously propagating streamer heads merge into one new streamer. We use four different anode geometries (one tip, two tips, two asymmetric protrusions in a plate and a wire), placed 40 mm above a flat cathode plate in ambient air. A positive high voltage pulse is applied to the anode, creating a positive corona discharge. This discharge is studied with a fast ICCD camera, in many cases combined with optics to enable stereoscopic imaging. We find that reconnections as defined above occur frequently. Merging on the other hand was only observed at a pressure of 25 mbar and a tip separation of 2 mm, i.e. for a reduced tip distance of p·d = 50 μm bar. In this case the full width at half maximum of the streamer channel is more than 10 times as large as the tip separation. At higher pressures or with a wire anode, merging was not observed.
A Numerical Study of Vortex and Precipitating Cloud Merging in Middle Latitudes
PING Fan; LUO Zhe-Xian; JU Jian-Hua
2006-01-01
@@ We mainly focus on the study of precipitating cloud merging associated with vortex merging. The vortex and precipitating cloud merging are simulated by the cloud resolving model from 0000 21 to 1800 23 July 2003. The results show that the model well simulates vortex circulation associated with precipitating clouds. It is also proven that the vortex merging follows the precipitating cloud merging although vortices show the spatial and temporal differences. The convection vorticity vector is introduced to describe the merging processes. Two merging cases are identified during the 42-h simulation and are studied.
Scaled beam merging experiment for heavy ion inertial fusion
P. A. Seidl
2003-09-01
Full Text Available Transverse beam combining is a cost-saving option employed in many designs for heavy ion fusion drivers. However, the resultant transverse phase space dilution must be minimized so as not to sacrifice focusability at the target. A prototype combining experiment has been completed employing four 3-mA Cs^{+} beams injected at 160 keV. The focusing elements upstream of the merge consist of four quadrupoles and a final combined-function element (quadrupole and dipole. Following the merge, the resultant single beam is transported in a single alternating gradient channel where the subsequent evolution of the distribution function is diagnosed. The results are in fair agreement with particle-in-cell simulations. They indicate that for some heavy ion fusion driver designs, the phase space dilution from merging is acceptable.
Incorporating Edge Information into Best Merge Region-Growing Segmentation
Tilton, James C.; Pasolli, Edoardo
2014-01-01
We have previously developed a best merge region-growing approach that integrates nonadjacent region object aggregation with the neighboring region merge process usually employed in region growing segmentation approaches. This approach has been named HSeg, because it provides a hierarchical set of image segmentation results. Up to this point, HSeg considered only global region feature information in the region growing decision process. We present here three new versions of HSeg that include local edge information into the region growing decision process at different levels of rigor. We then compare the effectiveness and processing times of these new versions HSeg with each other and with the original version of HSeg.
Program Merges SAR Data on Terrain and Vegetation Heights
Siqueira, Paul; Hensley, Scott; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Simard, Marc
2007-01-01
X/P Merge is a computer program that estimates ground-surface elevations and vegetation heights from multiple sets of data acquired by the GeoSAR instrument [a terrain-mapping synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system that operates in the X and bands]. X/P Merge software combines data from X- and P-band digital elevation models, SAR backscatter magnitudes, and interferometric correlation magnitudes into a simplified set of output topographical maps of ground-surface elevation and tree height.
Twisting formula of epsilon factors
Sazzad Ali Biswas
2017-08-07
Aug 7, 2017 ... In this article, we give a generalized twisting formula for ϵ(χ1χ2,ψ), when both χ1 and χ2 are ramified via the following local Jacobi sums. Let UF be the group of units in OF (ring of integers of F). For characters χ1, χ2 of F. × and a positive integer n, we define the local Jacobi sum. Jt(χ1,χ2, n) = ∑ x∈UF. Un.
On the gravitational radiation formula
Schaefer, G.; Dehnen, H.
1980-01-01
For electromagnetically as well as gravitationally bound quantum mechanical many-body systems the coefficients of absorption and induced emission of gravitational radiation are calculated in the first-order approximation. The results are extended subsequently to systems with arbitrary non-Coulomb-like two-particle interaction potentials;it is shown explicitly that in all cases the perturbation of the binding potentials of the bound systems by the incident gravitational wave field itself must be taken into account. With the help of the thermodynamic equilibrium of gravitational radiation and quantised matter, the coefficients for spontaneous emission of gravitational radiation are derived and the gravitational radiation formula for emission of gravitational quadrupole radiation by bound quantum mechanical many-body systems is given. According to the correspondence principle the present result is completely identical with the well known classical radiation formula, by which recent criticism against this formula is refuted. Finally the quantum mechanical absorption cross section for gravitational quadrupole radiation is deduced and compared with the corresponding classical expressions. As a special example the vibrating two-mass quadrupole is treated explicitly. (author)
Multiloop stringlike formulas for QED
Lam, C.S.
1993-01-01
Multiloop gauge-theory amplitudes written in the Feynman-parameter representation are poised to take advantage of two important developments of the past decade: the spinor-helicity technique and the superstring reorganization. The former has been considered in a previous paper; the latter will be elaborated in this paper. We show here how to write multiloop stringlike formulas in the Feynman-parameter representation for any diagram in QED, including those involving other nonelectromagnetic interactions, provided the internal photon lines are not adjacent to any external photon line. The general connection between the Feynman-parameter approach and the superstring and/or first-quantized approach is discussed. In the special case of a one-loop multiphoton amplitude, these formulas reduce to the ones obtained by the superstring and the first-quantized methods. The stringlike formulas exhibit a simple gauge structure which makes the Ward-Takahashi identity apparent, and enables the integration-by-parts technique of Bern and Kosower to be applied, so that gauge-invariant parts can be extracted diagram by diagram with the seagull vertex neglected
Formulaic speech in disorders of language
Diana Sidtis
2014-04-01
Formulaic language studies remain less well recognized in language disorders. Profiles of differential formulaic language abilities in neurological disease have implications for cerebral models of language and for clinical evaluation and treatment of neurogenic language disorders.
Explicit formulas for Clebsch-Gordan coefficients
Rudnicki-Bujnowski, G.
1975-01-01
The problem is to obtain explicit algebraic formulas of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients for high values of angular momentum. The method of solution is an algebraic method based on the Racah formula using the FORMAC programming language. (Auth.)
Talking from d'Alembert formula
Liu Ruxun.
1989-11-01
In the paper, two new approaches to prove the famous d'Alembert formula are proposed, and some further extensions of the formula also advanced. Many interesting results and application prospects are discussed. (author). 2 refs, 3 figs
Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding
... 000806.htm Infant Formula - buying, preparing, storing, and feeding To use the sharing features on this page, ... brush to get at hard-to-reach places. Feeding Formula to Baby Here is a guide to ...
Simple and Clear Proofs of Stirling's Formula
Niizeki, Shozo; Araki, Makoto
2010-01-01
The purpose of our article is to show two simpler and clearer methods of proving Stirling's formula than the traditional and conventional ones. The distinction of our method is to use the simple trapezoidal formula.
Thickened infant formula: What to know
Salvatore, Silvia; Savino, Francesco; Singendonk, Maartje; Tabbers, Merit; Benninga, Marc A.; Staiano, Annamaria; Vandenplas, Yvan
2018-01-01
This study aimed to provide an overview of the characteristics of thickened formulas to aid health care providers manage infants with regurgitations. The indications, properties, and efficacy of different thickening agents and thickened formulas on regurgitation and gastroesophageal reflux in
Weiping Fang
Full Text Available Although cotton genic male sterility (GMS plays an important role in the utilization of hybrid vigor, its precise molecular mechanism remains unclear. To characterize the molecular events of pollen abortion, transcriptome analysis, combined with histological observations, was conducted in the cotton GMS line, Yu98-8A. A total of 2,412 genes were identified as significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs before and during the critical pollen abortion stages. Bioinformatics and biochemical analysis showed that the DEGs mainly associated with sugars and starch metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and plant endogenous hormones play a critical and complicated role in pollen abortion. These findings extend a better understanding of the molecular events involved in the regulation of pollen abortion in genic male sterile cotton, which may provide a foundation for further research studies on cotton heterosis breeding.
Adamová, D; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agnello, M; Agrawal, N; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, S; Ahn, S U; Aiola, S; Akindinov, A; Alam, S N; Albuquerque, D S D; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alexandre, D; Alfaro Molina, R; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altinpinar, S; Altsybeev, I; Alves Garcia Prado, C; An, M; Andrei, C; Andrews, H A; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Anson, C; Antičić, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Anwar, R; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arcelli, S; Arnaldi, R; Arnold, O W; Arsene, I C; Arslandok, M; Audurier, B; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Azmi, M D; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bagnasco, S; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Baldisseri, A; Ball, M; Baral, R C; Barbano, A M; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barioglio, L; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartalini, P; Barth, K; Bartke, J; Bartsch, E; Basile, M; Bastid, N; Basu, S; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batista Camejo, A; Batyunya, B; Batzing, P C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Bedda, C; Behera, N K; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bello Martinez, H; Bellwied, R; Beltran, L G E; Belyaev, V; Bencedi, G; Beole, S; Bercuci, A; Berdnikov, Y; Berenyi, D; Bertens, R A; Berzano, D; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhat, I R; Bhati, A K; Bhattacharjee, B; Bhom, J; Bianchi, L; Bianchi, N; Bianchin, C; Bielčík, J; Bielčíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Biro, G; Biswas, R; Biswas, S; Blair, J T; Blau, D; Blume, C; Boca, G; Bock, F; Bogdanov, A; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Bonomi, G; Bonora, M; Book, J; Borel, H; Borissov, A; Borri, M; Botta, E; Bourjau, C; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bregant, M; Broker, T A; Browning, T A; Broz, M; Brucken, E J; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bufalino, S; Buhler, P; Buitron, S A I; Buncic, P; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Butt, J B; Buxton, J T; Cabala, J; Caffarri, D; Caines, H; Caliva, A; Calvo Villar, E; Camerini, P; Capon, A A; Carena, F; Carena, W; Carnesecchi, F; Castillo Castellanos, J; Castro, A J; Casula, E A R; Ceballos Sanchez, C; Cerello, P; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Chartier, M; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Chauvin, A; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Cho, S; Chochula, P; Choi, K; Chojnacki, M; Choudhury, S; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, S U; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Colamaria, F; Colella, D; Collu, A; Colocci, M; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa Del Valle, Z; Connors, M E; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Corrales Morales, Y; Cortés Maldonado, I; Cortese, P; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Costanza, S; Crkovská, J; Crochet, P; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Dahms, T; Dainese, A; Danisch, M C; Danu, A; Das, D; Das, I; Das, S; Dash, A; Dash, S; De, S; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Conti, C; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gruttola, D; De Marco, N; De Pasquale, S; De Souza, R D; Degenhardt, H F; Deisting, A; Deloff, A; Deplano, C; Dhankher, P; Di Bari, D; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Di Ruzza, B; Diaz Corchero, M A; Dietel, T; Dillenseger, P; Divià, R; Djuvsland, Ø; Dobrin, A; Domenicis Gimenez, D; Dönigus, B; Dordic, O; Drozhzhova, T; Dubey, A K; Dubla, A; Ducroux, L; Duggal, A K; Dupieux, P; Ehlers, R J; Elia, D; Endress, E; Engel, H; Epple, E; Erazmus, B; Erhardt, F; Espagnon, B; Esumi, S; Eulisse, G; Eum, J; Evans, D; Evdokimov, S; Fabbietti, L; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Feldkamp, L; Feliciello, A; Feofilov, G; Ferencei, J; Fernández Téllez, A; Ferreiro, E G; Ferretti, A; Festanti, A; Feuillard, V J G; Figiel, J; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Finogeev, D; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Floris, M; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Fragiacomo, E; Francescon, A; Francisco, A; Frankenfeld, U; Fronze, G G; Fuchs, U; Furget, C; Furs, A; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhøje, J J; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A M; Gajdosova, K; Gallio, M; Galvan, C D; Gangadharan, D R; Ganoti, P; Gao, C; Garabatos, C; Garcia-Solis, E; Garg, K; Garg, P; Gargiulo, C; Gasik, P; Gauger, E F; Gay Ducati, M B; Germain, M; Ghosh, P; Ghosh, S K; Gianotti, P; Giubellino, P; Giubilato, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glässel, P; Goméz Coral, D M; Gomez Ramirez, A; Gonzalez, A S; Gonzalez, V; González-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Görlich, L; Gotovac, S; Grabski, V; Graczykowski, L K; Graham, K L; Greiner, L; Grelli, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, A; Grigoryan, S; Grion, N; Gronefeld, J M; Grosa, F; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grosso, R; Gruber, L; Grull, F R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerzoni, B; Gulbrandsen, K; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Guzman, I B; Haake, R; Hadjidakis, C; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Hamon, J C; Harris, J W; Harton, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, S; Heckel, S T; Hellbär, E; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Herrera Corral, G; Herrmann, F; Hess, B A; Hetland, K F; Hillemanns, H; Hippolyte, B; Hladky, J; Horak, D; Hosokawa, R; Hristov, P; Hughes, C; Humanic, T J; Hussain, N; Hussain, T; Hutter, D; Hwang, D S; Ilkaev, R; Inaba, M; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Isakov, V; Islam, M S; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, V; Izucheev, V; Jacak, B; Jacazio, N; Jacobs, P M; Jadhav, M B; Jadlovska, S; Jadlovsky, J; Jahnke, C; Jakubowska, M J; Janik, M A; Jayarathna, P H S Y; Jena, C; Jena, S; Jercic, M; Jimenez Bustamante, R T; Jones, P G; Jusko, A; Kalinak, P; Kalweit, A; Kang, J H; Kaplin, V; Kar, S; Karasu Uysal, A; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karayan, L; Karpechev, E; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Keijdener, D L D; Keil, M; Ketzer, B; Mohisin Khan, M; Khan, P; Khan, S A; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Khatun, A; Khuntia, A; Kielbowicz, M M; Kileng, B; Kim, D W; Kim, D J; Kim, D; Kim, H; Kim, J S; Kim, J; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kim, S; Kim, T; Kirsch, S; Kisel, I; Kiselev, S; Kisiel, A; Kiss, G; Klay, J L; Klein, C; Klein, J; Klein-Bösing, C; Klewin, S; Kluge, A; Knichel, M L; Knospe, A G; Kobdaj, C; Kofarago, M; Kollegger, T; Kolojvari, A; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Kondratyuk, E; Konevskikh, A; Kopcik, M; Kour, M; Kouzinopoulos, C; Kovalenko, O; Kovalenko, V; Kowalski, M; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G; Králik, I; Kravčáková, A; Krivda, M; Krizek, F; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kubera, A M; Kučera, V; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kumar, A; Kumar, J; Kumar, L; Kumar, S; Kundu, S; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, A B; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, S; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; La Pointe, S L; La Rocca, P; Lagana Fernandes, C; Lakomov, I; Langoy, R; Lapidus, K; Lara, C; Lardeux, A; Lattuca, A; Laudi, E; Lavicka, R; Lazaridis, L; Lea, R; Leardini, L; Lee, S; Lehas, F; Lehner, S; Lehrbach, J; Lemmon, R C; Lenti, V; Leogrande, E; León Monzón, I; Lévai, P; Li, S; Li, X; Lien, J; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Litichevskyi, V; Ljunggren, H M; Llope, W J; Lodato, D F; Loenne, P I; Loginov, V; Loizides, C; Loncar, P; Lopez, X; López Torres, E; Lowe, A; Luettig, P; Lunardon, M; Luparello, G; Lupi, M; Lutz, T H; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahajan, S; Mahmood, S M; Maire, A; Majka, R D; Malaev, M; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malinina, L; Mal'Kevich, D; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Mao, Y; Marchisone, M; Mareš, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Margutti, J; Marín, A; Markert, C; Marquard, M; Martin, N A; Martinengo, P; Martinez, J A L; Martínez, M I; Martínez García, G; Martinez Pedreira, M; Mas, A; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Mastroserio, A; Mathis, A M; Matyja, A; Mayer, C; Mazer, J; Mazzilli, M; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Melikyan, Y; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meninno, E; Mercado Pérez, J; Meres, M; Mhlanga, S; Miake, Y; Mieskolainen, M M; Mihaylov, D; Mikhaylov, K; Milano, L; Milosevic, J; Mischke, A; Mishra, A N; Miśkowiec, D; Mitra, J; Mitu, C M; Mohammadi, N; Mohanty, B; Montes, E; Moreira De Godoy, D A; Moreno, L A P; Moretto, S; Morreale, A; Morsch, A; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Mühlheim, D; Muhuri, S; Mukherjee, M; Mulligan, J D; Munhoz, M G; Münning, K; Munzer, R H; Murakami, H; Murray, S; Musa, L; Musinsky, J; Myers, C J; Naik, B; Nair, R; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Naru, M U; Natal da Luz, H; Nattrass, C; Navarro, S R; Nayak, K; Nayak, R; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nedosekin, A; Negrao De Oliveira, R A; Nellen, L; Nesbo, S V; Ng, F; Nicassio, M; Niculescu, M; Niedziela, J; Nielsen, B S; Nikolaev, S; Nikulin, S; Nikulin, V; Noferini, F; Nomokonov, P; Nooren, G; Noris, J C C; Norman, J; Nyanin, A; Nystrand, J; Oeschler, H; Oh, S; Ohlson, A; Okubo, T; Olah, L; Oleniacz, J; Oliveira Da Silva, A C; Oliver, M H; Onderwaater, J; Oppedisano, C; Orava, R; Oravec, M; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Oskarsson, A; Otwinowski, J; Oyama, K; Ozdemir, M; Pachmayer, Y; Pacik, V; Pagano, D; Pagano, P; Paić, G; Pal, S K; Palni, P; Pan, J; Pandey, A K; Panebianco, S; Papikyan, V; Pappalardo, G S; Pareek, P; Park, J; Park, W J; Parmar, S; Passfeld, A; Pathak, S P; Paticchio, V; Patra, R N; Paul, B; Pei, H; Peitzmann, T; Peng, X; Pereira, L G; Pereira Da Costa, H; Peresunko, D; Perez Lezama, E; Peskov, V; Pestov, Y; Petráček, V; Petrov, V; Petrovici, M; Petta, C; Pezzi, R P; Piano, S; Pikna, M; Pillot, P; Pimentel, L O D L; Pinazza, O; Pinsky, L; Piyarathna, D B; Płoskoń, M; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Pochybova, S; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Poghosyan, M G; Polichtchouk, B; Poljak, N; Poonsawat, W; Pop, A; Poppenborg, H; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S; Porter, J; Pospisil, J; Pozdniakov, V; Prasad, S K; Preghenella, R; Prino, F; Pruneau, C A; Pshenichnov, I; Puccio, M; Puddu, G; Pujahari, P; Punin, V; Putschke, J; Qvigstad, H; Rachevski, A; Raha, S; Rajput, S; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ramello, L; Rami, F; Rana, D B; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Räsänen, S S; Rascanu, B T; Rathee, D; Ratza, V; Ravasenga, I; Read, K F; Redlich, K; Rehman, A; Reichelt, P; Reidt, F; Ren, X; Renfordt, R; Reolon, A R; Reshetin, A; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Ricci, R A; Richert, T; Richter, M; Riedler, P; Riegler, W; Riggi, F; Ristea, C; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M; Røed, K; Rogochaya, E; Rohr, D; Röhrich, D; Rokita, P S; Ronchetti, F; Ronflette, L; Rosnet, P; Rossi, A; Rotondi, A; Roukoutakis, F; Roy, A; Roy, C; Roy, P; Rubio Montero, A J; Rui, R; Russo, R; Rustamov, A; Ryabinkin, E; Ryabov, Y; Rybicki, A; Saarinen, S; Sadhu, S; Sadovsky, S; Šafařík, K; Saha, S K; Sahlmuller, B; Sahoo, B; Sahoo, P; Sahoo, R; Sahoo, S; Sahu, P K; Saini, J; Sakai, S; Saleh, M A; Salzwedel, J; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Sandoval, A; Sarkar, D; Sarkar, N; Sarma, P; Sas, M H P; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Scharenberg, R P; Scheid, H S; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, H R; Schmidt, M O; Schmidt, M; Schukraft, J; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Scott, R; Šefčík, M; Seger, J E; Sekiguchi, Y; Sekihata, D; Selyuzhenkov, I; Senosi, K; Senyukov, S; Serradilla, E; Sett, P; Sevcenco, A; Shabanov, A; Shabetai, A; Shadura, O; Shahoyan, R; Shangaraev, A; Sharma, A; Sharma, A; Sharma, M; Sharma, M; Sharma, N; Sheikh, A I; Shigaki, K; Shou, Q; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siddhanta, S; Sielewicz, K M; Siemiarczuk, T; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Simatovic, G; Simonetti, G; Singaraju, R; Singh, R; Singhal, V; Sinha, T; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Slupecki, M; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R J M; Snellman, T W; Song, J; Song, M; Soramel, F; Sorensen, S; Sozzi, F; Spiriti, E; Sputowska, I; Srivastava, B K; Stachel, J; Stan, I; Stankus, P; Stenlund, E; Stiller, J H; 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2017-01-01
The transverse momentum distributions of the strange and double-strange hyperon resonances ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) produced in p-Pb collisions at [Formula: see text] TeV were measured in the rapidity range [Formula: see text] for event classes corresponding to different charged-particle multiplicity densities, [Formula: see text]d[Formula: see text]/d[Formula: see text]. The mean transverse momentum values are presented as a function of [Formula: see text]d[Formula: see text]/d[Formula: see text], as well as a function of the particle masses and compared with previous results on hyperon production. The integrated yield ratios of excited to ground-state hyperons are constant as a function of [Formula: see text]d[Formula: see text]/d[Formula: see text]. The equivalent ratios to pions exhibit an increase with [Formula: see text]d[Formula: see text]/d[Formula: see text], depending on their strangeness content.
2017-01-01
Preface “Among the many well-known fundamental and applied consequences of neutron discovery, one of the first was the emergence of structural neutron diffraction - one of the methods for studying the spatial structure of condensed matter at the atomic level. Investigating the dynamics of biological macromolecules by neutron diffraction methods is an area that is almost untouched. We believe that also in this direction one should expect rapid progress.” Yu.M.Ostanevich and I.N.Serdyuk Uspekhi Fizicheskih Nauk (1982) More than 30 years after Ostanevich and Serdyuk reviewed the then 50 years from the neutron discovery, we are happy to support their statement and prediction by reporting on the further progress in the field of neutron scattering research. Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics has organized the III International Conference on Small Angle Neutron Scattering (YuMO2016) that was – not coincidently – dedicated to the 80th anniversary of Ostanevich. Yuriy Mechislavovich Ostanevich (1936–1992) has had a determinative and crucial contribution to the construction of spectrometers at the pulsed reactor IBR in Dubna, Russia. He contributed in particular to the development of time-of-flight small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique, and the selection of advanced scientific areas for its application. The SANS instrument at the IBR-2 reactor is called YuMO in his honour. The Ostanevich’s leadership and outstanding scientific achievements in SANS studies of polyelectrolytes, small molecules, fractals, metallic glasses, macromolecules, polymers, etc., were recognized also by a number of awards including the State Prize of the Russian Federation in 2000. To this end of course, we should not forget mentioning the contribution of close collaborators of Ostanevich: Laszlo Cser, Josef Plestil as well as Alexander Kunchenko, Vadim Bezzabotnov and Nikolay Gorski. The YuMO2016 conference focused on providing opportunities to discuss various possibilities of
Relations Among Some Fuzzy Entropy Formulae
卿铭
2004-01-01
Fuzzy entropy has been widely used to analyze and design fuzzy systems, and many fuzzy entropy formulae have been proposed. For further in-deepth analysis of fuzzy entropy, the axioms and some important formulae of fuzzy entropy are introduced. Some equivalence results among these fuzzy entropy formulae are proved, and it is shown that fuzzy entropy is a special distance measurement.
27 CFR 25.57 - Formula information.
2010-04-01
... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Miscellaneous Provisions Formulas § 25.57 Formula information. (a..., or after fermentation). (3) For formulas that include the use of flavors and other nonbeverage ingredients containing alcohol, you must explicitly indicate: (i) The volume and alcohol content of the beer...
Analogues of Euler and Poisson Summation Formulae
... f ( n ) have been obtained in a unified manner, where (()) is a periodic complex sequence; () is the divisor function and () is a sufficiently smooth function on [, ]. We also state a generalised Abel's summation formula, generalised Euler's summation formula and Euler's summation formula in several variables.
27 CFR 5.26 - Formula requirements.
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula requirements. 5.26 Section 5.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Formulas § 5.26 Formula...
Estimate-Merge-Technique-based algorithms to track an underwater ...
D V A N Ravi Kumar
2017-07-04
Jul 4, 2017 ... In this paper, two novel methods based on the Estimate Merge Technique ... mentioned advantages of the proposed novel methods is shown by carrying out Monte Carlo simulation in .... equations are converted to sequential equations to make ... estimation error and low convergence time) at feasibly high.
Cascading Constrained 2-D Arrays using Periodic Merging Arrays
Forchhammer, Søren; Laursen, Torben Vaarby
2003-01-01
We consider a method for designing 2-D constrained codes by cascading finite width arrays using predefined finite width periodic merging arrays. This provides a constructive lower bound on the capacity of the 2-D constrained code. Examples include symmetric RLL and density constrained codes...
Creating an Excellence Oriented Post-merged Organisational ...
This article specifically focuses on the importance of a structured approach to the implementation of employee engagement strategies in creating a post-merged organisational culture of excellent work performance. Theoretical insights from existing literature illustrate how a structured approach to the implementation of ...
A Merging Algorithm for Aerosol Size Distribution from Multiple Instruments
Ondráček, Jakub; Ždímal, Vladimír; Smolík, Jiří; Lazaridis, M.
2009-01-01
Roč. 199, 1-4 (2009), s. 219-233 ISSN 0049-6979 Grant - others:MTKD(XE) CT-2004-513849 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : aerosols * merging particle size distribution * multilognormal model Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.676, year: 2009
Vertical vs. Horizontal Integration: Pre-emptive Merging.
Colangelo, Giuseppe
1995-01-01
Preemption plays a crucial role in arms merger decisions. The author studies whether and under which circumstances preemptive merging occurs in vertically related industries. He finds that vertical mergers often preempt horizontal mergers and are dominant outcomes. Preempting the threat of a detrimental horizontal integration may be the main reason for vertically integrating. Copyright 1995 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Merging the Internet and Hypermedia in the English Language Arts.
Reed, W. Michael; Wells, John G.
1997-01-01
Discussion of hypermedia and computer-mediated communication focuses on a project that merges a language arts Internet resource with a hypermedia-based knowledge construction approach to learning. Highlights include constructing a HyperCard-based program on Shakespeare's "Hamlet," gophers and search engines, downloading, collaborative…
Interaction protocols for cooperative merging and lane reduction scenarios
Semsar-Kazerooni, E.; Ploeg, J.
2015-01-01
This paper presents the interaction protocols developed for execution of two common scenarios in daily traffic using cooperative automated vehicles. The first proposed scenario addresses merging of a (semi-)automated car on a highway within a platoon of (semi-)automated vehicles. The second scenario
Resource Based Multi Agent Plan Merging : Framework and application
De Weerdt, M.M.; Van der Krogt, R.P.J.; Witteveen, C.
2003-01-01
We discuss a resource-based planning framework where agents are able to merge plans by exchanging resources. In this framework, plans are specified as structured objects composed of resource consuming and resource producing processes (actions). A plan itself can also be conceived as a process
An eMERGE Clinical Center at Partners Personalized Medicine
Jordan W. Smoller
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The integration of electronic medical records (EMRs and genomic research has become a major component of efforts to advance personalized and precision medicine. The Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE network, initiated in 2007, is an NIH-funded consortium devoted to genomic discovery and implementation research by leveraging biorepositories linked to EMRs. In its most recent phase, eMERGE III, the network is focused on facilitating implementation of genomic medicine by detecting and disclosing rare pathogenic variants in clinically relevant genes. Partners Personalized Medicine (PPM is a center dedicated to translating personalized medicine into clinical practice within Partners HealthCare. One component of the PPM is the Partners Healthcare Biobank, a biorepository comprising broadly consented DNA samples linked to the Partners longitudinal EMR. In 2015, PPM joined the eMERGE Phase III network. Here we describe the elements of the eMERGE clinical center at PPM, including plans for genomic discovery using EMR phenotypes, evaluation of rare variant penetrance and pleiotropy, and a novel randomized trial of the impact of returning genetic results to patients and clinicians.
Inclusive cross sections in ME+PS merging
Plaetzer, Simon
2013-07-01
We discuss an extension of matrix element plus parton shower merging at leading and next-to-leading order. The algorithm does preserve inclusive cross sections at the respective input order. This constraint avoids potentially large logarithmic contributions, which would require approximate (N)NLO contributions to cancel against.
Sampling, Splitting and Merging in Coinductive Stream Calculus
M. Niqui (Milad); J.J.M.M. Rutten (Jan); C. Bolduc; J. Desharnais; B. Ktari
2010-01-01
textabstractWe study various operations for partitioning, projecting and merging streams of data. These operations are motivated by their use in dataflow programming and the stream processing languages. We use the framework of \\emph{stream calculus} and \\emph{stream circuits} for defining and
Sampling, splitting and merging in coinductive stream calculus
M. Niqui (Milad); J.J.M.M. Rutten (Jan)
2009-01-01
htmlabstractWe study various operations for partitioning, projecting and merging streams of data. These operations are motivated by their use in dataflow programming and the stream processing languages. We use the framework of stream calculus and stream circuits for defining and proving properties
Merging research orientation with professional apprenticeship training through PBL
Willert, Søren
2012-01-01
The paper discusses an ongoing process of merging two university-based teaching traditions. The two traditions are alike in that both share a basic commitment to PBL-related values. Differences refer (as stated in the paper’s title) to one tradition being relatively more research oriented, whereas...
Simulations of Bunch Merging in a Beta Beam Decay Ring
Heinrich, Daniel Christopher; Chance, Antoine
2011-01-01
To further study neutrino oscillation properties a Beta Beam facility has been proposed. Beta decaying ions with high kinetic energy are stored in a storage ring ("Decay Ring") with straight sections to create pure focused (anti) electron neutrino beams. However to reach high sensitivity to neutrino oscillation parameters in the experiment the bunched beam intensity and duty cycle in the DR have to be optimized. The first CERN-based scenario, using 6He and 18Ne as neutrino sources, has been studied using a bunch merging RF scheme. Two RF cavities at different frequencies are used to capture newly injected bunches and then merge them into the stored bunches. It was shown that this scheme could satisfy the requirements on intensity and duty cycle set by the experiment. This merging scheme has now been revised with new simulation software providing new results for 6He and 18Ne. Furthermore bunch merging has been studied for the second CERN-based scenario using 8Li and 8B.
Merging of gamma radiographic and ultrasonic inspection data: bibliographical survey
Gautier, S.
1995-01-01
This paper presents a number of experimental data processing notions with the aim of developing an NDT method based on merging ultrasonic and gamma radiographic data. We first review the industrial context concerned and, before moving on to specific data merging problems, we discuss the difficulties of reconstruction using only one type of data (radiographic or ultrasonic). The main part of the report begins with a brief reminder of gamma radiation and ultrasonic wave propagation principles. Certain imaging and reconstruction methods conventionally used for each type of measurement are also presented. Reconstruction problems are then directly approached in algebraic form. For the type of problem studied, the inspection data alone cannot lead to satisfactory reconstructions and we evidence the need to regulate the problem by introducing deductive information on the object to be reconstructed. The Bayes' approach provides a self-consistent means of integrating both the data information and the deductive information. It is based on probabilistic models of the variables involved, notably those of the object sought. We discuss at some length certain models of images used in gamma radiography (independent variable fields, variables having a Markov-type structure) and the Bernoulli-Gauss-type models used for ultrasonic trace deconvolution. Finally, we outline data merging paths. A formal Bayes' framework is used to present two merging approaches, after which we briefly describe our projects for the processing of already available experimental data. (author)
Readability Formulas and User Perceptions of Electronic Health Records Difficulty: A Corpus Study.
Zheng, Jiaping; Yu, Hong
2017-03-02
Electronic health records (EHRs) are a rich resource for developing applications to engage patients and foster patient activation, thus holding a strong potential to enhance patient-centered care. Studies have shown that providing patients with access to their own EHR notes may improve the understanding of their own clinical conditions and treatments, leading to improved health care outcomes. However, the highly technical language in EHR notes impedes patients' comprehension. Numerous studies have evaluated the difficulty of health-related text using readability formulas such as Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), and Gunning-Fog Index (GFI). They conclude that the materials are often written at a grade level higher than common recommendations. The objective of our study was to explore the relationship between the aforementioned readability formulas and the laypeople's perceived difficulty on 2 genres of text: general health information and EHR notes. We also validated the formulas' appropriateness and generalizability on predicting difficulty levels of highly complex technical documents. We collected 140 Wikipedia articles on diabetes and 242 EHR notes with diabetes International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code. We recruited 15 Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) users to rate difficulty levels of the documents. Correlations between laypeople's perceived difficulty levels and readability formula scores were measured, and their difference was tested. We also compared word usage and the impact of medical concepts of the 2 genres of text. The distributions of both readability formulas' scores (Preadability predictions and laypeople's perceptions were weak. Furthermore, despite being graded at similar levels, documents of different genres were still perceived with different difficulty (Preadability formulas' predictions did not align with perceived difficulty in either text genre. The widely used readability formulas were
Atomic mass formula with linear shell terms
Uno, Masahiro; Yamada, Masami; Ando, Yoshihira; Tachibana, Takahiro.
1981-01-01
An atomic mass formula is constructed in the form of a sum of gross terms and empirical linear shell terms. Values of the shell parameters are determined after the statistical method of Uno and Yamada, Which is characterized by inclusion of the error inherent in the mass formula. The resulting formula reproduces the input masses with the standard deviation of 393 keV. A prescription is given for estimating errors of calculated masses. The mass formula is compared with recent experimental data of Rb, Cs and Fr isotopes, which are not included in the input data, and also with the constant-shell-term formula of Uno and Yamada. (author)
Ground, Cody R.; Gopal, Vijay; Maddalena, Luca
2018-04-01
By introducing large-scale streamwise vortices into a supersonic flow it is possible to enhance the rate of mixing between two fluid streams. However, increased vorticity content alone does not explicitly serve as a predictor of mixing enhancement. Additional factors, particularly the mutual interactions occurring between neighboring vortical structures, affect the underlying fundamental physics that influence the rate at which the fluids mix. As part of a larger systematic study on supersonic streamwise vortex interactions, this work experimentally quantifies the average rate of mixing of helium and air in the presence of two separate modes of vortex interaction, the merging and non-merging of a pair of co-rotating vortices. In these experiments vortex-generating expansion ramps are placed on a strut injector. The freestream Mach number is set at 2.5 and helium is injected as a passive scalar. Average injectant mole fractions at selected flow planes downstream of the injector are measured utilizing the filtered Rayleigh scattering technique. The filtered Rayleigh scattering measurements reveal that, in the domain surveyed, the merging vortex interaction strongly displaces the plume from its initial horizontal orientation while the non-merging vortex interaction more rapidly mixes the helium and air. The results of the current experiments are consistent with associated knowledge derived from previous analyses of the two studied configurations which have included the detailed experimental characterization of entrainment, turbulent kinetic energy, and vorticity of both modes of vortex interaction.
Ground, Cody; Vergine, Fabrizio; Maddalena, Luca
2016-08-01
A defining feature of the turbulent free shear layer is that its growth is hindered by compressibility effects, thus limiting its potential to sufficiently mix the injected fuel and surrounding airstream at the supersonic Mach numbers intrinsic to the combustor of air-breathing hypersonic vehicles. The introduction of streamwise vorticity is often proposed in an attempt to counteract these undesired effects. This fact makes the strategy of introducing multiple streamwise vortices and imposing upon them certain modes of mutual interaction in order to potentially enhance mixing an intriguing concept. However, many underlying fundamental characteristics of the flowfields in the presence such interactions are not yet well understood; therefore, the fundamental physics of these flowfields should be independently investigated before the explicit mixing performance is characterized. In this work, experimental measurements are taken with the stereoscopic particle image velocimetry technique on two specifically targeted modes of vortex interaction—the merging and non-merging of two corotating vortices. The fluctuating velocity fields are analyzed utilizing the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) in order to identify the content, organization, and distribution of the modal turbulent kinetic energy content of the fluctuating velocity eigenmodes. The effects of the two modes of vortex interaction are revealed by the POD analysis which shows distinct differences in the modal features of the two cases. When comparing the low-order eigenmodes of the two cases, the size of the structures contained within the first ten modes is seen to increase as the flow progresses downstream for the merging case, whereas the opposite is true for the non-merging case. Additionally, the relative modal energy contribution of the first ten eigenmodes increases as the vortices evolve downstream for the merging case, whereas in the non-merging case the relative modal energy contribution decreases
Measurement of the [Formula: see text] meson lifetime using [Formula: see text] decays.
Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Cartelle, P Alvarez; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Gutierrez, O Aquines; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Counts, I; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dalseno, J; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dorosz, P; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianelle, A; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Hafkenscheid, T W; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lowdon, P; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manzali, M; Maratas, J; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, G; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rama, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Roberts, D A; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rotondo, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Simi, G; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spinella, F; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Stroili, R; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Tellarini, G; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A
The lifetime of the [Formula: see text] meson is measured using semileptonic decays having a [Formula: see text] meson and a muon in the final state. The data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of [Formula: see text], are collected by the LHCb detector in [Formula: see text] collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. The measured lifetime is [Formula: see text]where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic.
Intermittent magnetic reconnection in TS-3 merging experiment
Ono, Y.; Hayashi, Y.; Ii, T.; Tanabe, H.; Ito, S.; Kuwahata, A.; Ito, T.; Kamino, Y.; Yamada, T.; Inomoto, M.
2011-01-01
Ejection of current sheet with plasma mass causes impulsive and intermittent magnetic reconnection in the TS-3 spherical tokamak (ST) merging experiment. Under high guide toroidal field, the sheet resistivity is almost classical due to the sheet thickness much longer than the ion gyroradius. Large inflow flux and low current-sheet resistivity result in flux and plasma pileup followed by rapid growth of the current sheet. When the pileup exceeds a critical limit, the sheet is ejected mechanically from the squeezed X-point area. The reconnection (outflow) speed is slow during the flux/plasma pileup and is fast during the ejection, suggesting that intermittent reconnection similar to the solar flare increases the averaged reconnection speed. These transient effects enable the merging tokamaks to have the fast reconnection as well as the high-power reconnection heating, even when their current-sheet resistivity is low under high guide field.
The half-wave rectifier response of the magnetosphere and antiparallel merging
Crooker, N. U.
1980-01-01
In some ways the magnetosphere behaves as if merging occurs only when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is southward, and in other ways it behaves as if merging occurs for all IMF orientations. An explanation of this duality is offered in terms of a geometrical antiparallel merging model which predicts merging for all IMF orientations but magnetic flux transfer to the tail only for southward IMF. This is in contrast to previous models of component merging, where merging and flux transfer occur together for nearly all IMF orientations. That the problematic duality can be explained by the model is compelling evidence that antiparallel merging should be seriously considered in constructing theories of the merging process.
High-Resolution Imaging of Colliding and Merging Galaxies
Whitmore, Brad
1991-07-01
We propose to obtain high-resolution images, using the WF/PC, of two colliding and merging galaxies (i.e., NGC 4038/4039 = "The Antennae" and NGC 7252 ="Atoms-for-Peace Galaxy". Our goal is to use HST to make critical observations of each object in order to gain a better understanding of the various phases of the merger process. Our primary objective is to determine whether globular clusters are formed during mergers\\?
The Fourth Workshop on Lineshape Code Comparison: Line Merging
Spiros Alexiou
2018-03-01
Full Text Available For a given set of plasma parameters, along a single series (Lyman, Balmer, etc. the lines with higher principal quantum number (n lines get progressively wider, closer to each other, and start merging for a certain critical n. In the present work, four different codes (with further options are used to calculate the entire Balmer series for moderate and high electron densities. Particular attention is paid to the relevant physics, such as the cutoff criteria, strong and penetrating electron collisions.
NONE
2001-03-01
This data book summarized the proceedings and the technical report of the management committee on the Japan-China geological structure survey based on the consultation concluded between NEDO and China's bureau of coal field geology and a report meeting on the Yu Xian project. In the exploration, conducted were the boring survey of 10 boreholes, seismic survey of 2D (71 traverse lines, 180.105km) and 3D (1.5km{sup 2}), VSP (6 holes (345 shots)) and the low velocity band survey (2,072 shots). The geological structure of the area presented the syncline structure with a gentle line associated with foldings and a number of faults and was classified into the medium class or the class of a little complication in the Chinese standard. The number of the faults confirmed in this exploration totaled 57. Coal reserves by coal seam were 157.22 million tons at No. 5 seam and 102.57 million tons at No. 1 seam. The total amount of the two seams was 79.1% of the total coal amount in all area. The coal quality of Nos. 1 and 5 was brown coal - flame coal in the Chinese classification, and subbituminous coal B - subbituminous coal C in the ASTM classification. The coal, however, cannot be used for process raw coal. There is a technical potentiality of the fixed bed pressurized gasification. (NEDO)
Marunycz John D
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents who perceive common infant behaviors as formula intolerance-related often switch formulas without consulting a health professional. Up to one-half of formula-fed infants experience a formula change during the first six months of life. Methods The objective of this study was to assess discontinuance due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance in healthy, term infants. Infants (335 were randomized to receive either a standard intact cow milk protein formula (INTACT or a partially hydrolyzed cow milk protein formula (PH in a 60 day non-inferiority trial. Discontinuance due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included number of infants who discontinued for any reason, including parent-assessed. Results Formula intolerance between groups (INTACT, 12.3% vs. PH, 13.7% was similar for infants who completed the study or discontinued due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance. Overall study discontinuance based on parent- vs. study physician-assessed intolerance for all infants (14.4 vs.11.1% was significantly different (P = 0.001. Conclusion This study demonstrated no difference in infant tolerance of intact vs. partially hydrolyzed cow milk protein formulas for healthy, term infants over a 60-day feeding trial, suggesting nonstandard partially hydrolyzed formulas are not necessary as a first-choice for healthy infants. Parents frequently perceived infant behavior as formula intolerance, paralleling previous reports of unnecessary formula changes. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00666120
Studies on Plasmoid Merging using Compact Toroid Injectors
Allfrey, Ian; Matsumoto, Tadafumi; Roche, Thomas; Gota, Hiroshi; Edo, Takahiro; Asai, Tomohiko; Sheftman, Daniel; Osin Team; Dima Team
2017-10-01
C-2 and C-2U experiments have used magnetized coaxial plasma guns (MCPG) to inject compact toroids (CTs) for refueling the long-lived advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma. This refueling method will also be used for the C-2W experiment. To minimize momentum transfer from the CT to the FRC two CTs are injected radially, diametrically opposed and coincident in time. To improve understanding of the CT characteristics TAE has a dedicated test bed for the development of CT injectors (CTI), where plasmoid merging experiments are performed. The test bed has two CTIs on axis with both axial and transverse magnetic fields. The 1 kG magnetic fields, intended to approximate the magnetic field strength and injection angle on C-2W, allow studies of cross-field transport and merging. Both CTIs are capable of injecting multiple CTs at up to 1 kHz. The resulting merged CT lives >100 μs with a radius of 25 cm. More detailed results of CT parameters will be presented.
Droplets formation and merging in two-phase flow microfluidics.
Gu, Hao; Duits, Michel H G; Mugele, Frieder
2011-01-01
Two-phase flow microfluidics is emerging as a popular technology for a wide range of applications involving high throughput such as encapsulation, chemical synthesis and biochemical assays. Within this platform, the formation and merging of droplets inside an immiscible carrier fluid are two key procedures: (i) the emulsification step should lead to a very well controlled drop size (distribution); and (ii) the use of droplet as micro-reactors requires a reliable merging. A novel trend within this field is the use of additional active means of control besides the commonly used hydrodynamic manipulation. Electric fields are especially suitable for this, due to quantitative control over the amplitude and time dependence of the signals, and the flexibility in designing micro-electrode geometries. With this, the formation and merging of droplets can be achieved on-demand and with high precision. In this review on two-phase flow microfluidics, particular emphasis is given on these aspects. Also recent innovations in microfabrication technologies used for this purpose will be discussed.
Droplets Formation and Merging in Two-Phase Flow Microfluidics
Hao Gu
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Two-phase flow microfluidics is emerging as a popular technology for a wide range of applications involving high throughput such as encapsulation, chemical synthesis and biochemical assays. Within this platform, the formation and merging of droplets inside an immiscible carrier fluid are two key procedures: (i the emulsification step should lead to a very well controlled drop size (distribution; and (ii the use of droplet as micro-reactors requires a reliable merging. A novel trend within this field is the use of additional active means of control besides the commonly used hydrodynamic manipulation. Electric fields are especially suitable for this, due to quantitative control over the amplitude and time dependence of the signals, and the flexibility in designing micro-electrode geometries. With this, the formation and merging of droplets can be achieved on-demand and with high precision. In this review on two-phase flow microfluidics, particular emphasis is given on these aspects. Also recent innovations in microfabrication technologies used for this purpose will be discussed.
Toolsets for Airborne Data (TAD): Customized Data Merging Function
Benson, A.; Peeters, M. C.; Perez, J.; Parker, L.; Chen, G.
2013-12-01
NASA has conducted airborne tropospheric chemistry studies for about three decades. These field campaigns have generated a great wealth of observations, including a wide range of the trace gases and aerosol properties. The ASDC Toolset for Airborne Data (TAD) is being designed to meet the user community needs for manipulating aircraft data for scientific research on climate change and air quality relevant issues. Prior to the actual toolset development, a comprehensive metadata database was created to compensate for the absence of standardization of the ICARTT data format in which the data is stored. This database tracks the Principal Investigator-provided metadata, and links the measurement variables to a common naming system that was developed as a part of this project. This database is used by the data merging module. Most aircraft data reported during a single flight is not on a consistent time base and is difficult to intercompare. This module provides the user with the ability to merge original data measurements from multiple data providers into a specified time interval or common time base. The database development, common naming scheme and data merge module development will be presented.
Magical Formulae for Market Futures
Garsten, Christina; Sörbom, Adrienne
2016-01-01
Markets are often portrayed as being organized by way of rationalized knowledge, objective reasoning, and the fluctuations of demand and supply. In parallel, and often mixed with this modality of knowledge, magical beliefs and practices are prevalent. Business leaders, management consultants......, and financial advisors are often savvy in the art of creatively blending the ‘objective facts’ of markets with magical formulae, rites, and imaginaries of the future. This article looks at the World Economic Forum's yearly Davos meeting as a large-scale ritual that engages senior executives of global...... corporations, top-level politicians, and civil society leaders to contribute to the overall aim of ‘improving the world’. The Davos gathering has become a vital part of the business calendar, just as much for the intensity of its networking as for the declarations of action from the speakers’ podiums...
Suhl, H.
1994-01-01
Much of condensed matter theory makes copious use of linear response theory, often not in the sense of macroscopically based regression relations of Onsager type, but in the sense of the Kubo formulation, which is formally based on microscopic equations of motion. Van Kampen has cast doubt on the validity of the latter approach, noting that the extreme sensitivity of the orbits of many-particle systems to small deviations invalidates a microscopically derived linear theory. Here I show that its validity can be reestablished by treating real time as a stochastic function of collision number, and deferring the return to real time to the end of the calculation. However, the constants in the final formula do change. ((orig.))
Mathematical Formula Search using Natural Language Queries
YANG, S.
2014-11-01
Full Text Available This paper presents how to search mathematical formulae written in MathML when given plain words as a query. Since the proposed method allows natural language queries like the traditional Information Retrieval for the mathematical formula search, users do not need to enter any complicated math symbols and to use any formula input tool. For this, formula data is converted into plain texts, and features are extracted from the converted texts. In our experiments, we achieve an outstanding performance, a MRR of 0.659. In addition, we introduce how to utilize formula classification for formula search. By using class information, we finally achieve an improved performance, a MRR of 0.690.
Welfare Effects of Tariff Reduction Formulas
Guldager, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp J.H.
WTO negotiations rely on tariff reduction formulas. It has been argued that formula approaches are of increasing importance in trade talks, because of the large number of countries involved, the wider dispersion in initial tariffs (e.g. tariff peaks) and gaps between bound and applied tariff rate....... No single formula dominates for all conditions. The ranking of the three tools depends on the degree of product differentiation in the industry, and the achieved reduction in the average tariff....
A General Framework for Probabilistic Characterizing Formulae
Sack, Joshua; Zhang, Lijun
2012-01-01
Recently, a general framework on characteristic formulae was proposed by Aceto et al. It offers a simple theory that allows one to easily obtain characteristic formulae of many non-probabilistic behavioral relations. Our paper studies their techniques in a probabilistic setting. We provide...... a general method for determining characteristic formulae of behavioral relations for probabilistic automata using fixed-point probability logics. We consider such behavioral relations as simulations and bisimulations, probabilistic bisimulations, probabilistic weak simulations, and probabilistic forward...
Girvin, Mike
2013-01-01
Designed with Excel gurus in mind, this handbook outlines how to create formulas that can be used to solve everyday problems with a series of data values that standard Excel formulas cannot or would be too arduous to attempt. Beginning with an introduction to array formulas, this manual examines topics such as how they differ from ordinary formulas, the benefits and drawbacks of their use, functions that can and cannot handle array calculations, and array constants and functions. Among the practical applications surveyed include how to extract data from tables and unique lists, how to get resu
Comparison of various HFB overlap formulae
Oi, M.
2015-01-01
The nuclear many-body approach beyond the mean-field approximation demands overlap calculations of different many-body states. Norm overlaps between two different Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov states can be calculated by means of the Onishi formula. However, the formula leaves the sign of the norm overlap undetermined. Several approaches have been proposed by Hara-Hayashi-Ring, Neergård-Wüst, and Robledo. In the present paper, the Neergård-Wüst formula is examined whether it is applicable to practical numerical calculations, although the formula was dismissed by many nuclear theoreticians so far for unknown reasons
Design Formula for Breakage of Tetrapods
Burcharth, H. F.; Jensen, Jacob Birk; Liu, Z.
1995-01-01
The paper presents a design formula for Tetrapod armour on a 1:1.5 slope exposed to head-on random wave attack. The formula predicts the relative number of broken Tetrapods as function of: the mass of the Tetrapods, the concrete tensile strength and the wave height in front of the structure. Thus......, the formula addresses the observed problem of ensuring structural integrity of the slender types of non-reinforced armour units. The formula is based on results from small scale model tests with load-cell instrumented Tetrapods in which both the static, the quasi-static and the impact proportions of the loads...
Superfluid Kubo formulas from partition function
Chapman, Shira; Hoyos, Carlos; Oz, Yaron
2014-01-01
Linear response theory relates hydrodynamic transport coefficients to equilibrium retarded correlation functions of the stress-energy tensor and global symmetry currents in terms of Kubo formulas. Some of these transport coefficients are non-dissipative and affect the fluid dynamics at equilibrium. We present an algebraic framework for deriving Kubo formulas for such thermal transport coefficients by using the equilibrium partition function. We use the framework to derive Kubo formulas for all such transport coefficients of superfluids, as well as to rederive Kubo formulas for various normal fluid systems
Etzkorn, Markus; Eltschka, Matthias; Jaeck, Berthold; Topp, Andreas; Ast, Christian R. [Max-Planck-Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Kern, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)
2016-07-01
The interaction of a local magnetic impurity with a superconductor causes the formation of Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR)states in the vicinity of the impurity. These have recently received increasing attention in the context of Majorana Fermions and other exotic states that might be created from the mutual interplay. YSR states have been extensively studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and so far have been discussed mainly in the limit of point scattering impurities. Here we present our investigations of the local properties of single magnetic Copper-Phthalocynane molecules on the (5x1) reconstructed, superconducting V(100) surface measured at 15 mK temperature. We find very intense YSR states with energies that depend on the precise absorbtion geometry of the molecule. At the same time we find no indication of a local suppression of the superconducting gap around the impurity. We follow the state evolution in real space for about 3 nm corresponding to about three orders of magnitude in spectral intensity. The spectra display rich structure with local variations in the electron-hole asymmetries. The observed intensity changes in the spectra can not be described on the basis of a single point like scattering potential.
О. В. Полевщикова
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The professor of Novorossiysky (Odessa University I. Yu. Timchenko (1863-1939 managed to collect a remarkable library on the history of Mathematics which contained primarily antiquarian books including incunabula and 16th century editions. Various aspects of this valuabe book collection have been studied lately. Books from this dispersed collection have been revealed and examined de visu. Their cataloguing incudes the description of individual book copies in view of their provenance. The purpose of the article is to provide the information on a complex of owners’ recordings and dedicatory inscriptions as well as bookplates left on the books making an attempt to trace the fate of the copies incorporated in the library of the Odessa mathematician. The information collected is considered in the context of the history of Mathematics. Many may characterise both direct and indirect expressions of the readers’ interests in books and reading. The study of provenance records demonstrate that the copies acquired by professor Timchenko used to be in the libraries of a number of men of science – mathematicians, physicists, philologists, etc. The findings of this article enable to enlarge the database of provenance making the practical value and results of the research.
Brey, Eric Michael
2014-01-01
This article is a review of the book “Imaging in Cellular and Tissue Engineering” (ISBN-13: 978-1439848036, $149.95, 298 Pages, 114 Illustrations) edited by Y Hanry Yu and Nur Aida Abdul Rahim published by the CRC Press (Taylor&Francis) in 2013. The contents of the book and its relevance to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are discussed in this invited review.
2017-01-01
The Organizers of the III International Conference on Small Angle Neutron Scattering dedicated to the 80-th anniversary of Yu. M. Ostanevich, acknowledge the financial support from the Grants of the Governmental Plenipotentiary Representatives of Romania, Slovakia, Czech Republic, scientific projects of the Cooperation Programmes JINR-Romania. Special gratitude to the JINR and FLNP administration and staff is expressed. The conference is also dedicated to the 60th Anniversary of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna. (paper)
A new optical rotation dispersion formula
Kimel, I.
1981-12-01
A new dispersion formula for the rotatory power is obtained in the framework of Kubo forlalism for transport coefficients. Unlike the well known Rosenfeld-Condon dispersion law, this formula is consistent with the free electron gas asymptotic behavior. (Author) [pt
Formula Approaches for Market Access Negotiations
J.F. François (Joseph); W. Martin (William)
2002-01-01
textabstractMost of the large tariff reductions achieved in multilateral trade negotiations have involved tariff-cutting formulas such as the "Swiss" formula. However, wide variations in initial tariff rates between active participants call for new approaches under the Doha Development Agenda. This
Bismut Formulae and Applications for Functional SPDEs
Bao, Jianhai; Wang, Feng-Yu; Yuan, Chenggui
2011-01-01
By using Malliavin calculus, explicit derivative formulae are established for a class of semi-linear functional stochastic partial differential equations with additive or multiplicative noise. As applications, gradient estimates and Harnack inequalities are derived for the semigroup of the associated segment process. Keywords: Bismut formula, Malliavin calculus, gradient estimate, Harnack inequality, functional SPDE
Maas, A.; Steinbuch, M.
2013-01-01
Formula-Bio started out as a dream of building a race car with only three students and thereby showing the world that everything is possible if you put your passion into it. In this internship report the story of Formula-Bio and the reasoning behind the FB01 can be found. A large part of the report
2010-01-01
...) Daily simple interest formula. (1) To calculate daily simple interest the following formula may be used... a payment is due on April 1 and the payment is not made until April 11, a simple interest... equation calculates simple interest on any additional days beyond a monthly increment. (3) For example, if...
New entropy formula for Kerr black holes
González Hernán A.
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce a new entropy formula for Kerr black holes inspired by recent results for 3-dimensional black holes and cosmologies with soft Heisenberg hair. We show that also Kerr–Taub–NUT black holes obey the same formula.
Misconceptions in global reactions and formula writing
Stig R. Johansson
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The frequently used concept of “global reaction” is discussed and the reason for the confusion behind explained. The misconception is cleared by formula writing based on the donor–acceptor (donac reaction concept and by applying the Grand Rule of Formula Writing that is based on it.
Borromean surgery formula for the Casson invariant
Meilhan, Jean-Baptiste Odet Thierry
2008-01-01
It is known that every oriented integral homology 3-sphere can be obtained from S3 by a finite sequence of Borromean surgeries. We give an explicit formula for the variation of the Casson invariant under such a surgery move. The formula involves simple classical invariants, namely the framing...
101 ready-to-use Excel formulas
Alexander, Michael
2014-01-01
Mr. Spreadsheet has done it again with 101 easy-to-apply Excel formulas 101 Ready-to-Use Excel Formulas is filled with the most commonly-used, real-world Excel formulas that can be repurposed and put into action, saving you time and increasing your productivity. Each segment of this book outlines a common business or analysis problem that needs to be solved and provides the actual Excel formulas to solve the problem-along with detailed explanation of how the formulas work. Written in a user-friendly style that relies on a tips and tricks approach, the book details how to perform everyday Excel tasks with confidence. 101 Ready-to-Use Excel Formulas is sure to become your well-thumbed reference to solve your workplace problems. The recipes in the book are structured to first present the problem, then provide the formula solution, and finally show how it works so that it can be customized to fit your needs. The companion website to the book allows readers to easily test the formulas and provides visual confirmat...
27 CFR 24.211 - Formula required.
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula required. 24.211 Section 24.211 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... which it is to be made, except that no formula is required for distilling material or vinegar stock. The...
Magnetic conveyor belt for transporting and merging trapped atom clouds.
Hänsel, W; Reichel, J; Hommelhoff, P; Hänsch, T W
2001-01-22
We demonstrate an integrated magnetic device which transports cold atoms near a surface with very high positioning accuracy. Time-dependent currents in a lithographic conductor pattern create a moving chain of potential wells; atoms are transported in these wells while remaining confined in all three dimensions. We achieve mean fluxes up to 10(6) s(-1) with a negligible heating rate. An extension of this device allows merging of atom clouds by unification of two Ioffe-Pritchard potentials. The unification, which we demonstrate experimentally, can be performed without loss of phase space density. This novel, all-magnetic atom manipulation offers exciting perspectives, such as trapped-atom interferometry.
Merging Satellite Precipitation Products for Improved Streamflow Simulations
Maggioni, V.; Massari, C.; Barbetta, S.; Camici, S.; Brocca, L.
2017-12-01
Accurate quantitative precipitation estimation is of great importance for water resources management, agricultural planning and forecasting and monitoring of natural hazards such as flash floods and landslides. In situ observations are limited around the Earth, especially in remote areas (e.g., complex terrain, dense vegetation), but currently available satellite precipitation products are able to provide global precipitation estimates with an accuracy that depends upon many factors (e.g., type of storms, temporal sampling, season, etc.). The recent SM2RAIN approach proposes to estimate rainfall by using satellite soil moisture observations. As opposed to traditional satellite precipitation methods, which sense cloud properties to retrieve instantaneous estimates, this new bottom-up approach makes use of two consecutive soil moisture measurements for obtaining an estimate of the fallen precipitation within the interval between two satellite overpasses. As a result, the nature of the measurement is different and complementary to the one of classical precipitation products and could provide a different valid perspective to substitute or improve current rainfall estimates. Therefore, we propose to merge SM2RAIN and the widely used TMPA 3B42RT product across Italy for a 6-year period (2010-2015) at daily/0.25deg temporal/spatial scale. Two conceptually different merging techniques are compared to each other and evaluated in terms of different statistical metrics, including hit bias, threat score, false alarm rates, and missed rainfall volumes. The first is based on the maximization of the temporal correlation with a reference dataset, while the second is based on a Bayesian approach, which provides a probabilistic satellite precipitation estimate derived from the joint probability distribution of observations and satellite estimates. The merged precipitation products show a better performance with respect to the parental satellite-based products in terms of categorical
Electron-ion recombination rates for merged-beams experiments
Pajek, M.
1994-01-01
Energy dependence of the electron-ion recombination rates are studied for different recombination processes (radiative recombination, three-body recombination, dissociative recombination) for Maxwellian relative velocity distribution of arbitrary asymmetry. The results are discussed in context of the electron-ion merged beams experiments in cooling ion storage rings. The question of indication of a possible contribution of the three-body recombination to the measured recombination rates versus relative energy is particularly addressed. Its influence on the electron beam temperature derived from the energy dependence of recombination rate is discussed
Merged Search Algorithms for Radio Frequency Identification Anticollision
Bih-Yaw Shih
2012-01-01
The arbitration algorithm for RFID system is used to arbitrate all the tags to avoid the collision problem with the existence of multiple tags in the interrogation field of a transponder. A splitting algorithm which is called Binary Search Tree (BST is well known for multitags arbitration. In the current study, a splitting-based schema called Merged Search Tree is proposed to capture identification codes correctly for anticollision. Performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with the original BST according to time and power consumed during the arbitration process. The results show that the proposed model can reduce searching time and power consumed to achieve a better performance arbitration.
Merged Real Time GNSS Solutions for the READI System
Santillan, V. M.; Geng, J.
2014-12-01
Real-time measurements from increasingly dense Global Navigational Satellite Systems (GNSS) networks located throughout the western US offer a substantial, albeit largely untapped, contribution towards the mitigation of seismic and other natural hazards. Analyzed continuously in real-time, currently over 600 instruments blanket the San Andreas and Cascadia fault systems of the North American plate boundary and can provide on-the-fly characterization of transient ground displacements highly complementary to traditional seismic strong-motion monitoring. However, the utility of GNSS systems depends on their resolution, and merged solutions of two or more independent estimation strategies have been shown to offer lower scatter and higher resolution. Towards this end, independent real time GNSS solutions produced by Scripps Inst. of Oceanography and Central Washington University (PANGA) are now being formally combined in pursuit of NASA's Real-Time Earthquake Analysis for Disaster Mitigation (READI) positioning goals. CWU produces precise point positioning (PPP) solutions while SIO produces ambiguity resolved PPP solutions (PPP-AR). The PPP-AR solutions have a ~5 mm RMS scatter in the horizontal and ~10mm in the vertical, however PPP-AR solutions can take tens of minutes to re-converge in case of data gaps. The PPP solutions produced by CWU use pre-cleaned data in which biases are estimated as non-integer ambiguities prior to formal positioning with GIPSY 6.2 using a real time stream editor developed at CWU. These solutions show ~20mm RMS scatter in the horizontal and ~50mm RMS scatter in the vertical but re-converge within 2 min. or less following cycle-slips or data outages. We have implemented the formal combination of the CWU and SCRIPPS ENU displacements using the independent solutions as input measurements to a simple 3-element state Kalman filter plus white noise. We are now merging solutions from 90 stations, including 30 in Cascadia, 39 in the Bay Area, and 21
Understanding the fate of merging supermassive black holes
Campanelli, Manuela
2005-01-01
Understanding the fate of merging supermassive black holes in galactic mergers, and the gravitational wave emission from this process, are important LISA science goals. To this end, we present results from numerical relativity simulations of binary black hole mergers using the so-called Lazarus approach to model gravitational radiation from these events. In particular, we focus here on some recent calculations of the final spin and recoil velocity of the remnant hole formed at the end of a binary black hole merger process, which may constrain the growth history of massive black holes at the core of galaxies and globular clusters
Flow Merging and Hub Route Optimization in Collaborative Transportation
Kerui Weng
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper studies the optimal hub routing problem of merged tasks in collaborative transportation. This problem allows all carriers’ transportation tasks to reach the destinations optionally passing through 0, 1, or 2 hubs within limited distance, while a cost discount on arcs in the hub route could be acquired after paying fixed charges. The problem arises in the application of logistics, postal services, airline transportation, and so forth. We formulate the problem as a mixed-integer programming model, and provide two heuristic approaches, respectively, based on Lagrangian relaxation and Benders decomposition. Computational experiments show that the algorithms work well.
Merging paradigms: Decision Making, Management, and Cognitive Control
Rasmussen, Jens
1996-01-01
The paper discusses the trend in paradigms within decision research, drifting from concepts of decision making in terms of normative models of 'rational decision making, through behavioral models in terms of 'biases' - deviations from rational models, toward models of actual decision making...... behavior, such as the SRK concept, naturalistic decision making, and dynamic decision making.In this evolution, concepts such as decision making, management, and behavioral control merge and a concurrent change in concepts underlying design of systems aiming at control of behavior is visible, from...
Abelev, B; Adam, J; Adamová, D; Aggarwal, M M; Rinella, G Aglieri; Agnello, M; Agostinelli, A; Agrawal, N; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, N; Ahmed, I; Ahn, S U; Ahn, S A; Aimo, I; Aiola, S; Ajaz, M; Akindinov, A; Alam, S N; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alexandre, D; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altinpinar, S; Altsybeev, I; Alves Garcia Prado, C; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Anielski, J; Antičić, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arcelli, S; Armesto, N; Arnaldi, R; Aronsson, T; Arsene, I C; Arslandok, M; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmi, M D; Bach, M; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bagnasco, S; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Baldisseri, A; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Baral, R C; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartke, J; Basile, M; Bastid, N; Basu, S; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batista Camejo, A; Batyunya, B; Batzing, P C; Baumann, C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Bedda, C; Behera, N K; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bellwied, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Belmont, R; Belyaev, V; Bencedi, G; Beole, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdnikov, Y; Berenyi, D; Berger, M E; Bertens, R A; Berzano, D; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhat, I R; Bhati, A K; Bhattacharjee, B; Bhom, J; Bianchi, L; Bianchi, N; Bianchin, C; Bielčík, J; Bielčíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Bjelogrlic, S; Blanco, F; Blau, D; Blume, C; Bock, F; Bogdanov, A; Bøggild, H; Bogolyubsky, M; Böhmer, F V; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Book, J; Borel, H; Borissov, A; Bossú, F; Botje, M; Botta, E; Böttger, S; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bregant, M; Breitner, T; Broker, T A; Browning, T A; Broz, M; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bufalino, S; Buncic, P; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Caffarri, D; Cai, X; Caines, H; Calero Diaz, L; Caliva, A; Calvo Villar, E; Camerini, P; Carena, F; Carena, W; Castillo Castellanos, J; Casula, E A R; Catanescu, V; Cavicchioli, C; Ceballos Sanchez, C; Cepila, J; Cerello, P; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Chelnokov, V; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Chochula, P; Chojnacki, M; Choudhury, S; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, S U; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Colamaria, F; Colella, D; Collu, A; Colocci, M; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa Del Valle, Z; Connors, M E; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Corrales Morales, Y; Cortese, P; Cortés Maldonado, I; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Crochet, P; Cruz Albino, R; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Dainese, A; Dang, R; Danu, A; Das, D; Das, I; Das, K; Das, S; Dash, A; Dash, S; De, S; Delagrange, H; Deloff, A; Dénes, E; D'Erasmo, G; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gruttola, D; De Marco, N; De Pasquale, S; de Rooij, R; Diaz Corchero, M A; Dietel, T; Dillenseger, P; Divià, R; Di Bari, D; Di Liberto, S; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Djuvsland, Ø; Dobrin, A; Dobrowolski, T; Domenicis Gimenez, D; Dönigus, B; Dordic, O; Dørheim, S; Dubey, A K; Dubla, A; Ducroux, L; Dupieux, P; Dutta Majumdar, A K; Hilden, T E; Ehlers, R J; Elia, D; Engel, H; Erazmus, B; Erdal, H A; Eschweiler, D; Espagnon, B; Esposito, M; Estienne, M; Esumi, S; Evans, D; Evdokimov, S; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Falchieri, D; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Fehlker, D; Feldkamp, L; Felea, D; Feliciello, A; Feofilov, G; Ferencei, J; Fernández Téllez, A; Ferreiro, E G; Ferretti, A; Festanti, A; Figiel, J; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Finogeev, D; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Floratos, E; Floris, M; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Fragiacomo, E; Francescon, A; Frankenfeld, U; Fuchs, U; Furget, C; Furs, A; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhøje, J J; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A M; Gallio, M; Gangadharan, D R; Ganoti, P; Gao, C; Garabatos, C; Garcia-Solis, E; Gargiulo, C; Garishvili, I; Gerhard, J; Germain, M; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Ghidini, B; Ghosh, P; Ghosh, S K; Gianotti, P; Giubellino, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glässel, P; Gomez Ramirez, A; González-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Görlich, L; Gotovac, S; Graczykowski, L K; Grelli, A; Grigoras, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, A; Grigoryan, S; Grinyov, B; Grion, N; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grossiord, J-Y; Grosso, R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerzoni, B; Guilbaud, M; Gulbrandsen, K; Gulkanyan, H; Gumbo, M; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Khan, K H; Haake, R; Haaland, Ø; Hadjidakis, C; Haiduc, M; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Hanratty, L D; Hansen, A; Harris, J W; Hartmann, H; Harton, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, S; Heckel, S T; Heide, M; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Herrera Corral, G; Hess, B A; Hetland, K F; Hippolyte, B; Hladky, J; Hristov, P; Huang, M; Humanic, T J; Hussain, N; Hussain, T; Hutter, D; Hwang, D S; Ilkaev, R; Ilkiv, I; Inaba, M; Innocenti, G M; Ionita, C; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, V; Jachołkowski, A; Jacobs, P M; Jahnke, C; Jang, H J; Janik, M A; Jayarathna, P H S Y; Jena, C; Jena, S; Jimenez Bustamante, R T; Jones, P G; Jung, H; Jusko, A; Kadyshevskiy, V; Kalinak, P; Kalweit, A; Kamin, J; Kang, J H; Kaplin, V; Kar, S; Karasu Uysal, A; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karpechev, E; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Keijdener, D L D; Svn, M Keil; Khan, M M; Khan, P; Khan, S A; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Kileng, B; Kim, B; Kim, D W; Kim, D J; Kim, J S; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kim, S; Kim, T; Kirsch, S; Kisel, I; Kiselev, S; Kisiel, A; Kiss, G; Klay, J L; Klein, J; Klein-Bösing, C; Kluge, A; Knichel, M L; Knospe, A G; Kobdaj, C; Kofarago, M; Köhler, M K; Kollegger, T; Kolojvari, A; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Konevskikh, A; Kovalenko, V; Kowalski, M; Kox, S; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G; Kral, J; Králik, I; Kravčáková, A; Krelina, M; Kretz, M; Krivda, M; Krizek, F; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kučera, V; Kucheriaev, Y; Kugathasan, T; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kulakov, I; Kumar, J; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, A B; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, S; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Ladron de Guevara, P; Lagana Fernandes, C; Lakomov, I; Langoy, R; Lara, C; Lardeux, A; Lattuca, A; La Pointe, S L; La Rocca, P; Lea, R; Leardini, L; Lee, G R; Legrand, I; Lehnert, J; Lemmon, R C; Lenti, V; Leogrande, E; Leoncino, M; León Monzón, I; Lévai, P; Li, S; Lien, J; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Ljunggren, H M; Lodato, D F; Loenne, P I; Loggins, V R; Loginov, V; Lohner, D; Loizides, C; Lopez, X; López Torres, E; Lu, X-G; Luettig, P; Lunardon, M; Luparello, G; Ma, R; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahapatra, D P; Mahmood, S M; Maire, A; Majka, R D; Malaev, M; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malinina, L; Mal'Kevich, D; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manceau, L; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Marchisone, M; Mareš, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Marín, A; Markert, C; Marquard, M; Martashvili, I; Martin, N A; Martinengo, P; Martínez, M I; Martínez García, G; Martin Blanco, J; Martynov, Y; Mas, A; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Massacrier, L; Mastroserio, A; Matyja, A; Mayer, C; Mazer, J; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meninno, E; Mercado Pérez, J; Meres, M; Miake, Y; Mikhaylov, K; Milano, L; Milosevic, J; Mischke, A; Mishra, A N; Miśkowiec, D; Mitra, J; Mitu, C M; 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The production of the strange and double-strange baryon resonances ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) has been measured at mid-rapidity ([Formula: see text][Formula: see text]) in proton-proton collisions at [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] 7 TeV with the ALICE detector at the LHC. Transverse momentum spectra for inelastic collisions are compared to QCD-inspired models, which in general underpredict the data. A search for the [Formula: see text] pentaquark, decaying in the [Formula: see text] channel, has been carried out but no evidence is seen.
