Maximum Redshift of Gravitational Wave Merger Events
Koushiappas, Savvas M.; Loeb, Abraham
2017-12-01
Future generations of gravitational wave detectors will have the sensitivity to detect gravitational wave events at redshifts far beyond any detectable electromagnetic sources. We show that if the observed event rate is greater than one event per year at redshifts z ≥40 , then the probability distribution of primordial density fluctuations must be significantly non-Gaussian or the events originate from primordial black holes. The nature of the excess events can be determined from the redshift distribution of the merger rate.
Gravitational waves from primordial black hole mergers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raidal, Martti; Vaskonen, Ville; Veermäe, Hardi, E-mail: martti.raidal@cern.ch, E-mail: ville.vaskonen@kbfi.ee, E-mail: hardi.veermae@cern.ch [NICPB, Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia)
2017-09-01
We study the production of primordial black hole (PBH) binaries and the resulting merger rate, accounting for an extended PBH mass function and the possibility of a clustered spatial distribution. Under the hypothesis that the gravitational wave events observed by LIGO were caused by PBH mergers, we show that it is possible to satisfy all present constraints on the PBH abundance, and find the viable parameter range for the lognormal PBH mass function. The non-observation of a gravitational wave background allows us to derive constraints on the fraction of dark matter in PBHs, which are stronger than any other current constraint in the PBH mass range 0.5−30 M {sub ⊙}. We show that the predicted gravitational wave background can be observed by the coming runs of LIGO, and its non-observation would indicate that the observed events are not of primordial origin. As the PBH mergers convert matter into radiation, they may have interesting cosmological implications, for example in the context of relieving the tension between high and low redshift measurements of the Hubble constant. However, we find that these effects are suppressed as, after recombination, no more that 1% of dark matter can be converted into gravitational waves.
Numerical Relativity, Black Hole Mergers, and Gravitational Waves: Part I
Centrella, Joan
2012-01-01
This series of 3 lectures will present recent developments in numerical relativity, and their applications to simulating black hole mergers and computing the resulting gravitational waveforms. In this first lecture, we introduce the basic ideas of numerical relativity, highlighting the challenges that arise in simulating gravitational wave sources on a computer.
Numerical Relativity, Black Hole Mergers, and Gravitational Waves: Part III
Centrella, Joan
2012-01-01
This series of 3 lectures will present recent developments in numerical relativity, and their applications to simulating black hole mergers and computing the resulting gravitational waveforms. In this third and final lecture, we present applications of the results of numerical relativity simulations to gravitational wave detection and astrophysics.
Black Hole Mergers, Gravitational Waves, and Multi-Messenger Astronomy
Centrella, Joan M.
2010-01-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as the space-based LISA. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. Although numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued for many years by a host of instabilities, recent breakthroughs have conquered these problems and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on the resulting gold rush of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, astrophysics, and testing general relativity.
Black Hole Mergers and Gravitational Waves: Opening the New Frontier
Centrella, Joan
2012-01-01
The final merger of two black holes produces a powerful burst of gravitational waves, emitting more energy than all the stars in the observable universe combined. Since these mergers take place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For more than 30 years, scientists tried to simulate these mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes were plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. In the past several years, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will highlight these breakthroughs and the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.
Merger of binary neutron stars: Gravitational waves and electromagnetic counterparts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shibata, Masaru
2016-12-15
Late inspiral and merger phases of binary neutron stars are the valuable new experimental fields for exploring nuclear physics because (i) gravitational waves from them will bring information for the neutron-star equation of state and (ii) the matter ejected after the onset of the merger could be the main site for the r-process nucleosynthesis. We will summarize these aspects of the binary neutron stars, describing the current understanding for the merger process of binary neutron stars that has been revealed by numerical-relativity simulations.
Modeling the Complete Gravitational Wave Spectrum of Neutron Star Mergers.
Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Dietrich, Tim; Nagar, Alessandro
2015-08-28
In the context of neutron star mergers, we study the gravitational wave spectrum of the merger remnant using numerical relativity simulations. Postmerger spectra are characterized by a main peak frequency f2 related to the particular structure and dynamics of the remnant hot hypermassive neutron star. We show that f(2) is correlated with the tidal coupling constant κ(2)^T that characterizes the binary tidal interactions during the late-inspiral merger. The relation f(2)(κ(2)^T) depends very weakly on the binary total mass, mass ratio, equation of state, and thermal effects. This observation opens up the possibility of developing a model of the gravitational spectrum of every merger unifying the late-inspiral and postmerger descriptions.
NONLINEAR GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE MEMORY FROM BINARY BLACK HOLE MERGERS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Favata, Marc
2009-01-01
Some astrophysical sources of gravitational waves can produce a 'memory effect', which causes a permanent displacement of the test masses in a freely falling gravitational-wave detector. The Christodoulou memory is a particularly interesting nonlinear form of memory that arises from the gravitational-wave stress-energy tensor's contribution to the distant gravitational-wave field. This nonlinear memory contributes a nonoscillatory component to the gravitational-wave signal at leading (Newtonian-quadrupole) order in the waveform amplitude. Previous computations of the memory and its detectability considered only the inspiral phase of binary black hole coalescence. Using an 'effective-one-body' (EOB) approach calibrated to numerical relativity simulations, as well as a simple fully analytic model, the Christodoulou memory is computed for the inspiral, merger, and ringdown. The memory will be very difficult to detect with ground-based interferometers, but is likely to be observable in supermassive black hole mergers with LISA out to redshifts z ∼< 2. Detection of the nonlinear memory could serve as an experimental test of the ability of gravity to 'gravitate'.
Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger.
Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Arain, M A; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C J; Berger, B K; Bergman, J; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Birnholtz, O; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bohe, A; Bojtos, P; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cabero, M; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Calderón Bustillo, J; Callister, T; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Casanueva Diaz, J; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Cerboni Baiardi, L; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; 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Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Kwee, P; Lackey, B D; Landry, M; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lasky, P D; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, K; Lenon, A; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Levine, B M; Li, T G F; Libson, A; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Logue, J; Lombardi, A L; London, L T; Lord, J E; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J D; Lousto, C O; Lovelace, G; Lück, H; Lundgren, A P; Luo, J; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magaña-Sandoval, F; Magee, R M; Mageswaran, M; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martynov, D V; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Masso-Reid, M; Matichard, F; Matone, L; 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2016-02-12
On September 14, 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory simultaneously observed a transient gravitational-wave signal. The signal sweeps upwards in frequency from 35 to 250 Hz with a peak gravitational-wave strain of 1.0×10(-21). It matches the waveform predicted by general relativity for the inspiral and merger of a pair of black holes and the ringdown of the resulting single black hole. The signal was observed with a matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 24 and a false alarm rate estimated to be less than 1 event per 203,000 years, equivalent to a significance greater than 5.1σ. The source lies at a luminosity distance of 410(-180)(+160) Mpc corresponding to a redshift z=0.09(-0.04)(+0.03). In the source frame, the initial black hole masses are 36(-4)(+5)M⊙ and 29(-4)(+4)M⊙, and the final black hole mass is 62(-4)(+4)M⊙, with 3.0(-0.5)(+0.5)M⊙c(2) radiated in gravitational waves. All uncertainties define 90% credible intervals. These observations demonstrate the existence of binary stellar-mass black hole systems. This is the first direct detection of gravitational waves and the first observation of a binary black hole merger.
Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Camp, Jordan B.;
2016-01-01
On September 14, 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory simultaneously observed a transient gravitational-wave signal. The signal sweeps upwards in frequency from 35 to 250 Hz with a peak gravitational-wave strain of 1.0 x 10(exp -21). It matches the waveform predicted by general relativity for the inspiral and merger of a pair of black holes and the ring down of the resulting single black hole. The signal was observed with a matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 24 and a false alarm rate estimated to be less than 1 event per 203 000 years, equivalent to a significance greater than 5.1 Sigma. The source lies at a luminosity distance of 410(+160/-180) Mpc corresponding to a redshift z = 0.09(+0.03/-0.04). In the source frame, the initial black hole masses are 36(+5/-4) Mass compared to the sun, and 29(+4/-4) Mass compared to the sun, and the final black hole mass is 62(+4/-4) Mass compared to the sun, with 3.0(+0.5/-0.5)sq c radiated in gravitational waves. All uncertainties define 90% credible intervals. These observations demonstrate the existence of binary stellar-mass black hole systems. This is the first direct detection of gravitational waves and the first observation of a binary black hole merger.
Gravitational-Wave Luminosity of Binary Neutron Stars Mergers
Zappa, Francesco; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Radice, David; Perego, Albino; Dietrich, Tim
2018-03-01
We study the gravitational-wave peak luminosity and radiated energy of quasicircular neutron star mergers using a large sample of numerical relativity simulations with different binary parameters and input physics. The peak luminosity for all the binaries can be described in terms of the mass ratio and of the leading-order post-Newtonian tidal parameter solely. The mergers resulting in a prompt collapse to black hole have the largest peak luminosities. However, the largest amount of energy per unit mass is radiated by mergers that produce a hypermassive neutron star or a massive neutron star remnant. We quantify the gravitational-wave luminosity of binary neutron star merger events, and set upper limits on the radiated energy and the remnant angular momentum from these events. We find that there is an empirical universal relation connecting the total gravitational radiation and the angular momentum of the remnant. Our results constrain the final spin of the remnant black hole and also indicate that stable neutron star remnant forms with super-Keplerian angular momentum.
Gravitational-Wave Luminosity of Binary Neutron Stars Mergers.
Zappa, Francesco; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Radice, David; Perego, Albino; Dietrich, Tim
2018-03-16
We study the gravitational-wave peak luminosity and radiated energy of quasicircular neutron star mergers using a large sample of numerical relativity simulations with different binary parameters and input physics. The peak luminosity for all the binaries can be described in terms of the mass ratio and of the leading-order post-Newtonian tidal parameter solely. The mergers resulting in a prompt collapse to black hole have the largest peak luminosities. However, the largest amount of energy per unit mass is radiated by mergers that produce a hypermassive neutron star or a massive neutron star remnant. We quantify the gravitational-wave luminosity of binary neutron star merger events, and set upper limits on the radiated energy and the remnant angular momentum from these events. We find that there is an empirical universal relation connecting the total gravitational radiation and the angular momentum of the remnant. Our results constrain the final spin of the remnant black hole and also indicate that stable neutron star remnant forms with super-Keplerian angular momentum.
Discriminating strange star mergers from neutron star mergers by gravitational-wave measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bauswein, A.; Oechslin, R.; Janka, H.-T.
2010-01-01
We perform three-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamical simulations of the coalescence of strange stars and explore the possibility to decide on the strange matter hypothesis by means of gravitational-wave measurements. Self-binding of strange quark matter and the generally more compact stars yield features that clearly distinguish strange star from neutron star mergers, e.g. hampering tidal disruption during the plunge of quark stars. Furthermore, instead of forming dilute halo structures around the remnant as in the case of neutron star mergers, the coalescence of strange stars results in a differentially rotating hypermassive object with a sharp surface layer surrounded by a geometrically thin, clumpy high-density strange quark matter disk. We also investigate the importance of including nonzero temperature equations of state in neutron star and strange star merger simulations. In both cases we find a crucial sensitivity of the dynamics and outcome of the coalescence to thermal effects, e.g. the outer remnant structure and the delay time of the dense remnant core to black hole collapse depend on the inclusion of nonzero temperature effects. For comparing and classifying the gravitational-wave signals, we use a number of characteristic quantities like the maximum frequency during inspiral or the dominant frequency of oscillations of the postmerger remnant. In general, these frequencies are higher for strange star mergers. Only for particular choices of the equation of state the frequencies of neutron star and strange star mergers are similar. In such cases additional features of the gravitational-wave luminosity spectrum like the ratio of energy emitted during the inspiral phase to the energy radiated away in the postmerger stage may help to discriminate coalescence events of the different types. If such characteristic quantities could be extracted from gravitational-wave signals, for instance with the upcoming gravitational-wave detectors, a decision on the
Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Arain, M.A.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, T.C; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, S. E.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cruise, A. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, A.L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.A.; DeRosa, R. T.; Rosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M.G.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.M.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fong, H.; Fournier, J. -D.; Franco, S; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glaefke, A.; Gleason, J. R.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heefner, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heinzel, G.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M. B.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, D.H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Johnson-McDaniel, N. K.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kefelian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.E.; Keppel, D. G.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Koranda, S.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwee, P.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Lueck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R.M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, J.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M. B.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Pickenpack, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J. H.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramet, C. R.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, P.S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, G. H.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoenbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Simakov, D.; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, R.M.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stevenson-Moore, P.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Toeyrae, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Waldman, S. J.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, H.A.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wiesner, K.; Wilkinson, C.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, L.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkelmann, L.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wiseman, A. G.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.
2016-01-01
On September 14, 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory simultaneously observed a transient gravitational-wave signal. The signal sweeps upwards in frequency from 35 to 250 Hz with a peak gravitational-wave strain of 1.0×10−21. It matches
Numerical Relativity, Black Hole Mergers, and Gravitational Waves: Part II
Centrella, Joan
2012-01-01
This series of 3 lectures will present recent developments in numerical relativity, and their applications to simulating black hole mergers and computing the resulting gravitational waveforms. In this second lecture, we focus on simulations of black hole binary mergers. We hig hlight the instabilities that plagued the codes for many years, the r ecent breakthroughs that led to the first accurate simulations, and the current state of the art.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miller, Jonah Maxwell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-10-18
This report has slides on Gravitational Waves; Pound and Rebka: A Shocking Fact; Light is a Ruler; Gravity is the Curvature of Spacetime; Gravitational Waves Made Simple; How a Gravitational Wave Affects Stuff Here; LIGO; This Detection: Neutron Stars; What the Gravitational Wave Looks Like; The Sound of Merging Neutron Stars; Neutron Star Mergers: More than GWs; The Radioactive Cloud; The Kilonova; and finally Summary, Multimessenger Astronomy.
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Afrough, M.; Agarwal, B.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Amato, A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Angelova, S. V.; Antier, S.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atallah, D. V.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; AultONeal, K.; Austin, C.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Bae, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Banagiri, S.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barkett, K.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Bawaj, M.; Bayley, J. C.; Bazzan, M.; Becsy, B.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Bernuzzi, S.; Bero, J. J.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Biscoveanu, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bode, N.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonilla, E.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bossie, K.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Canepa, M.; Canizares, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Carney, M. F.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerda-Duran, P.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chase, E.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chatterjee, D.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. -P.; Chia, H.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S.; Chung, A. K. W.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Ciolfi, R.; Cirelli, C. E.; Cirone, A.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Clearwater, P.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Cohen, D.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L. R.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corban, P.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordero-Carrion, I.; Corley, K. R.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Dalya, G.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Costa, C. F. Da Silva; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Demos, N.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; De Pietri, R.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; De Rossi, C.; DeSalvo, R.; de Varona, O.; Devenson, J.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Dietrich, T.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Renzo, F.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. 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S.; Kasprzack, M.; Kastaun, W.; Katolik, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kefelian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kemball, A. J.; Kennedy, R.; Kent, C.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, Y. -M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinley-Hanlon, M.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Knowles, T. D.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kraemer, C.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwang, S.; Lackey, B. D.; Lai, K. H.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Linker, S. D.; Liu, J.; Lo, R. K. L.; Lockerbie, N. A.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Lueck, H.; Lumaca, D.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macas, R.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Hernandez, I. Magana; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Zertuche, L. Magana; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markakis, C.; Markosyan, A. S.; Markowitz, A.; Maros, E.; Marquina, A.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Massera, E.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matas, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McCuller, L.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McNeill, L.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Mejuto-Villa, E.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Milovich-Goff, M. C.; Minazzoli, O.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moffa, D.; Moggi, A.; Mogushi, K.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muniz, E. A.; Muratore, M.; Murray, P. G.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Neilson, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Nevin, L.; Newport, J. M.; Newton, G.; Ng, K. K. Y.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nichols, D.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; North, C.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; O'Dea, G. D.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Okada, M. A.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ormiston, R.; Ortega, L. F.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ossokine, S.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Page, M. A.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, Howard; Pan, Huang-Wei; Pang, B.; Pang, P. T. H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Parida, A.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patil, M.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perez, C. J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Phukon, K. S.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pirello, M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Porter, E. K.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Pratten, G.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rajbhandari, B.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K. E.; Ramos-Buades, A.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ren, W.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Ricker, P. M.; Rieger, S.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romel, C. L.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Ross, M. 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D.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Wilken, D.; Williams, D.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Wofford, J.; Wong, K. W. K.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wysocki, D. M.; Xiao, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, L.; Yap, M. J.; Yazback, M.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zelenova, T.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y. -H.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S. J.; Zhu, X. J.; Zimmerman, A. B.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.
2017-01-01
The first observation of a binary neutron star (NS) coalescence by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave (GW) detectors offers an unprecedented opportunity to study matter under the most extreme conditions. After such a merger, a compact remnant is left over whose nature depends
Gravitational-wave localization alone can probe origin of stellar-mass black hole mergers.
Bartos, I; Haiman, Z; Marka, Z; Metzger, B D; Stone, N C; Marka, S
2017-10-10
The recent discovery of gravitational waves from stellar-mass binary black hole mergers by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory opened the door to alternative probes of stellar and galactic evolution, cosmology and fundamental physics. Probing the origin of binary black hole mergers will be difficult due to the expected lack of electromagnetic emission and limited localization accuracy. Associations with rare host galaxy types-such as active galactic nuclei-can nevertheless be identified statistically through spatial correlation. Here we establish the feasibility of statistically proving the connection between binary black hole mergers and active galactic nuclei as hosts, even if only a sub-population of mergers originate from active galactic nuclei. Our results are the demonstration that the limited localization of gravitational waves, previously written off as not useful to distinguish progenitor channels, can in fact contribute key information, broadening the range of astrophysical questions probed by binary black hole observations.Binary black hole mergers have recently been observed through the detection of gravitational wave signatures. The authors demonstrate that their association with active galactic nuclei can be made through a statistical spatial correlation.
Salcido, Jaime; Bower, Richard G.; Theuns, Tom; McAlpine, Stuart; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop; Regan, John
2016-11-01
We estimate the expected event rate of gravitational wave signals from mergers of supermassive black holes that could be resolved by a space-based interferometer, such as the Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), utilizing the reference cosmological hydrodynamical simulation from the EAGLE suite. These simulations assume a Lambda cold dark matter cosmogony with state-of-the-art subgrid models for radiative cooling, star formation, stellar mass loss, and feedback from stars and accreting black holes. They have been shown to reproduce the observed galaxy population with unprecedented fidelity. We combine the merger rates of supermassive black holes in EAGLE with the latest phenomenological waveform models to calculate the gravitational waves signals from the intrinsic parameters of the merging black holes. The EAGLE models predict ˜2 detections per year by a gravitational wave detector such as eLISA. We find that these signals are largely dominated by mergers between seed mass black holes merging at redshifts between z ˜ 2 and z ˜ 1. In order to investigate the dependence on the assumed black hole seed mass, we introduce an additional model with a black hole seed mass an order of magnitude smaller than in our reference model. We also consider a variation of the reference model where a prescription for the expected delays in the black hole merger time-scale has been included after their host galaxies merge. We find that the merger rate is similar in all models, but that the initial black hole seed mass could be distinguished through their detected gravitational waveforms. Hence, the characteristic gravitational wave signals detected by eLISA will provide profound insight into the origin of supermassive black holes and the initial mass distribution of black hole seeds.
Measuring neutron-star properties via gravitational waves from neutron-star mergers.
Bauswein, A; Janka, H-T
2012-01-06
We demonstrate by a large set of merger simulations for symmetric binary neutron stars (NSs) that there is a tight correlation between the frequency peak of the postmerger gravitational-wave (GW) emission and the physical properties of the nuclear equation of state (EoS), e.g., expressed by the radius of the maximum-mass Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkhoff configuration. Therefore, a single measurement of the peak frequency of the postmerger GW signal will constrain the NS EoS significantly. For optimistic merger-rate estimates a corresponding detection with Advanced LIGO is expected to happen within an operation time of roughly a year.
Gravitational Waves from Binary Black Hole Mergers inside Stars.
Fedrow, Joseph M; Ott, Christian D; Sperhake, Ulrich; Blackman, Jonathan; Haas, Roland; Reisswig, Christian; De Felice, Antonio
2017-10-27
We present results from a controlled numerical experiment investigating the effect of stellar density gas on the coalescence of binary black holes (BBHs) and the resulting gravitational waves (GWs). This investigation is motivated by the proposed stellar core fragmentation scenario for BBH formation and the associated possibility of an electromagnetic counterpart to a BBH GW event. We employ full numerical relativity coupled with general-relativistic hydrodynamics and set up a 30+30 M_{⊙} BBH (motivated by GW150914) inside gas with realistic stellar densities. Our results show that at densities ρ≳10^{6}-10^{7} g cm^{-3} dynamical friction between the BHs and gas changes the coalescence dynamics and the GW signal in an unmistakable way. We show that for GW150914, LIGO observations appear to rule out BBH coalescence inside stellar gas of ρ≳10^{7} g cm^{-3}. Typical densities in the collapsing cores of massive stars are in excess of this density. This excludes the fragmentation scenario for the formation of GW150914.
Mills, Cameron; Tiwari, Vaibhav; Fairhurst, Stephen
2018-05-01
The observation of gravitational wave signals from binary black hole and binary neutron star mergers has established the field of gravitational wave astronomy. It is expected that future networks of gravitational wave detectors will possess great potential in probing various aspects of astronomy. An important consideration for successive improvement of current detectors or establishment on new sites is knowledge of the minimum number of detectors required to perform precision astronomy. We attempt to answer this question by assessing the ability of future detector networks to detect and localize binary neutron stars mergers on the sky. Good localization ability is crucial for many of the scientific goals of gravitational wave astronomy, such as electromagnetic follow-up, measuring the properties of compact binaries throughout cosmic history, and cosmology. We find that although two detectors at improved sensitivity are sufficient to get a substantial increase in the number of observed signals, at least three detectors of comparable sensitivity are required to localize majority of the signals, typically to within around 10 deg2 —adequate for follow-up with most wide field of view optical telescopes.
Shibata, Masaru; Kiuchi, Kenta
2017-06-01
Employing a simplified version of the Israel-Stewart formalism of general-relativistic shear-viscous hydrodynamics, we explore the evolution of a remnant massive neutron star of binary neutron star merger and pay special attention to the resulting gravitational waveforms. We find that for the plausible values of the so-called viscous alpha parameter of the order 10-2 the degree of the differential rotation in the remnant massive neutron star is significantly reduced in the viscous time scale, ≲5 ms . Associated with this, the degree of nonaxisymmetric deformation is also reduced quickly, and as a consequence, the amplitude of quasiperiodic gravitational waves emitted also decays in the viscous time scale. Our results indicate that for modeling the evolution of the merger remnants of binary neutron stars we would have to take into account magnetohydrodynamics effects, which in nature could provide the viscous effects.
Gravitational-wave memory revisited: Memory from the merger and recoil of binary black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Favata, Marc
2009-01-01
Gravitational-wave memory refers to the permanent displacement of the test masses in an idealized (freely-falling) gravitational-wave interferometer. Inspiraling binaries produce a particularly interesting form of memory-the Christodoulou memory. Although it originates from nonlinear interactions at 2.5 post-Newtonian order, the Christodoulou memory affects the gravitational-wave amplitude at leading (Newtonian) order. Previous calculations have computed this non-oscillatory amplitude correction during the inspiral phase of binary coalescence. Using an 'effective-one-body' description calibrated with the results of numerical relativity simulations, the evolution of the memory during the inspiral, merger, and ringdown phases, as well as the memory's final saturation value, are calculated. Using this model for the memory, the prospects for its detection are examined, particularly for supermassive black hole binary coalescences that LISA will detect with high signal-to-noise ratios. Coalescing binary black holes also experience center-of-mass recoil due to the anisotropic emission of gravitational radiation. These recoils can manifest themselves in the gravitational-wave signal in the form of a 'linear' memory and a Doppler shift of the quasi-normal-mode frequencies. The prospects for observing these effects are also discussed.
Merger of Multiple Accreting Black Holes Concordant with Gravitational-wave Events
Tagawa, Hiromichi; Umemura, Masayuki
2018-03-01
Recently, the advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (aLIGO) has detected black hole (BH) merger events, most of which are sourced by BHs more massive than 30 M ⊙. Especially, the observation of GW170104 suggests dynamically assembled binaries favoring a distribution of misaligned spins. It has been argued that mergers of unassociated BHs can be engendered through a chance meeting in a multiple BH system under gas-rich environments. In this paper, we consider the merger of unassociated BHs, concordant with the massive BH merger events. To that end, we simulate a multiple BH system with a post-Newtonian N-body code incorporating gas accretion and general relativistic effects. As a result, we find that gas dynamical friction effectively promotes a three-body interaction of BHs in dense gas of n gas ≳ 106 cm‑3, so that BH mergers can take place within 30 Myr. This scenario predicts an isotropic distribution of spin tilts. In the concordant models with GW150914, the masses of seed BHs are required to be ≳25 M ⊙. The potential sites of such chance meeting BH mergers are active galactic nucleus (AGN) disks and dense interstellar clouds. Assuming the LIGO O1, we roughly estimate the event rates for PopI BHs and PopIII BHs in AGN disks to be ≃1–2 yr‑1 and ≃1 yr‑1, respectively. Multiple episodes of AGNs may enhance the rates by roughly an order of magnitude. For massive PopI BHs in dense interstellar clouds the rate is ≃0.02 yr‑1. Hence, high-density AGN disks are a more plausible site for mergers of chance meeting BHs.