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Müller, H; Munhoz, M G; Murray, S; Musa, L; Musinsky, J; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Nattrass, C; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nedosekin, A; Nicassio, M; Niculescu, M; Nielsen, B S; Nikolaev, S; Nikulin, S; Nikulin, V; Nilsen, B S; Noferini, F; Nomokonov, P; Nooren, G; Nyanin, A; Nystrand, J; Oeschler, H; Oh, S; Oh, S K; Okatan, A; Olah, L; Oleniacz, J; Oliveira Da Silva, A C; Onderwaater, J; Oppedisano, C; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Oskarsson, A; Otwinowski, J; Oyama, K; Sahoo, P; Pachmayer, Y; Pachr, M; Pagano, P; Paić, G; Painke, F; Pajares, C; Pal, S K; Palmeri, A; Pant, D; Papikyan, V; Pappalardo, G S; Pareek, P; Park, W J; Parmar, S; Passfeld, A; Patalakha, D I; Paticchio, V; Paul, B; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Pereira Da Costa, H; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E; Peresunko, D; Pérez Lara, C E; Pesci, A; Peskov, V; Pestov, Y; Petráček, V; Petran, M; Petris, M; Petrovici, M; Petta, C; Piano, S; Pikna, M; Pillot, P; Pinazza, O; Pinsky, L; Piyarathna, D B; Płoskoń, M; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Pochybova, S; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Poghosyan, M G; Pohjoisaho, E H O; Polichtchouk, B; Poljak, N; Pop, A; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S; Porter, J; Pospisil, V; Potukuchi, B; Prasad, S K; Preghenella, R; Prino, F; Pruneau, C A; Pshenichnov, I; Puddu, G; Pujahari, P; Punin, V; Putschke, J; Qvigstad, H; Rachevski, A; Raha, S; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ramello, L; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Räsänen, S S; Rascanu, B T; Rathee, D; Rauf, A W; Razazi, V; Read, K F; Real, J S; Redlich, K; Reed, R J; Rehman, A; Reichelt, P; Reicher, M; Reidt, F; Renfordt, R; Reolon, A R; Reshetin, A; Rettig, F; Revol, J-P; Reygers, K; Ricci, R A; Richert, T; Richter, M; Riedler, P; Riegler, W; Riggi, F; Rivetti, A; Rocco, E; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M; Rodriguez Manso, A; Røed, K; Rogochaya, E; Rohni, S; Rohr, D; Röhrich, D; Romita, R; Ronchetti, F; Rosnet, P; Rossegger, S; Rossi, A; Roukoutakis, F; Roy, A; Roy, C; Roy, P; Rubio Montero, A J; Rui, R; Russo, R; Ryabinkin, E; Rybicki, A; Sadovsky, S; Šafařík, K; Sahlmuller, B; Sahoo, R; Sahu, P K; Saini, J; Salgado, C A; Salzwedel, J; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Sanchez Castro, X; Sánchez Rodríguez, F J; Šándor, L; Sandoval, A; Sano, M; Santagati, G; Sarkar, D; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Scharenberg, R P; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, H R; Schuchmann, S; Schukraft, J; Schulc, M; Schuster, T; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Scott, R; Segato, G; Seger, J E; Sekiguchi, Y; Selyuzhenkov, I; Seo, J; Serradilla, E; Sevcenco, A; Shabetai, A; Shabratova, G; Shahoyan, R; Shangaraev, A; Sharma, N; Sharma, S; Shigaki, K; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siddhanta, S; Siemiarczuk, T; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Simatovic, G; Singaraju, R; Singh, R; Singha, S; Singhal, V; Sinha, B C; Sinha, T; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Skjerdal, K; Smakal, R; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R J M; Søgaard, C; Soltz, R; Song, J; Song, M; Soramel, F; Sorensen, S; Spacek, M; Sputowska, I; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M; Srivastava, B K; Stachel, J; Stan, I; Stefanek, G; Steinpreis, M; Stenlund, E; Steyn, G; Stiller, J H; Stocco, D; Stolpovskiy, M; Strmen, P; Suaide, A A P; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Suleymanov, M; Sultanov, R; Šumbera, M; Susa, T; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarka, I; Szczepankiewicz, A; Szymanski, M; Takahashi, J; Tangaro, M A; Tapia Takaki, J D; Tarantola Peloni, A; Tarazona Martinez, A; Tauro, A; Tejeda Muñoz, G; Telesca, A; Terrevoli, C; Thäder, J; Thomas, D; Tieulent, R; Timmins, A R; Toia, A; Torii, H; Trubnikov, V; Trzaska, W H; Tsuji, T; Tumkin, A; Turrisi, R; Tveter, T S; Ulery, J; Ullaland, K; Uras, A; Usai, G L; Vajzer, M; Vala, M; Valencia Palomo, L; Vallero, S; Vande Vyvre, P; Vannucci, L; Van Hoorne, J W; van Leeuwen, M; Vargas, A; Varma, R; Vasileiou, M; Vasiliev, A; Vechernin, V; Veldhoen, M; Velure, A; Venaruzzo, M; Vercellin, E; Vergara Limón, S; Vernet, R; Verweij, M; Vickovic, L; Viesti, G; Viinikainen, J; Vilakazi, Z; Villalobos Baillie, O; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, L; Vinogradov, Y; Virgili, T; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopyanov, A; Völkl, M A; Voloshin, K; Voloshin, S A; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vorobyev, I; Vranic, D; Vrláková, J; Vulpescu, B; Vyushin, A; Wagner, B; Wagner, J; Wagner, V; Wang, M; Wang, Y; Watanabe, D; Weber, M; Wessels, J P; Westerhoff, U; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilde, M; Wilk, G; Wilkinson, J; Williams, M C S; Windelband, B; Winn, M; Xiang, C; Yaldo, C G; Yamaguchi, Y; Yang, H; Yang, P; Yang, S; Yano, S; Yasnopolskiy, S; Yi, J; Yin, Z; Yoo, I-K; Yushmanov, I; Zaccolo, V; Zach, C; Zaman, A; Zampolli, C; Zaporozhets, S; Zarochentsev, A; Závada, P; Zaviyalov, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zgura, I S; Zhalov, M; Zhang, H; Zhang, X; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhigareva, N; Zhou, D; Zhou, F; Zhou, Y; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, X; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, A; Zimmermann, M B; Zinovjev, G; Zoccarato, Y; Zynovyev, M; Zyzak, M
The inclusive production cross sections at forward rapidity of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text](1S) and [Formula: see text](2S) are measured in [Formula: see text] collisions at [Formula: see text] with the ALICE detector at the LHC. The analysis is based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.35 pb[Formula: see text]. Quarkonia are reconstructed in the dimuon-decay channel and the signal yields are evaluated by fitting the [Formula: see text] invariant mass distributions. The differential production cross sections are measured as a function of the transverse momentum [Formula: see text] and rapidity [Formula: see text], over the ranges [Formula: see text] GeV/c for [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] GeV/c for all other resonances and for [Formula: see text]. The measured cross sections integrated over [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], and assuming unpolarized quarkonia, are: [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]b, [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]b, [Formula: see text] nb and [Formula: see text] nb, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second one is systematic. The results are compared to measurements performed by other LHC experiments and to theoretical models.
Effect of individual components of soy formula and cows milk formula on zinc bioavailability
Loennerdal, B.; Cederblad, A.; Davidsson, L.; Sandstroem, B.
1984-01-01
Zinc absorption from human milk, cows milk formulas, and soy formulas was studied in human adults by a radioisotope technique using 65 Zn and whole body counting. Individual dietary components were investigated for effects on zinc absorption. Phytate was found to have a strong inhibitory effect on zinc absorption; addition of phytate to cows milk formula (yielding a phytate concentration similar to that of soy formula) resulted in a decrease in zinc absorption from 31 to 16% similar to the absorption for soy formula (14%). Carbohydrate source, calcium, and zinc levels of the diet did not affect zinc absorption significantly. Iron supplementation of cows milk formula decreased zinc absorption from 24 to 18% although this decrease was not found to be significant (p less than 0.1). Absorption of zinc from a whey-adjusted cows milk formula was higher (31%) than from a nonmodified cows milk formula (22%). Increasing the zinc supplementation level in cows milk formula but not in soy formula increased zinc absorption to approximate that from breast milk. It is suggested that reduction of phytate content of soy formula may be a more effective avenue of modification than increased level of zinc supplementation
Simulating merging binary black holes with nearly extremal spins
Lovelace, Geoffrey; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela
2011-01-01
Astrophysically realistic black holes may have spins that are nearly extremal (i.e., close to 1 in dimensionless units). Numerical simulations of binary black holes are important tools both for calibrating analytical templates for gravitational-wave detection and for exploring the nonlinear dynamics of curved spacetime. However, all previous simulations of binary-black-hole inspiral, merger, and ringdown have been limited by an apparently insurmountable barrier: the merging holes' spins could not exceed 0.93, which is still a long way from the maximum possible value in terms of the physical effects of the spin. In this paper, we surpass this limit for the first time, opening the way to explore numerically the behavior of merging, nearly extremal black holes. Specifically, using an improved initial-data method suitable for binary black holes with nearly extremal spins, we simulate the inspiral (through 12.5 orbits), merger and ringdown of two equal-mass black holes with equal spins of magnitude 0.95 antialigned with the orbital angular momentum.
HR competencies at a merged Higher Education Institution
Cecile M. Schultz
2010-06-01
Research purposes: The aim of this study was to determine the HR competencies at a merged higher education institution. Other objectives were to establish the satisfaction of academics, administrative staff and management regarding the HR competencies and the importance thereof. Motivation for the study: Human resource professionals require assistance by providing HR competencies necessary to add value at a merged higher education institution. Research designs, approaches and methods: A quantitative research design was employed as the research strategy. The questionnaire was based on the literature, the business plan and the HR balanced scorecard report. The target population was 1363 permanent staff on one campus and the response rate was 28%. A principal factor analysis, spider charts and box plots were utilised for data analysis. The results indicated business knowledge, HR practices, personal skills and management skills as the vital HR competencies. Practical implications: Staff were not satisfied with the current HR competencies and consequently this necessitated attention to improve the deficient areas. Contribution: This study shows that limited research was done with regard to HR competencies in the South African higher education backdrop.
Merging of independent condensates: disentangling the Kibble-Zurek mechanism
Ville, Jean-Loup; Aidelsburger, Monika; Saint-Jalm, Raphael; Nascimbene, Sylvain; Beugnon, Jerome; Dalibard, Jean
2017-04-01
An important step in the study of out-of-equilibrium physics is the Kibble-Zurek theory which describes a system after a quench through a second-order phase transition. This was studied in our group with a temperature quench across the normal-to-superfluid phase transition in an annular trap geometry, inducing the formation of supercurrents. Their magnitude and direction were detected by measuring spiral patterns resulting from the interference of the ring-shaped condensate with a central reference disk. According to the KZ mechanism domains of phase are created during the quench, with a characteristic size depending of its duration. In our case this results in a stochastic formation of supercurrents depending on the relative phases of the domains. As a next step of this study, we now design ourselves the patches thanks to our tunable trapping potential. We control both the number of condensates to be merged (from one to twelve) and their merging time. We report an increase of the vorticity in the ring for an increased number of patches compatible with a random phase model. We further investigate the time required by the phase to homogenize between two condensates.
Patterns of magnetic field merging sites on the magnetopause
Luhmann, J.G.; Walker, R.J.; Russell, C.T.; Crooker, N.U.; Spreiter, J.R.; Stahara, S.S.
1984-01-01
Several years ago, Crooker presented a qualitative picture of the merging sites on the magnetopause defined as the points where the magnetospheric and magnetosheath field are antiparallel. However, Cowley pointed out that merging can also occur where these fields are not exactly antiparallel, but merely have antiparallel components. Using realistic models of the magnetosphere and magnetosheath magnetic fields, the angles between the fields at the magnetopause boundary were determined for different interplanetary field orientations, including radial field and Parker spiral field. The results are summarized in Figure 1, which displays contours on the dayside magnetopause (viewed from the sun, i.e., the GSE Y-Z plane projection) of equal value of the cosine of the angle between the magnetospheric and magnetosheath model fields. Only contours with negative values, implying some antiparallel component, are shown. Values at the contours, starting with the contour filled with shading, are -.98, -.95, -.9, -.8, -.7, -.6, -.5, -.4, -.3, -.2, -.1, -.0. The interplanetary field orientations are indicated in vector notation in the lower right corners. In particular, the pattern for a 45 0 cone angle is shown in the fourth diagram in the right hand column and patterns for northward and southward fields occupy the first position in the first column and the second position in the right hand column. These results can be used for comparisons with observed distribution of flux transfer events and for studies of magnetospheric particle leakage
Evolution and merging of binaries with compact objects
Bethe, Hans A.; Brown, Gerald E.; Lee, Chang-Hwan
2007-01-01
In the light of recent observations in which short γ-ray bursts are interpreted as arising from black-hole(BH), neutron-star(NS) or NS-NS mergings we would like to review our research on the evolution of compact binaries, especially those containing NS's. These were carried out with predictions for LIGO in mind, but are directly applicable to short γ-ray bursts in the interpretation above. Most important in our review is that we show that the standard scenario for evolving NS-NS binaries always ends up with a low-mass BH (LMBH), NS binary. Bethe and Brown [1998, Astrophys. J. 506, 780] showed that this fate could be avoided if the two giants in the progenitor binary burned He at the same time, and that in this way the binary could avoid the common envelope evolution of the NS with red giant companion which sends the first born NS into a BH in the standard scenario. The burning of He at the same time requires, for the more massive giants such as the progenitors of the Hulse-Taylor binary NS that the two giants be within 4% of each other in zero age main sequence (ZAMS) mass. Applying this criterion to all binaries results in a factor ∼5 of LMBH-NS binaries as compared with NS-NS binaries. Although this factor is substantially less than the originally claimed factor of 20 which Bethe and Brown (1998) estimated, largely because a careful evolution has been carried through here, our factor 5 is augmented by a factor of ∼8 arising from the higher rate of star formation in the earlier Galaxy from which the BH-NS binaries came from. Furthermore, here we calculate the mergers for short-hard gamma-ray bursts, whereas Bethe and Brown's factor 20 included a factor of 2 for the higher chirp masses in a BH-NS binary as compared with NS-NS one. In short, we end up with an estimate of factor ∼40 over that calculated with NS-NS binary mergers in our Galaxy alone. Our total rate is estimated to be about one merging of compact objects per year. Our scenario of NS-NS binaries
Comparative study of the electron density profiles in the compact torus plasma merging experiments
Hayashiya, Hitoshi; Asaka, Takeo; Katsurai, Makoto
2003-01-01
Following two previous papers on the comparative studies of the electron density distributions for a single compact torus (CT) and a spherical tokamak (ST), and for the a single ST and a merged ST, a comparative study on the dynamics of the electron density profile and after the CT and ST plasma merging process was performed. The sharpness of the peak in the electron density profile around the mid-plane just after the merging of CT with a low safety factor (q value) such as RFP or spheromak is found to be related to the speed of the magnetic axis during the plasma merging process. It is also found that the electron density gradient near the plasma edge in a high q ST is larger than that of a low q CT. High q ST is found to be provided with the magnetic structure which is able to sustain a large thermal pressure by a strong j x B force. Despite these differences in the electron density profile between CT and ST during merging, the confinement characteristics evaluated from the number of electrons confined within the magnetic separatrix after the completion of the merging is almost similar between in the merging CT and in the merging ST. For all configurations, the electron density profiles after the completion of the merging are analogous to those of the corresponding single configuration produced without the merging process. (author)
Understanding women's interpretations of infant formula advertising.
Parry, Kathleen; Taylor, Emily; Hall-Dardess, Pam; Walker, Marsha; Labbok, Miriam
2013-06-01
Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months and continued breastfeeding for at least 1 year is recommended by all major health organizations. Whereas 74.6 percent of mothers initiate breastfeeding at birth, exclusivity and duration remain significantly lower than national goals. Empirical evidence suggests that exposure to infant formula marketing contributes to supplementation and premature cessation. The objective of this study was to explore how women interpret infant formula advertising to aid in an understanding of this association. Four focus groups were structured to include women with similar childbearing experience divided according to reproductive status: preconceptional, pregnant, exclusive breastfeeders, and formula feeders. Facilitators used a prepared protocol to guide discussion of infant formula advertisements. Authors conducted a thematic content analysis with special attention to women's statements about what they believed the advertisements said about how the products related to human milk (superior, inferior, similar) and how they reported reacting to these interpretations. Participants reported that the advertisements conveyed an expectation of failure with breastfeeding, and that formula is a solution to fussiness, spitting up, and other normal infant behaviors. Participants reported that the advertisements were confusing in terms of how formula-feeding is superior, inferior or the same as breastfeeding. This confusion was exacerbated by an awareness of distribution by health care practitioners and institutions, suggesting provider endorsement of infant formula. Formula marketing appears to decrease mothers' confidence in their ability to breastfeed, especially when provided by health care practitioners and institutions. Therefore, to be supportive of breastfeeding, perinatal educators and practitioners could be more effective if they did not offer infant formula advertising to mothers. © 2013, Copyright the Authors, Journal compilation © 2013
Generalization of the Fermi-Segre formula
Froeman, N.; Froeman, P.O.
1981-01-01
A generalization of the non-relativistic Fermi-Segre formula into a formula which is valid also for angular momentum quantum numbers l different from zero, is derived by means of a phase-integral method. The formula thus obtained, which gives an expression for the limit of u(r)/rsup(l+1) as r→0, where u(r) is a normalized bound-state radial wavefunction, in terms of the derivative of the energy level Esub(n'), with respect to the radial quantum number n', is an improvement and generalization of a formula which has been obtained by M.A. Bouchiat and C. Bouchiat. It reduces to their formula for a particular class of potentials and highly excited states with not too large values of l, and it reduces to the Fermi-Segre formula when l=0. The accuracy of our formula, as well as that of the Bouchiat-Bouchiat formula, is investigated by application to an exactly soluble model. The formula obtained can also be written in another form by replacing dEsub(n')/dn' by an expression involving a closed-loop integral in the complex r-plane (around the generalized classical turning points), the integrand being a phase-integral quantity expressed in terms of the potential in which the particle moves. It is also shown that the exact value of the limit of u(r)/rsup(l+1) as r→0 can be expressed as an expectation value of a certain function depending on the physical potential V(r) and r a swell as on l and Esub(n')
27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17.133 Section 17.133 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage...
The Processing on Different Types of English Formulaic Sequences
Qian, Li
2015-01-01
Formulaic sequences are found to be processed faster than their matched novel phrases in previous studies. Given the variety of formulaic types, few studies have compared processing on different types of formulaic sequences. The present study explored the processing among idioms, speech formulae and written formulae. It has been found that in…
Determination of Formula for Vickers Hardness Measurements Uncertainty
Purba, Asli
2007-01-01
The purpose of formula determination is to obtain the formula of Vickers hardness measurements uncertainty. The approach to determine the formula: influenced parameters identification, creating a cause and effect diagram, determination of sensitivity, determination of standard uncertainty and determination of formula for Vickers hardness measurements uncertainty. The results is a formula for determination of Vickers hardness measurements uncertainty. (author)
Supertrace formulae for nonlinearly realized supersymmetry
Murli, Divyanshu; Yamada, Yusuke
2018-04-01
We derive the general supertrace formula for a system with N chiral superfields and one nilpotent chiral superfield in global and local supersymmetry. The nilpotent multiplet is realized by taking the scalar-decoupling limit of a chiral superfield breaking supersymmetry spontaneously. As we show, however, the modified formula is not simply related to the scalar-decoupling limit of the supertrace in linearly-realized supersymmetry. We also show that the supertrace formula reduces to that of a linearly realized supersymmetric theory with a decoupled sGoldstino if the Goldstino is the fermion in the nilpotent multiplet.
Radiosurgery and the double logistic product formula
Flickinger, J.C.; Steiner, L.
1990-01-01
The double logistic product formula is proposed as a method for predicting the probability of developing brain necrosis after high dose irradiation of small target volumes as used in stereotactic radiosurgery. Dose-response data observed for the production of localized radiation necreosis for treating intractable pain with the original Leksell gamma unit were used to choose the best fitting parameters for the double logistic product formula. This model can be used with either exponential or linear quadratic formulas to account for the effects of dose, fractionation and time in addition to volume. Dose-response predictions for stereotactic radiosurgery with different sized collimators are presented. (author). 41 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab
Fermionic formula for double Kostka polynomials
Liu, Shiyuan
2016-01-01
The $X=M$ conjecture asserts that the $1D$ sum and the fermionic formula coincide up to some constant power. In the case of type $A,$ both the $1D$ sum and the fermionic formula are closely related to Kostka polynomials. Double Kostka polynomials $K_{\\Bla,\\Bmu}(t),$ indexed by two double partitions $\\Bla,\\Bmu,$ are polynomials in $t$ introduced as a generalization of Kostka polynomials. In the present paper, we consider $K_{\\Bla,\\Bmu}(t)$ in the special case where $\\Bmu=(-,\\mu'').$ We formula...
Formation of Compact Ellipticals in the merging star cluster scenario
Urrutia Zapata, Fernanda Cecilia; Theory and star formation group
2018-01-01
In the last years, extended old stellar clusters have been observed. They are like globular clusters (GCs) but with larger sizes(a limit of Re=10 pc is currently seen as reasonable). These extended objects (EOs) cover a huge range of mass. Objects at the low mass end with masses comparable to normal globular clusters are called extended clusters or faint fuzzies Larsen & Brodie (2000) and objects at the high-mass end are called ultra compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs). Ultra compact dwarf galaxies are compact object with luminositys above the brigtest known GCs. UCDs are more compact than typical dwarf galaxies but with comparable luminosities. Usually, a lower mass limit of 2 × 10^6 Solar masses is applied.Fellhauer & Kroupa (2002a,b) demostrated that object like ECs, FFs and UCDs can be the remnants of the merger of star clusters complexes, this scenario is called the Merging Star Cluster Scenario. Amore concise study was performed by Bruens et al. (2009, 2011).Our work tries to explain the formation of compact elliptical(cE). These objects are a comparatively rare class of spheroidal galaxies, possessing very small Re and high central surface brightnesses (Faber 1973). cEs have the same parameters as extended objects but they are slightly larger than 100 pc and the luminosities are in the range of -11 to -12 Mag.The standard formation sceanrio of these systems proposes a galaxy origin. CEs are the result of tidal stripping and truncation of nucleated larger systems. Or they could be a natural extension of the class of elliptical galaxies to lower luminosities and smaller sizes.We want to propose a completely new formation scenario for cEs. In our project we try to model cEs in a similar way that UCDs using the merging star cluster scenario extended to much higher masses and sizes. We think that in the early Universe we might have produced sufficiently strong star bursts to form cluster complexes which merge into cEs. So far it is observationally unknown if cEs are
Sequence spaces [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] with application in clustering.
Khan, Mohd Shoaib; Alamri, Badriah As; Mursaleen, M; Lohani, Qm Danish
2017-01-01
Distance measures play a central role in evolving the clustering technique. Due to the rich mathematical background and natural implementation of [Formula: see text] distance measures, researchers were motivated to use them in almost every clustering process. Beside [Formula: see text] distance measures, there exist several distance measures. Sargent introduced a special type of distance measures [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] which is closely related to [Formula: see text]. In this paper, we generalized the Sargent sequence spaces through introduction of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] sequence spaces. Moreover, it is shown that both spaces are BK -spaces, and one is a dual of another. Further, we have clustered the two-moon dataset by using an induced [Formula: see text]-distance measure (induced by the Sargent sequence space [Formula: see text]) in the k-means clustering algorithm. The clustering result established the efficacy of replacing the Euclidean distance measure by the [Formula: see text]-distance measure in the k-means algorithm.
Huang, Tao; Zhong, Linda L D; Lin, Chen-Yuan; Zhao, Ling; Ning, Zi-Wan; Hu, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Man; Tian, Ke; Cheng, Chung-Wah; Bian, Zhao-Xiang
2018-01-01
Investigating the pharmacology is key to the modernization of Chinese Medicine (CM) formulas. However, identifying which are the active compound(s) of CM formulas, which biological entities they target, and through which signaling pathway(s) they act to modify disease symptoms, are still difficult tasks for researchers, even when equipped with an arsenal of advanced modern technologies. Multiple approaches, including network pharmacology, pharmaco-genomics, -proteomics, and -metabolomics, have been developed to study the pharmacology of CM formulas. They fall into two general categories in terms of how they tackle a problem: bottom-up and top-down. In this article, we compared these two different approaches in several dimensions by using the case of MaZiRenWan (MZRW, also known as Hemp Seed Pill), a CM herbal formula for functional constipation. Multiple hypotheses are easy to be proposed in the bottom-up approach (e.g. network pharmacology); but these hypotheses are usually false positives and hard to be tested. In contrast, it is hard to suggest hypotheses in the top-down approach (e.g. pharmacometabolomics); however, once a hypothesis is proposed, it is much easier to be tested. Merging of these two approaches could results in a powerful approach, which could be the new paradigm for the pharmacological study of CM formulas.
A New Euler's Formula for DNA Polyhedra
Hu, Guang; Qiu, Wen-Yuan; Ceulemans, Arnout
2011-01-01
DNA polyhedra are cage-like architectures based on interlocked and interlinked DNA strands. We propose a formula which unites the basic features of these entangled structures. It is based on the transformation of the DNA polyhedral links into Seifert surfaces, which removes all knots. The numbers of components , of crossings , and of Seifert circles are related by a simple and elegant formula: . This formula connects the topological aspects of the DNA cage to the Euler characteristic of the underlying polyhedron. It implies that Seifert circles can be used as effective topological indices to describe polyhedral links. Our study demonstrates that, the new Euler's formula provides a theoretical framework for the stereo-chemistry of DNA polyhedra, which can characterize enzymatic transformations of DNA and be used to characterize and design novel cages with higher genus. PMID:22022596
Newton Binomial Formulas in Schubert Calculus
Cordovez, Jorge; Gatto, Letterio; Santiago, Taise
2008-01-01
We prove Newton's binomial formulas for Schubert Calculus to determine numbers of base point free linear series on the projective line with prescribed ramification divisor supported at given distinct points.
The local index formula in noncommutative geometry
Higson, N.
2003-01-01
These notes present a partial account of the local index theorem in non-commutative geometry discovered by Alain Connes and Henri Moscovici. It includes Elliptic partial differential operators, cyclic homology theory, Chern characters, homotopy invariants and the index formulas
How to Save Money on Infant Formula
... for newsletters, special programs, and deals on formula company websites. They often send out coupons and free ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...
"Formula Student" / Malle Jürves
Jürves, Malle, 1950-
2008-01-01
Tehnikakõrgkooli ja tehnikaülikooli tudengite 17-liikmeline võiskond osales tänavu suvel Inglismaal Silverstone'i ringrajakompleksis peetaval tootearendusvõistlusel "Formula Student" omaehitatud vormelautoga
Parametric Improper Integrals, Wallis Formula and Catalan Numbers
Dana-Picard, Thierry; Zeitoun, David G.
2012-01-01
We present a sequence of improper integrals, for which a closed formula can be computed using Wallis formula and a non-straightforward recurrence formula. This yields a new integral presentation for Catalan numbers.
A general formula for the WACC
Farber, André; Gillet, Roland; Szafarz, Ariane
2005-01-01
Recent controversies testify that the tax shield valuation remains a hot topic in the financial literature. Basically, two methods have been proposed to incorporate the tax benefit of debt in the present value computation: The adjusted present value(APV), and the classical weighted average cost of capital (WACC). This note clarifies the relationship between these two apparently different approaches by offering a general formula for the WACC. This formula encompasses earlier results obtained b...
A Summation Formula for Macdonald Polynomials
de Gier, Jan; Wheeler, Michael
2016-03-01
We derive an explicit sum formula for symmetric Macdonald polynomials. Our expression contains multiple sums over the symmetric group and uses the action of Hecke generators on the ring of polynomials. In the special cases {t = 1} and {q = 0}, we recover known expressions for the monomial symmetric and Hall-Littlewood polynomials, respectively. Other specializations of our formula give new expressions for the Jack and q-Whittaker polynomials.
The DOZZ formula from the path integral
Kupiainen, Antti; Rhodes, Rémi; Vargas, Vincent
2018-05-01
We present a rigorous proof of the Dorn, Otto, Zamolodchikov, Zamolodchikov formula (the DOZZ formula) for the 3 point structure constants of Liouville Conformal Field Theory (LCFT) starting from a rigorous probabilistic construction of the functional integral defining LCFT given earlier by the authors and David. A crucial ingredient in our argument is a probabilistic derivation of the reflection relation in LCFT based on a refined tail analysis of Gaussian multiplicative chaos measures.
Qi, Xiaoxiao; Wu, Jun; Wang, Lifen; Li, Leiting; Cao, Yufen; Tian, Luming; Dong, Xingguang; Zhang, Shaoling
2013-10-23
'Kuerlexiangli' (Pyrus sinkiangensis Yu), a native pear of Xinjiang, China, is an important agricultural fruit and primary export to the international market. However, fruit with persistent calyxes affect fruit shape and quality. Although several studies have looked into the physiological aspects of the calyx abscission process, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In order to better understand the molecular basis of the process of calyx abscission, materials at three critical stages of regulation, with 6000 × Flusilazole plus 300 × PBO treatment (calyx abscising treatment) and 50 mg.L-1GA3 treatment (calyx persisting treatment), were collected and cDNA fragments were sequenced using digital transcript abundance measurements to identify candidate genes. Digital transcript abundance measurements was performed using high-throughput Illumina GAII sequencing on seven samples that were collected at three important stages of the calyx abscission process with chemical agent treatments promoting calyx abscission and persistence. Altogether more than 251,123,845 high quality reads were obtained with approximately 8.0 M raw data for each library. The values of 69.85%-71.90% of clean data in the digital transcript abundance measurements could be mapped to the pear genome database. There were 12,054 differentially expressed genes having Gene Ontology (GO) terms and associating with 251 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) defined pathways. The differentially expressed genes correlated with calyx abscission were mainly involved in photosynthesis, plant hormone signal transduction, cell wall modification, transcriptional regulation, and carbohydrate metabolism. Furthermore, candidate calyx abscission-specific genes, e.g. Inflorescence deficient in abscission gene, were identified. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to confirm the digital transcript abundance measurements results. We identified candidate genes that showed highly dynamic changes in
Electro-Fermentation - Merging Electrochemistry with Fermentation in Industrial Applications.
Schievano, Andrea; Pepé Sciarria, Tommy; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien; De Wever, Heleen; Puig, Sebastià; Andersen, Stephen J; Rabaey, Korneel; Pant, Deepak
2016-11-01
Electro-fermentation (EF) merges traditional industrial fermentation with electrochemistry. An imposed electrical field influences the fermentation environment and microbial metabolism in either a reductive or oxidative manner. The benefit of this approach is to produce target biochemicals with improved selectivity, increase carbon efficiency, limit the use of additives for redox balance or pH control, enhance microbial growth, or in some cases enhance product recovery. We discuss the principles of electrically driven fermentations and how EF can be used to steer both pure culture and microbiota-based fermentations. An overview is given on which advantages EF may bring to both existing and innovative industrial fermentation processes, and which doors might be opened in waste biomass utilization towards added-value biorefineries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
SAR Imagery Segmentation by Statistical Region Growing and Hierarchical Merging
Ushizima, Daniela Mayumi; Carvalho, E.A.; Medeiros, F.N.S.; Martins, C.I.O.; Marques, R.C.P.; Oliveira, I.N.S.
2010-05-22
This paper presents an approach to accomplish synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image segmentation, which are corrupted by speckle noise. Some ordinary segmentation techniques may require speckle filtering previously. Our approach performs radar image segmentation using the original noisy pixels as input data, eliminating preprocessing steps, an advantage over most of the current methods. The algorithm comprises a statistical region growing procedure combined with hierarchical region merging to extract regions of interest from SAR images. The region growing step over-segments the input image to enable region aggregation by employing a combination of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test with a hierarchical stepwise optimization (HSWO) algorithm for the process coordination. We have tested and assessed the proposed technique on artificially speckled image and real SAR data containing different types of targets.
THE ELM SURVEY. V. MERGING MASSIVE WHITE DWARF BINARIES
Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, Scott J.; Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, A.; Allende Prieto, Carlos
2013-01-01
We present the discovery of 17 low-mass white dwarfs (WDs) in short-period (P ≤ 1 day) binaries. Our sample includes four objects with remarkable log g ≅ 5 surface gravities and orbital solutions that require them to be double degenerate binaries. All of the lowest surface gravity WDs have metal lines in their spectra implying long gravitational settling times or ongoing accretion. Notably, six of the WDs in our sample have binary merger times 0.9 M ☉ companions. If the companions are massive WDs, these four binaries will evolve into stable mass transfer AM CVn systems and possibly explode as underluminous supernovae. If the companions are neutron stars, then these may be millisecond pulsar binaries. These discoveries increase the number of detached, double degenerate binaries in the ELM Survey to 54; 31 of these binaries will merge within a Hubble time.
The merging of Suez and 'Gaz de France'
Anon.
2008-01-01
The merging of 'Gaz de France' and Suez has been approved by the shareholders on the 16 july 2008, and the decree for the privatization of 'Gaz de France' has been published to the 'Journal Officiel'. The French state will hold 35.6% of the capital of the new group GDF-Suez. The board of directors will be composed of 24 members: 7 officials from the state, 1 representative of the share-holding staff, 3 representatives of the elected employees and 13 members named by the general assembly of the shareholders. This group, which is officially born on the 22. of july 2008, is the fourth bigger group worldwide in the domain of energy. (A.C.)
Merging Cultural Heritage Assessments with Risk Reduction and Disaster Recovery
Bojsen, Ann Kristina Mikkelsen
heritage. These limitations serve as motivation for the introduction of the ACTOR framework (Assessing Cultural Threats, Obstacles and Resilience) ACTOR aims at merging cultural heritage assessments with risk reduction and disaster recovery, and provide disaster management students with a learning......Abstract There is a general professional consensus that vulnerability and risk assessments are crucial tasks in any serious attempt to substantially reduce disaster losses and enhance the reconciliation or recovery in the post event phase. However, cultural heritage is often considered...... as an overarching element that should be assessed, rather than a permanent key component of the assessments. Research in disaster management noticeably illustrates how cultural heritage is increasingly at risk from disasters caused by natural and human-made hazards, as well as the effects of climate change. Still...
Merging WW and WW+jet with MINLO
Hamilton, Keith; Monni, Pier Francesco; Re, Emanuele; Zanderighi, Giulia
2016-09-12
We present a simulation program for the production of a pair of W bosons in association with a jet, that can be used in conjunction with general-purpose shower Monte Carlo generators, according to the POWHEG method. We have further adapted and implemented the MINLO' method on top of the NLO calculation underlying our WW+jet generator. Thus, the resulting simulation achieves NLO accuracy not only for inclusive distributions in WW+jet production but also WW production, i.e. when the associated jet is not resolved, without the introduction of any unphysical merging scale. This work represents the first extension of the MINLO' method, in its original form, to the case of a genuine underlying 2->2 process, with non-trivial virtual corrections.
Merging and Splitting of Plasma Spheroids in a Dusty Plasma
Mikikian, Maxime; Tawidian, Hagop; Lecas, Thomas
2012-12-01
Dust particle growth in a plasma is a strongly disturbing phenomenon for the plasma equilibrium. It can induce many different types of low-frequency instabilities that can be experimentally observed, especially using high-speed imaging. A spectacular case has been observed in a krypton plasma where a huge density of dust particles is grown by material sputtering. The instability consists of well-defined regions of enhanced optical emission that emerge from the electrode vicinity and propagate towards the discharge center. These plasma spheroids have complex motions resulting from their mutual interaction that can also lead to the merging of two plasma spheroids into a single one. The reverse situation is also observed with the splitting of a plasma spheroid into two parts. These results are presented for the first time and reveal new behaviors in dusty plasmas.
Cleveland, Toledo utilities merge to aid N-projects
Utroska, D.
1985-01-01
A decision by the Cleveland Electric Illuminating Co. and Toledo Edison to merge was spurred by the need to strengthen their access to capital markets in order to complete several nuclear power plants now under construction and to possibly mitigate the impact of large rate increases on Ohio ratepayers. The two utilities will continue as local companies. If they obtain approval from the Securities and Exchange, the Ohio Public Utilities, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commissions for the $8 million affiliation, the new holding company will be among the 20 largest electric utilities in terms of the market value of its common stock. Some industry observers see this as a harbinger of more utility mergers. 1 figure
Drivers׳ merging behavior data in highway work zones
Mahmoud Shakouri
2016-03-01
Full Text Available There have been growing research interests in finding a suitable work zone layout to improve work zone safety and traffic efficiency. This paper contains data supporting the research article entitled: Effects of work zone configurations and traffic density on performance variables and subjective workload (Shakouri et al., 2014 [1]. A full factorial experiment was conducted to compare the efficiency of two work zone configurations by using a driving simulator with two levels of work zone configuration, two levels of traffic density and three levels of sign placement as fixed factors. Seven female and 23 male participants completed the experiment. In this paper we present the data relating to demographic information of participants, driving simulator data and subjective workload evaluation of participants for each work zone. Keywords: Work zone, Merging behavior, Subjective workload, Safety
THE ELM SURVEY. V. MERGING MASSIVE WHITE DWARF BINARIES
Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, Scott J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, A. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK, 73019 (United States); Allende Prieto, Carlos, E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: kilic@ou.edu, E-mail: alexg@nhn.ou.edu, E-mail: callende@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)
2013-05-20
We present the discovery of 17 low-mass white dwarfs (WDs) in short-period (P {<=} 1 day) binaries. Our sample includes four objects with remarkable log g {approx_equal} 5 surface gravities and orbital solutions that require them to be double degenerate binaries. All of the lowest surface gravity WDs have metal lines in their spectra implying long gravitational settling times or ongoing accretion. Notably, six of the WDs in our sample have binary merger times <10 Gyr. Four have {approx}>0.9 M{sub Sun} companions. If the companions are massive WDs, these four binaries will evolve into stable mass transfer AM CVn systems and possibly explode as underluminous supernovae. If the companions are neutron stars, then these may be millisecond pulsar binaries. These discoveries increase the number of detached, double degenerate binaries in the ELM Survey to 54; 31 of these binaries will merge within a Hubble time.
Cosmic Collisions The Hubble Atlas of Merging Galaxies
Christensen, Lars Lindberg; Martin, Davide
2009-01-01
Lars Lindberg Christensen, Raquel Yumi Shida & Davide De Martin Cosmic Collisions: The Hubble Atlas of Merging Galaxies Like majestic ships in the grandest night, galaxies can slip ever closer until their mutual gravitational interaction begins to mold them into intricate figures that are finally, and irreversibly, woven together. It is an immense cosmic dance, choreographed by gravity. Cosmic Collisions contains a hundred new, many thus far unpublished, images of colliding galaxies from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. It is believed that many present-day galaxies, including the Milky Way, were assembled from such a coalescence of smaller galaxies, occurring over billions of years. Triggered by the colossal and violent interaction between the galaxies, stars form from large clouds of gas in firework bursts, creating brilliant blue star clusters. The importance of these cosmic encounters reaches far beyond the stunning Hubble images. They may, in fact, be among the most important processes that shape ...
Is it feasible to merge data from national shoulder registries?
Rasmussen, Jeppe V; Brorson, Stig; Hallan, Geir
2016-01-01
Background The Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association was initiated in 2007, and several papers about hip and knee arthroplasty have been published. Inspired by this, we aimed to examine the feasibility of merging data from the Nordic national shoulder arthroplasty registries by defining a common...... as a set of variables containing only data that all registries could deliver and where consensus according to definition of the variables could be made. Results We agreed on a data set containing patient-related data (age, gender, and diagnosis), operative data (date, arthroplasty type and brand), and data...... in case of revision (date, reason for revision, and new arthroplasty brand). From 2004 to 2013, there were 19,857 primary arthroplasties reported. The most common indications were osteoarthritis (35%) and acute fracture (34%). The number of arthroplasties and especially the number of arthroplasties...
Interlayer magnetoresistance in multilayer Dirac electron systems: motion and merging of Dirac cones
Assili, Mohamed; Haddad, Sonia
2013-01-01
We theoretically study the effect of the motion and the merging of Dirac cone on the interlayer magnetoresistance in multilayer graphene like systems. This merging, which could be induced by a uniaxial strain, gives rise in monolayer Dirac electron system to a topological transition from a semi-metallic phase to an insulating phase where Dirac points disappear. Based on a universal Hamiltonian proposed to describe the motion and the merging of Dirac points in two dimensional Dirac electron cr...
Connected formulas for amplitudes in standard model
He, Song [CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China); School of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,No. 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Yong [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University,Beijing 100875 (China); CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China)
2017-03-17
Witten’s twistor string theory has led to new representations of S-matrix in massless QFT as a single object, including Cachazo-He-Yuan formulas in general and connected formulas in four dimensions. As a first step towards more realistic processes of the standard model, we extend the construction to QCD tree amplitudes with massless quarks and those with a Higgs boson. For both cases, we find connected formulas in four dimensions for all multiplicities which are very similar to the one for Yang-Mills amplitudes. The formula for quark-gluon color-ordered amplitudes differs from the pure-gluon case only by a Jacobian factor that depends on flavors and orderings of the quarks. In the formula for Higgs plus multi-parton amplitudes, the massive Higgs boson is effectively described by two additional massless legs which do not appear in the Parke-Taylor factor. The latter also represents the first twistor-string/connected formula for form factors.
Supplementation of prebiotics in infant formula
Močić Pavić A
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Ana Močić Pavić, Iva Hojsak Referral Center for Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Children's Hospital Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia Background: In recent years prebiotics have been added to infant formula to make it resemble breast milk more closely and to promote growth and development of beneficial intestinal microbiota. This review aims to present new data on the possible positive effects of prebiotics in infant formula on intestinal microbiota (bifidogenic and lactogenic effect and on clinical outcomes including growth, infections, and allergies. With that aim, a literature search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, EMBASE, Scopus, PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, and Science Direct in the last 10 years (December 2003 to December 2013 was performed. Results: Altogether 24 relevant studies were identified. It was found that during intervention, prebiotics can elicit a bifidogenic and lactogenic effect. As far as clinical outcomes were concerned, 14 studies investigated the effect of infant formula supplemented with prebiotics on growth and found that there was no difference when compared with non-supplemented infant formula. All available data are insufficient to support prebiotic supplementation in order to reduce risk of allergies and infections. Conclusion: There is currently no strong evidence to recommend routine supplementation of infant formulas with prebiotics. Further well-designed clinical studies with long-term follow-up are needed. Keywords: prebiotics, infant formula, growth, allergy, infections, supplementation
Merging of long-term memories in an insect.
Hunt, Kathryn L; Chittka, Lars
2015-03-16
Research on comparative cognition has largely focused on successes and failures of animals to solve certain cognitive tasks, but in humans, memory errors can be more complex than simple failures to retrieve information [1, 2]. The existence of various types of "false memories," in which individuals remember events that they have never actually encountered, are now well established in humans [3, 4]. We hypothesize that such systematic memory errors may be widespread in animals whose natural lifestyle involves the processing and recollection of memories for multiple stimuli [5]. We predict that memory traces for various stimuli may "merge," such that features acquired in distinct bouts of training are combined in an animal's mind, so that stimuli that have never been viewed before, but are a combination of the features presented in training, may be chosen during recall. We tested this using bumblebees, Bombus terrestris. When individuals were first trained to a solid single-colored stimulus followed by a black and white (b/w)-patterned stimulus, a subsequent preference for the last entrained stimulus was found in both short-term- and long-term-memory tests. However, when bees were first trained to b/w-patterned stimuli followed by solid single-colored stimuli and were tested in long-term-memory tests 1 or 3 days later, they only initially preferred the most recently rewarded stimulus, and then switched their preference to stimuli that combined features from the previous color and pattern stimuli. The observed merging of long-term memories is thus similar to the memory conjunction error found in humans [6]. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ion-electron recombination in merged-beams experiments
Schmidt, H.T.
1994-01-01
In the present thesis, studies of recombination processes applying the technique of merged beams of fast ions and electrons are described. The main advantage of this technique is that the low relative velocity of ions and electrons necessary for these investigations can be achieved, at the same time as the velocity of the ions relative to the molecules of the residual gas is high. The high ion velocity leads to a very low reaction cross section for the leading contribution to the background signal, the capture of electrons in collisions with residual gas molecules. The experimental technique is described, emphasizing the electron beam velocity distribution and its relation to the energy resolution of the experiments. The presentation of the process of electron cooling is aimed at introducing this process as a tool for merged-beams experiments in storage rings rather than investigating the process itself. The non-resonant process of radiative recombination for non-fully stripped ions, showing evidence of incomplete screening is presented. Experimental investigation of dielectronic recombination is presented. Results of measurements of this process for He-like ions form the Aarhus single-pass experiment and the Heidelberg storage ring experiment are compared. Recombination is reduced from being the aim of the investigation to being a tool for high-precision measurements of the lifetimes of the 1s2s 3 S metastable states of HE-like ions of boron, carbon, and nitrogen, performed at the Heidelberg storage ring. The experiment is concerned with the process of dissociative recombination of molecular hydrogen ions. The discussion of this experiment emphasizes the distribution of population on the different vibrational levels of the ions in the initial state. In particular, a laser photo-dissociation technique was introduced to reduce the number of initial levels in the experiment. (EG) 24 refs
Sparse Reconstruction of the Merging A520 Cluster System
Peel, Austin [Département d’Astrophysique, IRFU, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lanusse, François [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Starck, Jean-Luc, E-mail: austin.peel@cea.fr [Université Paris Diderot, AIM, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CEA, CNRS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
2017-09-20
Merging galaxy clusters present a unique opportunity to study the properties of dark matter in an astrophysical context. These are rare and extreme cosmic events in which the bulk of the baryonic matter becomes displaced from the dark matter halos of the colliding subclusters. Since all mass bends light, weak gravitational lensing is a primary tool to study the total mass distribution in such systems. Combined with X-ray and optical analyses, mass maps of cluster mergers reconstructed from weak-lensing observations have been used to constrain the self-interaction cross-section of dark matter. The dynamically complex Abell 520 (A520) cluster is an exceptional case, even among merging systems: multi-wavelength observations have revealed a surprising high mass-to-light concentration of dark mass, the interpretation of which is difficult under the standard assumption of effectively collisionless dark matter. We revisit A520 using a new sparsity-based mass-mapping algorithm to independently assess the presence of the puzzling dark core. We obtain high-resolution mass reconstructions from two separate galaxy shape catalogs derived from Hubble Space Telescope observations of the system. Our mass maps agree well overall with the results of previous studies, but we find important differences. In particular, although we are able to identify the dark core at a certain level in both data sets, it is at much lower significance than has been reported before using the same data. As we cannot confirm the detection in our analysis, we do not consider A520 as posing a significant challenge to the collisionless dark matter scenario.
FPGA-based RF spectrum merging and adaptive hopset selection
McLean, R. K.; Flatley, B. N.; Silvius, M. D.; Hopkinson, K. M.
The radio frequency (RF) spectrum is a limited resource. Spectrum allotment disputes stem from this scarcity as many radio devices are confined to a fixed frequency or frequency sequence. One alternative is to incorporate cognition within a reconfigurable radio platform, therefore enabling the radio to adapt to dynamic RF spectrum environments. In this way, the radio is able to actively sense the RF spectrum, decide, and act accordingly, thereby sharing the spectrum and operating in more flexible manner. In this paper, we present a novel solution for merging many distributed RF spectrum maps into one map and for subsequently creating an adaptive hopset. We also provide an example of our system in operation, the result of which is a pseudorandom adaptive hopset. The paper then presents a novel hardware design for the frequency merger and adaptive hopset selector, both of which are written in VHDL and implemented as a custom IP core on an FPGA-based embedded system using the Xilinx Embedded Development Kit (EDK) software tool. The design of the custom IP core is optimized for area, and it can process a high-volume digital input via a low-latency circuit architecture. The complete embedded system includes the Xilinx PowerPC microprocessor, UART serial connection, and compact flash memory card IP cores, and our custom map merging/hopset selection IP core, all of which are targeted to the Virtex IV FPGA. This system is then incorporated into a cognitive radio prototype on a Rice University Wireless Open Access Research Platform (WARP) reconfigurable radio.
Abd-Elhameed, W. M.
2017-07-01
In this paper, a new formula relating Jacobi polynomials of arbitrary parameters with the squares of certain fractional Jacobi functions is derived. The derived formula is expressed in terms of a certain terminating hypergeometric function of the type _4F3(1) . With the aid of some standard reduction formulae such as Pfaff-Saalschütz's and Watson's identities, the derived formula can be reduced in simple forms which are free of any hypergeometric functions for certain choices of the involved parameters of the Jacobi polynomials and the Jacobi functions. Some other simplified formulae are obtained via employing some computer algebra algorithms such as the algorithms of Zeilberger, Petkovsek and van Hoeij. Some connection formulae between some Jacobi polynomials are deduced. From these connection formulae, some other linearization formulae of Chebyshev polynomials are obtained. As an application to some of the introduced formulae, a numerical algorithm for solving nonlinear Riccati differential equation is presented and implemented by applying a suitable spectral method.
Formula Dan Ekspresi Formulaik: Aspek Kelisanan Mantra Dalam Pertunjukan Reog
Heru S.P Saputra
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Artikel ini bertujuan mendiskusikan aspek kelisanan mantra yang digunakan dalam pertunjukan reog. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahwa dalam seni tradisi reog, mantra merupakan media verbal yang digunakan oleh pembarong untuk mendatangkan kekuatan magis dalam rangkaian tari dhadhak merak. Mantra-mantra di antaranya Mantra Prosesi Drojogan dan Mantra Pangracutan dalam konteks pertunjukan reog merupakan wujud aspek kelisanan. Mantra-mantra tersebut tersusun atas formula-formula, yakni formula repetisi tautotes, formula paralelisme sintaktis, formula konkatenasi, formula repetisi anafora, dan formula repetisi epifora. Dengan beragam formula tersebut, mantra memiliki perulangan yang berpola dan men- jadi terasa ritmis sehingga menunjukkan ekspresi formulaik. Formula dan ekspresi formulaik tersebut merupakan aspek kelisanan utama yang mencerminkan sakralitas dan spiritualitas da- lam seni tradisi reog. Abstract: This article aims to discuss aspects of spells (magic-formula orality used in the reog show. The study shows that in the reog tradition art, the spells is a verbal medium used by pembarong to bring in a series of magical power dhadhak merak dance. Spells among others, Prosesi Drojogan and Pangracutan spells in the context of the show is a form of reog orality aspects. Spells are made up of formulas, i.e. tautotes repetition formula, syntactic parallelism formula, concatenate formula, anaphora repetition formula, and epifora repetition formula. With a variety of formulas, the repetition of the spells has become patterned and rhythmic feel, thereby indicating formulaic expression. The formulas and formulaic expressions are the main orality aspects that reflect sacredness and spirituality in reog traditions art. Key Words: spells or magic-formula, formulas, sacredness, spirituality, tradition art
Semi-empirical formulas for sputtering yield
Yamamura, Yasumichi
1994-01-01
When charged particles, electrons, light and so on are irradiated on solid surfaces, the materials are lost from the surfaces, and this phenomenon is called sputtering. In order to understand sputtering phenomenon, the bond energy of atoms on surfaces, the energy given to the vicinity of surfaces and the process of converting the given energy to the energy for releasing atoms must be known. The theories of sputtering and the semi-empirical formulas for evaluating the dependence of sputtering yield on incident energy are explained. The mechanisms of sputtering are that due to collision cascade in the case of heavy ion incidence and that due to surface atom recoil in the case of light ion incidence. The formulas for the sputtering yield of low energy heavy ion sputtering, high energy light ion sputtering and the general case between these extreme cases, and the Matsunami formula are shown. At the stage of the publication of Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables in 1984, the data up to 1983 were collected, and about 30 papers published thereafter were added. The experimental data for low Z materials, for example Be, B and C and light ion sputtering data were reported. The combination of ions and target atoms in the collected sputtering data is shown. The new semi-empirical formula by slightly adjusting the Matsunami formula was decided. (K.I.)
Weak interactions - formulae, results, and derivations
Pietschmann, H
1983-01-01
The purpose of this book is to provide experimental and theoretical physicists working in the field of weak interactions with a reference work which includes all the formulae and results needed in actual research. The derivation of these formulae is also given in detail for some typical examples to facilitate their use. New developments in unified gauge theories have been included as well as the decay processes of the new particles such as intermediate bosons and tau-lepton. In order to supply the research worker with a convenient working aid, frequently occurring mathematical formulae as well as phase space integrals and the Dirac algebra have been included. Treatment of field operators - also with respect to discrete transformations C, P, T and G - as well as products of invariant functions are provided. Particular emphasis has been placed on the Lagrangian of unified electroweak interactions. The major portion of the work is, of course, devoted to formulae for decay processes and scattering cross-sections. Useful formulae in e/sup +/e/sup -/ reactions and a small dictionary for translations into other forms for the space-time metric are collected in appendices.
Infant formula and early childhood caries
Saudamini Girish More
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC is increasing worldwide. Impaired oral health could have a negative impact on the overall health of infants. ECC can continue to deteriorate the growth and development of the child in preschool stage. Feeding practices largely influence the occurrence of ECC. Infant formula is commonly used as supplements or substitutes for breast milk up to the first 2 years of age. The dietary sugars such as lactose and sucrose, present in the infant formula, could act as a favorable substrate and change the oral microflora. Infant formula constitutes of various minerals which are known to affect tooth mineralization including iron, fluoride, and calcium. A number of in vitro, animal, and human studies have been conducted to understand their effect on oral environment and microbiota. Exploring the scientific literature for different types of infant formula and their role in the etiopathogenesis of dental caries could give us an insight into the cariogenic potential of infant formula. Furthermore, this could be source of information for health practitioners as they are the ones who are first sought by parents for advice related to infant feeding.
Modelling of lane-changing behaviour integrating with merging effect before a city road bottleneck
Lv, Wei; Song, Wei-guo; Fang, Zhi-ming; Ma, Jian
2013-10-01
Merging behaviour is a compulsive action in a discretionary lane-changing traffic system, especially in a system with a bottleneck. This paper aims to investigate the generic lane-changing behaviour considering the merging effect before a city road bottleneck. Thus firstly the merging behaviour is distinguished from other generic lane-changing behaviour. Combining discretionary lane-changing and compulsive merging, we developed an integrative traffic model, in which a method to calculate the lane-changing probability and the merging probability was proposed. A simulation scenario derived from real life was conducted to validate the proposed programming algorithm. Finally, a discussion on the simulation findings shows that the merging influence can be expanded and the merging behaviour can increase the probability of local traffic jamming in its affected area of the adjacent lane. The distribution of the merging distance provides fundamental insights for actual traffic management. The result of the clearance time implies the position of the incident point has a significant effect on the clearing time and it is important to ensure the end (exit) of the road is unimpeded in traffic evacuation.
Structure-preservingness, internal merge, and the strict locality of triads
Koster, J.; Karimi, S.; Samiian, V.; Wilkins, W.
2007-01-01
This paper examines Emonds’ Structure Preserving Hypothesis, and suggests that the insight behind this hypothesis survives reformulation in terms of recent minimalist theory: each structure created by internal merge can also, independently, be created by external merge. As before, this makes
Enhanced automation of ECCS at Temelin: the merging of Eastern and Western philosophies
Burnett, T.; Sykora, M.
1997-01-01
After years of separate development, the Eastern and Western concept of safety is now being merged. A significant issue in this process is the philosophy of automation versus operator action for control of safety systems. The paper discusses some aspects of this issue and presents enhancements made at Temelin which merge the Eastern and Western philosophies. (author)
Move! Eat better: try the FIT formula
CERN Medical Service
2013-01-01
In the physics world, some formulas lead to a Nobel prize. In the world of health and physical activity, the Medical Service also has a winning formula... FIT (physical activity) = Frequency x Intensity x Time Frequency = more than 3 times per week. Intensity = physical activity which slightly increases your heart rate and breathing rate. Time = more than 30 minutes (per session). As part of our Move! Eat better campaign, the Medical Service is still offering the use of a pedometer (available on loan from the infirmary), which is a really useful tool to help you reach the winning FIT formula. Interested in borrowing a CERN pedometer? Click here!
Mass formula for quasi-black holes
Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.
2008-01-01
A quasi-black hole, either nonextremal or extremal, can be broadly defined as the limiting configuration of a body when its boundary approaches the body's quasihorizon. We consider the mass contributions and the mass formula for a static quasi-black hole. The analysis involves careful scrutiny of the surface stresses when the limiting configuration is reached. It is shown that there exists a strict correspondence between the mass formulas for quasi-black holes and pure black holes. This perfect parallelism exists in spite of the difference in derivation and meaning of the formulas in both cases. For extremal quasi-black holes the finite surface stresses give zero contribution to the total mass. This leads to a very special version of Abraham-Lorentz electron in general relativity in which the total mass has pure electromagnetic origin in spite of the presence of bare stresses.
From Pauli Matrices to Quantum Ito Formula
Pautrat, Yan
2005-01-01
This paper answers important questions raised by the recent description, by Attal, of a robust and explicit method to approximate basic objects of quantum stochastic calculus on bosonic Fock space by analogues on the state space of quantum spin chains. The existence of that method justifies a detailed investigation of discrete-time quantum stochastic calculus. Here we fully define and study that theory and obtain in particular a discrete-time quantum Ito formula, which one can see as summarizing the commutation relations of Pauli matrices.An apparent flaw in that approximation method is the difference in the quantum Ito formulas, discrete and continuous, which suggests that the discrete quantum stochastic calculus differs fundamentally from the continuous one and is therefore not a suitable object to approximate subtle phenomena. We show that flaw is only apparent by proving that the continuous-time quantum Ito formula is actually a consequence of its discrete-time counterpart
Sum formulas for reductive algebraic groups
Andersen, Henning Haahr; Kulkarni, Upendra
2008-01-01
\\supset V^1 \\cdots \\supset V^r = 0$. The sum of the positive terms in this filtration satisfies a well known sum formula. If $T$ denotes a tilting module either for $G$ or $U_q$ then we can similarly filter the space $\\Hom_G(V,T)$, respectively $\\Hom_{U_q}(V,T)$ and there is a sum formula for the positive...... terms here as well. We give an easy and unified proof of these two (equivalent) sum formulas. Our approach is based on an Euler type identity which we show holds without any restrictions on $p$ or $l$. In particular, we get rid of previous such restrictions in the tilting module case....
Liebl, Johannes; Siebenpfeiffer, Wolfgang (eds.)
2011-11-15
Within the International Design Competition 2011 at the Hockenheimring (Federal Republic of Germany) the following contributions were presented: (1) Formula Student Germany - Experience the Future (Tim Hannig); (2) Live at the Hockenheimring 2011; (3) Cutaway Model of the FSC Winning Car - The GFR11c by the Global Formula Racing Team of the DHBW Ravensburg; (4) Formula Student Racecar with Selective Cylinder Deactivation (Alexander Titz); (5) Construction of a crankshaft for the RS11 (Stefan Buhl); (6) The Wheel Design of the ARG 11 (Megan Rotondo); (7) Cutaway Model of the FSE Winning Car - The DUT11 by the DUT Racing Team of the Delft University of Technology; (8) Formula Student Electric - E-Scrutineering (Ann-Christin Bartoelke); (9) Development of an E-motor for Formular Student Electric (Urs Leuthold); (10) The Battery Management System of the FHWT04e (Andreas Hagemeyer); (11) Overall Results 2011 at a Glance; (12) Show your Colours; (13) Formula Student Germany visiting China (Alia Pierce).
Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on some compost formulas and ...
Three compost formulas (formula I, formula II, and formula III) based waste tea leaves and using some activator materials such as wheat bran, chicken manure and pigeon manure were studied for Agaricus bisporus cultivation. Some locally available peats such as peat of Bolu, peat of Agacbasi, peat of Caykara and theirs ...
Accurate formulas for the penalty caused by interferometric crosstalk
Rasmussen, Christian Jørgen; Liu, Fenghai; Jeppesen, Palle
2000-01-01
New simple formulas for the penalty caused by interferometric crosstalk in PIN receiver systems and optically preamplified receiver systems are presented. They are more accurate than existing formulas.......New simple formulas for the penalty caused by interferometric crosstalk in PIN receiver systems and optically preamplified receiver systems are presented. They are more accurate than existing formulas....
The rational formula from the runhydrograph | Parak | Water SA
catchments. However, as a result of the criticisms, the formula carries with it many cautions. One such caution regards the determination of the formula\\'s runoff coefficient c, which is seen as the main difficulty in the design application of the formula. Mindful of this, it was decided to investigate the calibration of this coefficient, ...
Virtual microscopy: merging of computer mediated communication and intuitive interfacing
de Ridder, Huib; de Ridder-Sluiter, Johanna G.; Kluin, Philip M.; Christiaans, Henri H. C. M.
2009-02-01
Ubiquitous computing (or Ambient Intelligence) is an upcoming technology that is usually associated with futuristic smart environments in which information is available anytime anywhere and with which humans can interact in a natural, multimodal way. However spectacular the corresponding scenarios may be, it is equally challenging to consider how this technology may enhance existing situations. This is illustrated by a case study from the Dutch medical field: central quality reviewing for pathology in child oncology. The main goal of the review is to assess the quality of the diagnosis based on patient material. The sharing of knowledge in social face-to-face interaction during such meeting is an important advantage. At the same time there is the disadvantage that the experts from the seven Dutch academic medical centers have to travel to the review meeting and that the required logistics to collect and bring patient material and data to the meeting is cumbersome and time-consuming. This paper focuses on how this time-consuming, nonefficient way of reviewing can be replaced by a virtual collaboration system by merging technology supporting Computer Mediated Collaboration and intuitive interfacing. This requires insight in the preferred way of communication and collaboration as well as knowledge about preferred interaction style with a virtual shared workspace.
The Benefits of Merging Leadership Research and Emotions Research
Humphrey, Ronald H.; Burch, Gerald F.; Adams, Laural L.
2016-01-01
A closer merging of the literature on emotions with the research on leadership may prove advantageous to both fields. Leadership researchers will benefit by incorporating the research on emotional labor, emotional regulation, and happiness. Emotions researchers will be able to more fully consider how leadership demands influence emotional processes. In particular, researchers can better understand how the workplace context and leadership demands influence affective events. The leadership literature on charisma, transformational leadership, leader-member exchange, and other theories have the potential to shed light on how rhetorical techniques and other leadership techniques influence emotional labor, emotional contagion, moods, and overall morale. Conversely, the literature on emotional labor and emotional contagion stands to provide insights into what makes leaders charismatic, transformational, or capable of developing high quality leader–follower relationships. This review examines emotions and leadership at five levels: within person, between persons, interpersonal, groups and teams, and organizational wide and integrates research on emotions, emotional contagion, and leadership to identify opportunities for future research for both emotions researchers and leadership researchers. PMID:27458415
Star Formation of Merging Disk Galaxies with AGN Feedback Effects
Park, Jongwon; Smith, Rory; Yi, Sukyoung K., E-mail: jw.park@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy and Yonsei University Observatory, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of)
2017-08-20
Using a numerical hydrodynamics code, we perform various idealized galaxy merger simulations to study the star formation (SF) of two merging disk galaxies. Our simulations include gas accretion onto supermassive black holes and active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback. By comparing AGN simulations with those without AGNs, we attempt to understand when the AGN feedback effect is significant. Using ∼70 simulations, we investigate SF with the AGN effect in mergers with a variety of mass ratios, inclinations, orbits, galaxy structures, and morphologies. Using these merger simulations with AGN feedback, we measure merger-driven SF using the burst efficiency parameter introduced by Cox et al. We confirm previous studies which demonstrated that, in galaxy mergers, AGN suppresses SF more efficiently than in isolated galaxies. However, we also find that the effect of AGNs on SF is larger in major than in minor mergers. In minor merger simulations with different primary bulge-to-total ratios, the effect of bulge fraction on the merger-driven SF decreases due to AGN feedback. We create models of Sa-, Sb-, and Sc-type galaxies and compare their SF properties while undergoing mergers. With the current AGN prescriptions, the difference in merger-driven SF is not as pronounced as in the recent observational study of Kaviraj. We discuss the implications of this discrepancy.
Star Formation of Merging Disk Galaxies with AGN Feedback Effects
Park, Jongwon; Smith, Rory; Yi, Sukyoung K.
2017-01-01
Using a numerical hydrodynamics code, we perform various idealized galaxy merger simulations to study the star formation (SF) of two merging disk galaxies. Our simulations include gas accretion onto supermassive black holes and active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback. By comparing AGN simulations with those without AGNs, we attempt to understand when the AGN feedback effect is significant. Using ∼70 simulations, we investigate SF with the AGN effect in mergers with a variety of mass ratios, inclinations, orbits, galaxy structures, and morphologies. Using these merger simulations with AGN feedback, we measure merger-driven SF using the burst efficiency parameter introduced by Cox et al. We confirm previous studies which demonstrated that, in galaxy mergers, AGN suppresses SF more efficiently than in isolated galaxies. However, we also find that the effect of AGNs on SF is larger in major than in minor mergers. In minor merger simulations with different primary bulge-to-total ratios, the effect of bulge fraction on the merger-driven SF decreases due to AGN feedback. We create models of Sa-, Sb-, and Sc-type galaxies and compare their SF properties while undergoing mergers. With the current AGN prescriptions, the difference in merger-driven SF is not as pronounced as in the recent observational study of Kaviraj. We discuss the implications of this discrepancy.
Towards Merging Binary Integer Programming Techniques with Genetic Algorithms
Reza Zamani
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a framework based on merging a binary integer programming technique with a genetic algorithm. The framework uses both lower and upper bounds to make the employed mathematical formulation of a problem as tight as possible. For problems whose optimal solutions cannot be obtained, precision is traded with speed through substituting the integrality constrains in a binary integer program with a penalty. In this way, instead of constraining a variable u with binary restriction, u is considered as real number between 0 and 1, with the penalty of Mu(1-u, in which M is a large number. Values not near to the boundary extremes of 0 and 1 make the component of Mu(1-u large and are expected to be avoided implicitly. The nonbinary values are then converted to priorities, and a genetic algorithm can use these priorities to fill its initial pool for producing feasible solutions. The presented framework can be applied to many combinatorial optimization problems. Here, a procedure based on this framework has been applied to a scheduling problem, and the results of computational experiments have been discussed, emphasizing the knowledge generated and inefficiencies to be circumvented with this framework in future.
The Benefits of Merging Leadership Research and Emotions Research.
Humphrey, Ronald H; Burch, Gerald F; Adams, Laural L
2016-01-01
A closer merging of the literature on emotions with the research on leadership may prove advantageous to both fields. Leadership researchers will benefit by incorporating the research on emotional labor, emotional regulation, and happiness. Emotions researchers will be able to more fully consider how leadership demands influence emotional processes. In particular, researchers can better understand how the workplace context and leadership demands influence affective events. The leadership literature on charisma, transformational leadership, leader-member exchange, and other theories have the potential to shed light on how rhetorical techniques and other leadership techniques influence emotional labor, emotional contagion, moods, and overall morale. Conversely, the literature on emotional labor and emotional contagion stands to provide insights into what makes leaders charismatic, transformational, or capable of developing high quality leader-follower relationships. This review examines emotions and leadership at five levels: within person, between persons, interpersonal, groups and teams, and organizational wide and integrates research on emotions, emotional contagion, and leadership to identify opportunities for future research for both emotions researchers and leadership researchers.
Image Segmentation of Cattle Muzzle Using Region Merging Statistical Technic
Jullend Gatc
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Making an identification system that able to assist in obtaining, recording and organizing information is the first step in developing any kind of recording system. Nowadays, many recording systems were developed with artificial markers although it has been proved that it has many limitations. Biometrics use of animals provides a solution to these restrictions. On a cattle, biometric features contained in the cattle muzzle that can be used as a pattern recognition sample. Pattern recognition methods can be used for the development of cattle identification system utilizing biometric found on the cattle muzzle using digital image processing techniques. In this study, we proposed cattle muzzle identification method using segmentation Statistical Region Merging (SRM. This method aims to identify specific patterns found on the cattle muzzle by separating the object pattern (foreground from unnecessary information (background This method is able to identified individual cattle based on the pattern of it muzzle. Based on our evaluation, this method can provide good performance results. This method good performance can be seen from the precision and recall : 87% and the value of ROC : 0.976. Hopefully this research can be used to help identify cattle accurately on the recording process.
Answer Extraction Based on Merging Score Strategy of Hot Terms
LE Juan; ZHANG Chunxia; NIU Zhendong
2016-01-01
Answer extraction (AE) is one of the key technologies in developing the open domain Question&an-swer (Q&A) system . Its task is to yield the highest score to the expected answer based on an effective answer score strategy. We introduce an answer extraction method by Merging score strategy (MSS) based on hot terms. The hot terms are defined according to their lexical and syn-tactic features to highlight the role of the question terms. To cope with the syntactic diversities of the corpus, we propose four improved candidate answer score algorithms. Each of them is based on the lexical function of hot terms and their syntactic relationships with the candidate an-swers. Two independent corpus score algorithms are pro-posed to tap the role of the corpus in ranking the candi-date answers. Six algorithms are adopted in MSS to tap the complementary action among the corpus, the candi-date answers and the questions. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.
Merging aeromagnetic data collected at different levels: the GEOMAUD survey
D. Damaske
1999-06-01
Full Text Available As part of the German GEOMAUD-expedition an aeromagnetic survey was carried out in Central Queen Maud Land. The helicopter-borne survey was designed in a conventional form of a regional survey with a spacing of profile-lines of 4.4 km. Due to terrain considerations - surveying from the coast across the mountain ranges to the high altitudes of the polar plateau - the survey was split into two sections flown at different constant levels. Over the coastal part survey elevation was 570 m (above sea level while for the mountain section 2845 m was chosen. Both survey parts were processed separately. The low level section was upward continued before merging with the high level section. Though this leads to a homogeneous magnetic anomaly map, in some applications it may be more advantageous to present the anomalies of the magnetic field in original survey levels as a simple combined map because small scale features are preserved and can be used in recognizing magnetic units and patterns for geological/geophysical interpretation.
Three Ways to Link Merge with Hierarchical Concept-Combination
Chris Thornton
2016-11-01
Full Text Available In the Minimalist Program, language competence is seen to stem from a fundamental ability to construct hierarchical structure, an operation dubbed ‘Merge’. This raises the problem of how to view hierarchical concept-combination. This is a conceptual operation which also builds hierarchical structure. We can conceive of a garden that consists of a lawn and a flower-bed, for example, or a salad consisting of lettuce, fennel and rocket, or a crew consisting of a pilot and engineer. In such cases, concepts are put together in a way that makes one the accommodating element with respect to the others taken in combination. The accommodating element becomes the root of a hierarchical unit. Since this unit is itself a concept, the operation is inherently recursive. Does this mean the mind has two independent systems of hierarchical construction? Or is some form of integration more likely? Following a detailed examination of the operations involved, this paper shows there are three main ways in which Merge might be linked to hierarchical concept-combination. Also examined are the architectural implications that arise in each case.
[Is merging organizations the solution to service integration?].
Demers, Louis; Dupuis, Alain; Poirier, Mario
2002-01-01
Organizational models inherited from the time when institutionalizing patients was common practice are now obsolete. Service coordination, undergone earlier within a same institution, is now governed by professionnals linked to various organizations and different settings. One of the difficulties of integration of these services is that contributing organizations often continue to operate individually, consequently going against the pursued goal. The solution most often proposed to counter this compartimentalization consists in reinforcing integration of organizations, which will in time favor integration of various services. One of the ways to realize this organizational integration is to reduce the number of existing organizations, by merging for example, a certain number of them. It is this path of hierarchical organization that the Québec health care system has taken during the 1990. Other paths that of networking have also been experienced during the same period. To judge of the relevance of these options, the authors propose a reversal of the dominating perspective according to which service integration necessarily pass through installing mecanisms of organizational integration. Withought minimizing the importance of such mecanisms, the authors put forth that integration of services commands first and foremost collaboration between professional health workers. Through this angle, the relevance of an organizational integration model depends on the impact it will have on the capacity and willingness of health workers to work in a concerted way. The authors submit that the fact of giving to a sole authority the govern of existing organizations is not the panacea some would like to believe.
Merging Literature, Visual Art and Physics: Teaching Through Comics
Thompson, R.
2012-12-01
Comics have been around as a form of entertainment for decades. They are often as seen as one of the distracting vices of kids (and adults!), but comics and their more adult version, the graphic novel, are increasingly valued as a legitimate genre of both literature and visual. The APS Outreach Department has teamed up with the APS graphics department to create a series of comics, one featuring Nikola Tesla and his battles with the evil Thomas Edison, and four about laser the APS original super hero Spectra and her continuing battles with such villains as nefarious Miss Alignment and bumbling General Relativity. These comics have struck a delicate balance between education and entertainment being well received by both the comic book and education communities. By creating a compelling comic story that has correct physics, it is possible to use this under-appreciated medium to excite middle-school students who might otherwise be turned off by traditional teaching methods. In merging physics with the art of comics it is crucial to make sure first and foremost that the students enjoy the story and that they feel a connection to the characters. Students are thus hooked and once they are drawn in, the learning happens automatically.
Wang, Chunye; Guo, Jianyou; Guo, Rongjuan
2017-01-24
Depression is a mental disorder characterized by a pervasive low mood and loss of pleasure or interest in usual activities, and often results in cognitive dysfunction. The disturbance of cognitive processes associated with depression, especially the impairment of learning and memory, exacerbates illness and increases recurrence of depression. XingPiJieYu (XPJY) is one of the most widely clinical formulas of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and can improve the symptoms of depression, including learning and memory. However, its regulatory effects haven't been comprehensively studied so far. Recently, some animal tests have indicated that the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA)-cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)-brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling pathway in hippocampus is closely related to depression and the pathogenesis of cognitive function impairments. The present study was performed to investigate the effect and mechanism of XPJY on depression and learning and memory in animal model. The rat model of depression was established by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) for 21 days. The rats were randomly divided into six groups: control group, CUS group, CUS + XPJY (1.4 g/kg, 0.7 g/kg and 0.35 g/kg) groups, and CUS + sertraline (10 mg/kg) group. The sucrose preference, open field exploration and Morris water maze (MWM) were tested. The expression of cAMP, CREB, PKA and BDNF protein in hippocampus was examined with Elisa and Western Blot. The mRNA level of CREB and BDNF in hippocampus was measured with PCR. The results demonstrated that rats subjected to CUS exhibited decreases in sucrose preference, total ambulation, percentage of central ambulation, rearing in the open field test and spatial performance in the MWM. CUS reduced the expression of cAMP, PKA, CREB and BDNF in hippocampus of model rats. These effects could be reversed by XPJY. The results indicated that XPJY can improve depression and
Quantum Ito's formula and stochastic evolutions
Hudson, R.L.; Parthasarathy, K.R.