Test the mergers of the primordial black holes by high frequency gravitational-wave detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Xin; Wang, Li-Li; Li, Jin [Chongqing University, Department of Physics, Chongqing (China)
2017-09-15
The black hole could have a primordial origin if its mass is less than 1M {sub CircleDot}. The mergers of these black hole binaries generate stochastic gravitational-wave background (SGWB). We investigate the SGWB in high frequency band 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10} Hz. It can be detected by high frequency gravitational-wave detector. Energy density spectrum and amplitude of the SGWB are derived. The upper limit of the energy density spectrum is around 10{sup -7}. Also, the upper limit of the amplitude ranges from 10{sup -31.5} to 10{sup -29.5}. The fluctuation of spacetime origin from gravitational wave could give a fluctuation of the background electromagnetic field in a high frequency gravitational-wave detector. The signal photon flux generated by the SGWB in the high frequency band 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10} Hz is derived, which ranges from 1 to 10{sup 2} s{sup -1}. The comparison between the signal photon flux generated by relic gravitational waves (RGWs) and the SGWB is also discussed in this paper. It is shown that the signal photon flux generated by the RGW, which is predicted by the canonical single-field slow-roll inflation models, is sufficiently lower than the one generated by the SGWB in the high frequency band 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10} Hz. Our results indicate that the SGWB in the high frequency band 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10} Hz is more likely to be detected by the high frequency gravitational-wave detector. (orig.)
Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background due to Primordial Binary Black Hole Mergers.
Mandic, Vuk; Bird, Simeon; Cholis, Ilias
2016-11-11
Recent Advanced LIGO detections of binary black hole mergers have prompted multiple studies investigating the possibility that the heavy GW150914 binary system was of primordial origin, and hence could be evidence for dark matter in the form of black holes. We compute the stochastic background arising from the incoherent superposition of such primordial binary black hole systems in the Universe and compare it to the similar background spectrum due to binary black hole systems of stellar origin. We investigate the possibility of detecting this background with future gravitational-wave detectors, and conclude that constraining the dark matter component in the form of black holes using stochastic gravitational-wave background measurements will be very challenging.
Gravitational wave spectroscopy of binary neutron star merger remnants with mode stacking
Yang, Huan; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Yagi, Kent; Lehner, Luis; Pretorius, Frans; Yunes, Nicolás
2018-01-01
A binary neutron star coalescence event has recently been observed for the first time in gravitational waves, and many more detections are expected once current ground-based detectors begin operating at design sensitivity. As in the case of binary black holes, gravitational waves generated by binary neutron stars consist of inspiral, merger, and postmerger components. Detecting the latter is important because it encodes information about the nuclear equation of state in a regime that cannot be probed prior to merger. The postmerger signal, however, can only be expected to be measurable by current detectors for events closer than roughly ten megaparsecs, which given merger rate estimates implies a low probability of observation within the expected lifetime of these detectors. We carry out Monte Carlo simulations showing that the dominant postmerger signal (the ℓ=m =2 mode) from individual binary neutron star mergers may not have a good chance of observation even with the most sensitive future ground-based gravitational wave detectors proposed so far (the Einstein Telescope and Cosmic Explorer, for certain equations of state, assuming a full year of operation, the latest merger rates, and a detection threshold corresponding to a signal-to-noise ratio of 5). For this reason, we propose two methods that stack the postmerger signal from multiple binary neutron star observations to boost the postmerger detection probability. The first method follows a commonly used practice of multiplying the Bayes factors of individual events. The second method relies on an assumption that the mode phase can be determined from the inspiral waveform, so that coherent mode stacking of the data from different events becomes possible. We find that both methods significantly improve the chances of detecting the dominant postmerger signal, making a detection very likely after a year of observation with Cosmic Explorer for certain equations of state. We also show that in terms of detection
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V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Ganija, M. R.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garcia-Quiros, C.; Garufi, F.; Gateley, B.; Gaudio, S.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, D.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glover, L.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gomes, S.; Goncharov, B.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Gretarsson, E. M.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Gruning, P.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Halim, O.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hamilton, E. Z.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hannuksela, O. A.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hinderer, T.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Horst, C.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hreibi, A.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Inta, R.; Intini, G.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kamai, B.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Kastaun, W.; Katolik, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kemball, A. J.; Kennedy, R.; Kent, C.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinley-Hanlon, M.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Knowles, T. D.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Krämer, C.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwang, S.; Lackey, B. D.; Lai, K. H.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Linker, S. D.; Liu, J.; Lo, R. K. L.; Lockerbie, N. A.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Lück, H.; Lumaca, D.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macas, R.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña Hernandez, I.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magaña Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markakis, C.; Markosyan, A. S.; Markowitz, A.; Maros, E.; Marquina, A.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Massera, E.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matas, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. 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K.; Neilson, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Nevin, L.; Newport, J. M.; Newton, G.; Ng, K. K. Y.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nichols, D.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; North, C.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; O'Dea, G. D.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Okada, M. A.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ormiston, R.; Ortega, L. F.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ossokine, S.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Page, M. A.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, Howard; Pan, Huang-Wei; Pang, B.; Pang, P. T. H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Parida, A.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patil, M.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perez, C. J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. 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P.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Rutins, G.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sanchez, L. E.; Sanchis-Gual, N.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sarin, N.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheel, M.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schulte, B. W.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seidel, E.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shah, A. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaner, M. B.; Shao, L.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Rana, J.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Somala, S.; Son, E. J.; Sonnenberg, J. A.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Sowell, E.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staats, K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Stops, D. J.; Strain, K. A.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Strunk, A.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Suresh, J.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Tait, S. C.; Talbot, C.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Tasson, J. D.; Taylor, J. A.; Taylor, R.; Tewari, S. V.; Theeg, T.; Thies, F.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres-Forné, A.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tsang, K. W.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Tsukada, L.; Tsuna, D.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ueno, K.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walet, R.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, W. H.; Wang, Y. F.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessel, E. K.; Weßels, P.; Westerweck, J.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. D.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Wilken, D.; Williams, D.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Wofford, J.; Wong, K. W. K.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wysocki, D. M.; Xiao, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, L.; Yap, M. J.; Yazback, M.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zelenova, T.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y.-H.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S. J.; Zhu, X. J.; Zimmerman, A. B.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; (LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration
2017-12-01
The first observation of a binary neutron star (NS) coalescence by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave (GW) detectors offers an unprecedented opportunity to study matter under the most extreme conditions. After such a merger, a compact remnant is left over whose nature depends primarily on the masses of the inspiraling objects and on the equation of state of nuclear matter. This could be either a black hole (BH) or an NS, with the latter being either long-lived or too massive for stability implying delayed collapse to a BH. Here, we present a search for GWs from the remnant of the binary NS merger GW170817 using data from Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. We search for short- (≲1 s) and intermediate-duration (≲500 s) signals, which include GW emission from a hypermassive NS or supramassive NS, respectively. We find no signal from the post-merger remnant. Our derived strain upper limits are more than an order of magnitude larger than those predicted by most models. For short signals, our best upper limit on the root sum square of the GW strain emitted from 1-4 kHz is {h}{rss}50 % =2.1× {10}-22 {{Hz}}-1/2 at 50% detection efficiency. For intermediate-duration signals, our best upper limit at 50% detection efficiency is {h}{rss}50 % =8.4× {10}-22 {{Hz}}-1/2 for a millisecond magnetar model, and {h}{rss}50 % =5.9× {10}-22 {{Hz}}-1/2 for a bar-mode model. These results indicate that post-merger emission from a similar event may be detectable when advanced detectors reach design sensitivity or with next-generation detectors.
Detectable radio flares following gravitational waves from mergers of binary neutron stars.
Nakar, Ehud; Piran, Tsvi
2011-09-28
Mergers of neutron-star/neutron-star binaries are strong sources of gravitational waves. They can also launch subrelativistic and mildly relativistic outflows and are often assumed to be the sources of short γ-ray bursts. An electromagnetic signature that persisted for weeks to months after the event would strengthen any future claim of a detection of gravitational waves. Here we present results of calculations showing that the interaction of mildly relativistic outflows with the surrounding medium produces radio flares with peak emission at 1.4 gigahertz that persist at detectable (submillijansky) levels for weeks, out to a redshift of 0.1. Slower subrelativistic outflows produce flares detectable for years at 150 megahertz, as well as at 1.4 gigahertz, from slightly shorter distances. The radio transient RT 19870422 (ref. 11) has the properties predicted by our model, and its most probable origin is the merger of a compact neutron-star/neutron-star binary. The lack of radio detections usually associated with short γ-ray bursts does not constrain the radio transients that we discuss here (from mildly relativistic and subrelativistic outflows) because short γ-ray burst redshifts are typically >0.1 and the appropriate timescales (longer than weeks) have not been sampled.
Gravitational waves, neutrino emissions and effects of hyperons in binary neutron star mergers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiuchi, Kenta; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Shibata, Masaru
2012-01-01
Numerical simulations for the merger of binary neutron stars are performed in full general relativity incorporating both nucleonic and hyperonic finite-temperature equations of state (EOS) and neutrino cooling. It is found that for the nucleonic and hyperonic EOS, a hyper-massive neutron star (HMNS) with a long lifetime (t life ≥ 10 ms) is the outcome for the total mass ≅2.7M sun . For the total mass ≅3 M sun , a long-lived (short-lived with t life ≅ 3 ms) HMNS is the outcome for the nucleonic (hyperonic) EOS. It is shown that the typical total neutrino luminosity of the HMNS is ∼3-6 x 10 53 erg s -1 and the effective amplitude of gravitational waves from the HMNS is 1-4 x 10 -22 at f ≅ 2-3.2 kHz for a source of distance of 100 Mpc. During the HMNS phase, characteristic frequencies of gravitational waves shift to a higher frequency for the hyperonic EOS in contrast to the nucleonic EOS in which they remain constant approximately. Our finding suggests that the effects of hyperons are well imprinted in gravitational waves and their detection will give us a potential opportunity to explore the composition of the neutron star matter. We present the neutrino luminosity curve when a black hole is formed as well. (paper)
Kelley, Luke Zoltan; Mandel, Ilya; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico
2013-06-01
The detection of an electromagnetic transient which may originate from a binary neutron star merger can increase the probability that a given segment of data from the LIGO-Virgo ground-based gravitational-wave detector network contains a signal from a binary coalescence. Additional information contained in the electromagnetic signal, such as the sky location or distance to the source, can help rule out false alarms and thus lower the necessary threshold for a detection. Here, we develop a framework for determining how much sensitivity is added to a gravitational-wave search by triggering on an electromagnetic transient. We apply this framework to a variety of relevant electromagnetic transients, from short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) to signatures of r-process heating to optical and radio orphan afterglows. We compute the expected rates of multimessenger observations in the advanced detector era and find that searches triggered on short GRBs—with current high-energy instruments, such as Fermi—and nucleosynthetic “kilonovae”—with future optical surveys, like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope—can boost the number of multimessenger detections by 15% and 40%, respectively, for a binary neutron star progenitor model. Short GRB triggers offer precise merger timing but suffer from detection rates decreased by beaming and the high a priori probability that the source is outside the LIGO-Virgo sensitive volume. Isotropic kilonovae, on the other hand, could be commonly observed within the LIGO-Virgo sensitive volume with an instrument roughly an order of magnitude more sensitive than current optical surveys. We propose that the most productive strategy for making multimessenger gravitational-wave observations is using triggers from future deep, optical all-sky surveys, with characteristics comparable to the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, which could make as many as ten such coincident observations a year.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nissanke, Samaya; Georgieva, Alexandra; Kasliwal, Mansi
2013-01-01
Combined gravitational wave (GW) and electromagnetic (EM) observations of compact binary mergers should enable detailed studies of astrophysical processes in the strong-field gravity regime. This decade, ground-based GW interferometers promise to routinely detect compact binary mergers. Unfortunately, networks of GW interferometers have poor angular resolution on the sky and their EM signatures are predicted to be faint. Therefore, a challenging goal will be to unambiguously pinpoint the EM counterparts of GW mergers. We perform the first comprehensive end-to-end simulation that focuses on: (1) GW sky localization, distance measures, and volume errors with two compact binary populations and four different GW networks; (2) subsequent EM detectability by a slew of multiwavelength telescopes; and (3) final identification of the merger counterpart amidst a sea of possible astrophysical false positives. First, we find that double neutron star binary mergers can be detected out to a maximum distance of 400 Mpc (or 750 Mpc) by three (or five) detector GW networks, respectively. Neutron-star-black-hole binary mergers can be detected a factor of 1.5 further out; their median to maximum sky localizations are 50-170 deg 2 (or 6-65 deg 2 ) for a three (or five) detector GW network. Second, by optimizing depth, cadence, and sky area, we quantify relative fractions of optical counterparts that are detectable by a suite of different aperture-size telescopes across the globe. Third, we present five case studies to illustrate the diversity of scenarios in secure identification of the EM counterpart. We discuss the case of a typical binary, neither beamed nor nearby, and the challenges associated with identifying an EM counterpart at both low and high Galactic latitudes. For the first time, we demonstrate how construction of low-latency GW volumes in conjunction with local universe galaxy catalogs can help solve the problem of false positives. We conclude with strategies that would
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Radice, David [Institute for Advanced Study, 1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Bernuzzi, Sebastiano [Department of Mathematical, Physical and Computer Sciences, University of Parma, I-43124 Parma (Italy); Pozzo, Walter Del [Dipartimento di Fisica “Enrico Fermi,” Università di Pisa, Pisa I-56127 (Italy); Roberts, Luke F. [NSCL/FRIB and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, 640 S Shaw Lane, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Ott, Christian D. [TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
2017-06-20
We present a proof-of-concept study, based on numerical-relativity simulations, of how gravitational waves (GWs) from neutron star merger remnants can probe the nature of matter at extreme densities. Phase transitions and extra degrees of freedom can emerge at densities beyond those reached during the inspiral, and typically result in a softening of the equation of state (EOS). We show that such physical effects change the qualitative dynamics of the remnant evolution, but they are not identifiable as a signature in the GW frequency, with the exception of possible black hole formation effects. The EOS softening is, instead, encoded in the GW luminosity and phase and is in principle detectable up to distances of the order of several megaparsecs with advanced detectors and up to hundreds of megaparsecs with third-generation detectors. Probing extreme-density matter will require going beyond the current paradigm and developing a more holistic strategy for modeling and analyzing postmerger GW signals.
Gravitational waves and neutrino emission from the merger of binary neutron stars.
Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Kiuchi, Kenta; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Shibata, Masaru
2011-07-29
Numerical simulations for the merger of binary neutron stars are performed in full general relativity incorporating a finite-temperature (Shen's) equation of state (EOS) and neutrino cooling for the first time. It is found that for this stiff EOS, a hypermassive neutron star (HMNS) with a long lifetime (≫10 ms) is the outcome for the total mass ≲3.0M(⊙). It is shown that the typical total neutrino luminosity of the HMNS is ∼3-8×10(53) erg/s and the effective amplitude of gravitational waves from the HMNS is 4-6×10(-22) at f=2.1-2.5 kHz for a source distance of 100 Mpc. We also present the neutrino luminosity curve when a black hole is formed for the first time.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radice, David; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Pozzo, Walter Del; Roberts, Luke F.; Ott, Christian D.
2017-01-01
We present a proof-of-concept study, based on numerical-relativity simulations, of how gravitational waves (GWs) from neutron star merger remnants can probe the nature of matter at extreme densities. Phase transitions and extra degrees of freedom can emerge at densities beyond those reached during the inspiral, and typically result in a softening of the equation of state (EOS). We show that such physical effects change the qualitative dynamics of the remnant evolution, but they are not identifiable as a signature in the GW frequency, with the exception of possible black hole formation effects. The EOS softening is, instead, encoded in the GW luminosity and phase and is in principle detectable up to distances of the order of several megaparsecs with advanced detectors and up to hundreds of megaparsecs with third-generation detectors. Probing extreme-density matter will require going beyond the current paradigm and developing a more holistic strategy for modeling and analyzing postmerger GW signals.
Illuminating gravitational waves: A concordant picture of photons from a neutron star merger
Kasliwal, M. M.; Nakar, E.; Singer, L. P.; Kaplan, D. L.; Cook, D. O.; Van Sistine, A.; Lau, R. M.; Fremling, C.; Gottlieb, O.; Jencson, J. E.; Adams, S. M.; Feindt, U.; Hotokezaka, K.; Ghosh, S.; Perley, D. A.; Yu, P.-C.; Piran, T.; Allison, J. R.; Anupama, G. C.; Balasubramanian, A.; Bannister, K. W.; Bally, J.; Barnes, J.; Barway, S.; Bellm, E.; Bhalerao, V.; Bhattacharya, D.; Blagorodnova, N.; Bloom, J. S.; Brady, P. R.; Cannella, C.; Chatterjee, D.; Cenko, S. B.; Cobb, B. E.; Copperwheat, C.; Corsi, A.; De, K.; Dobie, D.; Emery, S. W. K.; Evans, P. A.; Fox, O. D.; Frail, D. A.; Frohmaier, C.; Goobar, A.; Hallinan, G.; Harrison, F.; Helou, G.; Hinderer, T.; Ho, A. Y. Q.; Horesh, A.; Ip, W.-H.; Itoh, R.; Kasen, D.; Kim, H.; Kuin, N. P. M.; Kupfer, T.; Lynch, C.; Madsen, K.; Mazzali, P. A.; Miller, A. A.; Mooley, K.; Murphy, T.; Ngeow, C.-C.; Nichols, D.; Nissanke, S.; Nugent, P.; Ofek, E. O.; Qi, H.; Quimby, R. M.; Rosswog, S.; Rusu, F.; Sadler, E. M.; Schmidt, P.; Sollerman, J.; Steele, I.; Williamson, A. R.; Xu, Y.; Yan, L.; Yatsu, Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhao, W.
2017-12-01
Merging neutron stars offer an excellent laboratory for simultaneously studying strong-field gravity and matter in extreme environments. We establish the physical association of an electromagnetic counterpart (EM170817) with gravitational waves (GW170817) detected from merging neutron stars. By synthesizing a panchromatic data set, we demonstrate that merging neutron stars are a long-sought production site forging heavy elements by r-process nucleosynthesis. The weak gamma rays seen in EM170817 are dissimilar to classical short gamma-ray bursts with ultrarelativistic jets. Instead, we suggest that breakout of a wide-angle, mildly relativistic cocoon engulfing the jet explains the low-luminosity gamma rays, the high-luminosity ultraviolet-optical-infrared, and the delayed radio and x-ray emission. We posit that all neutron star mergers may lead to a wide-angle cocoon breakout, sometimes accompanied by a successful jet and sometimes by a choked jet.
Cao, Liang; Lu, Youjun; Zhao, Yuetong
2018-03-01
Understanding the host galaxy properties of stellar binary black hole (SBBH) mergers is important for revealing the origin of the SBBH gravitational wave sources detected by advanced LIGO and helpful for identifying their electromagnetic counterparts. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the host galaxy properties of SBBHs by implementing semi-analytical recipes for SBBH formation and merger into cosmological galaxy formation model. If the time delay between SBBH formation and merger ranges from ≲ Gyr to the Hubble time, SBBH mergers at redshift z ≲ 0.3 occur preferentially in big galaxies with stellar mass M* ≳ 2 × 1010 M⊙ and metallicities Z peaking at ˜0.6 Z⊙. However, the host galaxy stellar mass distribution of heavy SBBH mergers (M•• ≳ 50 M⊙) is bimodal with one peak at ˜109 M⊙ and the other peak at ˜2 × 1010 M⊙. The contribution fraction from host galaxies with Z ≲ 0.2 Z⊙ to heavy mergers is much larger than that to less heavy mergers. If SBBHs were formed in the early Universe (e.g. z > 6), their mergers detected at z ≲ 0.3 occur preferentially in even more massive galaxies with M* > 3 × 1010 M⊙ and in galaxies with metallicities mostly ≳ 0.2 Z⊙ and peaking at Z ˜ 0.6 Z⊙, due to later cosmic assembly and enrichment of their host galaxies. SBBH mergers at z ≲ 0.3 mainly occur in spiral galaxies, but the fraction of SBBH mergers that occur in elliptical galaxies can be significant if those SBBHs were formed in the early Universe; and about two-thirds of those mergers occur in the central galaxies of dark matter haloes. We also present results on the host galaxy properties of SBBH mergers at higher redshift.
GRAVITATIONAL WAVES FROM MASSIVE MAGNETARS FORMED IN BINARY NEUTRON STAR MERGERS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dall' Osso, Simone [Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Tübingen, auf der Morgenstelle 10 D-72076 (Germany); Giacomazzo, Bruno [Physics Department, University of Trento, via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Perna, Rosalba [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Stella, Luigi, E-mail: simone.dallosso@uni-tuebingen.de [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy)
2015-01-01
Binary neutron star (NS) mergers are among the most promising sources of gravitational waves (GWs), as well as candidate progenitors for short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). Depending on the total initial mass of the system and the NS equation of state (EOS), the post-merger phase can be characterized by a prompt collapse to a black hole or by the formation of a supramassive NS, or even a stable NS. In the latter cases of post-merger NS (PMNS) formation, magnetic field amplification during the merger will produce a magnetar and induce a mass quadrupole moment in the newly formed NS. If the timescale for orthogonalization of the magnetic symmetry axis with the spin axis is smaller than the spindown time, the NS will radiate its spin down energy primarily via GWs. Here we study this scenario for the various outcomes of NS formation: we generalize the set of equilibrium states for a twisted torus magnetic configuration to include solutions that, for the same external dipolar field, carry a larger magnetic energy reservoir; we hence compute the magnetic ellipticity for such configurations, and the corresponding strength of the expected GW signal as a function of the relative magnitude of the dipolar and toroidal field components. The relative number of GW detections from PMNSs and from binary NSs is a very strong function of the NS EOS, being higher (∼1%) for the stiffest EOSs and negligibly small for the softest ones. For intermediate-stiffness EOSs, such as the n = 4/7 polytrope recently used by Giacomazzo and Perna or the GM1 used by Lasky et al., the relative fraction is ∼0.3%; correspondingly, we estimate a GW detection rate from stable PMNSs of ∼0.1-1 yr{sup –1} with advanced detectors, and of ∼100-1000 yr{sup –1} with detectors of third generation such as the Einstein Telescope. Measurement of such GW signals would provide constraints on the NS EOS and, in connection with an SGRB, on the nature of the binary progenitors giving rise to these events.
Wysocki, Daniel
We are living through the dawn of the era of gravitational wave astronomy. Our first glances through this new window upon the sky has revealed a new population of objects. Since it first began observing in late 2015, the advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) has detected gravitational waves three times, along with an additional strong candidate - and there shall be orders of magnitude more in the years to come. In all four cases, the waveform's signature is consistent with general relativity's predictions for the merging of two black holes. Through parameter estimation studies, estimates on features such as the black holes' masses and spins have been determined. At least two of the black hole pairs lie above the mass range spanned by comparable black holes observed through traditional means. This suggests they constitute a separate population, either too elusive or rare to be found with traditional telescopes. The most natural questions to ask about these black holes - how did they form, how many of them are there, and how can they be categorized - remain open ended. We know black holes can form when massive stars die, so it's most natural to claim stars as their progenitors. Since we now know black holes merge into larger black holes, could it be the case that they formed from previous mergers? Were the two black holes part of a binary from their birth, or did they become coupled later on in life? The measurements provided by LIGO can help answer these questions and more. Throughout this thesis, I will describe and demonstrate results from a number of novel methods whose purpose is to better understand these black holes and their progenitors. At their heart, these methods give answers to a few, critical questions. a) What is the overall rate at which these objects merge? b) What is the range of values these objects' properties can take, and how are they distributed? c) Given a number of physical models, how can we evaluate the
Illuminating gravitational waves: A concordant picture of photons from a neutron star merger.
Kasliwal, M M; Nakar, E; Singer, L P; Kaplan, D L; Cook, D O; Van Sistine, A; Lau, R M; Fremling, C; Gottlieb, O; Jencson, J E; Adams, S M; Feindt, U; Hotokezaka, K; Ghosh, S; Perley, D A; Yu, P-C; Piran, T; Allison, J R; Anupama, G C; Balasubramanian, A; Bannister, K W; Bally, J; Barnes, J; Barway, S; Bellm, E; Bhalerao, V; Bhattacharya, D; Blagorodnova, N; Bloom, J S; Brady, P R; Cannella, C; Chatterjee, D; Cenko, S B; Cobb, B E; Copperwheat, C; Corsi, A; De, K; Dobie, D; Emery, S W K; Evans, P A; Fox, O D; Frail, D A; Frohmaier, C; Goobar, A; Hallinan, G; Harrison, F; Helou, G; Hinderer, T; Ho, A Y Q; Horesh, A; Ip, W-H; Itoh, R; Kasen, D; Kim, H; Kuin, N P M; Kupfer, T; Lynch, C; Madsen, K; Mazzali, P A; Miller, A A; Mooley, K; Murphy, T; Ngeow, C-C; Nichols, D; Nissanke, S; Nugent, P; Ofek, E O; Qi, H; Quimby, R M; Rosswog, S; Rusu, F; Sadler, E M; Schmidt, P; Sollerman, J; Steele, I; Williamson, A R; Xu, Y; Yan, L; Yatsu, Y; Zhang, C; Zhao, W
2017-12-22
Merging neutron stars offer an excellent laboratory for simultaneously studying strong-field gravity and matter in extreme environments. We establish the physical association of an electromagnetic counterpart (EM170817) with gravitational waves (GW170817) detected from merging neutron stars. By synthesizing a panchromatic data set, we demonstrate that merging neutron stars are a long-sought production site forging heavy elements by r-process nucleosynthesis. The weak gamma rays seen in EM170817 are dissimilar to classical short gamma-ray bursts with ultrarelativistic jets. Instead, we suggest that breakout of a wide-angle, mildly relativistic cocoon engulfing the jet explains the low-luminosity gamma rays, the high-luminosity ultraviolet-optical-infrared, and the delayed radio and x-ray emission. We posit that all neutron star mergers may lead to a wide-angle cocoon breakout, sometimes accompanied by a successful jet and sometimes by a choked jet. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Centrella, Joan M.