1984-01-01
Using only the Boson canonical commutation relations and the Riemann-Lebesgue integral we construct a simple theory of stochastic integrals and differentials with respect to the basic field operator processes. This leads to a noncommutative Ito product formula, a realisation of the classical Poisson process in Fock space which gives a noncommutative central limit theorem, the construction of solutions of certain noncommutative stochastic differential equations, and finally to the integration of certain irreversible equations of motion governed by semigroups of completely positive maps. The classical Ito product formula for stochastic differentials with respect to Brownian motion and the Poisson process is a special case. (orig.)
Vacuum engineering, calculations, formulas, and solved exercises
Berman, Armand
1992-01-01
This book was written with two main objectives in mind-to summarize and organize the vast material of vacuum technology in sets of useful formulas, and to provide a collection of worked out exercises showing how to use these formulas for solving technological problems. It is an ideal reference source for those with little time to devote to a full mathematical treatment of the many problems issued in vacuum practice, but who have a working knowledge of the essentials of vacuum technology, elementary physics, and mathematics. This time saving book employs a problem-solving approach throughout, p
Covariant n2-plet mass formulas
Davidson, A.
1979-01-01
Using a generalized internal symmetry group analogous to the Lorentz group, we have constructed a covariant n 2 -plet mass operator. This operator is built as a scalar matrix in the (n;n*) representation, and its SU(n) breaking parameters are identified as intrinsic boost ones. Its basic properties are: covariance, Hermiticity, positivity, charge conjugation, quark contents, and a self-consistent n 2 -1, 1 mixing. The GMO and the Okubo formulas are obtained by considering two different limits of the same generalized mass formula
Differential recurrence formulae for orthogonal polynomials
Anton L. W. von Bachhaus
1995-11-01
Full Text Available Part I - By combining a general 2nd-order linear homogeneous ordinary differential equation with the three-term recurrence relation possessed by all orthogonal polynomials, it is shown that sequences of orthogonal polynomials which satisfy a differential equation of the above mentioned type necessarily have a differentiation formula of the type: gn(xY'n(x=fn(xYn(x+Yn-1(x. Part II - A recurrence formula of the form: rn(xY'n(x+sn(xY'n+1(x+tn(xY'n-1(x=0, is derived using the result of Part I.
Mathematical formulas for industrial and mechanical engineering
Kadry, Seifedine
2014-01-01
Mathematical Formulas For Industrial and Mechanical Engineering serves the needs of students and teachers as well as professional workers in engineering who use mathematics. The contents and size make it especially convenient and portable. The widespread availability and low price of scientific calculators have greatly reduced the need for many numerical tables that make most handbooks bulky. However, most calculators do not give integrals, derivatives, series and other mathematical formulas and figures that are often needed. Accordingly, this book contains that information in an easy way to
Infant Formula Not Linked to Diabetes
... Are Proteins in Formula Linked to Type 1 Diabetes? En español Send us your comments The study’s results don’t suggest ... not raise the risk of developing type 1 diabetes. “This once more shows us that there is no easy way to prevent ...
Composition formulas in the Weyl calculus
Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Ørsted, Bent; Pevzner, Michael
2009-01-01
In pseudodifferential analysis, the usual composition formula, which has asymptotic value, extends that valid for differential operators. The one developed here is based instead on the decomposition of symbols (functions in Rn×Rn ) as integral superpositions of homogeneous ones, of degrees lying ...
Precise and versatile formula for birefringent filters
Shao, Zhongxing
1996-07-01
In an investigation of extraordinary-(E-) ray behavior and the index of refraction for E waves in a uniaxial crystal, a precise and versatile formula for birefringent filters, based on the exact construction of the optical path difference, is set up with neither the approximation Delta n = no - ne less than or equals no (or n e), nor the ambiguity sin( theta )/sin(rw) = ne. The exact construction gives the correct variation of the position and the dimension in each path, yielding the path difference while the filter is tuning. The formula is applicable not only to a filter with its optical axis parallel to the entrance surface (FAPS) but also to a filter with its axis inclined to the surface (FAIS). Also, the formula indicates that a FAIS allows laser wavelengths to be tuned over a wider range than does a FAPS. The origin of the wider range is interpreted to be the greater variation in the index for the FAIS while the filter is tuning. With the help of the formula we design a FAIS for tuning a cw 42.25.Lc.
Calculation of the CIPW norm: New formulas
A completely new set of formulas, based on matrix algebra, has been suggested for the calculation of the CIPW norm for ...... Techniques (New York: John Wiley & Sons) 527 pp. Johannsen A ... alogical Magazine 34 276–282. Le Bas M J, Le ...
Quantification of prebiotics in commercial infant formulas.
Sabater, Carlos; Prodanov, Marin; Olano, Agustín; Corzo, Nieves; Montilla, Antonia
2016-03-01
Since breastfeeding is not always possible, infant formulas (IFs) are supplemented with prebiotic oligosaccharides, such as galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and/or fructooligosaccharides (FOS) to exert similar effects to those of the breast milk. Nowadays, a great number of infant formulas enriched with prebiotics are disposal in the market, however there are scarce data about their composition. In this study, the combined use of two chromatographic methods (GC-FID and HPLC-RID) for the quantification of carbohydrates present in commercial infant formulas have been used. According to the results obtained by GC-FID for products containing prebiotics, the content of FOS, GOS and GOS/FOS was in the ranges of 1.6-5.0, 1.7-3.2, and 0.08-0.25/2.3-3.8g/100g of product, respectively. HPLC-RID analysis allowed quantification of maltodextrins with degree of polymerization (DP) up to 19. The methodology proposed here may be used for routine quality control of infant formula and other food ingredients containing prebiotics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Asymptotic inversion of the Erlang B formula
Leeuwaarden, van J.S.H.; Temme, N.M.
2008-01-01
The Erlang B formula represents the steady-state blocking probability in the Erlang loss model or M=M=s=s queue. We derive asymptotic expansions for the offered load that matches, for a given number of servers, a certain blocking probability. In addressing this inversion problem we make use of
15 CFR 923.110 - Allocation formula.
2010-01-01
... and comment. (f) Calculation of financial assistance award levels. Actual financial assistance award... matches any such grant according to the following ratios of Federal-to-state contributions for the...) Allocation formula factors and weighting. Each State eligible to receive a financial assistance award shall...
Revisiting Kant's universal law and humanity formulas
Nyholm, S.R.
2015-01-01
This book offers new readings of Kant’s "universal law" and "humanity" formulations of the categorical imperative. It shows how, on these readings, the formulas do indeed turn out being alternative statements of the same basic moral law, and in the process responds to many of the standard objections
Contradiction and Kant's Formula of Universal Law
Kleingeld, Pauline
2017-01-01
Kant’s most prominent formulation of the Categorical Imperative, known as the Formula of Universal Law (FUL), is generally thought to demand that one act only on maxims that one can will as universal laws without this generating a contradiction. Kant's view is standardly summarized as requiring the
The Economic Vitality Formula of Success
Konopnicki, Patrick M.
2012-01-01
An economic vitality formula of success can be accomplished by creating partnerships between local career and technical education (CTE), and workforce development and economic development entities. Student industry certifications; dynamic partnerships; programs and projects focused on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM); and…
The Formula of Universal Law: A Reconstruction
Braham, M.; van Hees, Martin
2015-01-01
This paper provides a methodologically original construction of Kant’s “Formula of Universal Law” (FUL). A formal structure consisting of possible worlds and games—a “game frame”—is used to implement Kant’s concept of a maxim and to define the two tests FUL comprises: the “contradiction in
Proposed Formulae for Determining Blood Transfusion ...
Background: Blood replacement remains a crucial component of the treatment of severe anaemia irrespective of the cause. The transfusion of an adequate amount of blood is important to prevent under- or over-transfusion. Existing formulae used for the calculation of blood transfusion requirements, while being useful, still ...
Perjes, Z.; Sparling, G.A.J.
1980-12-01
A universal mass expression is derived for non-charm hadrons which unites GMO formulae for various multiplets. Mass splitting is achieved via the generators of the 14-parameter ISU(3) group. The spectrum depends on three parameters which vary with the spin. Comparison with particle data shows a nearly linear dependence. (author)
Formula-derived prostate volume determination
Aarnink, R. G.; de la Rosette, J. J.; Debruyne, F. M.; Wijkstra, H.
1996-01-01
OBJECTIVES: Despite disadvantages such as time-consuming and tedious to the user, planimetric volumetry is considered to be the most accurate method for prostate volume determination. This study investigates the possibilities of formula-derived volume determination and reveals the best alternative
Adam, J; Adamová, D; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agnello, M; Agrawal, N; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, S; Ahn, S U; Aiola, S; Akindinov, A; Alam, S N; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alexandre, D; Alfaro Molina, R; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Almaraz, J R M; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altinpinar, S; Altsybeev, I; Alves Garcia Prado, C; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Antičić, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arcelli, S; Arnaldi, R; Arnold, O W; Arsene, I C; Arslandok, M; Audurier, B; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Azmi, M D; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bagnasco, S; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Balasubramanian, S; Baldisseri, A; Baral, R C; Barbano, A M; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartalini, P; Barth, K; Bartke, J; Bartsch, E; Basile, M; Bastid, N; Basu, S; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batista Camejo, A; Batyunya, B; Batzing, P C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Bedda, C; Behera, N K; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bello Martinez, H; Bellwied, R; Belmont, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; 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The production of K[Formula: see text](892)[Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text](1020) mesons has been measured in p-Pb collisions at [Formula: see text][Formula: see text] 5.02 TeV. K[Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are reconstructed via their decay into charged hadrons with the ALICE detector in the rapidity range [Formula: see text]. The transverse momentum spectra, measured as a function of the multiplicity, have a p[Formula: see text] range from 0 to 15 GeV/ c for K[Formula: see text] and from 0.3 to 21 GeV/ c for [Formula: see text]. Integrated yields, mean transverse momenta and particle ratios are reported and compared with results in pp collisions at [Formula: see text][Formula: see text] 7 TeV and Pb-Pb collisions at [Formula: see text][Formula: see text] 2.76 TeV. In Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions, K[Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] probe the hadronic phase of the system and contribute to the study of particle formation mechanisms by comparison with other identified hadrons. For this purpose, the mean transverse momenta and the differential proton-to-[Formula: see text] ratio are discussed as a function of the multiplicity of the event. The short-lived K[Formula: see text] is measured to investigate re-scattering effects, believed to be related to the size of the system and to the lifetime of the hadronic phase.
Properties of Merger Shocks in Merging Galaxy Clusters
Ha, Ji-Hoon; Ryu, Dongsu; Kang, Hyesung
2018-04-01
X-ray shocks and radio relics detected in the cluster outskirts are commonly interpreted as shocks induced by mergers of subclumps. We study the properties of merger shocks in merging galaxy clusters, using a set of cosmological simulations for the large-scale structure formation of the universe. As a representative case, we focus on the simulated clusters that undergo almost head-on collisions with mass ratio ∼2. Due to the turbulent nature of the intracluster medium, shock surfaces are not smooth, but composed of shocks with different Mach numbers. As the merger shocks expand outward from the core to the outskirts, the average Mach number, , increases in time. We suggest that the shocks propagating along the merger axis could be manifested as X-ray shocks and/or radio relics. The kinetic energy through the shocks, F ϕ , peaks at ∼1 Gyr after their initial launching, or at ∼1–2 Mpc from the core. Because of the Mach number dependent model adopted here for the cosmic-ray (CR) acceleration efficiency, their CR-energy-weighted Mach number is higher with }CR}∼ 3{--}4, compared to the kinetic-energy-weighted Mach number, }φ ∼ 2{--}3. Most energetic shocks are to be found ahead of the lighter dark matter (DM) clump, while the heavier DM clump is located on the opposite side of clusters. Although our study is limited to the merger case considered, the results such as the means and variations of shock properties and their time evolution could be compared with the observed characteristics of merger shocks, constraining interpretations of relevant observations.
Merritt, Elizabeth C., E-mail: emerritt@lanl.gov; Adams, Colin S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States); Moser, Auna L.; Hsu, Scott C., E-mail: scotthsu@lanl.gov; Dunn, John P.; Miguel Holgado, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Gilmore, Mark A. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)
2014-05-15
We report spatially resolved measurements of the oblique merging of two supersonic laboratory plasma jets. The jets are formed and launched by pulsed-power-driven railguns using injected argon, and have electron density ∼10{sup 14} cm{sup −3}, electron temperature ≈1.4 eV, ionization fraction near unity, and velocity ≈40 km/s just prior to merging. The jet merging produces a few-cm-thick stagnation layer, as observed in both fast-framing camera images and multi-chord interferometer data, consistent with collisional shock formation [E. C. Merritt et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 085003 (2013)].
Computing and visualizing time-varying merge trees for high-dimensional data
Oesterling, Patrick [Univ. of Leipzig (Germany); Heine, Christian [Univ. of Kaiserslautern (Germany); Weber, Gunther H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morozov, Dmitry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Scheuermann, Gerik [Univ. of Leipzig (Germany)
2017-06-03
We introduce a new method that identifies and tracks features in arbitrary dimensions using the merge tree -- a structure for identifying topological features based on thresholding in scalar fields. This method analyzes the evolution of features of the function by tracking changes in the merge tree and relates features by matching subtrees between consecutive time steps. Using the time-varying merge tree, we present a structural visualization of the changing function that illustrates both features and their temporal evolution. We demonstrate the utility of our approach by applying it to temporal cluster analysis of high-dimensional point clouds.
Research on convergence of nuclear rotational spectra formula
Chen Yongjing; Xu Fuxin
2001-01-01
The superdeformed bands in the A-190 region are systematically analyzed using four-parameter rotational spectra formula of Bohr-Mottelson's I(I + 1) expansion. The convergence of two-parameter ab formula is compared with that of three-parameter abc formula by four parameters A, B, C, D. The result shows that the four-parameter value relation does not support the theoretically expected values of ab and abc formulas, but comparatively the four-parameter value relation agrees with the theoretically expected value of ab formula better than that of abc formula
Choi, Deung-Jang; Fernández, Carlos García; Herrera, Edwin; Rubio-Verdú, Carmen; Ugeda, Miguel M.; Guillamón, Isabel; Suderow, Hermann; Pascual, José Ignacio; Lorente, Nicolás
2018-04-01
We show that the magnetic ordering of coupled atomic dimers on a superconductor is revealed by their intragap spectral features. Chromium atoms on the superconductor β -Bi2Pd surface display Yu-Shiba-Rusinov bound states, detected as pairs of intragap excitations in tunneling spectra. By means of atomic manipulation with a scanning tunneling microscope's tip, we form Cr dimers with different arrangements and find that their intragap features appear either shifted or split with respect to single atoms. These spectral variations are associated with the magnetic coupling, ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic, of the dimer, as confirmed by density functional theory simulations. The striking qualitative differences between the observed tunneling spectra prove that intragap Shiba states are extremely sensitive to the magnetic ordering on the atomic scale.
The merging cluster Abell 1758: an optical and dynamical view
Monteiro-Oliveira, Rogerio; Serra Cypriano, Eduardo; Machado, Rubens; Lima Neto, Gastao B.
2015-08-01
The galaxy cluster Abell 1758-North (z=0.28) is a binary system composed by the sub-structures NW and NE. This is supposed to be a post-merging cluster due to observed detachment between the NE BCG and the respective X-ray emitting hot gas clump in a scenario very close to the famous Bullet Cluster. On the other hand, the projected position of the NW BCG coincides with the local hot gas peak. This system was been targeted previously by several studies, using multiple wavelengths and techniques, but there is still no clear picture of the scenario that could have caused this unusual configuration. To help solving this complex puzzle we added some pieces: firstly, we have used deep B, RC and z' Subaru images to perform both weak lensing shear and magnification analysis of A1758 (including here the South component that is not in interaction with A1758-North) modeling each sub-clump as an NFW profile in order to constrain masses and its center positions through MCMC methods; the second piece is the dynamical analysis using radial velocities available in the literature (143) plus new Gemini-GMOS/N measurements (68 new redshifts).From weak lensing we found that independent shear and magnification mass determinations are in excellent agreement between them and combining both we could reduce mass error bar by ~30% compared to shear alone. By combining this two weak-lensing probes we found that the position of both Northern BCGs are consistent with the masses centers within 2σ and and the NE hot gas peak to be offseted of the respective mass peak (M200=5.5 X 1014 M⊙) with very high significance. The most massive structure is NW (M200=7.95 X 1014 M⊙ ) where we observed no detachment between gas, DM and BCG.We have calculated a low line-of-sight velocity difference (plane of collision and the sky (<40 degrees). Dynamic modeling shows that the point of maximum approximation taken place 0.55 Gyr ago, pointing Abell 1758-North as a young merger cluster.
Message passing for quantified Boolean formulas
Zhang, Pan; Ramezanpour, Abolfazl; Zecchina, Riccardo; Zdeborová, Lenka
2012-01-01
We introduce two types of message passing algorithms for quantified Boolean formulas (QBF). The first type is a message passing based heuristics that can prove unsatisfiability of the QBF by assigning the universal variables in such a way that the remaining formula is unsatisfiable. In the second type, we use message passing to guide branching heuristics of a Davis–Putnam–Logemann–Loveland (DPLL) complete solver. Numerical experiments show that on random QBFs our branching heuristics give robust exponential efficiency gain with respect to state-of-the-art solvers. We also manage to solve some previously unsolved benchmarks from the QBFLIB library. Apart from this, our study sheds light on using message passing in small systems and as subroutines in complete solvers
Hexa-herbal Chinese formula for eczema
Chang, J.; Jäger, Anna; Heinrich, M.
2014-01-01
Diverse pharmacological activities and reliable clinical performances of Chinese herbal medicines have attracted worldwide attention in terms of its modernization. Here, a hexa-herbal Chinese formula (HHCF) for treating eczema topically has been studied from both chemical and biological perspective....... It consists of roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Gerogi, Rheum officinale Baill., Sophora flavescens Aiton; root's bark of Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz.; bark of Phellodendron chinense C.K. Schnied and fruit of Kochia scoparia (L.) Schard.. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of the hexa-herbal decoction...... colonizes the skin of most patients with AD and produces superantigens that could further increase severity of AD via subverting T-regulatory cell activity and inducing corticosteroid resistance. [3] Therefore, activity of the decoctions prepared from mixture and individual medicinal plants of the formula...
SOUR MILK FORMULAS IN NUTRITION OF INFANTS
E.F. Lukushkina
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Health-giving properties of fermented food are related to the fact, that acid medium improves assimilation of protein and fat, increases absorption of iron and zinc, improves digestion. But the kefir and other sour milk food based on the whole milk can’t be used in nutrition of infants as human milk substitute because of high content of protein, high osmolarity, deficiency of vitamins and microelements. The article describes the results of clinical approbation of new modern sour milk formula «NAN sour milk», containing proper amount of high-quality protein (OptiPro, enriched with lactalbumin and all sufficient vitamins and microelements. This mixture contains also probiotics (B. lactis, providing high functionality of this food. Key words: infants, sour milk formula, nutrition.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(1:136-141
Matrix product formula for Macdonald polynomials
Cantini, Luigi; de Gier, Jan; Wheeler, Michael
2015-09-01
We derive a matrix product formula for symmetric Macdonald polynomials. Our results are obtained by constructing polynomial solutions of deformed Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations, which arise by considering representations of the Zamolodchikov-Faddeev and Yang-Baxter algebras in terms of t-deformed bosonic operators. These solutions are generalized probabilities for particle configurations of the multi-species asymmetric exclusion process, and form a basis of the ring of polynomials in n variables whose elements are indexed by compositions. For weakly increasing compositions (anti-dominant weights), these basis elements coincide with non-symmetric Macdonald polynomials. Our formulas imply a natural combinatorial interpretation in terms of solvable lattice models. They also imply that normalizations of stationary states of multi-species exclusion processes are obtained as Macdonald polynomials at q = 1.
Matrix product formula for Macdonald polynomials
Cantini, Luigi; Gier, Jan de; Michael Wheeler
2015-01-01
We derive a matrix product formula for symmetric Macdonald polynomials. Our results are obtained by constructing polynomial solutions of deformed Knizhnik–Zamolodchikov equations, which arise by considering representations of the Zamolodchikov–Faddeev and Yang–Baxter algebras in terms of t-deformed bosonic operators. These solutions are generalized probabilities for particle configurations of the multi-species asymmetric exclusion process, and form a basis of the ring of polynomials in n variables whose elements are indexed by compositions. For weakly increasing compositions (anti-dominant weights), these basis elements coincide with non-symmetric Macdonald polynomials. Our formulas imply a natural combinatorial interpretation in terms of solvable lattice models. They also imply that normalizations of stationary states of multi-species exclusion processes are obtained as Macdonald polynomials at q = 1. (paper)
Feynman graph derivation of Einstein quadrupole formula
Dass, N.D.H.; Soni, V.
1980-11-01
The one graviton transition operator, and consequently, the classical energy loss formula for gravitational radiation are derived from the Feynman graphs of helicity +- 2 theories of gravitation. The calculations are done both for the case of electromagnetic and gravitational scattering. The departure of the in and out states from plane waves owing to the long range nature of gravitation is taken into account to improve the Born approximation calculations. This also includes a long range modification of the graviton wave function which is shown to be equivalent to the classical problem of the true light cones deviating logarithmically at large distances from the flat space light cones. The transition from the S-matrix elements calculated graphically to the graviton transition operator is done by using complimentarity of space-time and momentum descriptions. The energy loss formula derived originally by Einstein is shown to be correct. (Auth.)
On the search for the world formula
Karamanolis, Stratis
2006-01-01
The desire of man to explore the origin of the world reaches back to the antique. His desire however to formulate a theory about this is relatively young. Serious attempts to reach this goal are connected with Einstein who began at the beginning of the 20th century to establish a unified theory and by this to trace the world formula. Einstein died however 1955 without reaching his goal. Since then several theories have been established which led to remarkable partial successes. The searched world formula however keeps waiting still as usual. The present book undertakes the attempt to show the ways, which many ingenious physicists hitherto have followed in order to reach this goal - a goal. which meanwhile seems to be obviously near because of the string theory
Link polynomial, crossing multiplier and surgery formula
Deguchi, Tetsuo; Yamada, Yasuhiko.
1989-01-01
Relations between link polynomials constructed from exactly solvable lattice models and topological field theory are reviewed. It is found that the surgery formula for a three-sphere S 3 with Wilson lines corresponds to the Markov trace constructed from the exactly solvable models. This indicates that knot theory intimately relates various important subjects such as exactly solvable models, conformal field theories and topological quantum field theories. (author)
A Handbook of Essential Mathematical Formulae
Davies, Alan
2005-01-01
Intended for students of mathematics as well as of engineering, physical science, economics, business studies, and computer science, this handbook contains vital information and formulas for algebra, geometry, calculus, numerical methods, and statistics. Comprehensive tables of standard derivatives and integrals, together with the tables of Laplace, Fourier, and Z transforms are included. A spiral binding that allows the handbook to lay flat for easy reference enhances the user-friendly design.
Implementing successful strategic plans: a simple formula.
Blondeau, Whitney; Blondeau, Benoit
2015-01-01
Strategic planning is a process. One way to think of strategic planning is to envision its development and design as a framework that will help your hospital navigate through internal and external changing environments over time. Although the process of strategic planning can feel daunting, following a simple formula involving five steps using the mnemonic B.E.G.I.N. (Begin, Evaluate, Goals & Objectives, Integration, and Next steps) will help the planning process feel more manageable, and lead you to greater success.
Symmetric tax competition under formula apportionment
Eggert, Wolfgang; Schjelderup, Guttorm
2002-01-01
This paper compares property taxation to a corporate income tax based on formula apportionment in a model where identical countries compete to attract capital. We find that if countries can pair a residence-based capital tax with a property tax (source tax on capital) the tax equilibrium is efficient. In contrast, the use of a 2-factor FA scheme based on sales and capital combined with a residence-based capital tax leads to an inefficient outcome.
Statics formulas and problems : engineering mechanics 1
Gross, Dietmar; Wriggers, Peter; Schröder, Jörg; Müller, Ralf
2017-01-01
This book contains the most important formulas and more than 160 completely solved problems from Statics. It provides engineering students material to improve their skills and helps to gain experience in solving engineering problems. Particular emphasis is placed on finding the solution path and formulating the basic equations. Topics include: - Equilibrium - Center of Gravity, Center of Mass, Centroids - Support Reactions - Trusses - Beams, Frames, Arches - Cables - Work and Potential Energy - Static and Kinetic Friction - Moments of Inertia.
Contradiction and Kant's Formula of Universal Law
Kleingeld, Pauline
2017-01-01
Kant’s most prominent formulation of the Categorical Imperative, known as the Formula of Universal Law (FUL), is generally thought to demand that one act only on maxims that one can will as universal laws without this generating a contradiction. Kant's view is standardly summarized as requiring the 'universalizability' of one's maxims and described in terms of the distinction between 'contradictions in conception' and 'contradictions in the will'. Focussing on the underappreciated significanc...
2009-2011 CA Coastal California TopoBathy Merged Project Digital Elevation Model (DEM)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project merged recently collected topographic, bathymetric, and acoustic elevation data along the entire California coastline from approximately the 10 meter...
2013 NOAA Coastal California TopoBathy Merge Project Digital Elevation Model (DEM)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project merged recently collected topographic, bathymetric, and acoustic elevation data along the entire California coastline from approximately the 10 meter...
A Prospect for Evolutionary Adequacy: Merge and the Evolution and Development of Human Language
Koji Fujita
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Biolinguistic minimalism seeks a deeper explanation of the design, development and evolution of human language by reducing its core domain to the bare minimum including the set-formation operation Merge. In an attempt to open an avenue of research that may lead to an evolutionarily adequate theory of language, this article makes the following proposals: (i Merge is the elementary combinatorial device that requires no more decomposition; (ii the precursor to Merge may be found in the uniquely human capacity for hierarchical object manipulation; (iii the uniqueness of the human lexicon may also be captured in terms of Merge. Empirical validations of these proposals should constitute one major topic for the biolinguistic program.
Developing merged CDIO based curricula for diploma (B.Eng.) IT study programs at DTU
Nyborg, Mads; Probst, Christian W.; Stassen, Flemming
2015-01-01
innovation strategy. In this paper we describe the process of developing new, merged B.Eng curricula in the IT field (Diploma IT), as part of the merger between DTU Lyngby and IHK. Particular attention will be given to the following subjects: • The design process used to develop the new merged study programs......) merged with the Technical University of Denmark (DTU Lyngby). The goal of the merger was to educate ever more innovative diploma engineers to fulfill the needs by Danish industry through combining a practice-oriented development environment and a research-oriented environment. Merging a university...... institutions represented before the merger well 3500 B.Eng. students. The goal of the merger was to combine the best of the existing educations rooted in a practice-oriented development environment and a research-oriented environment. At the same time, the merger was supposed to contribute to the national...
Capacity of Freeway Merge Areas with Different On-Ramp Traffic Flow
Jinxing Shen
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This paper is aimed at investigating the influence of different types of traffic flows on the capacity of freeway merge areas. Based on the classical gap-acceptance model, two calculating models were established specifically considering randomly arriving vehicles and individual difference in driving behaviours. Monte-Carlo simulation was implemented to reproduce the maximum traffic volume on the designed freeway merge area under different situations. The results demonstrated that the proposed calculating models have better performance than the conventional gap-acceptance theory on accurately predicting the capacity of freeway merge areas. The findings of research could be helpful to improve the microscopic traffic flow simulation model from a more practical perspective and support the designing of freeway merge areas as well.
75 FR 51825 - Quality and Compliance in Merging and Emerging Cultures; Public Conference
2010-08-23
... announcing a public conference entitled ``The New Paradigm: Quality and Compliance in Merging and Emerging... accommodations because of a disability, please contact Wanda Neal, at least 7 days in advance of the conference...
Alpha decay calculations with a new formula
Akrawy, D T; Poenaru, D N
2017-01-01
A new semi-empirical formula for calculations of α decay half-lives is presented. It was derived from the Royer relationship by introducing new parameters which are fixed by fit to a set of experimental data. We are using three sets: set A with 130 e–e (even–even), 119 e–o (even–odd), 109 o–e, and 96 o–o, set B with 188 e–e, 147 e–o, 131 o–e and 114 o–o, and set C with 136 e–e, 84 e–o, 76 o–e and 48 o–o alpha emitters. A comparison of results obtained with the new formula (newF) and the following well known relationships: semiempirical relationship based on fission theory (semFIS), analytical superasymmetric fission (ASAF) model and universal formula (UNIV) made in terms of rms standard deviation. We also introduced a weighted mean value of this quantity, allowing us to compare the global properties of a given model. For set B the order of the four models is the following: semFIS, UNIV, newF and ASAF. Nevertheless for even–even alpha emitters, UNIV gives the second best result after semFIS, and for odd–even parents the second is newF. Despite its simplicity in comparison with semFIS, newF, presented in this article, behaves quite well, competing with the other well known relationships. (paper)
Pocket book of integrals and mathematical formulas
Tallarida, Ronald J
2008-01-01
Convenient Organization of Essential Material so You Can Look up Formulas Fast Containing a careful selection of standard and timely topics, the Pocket Book of Integrals and Mathematical Formulas, Fourth Edition presents many numerical and statistical tables, scores of worked examples, and the most useful mathematical formulas for engineering and scientific applications. This fourth edition of a bestseller provides even more comprehensive coverage with the inclusion of several additional topics, all while maintaining its accessible, clear style and handy size. New to the Fourth Edition An expanded chapter on series that covers many fascinating properties of the natural numbers that follow from number theory New applications such as geostationary satellite orbits and drug kinetics An expanded statistics section that discusses nonlinear regression as well as the normal approximation of the binomial distribution Revised f...
The collaborative effect of ram pressure and merging on star formation and stripping fraction
Bischko, J. C.; Steinhauser, D.; Schindler, S.
2015-04-01
Aims: We investigate the effect of ram pressure stripping (RPS) on several simulations of merging pairs of gas-rich spiral galaxies. We are concerned with the changes in stripping efficiency and the time evolution of the star formation rate. Our goal is to provide an estimate of the combined effect of merging and RPS compared to the influence of the individual processes. Methods: We make use of the combined N-body/hydrodynamic code GADGET-2. The code features a threshold-based statistical recipe for star formation, as well as radiative cooling and modeling of galactic winds. In our simulations, we vary mass ratios between 1:4 and 1:8 in a binary merger. We sample different geometric configurations of the merging systems (edge-on and face-on mergers, different impact parameters). Furthermore, we vary the properties of the intracluster medium (ICM) in rough steps: the speed of the merging system relative to the ICM between 500 and 1000 km s-1, the ICM density between 10-29 and 10-27 g cm-3, and the ICM direction relative to the mergers' orbital plane. Ram pressure is kept constant within a simulation time period, as is the ICM temperature of 107 K. Each simulation in the ICM is compared to simulations of the merger in vacuum and the non-merging galaxies with acting ram pressure. Results: Averaged over the simulation time (1 Gyr) the merging pairs show a negligible 5% enhancement in SFR, when compared to single galaxies under the same environmental conditions. The SFRs peak at the time of the galaxies first fly-through. There, our simulations show SFRs of up to 20 M⊙ yr-1 (compared to 3 M⊙ yr-1 of the non-merging galaxies in vacuum). In the most extreme case, this constitutes a short-term (<50 Myr) SFR increase of 50 % over the non-merging galaxies experiencing ram pressure. The wake of merging galaxies in the ICM typically has a third to half the star mass seen in the non-merging galaxies and 5% to 10% less gas mass. The joint effect of RPS and merging, according
Comparison of online and offline based merging methods for high resolution rainfall intensities
Shehu, Bora; Haberlandt, Uwe
2016-04-01
Accurate rainfall intensities with high spatial and temporal resolution are crucial for urban flow prediction. Commonly, raw or bias corrected radar fields are used for forecasting, while different merging products are employed for simulation. The merging products are proven to be adequate for rainfall intensities estimation, however their application in forecasting is limited as they are developed for offline mode. This study aims at adapting and refining the offline merging techniques for the online implementation, and at comparing the performance of these methods for high resolution rainfall data. Radar bias correction based on mean fields and quantile mapping are analyzed individually and also are implemented in conditional merging. Special attention is given to the impact of different spatial and temporal filters on the predictive skill of all methods. Raw radar data and kriging interpolation of station data are considered as a reference to check the benefit of the merged products. The methods are applied for several extreme events in the time period 2006-2012 caused by different meteorological conditions, and their performance is evaluated by split sampling. The study area is located within the 112 km radius of Hannover radar in Lower Saxony, Germany and the data set constitutes of 80 recording stations in 5 min time steps. The results of this study reveal how the performance of the methods is affected by the adjustment of radar data, choice of merging method and selected event. Merging techniques can be used to improve the performance of online rainfall estimation, which gives way to the application of merging products in forecasting.
Sun, Xiaobo; Gao, Jingjing; Jin, Peng; Eng, Celeste; Burchard, Esteban G; Beaty, Terri H; Ruczinski, Ingo; Mathias, Rasika A; Barnes, Kathleen; Wang, Fusheng; Qin, Zhaohui S
2018-06-01
Sorted merging of genomic data is a common data operation necessary in many sequencing-based studies. It involves sorting and merging genomic data from different subjects by their genomic locations. In particular, merging a large number of variant call format (VCF) files is frequently required in large-scale whole-genome sequencing or whole-exome sequencing projects. Traditional single-machine based methods become increasingly inefficient when processing large numbers of files due to the excessive computation time and Input/Output bottleneck. Distributed systems and more recent cloud-based systems offer an attractive solution. However, carefully designed and optimized workflow patterns and execution plans (schemas) are required to take full advantage of the increased computing power while overcoming bottlenecks to achieve high performance. In this study, we custom-design optimized schemas for three Apache big data platforms, Hadoop (MapReduce), HBase, and Spark, to perform sorted merging of a large number of VCF files. These schemas all adopt the divide-and-conquer strategy to split the merging job into sequential phases/stages consisting of subtasks that are conquered in an ordered, parallel, and bottleneck-free way. In two illustrating examples, we test the performance of our schemas on merging multiple VCF files into either a single TPED or a single VCF file, which are benchmarked with the traditional single/parallel multiway-merge methods, message passing interface (MPI)-based high-performance computing (HPC) implementation, and the popular VCFTools. Our experiments suggest all three schemas either deliver a significant improvement in efficiency or render much better strong and weak scalabilities over traditional methods. Our findings provide generalized scalable schemas for performing sorted merging on genetics and genomics data using these Apache distributed systems.
A new von Mises probabilistic formula for quartet invariants
Giacovazzo, C.; Camalli, M.; Spagna, R.
1989-01-01
Von Mises formulas for quartet invariants, even is useful in most cases of practical interest, suffer from some systematic errors. A new von Mises formula is suggested with better theoretical features. (orig.)
Multisoliton formula for completely integrable two-dimensional systems
Chudnovsky, D.V.; Chudnovsky, G.V.
1979-01-01
For general two-dimensional completely integrable systems, the exact formulae for multisoliton type solutions are given. The formulae are obtained algebrically from solutions of two linear partial differential equations
Two explicit formulas for the generalized Motzkin numbers
Jiao-Lian Zhao
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract In the paper, by the Faà di Bruno formula, the authors establish two explicit formulas for the Motzkin numbers, the generalized Motzkin numbers, and the restricted hexagonal numbers.
Some formulae for the Zagreb indices of graphs
Cangul, Ismail Naci; Yurttas, Aysun; Togan, Muge; Cevik, Ahmet Sinan
2012-09-01
In this study, we first find formulae for the first and second Zagreb indices and coindices of certain classical graph types including path, cycle, star and complete graphs. Secondly we give similar formulae for the first and second Zagreb coindices.
A family of inversion formulas in thermoacoustic tomography
Nguyen, Linh
2009-01-01
We present a family of closed form inversion formulas in thermoacoustic tomography in the case of a constant sound speed. The formulas are presented in both time-domain and frequency-domain versions. As special cases, they imply most
Low-energy approximation of K-N-T formula
Markovic, S.; Simovic, R.; Markovic, S.)
2007-01-01
A simplified version of the K-N-T formula is derived in this paper by using some well justified approximations in low (diagnostic) range of photon energies. This formula is suitable mostly for analytical purposes and practical calculations [sr
PEAR: a fast and accurate Illumina Paired-End reAd mergeR.
Zhang, Jiajie; Kobert, Kassian; Flouri, Tomáš; Stamatakis, Alexandros
2014-03-01
The Illumina paired-end sequencing technology can generate reads from both ends of target DNA fragments, which can subsequently be merged to increase the overall read length. There already exist tools for merging these paired-end reads when the target fragments are equally long. However, when fragment lengths vary and, in particular, when either the fragment size is shorter than a single-end read, or longer than twice the size of a single-end read, most state-of-the-art mergers fail to generate reliable results. Therefore, a robust tool is needed to merge paired-end reads that exhibit varying overlap lengths because of varying target fragment lengths. We present the PEAR software for merging raw Illumina paired-end reads from target fragments of varying length. The program evaluates all possible paired-end read overlaps and does not require the target fragment size as input. It also implements a statistical test for minimizing false-positive results. Tests on simulated and empirical data show that PEAR consistently generates highly accurate merged paired-end reads. A highly optimized implementation allows for merging millions of paired-end reads within a few minutes on a standard desktop computer. On multi-core architectures, the parallel version of PEAR shows linear speedups compared with the sequential version of PEAR. PEAR is implemented in C and uses POSIX threads. It is freely available at http://www.exelixis-lab.org/web/software/pear.
Li, Yi; Liu, Zhaomiao
2017-01-01
Droplet merging and splitting are important droplet manipulations in droplet-based microfluidics. However, the fundamental flow behaviors of droplets were not systematically studied. Hence, we designed two different microstructures to achieve droplet merging and splitting respectively, and quantitatively compared different flow dynamics in different microstructures for droplet merging and splitting via micro-particle image velocimetry (micro-PIV) experiments. Some flow phenomena of droplets different from previous studies were observed during merging and splitting using a high-speed microscope. It was also found the obtained instantaneous velocity vector fields of droplets have significant influence on the droplets merging and splitting. For droplet merging, the probability of droplets coalescence (η) in a microgroove is higher (50% T-junction microchannel (15% < η < 50%), and the highest coalescence efficiency (η = 92%) comes at the two-phase flow ratio e of 0.42 in the microgroove. Moreover, compared with a cylinder obstacle, Y-junction bifurcation can split droplets more effectively and the droplet flow during splitting is steadier. The results can provide better understanding of droplet behaviors and are useful for the design and applications of droplet-based microfluidics. PMID:28890680
Unravelling merging behaviors and electrostatic properties of CVD-grown monolayer MoS2 domains
Hao, Song; Yang, Bingchu; Gao, Yongli
2016-01-01
The presence of grain boundaries is inevitable for chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown MoS 2 domains owing to various merging behaviors, which greatly limits its potential applications in novel electronic and optoelectronic devices. It is therefore of great significance to unravel the merging behaviors of the synthesized polygon shape MoS 2 domains. Here we provide systematic investigations of merging behaviors and electrostatic properties of CVD-grown polycrystalline MoS 2 crystals by multiple means. Morphological results exhibit various polygon shape features, ascribed to polycrystalline crystals merged with triangle shape MoS 2 single crystals. The thickness of triangle and polygon shape MoS 2 crystals is identical manifested by Raman intensity and peak position mappings. Three merging behaviors are proposed to illustrate the formation mechanisms of observed various polygon shaped MoS 2 crystals. The combined photoemission electron microscopy and kelvin probe force microscopy results reveal that the surface potential of perfect merged crystals is identical, which has an important implication for fabricating MoS 2 -based devices.
Shen, Feng; Li, Yi; Liu, Zhaomiao; Li, XiuJun
2017-04-01
Droplet merging and splitting are important droplet manipulations in droplet-based microfluidics. However, the fundamental flow behaviors of droplets were not systematically studied. Hence, we designed two different microstructures to achieve droplet merging and splitting respectively, and quantitatively compared different flow dynamics in different microstructures for droplet merging and splitting via micro-particle image velocimetry (micro-PIV) experiments. Some flow phenomena of droplets different from previous studies were observed during merging and splitting using a high-speed microscope. It was also found the obtained instantaneous velocity vector fields of droplets have significant influence on the droplets merging and splitting. For droplet merging, the probability of droplets coalescence ( η ) in a microgroove is higher (50% < η < 92%) than that in a T-junction microchannel (15% < η < 50%), and the highest coalescence efficiency ( η = 92%) comes at the two-phase flow ratio e of 0.42 in the microgroove. Moreover, compared with a cylinder obstacle, Y-junction bifurcation can split droplets more effectively and the droplet flow during splitting is steadier. The results can provide better understanding of droplet behaviors and are useful for the design and applications of droplet-based microfluidics.
Compact fitting formulas for electron-impact cross sections
Kim, Y.K.
1992-01-01
Compact fitting formulas, which contain four fitting constants, are presented for electron-impact excitation and ionization cross sections of atoms and ions. These formulas can fit experimental and theoretical cross sections remarkably well, when resonant structures are smoothed out, from threshold to high incident electron energies (<10 keV), beyond which relativistic formulas are more appropriate. Examples of fitted cross sections for some atoms and ions are presented. The basic form of the formula is valid for both atoms and molecules
A general formula for the WACC: a reply
André Farber; Roland Gillet; Ariane Szafarz
2007-01-01
Farber, Gillet and Szafarz (2006) propose a general formula for the WACC in which the expected return on the tax shield appears explicitly. The classical Modigliani-Miller and Harris-Pringle WACC formulas for specific debt policies are then derived from the general formula after having determined the corresponding tax shield expected returns. Replying to Fernandez’ (2007) comment, this note explores, in addition, the validity of the general formula in the Miles-Ezzel setup with annual adjustm...
On some binomial [Formula: see text]-difference sequence spaces.
Meng, Jian; Song, Meimei
2017-01-01
In this paper, we introduce the binomial sequence spaces [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] by combining the binomial transformation and difference operator. We prove the BK -property and some inclusion relations. Furthermore, we obtain Schauder bases and compute the α -, β - and γ -duals of these sequence spaces. Finally, we characterize matrix transformations on the sequence space [Formula: see text].
Soy-based Infant Formula: A Safe Choice for Babies?
Su, Tien-l Karleen
2002-01-01
Making up about 25% of the current infant-formula market in the U.S., soy-based infant formulas are lifesaving alternatives for infants who cannot rely on traditional sources of milk for complete nutrition. While many studies have supported the effectiveness of soy-formula consumption for normal growth and development, the controversy over the potentially harmful effects of early exposure to isoflavones (phytoestrogens found in soy formulas) remains to be resolved. The plasma concentration of...
27 CFR 21.49 - Formula No. 23-H.
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 23-H. 21.49 Section 21.49 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... and Authorized Uses § 21.49 Formula No. 23-H. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: Eight...
Numerical accuracy of real inversion formulas for the Laplace transform
Masol, V.; Teugels, J.L.
2008-01-01
In this paper we investigate and compare a number of real inversion formulas for the Laplace transform. The focus is on the accuracy and applicability of the formulas for numerical inversion. In this contribution, we study the performance of the formulas for measures concentrated on a positive
Effects of Neurological Damage on Production of Formulaic Language
Sidtis, Diana; Canterucci, Gina; Katsnelson, Dora
2009-01-01
Early studies reported preserved formulaic language in left hemisphere damaged subjects and reduced incidence of formulaic expressions in the conversational speech of stroke patients with right hemispheric damage. Clinical observations suggest a possible role also of subcortical nuclei. This study examined formulaic language in the spontaneous…
AFP Algorithm and a Canonical Normal Form for Horn Formulas
Majdoddin, Ruhollah
2014-01-01
AFP Algorithm is a learning algorithm for Horn formulas. We show that it does not improve the complexity of AFP Algorithm, if after each negative counterexample more that just one refinements are performed. Moreover, a canonical normal form for Horn formulas is presented, and it is proved that the output formula of AFP Algorithm is in this normal form.
27 CFR 25.55 - Formulas for fermented products.
2010-04-01
... purposes (including consumer taste testing), produce a fermented product without an approved formula, but... is my formula approval valid? Your formula approved under this section remains in effect until: you... request to the Assistant Chief, Advertising, Labeling and Formulation Division, Alcohol and Tobacco Tax...
A family of inversion formulas in thermoacoustic tomography
Nguyen, Linh
2009-10-01
We present a family of closed form inversion formulas in thermoacoustic tomography in the case of a constant sound speed. The formulas are presented in both time-domain and frequency-domain versions. As special cases, they imply most of the previously known filtered backprojection type formulas. © 2009 AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES.
27 CFR 24.303 - Formula wine record.
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula wine record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.303 Formula wine record. A proprietor who produces beverage formula wine shall maintain records showing by transaction date the details of production...
OPTICAL-NEAR-INFRARED COLOR GRADIENTS AND MERGING HISTORY OF ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES
Kim, Duho; Im, Myungshin
2013-01-01
It has been suggested that merging plays an important role in the formation and the evolution of elliptical galaxies. While gas dissipation by star formation is believed to steepen metallicity and color gradients of the merger products, mixing of stars through dissipation-less merging (dry merging) is believed to flatten them. In order to understand the past merging history of elliptical galaxies, we studied the optical-near-infrared (NIR) color gradients of 204 elliptical galaxies. These galaxies are selected from the overlap region of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82 and the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey (LAS). The use of optical and NIR data (g, r, and K) provides large wavelength baselines, and breaks the age-metallicity degeneracy, allowing us to derive age and metallicity gradients. The use of the deep SDSS Stripe 82 images makes it possible for us to examine how the color/age/metallicity gradients are related to merging features. We find that the optical-NIR color and the age/metallicity gradients of elliptical galaxies with tidal features are consistent with those of relaxed ellipticals, suggesting that the two populations underwent a similar merging history on average and that mixing of stars was more or less completed before the tidal features disappeared. Elliptical galaxies with dust features have steeper color gradients than the other two types, even after masking out dust features during the analysis, which can be due to a process involving wet merging. More importantly, we find that the scatter in the color/age/metallicity gradients of the relaxed and merging feature types decreases as their luminosities (or masses) increase at M > 10 11.4 M ☉ but stays large at lower luminosities. Mean metallicity gradients appear nearly constant over the explored mass range, but a possible flattening is observed at the massive end. According to our toy model that predicts how the distribution of metallicity gradients
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A search is presented for a high-mass Higgs boson in the [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] decay modes using the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The search uses proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb[Formula: see text]. The results of the search are interpreted in the scenario of a heavy Higgs boson with a width that is small compared with the experimental mass resolution. The Higgs boson mass range considered extends up to [Formula: see text] for all four decay modes and down to as low as 140 [Formula: see text], depending on the decay mode. No significant excess of events over the Standard Model prediction is found. A simultaneous fit to the four decay modes yields upper limits on the production cross-section of a heavy Higgs boson times the branching ratio to [Formula: see text] boson pairs. 95 % confidence level upper limits range from 0.53 pb at [Formula: see text] GeV to 0.008 pb at [Formula: see text] GeV for the gluon-fusion production mode and from 0.31 pb at [Formula: see text] GeV to 0.009 pb at [Formula: see text] GeV for the vector-boson-fusion production mode. The results are also interpreted in the context of Type-I and Type-II two-Higgs-doublet models.
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The production of the [Formula: see text] state in proton-proton collisions is probed via its decay to the [Formula: see text] final state with the LHCb detector, in the rapidity range [Formula: see text] and in the meson transverse-momentum range [Formula: see text]. The cross-section for prompt production of [Formula: see text] mesons relative to the prompt [Formula: see text] cross-section is measured, for the first time, to be [Formula: see text] at a centre-of-mass energy [Formula: see text] using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 0.7 fb[Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] at [Formula: see text] using 2.0 fb[Formula: see text]. The uncertainties quoted are, in order, statistical, systematic, and that on the ratio of branching fractions of the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] decays to the [Formula: see text] final state. In addition, the inclusive branching fraction of [Formula: see text]-hadron decays into [Formula: see text] mesons is measured, for the first time, to be [Formula: see text], where the third uncertainty includes also the uncertainty on the [Formula: see text] inclusive branching fraction from [Formula: see text]-hadron decays. The difference between the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] meson masses is determined to be [Formula: see text].
The chemical formula of a magnetotactic bacterium.
Naresh, Mohit; Das, Sayoni; Mishra, Prashant; Mittal, Aditya
2012-05-01
Elucidation of the chemical logic of life is one of the grand challenges in biology, and essential to the progress of the upcoming field of synthetic biology. Treatment of microbial cells explicitly as a "chemical" species in controlled reaction (growth) environments has allowed fascinating discoveries of elemental formulae of a few species that have guided the modern views on compositions of a living cell. Application of mass and energy balances on living cells has proved to be useful in modeling of bioengineering systems, particularly in deriving optimized media compositions for growing microorganisms to maximize yields of desired bio-derived products by regulating intra-cellular metabolic networks. In this work, application of elemental mass balance during growth of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense in bioreactors has resulted in the discovery of the chemical formula of the magnetotactic bacterium. By developing a stoichiometric equation characterizing the formation of a magnetotactic bacterial cell, coupled with rigorous experimental measurements and robust calculations, we report the elemental formula of M. gryphiswaldense cell as CH(2.06)O(0.13)N(0.28)Fe(1.74×10(-3)). Remarkably, we find that iron metabolism during growth of this magnetotactic bacterium is much more correlated individually with carbon and nitrogen, compared to carbon and nitrogen with each other, indicating that iron serves more as a nutrient during bacterial growth rather than just a mineral. Magnetotactic bacteria have not only invoked some interest in the field of astrobiology for the last two decades, but are also prokaryotes having the unique ability of synthesizing membrane bound intracellular organelles. Our findings on these unique prokaryotes are a strong addition to the limited repertoire, of elemental compositions of living cells, aimed at exploring the chemical logic of life. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Geographically weighted regression based methods for merging satellite and gauge precipitation
Chao, Lijun; Zhang, Ke; Li, Zhijia; Zhu, Yuelong; Wang, Jingfeng; Yu, Zhongbo
2018-03-01
Real-time precipitation data with high spatiotemporal resolutions are crucial for accurate hydrological forecasting. To improve the spatial resolution and quality of satellite precipitation, a three-step satellite and gauge precipitation merging method was formulated in this study: (1) bilinear interpolation is first applied to downscale coarser satellite precipitation to a finer resolution (PS); (2) the (mixed) geographically weighted regression methods coupled with a weighting function are then used to estimate biases of PS as functions of gauge observations (PO) and PS; and (3) biases of PS are finally corrected to produce a merged precipitation product. Based on the above framework, eight algorithms, a combination of two geographically weighted regression methods and four weighting functions, are developed to merge CMORPH (CPC MORPHing technique) precipitation with station observations on a daily scale in the Ziwuhe Basin of China. The geographical variables (elevation, slope, aspect, surface roughness, and distance to the coastline) and a meteorological variable (wind speed) were used for merging precipitation to avoid the artificial spatial autocorrelation resulting from traditional interpolation methods. The results show that the combination of the MGWR and BI-square function (MGWR-BI) has the best performance (R = 0.863 and RMSE = 7.273 mm/day) among the eight algorithms. The MGWR-BI algorithm was then applied to produce hourly merged precipitation product. Compared to the original CMORPH product (R = 0.208 and RMSE = 1.208 mm/hr), the quality of the merged data is significantly higher (R = 0.724 and RMSE = 0.706 mm/hr). The developed merging method not only improves the spatial resolution and quality of the satellite product but also is easy to implement, which is valuable for hydrological modeling and other applications.
Synthesizing Dynamic Programming Algorithms from Linear Temporal Logic Formulae
Rosu, Grigore; Havelund, Klaus
2001-01-01
The problem of testing a linear temporal logic (LTL) formula on a finite execution trace of events, generated by an executing program, occurs naturally in runtime analysis of software. We present an algorithm which takes an LTL formula and generates an efficient dynamic programming algorithm. The generated algorithm tests whether the LTL formula is satisfied by a finite trace of events given as input. The generated algorithm runs in linear time, its constant depending on the size of the LTL formula. The memory needed is constant, also depending on the size of the formula.
Excel formulas and functions for dummies
Bluttman, Ken
2013-01-01
Learn to use Excel for practical, day-to-day calculations Excel is a powerful program with more than 300 built-in functions that can be used to perform an almost infinite number of calculations. This friendly book shows you how to use the 150 most valuable ones in real-world situations: to compare the cost of buying vs. leasing a car, calculate classroom grades, or evaluate investment performance, for example. Another 85 specialized functions are also described. Detailed, step-by-step instructions help you understand how functions work within formulas and how you can use them t
Study of men sexual formula. Chapter 8
2000-01-01
Analysis of average indexes of men sexual formula (MSF) for liquidators was carried out. It was shown, that with increasing of radiation doses acting on personnel the suppressing of their sexual functions is growing up. With increasing of absorbed dose the frequency of copulative cycle disorders is increase from 61.5±5.10 % to 85.72±5.08 %. With increase of age the gradations of MSF indexes characterizing different sides of sexual life is decreasing. Received data evident that patients suffered from radiation action during a month characterizing with pronounced and prolonged dysfunction in sexual sphere
Calculation of Critical Temperatures by Empirical Formulae
Trzaska J.
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The paper presents formulas used to calculate critical temperatures of structural steels. Equations that allow calculating temperatures Ac1, Ac3, Ms and Bs were elaborated based on the chemical composition of steel. To elaborate the equations the multiple regression method was used. Particular attention was paid to the collection of experimental data which was required to calculate regression coefficients, including preparation of data for calculation. The empirical data set included more than 500 chemical compositions of structural steel and has been prepared based on information available in literature on the subject.
Dynamics formulas and problems : engineering mechanics 3
Gross, Dietmar; Wriggers, Peter; Schröder, Jörg; Müller, Ralf
2017-01-01
This book contains the most important formulas and more than 190 completely solved problems from Kinetics and Hydrodynamics. It provides engineering students material to improve their skills and helps to gain experience in solving engineering problems. Particular emphasis is placed on finding the solution path and formulating the basic equations. Topics include: - Kinematics of a Point - Kinetics of a Point Mass- Dynamics of a System of Point Masses - Kinematics of Rigid Bodies - Kinetics of Rigid Bodies - Impact - Vibrations - Non-Inertial Reference Frames - Hydrodynamics .
Green--Kubo formula for collisional relaxation
Visscher, P.B.
1988-01-01
In this paper we generalize the Green--Kubo method (usually used for obtaining formulas for transport coefficients involving conserved densities) to relaxation processes occurring during collisions, such as the transfer of energy from vibrational to translational modes in a molecular fluid. We show that the relaxation rate can be calculated without evaluating time correlation functions over long times, and can in fact be written as a sum over collisions which makes the relation between the Green--Kubo method and approximate independent-collision models much clearer
Walfisz-like formula from Poisson's summation formula and some applications
Freitas, U. de; Chaba, A.N.
1983-01-01
Walfiscz-like formula for the number of lattice points of an arbitrary m-dimensional lattice in a hyperellipsoid with given semi-axes is derived from the Poisson's summation formula. Applications to (i) the evaluation of certain lattice sums and (ii) the calculation of the expressions for the density of states of a single non-relativistic particle as well as of a relativistic particle enclosed in a rectangular m-dimensional box of finite size and subject to different boundary conditions are given. (Author) [pt
Basshuysen, R. van; Siebenpfeiffer, W. (eds.)
2007-11-15
Following its great success last year, Formula Student Germany made an even more impressive impact at the second competition held at the Hockenheimring in 2007. This time, 1400 students from 14 nations came together to present the results of their development work to 5000 visitors and sponsors. At the end, the competition was won by the team from the University of Stuttgart - and ATZ/MTZ would like to congratulate them on their victory. The special character of Formula Student, however, means that everyone has something to celebrate. The enthusiasm and commitment of the teams not only resulted in exciting racing cars and innovative overall designs but also in a fantastic atmosphere. (orig.)
Aerodynamic analysis of formula student car
Dharmawan, Mohammad Arief; Ubaidillah, Nugraha, Arga Ahmadi; Wijayanta, Agung Tri; Naufal, Brian Aqif
2018-02-01
Formula Society of Automotive Engineering (FSAE) is a contest between ungraduated students to create a high-performance formula student car that completes the regulation. Body and the other aerodynamic devices are significant because it affects the drag coefficient and the down force of the car. The drag coefficient is a measurement of the resistance of an object in a fluid environment, a lower the drag coefficient means it will have a less drag force. Down force is a force that pushes an object to the ground, in the car more down force means more grip. The objective of the research was to study the aerodynamic comparison between the race vehicle when attached to the wings and without it. These studies were done in three dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation method using the Autodesk Flow Design software. These simulations were done by conducted in 5 different velocities. The results of those simulations are by attaching wings on race vehicle has drag coefficient 0.728 and without wings has drag coefficient 0.56. Wings attachment will decrease the drag coefficient about 23 % and also the contour pressure and velocity were known at these simulations.
Comparing computing formulas for estimating concentration ratios
Gilbert, R.O.; Simpson, J.C.
1984-03-01
This paper provides guidance on the choice of computing formulas (estimators) for estimating concentration ratios and other ratio-type measures of radionuclides and other environmental contaminant transfers between ecosystem components. Mathematical expressions for the expected value of three commonly used estimators (arithmetic mean of ratios, geometric mean of ratios, and the ratio of means) are obtained when the multivariate lognormal distribution is assumed. These expressions are used to explain why these estimators will not in general give the same estimate of the average concentration ratio. They illustrate that the magnitude of the discrepancies depends on the magnitude of measurement biases, and on the variances and correlations associated with spatial heterogeneity and measurement errors. This paper also reports on a computer simulation study that compares the accuracy of eight computing formulas for estimating a ratio relationship that is constant over time and/or space. Statistical models appropriate for both controlled spiking experiments and observational field studies for either normal or lognormal distributions are considered. 24 references, 15 figures, 7 tables
Can survival prediction be improved by merging gene expression data sets?
Haleh Yasrebi
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High-throughput gene expression profiling technologies generating a wealth of data, are increasingly used for characterization of tumor biopsies for clinical trials. By applying machine learning algorithms to such clinically documented data sets, one hopes to improve tumor diagnosis, prognosis, as well as prediction of treatment response. However, the limited number of patients enrolled in a single trial study limits the power of machine learning approaches due to over-fitting. One could partially overcome this limitation by merging data from different studies. Nevertheless, such data sets differ from each other with regard to technical biases, patient selection criteria and follow-up treatment. It is therefore not clear at all whether the advantage of increased sample size outweighs the disadvantage of higher heterogeneity of merged data sets. Here, we present a systematic study to answer this question specifically for breast cancer data sets. We use survival prediction based on Cox regression as an assay to measure the added value of merged data sets. RESULTS: Using time-dependent Receiver Operating Characteristic-Area Under the Curve (ROC-AUC and hazard ratio as performance measures, we see in overall no significant improvement or deterioration of survival prediction with merged data sets as compared to individual data sets. This apparently was due to the fact that a few genes with strong prognostic power were not available on all microarray platforms and thus were not retained in the merged data sets. Surprisingly, we found that the overall best performance was achieved with a single-gene predictor consisting of CYB5D1. CONCLUSIONS: Merging did not deteriorate performance on average despite (a The diversity of microarray platforms used. (b The heterogeneity of patients cohorts. (c The heterogeneity of breast cancer disease. (d Substantial variation of time to death or relapse. (e The reduced number of genes in the merged data
Hao Weng, Chung; Yeh, Chao Hsien
2017-04-01
The rivers in Taiwan have the characteristic of large slope gradient and fast flow velocity caused by rugged terrain. And Taiwan often aces many typhoons which will bring large rainfall in the summer. In early Taiwan, river management was more focus on flood control, flood protection and disaster reduction. In recent years, the rise of ecological conservation awareness for the precious fish species brings spotlight on the Taiwan salmon (Oncorhynchus masou formosanus) which lives in the river section of this study. In order to make sure ecological corridor continuing, dam removal is the frequently discussed measure in recent years and its impact on environmental is also highly concerned. Since the dam removal may causes severe changes to the river channel, the action of dam removal needs careful evaluation. As one of the endangered species, Taiwan salmon is considered a national treasure of Taiwan and it was originally an offshore migration of the Pacific salmon. After the ice age and geographical isolation, it becomes as an unique subspecies of Taiwan and evolved into landlocked salmon. Now the Taiwan salmon habitats only exists in few upstream creeks and the total number of wild Taiwan salmon in 2015 was about 4,300. In order to expand the connectivity of the fish habitats in Chi-Jia-Wan creek basin, several dam removal projects had completed with good results. Therefore, this paper focuses on the dam removal of Yu-Sheng creek dam. In this paper, a digital elevation model (DEM) of about 1 kilometer channel of the Yu-Sheng creek dam is obtained by unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Using CCHE2D model, the simulation of dam removal will reveal the impact on channel morphology. After model parameter identification and verification, this study simulated the scenarios of three historical typhoon events with recurrence interval of two years, fifteen years, and three decades under four different patterns of dam removal to identify the the head erosion, flow pattern, and
Optimization approaches to mpi and area merging-based parallel buffer algorithm
Junfu Fan
Full Text Available On buffer zone construction, the rasterization-based dilation method inevitably introduces errors, and the double-sided parallel line method involves a series of complex operations. In this paper, we proposed a parallel buffer algorithm based on area merging and MPI (Message Passing Interface to improve the performances of buffer analyses on processing large datasets. Experimental results reveal that there are three major performance bottlenecks which significantly impact the serial and parallel buffer construction efficiencies, including the area merging strategy, the task load balance method and the MPI inter-process results merging strategy. Corresponding optimization approaches involving tree-like area merging strategy, the vertex number oriented parallel task partition method and the inter-process results merging strategy were suggested to overcome these bottlenecks. Experiments were carried out to examine the performance efficiency of the optimized parallel algorithm. The estimation results suggested that the optimization approaches could provide high performance and processing ability for buffer construction in a cluster parallel environment. Our method could provide insights into the parallelization of spatial analysis algorithm.
Transient and intermittent magnetic reconnections in TS-3/UTST merging startup experiments
Ono, Y.; Imazawa, R.; Imanaka, H.; Hayamizu, T.; Inomoto, M.; Sato, M.; Kawamori, E.; Ejiri, A.; Takase, Y.; Asai, T.; Takahashi, T.
2007-01-01
The high-power reconnection heating has been developed in the TS-3 merging experiments, leading us to a new pulsed high-beta spherical tokamak (ST) formation. Two ST plasmas were produced inductively by two or four PF coils without using any central solenoid (CS) coil and were merged together for MW-GW reconnection heating. The magnetic reconnection transformed the magnetic energy of reconnecting magnetic field through the outflow kinetic energy finally to the ion thermal energy, increasing the plasma beta of ST up to 0.5. A new finding is that ejection of current sheet (or plasmoid) causes high-speed merging/ reconnection as well as high-power heating. In the high-q ST merging, the sheet resistivity was almost classical due to the sheet thickness much longer than ion gyroradius. Large inflow flux and low current-sheet dissipation resulted in flux pileup followed by rapid growth of the current sheet. When the flux pileup exceeded a critical limit, the sheet was ejected mechanically from the squeezed X-point area. The reconnection (outflow) speed was slow during the flux pileup and was fast during the ejection, indicating that intermittent reconnection similar to the solar flare increased the averaged reconnection speed. These transient effects enable us to have the fast reconnection as well as the high-power reconnection heating, even if the merging high-q tokamaks have low current-sheet resistivity. (author)
Heating properties of merging/reconnection startup of high-beta ST
Ono, Yasushi
2005-01-01
The high-power reconnection heating of spherical tokamak (ST) has been studied in the TS-3 experiment by use of axial merging of two STs. In this method, the merging/magnetic reconnection transformed a part of magnetic energy of merging STs into their thermal energy within short reconnection time. Our present low-field merging (0.3-0.5kG, R∼0.2m) attained the maximum heating power of 4-10MW and increased the beta-values of STs by factor 2-3 transiently. The ion heating energy was found to increase inversely with the q-value (B t component) of two STs. The most probable cause for this dependence is fast reconnection speed/ outflow speed due to large anomalous resistivity of current sheet in low-q state. After merging startup, decrease in beta was observed especially in low-q STs, indicating that the final beta value of ST increased with the q-value. (author)
Acharya, S; Adamová, D; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agnello, M; Agrawal, N; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, N; Ahn, S U; Aiola, S; Akindinov, A; Alam, S N; Albuquerque, D S D; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alexandre, D; Alfaro Molina, R; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altsybeev, I; Alves Garcia Prado, C; An, M; Andrei, C; Andrews, H A; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Anson, C; Antičić, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Anwar, R; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arcelli, S; Arnaldi, R; Arnold, O W; Arsene, I C; Arslandok, M; Audurier, B; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Azmi, M D; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bagnasco, S; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Baldisseri, A; Ball, M; Baral, R C; Barbano, A M; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barioglio, L; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartalini, P; Barth, K; Bartke, J; Bartsch, E; Basile, M; Bastid, N; Basu, S; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batista Camejo, A; Batyunya, B; Batzing, P C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Bedda, C; Behera, N K; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bello Martinez, H; Bellwied, R; Beltran, L G E; Belyaev, V; Bencedi, G; Beole, S; Bercuci, A; Berdnikov, Y; Berenyi, D; Bertens, R A; Berzano, D; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhat, I R; Bhati, A K; Bhattacharjee, B; Bhom, J; Bianchi, L; Bianchi, N; Bianchin, C; Bielčík, J; Bielčíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Biro, G; Biswas, R; Biswas, S; Blair, J T; Blau, D; Blume, C; Boca, G; Bock, F; Bogdanov, A; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Bonomi, G; Bonora, M; Book, J; Borel, H; Borissov, A; Borri, M; Botta, E; Bourjau, C; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bregant, M; Broker, T A; Browning, T A; Broz, M; Brucken, E J; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bufalino, S; Buhler, P; Buitron, S A I; Buncic, P; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Butt, J B; Buxton, J T; Cabala, J; Caffarri, D; Caines, H; Caliva, A; Calvo Villar, E; Camerini, P; Capon, A A; Carena, F; Carena, W; Carnesecchi, F; Castillo Castellanos, J; Castro, A J; Casula, E A R; Ceballos Sanchez, C; Cerello, P; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Chartier, M; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Chauvin, A; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Cho, S; Chochula, P; Choi, K; Chojnacki, M; Choudhury, S; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, S U; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Colamaria, F; Colella, D; Collu, A; Colocci, M; Concas, M; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa Del Valle, Z; Connors, M E; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Corrales Morales, Y; Cortés Maldonado, I; Cortese, P; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Costanza, S; Crkovská, J; Crochet, P; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Dahms, T; Dainese, A; Danisch, M C; Danu, A; Das, D; Das, I; Das, S; Dash, A; Dash, S; De, S; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Conti, C; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gruttola, D; De Marco, N; De Pasquale, S; De Souza, R D; Degenhardt, H F; Deisting, A; Deloff, A; Deplano, C; Dhankher, P; Di Bari, D; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Di Ruzza, B; Diaz Corchero, M A; Dietel, T; Dillenseger, P; Divià, R; Djuvsland, Ø; Dobrin, A; Domenicis Gimenez, D; Dönigus, B; Dordic, O; Drozhzhova, T; Dubey, A K; Dubla, A; Ducroux, L; Duggal, A K; Dupieux, P; Ehlers, R J; Elia, D; Endress, E; Engel, H; Epple, E; Erazmus, B; Erhardt, F; Espagnon, B; Esumi, S; Eulisse, G; Eum, J; Evans, D; Evdokimov, S; Fabbietti, L; Faivre, J; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Feldkamp, L; Feliciello, A; Feofilov, G; Ferencei, J; Téllez, A Fernández; Ferreiro, E G; Ferretti, A; Festanti, A; Feuillard, V J G; Figiel, J; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Finogeev, D; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Floris, M; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Fragiacomo, E; Francescon, A; Francisco, A; Frankenfeld, U; Fronze, G G; Fuchs, U; Furget, C; Furs, A; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhøje, J J; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A M; Gajdosova, K; Gallio, M; Galvan, C D; Ganoti, P; Gao, C; Garabatos, C; Garcia-Solis, E; Garg, K; Garg, P; Gargiulo, C; Gasik, P; Gauger, E F; Gay Ducati, M B; Germain, M; Ghosh, P; Ghosh, S K; Gianotti, P; Giubellino, P; Giubilato, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glässel, P; Goméz Coral, D M; Gomez Ramirez, A; Gonzalez, A S; Gonzalez, V; González-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Görlich, L; Gotovac, S; Grabski, V; Graczykowski, L K; Graham, K L; Greiner, L; Grelli, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, A; Grigoryan, S; Grion, N; Gronefeld, J M; Grosa, F; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grosso, R; Gruber, L; Grull, F R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerzoni, B; Gulbrandsen, K; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Guzman, I B; Haake, R; Hadjidakis, C; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Hamon, J C; Harris, J W; Harton, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, S; Heckel, S T; Hellbär, E; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Herrera Corral, G; Herrmann, F; Hess, B A; Hetland, K F; Hillemanns, H; Hippolyte, B; Hladky, J; Hohlweger, B; Horak, D; Hosokawa, R; Hristov, P; Hughes, C; Humanic, T J; Hussain, N; Hussain, T; Hutter, D; Hwang, D S; Ilkaev, R; Inaba, M; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Isakov, V; Islam, M S; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, V; Izucheev, V; Jacak, B; Jacazio, N; Jacobs, P M; Jadhav, M B; Jadlovska, S; Jadlovsky, J; Jaelani, S; Jahnke, C; Jakubowska, M J; Janik, M A; Jayarathna, P H S Y; Jena, C; Jena, S; Jercic, M; Jimenez Bustamante, R T; Jones, P G; Jusko, A; Kalinak, P; Kalweit, A; Kang, J H; Kaplin, V; Kar, S; Karasu Uysal, A; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karayan, L; Karpechev, E; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Keijdener, D L D; Keil, M; Ketzer, B; Mohisin Khan, M; Khan, P; Khan, S A; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Khatun, A; Khuntia, A; Kielbowicz, M M; Kileng, B; Kim, D; Kim, D W; Kim, D J; Kim, H; Kim, J S; Kim, J; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kim, S; Kim, T; Kirsch, S; Kisel, I; Kiselev, S; Kisiel, A; Kiss, G; Klay, J L; Klein, C; Klein, J; Klein-Bösing, C; Klewin, S; Kluge, A; Knichel, M L; Knospe, A G; Kobdaj, C; Kofarago, M; Kollegger, T; Kolojvari, A; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Kondratyuk, E; Konevskikh, A; Kopcik, M; Kour, M; Kouzinopoulos, C; Kovalenko, O; Kovalenko, V; Kowalski, M; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G; Králik, I; Kravčáková, A; Krivda, M; Krizek, F; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kubera, A M; Kučera, V; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kumar, A; Kumar, J; Kumar, L; Kumar, S; Kundu, S; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, A B; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, S; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; La Pointe, S L; La Rocca, P; Lagana Fernandes, C; Lakomov, I; Langoy, R; Lapidus, K; Lara, C; Lardeux, A; Lattuca, A; Laudi, E; Lavicka, R; Lazaridis, L; Lea, R; Leardini, L; Lee, S; Lehas, F; Lehner, S; Lehrbach, J; Lemmon, R C; Lenti, V; Leogrande, E; León Monzón, I; Lévai, P; Li, S; Li, X; Lien, J; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Litichevskyi, V; Ljunggren, H M; Llope, W J; Lodato, D F; Loenne, P I; Loginov, V; Loizides, C; Loncar, P; Lopez, X; López Torres, E; Lowe, A; Luettig, P; Lunardon, M; Luparello, G; Lupi, M; Lutz, T H; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahajan, S; Mahmood, S M; Maire, A; Majka, R D; Malaev, M; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malinina, L; Mal'Kevich, D; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Mao, Y; Marchisone, M; Mareš, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Margutti, J; Marín, A; Markert, C; Marquard, M; Martin, N A; Martinengo, P; Martinez, J A L; Martínez, M I; Martínez García, G; Martinez Pedreira, M; Mas, A; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Mastroserio, A; Mathis, A M; Matyja, A; Mayer, C; Mazer, J; Mazzilli, M; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Melikyan, Y; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meninno, E; Mercado Pérez, J; Meres, M; Mhlanga, S; Miake, Y; Mieskolainen, M M; Mihaylov, D L; Mikhaylov, K; Milano, L; Milosevic, J; Mischke, A; Mishra, A N; Miśkowiec, D; Mitra, J; Mitu, C M; Mohammadi, N; Mohanty, B; Montes, E; Moreira De Godoy, D A; Moreno, L A P; Moretto, S; Morreale, A; Morsch, A; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Mühlheim, D; Muhuri, S; Mukherjee, M; Mulligan, J D; Munhoz, M G; Münning, K; Munzer, R H; Murakami, H; Murray, S; Musa, L; Musinsky, J; Myers, C J; Naik, B; Nair, R; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Naru, M U; Natal da Luz, H; Nattrass, C; Navarro, S R; Nayak, K; Nayak, R; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nedosekin, A; Negrao De Oliveira, R A; Nellen, L; Nesbo, S V; Ng, F; Nicassio, M; Niculescu, M; Niedziela, J; Nielsen, B S; Nikolaev, S; Nikulin, S; Nikulin, V; Noferini, F; Nomokonov, P; Nooren, G; Noris, J C C; Norman, J; Nyanin, A; Nystrand, J; Oeschler, H; Oh, S; Ohlson, A; Okubo, T; Olah, L; Oleniacz, J; Oliveira Da Silva, A C; Oliver, M H; Onderwaater, J; Oppedisano, C; Orava, R; Oravec, M; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Oskarsson, A; Otwinowski, J; Oyama, K; Pachmayer, Y; Pacik, V; Pagano, D; Pagano, P; Paić, G; Palni, P; Pan, J; Pandey, A K; Panebianco, S; Papikyan, V; Pappalardo, G S; Pareek, P; Park, J; Park, W J; Parmar, S; Passfeld, A; Pathak, S P; Paticchio, V; Patra, R N; Paul, B; Pei, H; Peitzmann, T; Peng, X; Pereira, L G; Pereira Da Costa, H; Peresunko, D; Perez Lezama, E; Peskov, V; Pestov, Y; Petráček, V; Petrov, V; Petrovici, M; Petta, C; Pezzi, R P; Piano, S; Pikna, M; Pillot, P; Pimentel, L O D L; Pinazza, O; Pinsky, L; Piyarathna, D B; Płoskoń, M; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Pochybova, S; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Poghosyan, M G; Polichtchouk, B; Poljak, N; Poonsawat, W; Pop, A; Poppenborg, H; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S; Porter, J; Pospisil, J; Pozdniakov, V; Prasad, S K; Preghenella, R; Prino, F; Pruneau, C A; Pshenichnov, I; Puccio, M; Puddu, G; Pujahari, P; Punin, V; Putschke, J; Qvigstad, H; Rachevski, A; Raha, S; Rajput, S; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ramello, L; Rami, F; Rana, D B; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Räsänen, S S; Rascanu, B T; Rathee, D; Ratza, V; Ravasenga, I; Read, K F; Redlich, K; Rehman, A; Reichelt, P; Reidt, F; Ren, X; Renfordt, R; Reolon, A R; Reshetin, A; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Ricci, R A; Richert, T; Richter, M; Riedler, P; Riegler, W; Riggi, F; Ristea, C; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M; Røed, K; Rogochaya, E; Rohr, D; Röhrich, D; Rokita, P S; Ronchetti, F; Ronflette, L; Rosnet, P; Rossi, A; Rotondi, A; Roukoutakis, F; Roy, A; Roy, C; Roy, P; Rubio Montero, A J; Rueda, O V; Rui, R; Russo, R; Rustamov, A; Ryabinkin, E; Ryabov, Y; Rybicki, A; Saarinen, S; Sadhu, S; Sadovsky, S; Šafařík, K; Saha, S K; Sahlmuller, B; Sahoo, B; Sahoo, P; Sahoo, R; Sahoo, S; Sahu, P K; Saini, J; Sakai, S; Saleh, M A; Salzwedel, J; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Sandoval, A; Sarkar, D; Sarkar, N; Sarma, P; Sas, M H P; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Scharenberg, R P; Scheid, H S; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, H R; Schmidt, M O; Schmidt, M; Schuchmann, S; Schukraft, J; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Scott, R; Šefčík, M; Seger, J E; Sekiguchi, Y; Sekihata, D; Selyuzhenkov, I; Senosi, K; Senyukov, S; Serradilla, E; Sett, P; Sevcenco, A; Shabanov, A; Shabetai, A; Shadura, O; Shahoyan, R; Shangaraev, A; Sharma, A; Sharma, A; Sharma, M; Sharma, M; Sharma, N; Sheikh, A I; Shigaki, K; Shou, Q; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siddhanta, S; Sielewicz, K M; Siemiarczuk, T; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Simatovic, G; Simonetti, G; Singaraju, R; Singh, R; Singhal, V; Sinha, T; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Slupecki, M; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R J M; Snellman, T W; Song, J; Song, M; Soramel, F; Sorensen, S; Sozzi, F; Spiriti, E; Sputowska, I; Srivastava, B K; Stachel, J; Stan, I; Stankus, P; Stenlund, E; Stiller, J H; Stocco, D; Strmen, P; Suaide, A A P; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Suleymanov, M; Suljic, M; Sultanov, R; Šumbera, M; Sumowidagdo, S; Suzuki, K; Swain, S; Szabo, A; Szarka, I; Szczepankiewicz, A; Szymanski, M; Tabassam, U; Takahashi, J; Tambave, G J; Tanaka, N; Tarhini, M; Tariq, M; Tarzila, M G; Tauro, A; Tejeda Muñoz, G; Telesca, A; Terasaki, K; Terrevoli, C; Teyssier, B; Thakur, D; Thakur, S; Thomas, D; Tieulent, R; Tikhonov, A; Timmins, A R; Toia, A; Tripathy, S; Trogolo, S; Trombetta, G; Trubnikov, V; Trzaska, W H; Trzeciak, B A; Tsuji, T; Tumkin, A; Turrisi, R; Tveter, T S; Ullaland, K; Umaka, E N; Uras, A; Usai, G L; Utrobicic, A; Vala, M; Van Der Maarel, J; Van Hoorne, J W; van Leeuwen, M; Vanat, T; Vande Vyvre, P; Varga, D; Vargas, A; Vargyas, M; Varma, R; Vasileiou, M; Vasiliev, A; Vauthier, A; Vázquez Doce, O; Vechernin, V; Veen, A M; Velure, A; Vercellin, E; Vergara Limón, S; Vernet, R; Vértesi, R; Vickovic, L; Vigolo, S; Viinikainen, J; Vilakazi, Z; Villalobos Baillie, O; Villatoro Tello, A; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, L; Virgili, T; Vislavicius, V; Vodopyanov, A; Völkl, M A; Voloshin, K; Voloshin, S A; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vorobyev, I; Voscek, D; Vranic, D; Vrláková, J; Wagner, B; Wagner, J; Wang, H; Wang, M; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, Y; Weber, M; Weber, S G; Weiser, D F; Wessels, J P; Westerhoff, U; Whitehead, A M; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilk, G; Wilkinson, J; Willems, G A; Williams, M C S; Windelband, B; Witt, W E; Yalcin, S; Yang, P; Yano, S; Yin, Z; Yokoyama, H; Yoo, I-K; Yoon, J H; Yurchenko, V; Zaccolo, V; Zaman, A; Zampolli, C; Zanoli, H J C; Zardoshti, N; Zarochentsev, A; Závada, P; Zaviyalov, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zhalov, M; Zhang, H; Zhang, X; Zhang, Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, Z; Zhao, C; Zhigareva, N; Zhou, D; Zhou, Y; Zhou, Z; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, X; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, A; Zimmermann, M B; Zimmermann, S; Zinovjev, G; Zmeskal, J
2017-01-01
We present results on transverse momentum ([Formula: see text]) and rapidity ([Formula: see text]) differential production cross sections, mean transverse momentum and mean transverse momentum square of inclusive [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] at forward rapidity ([Formula: see text]) as well as [Formula: see text]-to-[Formula: see text] cross section ratios. These quantities are measured in pp collisions at center of mass energies [Formula: see text] and 13 TeV with the ALICE detector. Both charmonium states are reconstructed in the dimuon decay channel, using the muon spectrometer. A comprehensive comparison to inclusive charmonium cross sections measured at [Formula: see text], 7 and 8 TeV is performed. A comparison to non-relativistic quantum chromodynamics and fixed-order next-to-leading logarithm calculations, which describe prompt and non-prompt charmonium production respectively, is also presented. A good description of the data is obtained over the full [Formula: see text] range, provided that both contributions are summed. In particular, it is found that for [Formula: see text] GeV/ c the non-prompt contribution reaches up to 50% of the total charmonium yield.