2010-01-01
The final merger of two massive black holes produces a powerful burst of gravitational radiation, emitting more energy than all the stars in the observable universe combined. The resulting gravitational waveforms will be easily detectable by the space-based LISA out to redshifts z greater than 10, revealing the masses and spins of the black holes to high precision. If the merging black holes have unequal masses, or asymmetric spins, the final black hole that forms can recoil with a velocity exceeding 1000 km/s. And, when the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new results that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, recoil velocities, and the possibility of accompanying electromagnetic outbursts.
Marassi, S.; Schneider, R.; Corvino, G.; Ferrari, V.; Portegies Zwart, S.
2011-12-01
We compute the gravitational wave background (GWB) generated by a cosmological population of black hole-black hole (BH-BH) binaries using hybrid waveforms recently produced by numerical simulations of (BH-BH) coalescence, which include the inspiral, merger, and ring-down contributions. A large sample of binary systems is simulated using the population synthesis code SeBa, and we extract fundamental statistical information on (BH-BH) physical parameters (primary and secondary BH masses, orbital separations and eccentricities, formation, and merger time scales). We then derive the binary birth and merger rates using the theoretical cosmic star formation history obtained from a numerical study which reproduces the available observational data at redshifts zrate of 0.85Mpc-3Myr-1. Third generation detectors, such as the Einstein Telescope (ET), could reveal the GWB from the inspiral phase predicted by any of the considered models. In addition, ET could sample the merger phase of the evolution at least for models which predict local merger rates between [0.053-0.85]Mpc-3Myr-1, which are more than a factor 2 lower than the upper limit inferred from the analysis of the LIGO S5 run [J. Abadie , Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 83, 122005 (2011)10.1103/PhysRevD.83.122005]. The frequency dependence and amplitude of the GWB generated during the coalescence is very sensitive to the adopted core mass threshold for BH formation. This opens up the possibility to better understand the final stages of the evolution of massive stellar binaries using observational constraints on the associated gravitational wave emission.
CERN. Geneva
2005-01-01
We will present a brief introduction to the physics of gravitational waves and their properties. We will review potential astrophysical sources of gravitational waves, and the physics and astrophysics that can be learned from their study. We will survey the techniques and technologies for detecting gravitational waves for the first time, including bar detectors and broadband interferometers, and give a brief status report on the international search effort, with special emphasis on the LIGO detectors and search results.
Origin of the heavy elements in binary neutron-star mergers from a gravitational-wave event.
Kasen, Daniel; Metzger, Brian; Barnes, Jennifer; Quataert, Eliot; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico
2017-11-02
The cosmic origin of elements heavier than iron has long been uncertain. Theoretical modelling shows that the matter that is expelled in the violent merger of two neutron stars can assemble into heavy elements such as gold and platinum in a process known as rapid neutron capture (r-process) nucleosynthesis. The radioactive decay of isotopes of the heavy elements is predicted to power a distinctive thermal glow (a 'kilonova'). The discovery of an electromagnetic counterpart to the gravitational-wave source GW170817 represents the first opportunity to detect and scrutinize a sample of freshly synthesized r-process elements. Here we report models that predict the electromagnetic emission of kilonovae in detail and enable the mass, velocity and composition of ejecta to be derived from observations. We compare the models to the optical and infrared radiation associated with the GW170817 event to argue that the observed source is a kilonova. We infer the presence of two distinct components of ejecta, one composed primarily of light (atomic mass number less than 140) and one of heavy (atomic mass number greater than 140) r-process elements. The ejected mass and a merger rate inferred from GW170817 imply that such mergers are a dominant mode of r-process production in the Universe.
Merging Black Holes and Gravitational Waves
Centrella, Joan
2009-01-01
This talk will focus on simulations of binary black hole mergers and the gravitational wave signals they produce. Applications to gravitational wave detection with LISA, and electronagnetic counterparts, will be highlighted.
Camp, J.; Barthelmy, S.; Blackburn, L.; Carpenter, K. G.; Gehrels, N.; Kanner, J.; Marshall, F. E.; Racusin, J. L.; Sakamoto, T.
2013-01-01
The International Space Station offers a unique platform for rapid and inexpensive deployment of space telescopes. A scientific opportunity of great potential later this decade is the use of telescopes for the electromagnetic follow-up of ground-based gravitational wave detections of neutron star and black hole mergers. We describe this possibility for OpTIIX, an ISS technology demonstration of a 1.5 m diffraction limited optical telescope assembled in space, and ISS-Lobster, a wide-field imaging X-ray telescope now under study as a potential NASA mission. Both telescopes will be mounted on pointing platforms, allowing rapid positioning to the source of a gravitational wave event. Electromagnetic follow-up rates of several per year appear likely, offering a wealth of complementary science on the mergers of black holes and neutron stars.
Cheung, Chi C. Teddy; Hogan, Jason; Graham, Peter; Kasevich, Mark; Rajendran, Surjeet; Saif, Babak; Kerr, Matthew T.; Lovellette, Michael; Wood, Kent S.; Michelson, Peter; MAGIS Team
2018-01-01
We consider the scientific potential of gravitational wave (GW) observations in the ~30 mHz to 3 Hz frequency range with the Mid-band Atomic Gravitational-wave Interferometric Sensor (MAGIS). MAGIS is a probe-class space-mission concept, using an atom-based gravitational wave detector, that will provide all-sky strain sensitivities of ~10^-21 sqrt(Hz) and better (1-year) in the GW-frequency mid-band between the LISA/L3 detector (planned 2034 launch) and ground-based Advanced LIGO/Virgo interferometers. Primary gravitational wave astrophysics science in the mid-band include GW observations of the binary black hole population discovered by Advanced LIGO/Virgo at higher-frequencies, prior to their merger stage. For such systems, MAGIS will observe the binaries in their inspiral phase, where system parameters such as eccentricities are most easily constrained, and will provide advanced, degree-scale localizations that would enable electromagnetic observations of possible precursor emission 1-week to 1-month prior to their mergers as well as prompt post-merger transient emission. Joint GW-observations with MAGIS and Advanced LIGO/Virgo covering all stages of binary coalescence will further reduce uncertainties in the GW- localizations and distances, and will be powerful paired with galaxy catalogs, to enable unique galaxy counterpart identifications in the case black hole binary mergers are completely absent of detectable electromagnetic precursor or transient signals. These possibilities for MAGIS extend to neutron star binary systems (black hole - neutron star, neutron star - neutron star), and mid-band prospects for such systems will also be considered.The MAGIS team is a collaboration between institutes in the U.S. including Stanford, AOSense, Harvard, NASA/GSFC, NASA/JPL, NIST, NRL, and UC Berkeley, and international partners at Birmingham, Bordeaux, CNRS, Dusseldorf, Ecole Normale Superieure, Florence, Hannover, and Ulm University.
Kelly, Bernard J.
2010-01-01
Einstein's General Theory of Relativity is our best classical description of gravity, and informs modern astronomy and astrophysics at all scales: stellar, galactic, and cosmological. Among its surprising predictions is the existence of gravitational waves -- ripples in space-time that carry energy and momentum away from strongly interacting gravitating sources. In my talk, I will give an overview of the properties of this radiation, recent breakthroughs in computational physics allowing us to calculate the waveforms from galactic mergers, and the prospect of direct observation with interferometric detectors such as LIGO and LISA.
Gottlieb, Ore; Nakar, Ehud; Piran, Tsvi
2018-01-01
Short gamma-ray bursts are believed to arise from compact binary mergers (either neutron star-neutron star or black hole-neutron star). If so, their jets must penetrate outflows that are ejected during the merger. As a jet crosses the ejecta, it dissipates its energy, producing a hot cocoon that surrounds it. We present here 3D numerical simulations of jet propagation in mergers' outflows, and we calculate the resulting emission. This emission consists of two components: the cooling emission, the leakage of the thermal energy of the hot cocoon, and the cocoon macronova that arises from the radioactive decay of the cocoon's material. This emission gives a brief (∼1 h) blue, wide angle signal. While the parameters of the outflow and jet are uncertain, for the configurations we have considered, the signal is bright (∼-14 to -15 absolute magnitude) and outshines all other predicted ultraviolet-optical signals. The signal is brighter when the jet breakout time is longer, and its peak brightness does not depend strongly on the highly uncertain opacity. A rapid search for such a signal is a promising strategy to detect an electromagnetic merger counterpart. A detected candidate could be then followed by deep infrared searches for the longer but weaker macronova arising from the rest of the ejecta.
Ciufolini, I; Moschella, U; Fre, P
2001-01-01
Gravitational waves (GWs) are a hot topic and promise to play a central role in astrophysics, cosmology, and theoretical physics. Technological developments have led us to the brink of their direct observation, which could become a reality in the coming years. The direct observation of GWs will open an entirely new field: GW astronomy. This is expected to bring a revolution in our knowledge of the universe by allowing the observation of previously unseen phenomena, such as the coalescence of compact objects (neutron stars and black holes), the fall of stars into supermassive black holes, stellar core collapses, big-bang relics, and the new and unexpected.With a wide range of contributions by leading scientists in the field, Gravitational Waves covers topics such as the basics of GWs, various advanced topics, GW detectors, astrophysics of GW sources, numerical applications, and several recent theoretical developments. The material is written at a level suitable for postgraduate students entering the field.
GRAVITATIONAL MEMORY IN BINARY BLACK HOLE MERGERS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pollney, Denis; Reisswig, Christian
2011-01-01
In addition to the dominant oscillatory gravitational wave signals produced during binary inspirals, a non-oscillatory component arises from the nonlinear 'memory' effect, sourced by the emitted gravitational radiation. The memory grows significantly during the late-inspiral and merger, modifying the signal by an almost step-function profile, and making it difficult to model by approximate methods. We use numerical evolutions of binary black holes (BHs) to evaluate the nonlinear memory during late-inspiral, merger, and ringdown. We identify two main components of the signal: the monotonically growing portion corresponding to the memory, and an oscillatory part which sets in roughly at the time of merger and is due to the BH ringdown. Counterintuitively, the ringdown is most prominent for models with the lowest total spin. Thus, the case of maximally spinning BHs anti-aligned to the orbital angular momentum exhibits the highest signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for interferometric detectors. The largest memory offset, however, occurs for highly spinning BHs, with an estimated value of h tot 20 ≅ 0.24 in the maximally spinning case. These results are central to determining the detectability of nonlinear memory through pulsar timing array measurements.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davis, Jonathan H.; Fairbairn, Malcolm, E-mail: jonathan.davis@kcl.ac.uk, E-mail: malcolm.fairbairn@kcl.ac.uk [Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology, Department of Physics, King' s College London, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)
2017-07-01
We make projections for measuring the black hole birth rate from the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB) by future neutrino experiments, and constrain the black hole merger fraction ε, when combined with information on the black hole merger rate from gravitational wave experiments such as LIGO. The DSNB originates from neutrinos emitted by all the supernovae in the Universe, and is expected to be made up of two components: neutrinos from neutron-star-forming supernovae, and a sub-dominant component at higher energies from black-hole-forming 'unnovae'. We perform a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis of simulated data of the DSNB in an experiment similar to Hyper-Kamiokande, focusing on this second component. Since all knowledge of the neutrino emission from unnovae comes from simulations of collapsing stars, we choose two sets of priors: one where the unnovae are well-understood and one where their neutrino emission is poorly known. By combining the black hole birth rate from the DSNB with projected measurements of the black hole merger rate from LIGO, we show that the fraction of black holes which lead to binary mergers observed today ε could be constrained to be within the range 2 ⋅ 10{sup −4} ≤ ε ≤ 3 ⋅ 10{sup −2} at 3 σ confidence, after ten years of running an experiment like Hyper-Kamiokande.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davis, Jonathan H.; Fairbairn, Malcolm
2017-01-01
We make projections for measuring the black hole birth rate from the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB) by future neutrino experiments, and constrain the black hole merger fraction ε, when combined with information on the black hole merger rate from gravitational wave experiments such as LIGO. The DSNB originates from neutrinos emitted by all the supernovae in the Universe, and is expected to be made up of two components: neutrinos from neutron-star-forming supernovae, and a sub-dominant component at higher energies from black-hole-forming 'unnovae'. We perform a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis of simulated data of the DSNB in an experiment similar to Hyper-Kamiokande, focusing on this second component. Since all knowledge of the neutrino emission from unnovae comes from simulations of collapsing stars, we choose two sets of priors: one where the unnovae are well-understood and one where their neutrino emission is poorly known. By combining the black hole birth rate from the DSNB with projected measurements of the black hole merger rate from LIGO, we show that the fraction of black holes which lead to binary mergers observed today ε could be constrained to be within the range 2 ⋅ 10 −4 ≤ ε ≤ 3 ⋅ 10 −2 at 3 σ confidence, after ten years of running an experiment like Hyper-Kamiokande.
Gravitational Waves and Gamma-Rays from a Binary Neutron Star Merger: GW170817 and GRB 170817A
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.
2017-01-01
On 2017 August 17, the gravitational-wave event GW170817 was observed by the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors, and the gamma-ray burst (GRB) GRB 170817A was observed independently by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, and the Anti-Coincidence Shield for the Spectrometer for the International Gam...
Gravitational Waves and Gamma-Rays from a Binary Neutron Star Merger: GW170817 and GRB 170817A
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Afrough, M.; Agarwal, B.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Allocca, A.; Aloy, M. A.; Altin, P. A.; Amato, A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Angelova, S. V.; Antier, S.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atallah, D. V.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; AultONeal, K.; Austin, C.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Bae, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Banagiri, S.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barkett, K.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Bawaj, M.; Bayley, J. C.; Bazzan, M.; Becsy, B.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Bero, J. J.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Biscoveanu, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bode, N.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonilla, E.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bossie, K.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Canepa, M.; Canizares, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Carney, M. F.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerda-Duran, P.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chase, E.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chatterjee, D.; Chatziioannou, K.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. -P.; Chia, H.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S.; Chung, A. K. W.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Ciolfi, R.; Cirelli, C. E.; Cirone, A.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Clearwater, P.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Cohen, D.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L. R.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corban, P.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordero-Carrion, I.; Corley, K. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Dalya, G.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Costa, C. F. Da Silva; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; De, S.; Debra, D.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Demos, N.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; De Pietri, R.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; De Rossi, C.; DeSalvo, R.; de Varona, O.; Devenson, J.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Renzo, F.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Alvarez, M. Dovale; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Dreissigacker, C.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dupej, P.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Essick, R. C.; Estevez, D.; Etienne, Z. B.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fee, C.; Fehrmann, H.; Feicht, J.; Fejer, M. M.; Fernandez-Galiana, A.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finstad, D.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fishbach, M.; Fisher, R. P.; Fitz-Axen, M.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Font, J. A.; Forsyth, P. W. F.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Ganija, M. R.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garcia-Quiros, C.; Garufi, F.; Gateley, B.; Gaudio, S.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, D.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glover, L.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gomes, S.; Goncharov, B.; Gonzalez, G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Gretarsson, E. M.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Gruning, P.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Halim, O.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hamilton, E. Z.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hannuksela, O. A.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hinderer, T.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Horst, C.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hreibi, A.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Inta, R.; Intini, G.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Johnson-McDaniel, N. K.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kamai, B.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Kastaun, W.; Katolik, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kefelian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kemball, A. J.; Kennedy, R.; Kent, C.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, Y. -M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinley-Hanlon, M.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Knowles, T. D.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kraemer, C.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwang, S.; Lackey, B. D.; Lai, K. H.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Linker, S. D.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Lo, R. K. L.; Lockerbie, N. A.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Lueck, H.; Lumaca, D.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macas, R.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Hernandez, I. Magana; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Zertuche, L. Magana; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markakis, C.; Markosyan, A. S.; Markowitz, A.; Maros, E.; Marquina, A.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Massera, E.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matas, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McCuller, L.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McNeill, L.; Mcrae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Mejuto-Villa, E.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Milovich-Goff, M. C.; Minazzoli, O.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moffa, D.; Moggi, A.; Mogushi, K.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muniz, E. A.; Muratore, M.; Murray, P. G.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Neilson, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Nevin, L.; Newport, J. M.; Newton, G.; Ng, K. K. Y.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nichols, D.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; North, C.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; O'Dea, G. D.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Okada, M. A.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ormiston, R.; Ortega, L. F.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ossokine, S.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Page, M. A.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, Howard; Pan, Huang-Wei; Pang, B.; Pang, P. T. H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Parida, A.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patil, M.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perez, C. J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pirello, M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Porter, E. K.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Pratten, G.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rajbhandari, B.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K. E.; Ramos-Buades, A.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ren, W.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Ricker, P. M.; Rieger, S.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romel, C. L.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Ross, M. P.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Rutins, G.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sanchez, L. E.; Sanchis-Gual, N.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheel, M.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoenbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schulte, B. W.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seidel, E.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shah, A. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaner, M. B.; Shao, L.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, R. J. E.; Somala, S.; Son, E. J.; Sonnenberg, J. A.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staats, K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Stops, D. J.; Strain, K. A.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Strunk, A.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Suresh, J.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Tait, S. C.; Talbot, C.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Tasson, J. D.; Taylor, J. A.; Taylor, R.; Tewari, S. V.; Theeg, T.; Thies, F.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres-Forne, A.; Torrie, C. I.; Toyra, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tsang, K. W.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Tsukada, L.; Tsuna, D.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ueno, K.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; Van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; Van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walet, R.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, W. H.; Wang, Y. F.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessel, E. K.; Wessels, P.; Westerweck, J.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Wilken, D.; Williams, D.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Wofford, J.; Wong, K. W. K.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wysocki, D. M.; Xiao, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, L.; Yap, M. J.; Yazback, M.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zelenova, T.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y. -H.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S. J.; Zhu, X. J.; Zimmerman, A. B.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; Burns, E.; Veres, P.; Kocevski, D.; Racusin, J.; Goldstein, A.; Connaughton, V.; Briggs, M. S.; Blackburn, L.; Hamburg, R.; Hui, C. M.; von Kienlin, A.; McEnery, J.; Preece, R. D.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Bissaldi, E.; Cleveland, W. H.; Gibby, M. H.; Giles, M. M.; Kippen, R. M.; McBreen, S.; Meegan, C. A.; Paciesas, W. S.; Poolakkil, S.; Roberts, O. J.; Stanbro, M.; Savchenko, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Kuulkers, E.; Bazzano, A.; Bozzo, E.; Brandt, S.; Chenevez, J.; Courvoisier, T. J. -L.; Diehl, R.; Domingo, A.; Hanlon, L.; Jourdain, E.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Lutovinov, A.; Mereghetti, S.; Natalucci, L.; Rodi, J.; Roques, J. -P.; Sunyaev, R.; Ubertini, P.
2017-01-01
On 2017 August 17, the gravitational-wave event GW170817 was observed by the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors, and the gamma-ray burst (GRB) GRB 170817A was observed independently by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, and the Anti-Coincidence Shield for the Spectrometer for the International
Hanauske, Matthias; Steinheimer, Jan; Bovard, Luke; Mukherjee, Ayon; Schramm, Stefan; Takami, Kentaro; Papenfort, Jens; Wechselberger, Natascha; Rezzolla, Luciano; Stöcker, Horst
2017-07-01
The underlying open questions in the fields of general relativistic astrophysics and elementary particle and nuclear physics are strongly connected and their results are interdependent. Although the physical systems are quite different, the 4D-simulation of a merger of a binary system of two neutron stars and the properties of the hot and dense matter created in high energy heavy ion collisions, strongly depend on the equation of state of fundamental elementary matter. Neutron star mergers represent optimal astrophysical laboratories to investigate the QCD phase structure using a spectrogram of the post-merger phase of the emitted gravitational waves. These studies can be supplemented by observations from heavy ion collisions to possibly reach a conclusive picture on the QCD phase structure at high density and temperature. As gravitational waves (GWs) emitted from merging neutron star binaries are on the verge of their first detection, it is important to understand the main characteristics of the underlying merging system in order to predict the expected GW signal. Based on numerical-relativity simulations of merging neutron star binaries, the emitted GW and the interior structure of the generated hypermassive neutron stars (HMNS) have been analyzed in detail. This article will focus on the internal and rotational HMNS properties and their connection with the emitted GW signal. Especially, the appearance of the hadon-quark phase transition in the interior region of the HMNS and its conjunction with the spectral properties of the emitted GW will be addressed and confronted with the simulation results of high energy heavy ion collisions.
Gravitational waves from gravitational collapse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fryer, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; New, Kimberly C [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
Gravitational wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.
Gravitational Waves from Gravitational Collapse
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chris L. Fryer
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Gravitational-wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.
Gravitational Waves from Gravitational Collapse.
Fryer, Chris L; New, Kimberly C B
2011-01-01
Gravitational-wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2011-1.
Nonlinear coupled Alfven and gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaellberg, Andreas; Brodin, Gert; Bradley, Michael
2004-01-01
In this paper we consider nonlinear interaction between gravitational and electromagnetic waves in a strongly magnetized plasma. More specifically, we investigate the propagation of gravitational waves with the direction of propagation perpendicular to a background magnetic field and the coupling to compressional Alfven waves. The gravitational waves are considered in the high-frequency limit and the plasma is modeled by a multifluid description. We make a self-consistent, weakly nonlinear analysis of the Einstein-Maxwell system and derive a wave equation for the coupled gravitational and electromagnetic wave modes. A WKB-approximation is then applied and as a result we obtain the nonlinear Schroedinger equation for the slowly varying wave amplitudes. The analysis is extended to 3D wave pulses, and we discuss the applications to radiation generated from pulsar binary mergers. It turns out that the electromagnetic radiation from a binary merger should experience a focusing effect, that in principle could be detected
Search for dark matter effects on gravitational signals from neutron star mergers
Ellis, John; Hektor, Andi; Hütsi, Gert; Kannike, Kristjan; Marzola, Luca; Raidal, Martti; Vaskonen, Ville
2018-06-01
Motivated by the recent detection of the gravitational wave signal emitted by a binary neutron star merger, we analyse the possible impact of dark matter on such signals. We show that dark matter cores in merging neutron stars may yield an observable supplementary peak in the gravitational wave power spectral density following the merger, which could be distinguished from the features produced by the neutron components.
arXiv Search for Dark Matter Effects on Gravitational Signals from Neutron Star Mergers
Ellis, John; Hütsi, Gert; Kannike, Kristjan; Marzola, Luca; Raidal, Martti; Vaskonen, Ville
2018-06-10
Motivated by the recent detection of the gravitational wave signal emitted by a binary neutron star merger, we analyse the possible impact of dark matter on such signals. We show that dark matter cores in merging neutron stars may yield an observable supplementary peak in the gravitational wave power spectral density following the merger, which could be distinguished from the features produced by the neutron components.
Search for dark matter effects on gravitational signals from neutron star mergers
Ellis, John; Hektor, Andi; Hütsi, Gert; Kannike, Kristjan; Marzola, Luca; Raidal, Martti; Vaskonen, Ville
2018-01-01
Motivated by the recent detection of the gravitational wave signal emitted by a binary neutron star merger, we analyse the possible impact of dark matter on such signals. We show that dark matter cores in merging neutron stars may yield an observable supplementary peak in the gravitational wave power spectral density following the merger, which could be distinguished from the features produced by the neutron components.
Gravitational waves from neutron stars and asteroseismology
Ho, Wynn C. G.
2018-05-01
Neutron stars are born in the supernova explosion of massive stars. Neutron stars rotate as stably as atomic clocks and possess densities exceeding that of atomic nuclei and magnetic fields millions to billions of times stronger than those created in laboratories on the Earth. The physical properties of neutron stars are determined by many areas of fundamental physics, and detection of gravitational waves can provide invaluable insights into our understanding of these areas. Here, we describe some of the physics and astrophysics of neutron stars and how traditional electromagnetic wave observations provide clues to the sorts of gravitational waves we expect from these stars. We pay particular attention to neutron star fluid oscillations, examining their impact on electromagnetic and gravitational wave observations when these stars are in a wide binary or isolated system, then during binary inspiral right before merger, and finally at times soon after merger. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue `The promises of gravitational-wave astronomy'.
Gravitational Waves and Time Domain Astronomy
Centrella, Joan; Nissanke, Samaya; Williams, Roy
2012-01-01
The gravitational wave window onto the universe will open in roughly five years, when Advanced LIGO and Virgo achieve the first detections of high frequency gravitational waves, most likely coming from compact binary mergers. Electromagnetic follow-up of these triggers, using radio, optical, and high energy telescopes, promises exciting opportunities in multi-messenger time domain astronomy. In the decade, space-based observations of low frequency gravitational waves from massive black hole mergers, and their electromagnetic counterparts, will open up further vistas for discovery. This two-part workshop featured brief presentations and stimulating discussions on the challenges and opportunities presented by gravitational wave astronomy. Highlights from the workshop, with the emphasis on strategies for electromagnetic follow-up, are presented in this report.
Gravitational waves from inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guzzetti, M.C.; Bartolo, N.; Liguori, M.; Matarrese, S.