Low serum biotin in Japanese children fed with hydrolysate formula.
Sato, Yasuhiro; Wakabayashi, Kenji; Ogawa, Eishin; Kodama, Hiroko; Mimaki, Masakazu
2016-09-01
Given that nutritional biotin deficiency in Japanese infants has been reported, a straightforward method for estimating biotin level is needed. The biotin content in infant formula, breast milk, and the sera of infants fed with various types of formula were measured using avidin-binding assay. A commercially available ELISA kit was used for the measurement of biotin in 54 types of formula, including hydrolysate formulas for milk allergy, as well as in breast milk and in the sera of 27 infants fed with these formulas. The biotin content reached the recommended value in only five formulas. All of the hydrolysate formulas and more than half of the special formulas contained biotin biotin was low in infants fed only with the hydrolysate formulas, and one of them had alopecia related to biotin deficiency. While many were asymptomatic, infants fed with formulas lacking biotin are at risk of developing symptomatic disease. The addition of biotin to breast milk substitutes was finally approved in the middle of 2014, however pediatricians in Japan should still be vigilant with regard to nutritional biotin deficiency in infants for the time being. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.
Practical improvements and merging of POWHEG simulations for vector boson production
Aliolo, Simone; Hamilton, Keith; Re, Emanuele
2011-10-01
In this article we generalise POWHEG next-to-leading order parton shower (NLOPS) simulations of vector boson production and vector boson production in association with a single jet, to give matrix element corrected MENLOPS simulations. In so doing we extend and provide, for the first time, an exact and faithful implementation of the MENLOPS formalism in hadronic collisions. We also consider merging the resulting event samples according to a phase space partition defined in terms of an effective jet clustering scale. The merging scale is restricted such that the component generated by the associated production simulation does not impact on the NLO accuracy of inclusive vector boson production observables. The dependence of the predictions on the unphysical merging scale is demonstrated. Comparisons with Tevatron and LHC data are presented. (orig.)
An improved method for pancreas segmentation using SLIC and interactive region merging
Zhang, Liyuan; Yang, Huamin; Shi, Weili; Miao, Yu; Li, Qingliang; He, Fei; He, Wei; Li, Yanfang; Zhang, Huimao; Mori, Kensaku; Jiang, Zhengang
2017-03-01
Considering the weak edges in pancreas segmentation, this paper proposes a new solution which integrates more features of CT images by combining SLIC superpixels and interactive region merging. In the proposed method, Mahalanobis distance is first utilized in SLIC method to generate better superpixel images. By extracting five texture features and one gray feature, the similarity measure between two superpixels becomes more reliable in interactive region merging. Furthermore, object edge blocks are accurately addressed by re-segmentation merging process. Applying the proposed method to four cases of abdominal CT images, we segment pancreatic tissues to verify the feasibility and effectiveness. The experimental results show that the proposed method can make segmentation accuracy increase to 92% on average. This study will boost the application process of pancreas segmentation for computer-aided diagnosis system.
The ionospheric footprint of antiparallel merging regions on the dayside magnetopause
I. J. Coleman
2000-05-01
Full Text Available The antiparallel merging hypothesis states that reconnection takes place on the dayside magnetopause where the solar and geomagnetic fields are oppositely directed. With this criterion, we have mapped the predicted merging regions to the ionosphere using the Tsyganenko 96 magnetic field model, distinguishing between regions of sub-Alfvénic and super-Alfvénic magnetosheath flow, and identifying the day-night terminator. We present the resulting shape, width and latitude of the ionospheric dayside merging regions in both hemispheres, showing their dependence on the Earth's dipole tilt. The resulting seasonal variation of the longitudinal width is consistent with the conjugate electric fields in the northern and southern cusps, as measured by the SuperDARN HF radars, for example. We also find a seasonal shift in latitude similar to that observed in satellite cusp data.Key words: Ionosphere (ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions · Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause · cusp and boundary layers; magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions
Automated cloud screening of AVHRR imagery using split-and-merge clustering
Gallaudet, Timothy C.; Simpson, James J.
1991-01-01
Previous methods to segment clouds from ocean in AVHRR imagery have shown varying degrees of success, with nighttime approaches being the most limited. An improved method of automatic image segmentation, the principal component transformation split-and-merge clustering (PCTSMC) algorithm, is presented and applied to cloud screening of both nighttime and daytime AVHRR data. The method combines spectral differencing, the principal component transformation, and split-and-merge clustering to sample objectively the natural classes in the data. This segmentation method is then augmented by supervised classification techniques to screen clouds from the imagery. Comparisons with other nighttime methods demonstrate its improved capability in this application. The sensitivity of the method to clustering parameters is presented; the results show that the method is insensitive to the split-and-merge thresholds.
Bahn, O.; Kypreos, S.
2002-07-01
In MERGE-ETL, endogenous technological progress is applied to eight energy technologies: six power plants (integrated coal gasification with combined cycle, gas turbine with combined cycle, gas fuel cell, new nuclear designs, wind turbine and solar photovoltaic) and two plants producing hydrogen (from biomass and solar photovoltaic). Furthermore, compared to the original MERGE model, we have introduced two new power plants (using coal and gas) with CO{sub 2} capture and disposal into depleted oil and gas reservoirs. The difficulty with incorporating endogenous technological progress in MERGE comes from the resulting formulation of the MERGE-ETL model. Indeed, technological learning is related to increasing returns to adoption, and the mathematical formulation of MERGE-ETL corresponds then to a (non-linear and) non-convex optimisation problem. To solve MERGE-ETL, we have devised a three-step heuristic approach, where we search for the global optimum in an iterative way. We use in particular for this a linearisation, following mixed integer programming techniques, of the bottom-up part of MERGE-ETL. To study the impacts of modelling endogenous technological change in MERGE, we have considered several scenarios related to technological learning and carbon control. The latter corresponds to a 'soft landing' of world energy related CO{sub 2} emissions to a level of 10 Gt C by 2050, and takes into account the recent (2001) Marrakech Agreements for CO{sub 2} emission limits by 2010. Notice that our baseline scenario (without emission control and endogenous technological change) is consistent, in particular in terms of population and CO{sub 2} emissions, with the IPCC B2 scenario. Our numerical application with MERGE-ETL shows that technological learning yields an increase of primary energy use and of electricity generation. Indeed, energy production, and in particular electricity generation, become less expensive over-time. Energy (electricity, but also non
Practical improvements and merging of POWHEG simulations for vector boson production
Aliolo, Simone [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Hamilton, Keith [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan (Italy); Re, Emanuele [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics
2011-10-15
In this article we generalise POWHEG next-to-leading order parton shower (NLOPS) simulations of vector boson production and vector boson production in association with a single jet, to give matrix element corrected MENLOPS simulations. In so doing we extend and provide, for the first time, an exact and faithful implementation of the MENLOPS formalism in hadronic collisions. We also consider merging the resulting event samples according to a phase space partition defined in terms of an effective jet clustering scale. The merging scale is restricted such that the component generated by the associated production simulation does not impact on the NLO accuracy of inclusive vector boson production observables. The dependence of the predictions on the unphysical merging scale is demonstrated. Comparisons with Tevatron and LHC data are presented. (orig.)
Modeling the Compression of Merged Compact Toroids by Multiple Plasma Jets
Thio, Y. C. Francis; Knapp, Charles E.; Kirkpatrick, Ron; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
A fusion propulsion scheme has been proposed that makes use of the merging of a spherical distribution of plasma jets to dynamically form a gaseous liner. The gaseous liner is used to implode a magnetized target to produce the fusion reaction in a standoff manner. In this paper, the merging of the plasma jets to form the gaseous liner is investigated numerically. The Los Alamos SPHINX code, based on the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method is used to model the interaction of the jets. 2-D and 3-D simulations have been performed to study the characteristics of the resulting flow when these jets collide. The results show that the jets merge to form a plasma liner that converge radially which may be used to compress the central plasma to fusion conditions. Details of the computational model and the SPH numerical methods will be presented together with the numerical results.
Estimation of Airline Benefits from Avionics Upgrade under Preferential Merge Re-sequence Scheduling
Kotegawa, Tatsuya; Cayabyab, Charlene Anne; Almog, Noam
2013-01-01
Modernization of the airline fleet avionics is essential to fully enable future technologies and procedures for increasing national airspace system capacity. However in the current national airspace system, system-wide benefits gained by avionics upgrade are not fully directed to aircraft/airlines that upgrade, resulting in slow fleet modernization rate. Preferential merge re-sequence scheduling is a best-equipped-best-served concept designed to incentivize avionics upgrade among airlines by allowing aircraft with new avionics (high-equipped) to be re-sequenced ahead of aircraft without the upgrades (low-equipped) at enroute merge waypoints. The goal of this study is to investigate the potential benefits gained or lost by airlines under a high or low-equipped fleet scenario if preferential merge resequence scheduling is implemented.
Ecodesign of cosmetic formulae: methodology and application.
L'Haridon, J; Martz, P; Chenéble, J-C; Campion, J-F; Colombe, L
2018-04-01
This article describes an easy-to-use ecodesign methodology developed and applied since 2014 by the L'Oréal Group to improve the sustainable performance of its new products without any compromise on their cosmetic efficacy. Cosmetic products, after being used, are often discharged into the sewers and the aquatic compartment. This discharge is considered as dispersive and continuous. A consistent progress in reducing the environmental impact of cosmetic products can be achieved through focusing upon three strategic indicators: biodegradability, grey water footprint adapted for ecodesign (GWFE) and a global indicator, complementary to these two endpoints. Biodegradability represents the key process in the removal of organic ingredients from the environment. GWFE is defined herein as the theoretical volume of natural freshwater required to dilute a cosmetic formula after being used by the consumer, down to a concentration without any foreseeable toxic effects upon aquatic species. Finally, the complementary indicator highlights a possible alert on formula ingredients due to an unfavourable environmental profile based on hazard properties: for example Global Harmonization System/Classification, Labelling and Packaging (GHS/CLP) H410 classification or potential very persistent and very bioaccumulative (vPvB) classification. The ecodesign of a new cosmetic product can be a challenge as the cosmetic properties and quality of this new product should at least match the benchmark reference. As shown in the case studies described herein, new methodologies have been developed to maximize the biodegradability of cosmetic formulae, to minimize their GWFE and to limit the use of ingredients that present an unfavourable environmental profile, while reaching the highest standards in terms of cosmetic efficacy. By applying these methodologies, highly biodegradable products (≥ 95% based on ingredient composition) have been developed and marketed, with a low GWFE. This new
Xiaojie Yang
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Hybrid vigor contributes in a large way to the yield and quality of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum fiber. Although microRNAs play essential regulatory roles in flower induction and development, it is still unclear if microRNAs are involved in male sterility, as the regulatory molecular mechanisms of male sterility in cotton need to be better defined. In this study, two independent small RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced from the young buds collected from the sporogenous cell formation to the meiosis stage of the male sterile line Yu98-8A and the near-isogenic line. Sequencing revealed 1588 and 1536 known microRNAs and 347 and 351 novel miRNAs from male sterile and male fertile libraries, respectively. MicroRNA expression profiles revealed that 49 conserved and 51 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed. Bioinformatic and degradome analysis indicated the regulatory complexity of microRNAs during flower induction and development. Further RT-qPCR and physiological analysis indicated that, among the different Kyoto Encyclopedia Gene and Genomes pathways, indole-3-acetic acid and gibberellic acid signaling transduction pathways may play pivotal regulatory functions in male sterility.
Chen, Weiwei; Huang, Hao; Chen, Rong; Feng, Shangyuan; Yu, Yun; Lin, Duo; Lin, Jia
2014-11-01
This study aimed to assess, through surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy, the incorporation of calcium hydroxyapatite (CHA ~960 cm-1) and other biochemical substances in the repair of complete radial fractures in rabbits treated with or without Huo-Xue-Hua-Yu decoction (HXHYD) therapy. A total of 18 rabbits with complete radial fractures were randomly divided into two groups; one group was treated with HXHYD therapy and the other without therapy acted as a control. The animals were sacrificed at 15, 30 and 45 d after surgery. Specimens were routinely prepared for SERS measurement and high quality SERS spectra from a mixture of bone tissues and silver nanoparticles were obtained. The mineral-to-matrix ratios from the control and treated groups were calculated. Results showed that both deposition content of CHA measured by SERS spectroscopy and the mineral-to-matrix ratio in the treated group were always greater than those of the control group during the experiment, demonstrating that HXHYD therapy is effective in improving fracture healing and that SERS spectroscopy might be a novel tool to assess fracture healing.
Chen, Weiwei; Huang, Hao; Yu, Yun; Lin, Duo; Chen, Rong; Feng, Shangyuan; Lin, Jia
2014-01-01
This study aimed to assess, through surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy, the incorporation of calcium hydroxyapatite (CHA ∼960 cm −1 ) and other biochemical substances in the repair of complete radial fractures in rabbits treated with or without Huo–Xue–Hua–Yu decoction (HXHYD) therapy. A total of 18 rabbits with complete radial fractures were randomly divided into two groups; one group was treated with HXHYD therapy and the other without therapy acted as a control. The animals were sacrificed at 15, 30 and 45 d after surgery. Specimens were routinely prepared for SERS measurement and high quality SERS spectra from a mixture of bone tissues and silver nanoparticles were obtained. The mineral-to-matrix ratios from the control and treated groups were calculated. Results showed that both deposition content of CHA measured by SERS spectroscopy and the mineral-to-matrix ratio in the treated group were always greater than those of the control group during the experiment, demonstrating that HXHYD therapy is effective in improving fracture healing and that SERS spectroscopy might be a novel tool to assess fracture healing. (letter)
Tornambe, Amedo
1989-01-01
We derive theoretical rates of mergings of envelope-deprived components of binary systems, which can give rise to supernova events. The effects of the various assumptions one is forced to make on the physical properties of the progenitor system and of its evolutionary behaviour through common envelope phases are discussed. Four cases have been analysed: CO-CO, He-CO, He-He double degenerate mergings and He star-CO dwarf merging. (author)
Algebraic properties of the monopole formula
Hanany, Amihay [Theoretical Physics Group, Imperial College London,Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Sperling, Marcus [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Wien,Boltzmanngasse 5, 1200 Wien (Austria)
2017-02-06
The monopole formula provides the Hilbert series of the Coulomb branch for a 3-dimensional N=4 gauge theory. Employing the concept of a fan defined by the matter content, and summing over the corresponding collection of monoids, allows the following: firstly, we provide explicit expressions for the Hilbert series for any gauge group. Secondly, we prove that the order of the pole at t=1 and t→∞ equals the complex or quaternionic dimension of the moduli space, respectively. Thirdly, we determine all bare and dressed BPS monopole operators that are sufficient to generate the entire chiral ring. As an application, we demonstrate the implementation of our approach to computer algebra programs and the applicability to higher rank gauge theories.
Polyakov-Wiegmann formula and multiplicative gerbes
Gawedzki, Krzysztof; Waldorf, Konrad
2009-01-01
An unambiguous definition of Feynman amplitudes in the Wess-Zumino-Witten sigma model and the Chern-Simon gauge theory with a general Lie group is determined by a certain geometric structure on the group. For the WZW amplitudes, this is a (bundle) gerbe with connection of an appropriate curvature whereas for the CS amplitudes, the gerbe has to be additionally equipped with a multiplicative structure assuring its compatibility with the group multiplication. We show that for simple compact Lie groups the obstruction to the existence of a multiplicative structure is provided by a 2-cocycle of phases that appears in the Polyakov-Wiegmann formula relating the Wess-Zumino action functional of the product of group-valued fields to the sum of the individual contributions. These phases were computed long time ago for all compact simple Lie groups. If they are trivial, then the multiplicative structure exists and is unique up to isomorphism.
Dingle’s self-resurgence formula
Berry, M. V.
2017-06-01
If a nonlinear function F(S) depends on a function S(x) that is represented by a factorially divergent asymptotic power series in a small parameter x, each late coefficient of the power series for F(S(x)) can be represented explicitly as an asymptotic series whose terms involve balanced combinations of the late and early coefficients of the series for S(x). The formula for the late terms was first described by R B Dingle but not published by him. Numerics for a variety of functions F(S) demonstrate this ‘self-resurgence’ and the accuracy of the representation. Dedicated to the memory of R B Dingle, FRSE.
Quantum arrival time formula from decoherent histories
Halliwell, J.J.; Yearsley, J.M.
2009-01-01
We use the decoherent histories approach to quantum mechanics to compute the probability for a wave packet to cross the origin during a given time interval. We define class operators (sums of strings of projectors) characterizing quantum-mechanical crossing and simplify them using a semiclassical approximation. Using these class operators we find that histories crossing the origin during different time intervals are approximately decoherent for a variety of initial states. Probabilities may therefore be assigned and coincide with the flux of the wave packet (the standard semiclassical formula), and are positive. The known initial states for which the flux is negative (backflow states) are shown to correspond to non-decoherent sets of histories, so probabilities may not be assigned.
Handbook of mathematical formulas and integrals
Jeffrey, Alan
2003-01-01
The updated Handbook is an essential reference for researchers and students in applied mathematics, engineering, and physics. It provides quick access to important formulas, relations, and methods from algebra, trigonometric and exponential functions, combinatorics, probability, matrix theory, calculus and vector calculus, ordinary and partial differential equations, Fourier series, orthogonal polynomials, and Laplace transforms. Many of the entries are based upon the updated sixth edition of Gradshteyn and Ryzhik''s Table of Integrals, Series, and Products and other important reference works.The Third Edition has new chapters covering solutions of elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic equations and qualitative properties of the heat and Laplace equation.Key Features: * Comprehensive coverage of frequently used integrals, functions and fundamental mathematical results * Contents selected and organized to suit the needs of students, scientists, and engineers * Contains tables of Laplace and Fourier transfor...
Cold pool organization and the merging of convective updrafts in a Large Eddy Simulation
Glenn, I. B.; Krueger, S. K.
2016-12-01
Cold pool organization is a process that accelerates the transition from shallow to deep cumulus convection, and leads to higher deep convective cloud top heights. The mechanism by which cold pool organization enhances convection remains not well understood, but the basic idea is that since precipitation evaporation and a low equivalent potential temperature in the mid-troposphere lead to strong cold pools, the net cold pool effect can be accounted for in a cumulus parameterization as a relationship involving those factors. Understanding the actual physical mechanism at work will help quantify the strength of the relationship between cold pools and enhanced deep convection. One proposed mechanism of enhancement is that cold pool organization leads to reduced distances between updrafts, creating a local environment more conducive to convection as updrafts entrain parcels of air recently detrained by their neighbors. We take this hypothesis one step further and propose that convective updrafts actually merge, not just exchange recently processed air. Because entrainment and detrainment around an updraft draws nearby air in or pushes it out, respectively, they act like dynamic flow sources and sinks, drawing each other in or pushing each other away. The acceleration is proportional to the inverse square of the distance between two updrafts, so a small reduction in distance can make a big difference in the rate of merging. We have shown in previous research how merging can be seen as collisions between different updraft air parcels using Lagrangian Parcel Trajectories (LPTs) released in a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) during a period with organized deep convection. Now we use a Eulerian frame of reference to examine the updraft merging process during the transition from shallow to organized deep convection. We use a case based on the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) for our LES. We directly measure the rate of entrainment and the properties
High-power heating experiment of spherical tokamaks by use of plasma merging
Ueda, Yoshinobu; Ono, Yasushi
1999-01-01
High-power heating of spherical tokamaks (STs) has been investigated experimentally by use of plasma merging effect. When two STs were coaxially collided, thermal energy of a colliding ST was injected into a target ST during short reconnection time (Alfven time). Though the thermal energy increment increased with decreasing plasma q value, thermal energy loss during the following relaxation, tended to be smaller with increasing q. The produced high-β STs had hallower current profiles and weaker paramagnetic toroidal field than those of single STs. Those heating properties indicate the plasma merging to be a promising initial heating method of ST plasmas. (author)
Lüscher formula for GKP string
Basso, B.; Belitsky, A.V.
2012-01-01
We investigate finite-size corrections to anomalous dimensions of large-spin twist-two operators in the planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. We develop a framework for analysis of these corrections, that is complementary to the conventional spin-chain approach, by making use of the hole rather than the magnon picture. From the dual string theory perspective where the large-spin operator is identified with the Gubser-Klebanov-Polyakov (GKP) string, our approach is equivalent to constructing the first Lüscher correction to the energy of the GKP string by incorporating the contribution of virtual excitations propagating on it. It allows us to propose a formula that controls a particular class of large-spin corrections to the twist-two anomalous dimension and holds at any value of the coupling constant. Compared to wrapping corrections computed with magnons propagating on the spin chain, the finite-size corrections that are encoded in our formalism start at a lower-loop level. Our formalism thus calls for modification of the asymptotic contributions which are conventionally incorporated within the Asymptotic Bethe Ansatz. An educated guess allows us to remedy this pitfall and successfully confront our predictions with known results up to five-loop accuracy at weak coupling. Finally, our formula sheds light on the weak-to-strong coupling transition for the subleading large-spin corrections under study and confirms stringy expectations at strong coupling where they are found to be identical to the first Lüscher correction to the vacuum energy of the O(6) sigma model.
Definition of correcting factors for absolute radon content measurement formula
Ji Changsong; Xiao Ziyun; Yang Jianfeng
1992-01-01
The absolute method of radio content measurement is based on thomas radon measurement formula. It was found in experiment that the systematic error existed in radon content measurement by means of thomas formula. By the analysis on the behaviour of radon daughter five factors including filter efficiency, detector construction factor, self-absorbance, energy spectrum factor, and gravity factor were introduced into the thomas formula, so that the systematic error was eliminated. The measuring methods of the five factors are given
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A measurement is presented of the [Formula: see text] production cross section at [Formula: see text] = 7 TeV using [Formula: see text] collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 383 [Formula: see text], collected with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Selection of [Formula: see text](1020) mesons is based on the identification of charged kaons by their energy loss in the pixel detector. The differential cross section is measured as a function of the transverse momentum, [Formula: see text], and rapidity, [Formula: see text], of the [Formula: see text](1020) meson in the fiducial region 500 [Formula: see text] 1200 MeV, [Formula: see text] 0.8, kaon [Formula: see text] 230 MeV and kaon momentum [Formula: see text] 800 MeV. The integrated [Formula: see text]-meson production cross section in this fiducial range is measured to be [Formula: see text] = 570 [Formula: see text] 8 (stat) [Formula: see text] 66 (syst) [Formula: see text] 20 (lumi) [Formula: see text].
Effect of Time and Temperature on Thickened Infant Formula.
Gosa, Memorie M; Dodrill, Pamela
2017-04-01
Unlike adult populations, who primarily depend on liquids for hydration alone, infants rely on liquids to provide them with hydration and nutrition. Speech-language pathologists working within pediatric medical settings often identify dysphagia in patients and subsequently recommend thickened liquids to reduce aspiration risk. Caregivers frequently report difficulty attempting to prepare infant formula to the prescribed thickness. This study was designed to determine (1) the relationship between consistencies in modified barium swallow studies and thickened infant formulas and (2) the effects of time and temperature on the resulting thickness of infant formula. Prepackaged barium consistencies and 1 standard infant formula that was thickened with rice cereal and with 2 commercially available thickening agents were studied. Thickness was determined via a line spread test after various time and temperature conditions were met. There were significant differences between the thickened formula and barium test consistencies. Formula thickened with rice cereal separated over time into thin liquid and solid residue. Formula thickened with a starch-based thickening agent was thicker than the desired consistency immediately after mixing, and it continued to thicken over time. The data from this project suggest that nectar-thick and honey-thick infant formulas undergo significant changes in flow rates within 30 minutes of preparation or if refrigerated and then reheated after 3 hours. Additional empirical evidence is warranted to determine the most reliable methods and safest products for thickening infant formula when necessary for effective dysphagia management.
New Formula for Stability of Cube Armoured Roundheads
Maciñeira, Enrique; Burcharth, Hans F.
2009-01-01
The paper presents a new formula for the stability of cube armoured roundheads. The formula is based on physical model tests in Aalborg University which both long crested and short crested waves of different wave steepness were used. The slope of the radius of the head were varied in order...... to explore the influence of the geometry on the armour stability. Besides cubes with mass density 2.4 t/m3, cubes with mass density 2.80 t/m3 were used in order to include the effect of mass density in the formula. The damage predictions given by the formula have been compared with prototype hand...
Overtopping of Berm Breakwaters Extension of Overtopping Formula
Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, H. F.
2005-01-01
the formula is improved so it gives reliable estimates also for more stable structures. The extension of the overtopping formula is based on analysis of front slope stability data from many different data sets. In most cases there is only a small difference between the Lykke Andersen & Burcharth (2004......In this paper is presented an improved version of the overtopping formula by Lykke Andersen & Burcharth (2004)valid for berm breakwaters with initial slopes of 1:1.25. In the present paper guidelines is given on how to modify the formula to take into account the initial slope angle. Further...
Measurements of the branching fractions of [Formula: see text] decays.
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The branching fractions of the decay [Formula: see text] for different intermediate states are measured using data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb -1 , collected by the LHCb experiment. The total branching fraction, its charmless component [Formula: see text] and the branching fractions via the resonant [Formula: see text] states η c (1 S ) and ψ (2 S ) relative to the decay via a J / ψ intermediate state are [Formula: see text] Upper limits on the B + branching fractions into the η c (2 S ) meson and into the charmonium-like states X (3872) and X (3915) are also obtained.
Cardy-Verlinde Formula of Noncommutative Schwarzschild Black Hole
G. Abbas
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Few years ago, Setare (2006 has investigated the Cardy-Verlinde formula of noncommutative black hole obtained by noncommutativity of coordinates. In this paper, we apply the same procedure to a noncommutative black hole obtained by the coordinate coherent approach. The Cardy-Verlinde formula is entropy formula of conformal field theory in an arbitrary dimension. It relates the entropy of conformal field theory to its total energy and Casimir energy. In this paper, we have calculated the total energy and Casimir energy of noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole and have shown that entropy of noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole horizon can be expressed in terms of Cardy-Verlinde formula.
Rueda, Oscar M; Diaz-Uriarte, Ramon
2007-10-16
Yu et al. (BMC Bioinformatics 2007,8: 145+) have recently compared the performance of several methods for the detection of genomic amplification and deletion breakpoints using data from high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. One of the methods compared is our non-homogenous Hidden Markov Model approach. Our approach uses Markov Chain Monte Carlo for inference, but Yu et al. ran the sampler for a severely insufficient number of iterations for a Markov Chain Monte Carlo-based method. Moreover, they did not use the appropriate reference level for the non-altered state. We rerun the analysis in Yu et al. using appropriate settings for both the Markov Chain Monte Carlo iterations and the reference level. Additionally, to show how easy it is to obtain answers to additional specific questions, we have added a new analysis targeted specifically to the detection of breakpoints. The reanalysis shows that the performance of our method is comparable to that of the other methods analyzed. In addition, we can provide probabilities of a given spot being a breakpoint, something unique among the methods examined. Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods require using a sufficient number of iterations before they can be assumed to yield samples from the distribution of interest. Running our method with too small a number of iterations cannot be representative of its performance. Moreover, our analysis shows how our original approach can be easily adapted to answer specific additional questions (e.g., identify edges).
Deviasi Taksiran Berat Janin pada Metode Johnson-Toshack, Formula Sederhana dan Formula Dare
Emy Rianti
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The ability of the birth attendant to estimate the birth weight of the fetus is very important that it does not cause childbirth dystocia that may cause rip in the birth canal. The aim of this study was to compare the deviation of fetal weight estimation according to Johnson-Toshack method, simple formula and Dare formula. Thedesign used was cross sectional, the data taken primarily, involving 100 respondents at Fatmawati General Hospital Jakarta, from August to September 2015. The findings showed that the smallest deviation mean of fetal weight estimation is Johnson-Toshack method. The results of this method of measurement tend to be close to infant birth weight, especially in the client childbirth with abdominal circumference 90 - 100 cm. The conclusion of this study is that Johnson-Toshack's fetal weighing estimates are more appropriate for childbirth with 90 to 100 cm abdominal circumference size, except in childbirth with ruptured membranes, applying a fetal weight estimate based on the Dare formula would be more appropriate.
Inclusive quarkonium production at forward rapidity in pp collisions at [Formula: see text]TeV.
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2016-01-01
We report on the inclusive production cross sections of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text](1S), [Formula: see text](2S) and [Formula: see text](3S), measured at forward rapidity with the ALICE detector in [Formula: see text] collisions at a center-of-mass energy [Formula: see text] TeV. The analysis is based on data collected at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 1.23 pb[Formula: see text]. Quarkonia are reconstructed in the dimuon-decay channel. The differential production cross sections are measured as a function of the transverse momentum [Formula: see text] and rapidity y , over the [Formula: see text] ranges [Formula: see text] GeV/ c for [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] GeV/ c for all other resonances, and for [Formula: see text]. The cross sections, integrated over [Formula: see text] and y , and assuming unpolarized quarkonia, are [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]b, [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]b, [Formula: see text] nb, [Formula: see text] nb and [Formula: see text] nb, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second one is systematic. These values agree, within at most [Formula: see text], with measurements performed by the LHCb collaboration in the same rapidity range.