2016-01-01
The production of a stochastic background of gravitational waves is a fundamental prediction of any cosmological inflationary model. The features of such a signal encode unique information about the physics of the Early Universe and beyond, thus representing an exciting, powerful window on the origin and evolution of the Universe. We review the main mechanisms of gravitational-wave production, ranging from quantum fluctuations of the gravitational field to other mechanisms that can take place during or after inflation. These include e.g. gravitational waves generated as a consequence of extra particle production during inflation, or during the (p)reheating phase. Gravitational waves produced in inflation scenarios based on modified gravity theories and second-order gravitational waves are also considered. For each analyzed case, the expected power spectrum is given. We discuss the discriminating power among different models, associated with the validity/violation of the standard consistency relation between tensor-to-scalar ratio r and tensor spectral index ηT. In light of the prospects for (directly/indirectly) detecting primordial gravitational waves, we give the expected present-day gravitational radiation spectral energy-density, highlighting the main characteristics imprinted by the cosmic thermal history, and we outline the signatures left by gravitational waves on the Cosmic Microwave Background and some imprints in the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe. Finally, current bounds and prospects of detection for inflationary gravitational waves are summarized.
CERN. Geneva HR-RFA
2006-01-01
We will present a brief introduction to the physics of gravitational waves and their properties. We will review potential astrophysical sources of gravitational waves, and the physics and astrophysics that can be learned from their study. We will survey the techniques and technologies for detecting gravitational waves for the first time, including bar detectors and broadband interferometers, and give a brief status report on the international search effort.
CERN. Geneva
2006-01-01
Gravitational wave astronomy is expected to become an observational field within the next decade. First direct detection of gravitational waves is possible with existing terrestrial-based detectors, and highly probable with proposed upgrades. In this three-part lecture series, we give an overview of the field, including material on gravitional wave sources, detection methods, some details of interferometric detectors, data analysis methods, and current results from observational data-taking runs of the LIGO and GEO projects.
Those Elusive Gravitational Waves
MOSAIC, 1976
1976-01-01
The presence of gravitational waves was predicted by Einstein in his theory of General Relativity. Since then, scientists have been attempting to develop a detector sensitive enough to measure these cosmic signals. Once the presence of gravitational waves is confirmed, scientists can directly study star interiors, galaxy cores, or quasars. (MA)
CERN. Geneva
2016-01-01
In the past year, the LIGO-Virgo Collaboration announced the first secure detection of gravitational waves. This discovery heralds the beginning of gravitational wave astronomy: the use of gravitational waves as a tool for studying the dense and dynamical universe. In this talk, I will describe the full spectrum of gravitational waves, from Hubble-scale modes, through waves with periods of years, hours and milliseconds. I will describe the different techniques one uses to measure the waves in these bands, current and planned facilities for implementing these techniques, and the broad range of sources which produce the radiation. I will discuss what we might expect to learn as more events and sources are measured, and as this field matures into a standard part of the astronomical milieu.
The gravitational-wave memory effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Favata, Marc
2010-01-01
The nonlinear memory effect is a slowly growing, non-oscillatory contribution to the gravitational-wave amplitude. It originates from gravitational waves that are sourced by the previously emitted waves. In an ideal gravitational-wave interferometer a gravitational wave with memory causes a permanent displacement of the test masses that persists after the wave has passed. Surprisingly, the nonlinear memory affects the signal amplitude starting at leading (Newtonian-quadrupole) order. Despite this fact, the nonlinear memory is not easily extracted from current numerical relativity simulations. After reviewing the linear and nonlinear memory I summarize some recent work, including (1) computations of the memory contribution to the inspiral waveform amplitude (thus completing the waveform to third post-Newtonian order); (2) the first calculations of the nonlinear memory that include all phases of binary black hole coalescence (inspiral, merger, ringdown); and (3) realistic estimates of the detectability of the memory with LISA.
Zhang, Bing
2016-08-01
The discoveries of GW150914, GW151226, and LVT151012 suggest that double black hole (BH-BH) mergers are common in the universe. If at least one of the two merging black holes (BHs) carries a certain amount of charge, possibly retained by a rotating magnetosphere, the inspiral of a BH-BH system would drive a global magnetic dipole normal to the orbital plane. The rapidly evolving magnetic moment during the merging process would drive a Poynting flux with an increasing wind power. The magnetospheric activities during the final phase of the merger would make a fast radio burst (FRB) if the BH charge can be as large as a factor of \\hat{q}˜ ({10}-9{--}{10}-8) of the critical charge Q c of the BH. At large radii, dissipation of the Poynting flux energy in the outflow would power a short-duration high-energy transient, which would appear as a detectable short-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) if the charge can be as large as \\hat{q}˜ ({10}-5{--}{10}-4). The putative short GRB coincident with GW150914 recorded by Fermi GBM may be interpreted with this model. Future joint GW/GRB/FRB searches would lead to a measurement or place a constraint on the charges carried by isolate BHs.
Gravitational Waves and Neutrinos
Sturani, Riccardo
2018-01-01
We give an overview about the recent detection of gravitational waves by the Advanced LIGO first and second observing runs and by Advanced Virgo, with emphasis on the prospects for multi-messenger astronomy involving neutrinos detections.
Gravitational Wave Speed: Undefined. Experiments Proposed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Russell
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Since changes in all 4 dimensions of spacetime are components of displacement for gravitational waves, a theoretical result is presented that their speed is undefined, and that the Theory of Relativity is not reliable to predict their speed. Astrophysical experiments are proposed with objectives to directly measure gravitational wave speed, and to verify these theoretical results. From the circumference of two merging black hole's final orbit, it is proposed to make an estimate of a total duration of the last ten orbits, before gravitational collapse, for comparison with durations of reported gravitational wave signals. It is proposed to open a new field of engineering of spacetime wave modulation with an objective of faster and better data transmission and communication through the Earth, the Sun, and deep space. If experiments verify that gravitational waves have infinite speed, it is concluded that a catastrophic gravitational collapse, such as a merger of quasars, today, would re-define the geometry and curvature of spacetime on Earth, instantly, without optical observations of this merger visible, until billions of years in the future.
Hunting for Dark Particles with Gravitational Waves
Giudice, Gian F.; Urbano, Alfredo
2016-01-01
The LIGO observation of gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger has begun a new era in fundamental physics. If new dark sector particles, be they bosons or fermions, can coalesce into exotic compact objects (ECOs) of astronomical size, then the first evidence for such objects, and their underlying microphysical description, may arise in gravitational wave observations. In this work we study how the macroscopic properties of ECOs are related to their microscopic properties, such as dark particle mass and couplings. We then demonstrate the smoking gun exotic signatures that would provide observational evidence for ECOs, and hence new particles, in terrestrial gravitational wave observatories. Finally, we discuss how gravitational waves can test a core concept in general relativity: Hawking's area theorem.
Hunting for Dark Particles with Gravitational Waves
Giudice, Gian F.
2017-12-01
The LIGO observation of gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger has begun a new era in fundamental physics. If new dark sector particles, be they bosons or fermions, can coalesce into exotic compact objects (ECOs) of astronomical size, then the first evidence for such objects, and their underlying microphysical description, may arise in gravitational wave observations. In this work we study how the macroscopic properties of ECOs are related to their microscopic properties, such as dark particle mass and couplings. We then demonstrate the smoking gun exotic signatures that would provide observational evidence for ECOs, and hence new particles, in terrestrial gravitational wave observatories. Finally, we discuss how gravitational waves can test a core concept in general relativity: Hawking's area theorem.
Hunting for dark particles with gravitational waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giudice, Gian F.; McCullough, Matthew; Urbano, Alfredo [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department,Geneva (Switzerland)
2016-10-03
The LIGO observation of gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger has begun a new era in fundamental physics. If new dark sector particles, be they bosons or fermions, can coalesce into exotic compact objects (ECOs) of astronomical size, then the first evidence for such objects, and their underlying microphysical description, may arise in gravitational wave observations. In this work we study how the macroscopic properties of ECOs are related to their microscopic properties, such as dark particle mass and couplings. We then demonstrate the smoking gun exotic signatures that would provide observational evidence for ECOs, and hence new particles, in terrestrial gravitational wave observatories. Finally, we discuss how gravitational waves can test a core concept in general relativity: Hawking’s area theorem.
Hunting for dark particles with gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giudice, Gian F.; McCullough, Matthew; Urbano, Alfredo
2016-01-01
The LIGO observation of gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger has begun a new era in fundamental physics. If new dark sector particles, be they bosons or fermions, can coalesce into exotic compact objects (ECOs) of astronomical size, then the first evidence for such objects, and their underlying microphysical description, may arise in gravitational wave observations. In this work we study how the macroscopic properties of ECOs are related to their microscopic properties, such as dark particle mass and couplings. We then demonstrate the smoking gun exotic signatures that would provide observational evidence for ECOs, and hence new particles, in terrestrial gravitational wave observatories. Finally, we discuss how gravitational waves can test a core concept in general relativity: Hawking’s area theorem.
Romero, Gustavo E.
2017-01-01
I discuss the recent claims made by Mario Bunge on the philosophical implications of the discovery of gravitational waves. I think that Bunge is right when he points out that the detection implies the materiality of spacetime, but I reject his identification of spacetime with the gravitational field. I show that Bunge's analysis of the spacetime inside a hollow sphere is defective, but this in no way affects his main claim.
Gravitational Waves and Multi-Messenger Astronomy
Centrella, Joan M.
2010-01-01
Gravitational waves are produced by a wide variety of sources throughout the cosmos, including the mergers of black hole and neutron star binaries/compact objects spiraling into central black holes in galactic nuclei, close compact binaries/and phase transitions and quantum fluctuations in the early universe. Observing these signals can bring new, and often very precise, information about their sources across vast stretches of cosmic time. In this talk we will focus on thee opening of this gravitational-wave window on the universe, highlighting new opportunities for discovery and multi-messenger astronomy.
Black Hole Kicks as New Gravitational Wave Observables.
Gerosa, Davide; Moore, Christopher J
2016-07-01
Generic black hole binaries radiate gravitational waves anisotropically, imparting a recoil, or kick, velocity to the merger remnant. If a component of the kick along the line of sight is present, gravitational waves emitted during the final orbits and merger will be gradually Doppler shifted as the kick builds up. We develop a simple prescription to capture this effect in existing waveform models, showing that future gravitational wave experiments will be able to perform direct measurements, not only of the black hole kick velocity, but also of its accumulation profile. In particular, the eLISA space mission will measure supermassive black hole kick velocities as low as ∼500 km s^{-1}, which are expected to be a common outcome of black hole binary coalescence following galaxy mergers. Black hole kicks thus constitute a promising new observable in the growing field of gravitational wave astronomy.
Gravitational Waves: The Evidence Mounts
Wick, Gerald L.
1970-01-01
Reviews the work of Weber and his colleagues in their attempts at detecting extraterrestial gravitational waves. Coincidence events recorded by special detectors provide the evidence for the existence of gravitational waves. Bibliography. (LC)
Glitches and gravitational waves
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A M Srivastava
2017-10-09
Oct 9, 2017 ... We also discuss gravitational wave production due to rapidly changing ... efficient source of energy loss during the cooling of the neutron star. ..... [3] U S Gupta, R K Mohapatra, A M Srivastava and V K. Tiwari, Phys. Rev. D 82 ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Keywords. General relativity; gravitational waves; astrophysics; interferometry. Author Affiliations. P Ajith1 K G Arun2. LIGO Laboratory and Theoretical Astrophysics California Institute of Technology MS 18-34, Pasadena CA 91125, USA. Chennai Mathematical Institute Plot H1, SIPCOT IT Park Siruseri, Padur Post Chennai ...
Gravitational waves from neutron stars and asteroseismology.
Ho, Wynn C G
2018-05-28
Neutron stars are born in the supernova explosion of massive stars. Neutron stars rotate as stably as atomic clocks and possess densities exceeding that of atomic nuclei and magnetic fields millions to billions of times stronger than those created in laboratories on the Earth. The physical properties of neutron stars are determined by many areas of fundamental physics, and detection of gravitational waves can provide invaluable insights into our understanding of these areas. Here, we describe some of the physics and astrophysics of neutron stars and how traditional electromagnetic wave observations provide clues to the sorts of gravitational waves we expect from these stars. We pay particular attention to neutron star fluid oscillations, examining their impact on electromagnetic and gravitational wave observations when these stars are in a wide binary or isolated system, then during binary inspiral right before merger, and finally at times soon after merger.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The promises of gravitational-wave astronomy'. © 2018 The Author(s).
Gravitational waves and antennas
CERN. Geneva
2003-01-01
Gravitational waves and their detection represent today a hot topic, which promises to play a central role in astrophysics, cosmology and theoretical physics. Technological developments have enabled the construction of such sensitive detectors that the detection of gravitational radiation and the start of a new astronomy could become a reality during the next few years. This is expected to bring a revolution in our knowledge of the universe by allowing the observation of hiterto unseen phenomena such as coalescence of compact objects (neutron stars and black holes) fall of stars into supermassive black holes, stellar core collapses, big bang relics and the new and unexpected. In these lectures I give a brief overview of this challenging field of modern physics. Topics : Basic properties of gravitational radiation. Astrophysical sources. Principle of operation of detectors. Interferometers (both ground based and space-based), bars and spheres. Present status of the experiments, their recent results and their f...
Dilatonic imprints on exact gravitational wave signatures
McCarthy, Fiona; KubizÅák, David; Mann, Robert B.
2018-05-01
By employing the moduli space approximation, we analytically calculate the gravitational wave signatures emitted upon the merger of two extremally charged dilatonic black holes. We probe several values of the dilatonic coupling constant a , and find significant departures from the Einstein-Maxwell (a =0 ) counterpart studied in [Phys. Rev. D 96, 061501 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevD.96.061501]. For (low-energy) string theory black holes (a =1 ) there are no coalescence orbits and only a memory effect is observed, whereas for an intermediate value of the coupling (a =1 /√{3 } ) the late-time merger signature becomes exponentially suppressed, compared to the polynomial decay in the a =0 case without a dilaton. Such an imprint shows a clear difference between the case with and without a scalar field (as, for example, predicted by string theory) in black hole mergers.
Einstein-Rosen gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Astefanoaei, Iordana; Maftei, Gh.
2001-01-01
In this paper we analyse the behaviour of the gravitational waves in the approximation of the far matter fields, considering the indirect interaction between the matter sources and the gravitational field, in a cosmological model based on the Einstein-Rosen solution, Because the properties of the gravitational waves obtained as the solutions of Einstein fields equations (the gravitational field equations) are most obvious in the weak gravitational fields we consider here, the gravitational field in the linear approximation. Using the Newman-Penrose formalism, we calculate in the null-tetradic base (e a ), the spin coefficients, the directional derivates and the tetradic components of Ricci and Weyl tensors. From the Einstein field equations we obtained the solution for b(z, t) what described the behaviour of gravitational wave in Einstein-Rosen Universe and in the particular case, when t → ∞, p(z, t) leads us to the primordial gravitational waves in the Einstein-Rosen Universe. (authors)
Gravitational Waves - New Perspectives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biesiada, M.
1999-01-01
Laser interferometric experiments planned for 2002 will open up a new window onto the Universe. The first part of the paper gives a brief intuitive introduction to gravity waves, detection techniques and enumeration of main astrophysical sources and frequency bands to which they contribute. Then two more specific issues are discussed concerning cosmological perspectives of gravity waves detection. First one is the problem of gravitational lensing of the signal from inspiralling NS-NS binaries. The magnitude of the so called magnification bias is estimated and found non-negligible for some quite realistic lens models, but strongly model-dependent. The second problem is connected with estimates of galactic and extragalactic parts of the stochastic background. The main conclusion from these two examples is that in so far as the cosmological payoff of gravitational wave detection would be high, we should substantially deepen our understanding of basic astrophysical properties of galaxies and their clusters (in terms of mass distribution) in order to draw clear cosmological conclusions. (author)
Quantum Emulation of Gravitational Waves.
Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Cirio, Mauro; Büse, Alexander; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel
2015-07-14
Gravitational waves, as predicted by Einstein's general relativity theory, appear as ripples in the fabric of spacetime traveling at the speed of light. We prove that the propagation of small amplitude gravitational waves in a curved spacetime is equivalent to the propagation of a subspace of electromagnetic states. We use this result to propose the use of entangled photons to emulate the evolution of gravitational waves in curved spacetimes by means of experimental electromagnetic setups featuring metamaterials.
Search for Gravitational Wave Counterparts with Fermi GBM
Hui, C. M.
2017-01-01
The progenitor of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is believed to be the merger of two compact objects. This type of events will also produce gravitational waves. Since the gravitational waves discovery by LIGO, the search for a joint detection with an electromagnetic counterpart has been ongoing. Fermi GBM detects approximately 40 short GRBs per year, and we have been expanding our search looking for faint events in the GBM data that did not trigger onboard.
Are the gravitational waves quantised?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lovas, Istvan
1997-01-01
If the gravitational waves are classical objects then the value of their correlation function is 1. If they are quantised, then there exist two possibilities: the gravitational waves are either completely coherent, then their correlation function is again 1, or they are only partially coherent, then their correlation function is expected to deviate from 1. Unfortunately such a deviation is not a sufficient proof for the quantised character of the gravitational waves. If the gravitational waves are quantised and generated by the change of the background metrical then they can be in a squeezed state. In a squeezed state there is a chance for the correlation between the phase of the wave and the quantum fluctuations. The observation of such a correlation would be a genuine proof of the quantised character of the gravitational wave
Exact piecewise flat gravitational waves
van de Meent, M.
2011-01-01
We generalize our previous linear result (van de Meent 2011 Class. Quantum Grav 28 075005) in obtaining gravitational waves from our piecewise flat model for gravity in 3+1 dimensions to exact piecewise flat configurations describing exact planar gravitational waves. We show explicitly how to
Laboratory generation of gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinto, I.M.; Rotoli, G.
1988-01-01
The authors have performed calculations on the basic type of gravitational wave electromagnetic laboratory generators. Their results show that laboratory generations of gravitational wave is at limit of state-of-the-art of present-day giant electromagnetic field generation
Interaction of gravitational plane waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrari, V.
1988-01-01
The mathematical theory of colliding, infinite-fronted, plane gravitational waves is presented. The process of focusing, the creation of singularities and horizons, due to the interaction, and the lens effect due to a beam-like gravitational wave are discussed
The Prospect of Neutrinos with Gravitational Waves
Kohler, Susanna
2017-10-01
With the first detection of gravitational waves in 2015, scientists celebrated the opening of a new window to the universe. But multi-messenger astronomy astronomy based on detections of not just photons, but other signals as well was not a new idea at the time: we had already detected tiny, lightweight neutrinos emitted from astrophysical sources. Will we be able to combine observations of neutrinos and gravitational waves in the future to provide a deeper picture of astrophysical events?Signs of a MergerArtists impression of the first stage of a binary neutron star merger. [NASA, ESA, and A. Feild (STScI)]If the answer is yes, the key will probably be short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). Theory predicts that when a neutron star merges with another compact object (either another neutron star or a black hole), a number of signals may be observable. These include:gravitational waves as the binary spirals inward,a brief burst of gamma rays at merger (this is the SGRB),high-energy neutrino emission during the SGRB,optical and infrared emission after the merger in the form of a kilonova, andradio afterglows of the merger remnants.While weve observed the various electromagnetic components of this picture, the multi-messenger part is lacking: gravitational-wave detections havent been made in conjunction with electromagnetic counterparts thus far, and the only confirmed astrophysical sources of neutrinos are the Sun and Supernova 1987A.Pedicted neutrino fluxes during different stages of emission in an SGRB. [Kimura et al. 2017]Can we expect this to change in the future? A team of authors led by Shigeo Kimura (Pennsylvania State University) has now explored the likelihood that well be able to detect high-energy neutrinos in association with future gravitational-wave events.Detecting the SGRB NeutrinosKimura and collaborators first estimate the flux of high-energy neutrinos expected during various emission phases of an SGRB. They show that a period of late-time emission, known
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yunes, Nicolas; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Owen, Benjamin J.; Alexander, Stephon
2010-01-01
Gravitational parity violation is a possibility motivated by particle physics, string theory, and loop quantum gravity. One effect of it is amplitude birefringence of gravitational waves, whereby left and right circularly polarized waves propagate at the same speed but with different amplitude evolution. Here we propose a test of this effect through coincident observations of gravitational waves and short gamma-ray bursts from binary mergers involving neutron stars. Such gravitational waves are highly left or right circularly polarized due to the geometry of the merger. Using localization information from the gamma-ray burst, ground-based gravitational wave detectors can measure the distance to the source with reasonable accuracy. An electromagnetic determination of the redshift from an afterglow or host galaxy yields an independent measure of this distance. Gravitational parity violation would manifest itself as a discrepancy between these two distance measurements. We exemplify such a test by considering one specific effective theory that leads to such gravitational parity violation, Chern-Simons gravity. We show that the advanced LIGO-Virgo network and all-sky gamma-ray telescopes can be sensitive to the propagating sector of Chern-Simons gravitational parity violation to a level roughly 2 orders of magnitude better than current stationary constraints from the LAGEOS satellites.
Gravitational wave experiments
Hamilton, W O
1993-01-01
There were three oral sessions and one poster session for Workshop C1 on Gravitational Wave Experiments. There was also an informal experimental roundtable held one after- noon. The ﬁrst two oral sessions were devoted mainly to progress reports from various interferometric and bar detector groups. A total of 15 papers were presented in these two sessions. The third session of Workshop C1 was devoted primarily to theoretical and experimental investigations associated with the proposed interferometric detectors. Ten papers were presented in this session. In addition, there were a total of 13 papers presented in the poster session. There was some overlap between the presentations in the third oral session and the posters since only two of the serious posters were devoted to technology not pertinent to interferometers. In general, the papers showed the increasing maturity of the experimental aspects of the ﬁeld since most presented the results of completed investigations rather than making promises of wonderf...
Environmental Effects for Gravitational-wave Astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barausse, Enrico; Cardoso, Vitor; Pani, Paolo
2015-01-01
The upcoming detection of gravitational waves by terrestrial interferometers will usher in the era of gravitational-wave astronomy. This will be particularly true when space-based detectors will come of age and measure the mass and spin of massive black holes with exquisite precision and up to very high redshifts, thus allowing for better understanding of the symbiotic evolution of black holes with galaxies, and for high-precision tests of General Relativity in strong-field, highly dynamical regimes. Such ambitious goals require that astrophysical environmental pollution of gravitational-wave signals be constrained to negligible levels, so that neither detection nor estimation of the source parameters are significantly affected. Here, we consider the main sources for space-based detectors - the inspiral, merger and ringdown of massive black-hole binaries and extreme mass-ratio inspirals - and account for various effects on their gravitational waveforms, including electromagnetic fields, cosmological evolution, accretion disks, dark matter, “firewalls” and possible deviations from General Relativity. We discover that the black-hole quasinormal modes are sharply different in the presence of matter, but the ringdown signal observed by interferometers is typically unaffected. The effect of accretion disks and dark matter depends critically on their geometry and density profile, but is negligible for most sources, except for few special extreme mass-ratio inspirals. Electromagnetic fields and cosmological effects are always negligible. We finally explore the implications of our findings for proposed tests of General Relativity with gravitational waves, and conclude that environmental effects will not prevent the development of precision gravitational-wave astronomy. (paper)
Are the gravitational waves quantised?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lovas, I.
1998-01-01
The question whether gravitational waves are quantised or not can be investigated by the help of correlation measurements. If the gravitational waves are classical objects then the value of their correlation function is 1. However, if they are quantised, then there exist two possibilities: the gravitational waves are either completely coherent, then the correlation function is again 1, or they are partially coherent, then the correlation function is expected to deviate from 1. If the gravitational waves are generated by the change of the background metrics then they can be in a squeezed state. In a squeezed state there is a chance for the correlation between the phase of the wave and the quantum fluctuations. (author)
Can JWST Follow Up on Gravitational-Wave Detections?
Kohler, Susanna
2016-02-01
Bitten by the gravitational-wave bug? While we await Thursdays press conference, heres some food for thought: if LIGO were able to detect gravitational waves from compact-object mergers, how could we follow up on the detections? A new study investigates whether the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be able to observe electromagnetic signatures of some compact-object mergers.Hunting for MergersStudying compact-object mergers (mergers of black holes and neutron stars) can help us understand a wealth of subjects, like high-energy physics, how matter behaves at nuclear densities, how stars evolve, and how heavy elements in the universe were created.The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) is searching for the signature ripples in spacetime identifying these mergers, but gravitational waves are squirrelly: LIGO will only be able to localize wave sources to tens of square degrees. If we want to find out more about any mergers LIGO discovers in gravitational waves, well need a follow-up search for electromagnetic counterparts with other observatories.The Kilonova KeyOne possible electromagnetic counterpart is kilonovae, explosions that can be produced during a merger of a binary neutron star or a neutron starblack hole system. If the neutron star is disrupted during the merger, some of the hot mass is flung outward and shines brightly by radioactive decay.Kilonovae are especially promising as electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves for three reasons:They emit isotropically, so the number of observable mergers isnt limited by relativistic beaming.They shine for a week, giving follow-up observatories time to search for them.The source location can beeasily recovered.The only problem? We dont currently have any sensitive survey instruments in the near-infrared band (where kilonova emission peaks) that can provide coverage over tens of square degrees. Luckily, we will soon have just the thing: JWST, launching in 2018!JWSTs
Merging Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity
Centrella, Joan M.
2009-01-01
The final merger of two black holes will emit more energy than all the stars in the observable universe combined. This energy will come in the form of gravitational waves, which are a key prediction of Einstein's general relativity and a new tool for exploring the universe. Observing these mergers with gravitational wave detectors, such as the ground-based LIGO and the space-based LISA, requires knowledge of the radiation waveforms. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes were long plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and w aefo rms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.
Parametric mechanisms for detecting gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pustovoit, V.I.; Chernozatonskii, L.A.
1981-01-01
An intense electromagnetic wave and a gravitational wave can interact to effectively generate electromagnetic waves at sum and difference frequencies. The self-effect of a monochromatic electromagnetic wave through a gravitational field leads to third-harmonic generation
Stochastic backgrounds of gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maggiore, M.
2001-01-01
We review the motivations for the search for stochastic backgrounds of gravitational waves and we compare the experimental sensitivities that can be reached in the near future with the existing bounds and with the theoretical predictions. (author)
Academic Training: Gravitational Waves Astronomy
2006-01-01
2006-2007 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 16, 17, 18 October from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Gravitational Waves Astronomy M. LANDRY, LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, USA Gravitational wave astronomy is expected to become an observational field within the next decade. First direct detection of gravitational waves is possible with existing terrestrial-based detectors, and highly probable with proposed upgrades. In this three-part lecture series, we give an overview of the field, including material on gravitional wave sources, detection methods, some details of interferometric detectors, data analysis methods, and current results from observational data-taking runs of the LIGO and GEO projects. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www...
Mass loss due to gravitational waves with Λ > 0
Saw, Vee-Liem
2017-07-01
The theoretical basis for the energy carried away by gravitational waves that an isolated gravitating system emits was first formulated by Hermann Bondi during the ’60s. Recent findings from the observation of distant supernovae revealed that the rate of expansion of our universe is accelerating, which may be well explained by sticking a positive cosmological constant into the Einstein field equations for general relativity. By solving the Newman-Penrose equations (which are equivalent to the Einstein field equations), we generalize this notion of Bondi mass-energy and thereby provide a firm theoretical description of how an isolated gravitating system loses energy as it radiates gravitational waves, in a universe that expands at an accelerated rate. This is in line with the observational front of LIGO’s first announcement in February 2016 that gravitational waves from the merger of a binary black hole system have been detected.
Quantum biological gravitational wave detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kopvillem, U.Kh.
1985-01-01
A possibility of producing biological detectors of gravitational waves is considered. High sensitivity of biological systems to outer effects can be ensured by existence of molecule subgroups in Dicke states. Existence of clusters in Dicke state-giant electric dipoles (GED) is supposed in the Froehlich theory. Comparison of biological and physical detectors shows that GED systems have unique properties for detection of gravitational waves if the reception range is narrow
GW150914: Implications for the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background from Binary Black Holes
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, M.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, T.C; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, S. E.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, A.L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.A.; DeRosa, R. T.; Rosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M.G.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.M.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J. -D.; Franco, S; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Haris, K.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, D.H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kefelian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.E.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lueck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R.M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, J.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M. B.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, P.S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoenbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Simakov, D.; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Toeyrae, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; Van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.
2016-01-01
The LIGO detection of the gravitational wave transient GW150914, from the inspiral and merger of two black holes with masses ≳30M⊙, suggests a population of binary black holes with relatively high mass. This observation implies that the stochastic gravitational-wave background from binary black
Gravitational waves from binary supermassive black holes missing in pulsar observations.
Shannon, R M; Ravi, V; Lentati, L T; Lasky, P D; Hobbs, G; Kerr, M; Manchester, R N; Coles, W A; Levin, Y; Bailes, M; Bhat, N D R; Burke-Spolaor, S; Dai, S; Keith, M J; Osłowski, S; Reardon, D J; van Straten, W; Toomey, L; Wang, J-B; Wen, L; Wyithe, J S B; Zhu, X-J
2015-09-25
Gravitational waves are expected to be radiated by supermassive black hole binaries formed during galaxy mergers. A stochastic superposition of gravitational waves from all such binary systems would modulate the arrival times of pulses from radio pulsars. Using observations of millisecond pulsars obtained with the Parkes radio telescope, we constrained the characteristic amplitude of this background, A(c,yr), to be gravitational waves. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Linear interaction of gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ciubotariu, C.D.
1992-01-01
Starting with the linearized Einstein equations written in the same form as Maxwell equations, a damping term is found in the wave equation. The analogy with the propagation of the electromagnetic wave in ohmic media is obvious if we introduce an 'ohmic relation' for gravitational interaction. The possibility of the amplification of gravitational waves by a suitable choice of the velocity field of a dust ('dust with negative viscosity'), for example by the use of the free-electron laser principle, is indicated. (Author)
Electromagnetic waves in gravitational wave spacetimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haney, M.; Bini, D.; Ortolan, A.; Fortini, P.
2013-01-01
We have considered the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a space-time representing an exact gravitational plane wave and calculated the induced changes on the four-potential field Aμ of a plane electromagnetic wave. By choosing a suitable photon round-trip in a Michelson interferometer, we have been able to identify the physical effects of the exact gravitational wave on the electromagnetic field, i.e. phase shift, change of the polarization vector, angular deflection and delay. These results have been exploited to study the response of an interferometric gravitational wave detector beyond the linear approximation of the general theory of relativity. A much more detailed examination of this problem can be found in our paper recently published in Classical and Quantum Gravity (28 (2011) 235007).
Relic gravitational waves and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grishchuk, Leonid P
2005-01-01
The paper begins with a brief recollection of interactions of the author with Ya B Zeldovich in the context of the study of relic gravitational waves. The principles and early results on the quantum-mechanical generation of cosmological perturbations are then summarized. The expected amplitudes of relic gravitational waves differ in various frequency windows, and therefore the techniques and prospects of their detection are distinct. One section of the paper describes the present state of efforts in direct detection of relic gravitational waves. Another section is devoted to indirect detection via the anisotropy and polarization measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. It is emphasized throughout the paper that the inference about the existence and expected amount of relic gravitational waves is based on a solid theoretical foundation and the best available cosmological observations. It is also explained in great detail what went wrong with the so-called 'inflationary gravitational waves', whose amount is predicted by inflationary theorists to be negligibly small, thus depriving them of any observational significance. (reviews of topical problems)
Gravitational lensing of gravitational waves: a statistical perspective
Li, Shun-Sheng; Mao, Shude; Zhao, Yuetong; Lu, Youjun
2018-05-01
In this paper, we study the strong gravitational lensing of gravitational waves (GWs) from a statistical perspective, with particular focus on the high frequency GWs from stellar binary black hole coalescences. These are most promising targets for ground-based detectors such as Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (aLIGO) and the proposed Einstein Telescope (ET) and can be safely treated under the geometrical optics limit for GW propagation. We perform a thorough calculation of the lensing rate, by taking account of effects caused by the ellipticity of lensing galaxies, lens environments, and magnification bias. We find that in certain GW source rate scenarios, we should be able to observe strongly lensed GW events once per year (˜1 yr-1) in the aLIGO survey at its design sensitivity; for the proposed ET survey, the rate could be as high as ˜80 yr-1. These results depend on the estimate of GW source abundance, and hence can be correspondingly modified with an improvement in our understanding of the merger rate of stellar binary black holes. We also compute the fraction of four-image lens systems in each survey, predicting it to be ˜30 per cent for the aLIGO survey and ˜6 per cent for the ET survey. Finally, we evaluate the possibility of missing some images due to the finite survey duration, by presenting the probability distribution of lensing time delays. We predict that this selection bias will be insignificant in future GW surveys, as most of the lens systems ({˜ } 90{per cent}) will have time delays less than ˜1 month, which will be far shorter than survey durations.
A gravitational-wave standard siren measurement of the Hubble constant
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S.; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, E.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Ganija, M. R.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garcia-Quiros, C.; Garufi, F.; Gateley, B.; Gaudio, S.; Gaur, G.; Gayathril, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, D.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glover, L.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gomes, S.; Goncharov, B.; Gonzalez, G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Gretarsson, E. M.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Gruning, P.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Halim, O.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hamilton, E. Z.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hannuksela, O. A.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, I.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hester, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, N.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hinderer, T.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Horst, C.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hreibi, A.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Inta, R.; Intini, G.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kamai, B.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katolik, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kefelian, E.; Keitel, D.; Kemball, A. J.; Kennedy, R.; Kent, C.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, Y. -M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinley-Hanlon, M.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Knowles, T. D.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kraemer, C.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwang, S.; Lackey, B. D.; Lai, K. H.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, N.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. S.; Linker, S. D.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Liu, X.; Lo, R. K. L.; Lockerbie, N. N.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Lueock, H.; Lumaca, D.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macas, R.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; Maclnnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Hernandez, I. Magana; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Zertuche, L. Magana; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markakis, C.; Markosyan, A. S.; Markowitz, A.; Maros, E.; Marquina, A.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Massera, E.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matas, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McCuller, L.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McNeill, L.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Mejuto-Villa, E.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Milovich-Goff, M. C.; Minazzoli, O.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. R.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moffa, D.; Moggi, N.; Mogushi, K.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muniz, E. A.; Muratore, M.; Murray, P. G.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Neilson, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Nevin, L.; Newport, J. M.; Newton, G.; Ng, K. K. Y.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nichols, D.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; North, C.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; O'Dea, G. D.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Okada, M. A.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ormiston, R.; Ortega, L. F.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ossokine, S.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Page, M. A.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, Howard; Pan, Huang-Wei; Pang, B.; Pang, P. T. H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Parida, A.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patil, M.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perez, C. J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pirello, M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Porter, E. K.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Pratten, G.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rajbhandari, B.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K. E.; Ramos-Buades, A.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ren, W.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Ricker, P. M.; Rieger, S.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romel, C. L.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Ross, M. P.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Rutins, G.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, I.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sanchez, L. E.; Sanchis-Gual, N.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheel, M.; Schauer, J.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoenbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schulte, B. W.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seidel, E.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shah, A. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaner, M. B.; Shao, L.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shepard, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, R. J. E.; Somala, S.; Son, E. J.; Sonnenberg, J. N.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staats, K.; Staley, A.; Steer, D.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Stops, D. J.; Strain, K. A.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Strunk, A.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Suresh, J.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Tait, S. C.; Talbot, C.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Tasson, J. D.; Taylor, J. A.; Taylor, R.; Tewari, S. V.; Theeg, T.; Thies, F.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres-Forne, N.; Torrie, C. I.; Toyra, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzon, L.; Tsang, K. W.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Tsukada, L.; Tsuna, D.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ueno, K.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdese, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walet, R.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, W. H.; Wang, Y. F.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessel, E. K.; Wessels, P.; Westerweck, J.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Wilken, D.; Williams, D.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipfl, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Wofford, J.; Wong, K. W. K.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wysocki, D. M.; Xiao, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, L.; Yap, M. J.; Yazback, M.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zelenova, T.; Zendri, J. -P; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y. -H.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S. J.; Zhu, X. J.; Zimmerman, A. B.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; Foley, R. J.; Coulter, D. A.; Drout, M. R.; Kasen, D.; Kilpatrick, C. D.; Madore, B. F.; Murguia-Berthier, A.; Pan, Y. -C.; Piro, A. L.; Prochaska, J. X.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Rest, A.; Rojas-Bravo, C.; Shappee, B. J.; Siebert, M. R.; Simon, J. D.; Ulloas, N.; Annis, J.; Soares-Santos, M.; Brout, D.; Scolnic, D.; Diehl, H. T.; Frieman, J.; Berger, E.; Alexander, K. D.; Allam, S.; Balbinot, E.; Blanchard, P.; Butler, R. E.; Chornock, R.; Cook, E. R.; Cowpertwaite, P.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Drout, M. R.; Durret, F.; Eftekhari, T.; Finley, D. A.; Fong, W.; Fryer, C. L.; Garcia-Bellido, J.; Gill, M. S. S.; Gruendl, R. A.; Hanna, C.; Hartley, W.; Herner, K.; Huterer, D.; Kasen, D.; Kessler, R.; Li, T. S.; Lin, H.; Lopes, P. A. A.; Lourenco, A. C. C.; Margutti, R.; Marriner, J.; Marshall, J. L.; Matheson, T.; Medina, G. E.; Metzger, B. D.; Munoz, R. R.; Muir, J.; Nicholl, M.; Nugent, P.; Palmese, A.; Paz-Chinchon, F.; Quataert, E.; Sako, M.; Sauseda, M.; Schlegel, D. J.; Secco, L. F.; Smith, N.; Sobreira, F.; Stebbins, A.; Villar, V. A.; Vivas, A. K.; Wester, W.; Williams, P. K. G.; Yanny, B.; Zenteno, A.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Bechtol, K.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bertin, E.; Bridle, S. L.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Davis, C.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Estrada, J.; Fernandez, E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Giannantonio, T.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gutierrez, G.; Hartley, W. G.; Honscheid, K.; Jain, B.; James, D. J.; Jeltema, T.; Johnson, M. W. G.; Kent, S.; Krause, E.; Kron, R.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Neilsen, E.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Plazas, A. N.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, M.; Smith', R. C.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, R. C.; Troxel, M. A.; Tucker, D. L.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Weller, J.; Zhang, Y.; Haislip, J. B.; Kouprinov, V. V.; Reichart, D. E.; Tartaglia, L.; Sand, D. J.; Valenti, S.; Yang, S.; Arcavi, Iair; Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Howell, D. Andrew; McCully, Curtis; Poznanski, Dovi; Vasylyev, Sergiy; Tanvir, N. R.; Levan, N. J.; Hjorth, J.; Cano, Z.; Copperwheat, C.; de Ugarte-Postigo, A.; Evans, P. A.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, C.; Greiner, J.; Irwin, M.; Lyman, J.; Mandel, I.; McMahon, R.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; O'Brien, P.; Osborne, J. P.; Perley, D. A.; Pian, E.; Palazzi, E.; Rol, E.; Rosetti, S.; Rosswog, S.; Rowlinson, A.; Schulze, S.; Steeghs, D. T. H.; Thone, C. C.; Ulaczyk, K.; Watson, D.; Wiersema, K.; Lipunov, V. M.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Kornilov, V. G.; Tyurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Vlasenko, D.; Gorbunov, I.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Saffe, C.; Buckley, D. A. H.; Budnev, N. M.; Gress, O.; Yurkov, V.; Rebolo, R.; Serra-Ricart, M.
2017-01-01
On 17 August 2017, the Advanced LIGO1 and Virgo2 detectors observed the gravitational-wave event GW170817—a strong signal from the merger of a binary neutron-star system3. Less than two seconds after the merger, a γ-ray burst (GRB 170817A) was detected within a region of the sky consistent with the
Detecting Lorentz Violations with Gravitational Waves From Black Hole Binaries
Sotiriou, Thomas P.
2018-01-01
Gravitational wave observations have been used to test Lorentz symmetry by looking for dispersive effects that are caused by higher order corrections to the dispersion relation. In this Letter I argue on general grounds that, when such corrections are present, there will also be a scalar excitation. Hence, a smoking-gun observation of Lorentz symmetry breaking would be the direct detection of scalar waves that travel at a speed other than the speed of the standard gravitational wave polarizations or the speed of light. Interestingly, in known Lorentz-breaking gravity theories the difference between the speeds of scalar and tensor waves is virtually unconstrained, whereas the difference between the latter and the speed of light is already severely constrained by the coincident detection of gravitational waves and gamma rays from a binary neutron star merger.
Gravitational Waves and Dark Energy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter L. Biermann
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The idea that dark energy is gravitational waves may explain its strength and its time-evolution. A possible concept is that dark energy is the ensemble of coherent bursts (solitons of gravitational waves originally produced when the first generation of super-massive black holes was formed. These solitons get their initial energy as well as keep up their energy density throughout the evolution of the universe by stimulating emission from a background, a process which we model by working out this energy transfer in a Boltzmann equation approach. New Planck data suggest that dark energy has increased in strength over cosmic time, supporting the concept here. The transit of these gravitational wave solitons may be detectable. Key tests include pulsar timing, clock jitter and the radio background.
Gravitational waves from supernova matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scheidegger, S; Whitehouse, S C; Kaeppeli, R; Liebendoerfer, M
2010-01-01
We have performed a set of 11 three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) core-collapse supernova simulations in order to investigate the dependences of the gravitational wave signal on the progenitor's initial conditions. We study the effects of the initial central angular velocity and different variants of neutrino transport. Our models are started up from a 15M o-dot progenitor and incorporate an effective general relativistic gravitational potential and a finite temperature nuclear equation of state. Furthermore, the electron flavour neutrino transport is tracked by efficient algorithms for the radiative transfer of massless fermions. We find that non- and slowly rotating models show gravitational wave emission due to prompt- and lepton driven convection that reveals details about the hydrodynamical state of the fluid inside the protoneutron stars. Furthermore we show that protoneutron stars can become dynamically unstable to rotational instabilities at T/|W| values as low as ∼2% at core bounce. We point out that the inclusion of deleptonization during the postbounce phase is very important for the quantitative gravitational wave (GW) prediction, as it enhances the absolute values of the gravitational wave trains up to a factor of ten with respect to a lepton-conserving treatment.
General relativity and gravitational waves
Weber, Johanna
1961-01-01
An internationally famous physicist and electrical engineer, the author of this text was a pioneer in the investigation of gravitational waves. Joseph Weber's General Relativity and Gravitational Waves offers a classic treatment of the subject. Appropriate for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, this text remains ever relevant. Brief but thorough in its introduction to the foundations of general relativity, it also examines the elements of Riemannian geometry and tensor calculus applicable to this field.Approximately a quarter of the contents explores theoretical and experimenta
The determinants of merger waves: An international perspective
Gugler, Klaus; Mueller, Dennis C.; Weichselbaumer, Michael
2012-01-01
One of the most conspicuous features of mergers is that they come in waves that are correlated with increases in share prices and price/earnings ratios. We use a natural way to discriminate between pure stock market influences on firm decisions and other influences by examining merger patterns for both listed and unlisted firms. If “real” changes in the economy drive merger waves, as some neoclassical theories of mergers predict, both listed and unlisted firms should experience waves. We find significant differences between listed and unlisted firms as predicted by behavioral theories of merger waves. PMID:27346903
Source modelling at the dawn of gravitational-wave astronomy
Gerosa, Davide
2016-09-01
The age of gravitational-wave astronomy has begun. Gravitational waves are propagating spacetime perturbations ("ripples in the fabric of space-time") predicted by Einstein's theory of General Relativity. These signals propagate at the speed of light and are generated by powerful astrophysical events, such as the merger of two black holes and supernova explosions. The first detection of gravitational waves was performed in 2015 with the LIGO interferometers. This constitutes a tremendous breakthrough in fundamental physics and astronomy: it is not only the first direct detection of such elusive signals, but also the first irrefutable observation of a black-hole binary system. The future of gravitational-wave astronomy is bright and loud: the LIGO experiments will soon be joined by a network of ground-based interferometers; the space mission eLISA has now been fully approved by the European Space Agency with a proof-of-concept mission called LISA Pathfinder launched in 2015. Gravitational-wave observations will provide unprecedented tests of gravity as well as a qualitatively new window on the Universe. Careful theoretical modelling of the astrophysical sources of gravitational-waves is crucial to maximize the scientific outcome of the detectors. In this Thesis, we present several advances on gravitational-wave source modelling, studying in particular: (i) the precessional dynamics of spinning black-hole binaries; (ii) the astrophysical consequences of black-hole recoils; and (iii) the formation of compact objects in the framework of scalar-tensor theories of gravity. All these phenomena are deeply characterized by a continuous interplay between General Relativity and astrophysics: despite being a truly relativistic messenger, gravitational waves encode details of the astrophysical formation and evolution processes of their sources. We work out signatures and predictions to extract such information from current and future observations. At the dawn of a revolutionary
Chandra HETGS Followup of a Gravitational Wave Detection
Canizares, Claude
2017-09-01
Mergers of compact objects in tight binaries are considered to be highly promising astrophysical sources of detectable gravitational wave (GW) emission. The first detection was obtained in 2015 for a black hole binary. Finding electromagnetic counterparts to GW events will be essential for astrophysical interpretation so that more instruments may be brought to bear on elucidating the nature of the merger and especially for following the aftereffects. Initial error regions may be very large ( 100 sq. deg), so we will use a bright Swift source identification before triggering this TOO using the HETGS.
Gravitational waves and dragging effects
Bičák, Jiří; Katz, Joseph; Lynden-Bell, Donald
2008-08-01
Linear and rotational dragging effects of gravitational waves on local inertial frames are studied in purely vacuum spacetimes. First, the linear dragging caused by a simple cylindrical pulse is investigated. Surprisingly strong transverse effects of the pulse are exhibited. The angular momentum in cylindrically symmetric spacetimes is then defined and confronted with some results in the literature. In the main part, a general procedure is developed for studying weak gravitational waves with translational but not axial symmetry which can carry angular momentum. After a suitable averaging the rotation of local inertial frames due to such rotating waves can be calculated explicitly and illustrated graphically. This is done in detail in the accompanying paper. Finally, the rotational dragging is given for strong cylindrical waves interacting with a rotating cosmic string with a small angular momentum.
Yagi, Kent; Yang, Huan
2018-05-01
The recent discovery of gravitational-wave events has offered us unique test beds of gravity in the strong and dynamical field regime. One possible modification to General Relativity is the gravitational parity violation that arises naturally from quantum gravity. Such parity violation gives rise to the so-called amplitude birefringence in gravitational waves, in which one of the circularly polarized modes is amplified while the other one is suppressed during their propagation. In this paper, we study how well one can measure gravitational parity violation via the amplitude birefringence effect of gravitational waves sourced by stellar-mass black hole binaries. We choose Chern-Simons gravity as an example and work within an effective field theory formalism to ensure that the approximate theory is well posed. We consider gravitational waves from both individual sources and stochastic gravitational-wave backgrounds. Regarding bounds from individual sources, we estimate such bounds using a Fisher analysis and carry out Monte Carlo simulations by randomly distributing sources over their sky location and binary orientation. We find that the bounds on the scalar field evolution in Chern-Simons gravity from the recently discovered gravitational-wave events are too weak to satisfy the weak Chern-Simons approximation, while aLIGO with its design sensitivity can place meaningful bounds. Regarding bounds from stochastic gravitational-wave backgrounds, we set the threshold signal-to-noise ratio for detection of the parity-violation mode as 5 and estimate projected bounds with future detectors assuming that signals are consistent with no parity violation. In an ideal situation in which all the source parameters and binary black hole merger-rate history are known a priori, we find that a network of two third-generation detectors is able to place bounds that are comparable to or slightly stronger than binary pulsar bounds. In a more realistic situation in which one does not have
Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and LISA
Baker, John
2009-01-01
Binary black hole mergers are central to many key science objectives of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). For many systems the strongest part of the signal is only understood by numerical simulations. Gravitational wave emissions are understood by simulations of vacuum General Relativity (GR). I discuss numerical simulation results from the perspective of LISA's needs, with indications of work that remains to be done. Some exciting scientific opportunities associated with LISA observations would be greatly enhanced if prompt electromagnetic signature could be associated. I discuss simulations to explore this possibility. Numerical simulations are important now for clarifying LISA's science potential and planning the mission. We also consider how numerical simulations might be applied at the time of LISA's operation.
Academic Training: Gravitational Waves Astronomy
2006-01-01
2006-2007 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 16, 17, 18 October from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Gravitational Waves Astronomy M. LANDRY, LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, USA Gravitational wave astronomy is expected to become an observational field within the next decade. First direct detection of gravitational waves is possible with existing terrestrial-based detectors, and highly probable with proposed upgrades. In this three-part lecture series, we give an overview of the field, including material on gravitional wave sources, detection methods, some details of interferometric detectors, data analysis methods, and current results from observational data-taking runs of the LIGO and GEO projects.ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern...
The Japanese space gravitational wave antenna; DECIGO
Kawamura, Seiji; Ando, Masaki; Nakamura, Takashi; Tsubono, Kimio; Tanaka, Takahiro; Funaki, Ikkoh; Seto, Naoki; Numata, Kenji; Sato, Shuichi; Ioka, Kunihito; Kanda, Nobuyuki; Takashima, Takeshi; Agatsuma, Kazuhiro; Akutsu, Tomotada; Akutsu, Tomomi
2008-01-01
DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO) is the future Japanese space gravitational wave antenna. The goal of DECIGO is to detect gravitational waves from various kinds of sources mainly between 0.1 Hz and 10 Hz and thus to open a new window of observation for gravitational wave astronomy. DECIGO will consist of three drag-free spacecraft, 1000 km apart from each other, whose relative displacements are measured by a Fabry—Perot Michelson interferometer. We plan to lau...
The Japanese space gravitational wave antenna - DECIGO
Kawamura, Seiji; Ando, Masaki; Nakamura, Takashi; Tsubono, Kimio; Tanaka, Takahiro; Funaki, Iklkoh; Seto, Naoki; Numata, Kenji; Sato, Shuichi; Ioka, Kunihito; Kanda, Nobuyuki; Takashima, Takeshi; Agatsuma, Kazuhiro; Akutsu, Tomotada; Akutsu, Tomomi
2008-01-01
DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO) is the future Japanese space gravitational wave antenna. The goal of DECIGO is to detect gravitational waves from various kinds of sources mainly between 0.1 Hz and 10 Hz and thus to open a new window of observation for gravitational wave astronomy. DECIGO will consist of three drag-free spacecraft, 1000 km apart from each other, whose relative displacements are measured by a Fabry—Perot Michelson interferometer. We plan to lau...
On black holes and gravitational waves
Loinger, Angelo
2002-01-01
Black holes and gravitational waves are theoretical entities of today astrophysics. Various observed phenomena have been associated with the concept of black hole ; until now, nobody has detected gravitational waves. The essays contained in this book aim at showing that the concept of black holes arises from a misinterpretation of general relativity and that gravitational waves cannot exist.
Detecting gravitational waves from accreting neutron stars
Watts, A.L.; Krishnan, B.