Interannual variability of the Equatorial Jets in the Indian Ocean from the merged altimetry data
Somayajulu, Y.K.; Murty, V.S.N.; Neelima, C.; Jagadeesh, P.S.V.
The merged ERS-1/2, TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1 altimeter weekly sea level anomalies (SLAs) for the period 1997- 2005 were analyzed to study the variability of sea level and computed geostrophic currents in relation to the equatorial jets...
Marczak, F.; Daamen, W.; Buisson, C.
2013-01-01
This paper presents two empirical trajectory data sets focusing on the merging behaviour on a motorway, both in the Netherlands and in France. A careful review of the literature shows that the main theories explaining this behaviour rely on the hypothesis of gap acceptance, i.e. the fact that each
Merging Micro and Macro Intervention: Social Work Practice with Groups in the Community
Knight, Carolyn; Gitterman, Alex
2018-01-01
Clinical or micro intervention predominates in social work education and practice. The prevailing assumption in social work practice and education is that one engages in either micro or macro intervention. In this article, we describe how these interventions may be merged into an integrated whole through social work practice with groups. The…
The European Large-Area ISO Survey (ELAIS): the final band-merged catalogue
Rowan-Robinson, M.; Lari, C.; Perez-Fournon, I.
2004-01-01
We present the final band-merged European Large-Area ISO Survey (ELAIS) Catalogue at 6.7, 15, 90 and 175 mum, and the associated data at U, g', r', i', Z, J, H, K and 20 cm. The origin of the survey, infrared and radio observations, data-reduction and optical identifications are briefly reviewed...
Drivers' Visual Characteristics when Merging onto or Exiting an Urban Expressway.
Ying Cheng
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine drivers' visual and driving behavior while merging onto or exiting an urban expressway with low and high traffic densities. The analysis was conducted according to three periods (approaching, merging or exiting, and accelerating or decelerating. A total of 10 subjects (8 males and 2 females with ages ranging from 25 to 52 years old (M = 30.0 years old participated in the study. The research was conducted in a natural driving situation, and the drivers' eye movements were monitored and recorded using an eye tracking system. The results show that the influence of traffic density on the glance duration and scan duration is more significant when merging than when exiting. The results also demonstrate that the number of glances and the mean glance duration are mainly related to the driving task (e.g., the merging period. Therefore, drivers' visual search strategies mainly depend on the current driving task. With regard to driving behavior, the variation tendencies of the duration and the velocity of each period are similar. These results support building an automated driving assistant system that can automatically identify gaps and accelerate or decelerate the car accordingly or provide suggestions to the driver to do so.
Nevin, Becky; Comerford, Julia M.; Blecha, Laura
2018-06-01
Merging galaxies play a key role in galaxy evolution, and progress in our understanding of galaxy evolution is slowed by the difficulty of making accurate galaxy merger identifications. Mergers are typically identified using imaging alone, which has its limitations and biases. With the growing popularity of integral field spectroscopy (IFS), it is now possible to use kinematic signatures to improve galaxy merger identifications. I use GADGET-3 hydrodynamical simulations of merging galaxies with the radiative transfer code SUNRISE, the later of which enables me to apply the same analysis to simulations and observations. From the simulated galaxies, I have developed the first merging galaxy classification scheme that is based on kinematics and imaging. Utilizing a Linear Discriminant Analysis tool, I have determined which kinematic and imaging predictors are most useful for identifying mergers of various merger parameters (such as orientation, mass ratio, gas fraction, and merger stage). I will discuss the strengths and limitations of the classification technique and then my initial results for applying the classification to the >10,000 observed galaxies in the MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point) IFS survey. Through accurate identification of merging galaxies in the MaNGA survey, I will advance our understanding of supermassive black hole growth in galaxy mergers and other open questions related to galaxy evolution.
Electron capture in slow collisions of multicharged ions with hydrogen atoms using merged beams
Havener, C.C.; Nesnidal, M.P.; Porter, M.R.; Phaneuf, R.A.
1991-01-01
Absolute total electron-capture cross-section mesurements are reported for collisions of O 3+ and O 4+ with atomic hydrogen in the energy range 1-1000 eV /amu using merged beams. The data are compared with available coupled-states theoretical calculations. (orig.)
Merging Library and Computing Services at Kenyon College: A Progress Report.
Oden, Robert A., Jr.; Temple, Daniel B.; Cottrell, Janet R.; Griggs, Ronald K.; Turney, Glen W.; Wojcik, Frank M.
2001-01-01
Describes the evolution and progress toward a uniquely integrated library and computer services unit at Kenyon College. Discusses its focus on constituencies; merging of the divisions; benefits for students, faculty, administrative units, and the institution; meeting challenges; and generalizing from the model. (EV)
The challenge of merging : Merger patterns, premerger status, and merger support
Giessner, [No Value; Täuber, Susanne; Viki, GT; Otten, S; Terry, DJ; Giessner, S.R
Employees of merging organizations often show resistance to the merger. The employees' support depends on the companies' premerger status and on the merger pattern. Based on an inter-group perspective, three studies were conducted to investigate the influence of premerger status (high, low) and
Effects of Different Fertilizing Formulae on Potato
Giovanna Cucci
2007-09-01
Full Text Available Trials conducted on potato fertilization at different rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium have shown that the elements able to influence the marketable tuber yield are nitrogen and phosphorus. The potato dry matter, which reflects other quality aspects such as the specific gravity and the starch content, increases with nitrogen fertilization till 150-200 kg ha-1 of nitrogen; beyond those rates values remain nearly unchanged. Dry matter increases also with the application of phosphorus and at low potassium rates. The objective of the research was to test the effect of different rates of N P K fertilizer on yield and some quality traits of potato. The test was conducted at the Campus of the Agricultural Faculty, Bari University, Italy. It involved the comparison of 6 fertilizing formulae N1 P1 K1, N1 P2 K1, N2 P1 K1, N2 P2 K1, N3 P1 K1, N3 P2 K1, obtained from the factorial combination of three nitrogen levels (N = 100-200-300 kg ha-1 and two phosphorus rates (P2O5 = 50-100 kg ha-1 against an unfertilized control N0P0K0. The dose of potassium was constant for all fertilizing formulae (K2O = 300 kg ha-1. The highest total and marketable yields of tubers per plant have been observed at the two highest fertilizing levels (N3 P1 K1, N3 P2 K1, which are not statistically different so that the best treatments is shown to be N3 P1 K1; the trend was similar for the mean weight of tubers. With the various treatments, no difference was observed in terms of yield of tubers belonging to the two first size classes (< 35mm and 35-55mm; what has increased with the fertilizing levels is the yield of tubers greater than 55 mm. Tuber specific gravity show, as expected, a positive correlation with the dry matter percentage. Both parameters increased shifting from the control to the N2 P2 K1 and decreased at the highest N level, without any difference being observed with the change in the P rate. The highest starch percentage (20.5% was also observed in the
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White, S; Whiteson, D; Wicke, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wienemann, P; Wiglesworth, C; Wiik-Fuchs, L A M; Wijeratne, P A; Wildauer, A; Wildt, M A; Wilkens, H G; Will, J Z; Williams, H H; Williams, S; Willis, C; Willocq, S; Wilson, J A; Wilson, A; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winklmeier, F; Wittgen, M; Wittig, T; Wittkowski, J; Wollstadt, S J; Wolter, M W; Wolters, H; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wozniak, K W; Wright, M; Wu, M; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wulf, E; Wyatt, T R; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xiao, M; Xu, D; Xu, L; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yamada, M; Yamaguchi, H; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, S; Yamamura, T; Yamanaka, T; Yamauchi, K; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, H; Yang, U K; Yang, Y; Yanush, S; Yao, L; Yao, W-M; Yasu, Y; Yatsenko, E; Yau Wong, K H; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yen, A L; Yildirim, E; Yilmaz, M; Yoosoofmiya, R; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Yoshihara, K; Young, C; Young, C J S; Youssef, S; Yu, D R; Yu, J; Yu, J M; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Zabinski, B; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zaman, A; Zambito, S; Zanello, L; Zanzi, D; Zaytsev, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zengel, K; Zenin, O; Ženiš, T; Zerwas, D; Zevi Della Porta, G; Zhang, D; Zhang, F; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, L; Zhou, N; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimine, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, S; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Ziolkowski, M; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Zur Nedden, M; Zurzolo, G; Zutshi, V; Zwalinski, L
A likelihood-based discriminant for the identification of quark- and gluon-initiated jets is built and validated using 4.7 fb[Formula: see text] of proton-proton collision data at [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Data samples with enriched quark or gluon content are used in the construction and validation of templates of jet properties that are the input to the likelihood-based discriminant. The discriminating power of the jet tagger is established in both data and Monte Carlo samples within a systematic uncertainty of [Formula: see text] 10-20 %. In data, light-quark jets can be tagged with an efficiency of [Formula: see text] while achieving a gluon-jet mis-tag rate of [Formula: see text] in a [Formula: see text] range between [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] for jets in the acceptance of the tracker. The rejection of gluon-jets found in the data is significantly below what is attainable using a Pythia 6 Monte Carlo simulation, where gluon-jet mis-tag rates of 10 % can be reached for a 50 % selection efficiency of light-quark jets using the same jet properties.
Particle acceleration during merging-compression plasma start-up in the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak
McClements, K. G.; Allen, J. O.; Chapman, S. C.; Dendy, R. O.; Irvine, S. W. A.; Marshall, O.; Robb, D.; Turnyanskiy, M.; Vann, R. G. L.
2018-02-01
Magnetic reconnection occurred during merging-compression plasma start-up in the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST), resulting in the prompt acceleration of substantial numbers of ions and electrons to highly suprathermal energies. Accelerated field-aligned ions (deuterons and protons) were detected using a neutral particle analyser at energies up to about 20 keV during merging in early MAST pulses, while nonthermal electrons have been detected indirectly in more recent pulses through microwave bursts. However no increase in soft x-ray emission was observed until later in the merging phase, by which time strong electron heating had been detected through Thomson scattering measurements. A test-particle code CUEBIT is used to model ion acceleration in the presence of an inductive toroidal electric field with a prescribed spatial profile and temporal evolution based on Hall-MHD simulations of the merging process. The simulations yield particle distributions with properties similar to those observed experimentally, including strong field alignment of the fast ions and the acceleration of protons to higher energies than deuterons. Particle-in-cell modelling of a plasma containing a dilute field-aligned suprathermal electron component suggests that at least some of the microwave bursts can be attributed to the anomalous Doppler instability driven by anisotropic fast electrons, which do not produce measurable enhancements in soft x-ray emission either because they are insufficiently energetic or because the nonthermal bremsstrahlung emissivity during this phase of the pulse is below the detection threshold. There is no evidence of runaway electron acceleration during merging, possibly due to the presence of three-dimensional field perturbations.
ENHANCED OFF-CENTER STELLAR TIDAL DISRUPTIONS BY SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN MERGING GALAXIES
Liu, F. K.; Chen, Xian
2013-01-01
Off-center stellar tidal disruption flares have been suggested to be a powerful probe of recoiling supermassive black holes (SMBHs) out of galactic centers due to anisotropic gravitational wave radiations. However, off-center tidal flares can also be produced by SMBHs in merging galaxies. In this paper, we computed the tidal flare rates by dual SMBHs in two merging galaxies before the SMBHs become self-gravitationally bounded. We employ an analytical model to calculate the tidal loss-cone feeding rates for both SMBHs, taking into account two-body relaxation of stars, tidal perturbations by the companion galaxy, and chaotic stellar orbits in triaxial gravitational potential. We show that for typical SMBHs with masses 10 7 M ☉ , the loss-cone feeding rates are enhanced by mergers up to Γ ∼ 10 –2 yr –1 , about two orders of magnitude higher than those by single SMBHs in isolated galaxies and about four orders of magnitude higher than those by recoiling SMBHs. The enhancements are mainly due to tidal perturbations by the companion galaxy. We suggest that off-center tidal flares are overwhelmed by those from merging galaxies, making the identification of recoiling SMBHs challenging. Based on the calculated rates, we estimate the relative contributions of tidal flare events by single, binary, and dual SMBH systems during cosmic time. Our calculations show that the off-center tidal disruption flares by un-bound SMBHs in merging galaxies contribute a fraction comparable to that by single SMBHs in isolated galaxies. We conclude that off-center tidal disruptions are powerful tracers of the merging history of galaxies and SMBHs.
Observations and Simulations of Formation of Broad Plasma Depletions Through Merging Process
Huang, Chao-Song; Retterer, J. M.; Beaujardiere, O. De La; Roddy, P. A.; Hunton, D.E.; Ballenthin, J. O.; Pfaff, Robert F.
2012-01-01
Broad plasma depletions in the equatorial ionosphere near dawn are region in which the plasma density is reduced by 1-3 orders of magnitude over thousands of kilometers in longitude. This phenomenon is observed repeatedly by the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite during deep solar minimum. The plasma flow inside the depletion region can be strongly upward. The possible causal mechanism for the formation of broad plasma depletions is that the broad depletions result from merging of multiple equatorial plasma bubbles. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of the merging mechanism with new observations and simulations. We present C/NOFS observations for two cases. A series of plasma bubbles is first detected by C/NOFS over a longitudinal range of 3300-3800 km around midnight. Each of the individual bubbles has a typical width of approx 100 km in longitude, and the upward ion drift velocity inside the bubbles is 200-400 m/s. The plasma bubbles rotate with the Earth to the dawn sector and become broad plasma depletions. The observations clearly show the evolution from multiple plasma bubbles to broad depletions. Large upward plasma flow occurs inside the depletion region over 3800 km in longitude and exists for approx 5 h. We also present the numerical simulations of bubble merging with the physics-based low-latitude ionospheric model. It is found that two separate plasma bubbles join together and form a single, wider bubble. The simulations show that the merging process of plasma bubbles can indeed occur in incompressible ionospheric plasma. The simulation results support the merging mechanism for the formation of broad plasma depletions.
Mining CANDELS for Tidal Features to Constrain Major Merging During Cosmic Noon
McIntosh, Daniel H.; Mantha, Kameswara; Ciaschi, Cody; Evan, Rubyet A.; Fries, Logan B.; Landry, Luther; Thompson, Scott E.; Snyder, Gregory; Guo, Yicheng; Ceverino, Daniel; Häuβler, Boris; Primack, Joel; Simons, Raymond C.; Zheng, Xianzhong; Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) Team
2018-01-01
The role of major merging in the rapid buildup and development of massive galaxies at z>1 remains an open question. New theories and observations suggest that non-merging processes like violent disk instabilities may be more vital than previously thought at assembling bulges, producing clumps, and inducing morphological disturbances that may be misinterpreted as the product of major merging. We will present initial results on a systematic search for hallmark tidal indicators of major merging in a complete sample of nearly 6000 massive z>1 galaxies from CANDELS (Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey), the premiere HST/WFC3 Treasury program. We have visually inspected published GALFIT F160W residual (image-model) maps and produced a comprehensive new catalog of Sersic residual characteristics based on a variety of natural features and poor-fit artifacts. Using this catalog, we find the frequency of galaxies with tidal signatures is very small in CANDELS data. Accounting for the brief time scale associated with faint transient tidal features, our preliminary finding indicates that merger fractions derived from the CANDELS morphological classification efforts are substantially overestimated. We are using the database of residual classifications as a baseline to (1) produce improved multi-component residual maps using GALFIT_M, (2) automatically extract and quantify plausible tidal indicators and substructures (clumps vs. multiple nuclei), (3) develop a new deep-learning classification pipeline to robustly identify merger indicators in imaging data, and (4) inform the systematic analyses of synthetic mock (CANDELized) images from zoom-in hydrodynamic simulations to thoroughly quantify the impacts of cosmological dimming, and calibrate the observability timescale of tidal feature detections. Our study will ultimately yield novel constraints on merger rates at z>1 and a definitive census of massive high-noon galaxies with tidal and double
Li, Shengyao; Guo, Ming; Mao, Huimin; Gao, Zhuye; Xu, Hao; Shi, Dazhuo
2016-09-15
Recurrent cardiovascular event remains high in stable coronary artery disease (SCAD), especially in patients with multiple risk factors, despite a high rate of use conventional treatment. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is a promising complementary and alternative medicine for treating SCAD, while evidence for its effect on long-term survival is limited. This study was designed to test if Chinese herbal medicine in addition to conventional treatment is more effective than conventional treatment alone in reducing major adverse cardiac event (MACE) for SCAD patients with multiple risk factors during a 1-year follow-up. This is a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial. A total of 1500 patients are randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive the Qing-Xin-Jie-Yu Granules (QXJYG) or the placebo granules, twice daily for 6 months. The primary outcome is the combined outcomes including cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction and revascularization. The secondary outcome is the combined outcomes including all-cause mortality, re-admission for acute coronary syndrome (ACS), heart failure, malignant supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmia influencing hemodynamics, ischemic stroke, and other thromboembolic events during 1-year follow-up. The assessment is performed at baseline (before randomization), 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after randomization. This is the first multicenter trial sponsored by the national funding of China to evaluate TCM in combination with conventional treatment on 1-year survival in high-risk SCAD patients. If successful, it will provide an evidence-based complementary therapeutic approach for reducing MACE from SCAD. The trial was registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry on December 28, 2013. The registration number is ChiCTR-TRC-13004370 .
Tan, Shu-Qiu; Geng, Xue; Liu, Jorn-Hon; Pan, Wynn Hwai-Tzong; Wang, Li-Xiang; Liu, Hui-Kang; Hu, Lei; Chao, Hsiao-Ming
2017-07-14
Retinal ischemia-related eye diseases result in visual dysfunction. This study investigates the protective effects and mechanisms of Xue-Fu-Zhu-Yu decoction (XFZYD) with respect to retinal ischemia. Retinal ischemia (I) was induced in Wistar rats by a high intraocular pressure (HIOP) of 120 mmHg for 1 h, which was followed by reperfusion of the ischemic eye; the fellow untreated eye acted as a control. Electroretinogram (ERG), biochemistry and histopathology investigations were performed. Significant ischemic changes occurred after ischemia including decreased ERG b-wave ratios, less numerous retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), reduced inner retinal thickness, fewer choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) labeled amacrine cell bodies, increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity and increased vimentin Müller immunolabeling. These were accompanied by significant increases in the mRNA/protein concentrations of vascular endothelium growth factor, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, pyruvate kinase M2 and retinoblastoma-binding protein 2. The ischemic changes were concentration-dependently and significantly altered when XFZYD was given for seven consecutive days before or after retina ischemia, compared to vehicle. These alterations included enhanced ERG b-wave amplitudes, more numerous RGCs, enhanced inner retinal thickness, a greater number of ChAT immunolabeled amacrine cell bodies and decreased GFAP/vimentin immunoreactivity. Furthermore, decreased mRNA levels of VEGF, HIF-1α, PKM2, and RBP2 were also found. Reduced protein concentrations of VEGF, HIF-1α, PKM2, and RBP2 were also demonstrated. Furthermore, there was an inhibition of the ischemia-associated increased ratios (target protein/β-actin) in the protein levels of VEGF, HIF-1α, PKM2, and RBP2, which were induced by Shikonin, JIB-04 or Avastin. XFZYD would seem to protect against well-known retinal ischemic changes via a synergistic inhibition of RBP2 and PKM2, as well as down-regulation of HIF-1
Nesin M.A.
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This article contains a review of the monograph by Yu.V. Seleznev published in early 2017 and dedicated to the relations of Russian princes with the Golden Horde’s khans and their status among the Golden Horde’s nobility. This work is the first comprehensive study in the historiography of this issue for all two and a half centuries of the Tartar domination. The monograph was published for the first time in 2013 and served as the basis for a doctoral dissertation, which Seleznev defended in 2015. The book was reprinted with certain changes in 2017. The book commendably contains an abundance of factual material through the use of diverse sources and strands of historiography. Seleznev examines the social terminology of Golden Horde-Russian relations, the structure of the Golden Horde’s nobility and the trips of princes to the Horde, drawing attention not only to the status of the great Vladimir and Moscow princes, but also that of other great and appanage princes. He makes a significant contribution to the resolving the debate regarding the nature of the Golden Horde’s domination in Rus’ by examining in detail the relationship of the Russian princes with the Golden Horde’s authorities in different years. The book’s author proposed to divide the Golden Horde’s “yoke” into seven periods characterized by “changes in the degree of sovereignty and jurisdiction of the khan in relation to Russian principalities”. The author of this review agrees with the main conclusions of the book under review, but at the same time he notes some reservations and criticisms, which do not, however, reduce the academic caliber of the monograph.
How Spacecraft Fly Spaceflight Without Formulae
Swinerd, Graham
2009-01-01
About half a century ago a small satellite, Sputnik 1, was launched. The satellite did very little other than to transmit a radio signal to announce its presence in orbit. However, this humble beginning heralded the dawn of the Space Age. Today literally thousands of robotic spacecraft have been launched, many of which have flown to far-flung regions of the Solar System carrying with them the human spirit of scientific discovery and exploration. Numerous other satellites have been launched in orbit around the Earth providing services that support our technological society on the ground. How Spacecraft Fly: Spaceflight Without Formulae by Graham Swinerd focuses on how these spacecraft work. The book opens with a historical perspective of how we have come to understand our Solar System and the Universe. It then progresses through orbital flight, rocket science, the hostile environment within which spacecraft operate, and how they are designed. The concluding chapters give a glimpse of what the 21st century may ...
Improved thomas formula for radon measurement
Ji Changsong
1991-06-01
The FT 648 type portable absolute radon meter has been developed and the designing principle of this instrument is introduced. The absolute radon meter differs from relative radon meter. By using structure parameters, operating parameters and readout of this instrument, the radon content of measured gas is obtained directly without calibration in advance. Normally, the calibration is done by a standard radioactive gaseous source of which the radon concentration is known. The systematic error is removed by adding filter-efficiency Σ, α self-absorption correction β, energy spectrum correction S, geometric factor Ω of probe and gravity dropping correction factor G to the Thomas formula for radon measurement of two-filter method. The atmosphere radon content, which is given in hour-average, in Beijing area was measured by FT 648 type absolute radon meter. The measurement lasted continuously for several days and nights and a 'saddle shape' of radon content-time curve was observed. The day's average radon content was 8.5 Bq·m -3
Novel Aerodynamic Design for Formula SAE Vehicles
Sentongo, Samuel; Carter, Austin; Cecil, Christopher; Feier, Ioan
2017-11-01
This paper identifies and evaluates the design characteristics of a novel airfoil that harnesses the Magnus Effect, applying a moving-surface boundary-layer control (MSBC) method to a Formula SAE Vehicle. The MSBC minimizes adverse pressure gradient and delays boundary layer separation through the use of a conveyor belt that interacts with the airfoil boundary layer. The MSBC allows dynamic control of the aerodynamic coefficients by variation of the belt speed, minimizing drag in high speed straights and maximizing downforce during vehicle cornering. A conveyer belt wing measuring approximately 0.9 x 0.9m in planform was designed and built to test the mechanical setup for such a MSBC wing. This study follows the relationship between inputted power and outputted surface velocity, with the goal being to maximize speed output vs. power input. The greatest hindrance to maximizing speed output is friction among belts, rollers, and stationary members. The maximum belt speed achieved during testing was 5.9 m/s with a power input of 48.8 W, which corresponds to 45.8 N of downforce based on 2D CFD results. Ongoing progress on this project is presented. United States Air Force Academy.
Marko Merikukka
2017-04-01
It is possible to merge datasets from school level to an individual level register data. The merged big data offers new possibilities to study questions related to the prevalence of mental health problems. The new linked data can be further analyzed to hierarchical model.
40 CFR 1065.630 - 1980 international gravity formula.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1980 international gravity formula. 1065.630 Section 1065.630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... international gravity formula. The acceleration of Earth's gravity, a g, varies depending on your location...
Reassessing the Accuracy and Use of Readability Formulae
Janan, Dahlia; Wray, David
2014-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of the study is to review readability formulae and offer a critique, based on a comparison of the grading of a variety of texts given by six well-known formulae. Methodology: A total of 64 texts in English were selected either by or for native English speaking children aged between six and 11 years. Each text was assessed…
Counting Your Way to the Sum of Squares Formula
IAS Admin
This gives us a brand new formula for the sum of the squares of the first n positive integers! A small tweak gives us a second formula, for free! For, we have the following identity for the binomial coeffi- cients which comes from the well known recursive rela- tion which the binomial coefficients satisfy: (n + 1. 3 )+ ( n + 1. 2 )= (.
The use of specialised enteral formulae for patients with diabetes ...
Does this have short- and long-term benefits and which component(s) is/are ... an enhanced fibre intake in the diet, it should be remembered that modified fibres are ... Studies comparing diabetes-specific formulae with standard formulae have ... most commonly encountered complications in these cases. Fibre containing ...
Emittance formula for slits and pepper-pot measurement
Zhang, M.
1996-10-01
In this note, a rigid formula for slits and pepper-pot emittance measurement is derived. The derivation is based on the one- dimensional slit measurement setup. A mathematical generalization of the slit emittance formula to the pepper-pot measurement is discussed
MODERN APPROACHES TO ADAPTATION OF FORMULAS FOR INFANTS
A. I. Safronova
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The questions of adaptations of formulas for infants to protein, lipid, carbohydrate, micro- and macronutrients composition of women breast milk are discussed in this article. The authors consider new functional components, used in production of modern adapted formulas: taurine, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPFA, carotenoids, including lutein, prebiotics etc.
Formula Student as Part of a Mechanical Engineering Curriculum
Davies, Huw Charles
2013-01-01
Formula Student (FS) is a multi-university student design competition managed by the UK Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Students are required to demonstrate and prove their creativity and engineering skills through the design, manufacture and financing of a small formula style race car. This paper seeks to explore the educational value that…
Infant Formula: A Little Knowledge Can Be Dangerous.
Frisby-LaRue, Jeannine
1982-01-01
Misuse of infant formula products in third-world countries is discussed with regard to the World Health Organization's International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes. The Nestle Company's response to the code is presented and the Infant Formula Action Committee (INFACT) boycott of Nestle products is described. (CM)
Counting efficiency formulae for two, three or four photomultiplier systems
Grau Malonda, A.
1993-01-01
Counting efficiency formulae as a function of the non-detection probability and the electron distributions for systems with two, three or dour photomultipliers are obtained in this paper. It is assumed that the photocathode electron emission follows the Poisson distribution. The obtained formulae are basic to compute the counting efficiency in liquid scintillation spectrometers
An asymptotic formula of the divergent bilateral basic hypergeometric series
Morita, Takeshi
2012-01-01
We show an asymptotic formula of the divergent bilateral basic hypergeometric series ${}_1\\psi_0 (a;-;q,\\cdot)$ with using the $q$-Borel-Laplace method. We also give the limit $q\\to 1-0$ of our asymptotic formula.
A Combinatorial Formula for Certain Elements of Upper Cluster Algebras
Lee, Kyungyong; Li, Li; Mills, Matthew R.
2015-06-01
We develop an elementary formula for certain non-trivial elements of upper cluster algebras. These elements have positive coefficients. We show that when the cluster algebra is acyclic these elements form a basis. Using this formula, we show that each non-acyclic skew-symmetric cluster algebra of rank 3 is properly contained in its upper cluster algebra.
Formulaic Sequences and the Implications for Second Language Learning
Xu, Qi
2016-01-01
The present paper is a review of literature in relation to formulaic sequences and the implications for second language learning. The formulaic sequence is a significant part of our language, and plays an essential role in both first and second language learning. The paper first introduces the definition, classifications, and major features of…
A multiscale extension of the Margrabe formula under stochastic volatility
Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Chang-Rae
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Fast-mean-reverting stochastic volatility model is chosen to extend the classical Margrabe formula. • The resultant formula is explicitly given by the greeks of Margrabe price itself. • We show how the stochastic volatility corrects the Margrabe price behavior. - Abstract: The pricing of financial derivatives based on stochastic volatility models has been a popular subject in computational finance. Although exact or approximate closed form formulas of the prices of many options under stochastic volatility have been obtained so that the option prices can be easily computed, such formulas for exchange options leave much to be desired. In this paper, we consider two different risky assets with two different scales of mean-reversion rate of volatility and use asymptotic analysis to extend the classical Margrabe formula, which corresponds to a geometric Brownian motion model, and obtain a pricing formula under a stochastic volatility. The resultant formula can be computed easily, simply by taking derivatives of the Margrabe price itself. Based on the formula, we show how the stochastic volatility corrects the Margrabe price behavior depending on the moneyness and the correlation coefficient between the two asset prices.
A Formula for the Logarithm of the KZ Associator
Benjamin Enriquez
2006-11-01
Full Text Available We prove that the logarithm of a group-like element in a free algebra coincides with its image by a certain linear map. We use this result and the formula of Le and Murakami for the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov (KZ associator Φ to derive a formula for log(Φ in terms of MZV's (multiple zeta values.
An index formula for measuring development in second language ...
Grade 12 compositions were analysed and the statistical procedures used in the analysis (correlation, stepwise regression and discriminant analysis) are described. The proposed index formula is Length x EFT/T. This formula can be used in future to determine developmental progress in second language acquisition, and ...
Sum formula for SL2 over imaginary quadratic number fields
Lokvenec-Guleska, H.
2004-01-01
The subject of this thesis is generalization of the classical sum formula of Bruggeman and Kuznetsov to the upper half-space H3. The derivation of the preliminary sum formula involves computation of the inner product of two specially chosen Poincar´e series in two different ways: the spectral
21 CFR 225.202 - Formula, production, and distribution records.
2010-04-01
... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Records § 225.202 Formula, production, and distribution records. Records shall be maintained identifying the... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula, production, and distribution records. 225...
Asymptotic formulae for implied volatility in the Heston model
Forde, Martin; Jacquier, Antoine; Mijatovic, Aleksandar
2009-01-01
In this paper we prove an approximate formula expressed in terms of elementary functions for the implied volatility in the Heston model. The formula consists of the constant and first order terms in the large maturity expansion of the implied volatility function. The proof is based on saddlepoint methods and classical properties of holomorphic functions.
The reason behind the Gell-Mann-Okubo mass formula
Souza, Mario Everaldo de
1994-01-01
The Gell-Mann-Okubo mass formula has been widely used as a phenomenological tool in particle physics but the underlying basis for it has not been known. This paper reveals its basis and generalizes the formula to SU(n) (n = 3,4,5,6). (author)
27 CFR 5.28 - Adoption of predecessor's formulas.
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption of predecessor's formulas. 5.28 Section 5.28 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Formulas § 5.28 Adoption of...
Prescribing infant formula to allergic babies | Lombard | South ...
Exclusive breastfeeding and postponement of complementary foods to four to six months of age are recommended for the prevention of food allergies. However, many infants receive formula milk for a number of reasons. Various types of formula are indicated to prevent or treat allergy and food intolerance.
Tornambe, Amedeo
1989-08-01
Theoretical rates of mergings of envelope-deprived components of binary systems, which can give rise to supernova events are described. The effects of the various assumptions on the physical properties of the progenitor system and of its evolutionary behavior through common envelope phases are discussed. Four cases have been analyzed: CO-CO, He-CO, He-He double degenerate mergings and He star-CO dwarf merging. It is found that, above a critical efficiency of the common envelope action in system shrinkage, the rate of CO-CO mergings is not strongly sensitive to the efficiency. Below this critical value, no CO-CO systems will survive for times larger than a few Gyr. In contrast, He-CO dwarf systems will continue to merge at a reasonable rate up to 20 Gyr, and more, also under extreme conditions.
WIC's promotion of infant formula in the United States
Kent George
2006-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The United States' Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC distributes about half the infant formula used in the United States at no cost to the families. This is a matter of concern because it is known that feeding with infant formula results in worse health outcomes for infants than breastfeeding. Discussion The evidence that is available indicates that the WIC program has the effect of promoting the use of infant formula, thus placing infants at higher risk. Moreover, the program violates the widely accepted principles that have been set out in the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes and in the human right to adequate food. Summary There is no good reason for an agency of government to distribute large quantities of free infant formula. It is recommended that the large-scale distribution of free infant formula by the WIC program should be phased out.
New formula for calculation of cobalt-60 percent depth dose
Tahmasebi Birgani, M. J.; Ghorbani, M.
2005-01-01
On the basis of percent depth dose calculation, the application of - dosimetry in radiotherapy has an important role to play in reducing the chance of tumor recurrence. The aim of this study is to introduce a new formula for calculating the central axis percent depth doses of Cobalt-60 beam. Materials and Methods: In the present study, based on the British Journal of Radiology table, nine new formulas are developed and evaluated for depths of 0.5 - 30 cm and fields of (4*4) - (45*45) cm 2 . To evaluate the agreement between the formulas and the table, the average of the absolute differences between the values was used and the formula with the least average was selected as the best fitted formula. The Microsoft Excel 2000 and the Data fit 8.0 soft wares were used to perform the calculations. Results: The results of this study indicated that one amongst the nine formulas gave a better agreement with the percent depth doses listed in the table of British Journal of Radiology . The new formula has two parts in terms of log (A/P). The first part as a linear function with the depth in the range of 0.5 to 5 cm and the other one as a second order polynomial with the depth in the range of 6 to 30 cm. The average of - the differences between the tabulated and the calculated data using the formula (Δ) is equal to 0.3 152. Discussion and Conclusion: Therefore, the calculated percent depth dose data based on this formula has a better agreement with the published data for Cobalt-60 source. This formula could be used to calculate the percent depth dose for the depths and the field sizes not listed in the British Journal of Radiology table
High resolution radar-rain gauge data merging for urban hydrology: current practice and beyond
Ochoa Rodriguez, Susana; Wang, Li-Pen; Bailey, Andy; Willems, Patrick; Onof, Christian
2017-04-01
In this work a thorough test is conducted of radar-rain gauge merging techniques at urban scales, under different climatological conditions and rain gauge density scenarios. The aim is to provide guidance regarding the suitability and application of merging methods at urban scales, which is lacking at present. The test is conducted based upon two pilot locations, i.e. the cities of Edinburgh (254 km^2) and Birmingham (431 km^2), for which a total of 96 and 84 tipping bucket rain gauges were respectively available, alongside radar QPEs, dense runoff records and urban drainage models. Three merging techniques, namely Mean Field Bias (MFB) adjustment, kriging with external (KED) and Bayesian (BAY) combination, were selected for testing on grounds of performance and common use. They were initially tested as they were originally formulated and as they are reportedly commonly applied using typically available radar and rain gauge data. Afterwards, they were tested in combination with two special treatments which were identified as having the potential to improve merging applicability for urban hydrology: (1) reduction of temporal sampling errors in radar QPEs through temporal interpolation and (2) singularity-based decomposition of radar QPEs prior to merging. These treatments ultimately aim at improving the consistency between radar and rain gauge records, which has been identified as the chief factor affecting merging performance and is particularly challenging at the fine spatial-temporal resolutions required for urban applications. The main findings of this study are the following: - All merging methods were found to improve the applicability of radar QPEs for urban hydrological applications, but the degree of improvement they provide and the added value of radar information vary for each merging method and are also a function of climatological conditions and rain gauge density scenarios. - Overall, KED displayed the best performance, with BAY being a close second
Fundamental formulae for wave-energy conversion.
Falnes, Johannes; Kurniawan, Adi
2015-03-01
The time-average wave power that is absorbed from an incident wave by means of a wave-energy conversion (WEC) unit, or by an array of WEC units-i.e. oscillating immersed bodies and/or oscillating water columns (OWCs)-may be mathematically expressed in terms of the WEC units' complex oscillation amplitudes, or in terms of the generated outgoing (diffracted plus radiated) waves, or alternatively, in terms of the radiated waves alone. Following recent controversy, the corresponding three optional expressions are derived, compared and discussed in this paper. They all provide the correct time-average absorbed power. However, only the first-mentioned expression is applicable to quantify the instantaneous absorbed wave power and the associated reactive power. In this connection, new formulae are derived that relate the 'added-mass' matrix, as well as a couple of additional reactive radiation-parameter matrices, to the difference between kinetic energy and potential energy in the water surrounding the immersed oscillating WEC array. Further, a complex collective oscillation amplitude is introduced, which makes it possible to derive, by a very simple algebraic method, various simple expressions for the maximum time-average wave power that may be absorbed by the WEC array. The real-valued time-average absorbed power is illustrated as an axisymmetric paraboloid defined on the complex collective-amplitude plane. This is a simple illustration of the so-called 'fundamental theorem for wave power'. Finally, the paper also presents a new derivation that extends a recently published result on the direction-average maximum absorbed wave power to cases where the WEC array's radiation damping matrix may be singular and where the WEC array may contain OWCs in addition to oscillating bodies.
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