2009-01-01
The gravitational waves emitted by neutron stars carry unique information about their structure and composition. Direct detection of these gravitational waves, however, is a formidable technical challenge. In a recent study we quantified the hurdles facing searches for gravitational waves from the
Testing General Relativity with Low-Frequency, Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Detectors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John G. Baker
2013-09-01
Full Text Available We review the tests of general relativity that will become possible with space-based gravitational-wave detectors operating in the ∼ 10^{-5} – 1 Hz low-frequency band. The fundamental aspects of gravitation that can be tested include the presence of additional gravitational fields other than the metric; the number and tensorial nature of gravitational-wave polarization states; the velocity of propagation of gravitational waves; the binding energy and gravitational-wave radiation of binaries, and therefore the time evolution of binary inspirals; the strength and shape of the waves emitted from binary mergers and ringdowns; the true nature of astrophysical black holes; and much more. The strength of this science alone calls for the swift implementation of a space-based detector; the remarkable richness of astrophysics, astronomy, and cosmology in the low-frequency gravitational-wave band make the case even stronger.
Testing General Relativity with Low-Frequency, Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Detectors.
Gair, Jonathan R; Vallisneri, Michele; Larson, Shane L; Baker, John G
2013-01-01
We review the tests of general relativity that will become possible with space-based gravitational-wave detectors operating in the ∼ 10 -5 - 1 Hz low-frequency band. The fundamental aspects of gravitation that can be tested include the presence of additional gravitational fields other than the metric; the number and tensorial nature of gravitational-wave polarization states; the velocity of propagation of gravitational waves; the binding energy and gravitational-wave radiation of binaries, and therefore the time evolution of binary inspirals; the strength and shape of the waves emitted from binary mergers and ringdowns; the true nature of astrophysical black holes; and much more. The strength of this science alone calls for the swift implementation of a space-based detector; the remarkable richness of astrophysics, astronomy, and cosmology in the low-frequency gravitational-wave band make the case even stronger.
Optimal Search for an Astrophysical Gravitational-Wave Background
Rory Smith; Eric Thrane
2018-01-01
Roughly every 2–10 min, a pair of stellar-mass black holes merge somewhere in the Universe. A small fraction of these mergers are detected as individually resolvable gravitational-wave events by advanced detectors such as LIGO and Virgo. The rest contribute to a stochastic background. We derive the statistically optimal search strategy (producing minimum credible intervals) for a background of unresolved binaries. Our method applies Bayesian parameter estimation to all available data. Using M...
Gravitational-wave mediated preheating
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alexander, Stephon [Center for Cosmic Origins and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Cormack, Sam, E-mail: samuel.c.cormack.gr@dartmouth.edu [Center for Cosmic Origins and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Marcianò, Antonino [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics & Department of Physics, Fudan University, 200433 Shanghai (China); Yunes, Nicolás [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)
2015-04-09
We propose a new preheating mechanism through the coupling of the gravitational field to both the inflaton and matter fields, without direct inflaton–matter couplings. The inflaton transfers power to the matter fields through interactions with gravitational waves, which are exponentially enhanced due to an inflation–graviton coupling. One such coupling is the product of the inflaton to the Pontryagin density, as in dynamical Chern–Simons gravity. The energy scales involved are constrained by requiring that preheating happens fast during matter domination.
Astrophysical sources of gravitational waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Losurdo, G. E-mail: losurdo@galileo.pi.infn.it
2000-05-01
The interferometric detectors of gravitational waves (GW) (such as VIRGO and LIGO) will search for events in a frequency band within a few Hz and a few kHz, where several sources are expected to emit. In this talk we outline briefly the current theoretical knowledge on the emission of GW in events such as the coalescence of compact binaries, the gravitational collapse, the spinning of a neutron stars. Expected amplitudes are compared with the target sensitivity of the VIRGO/LIGO interferometric detectors.
Black-Hole Binaries, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity
Kelly, Bernard J.; Centrella, Joan; Baker, John G.; Kelly, Bernard J.; vanMeter, James R.
2010-01-01
Understanding the predictions of general relativity for the dynamical interactions of two black holes has been a long-standing unsolved problem in theoretical physics. Black-hole mergers are monumental astrophysical events ' releasing tremendous amounts of energy in the form of gravitational radiation ' and are key sources for both ground- and spacebased gravitational wave detectors. The black-hole merger dynamics and the resulting gravitational waveforms can only he calculated through numerical simulations of Einstein's equations of general relativity. For many years, numerical relativists attempting to model these mergers encountered a host of problems, causing their codes to crash after just a fraction of a binary orbit cnuld be simulated. Recently ' however, a series of dramatic advances in numerical relativity has ' for the first time, allowed stable / robust black hole merger simulations. We chronicle this remarkable progress in the rapidly maturing field of numerical relativity, and the new understanding of black-hole binary dynamics that is emerging. We also discuss important applications of these fundamental physics results to astrophysics, to gravitationalwave astronomy, and in other areas.
The Japanese space gravitational wave antenna - DECIGO
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawamura, S; Seto, N; Sato, S; Arai, K; Ando, M; Tsubono, K; Agatsuma, K; Akutsu, T; Akutsu, T; Arase, Y; Nakamura, T; Tanaka, T; Funaki, I; Takashima, T; Numata, K; Ioka, K; Kanda, N; Aoyanagi, Koh-Suke; Araya, A; Asada, H
2008-01-01
DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO) is the future Japanese space gravitational wave antenna. The goal of DECIGO is to detect gravitational waves from various kinds of sources mainly between 0.1 Hz and 10 Hz and thus to open a new window of observation for gravitational wave astronomy. DECIGO will consist of three drag-free spacecraft, 1000 km apart from each other, whose relative displacements are measured by a Fabry-Perot Michelson interferometer. We plan to launch DECIGO pathfinder first to demonstrate the technologies required to realize DECIGO and, if possible, to detect gravitational waves from our galaxy or nearby galaxies
arXiv Gravitational Wave Signatures of Highly Compact Boson Star Binaries
Palenzuela, Carlos; Bezares, Miguel; Cardoso, Vitor; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven
2017-11-30
Solitonic boson stars are stable objects made of a complex scalar field with a compactness that can reach values comparable to that of neutron stars. A recent study of the collision of identical boson stars produced only nonrotating boson stars or black holes, suggesting that rotating boson stars may not form from binary mergers. Here we extend this study to include an analysis of the gravitational waves radiated during the coalescence of such a binary, which is crucial to distinguish these events from other binaries with LIGO and Virgo observations. Our studies reveal that the remnant’s gravitational wave signature is mainly governed by its fundamental frequency as it settles down to a nonrotating boson star, emitting significant gravitational radiation during this post-merger state. We calculate how the waveforms and their post-merger frequencies depend on the compactness of the initial boson stars and estimate analytically the amount of energy radiated after the merger.
On gravitational wave energy in Einstein gravitational theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Folomeshkin, V.N.; Vlasov, A.A.
1978-01-01
By the example of precise wave solutions for the Einstein equations it is shown that a standard commonly adopted formulation of energy-momentum problem with pseudotensors provides us either with a zero or sign-variable values for the energy of gravitational waves. It is shown that if in the Einstein gravitational theory a strict transition to the limits of weak fields is realised then the theory gives us an unambiguous zero result for weak gravitational waves. The well-known non-zero result arises due to incorrect transition to weak field approximation in the Einstein gravitation theory
Bayesian Inference on Gravitational Waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asad Ali
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The Bayesian approach is increasingly becoming popular among the astrophysics data analysis communities. However, the Pakistan statistics communities are unaware of this fertile interaction between the two disciplines. Bayesian methods have been in use to address astronomical problems since the very birth of the Bayes probability in eighteenth century. Today the Bayesian methods for the detection and parameter estimation of gravitational waves have solid theoretical grounds with a strong promise for the realistic applications. This article aims to introduce the Pakistan statistics communities to the applications of Bayesian Monte Carlo methods in the analysis of gravitational wave data with an overview of the Bayesian signal detection and estimation methods and demonstration by a couple of simplified examples.
Albert, A.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J. -J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Marti, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Di Palma, I.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsaesser, D.; Enzenhofer, A.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L. A.; Galata, S.; Gay, P.; Giordano, V.; Glotin, H.; Gregoire, T.; Ruiz, R. Gracia; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J. J.; Hoessl, J.; Hofestaedt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kiessling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefevre, D.; Leonora, E.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Mathieu, A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Nezri, E.; Pavalas, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Saldana, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schussler, F.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Turpin, D.; Tonnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallee, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Versari, F.; Vivolo, D.; Vizzoca, A.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zuniga, J.; Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Al Samarai, I.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Anton, G.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Auffenberg, J.; Axani, S.; Bagherpour, H.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Tjus, J. Becker; Becker, K. -H.; BenZvi, S.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Blot, S.; Bohm, C.; Borner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Boser, S.; Botner, O.; Bradascio, F.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H. -P.; Bron, S.; Burgman, A.; Carver, T.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Cowen, D. F.; Cross, R.; Day, M.; de Andre, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; Rosendo, E. del Pino; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Diaz-Velez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dujmovic, H.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Eller, P.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Fosig, C. -C.; Franckowiak, A.; Friedman, E.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Giang, W.; Gladstone, L.; Glauch, T.; Gluesenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Haack, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hansmann, T.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jones, B. J. P.; Kang, W.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Katz, U.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kheirandish, A.; Kim, J.; Kim, M.; Kintscher, T.; Kiryluk, J.; Kittler, T.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Kopke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, M.; Kruckl, G.; Kruger, C.; Kunnen, J.; Kunwar, S.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Kyriacou, A.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lauber, F.; Lennarz, D.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Lu, L.; Lunemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mancina, S.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meier, M.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Micallef, J.; Momente, G.; Montaruli, T.; Moulai, M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Pollmann, A. Obertacke; Olivas, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Peiffer, P.; Penek, O.; Pepper, J. A.; de los Heros, C. Perez; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Raedel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relethford, B.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Rysewyk, D.; Sabbatini, L.; Herrera, S. E. Sanchez; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Satalecka, K.; Schlunder, P.; Schmidt, T.; Schoenen, S.; Schoeneberg, S.; Schumacher, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stachurska, J.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Stettner, J.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stossl, A.; Strom, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Tenholt, F.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tesic, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Tung, C. F.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Rossem, M.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vogel, E.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Waza, A.; Weaver, Ch.; Weiss, M. J.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wickmann, S.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wills, L.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woolsey, E.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; D. Barta,; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Belgin, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Canepa, M.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. -P.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Costa, C. F. Da Silva; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; G. Debreczeni,; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Alvarez, M. Dovale; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Essick, R. C.; Etienne, Z.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Galiana, A. Fernandez; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Z. Frei,; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; L. Gergely,; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; L. Gondan,; Gonzalez, G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kefelian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, Whansun; Kim, W.; Kim, Y. -M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kraemer, C.; Kringel, V.; Krolak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lovelace, G.; Lueck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGrath, C.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; Mcrae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muniz, E. A. M.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Neri, M.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newport, J. M.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perez, C. J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; P. Raffai,; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Rhoades, E.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, E.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoenbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; M. Tapai,; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tippens, T.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torrie, C. I.; Toyra, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; M. Vasuth,; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Williams, D.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S. J.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.
2017-01-01
The Advanced LIGO observatories detected gravitational waves from two binary black hole mergers during their first observation run (O1). We present a high-energy neutrino follow-up search for the second gravitational wave event, GW151226, as well as for gravitational wave candidate LVT151012. We
Looking towards gravitational wave detection
Barsotti, Lisa
2009-05-01
It is an exciting time in gravitational wave research. The first generation ground detectors, which aim to detect gravitational waves in the audio-frequency region, have been successfully operated at their design sensitivity. One integrated year of coincident data from the three LIGO interferometers in United States has been collected between 2005 and 2007, in partial coincidence with the two European detectors, VIRGO and GEO. All the detectors are currently being upgraded, and they will come back on-line in the next few months with a factor 2 better sensitivity. A major upgrade of LIGO and VIRGO, scheduled to happen immediately after their upcoming science runs, will bring on-line second generation detectors 4 years from now. Their sensitivity is designed to be 10 times better than the first generation detectors, resulting in an expected event rate of at least a few per year. Looking farther into the future, space-based detectors such as LISA propose to cover a lower range of frequencies which are inaccessible on Earth, enhancing the opportunity of understanding our Universe trough gravitational waves.
Primordial gravitational waves and cosmology.
Krauss, Lawrence M; Dodelson, Scott; Meyer, Stephan
2010-05-21
The observation of primordial gravitational waves could provide a new and unique window on the earliest moments in the history of the universe and on possible new physics at energies many orders of magnitude beyond those accessible at particle accelerators. Such waves might be detectable soon, in current or planned satellite experiments that will probe for characteristic imprints in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background, or later with direct space-based interferometers. A positive detection could provide definitive evidence for inflation in the early universe and would constrain new physics from the grand unification scale to the Planck scale.
The gravitational Schwinger effect and attenuation of gravitational waves
McDougall, Patrick Guarneri
This paper will discuss the possible production of photons from gravitational waves. This process is shown to be possible by examining Feynman diagrams, the Schwinger Effect, and Hawking Radiation. The end goal of this project is to find the decay length of a gravitational wave and assert that this decay is due to photons being created at the expense of the gravitational wave. To do this, we first find the state function using the Klein Gordon equation, then find the current due to this state function. We then take the current to be directly proportional to the production rate per volume. This is then used to find the decay length that this kind of production would produce, gives a prediction of how this effect will change the distance an event creating a gravitational wave will be located, and shows that this effect is small but can be significant near the source of a gravitational wave.
DETECTING GRAVITATIONAL WAVE MEMORY WITH PULSAR TIMING
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cordes, J. M.; Jenet, F. A.
2012-01-01
We compare the detectability of gravitational bursts passing through the solar system with those passing near each millisecond pulsar in an N-pulsar timing array. The sensitivity to Earth-passing bursts can exploit the correlation expected in pulse arrival times while pulsar-passing bursts, though uncorrelated between objects, provide an N-fold increase in overall time baseline that can compensate for the lower sensitivity. Bursts with memory from mergers of supermassive black holes produce step functions in apparent spin frequency that are the easiest to detect in pulsar timing. We show that the burst rate and amplitude distribution, while strongly dependent on inadequately known cosmological evolution, may favor detection in the pulsar terms rather than the Earth timing perturbations. Any contamination of timing data by red spin noise makes burst detection more difficult because both signals grow with the length of the time data span T. Furthermore, the different bursts that could appear in one or more data sets of length T ≈ 10 yr also affect the detectability of the gravitational wave stochastic background that, like spin noise, has a red power spectrum. A burst with memory is a worthwhile target in the timing of multiple pulsars in a globular cluster because it should produce a correlated signal with a time delay of less than about 10 years in some cases.
Detecting Gravitational Wave Memory with Pulsar Timing
Cordes, J. M.; Jenet, F. A.
2012-06-01
We compare the detectability of gravitational bursts passing through the solar system with those passing near each millisecond pulsar in an N-pulsar timing array. The sensitivity to Earth-passing bursts can exploit the correlation expected in pulse arrival times while pulsar-passing bursts, though uncorrelated between objects, provide an N-fold increase in overall time baseline that can compensate for the lower sensitivity. Bursts with memory from mergers of supermassive black holes produce step functions in apparent spin frequency that are the easiest to detect in pulsar timing. We show that the burst rate and amplitude distribution, while strongly dependent on inadequately known cosmological evolution, may favor detection in the pulsar terms rather than the Earth timing perturbations. Any contamination of timing data by red spin noise makes burst detection more difficult because both signals grow with the length of the time data span T. Furthermore, the different bursts that could appear in one or more data sets of length T ≈ 10 yr also affect the detectability of the gravitational wave stochastic background that, like spin noise, has a red power spectrum. A burst with memory is a worthwhile target in the timing of multiple pulsars in a globular cluster because it should produce a correlated signal with a time delay of less than about 10 years in some cases.
Space gravitational wave detector DECIGO/pre-DECIGO
Musha, Mitsuru
2017-09-01
The gravitational wave (GW) is ripples in gravitational fields caused by the motion of mass such as inspiral and merger of blackhole binaries or explosion of super novae, which was predicted by A.Einstein in his general theory of relativity. In Japan, besides the ground-base GW detector, KAGRA, the space gravitational wave detector, DECIGO, is also promoted for detecting GW at lower frequency range. DECIGO (DECi-heltz Gravitational-wave Observatory) consists of 3 satellites, forming a 1000-km triangle-shaped Fabry-Perot laser interferometer whose designed strain sensitivity is ?l/l planned a milestone mission for DECIGO named Pre-DECIGO, which has almost the same configuration as DECIGO with shorter arm length of 100 km. Pre-DECIGO is aimed for detecting GW from merger of blackhole binaries with less sensitivity as DECIGO, and also for feasibility test of key technologies for realizing DECIGO. Pre-DECIGO is now under designing and developing for launching in late 2020s, with the financial support of JAXA and JSPS. In our presentation, we will review DECIGO project, and show the design and current status of Pre-DECIGO.
Binary Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity
Centrella, Joan
2009-01-01
The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy and is one of the brightest sources in the gravitational wave sky. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of very strong gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these waveforms using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Recently this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This talk will take you on this quest for the holy grail of numerical relativity, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simulation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. We will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will be observed by LIGO and LISA.
Gravitational wave reception by a sphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ashby, N.; Dreitlein, J.
1975-01-01
The reception of gravitational waves by an elastic self-gravitating spherical detector is studied in detail. The equations of motion of a detector driven by a gravitational wave are presented in the intuitively convenient coordinate system of Fermi. An exact analytic solution is given for the homogeneous isotropic sphere. Nonlinear effects of a massive self-gravitating system are computed for a body of mass equal to that of the earth, and are shown to be numerically important
GRAVITATIONAL WAVE SIGNAL FROM ASSEMBLING THE LIGHTEST SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Micic, Miroslav; Sigurdsson, Steinn; Rubbo, Louis J.
2010-01-01
We calculate the gravitational wave signal from the growth of 10 7 M sun supermassive black holes (SMBHs) from the remnants of Population III stars. The assembly of these lower mass black holes (BHs) is particularly important because observing SMBHs in this mass range is one of the primary science goals for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), a planned NASA/ESA mission to detect gravitational waves. We use high-resolution cosmological N-body simulations to track the merger history of the host dark matter halos, and model the growth of the SMBHs with a semianalytic approach that combines dynamical friction, gas accretion, and feedback. We find that the most common source in the LISA band from our volume consists of mergers between intermediate-mass BHs and SMBHs at redshifts less than 2. This type of high mass ratio merger has not been widely considered in the gravitational wave community; detection and characterization of this signal will likely require a different technique than is used for SMBH mergers or extreme mass ratio inspirals. We find that the event rate of this new LISA source depends on prescriptions for gas accretion onto the BH as well as an accurate model of the dynamics on a galaxy scale; our best estimate yields ∼40 sources with a signal-to-noise ratio greater than 30 occuring within a volume like the Local Group during SMBH assembly-extrapolated over the volume of the universe yields ∼500 observed events over 10 years, although the accuracy of this rate is affected by cosmic variance.
Gravitational waves from instabilities in relativistic stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andersson, Nils
2003-01-01
This paper provides an overview of stellar instabilities as sources of gravitational waves. The aim is to put recent work on secular and dynamical instabilities in compact stars in context, and to summarize the current thinking about the detectability of gravitational waves from various scenarios. As a new generation of kilometre length interferometric detectors is now coming online this is a highly topical theme. The review is motivated by two key questions for future gravitational-wave astronomy: are the gravitational waves from various instabilities detectable? If so, what can these gravitational-wave signals teach us about neutron star physics? Even though we may not have clear answers to these questions, recent studies of the dynamical bar-mode instability and the secular r-mode instability have provided new insights into many of the difficult issues involved in modelling unstable stars as gravitational-wave sources. (topical review)
A radiometer for stochastic gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ballmer, Stefan W
2006-01-01
The LIGO Scientific Collaboration recently reported a new upper limit on an isotropic stochastic background of gravitational waves obtained based on the data from the third LIGO science run (S3). Here I present a new method for obtaining directional upper limits on stochastic gravitational waves that essentially implements a gravitational wave radiometer. The LIGO Scientific Collaboration intends to use this method for future LIGO science runs
Progress in gravitational wave detection: Interferometers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuroda, Kazuaki
2002-01-01
A gravitational wave (GW) is a physical entity of space-time derived from Einstein's theory of general relativity. Challenging projects to observe gravitational waves are being conducted throughout the world. A Japanese project involving a 300 m baseline laser interferometer, TAMA, achieved 1000 hr of continuous observation with the best sensitivity in the world during the summer of 2001. After achieving promising results, the realization of LCGT (Large-scale Cryogenic Gravitational wave Telescope) will become possible in the near future
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R. X.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barish, B. C.; Berger, B. K.; Billingsley, G.; Biscans, S.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.
2018-01-01
The LIGO Scientific and Virgo Collaborations have announced the event GW170817, the first detection of gravitational waves from the coalescence of two neutron stars. The merger rate of binary neutron stars estimated from this event suggests that distant, unresolvable binary neutron stars create a significant astrophysical stochastic gravitational-wave background. The binary neutron star component will add to the contribution from binary black holes, increasing the amplitude of the total astro...
Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology with Gravitational Waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sathyaprakash B. S.
2009-03-01
Full Text Available Gravitational wave detectors are already operating at interesting sensitivity levels, and they have an upgrade path that should result in secure detections by 2014. We review the physics of gravitational waves, how they interact with detectors (bars and interferometers, and how these detectors operate. We study the most likely sources of gravitational waves and review the data analysis methods that are used to extract their signals from detector noise. Then we consider the consequences of gravitational wave detections and observations for physics, astrophysics, and cosmology.
Observing a Gravitational Wave Background With Lisa
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Tinto, M; Armstrong, J; Estabrook, F
2000-01-01
... formation of several observables. All are independent of lasers and frequency standard phase fluctuations, but have different couplings to gravitational waves and to the various LISA instrumental noises...
Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology with Gravitational Waves.
Sathyaprakash, B S; Schutz, Bernard F
2009-01-01
Gravitational wave detectors are already operating at interesting sensitivity levels, and they have an upgrade path that should result in secure detections by 2014. We review the physics of gravitational waves, how they interact with detectors (bars and interferometers), and how these detectors operate. We study the most likely sources of gravitational waves and review the data analysis methods that are used to extract their signals from detector noise. Then we consider the consequences of gravitational wave detections and observations for physics, astrophysics, and cosmology.
Gravitational Wave Astrophysics: Opening the New Frontier
Centrella, Joan
2012-01-01
A new era in astronomy will begin when the gravitational wave window onto the universe opens in approx. 5 years, as ground-based detectors make the first detections in the high-frequency regime. Since the universe is nearly transparent to gravitational waves, these signals carry direct information about their sources - such as masses, spins, luminosity distances, and orbital parameters - through dense, obscured regions across cosmic time. This talk will explore gravitational waves as cosmic messengers, highlighting key sources and opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy across the gravitational wave spectrum.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palenzuela, Carlos; Lehner, Luis; Yoshida, Shin
2010-01-01
In addition to producing loud gravitational waves, the dynamics of a binary black hole system could induce emission of electromagnetic radiation by affecting the behavior of plasmas and electromagnetic fields in their vicinity. We study how the electromagnetic fields are affected by a pair of orbiting black holes through the merger. In particular, we show how the binary's dynamics induce a variability in possible electromagnetically induced emissions as well as an enhancement of electromagnetic fields during the late-merge and merger epochs. These time dependent features will likely leave their imprint in processes generating detectable emissions and can be exploited in the detection of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational waves.
Detections of the Gravitational Waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Maria Filardo Bassalo
2016-12-01
Full Text Available On February 11, 2016, during a conference held at the National Science Foundation (NSF, in Washington, D.C., the American physicist David Reitze, Executive Director of the Laser Interferometer Gravitacional-Wave Observatory (LIGO announced that it had been observed on September 14, 2015 Gravitational Waves (GW. This event was named GW150914. A second observation was also done by the LIGO on December 26, 2015 named GW151226. The signals of these two events are similar and are due to the coalescence of a binary black holes (BH. The GW sources are distant, respectively, of ~ 410 Mpc and ~ 440 Mpc from the Earth. To understand the significance of this extraordinary events we will make a historical summary of the GW and the BH.
Gravitational waves from axion monodromy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hebecker, Arthur; Jaeckel, Joerg; Rompineve, Fabrizio; Witkowski, Lukas T. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg,Philosophenweg 19, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)
2016-11-02
Large field inflation is arguably the simplest and most natural variant of slow-roll inflation. Axion monodromy may be the most promising framework for realising this scenario. As one of its defining features, the long-range polynomial potential possesses short-range, instantonic modulations. These can give rise to a series of local minima in the post-inflationary region of the potential. We show that for certain parameter choices the inflaton populates more than one of these vacua inside a single Hubble patch. This corresponds to a dynamical phase decomposition, analogously to what happens in the course of thermal first-order phase transitions. In the subsequent process of bubble wall collisions, the lowest-lying axionic minimum eventually takes over all space. Our main result is that this violent process sources gravitational waves, very much like in the case of a first-order phase transition. We compute the energy density and peak frequency of the signal, which can lie anywhere in the mHz-GHz range, possibly within reach of next-generation interferometers. We also note that this “dynamical phase decomposition' phenomenon and its gravitational wave signal are more general and may apply to other inflationary or reheating scenarios with axions and modulated potentials.
What Drives Private and Public Merger Waves in Europe?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bartholdy, Jan; Blunck, Benjamin
What drives merger waves? Harford 2005 argues that mergers are an efficient response to economic shocks to an industry, whereas Rhodes-Kropf, Robinson & Viswanathan 2005 argues that merger waves are driven by overvaluation of the acquiring firm, and to a lesser extent, the target firm. Both paper...... significant differences between driving forces for listed firms and for private firms. Public or listed firm mergers and acquisitions are primarily driven by overvaluation or behavioural factors, whereas private transactions are driven by economic factors.......What drives merger waves? Harford 2005 argues that mergers are an efficient response to economic shocks to an industry, whereas Rhodes-Kropf, Robinson & Viswanathan 2005 argues that merger waves are driven by overvaluation of the acquiring firm, and to a lesser extent, the target firm. Both papers...... are based on empirical analyses of listed US firms. This paper presents additional evidence of merger waves in the European Union (EU). The use of European data allows a more detailed analysis, since firm level data is available for both listed as well as private transactions. This analysis reveals...
Healy, James; Lousto, Carlos O.
2018-04-01
We present the results of 74 new simulations of nonprecessing spinning black hole binaries with mass ratios q =m1/m2 in the range 1 /7 ≤q ≤1 and individual spins covering the parameter space -0.95 ≤α1 ,2≤0.95 . We supplement those runs with 107 previous simulations to study the hangup effect in black hole mergers, i.e. the delay or prompt merger of spinning holes with respect to nonspinning binaries. We perform the numerical evolution for typically the last ten orbits before the merger and down to the formation of the final remnant black hole. This allows us to study the hangup effect for unequal mass binaries leading us to identify the spin variable that controls the number of orbits before merger as S→ hu.L ^ , where S→ hu=(1 +1/2 m/2 m1 )S→ 1+(1 +1/2 m/1 m2 )S→ 2 . We also combine the total results of those 181 simulations to obtain improved fitting formulas for the remnant final black hole mass, spin and recoil velocity as well as for the peak luminosity and peak frequency of the gravitational strain, and find new correlations among them. This accurate new set of simulations enhances the number of available numerical relativity waveforms available for parameter estimation of gravitational wave observations.
NASA's Gravitational - Wave Mission Concept Study
Stebbins, Robin; Jennrich, Oliver; McNamara, Paul
2012-01-01
With the conclusion of the NASA/ESA partnership on the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Project, NASA initiated a study to explore mission concepts that will accomplish some or all of the LISA science objectives at lower cost. The Gravitational-Wave Mission Concept Study consisted of a public Request for Information (RFI), a Core Team of NASA engineers and scientists, a Community Science Team, a Science Task Force, and an open workshop. The RFI yielded were 12 mission concepts, 3 instrument concepts and 2 technologies. The responses ranged from concepts that eliminated the drag-free test mass of LISA to concepts that replace the test mass with an atom interferometer. The Core Team reviewed the noise budgets and sensitivity curves, the payload and spacecraft designs and requirements, orbits and trajectories and technical readiness and risk. The Science Task Force assessed the science performance by calculating the horizons. the detection rates and the accuracy of astrophysical parameter estimation for massive black hole mergers, stellar-mass compact objects inspiraling into central engines. and close compact binary systems. Three mission concepts have been studied by Team-X, JPL's concurrent design facility. to define a conceptual design evaluate kt,y performance parameters. assess risk and estimate cost and schedule. The Study results are summarized.
Neutrino bursts and gravitational waves experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castagnoli, C; Galeotti, P; Saavedra, O [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica
1978-05-01
Several experiments have been performed in many countries to observe gravitational waves or neutrino bursts. Since their simultaneous emission may occur in stellar collapse, the authors evaluate the effect of neutrino bursts on gravitational wave antennas and suggest the usefulness of a time correlation among the different detectors.
Gravitational Waves from Oscillons with Cuspy Potentials.
Liu, Jing; Guo, Zong-Kuan; Cai, Rong-Gen; Shiu, Gary
2018-01-19
We study the production of gravitational waves during oscillations of the inflaton around the minimum of a cuspy potential after inflation. We find that a cusp in the potential can trigger copious oscillon formation, which sources a characteristic energy spectrum of gravitational waves with double peaks. The discovery of such a double-peak spectrum could test the underlying inflationary physics.
Gravitational waves from binary black holes
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
It is almost a century since Einstein predicted the existence of gravitational waves as one of the consequences of his general theory of relativity. A brief historical overview including Chandrasekhar's contribution to the subject is ﬁrst presented. The current status of the experimental search for gravitational waves and the ...
Physics of interferometric gravitational wave detectors
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The Caltech-MIT joint LIGO project is operating three long-baseline interferometers (one of 2 km and two of 4 km) in order to unambiguously measure the infinitesimal displacements of isolated test masses which convey the signature of gravitational waves from astrophysical sources. An interferometric gravitational wave ...
Workshop on gravitational waves and relativistic astrophysics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Discussions related to gravitational wave experiments viz. LIGO and LISA as well as to observations of supermassive black holes dominated the workshop sessions on gravitational waves and relativistic astrophysics in the ICGC-2004. A summary of seven papers that were presented in these workshop sessions has been ...
Observing a Gravitational Wave Background With Lisa
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Tinto, M; Armstrong, J; Estabrook, F
2000-01-01
.... Comparison of the conventional Michelson interferometer observable with the fully-symmetric Sagnac data-type allows unambiguous discrimination between a gravitational wave background and instrumental noise. The method presented here can be used to detect a confusion-limited gravitational wave background.
Denoising of gravitational wave signals via dictionary learning algorithms
Torres-Forné, Alejandro; Marquina, Antonio; Font, José A.; Ibáñez, José M.
2016-12-01
Gravitational wave astronomy has become a reality after the historical detections accomplished during the first observing run of the two advanced LIGO detectors. In the following years, the number of detections is expected to increase significantly with the full commissioning of the advanced LIGO, advanced Virgo and KAGRA detectors. The development of sophisticated data analysis techniques to improve the opportunities of detection for low signal-to-noise-ratio events is, hence, a most crucial effort. In this paper, we present one such technique, dictionary-learning algorithms, which have been extensively developed in the last few years and successfully applied mostly in the context of image processing. However, to the best of our knowledge, such algorithms have not yet been employed to denoise gravitational wave signals. By building dictionaries from numerical relativity templates of both binary black holes mergers and bursts of rotational core collapse, we show how machine-learning algorithms based on dictionaries can also be successfully applied for gravitational wave denoising. We use a subset of signals from both catalogs, embedded in nonwhite Gaussian noise, to assess our techniques with a large sample of tests and to find the best model parameters. The application of our method to the actual signal GW150914 shows promising results. Dictionary-learning algorithms could be a complementary addition to the gravitational wave data analysis toolkit. They may be used to extract signals from noise and to infer physical parameters if the data are in good enough agreement with the morphology of the dictionary atoms.
Gravity's kiss the detection of gravitational waves
Collins, Harry
2017-01-01
Scientists have been trying to confirm the existence of gravitational waves for fifty years. Then, in September 2015, came a "very interesting event" (as the cautious subject line in a physicist's email read) that proved to be the first detection of gravitational waves. In Gravity's Kiss, Harry Collins -- who has been watching the science of gravitational wave detection for forty-three of those fifty years and has written three previous books about it -- offers a final, fascinating account, written in real time, of the unfolding of one of the most remarkable scientific discoveries ever made. Predicted by Einstein in his theory of general relativity, gravitational waves carry energy from the collision or explosion of stars. Dying binary stars, for example, rotate faster and faster around each other until they merge, emitting a burst of gravitational waves. It is only with the development of extraordinarily sensitive, highly sophisticated detectors that physicists can now confirm Einstein's prediction. This is...
Gravitational waves in cold dark matter
Flauger, Raphael; Weinberg, Steven
2018-06-01
We study the effects of cold dark matter on the propagation of gravitational waves of astrophysical and primordial origin. We show that the dominant effect of cold dark matter on gravitational waves from astrophysical sources is a small frequency dependent modification of the propagation speed of gravitational waves. However, the magnitude of the effect is too small to be detected in the near future. We furthermore show that the spectrum of primordial gravitational waves in principle contains detailed information about the properties of dark matter. However, depending on the wavelength, the effects are either suppressed because the dark matter is highly nonrelativistic or because it contributes a small fraction of the energy density of the universe. As a consequence, the effects of cold dark matter on primordial gravitational waves in practice also appear too small to be detectable.
Fundamentals of interferometric gravitational wave detectors
Saulson, Peter R
2017-01-01
LIGO's recent discovery of gravitational waves was headline news around the world. Many people will want to understand more about what a gravitational wave is, how LIGO works, and how LIGO functions as a detector of gravitational waves.This book aims to communicate the basic logic of interferometric gravitational wave detectors to students who are new to the field. It assumes that the reader has a basic knowledge of physics, but no special familiarity with gravitational waves, with general relativity, or with the special techniques of experimental physics. All of the necessary ideas are developed in the book.The first edition was published in 1994. Since the book is aimed at explaining the physical ideas behind the design of LIGO, it stands the test of time. For the second edition, an Epilogue has been added; it brings the treatment of technical details up to date, and provides references that would allow a student to become proficient with today's designs.
University Mergers in Russia: Four Waves of Educational Policy
Romanenko, K. R.; Lisyutkin, M. A.
2018-01-01
This article is aimed at identifying distinctive features of the educational policy of university mergers--their main stages, types, and declared goals. We analyzed cases of university mergers and acquisitions (M&A) from the 1990s to the present, which allowed us to identify and describe four Russia-specific waves of educational policy. Based…
Search for Gravitational Waves from Intermediate Mass Binary Black Holes
Blackburn, L.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Stroeer, A. S.
2012-01-01
We present the results of a weakly modeled burst search for gravitational waves from mergers of non-spinning intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in the total mass range 100-450 solar Mass and with the component mass ratios between 1:1 and 4:1. The search was conducted on data collected by the LIGO and Virgo detectors between November of 2005 and October of 2007. No plausible signals were observed by the search which constrains the astrophysical rates of the IMBH mergers as a function of the component masses. In the most efficiently detected bin centered on 88 + 88 solar Mass , for non-spinning sources, the rate density upper limit is 0.13 per Mpc(exp 3) per Myr at the 90% confidence level.
Characterizing Black Hole Mergers
Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard
2010-01-01
Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.
Thermal gravitational waves in accelerating universe
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B Ghayour
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Gravitational waves are considered in thermal vacuum state. The amplitude and spectral energy density of gravitational waves are found enhanced in thermal vacuum state compared to its zero temperature counterpart. Therefore, the allowed amount of enhancement depends on the upper bound of WMAP-5 and WMAP-7 for the amplitude and spectral energy density of gravitational waves. The enhancement of amplitude and spectral energy density of the waves in thermal vacuum state is consistent with current accelerating phase of the universe. The enhancement feature of amplitude and spectral energy density of the waves is independent of the expansion model of the universe and hence the thermal effect accounts for it. Therefore, existence of thermal gravitational waves is not ruled out
Interaction of gravitational waves with superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Inan, N.A.; Thompson, J.J. [University of California, Schools of Natural Sciences, Merced, CA (United States); Chiao, R.Y. [University of California, Schools of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Merced, CA (United States)
2017-06-15
Applying the Helmholtz Decomposition theorem to linearized General Relativity leads to a gauge-invariant formulation where the transverse-traceless part of the metric perturbation describes gravitational waves in matter. Gravitational waves incident on a superconductor can be described by a linear London-like constituent equation characterized by a ''gravitational shear modulus'' and a corresponding plasma frequency and penetration depth. Electric-like and magnetic-like gravitational tensor fields are defined in terms of the strain field of a gravitational wave. It is shown that in the DC limit, the magnetic-like tensor field is expelled from the superconductor in a gravitational Meissner-like effect. The Cooper pair density is described by the Ginzburg-Landau theory embedded in curved space-time. The ionic lattice is modeled by quantum harmonic oscillators coupled to gravitational waves and characterized by quasi-energy eigenvalues for the phonon modes. The formulation predicts the possibility of a dynamical Casimir effect since the zero-point energy of the ionic lattice phonons is found to be modulated by the gravitational wave, in a quantum analog of a ''Weber-bar effect.'' Applying periodic thermodynamics and the Debye model in the low-temperature limit leads to a free energy density for the ionic lattice. Lastly, we relate the gravitational strain of space to the strain of matter to show that the response to a gravitational wave is far less for the Cooper pair density than for the ionic lattice. This predicts a charge separation effect in the superconductor as a result of the gravitational wave. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Gravitational wave emission from oscillating millisecond pulsars
Alford, Mark G.; Schwenzer, Kai
2015-02-01
Neutron stars undergoing r-mode oscillation emit gravitational radiation that might be detected on the Earth. For known millisecond pulsars the observed spin-down rate imposes an upper limit on the possible gravitational wave signal of these sources. Taking into account the physics of r-mode evolution, we show that only sources spinning at frequencies above a few hundred Hertz can be unstable to r-modes, and we derive a more stringent universal r-mode spin-down limit on their gravitational wave signal. We find that this refined bound limits the gravitational wave strain from millisecond pulsars to values below the detection sensitivity of next generation detectors. Young sources are therefore a more promising option for the detection of gravitational waves emitted by r-modes and to probe the interior composition of compact stars in the near future.
Regimbau, T; Evans, M; Christensen, N; Katsavounidis, E; Sathyaprakash, B; Vitale, S
2017-04-14
The merger rate of black hole binaries inferred from the detections in the first Advanced LIGO science run implies that a stochastic background produced by a cosmological population of mergers will likely mask the primordial gravitational wave background. Here we demonstrate that the next generation of ground-based detectors, such as the Einstein Telescope and Cosmic Explorer, will be able to observe binary black hole mergers throughout the Universe with sufficient efficiency that the confusion background can potentially be subtracted to observe the primordial background at the level of Ω_{GW}≃10^{-13} after 5 years of observation.
Production of gravitation waves by electromagnetic radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchner, K.; Rosca, R.
1980-01-01
An exact solution of Einstein's equations is presented that corresponds to an axisymmetric bundle of electromagnetic waves with finite cross section. Outside this bundle, there is gravitational radiation parallel to the electromagnetic radiation. If no static electromagnetic fields are present, the frequency of the gravitational waves is twice the frequency of the electromagnetic waves. Einstein's energy complex vanishes identically. The covariant energy complex, however, yields also a radial momentum. (author)
Velocity Memory Effect for polarized gravitational waves
Zhang, P.-M.; Duval, C.; Gibbons, G. W.; Horvathy, P. A.
2018-05-01
Circularly polarized gravitational sandwich waves exhibit, as do their linearly polarized counterparts, the Velocity Memory Effect: freely falling test particles in the flat after-zone fly apart along straight lines with constant velocity. In the inside zone their trajectories combine oscillatory and rotational motions in a complicated way. For circularly polarized periodic gravitational waves some trajectories remain bounded, while others spiral outward. These waves admit an additional "screw" isometry beyond the usual five. The consequences of this extra symmetry are explored.
Transient multimessenger astronomy with gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marka, S
2011-01-01
Comprehensive multimessenger astronomy with gravitational waves is a pioneering field bringing us interesting results and presenting us with exciting challenges for the future. During the era of the operation of advanced interferometric gravitational wave detectors, we will have the opportunity to investigate sources of gravitational waves that are also expected to be observable through other messengers, such as gamma rays, x-rays, optical, radio, and/or neutrino emission. Multimessenger searches for gravitational waves with the LIGO-GEO600-Virgo interferometer network have already produced insights on cosmic events and it is expected that the simultaneous observation of electromagnetic or neutrino emission could be a crucial aspect for the first direct detection of gravitational waves in the future. Trigger time, direction and expected frequency range enhances our ability to search for gravitational wave signatures with amplitudes closer to the noise floor of the detector. Furthermore, multimessenger observations will enable the extraction of otherwise unaccessible scientific insight. We summarize the status of transient multimessenger detection efforts as well as mention some of the open questions that might be resolved by advanced or third generation gravitational wave detector networks.
Gravitational waves in hybrid quintessential inflationary models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sa, Paulo M [Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Henriques, Alfredo B, E-mail: pmsa@ualg.pt, E-mail: alfredo.henriques@ist.utl.pt [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica - CENTRA and Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, UTL, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)
2011-09-22
The generation of primordial gravitational waves is investigated within the hybrid quintessential inflationary model. Using the method of continuous Bogoliubov coefficients, we calculate the full gravitational-wave energy spectrum. The post-inflationary kination period, characteristic of quintessential inflationary models, leaves a clear signature on the spectrum, namely, a sharp rise of the gravitational-wave spectral energy density {Omega}{sub GW} at high frequencies. For appropriate values of the parameters of the model, {Omega}{sub GW} can be as high as 10{sup -12} in the MHz-GHz range of frequencies.
Gravitational waves in hybrid quintessential inflationary models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sa, Paulo M; Henriques, Alfredo B
2011-01-01
The generation of primordial gravitational waves is investigated within the hybrid quintessential inflationary model. Using the method of continuous Bogoliubov coefficients, we calculate the full gravitational-wave energy spectrum. The post-inflationary kination period, characteristic of quintessential inflationary models, leaves a clear signature on the spectrum, namely, a sharp rise of the gravitational-wave spectral energy density Ω GW at high frequencies. For appropriate values of the parameters of the model, Ω GW can be as high as 10 -12 in the MHz-GHz range of frequencies.
Gamma-ray-burst beaming and gravitational-wave observations.
Chen, Hsin-Yu; Holz, Daniel E
2013-11-01
Using the observed rate of short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) it is possible to make predictions for the detectable rate of compact binary coalescences in gravitational-wave detectors. We show that the nondetection of mergers in the existing LIGO/Virgo data constrains the beaming angles and progenitor masses of gamma-ray bursts, although these limits are fully consistent with existing expectations. We make predictions for the rate of events in future networks of gravitational-wave observatories, finding that the first detection of a neutron-star-neutron-star binary coalescence associated with the progenitors of short GRBs is likely to happen within the first 16 months of observation, even in the case of only two observatories (e.g., LIGO-Hanford and LIGO-Livingston) operating at intermediate sensitivities (e.g., advanced LIGO design sensitivity, but without signal recycling mirrors), and assuming a conservative distribution of beaming angles (e.g., all GRBs beamed within θ(j) = 30°). Less conservative assumptions reduce the waiting time until first detection to a period of weeks to months, with an event detection rate of >/~10/yr. Alternatively, the compact binary coalescence model of short GRBs can be ruled out if a binary is not seen within the first two years of operation of a LIGO-Hanford, LIGO-Livingston, and Virgo network at advanced design sensitivity. We also demonstrate that the gravitational wave detection rate of GRB triggered sources (i.e., those seen first in gamma rays) is lower than the rate of untriggered events (i.e., those seen only in gravitational waves) if θ(j)≲30°, independent of the noise curve, network configuration, and observed GRB rate. The first detection in gravitational waves of a binary GRB progenitor is therefore unlikely to be associated with the observation of a GRB.
Estimation of the gravitational wave polarizations from a nontemplate search
Di Palma, Irene; Drago, Marco
2018-01-01
Gravitational wave astronomy is just beginning, after the recent success of the four direct detections of binary black hole (BBH) mergers and the first observation from a binary neutron star inspiral, with the expectation of many more events to come. Given the possibility to detect waves from not exactly modeled astrophysical processes, it is fundamental to be ready to calculate the polarization waveforms in the case of searches using nontemplate algorithms. In such a case, the waveform polarizations are the only quantities that contain direct information about the generating process. We present the performance of a new valuable tool to estimate the inverse solution of gravitational wave transient signals, starting from the analysis of the signal properties of a nontemplate algorithm that is open to a wider class of gravitational signals not covered by template algorithms. We highlight the contributions to the wave polarization associated with the detector response, the sky localization, and the polarization angle of the source. In this paper we present the performances of such a method and its implications by using two main classes of transient signals, resembling the limiting case for most simple and complicated morphologies. The performances are encouraging for the tested waveforms: the correlation between the original and the reconstructed waveforms spans from better than 80% for simple morphologies to better than 50% for complicated ones. For a nontemplate search these results can be considered satisfactory to reconstruct the astrophysical progenitor.
Geodesics analysis of colliding gravitational shock waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pozdeeva, E.
2011-01-01
Full text: (author)We consider collision of charged gravitational shock waves with infinite transverse extension (charged gravitational walls). We study the influence of the charges on the trapped surface formation in the charged walls collision. This consideration has applications in the in heavy ion collisions using a holographic approach in which the charge plays the role of the chemical potential
The Gravitational Wave Detector EXPLORER
2002-01-01
%RE5 EXPLORER is a cryogenic resonant-mass gravitational wave (GW) detector. It is in operation at CERN since 1984 and it has been the first cryogenic GW antenna to perform continuous observations (since 1990).\\\\ \\\\EXPLORER is actually part of the international network of resonant-mass detectors which includes ALLEGRO at the Louisiana State University, AURIGA at the INFN Legnaro Laboratories, NAUTILUS at the INFN Frascati Laboratories and NIOBE at the University of Western Australia. The EXPLORER sensitivity, at present of the same order of the other antennas, is 10$^{-20}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ over a bandwidth of 20 Hz and 6 10$^{-22}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ with a bandwidth of about 0.5 Hz, corresponding to a sensitivity to short GW bursts of \\textit{h} = 6 10$^{-19}$.\\\\ \\\\This sensitivity should allow the detection of the burst sources in our Galaxy and in the Local Group. No evidence of GW signals has been reported up to now.\\\\ \\\\The principle of operation is based on the assumption that any vibrational mode of a resonant bo...
Particle production in a gravitational wave background
Jones, Preston; McDougall, Patrick; Singleton, Douglas
2017-03-01
We study the possibility that massless particles, such as photons, are produced by a gravitational wave. That such a process should occur is implied by tree-level Feynman diagrams such as two gravitons turning into two photons, i.e., g +g →γ +γ . Here we calculate the rate at which a gravitational wave creates a massless scalar field. This is done by placing the scalar field in the background of a plane gravitational wave and calculating the 4-current of the scalar field. Even in the vacuum limit of the scalar field it has a nonzero vacuum expectation value (similar to what occurs in the Higgs mechanism) and a nonzero current. We associate this with the production of scalar field quanta by the gravitational field. This effect has potential consequences for the attenuation of gravitational waves since the massless field is being produced at the expense of the gravitational field. This is related to the time-dependent Schwinger effect, but with the electric field replaced by the gravitational wave background and the electron/positron field quanta replaced by massless scalar "photons." Since the produced scalar quanta are massless there is no exponential suppression, as occurs in the Schwinger effect due to the electron mass.
Physics of interferometric gravitational wave detectors
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The Caltech-MIT joint LIGO project is operating three long-baseline inter- ... gravitational waves for LIGO are: (i) binary coalescing neutron star systems, (ii) ..... The fundamental mode of this basis is a purely Gaussian function which means.
Advanced interferometric gravitational-wave detectors
Saulson, Peter R
2019-01-01
Gravitational waves are one of the most exciting and promising emerging areas of physics and astrophysics today. The detection of gravitational waves will rank among the most significant physics discoveries of the 21st century.Advanced Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Detectors brings together many of the world's top experts to deliver an authoritative and in-depth treatment on current and future detectors. Volume I is devoted to the essentials of gravitational-wave detectors, presenting the physical principles behind large-scale precision interferometry, the physics of the underlying noise sources that limit interferometer sensitivity, and an explanation of the key enabling technologies that are used in the detectors. Volume II provides an in-depth look at the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo interferometers that have just finished construction, as well as examining future interferometric detector concepts. This two-volume set will provide students and researchers the comprehensive background needed to und...
Primordial gravitational waves, BICEP2 and beyond
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-01-07
Jan 7, 2016 ... Observations of the imprints of primordial gravitational waves on the ... the cosmic microwave background can provide us with unambiguous clues to the ... by the stress–energy tensor) can be classified, for instance, based on ...
Quantum fluctuations of some gravitational waves
Enginer, Y.; Hortacsu, M.; Kaya, R.; Ozdemir, N.; Ulker, K.; Yapiskan, B.
1998-01-01
We review our previous work on the the calculation of the stress-energy tensor for a scalar particle in the background metric of different types of spherical impulsive, spherical shock and plane impulsive gravitational waves.
Quantum Fluctuations for Gravitational Impulsive Waves
Enginer, Y.; Hortacsu, M.; Ozdemir, N.
1998-01-01
Quantum fluctuations for a massless scalar field in the background metric of spherical impulsive gravitational waves through Minkowski and de Sitter spaces are investigated. It is shown that there exist finite fluctuations for de Sitter space.
Gravitational Waves: A New Observational Window
Camp, Jordan B.
2010-01-01
The era of gravitational wave astronomy is rapidly approaching, with a likely start date around the middle of this decade ' Gravitational waves, emitted by accelerated motions of very massive objects, provide detailed information about strong-field gravity and its sources, including black holes and neutron stars, that electromagnetic probes cannot access. In this talk I will discuss the anticipated sources and the status of the extremely sensitive detectors (both ground and space based) that will make gravitational wave detections possible. As ground based detectors are now taking data, I will show some initial science results related to measured upper limits on gravitational wave signals. Finally Z will describe new directions including advanced detectors and joint efforts with other fields of astronomy.
Gravitational Waves from Oscillons after Inflation.
Antusch, Stefan; Cefalà, Francesco; Orani, Stefano
2017-01-06
We investigate the production of gravitational waves during preheating after inflation in the common case of field potentials that are asymmetric around the minimum. In particular, we study the impact of oscillons, comparatively long lived and spatially localized regions where a scalar field (e.g., the inflaton) oscillates with large amplitude. Contrary to a previous study, which considered a symmetric potential, we find that oscillons in asymmetric potentials associated with a phase transition can generate a pronounced peak in the spectrum of gravitational waves that largely exceeds the linear preheating spectrum. We discuss the possible implications of this enhanced amplitude of gravitational waves. For instance, for low scale inflation models, the contribution from the oscillons can strongly enhance the observation prospects at current and future gravitational wave detectors.
Experimental signatures of gravitational wave bursters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubath, Florian; Foffa, Stefano; Gasparini, Maria Alice; Maggiore, Michele; Sturani, Riccardo
2005-01-01
Gravitational wave bursters are sources which emit repeatedly bursts of gravitational waves, and have been recently suggested as potentially interesting candidates for gravitational wave (GW) detectors. Mechanisms that could give rise to a GW burster can be found for instance in highly magnetized neutron stars (the 'magnetars' which explain the phenomenon of soft gamma repeaters), in accreting neutron stars and in hybrid stars with a quark core. We point out that these sources have very distinctive experimental signatures. In particular, as already observed in the γ-ray bursts from soft gamma repeaters, the energy spectrum of the events is a power-law, dN∼E -γ dE with γ≅1.6, and they have a distribution of waiting times (the times between one outburst and the next) significantly different from the distribution of uncorrelated events. We discuss possible detection strategies that could be used to search for these events in existing gravitational wave detectors
Gravitational waves from rotating strained neutron stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, D I
2002-01-01
In this review we examine the dynamics and gravitational wave detectability of rotating strained neutron stars. The discussion is divided into two halves: triaxial stars and precessing stars. We summarize recent studies on how crustal strains and magnetic fields can sustain triaxiality, and suggest that Magnus forces connected with pinned superfluid vortices might contribute to deformation also. The conclusions that could be drawn following the successful gravitational wave detection of a triaxial star are discussed, and areas requiring further study identified. The latest ideas regarding free precession are then outlined, and the recent suggestion of Middleditch et al (Middleditch et al 2000 New Astronomy 5 243; 2000 Preprint astro-ph/0010044) that the remnant of SN1987A contains a freely precessing star, spinning down by gravitational wave energy loss, is examined critically. We describe what we would learn about neutron stars should the gravitational wave detectors prove this hypothesis to be correct
Gravitational shock waves and extreme magnetomaterial shock waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lichnerowicz, Andre.
1975-01-01
Within an astrophysical context corresponding to high densities, a self-gravitating model is studied, which is the set of an extreme material medium of infinite conductivity and of a magnetic field. Corresponding shock waves generate necessarily, in general, gravitational shock waves [fr
Detection of gravitational waves with resonant antennas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ronga, Francesco
2006-01-01
The status of the 4 operating cylindrical gravitational waves resonant antenna detectors is summarized. A short review is given of the experimental results and of the next generation projects. Resonant detectors are now sensitive to the strongest potential sources of gravitational waves in our galaxy and in the local group. Recently interferometric detectors have achieved very good perfomances, but resonant detectors are still competitive particularly for what concern the very good live-time
A Practical Theorem on Gravitational Wave Backgrounds
Phinney, E. S.
2001-01-01
There is an extremely simple relationship between the spectrum of the gravitational wave background produced by a cosmological distribution of discrete gravitational wave sources, the total time-integrated energy spectrum of an individual source, and the present-day comoving number density of remnants. Stated in this way, the background is entirely independent of the cosmology, and only weakly dependent on the evolutionary history of the sources. This relationship allows one easily to compute...
Resonant interaction of photons with gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mendonca, J.T.; Drury, L. O'C.
2002-01-01
The interaction of photons with a low-amplitude gravitational wave propagating in a flat space-time is studied by using an exact model of photon dynamics. The existence of nearly resonant interactions between the photons and the gravitational waves, which can take place over large distances, can lead to a strong photon acceleration. Such a resonant mechanism can eventually be useful to build consistent new models of gamma-ray emitters
Detecting the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background
Colacino, Carlo Nicola
2017-12-01
The stochastic gravitational-wave background (SGWB) is by far the most difficult source of gravitational radiation detect. At the same time, it is the most interesting and intriguing one. This book describes the initial detection of the SGWB and describes the underlying mathematics behind one of the most amazing discoveries of the 21st century. On the experimental side it would mean that interferometric gravitational wave detectors work even better than expected. On the observational side, such a detection could give us information about the very early Universe, information that could not be obtained otherwise. Even negative results and improved upper bounds could put constraints on many cosmological and particle physics models.
Some aspects of gravitational waves in an isotropic background universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pandey, S.N.
1981-06-01
Gravitational waves are an inescapable consequence of the relativistic theory of gravitation. They are meaningfully comparable with electromagnetic waves. However, they are not conformally invariant. So, to investigate this property for gravitational waves, modified field equations are obtained of which the underlying Lagrangian is based on gravitation only. It gives, if helicity is preserved, amplitude modification, and the wave is represented by Bessel function of zero order. Some aspects of this theory are discussed with reference to gravitational waves only. (author)
Gravitational Waves from a Dark Phase Transition.
Schwaller, Pedro
2015-10-30
In this work, we show that a large class of models with a composite dark sector undergo a strong first order phase transition in the early Universe, which could lead to a detectable gravitational wave signal. We summarize the basic conditions for a strong first order phase transition for SU(N) dark sectors with n_{f} flavors, calculate the gravitational wave spectrum and show that, depending on the dark confinement scale, it can be detected at eLISA or in pulsar timing array experiments. The gravitational wave signal provides a unique test of the gravitational interactions of a dark sector, and we discuss the complementarity with conventional searches for new dark sectors. The discussion includes the twin Higgs and strongly interacting massive particle models as well as symmetric and asymmetric composite dark matter scenarios.
Possibility of Landau damping of gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gayer, S.; Kennel, C.F.
1979-01-01
There is considerable uncertainty in the literature concerning whether or not transverse traceless gravitational waves can Landau damp. Physically, the issue is whether particles of nonzero mass can comove with surfaces of constant wave phase, and therefore, loosely, whether gravitational waves can have phase speeds less than that of light. We approach the question of Landau damping in various ways. We consider first the propagation of small-amplitude gravitational waves in an ideal fluid-filled Robertson-Walker universe of zero spatial curvature. We argue that the principle of equivalence requires those modes to be lightlike. We show that a freely moving particle interacting only with the collective fields cannot comove with such waves if it has nonzero mass. The equation for gravitational waves in collisionless kinetic gases differs from that for fluid media only by terms so small that deviations from lightlike propagation are unmeasurable. Thus, we conclude that Landau damping of small-amplitude, transverse traceless gravitational waves is not possible
Compact binary coalescences in the band of ground-based gravitational-wave detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mandel, Ilya; O'Shaughnessy, Richard
2010-01-01
As the ground-based gravitational-wave telescopes LIGO, Virgo and GEO 600 approach the era of first detections, we review the current knowledge of the coalescence rates and the mass and spin distributions of merging neutron-star and black-hole binaries. We emphasize the bi-directional connection between gravitational-wave astronomy and conventional astrophysics. Astrophysical input will make possible informed decisions about optimal detector configurations and search techniques. Meanwhile, rate upper limits, detected merger rates and the distribution of masses and spins measured by gravitational-wave searches will constrain astrophysical parameters through comparisons with astrophysical models. Future developments necessary to the success of gravitational-wave astronomy are discussed.
Gravitational recoil from binary black hole mergers: The close-limit approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sopuerta, Carlos F.; Yunes, Nicolas; Laguna, Pablo
2006-01-01
The coalescence of a binary black hole system is one of the main sources of gravitational waves that present and future detectors will study. Apart from the energy and angular momentum that these waves carry, for unequal-mass binaries there is also a net flux of linear momentum that implies a recoil velocity of the resulting final black hole in the opposite direction. Due to the relevance of this phenomenon in astrophysics, in particular, for galaxy merger scenarios, there have been several attempts to estimate the magnitude of this velocity. Since the main contribution to the recoil comes from the last orbit and plunge, an approximation valid at the last stage of coalescence is well motivated for this type of calculation. In this paper, we present a computation of the recoil velocity based on the close-limit approximation scheme, which gives excellent results for head-on and grazing collisions of black holes when compared to full numerical relativistic calculations. We obtain a maximum recoil velocity of ∼57 km/s for a symmetric mass ratio η=M 1 M 2 /(M 1 +M 2 ) 2 ∼0.19 and an initial proper separation of 4M, where M is the total Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) mass of the system. This separation is the maximum at which the close-limit approximation is expected to provide accurate results. Therefore, it cannot account for the contributions due to inspiral and initial merger. If we supplement this estimate with post-Newtonian (PN) calculations up to the innermost stable circular orbit, we obtain a lower bound for the recoil velocity, with a maximum around 80 km/s. This is a lower bound because it neglects the initial merger phase. We can however obtain a rough estimate by using PN methods or the close-limit approximation. Since both methods are known to overestimate the amount of radiation, we obtain in this way an upper bound for the recoil with maxima in the range of 214-240 km/s. We also provide nonlinear fits to these estimated upper and lower bounds. These
Optical follow-up of gravitational wave triggers with DECam
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Herner, K.; Annis, J.; Berger, E.; Brout, D.; Butler, R.; Chen, H.; Cowperthwaite, P.; Diehl, H.; Doctor, Z.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Farr, B.; Finley, D.; Frieman, J.; Holz, D.; Kessler, R.; Lin, H.; Marriner, J.; Nielsen, E.; Palmese, A.; Sako, M.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Yanny, B.
2017-10-01
Gravitational wave (GW) events have several possible progenitors, including black hole mergers, cosmic string cusps, supernovae, neutron star mergers, and black hole{neutron star mergers. A subset of GW events are expected to produce electromagnetic (EM) emission that, once detected, will provide complementary information about their astrophysical context. To that end, the LIGO-Virgo Collaboration has partnered with other teams to send GW candidate alerts so that searches for their EM counterparts can be pursued. One such partner is the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and Dark Energy Camera (DECam) Gravitational Waves Program (DES- GW). Situated on the 4m Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile, DECam is an ideal instrument for optical followup observations of GW triggers in the southern sky. The DES-GW program performs subtraction of new search images with respect to preexisting overlapping images to select candidate sources. Due to the short decay timescale of the expected EM counterparts and the need to quickly eliminate survey areas with no counterpart candidates, it is critical to complete the initial analysis of each night's images within 24 hours. The computational challenges in achieving this goal include maintaining robust I/O pipelines during the processing, being able to quickly acquire template images of new sky regions outside of the typical DES observing regions, and being able to rapidly provision additional batch computing resources with little advance notice. We will discuss the search area determination, imaging pipeline, general data transfer strategy, and methods to quickly increase the available amount of batch computing. We will present results from the rst season of observations from September 2015 to January 2016 and conclude by presenting improvements planned for the second observing season.
Heuristic introduction to gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sandberg, V.D.
1982-01-01
The purpose of this article is to provide a rough and somewhat heuristic theoretical background and introduction to gravitational radiation, its generation, and its detection based on Einstein's general theory of relativity
Incorporating information from source simulations into searches for gravitational-wave bursts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brady, Patrick R; Ray-Majumder, Saikat
2004-01-01
The detection of gravitational waves from astrophysical sources of gravitational waves is a realistic goal for the current generation of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. Short duration bursts of gravitational waves from core-collapse supernovae or mergers of binary black holes may bring a wealth of astronomical and astrophysical information. The weakness of the waves and the rarity of the events urges the development of optimal methods to detect the waves. The waves from these sources are not generally known well enough to use matched filtering however; this drives the need to develop new ways to exploit source simulation information in both detection and information extraction. We present an algorithmic approach to using catalogues of gravitational-wave signals developed through numerical simulation, or otherwise, to enhance our ability to detect these waves. As more detailed simulations become available, it is straightforward to incorporate the new information into the search method. This approach may also be useful when trying to extract information from a gravitational-wave observation by allowing direct comparison between the observation and simulations
Dark Energy and Inflation from Gravitational Waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leonid Marochnik
2017-10-01
Full Text Available In this seven-part paper, we show that gravitational waves (classical and quantum produce the accelerated de Sitter expansion at the start and at the end of the cosmological evolution of the Universe. In these periods, the Universe contains no matter fields but contains classical and quantum metric fluctuations, i.e., it is filled with classical and quantum gravitational waves. In such evolution of the Universe, dominated by gravitational waves, the de Sitter state is the exact solution to the self-consistent equations for classical and quantum gravitational waves and background geometry for the empty space-time with FLRW metric. In both classical and quantum cases, this solution is of the instanton origin since it is obtained in the Euclidean space of imaginary time with the subsequent analytic continuation to real time. The cosmological acceleration from gravitational waves provides a transparent physical explanation to the coincidence, threshold and “old cosmological constant” paradoxes of dark energy avoiding recourse to the anthropic principle. The cosmological acceleration from virtual gravitons at the start of the Universe evolution produces inflation, which is consistent with the observational data on CMB anisotropy. Section 1 is devoted to cosmological acceleration from classical gravitational waves. Section 2 is devoted to the theory of virtual gravitons in the Universe. Section 3 is devoted to cosmological acceleration from virtual gravitons. Section 4 discusses the consistency of the theory with observational data on dark energy and inflation. The discussion of mechanism of acceleration and cosmological scenario are contained in Sections 5 and 6. Appendix contains the theory of stochastic nonlinear gravitational waves of arbitrary wavelength and amplitude in an isotropic Universe.
The Schenberg gravitational wave detector: status report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aguiar, O.D.; Barroso, J.J; Bessada, D.F.A.; Carvalho, N.C; Castro, P.J.; Montana, C.E. Cedeno; Costa, C.F. da Silva; Araujo, J.C.N de; Evangelista, E.F.D.; Furtado, S.R; Miranda, O.D.; Moraes, P.H.R.S.; Pereira, Eduardo S.; Silveira, P.R.; Stellati, C.; Weber, J.
2011-01-01
Full text: The quest for gravitational wave detection has been one of the toughest technological challenges ever faced by experimental physicists and engineers. Despite all difficulties, after four decades of research, the community involved in this area is continuously growing. One of the main reasons for this is because the first gravitational wave detection and the regular observation of gravitational waves are among the most important scientific goals for the beginning of this millennium. They will test one of the foundations of physics, Einstein's theory of general relativity, and will open a new window for the observation of the universe, which certainly will cause a revolution in our knowledge of physics and astrophysics. In this talk we present the status report of the Brazilian Schenberg gravitational wave detector, which started commissioning runs in September 2006 under the full support of FAPESP. We have been upgrading the detector since 2008, installing a dilution refrigerator, a new complete set of transducers, and a new suspension and vibration isolation system for the cabling and microstrip antennas, in order to restart operation with a higher sensitivity. We also have been studying an innovative approach, which could transform Schenberg into a broadband gravitational wave detector by the use of an ultra-high sensitivity non-resonant nanogap transducer, constructed by the application of recent achievements of nanotechnology. A spherical antenna, such as Schenberg or Mini-Grail, could add to this quality the advantage of wave position and polarity determination. (author)
A Brief History of Gravitational Waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jorge L. Cervantes-Cota
2016-09-01
Full Text Available This review describes the discovery of gravitational waves. We recount the journey of predicting and finding those waves, since its beginning in the early twentieth century, their prediction by Einstein in 1916, theoretical and experimental blunders, efforts towards their detection, and finally the subsequent successful discovery.
Data analysis techniques for gravitational wave observations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Astrophysical sources of gravitational waves fall broadly into three categories: (i) transient and bursts, (ii) periodic or continuous wave and (iii) stochastic. Each type of source requires a different type of data analysis strategy. In this talk various data analysis strategies will be reviewed. Optimal filtering is used for extracting ...
DOUBLE COMPACT OBJECTS. III. GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE DETECTION RATES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dominik, Michal; Belczynski, Krzysztof; Bulik, Tomasz [Astronomical Observatory, University of Warsaw, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warsaw (Poland); Berti, Emanuele [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677 (United States); O’Shaughnessy, Richard [Center for Gravitation, Cosmology, and Astrophysics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Mandel, Ilya [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Fryer, Christopher [CCS-2, MSD409, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Holz, Daniel E. [Enrico Fermi Institute, Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Pannarale, Francesco [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)
2015-06-20
The unprecedented range of second-generation gravitational-wave (GW) observatories calls for refining the predictions of potential sources and detection rates. The coalescence of double compact objects (DCOs)—i.e., neutron star–neutron star (NS–NS), black hole–neutron star (BH–NS), and black hole–black hole (BH–BH) binary systems—is the most promising source of GWs for these detectors. We compute detection rates of coalescing DCOs in second-generation GW detectors using the latest models for their cosmological evolution, and implementing inspiral-merger-ringdown gravitational waveform models in our signal-to-noise ratio calculations. We find that (1) the inclusion of the merger/ringdown portion of the signal does not significantly affect rates for NS–NS and BH–NS systems, but it boosts rates by a factor of ∼1.5 for BH–BH systems; (2) in almost all of our models BH–BH systems yield by far the largest rates, followed by NS–NS and BH–NS systems, respectively; and (3) a majority of the detectable BH–BH systems were formed in the early universe in low-metallicity environments. We make predictions for the distributions of detected binaries and discuss what the first GW detections will teach us about the astrophysics underlying binary formation and evolution.
On the gravitational wave background from black hole binaries after the first LIGO detections
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cholis, Ilias, E-mail: icholis1@jhu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, 21218 (United States)
2017-06-01
The detection of gravitational waves from the merger of binary black holes by the LIGO Collaboration has opened a new window to astrophysics. With the sensitivities of ground based detectors in the coming years, we will principally detect local binary black hole mergers. The integrated merger rate can instead be probed by the gravitational-wave background, the incoherent superposition of the released energy in gravitational waves during binary-black-hole coalescence. Through that, the properties of the binary black holes can be studied. In this work we show that by measuring the energy density Ω{sub GW} (in units of the cosmic critical density) of the gravitational-wave background, we can search for the rare ∼ 100 M {sub ⊙} massive black holes formed in the Universe. In addition, we can answer how often the least massive BHs of mass ≳ 3 M {sub ⊙} form. Finally, if there are multiple channels for the formation of binary black holes and if any of them predicts a narrow mass range for the black holes, then the total Ω{sub GW} spectrum may have features that with the future Einstein Telescope can be detected.
Localizing gravitational wave sources with single-baseline atom interferometers
Graham, Peter W.; Jung, Sunghoon
2018-02-01
Localizing sources on the sky is crucial for realizing the full potential of gravitational waves for astronomy, astrophysics, and cosmology. We show that the midfrequency band, roughly 0.03 to 10 Hz, has significant potential for angular localization. The angular location is measured through the changing Doppler shift as the detector orbits the Sun. This band maximizes the effect since these are the highest frequencies in which sources live for several months. Atom interferometer detectors can observe in the midfrequency band, and even with just a single baseline they can exploit this effect for sensitive angular localization. The single-baseline orbits around the Earth and the Sun, causing it to reorient and change position significantly during the lifetime of the source, and making it similar to having multiple baselines/detectors. For example, atomic detectors could predict the location of upcoming black hole or neutron star merger events with sufficient accuracy to allow optical and other electromagnetic telescopes to observe these events simultaneously. Thus, midband atomic detectors are complementary to other gravitational wave detectors and will help complete the observation of a broad range of the gravitational spectrum.
Gravitational waves from freely precessing neutron stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, D.I.
2001-01-01
The purpose of this study is to assess the likely detectability of gravitational waves from freely precessing neutron stars. We begin by presenting a neutron star model of sufficient complexity to take into account both the elasticity and fluidity of a realistic neutron star. We then examine the effect of internal dissipation (i.e. heat generation within the star) and gravitational radiation reaction on the wobble. This is followed by an examination of various astrophysical scenarios where some mechanism might pump the precessional motion. We estimate the gravitational wave amplitude in these situations. Finally, we conclude that gravitational radiation from freely precessing neutron stars is almost certainly limited to a level undetectable by a LIGO II detector by internal dissipation. (author)
Aasi, J.; Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O.
2014-01-01
We report results from a search for gravitational waves produced by perturbed intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in data collected by LIGO and Virgo between 2005 and 2010. The search was sensitive to astrophysical sources that produced damped sinusoid gravitational wave signals, also known as ringdowns, with frequency $50\\le f_{0}/\\mathrm{Hz} \\le 2000$ and decay timescale $0.0001\\lesssim \\tau/\\mathrm{s} \\lesssim 0.1$ characteristic of those produced in mergers of IMBH pairs. No significant ...
GLINT. Gravitational-wave laser INterferometry triangle
Aria, Shafa; Azevedo, Rui; Burow, Rick; Cahill, Fiachra; Ducheckova, Lada; Holroyd, Alexa; Huarcaya, Victor; Järvelä, Emilia; Koßagk, Martin; Moeckel, Chris; Rodriguez, Ana; Royer, Fabien; Sypniewski, Richard; Vittori, Edoardo; Yttergren, Madeleine
2017-11-01
When the universe was roughly one billion years old, supermassive black holes (103-106 solar masses) already existed. The occurrence of supermassive black holes on such short time scales are poorly understood in terms of their physical or evolutionary processes. Our current understanding is limited by the lack of observational data due the limits of electromagnetic radiation. Gravitational waves as predicted by the theory of general relativity have provided us with the means to probe deeper into the history of the universe. During the ESA Alpach Summer School of 2015, a group of science and engineering students devised GLINT (Gravitational-wave Laser INterferometry Triangle), a space mission concept capable of measuring gravitational waves emitted by black holes that have formed at the early periods after the big bang. Morespecifically at redshifts of 15 big bang) in the frequency range 0.01 - 1 Hz. GLINT design strain sensitivity of 5× 10^{-24} 1/√ { {Hz}} will theoretically allow the study of early black holes formations as well as merging events and collapses. The laser interferometry, the technology used for measuring gravitational waves, monitors the separation of test masses in free-fall, where a change of separation indicates the passage of a gravitational wave. The test masses will be shielded from disturbing forces in a constellation of three geocentric orbiting satellites.
GRAVITATIONALLY CONSISTENT HALO CATALOGS AND MERGER TREES FOR PRECISION COSMOLOGY
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Wu, Hao-Yi; Busha, Michael T.; Klypin, Anatoly A.; Primack, Joel R.
2013-01-01
We present a new algorithm for generating merger trees and halo catalogs which explicitly ensures consistency of halo properties (mass, position, and velocity) across time steps. Our algorithm has demonstrated the ability to improve both the completeness (through detecting and inserting otherwise missing halos) and purity (through detecting and removing spurious objects) of both merger trees and halo catalogs. In addition, our method is able to robustly measure the self-consistency of halo finders; it is the first to directly measure the uncertainties in halo positions, halo velocities, and the halo mass function for a given halo finder based on consistency between snapshots in cosmological simulations. We use this algorithm to generate merger trees for two large simulations (Bolshoi and Consuelo) and evaluate two halo finders (ROCKSTAR and BDM). We find that both the ROCKSTAR and BDM halo finders track halos extremely well; in both, the number of halos which do not have physically consistent progenitors is at the 1%-2% level across all halo masses. Our code is publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/consistent-trees. Our trees and catalogs are publicly available at http://hipacc.ucsc.edu/Bolshoi/.
AN OVERVIEW ON THE DETERMINANTS OF MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS WAVES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vancea Mariana
2012-12-01
Full Text Available This paper concentrates on the presentation of the economic dimension of the mergers and acquisitions from a macroeconomic perspective. Thus, the objective of this paper is to reveal the main drivers of merger and acquisition activity. These operations take place in waves, which enters the context of changing the competition game marked by economic changes, technological evolutions, changes generated by the phenomenon of globalization, and by regulating changes. On the other side, a series of studies in the literature argue the existence of a connection between evaluating the securities and the merger and acquisition activity. This research is based on a systematic, logical and comparative analysis of scientific literature regarding the macroeconomic determinants of mergers and acquisitions.
Gravitational instability in isotropic MHD plasma waves
Cherkos, Alemayehu Mengesha
2018-04-01
The effect of compressive viscosity, thermal conductivity and radiative heat-loss functions on the gravitational instability of infinitely extended homogeneous MHD plasma has been investigated. By taking in account these parameters we developed the six-order dispersion relation for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves propagating in a homogeneous and isotropic plasma. The general dispersion relation has been developed from set of linearized basic equations and solved analytically to analyse the conditions of instability and instability of self-gravitating plasma embedded in a constant magnetic field. Our result shows that the presence of viscosity and thermal conductivity in a strong magnetic field substantially modifies the fundamental Jeans criterion of gravitational instability.
On the likelihood of detecting gravitational waves from Population III compact object binaries
Belczynski, Krzysztof; Ryu, Taeho; Perna, Rosalba; Berti, Emanuele; Tanaka, Takamitsu L.; Bulik, Tomasz
2017-11-01
We study the contribution of binary black hole (BH-BH) mergers from the first, metal-free stars in the Universe (Pop III) to gravitational wave detection rates. Our study combines initial conditions for the formation of Pop III stars based on N-body simulations of binary formation (including rates, binary fraction, initial mass function, orbital separation and eccentricity distributions) with an updated model of stellar evolution specific for Pop III stars. We find that the merger rate of these Pop III BH-BH systems is relatively small (≲ 0.1 Gpc-3 yr-1) at low redshifts (z 1 per cent) contribution of these stars to low-redshift BH-BH mergers. However, it remains to be tested whether (and at what level) rapidly spinning Pop III stars in the homogeneous evolution scenario can contribute to BH-BH mergers in the local Universe.
The dawn of gravitational wave astronomy
CERN. Geneva
2016-01-01
On Sep 14 2015, gravitational waves were for the first time detected directly. This observation by the LIGO interferometric detectors marks the dawn of a new era in our observational study of the cosmos as a qualitatively new window to its exploration has been opened. This talk reviews some of the fundamental concepts of gravitational waves and the methodology employed for their observation. The first event, dubbed GW150914, and the properties of its source, as inferred from the observation, will be discussed. The talk concludes with a selected set of the most important topics where we expect gravitational-wave observations to deepen and either challenge or confirm our present understanding of the laws and the history of our universe.
Parametric resonance and cosmological gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sa, Paulo M.; Henriques, Alfredo B.
2008-01-01
We investigate the production of gravitational waves due to quantum fluctuations of the vacuum during the transition from the inflationary to the radiation-dominated eras of the universe, assuming this transition to be dominated by the phenomenon of parametric resonance. The energy spectrum of the gravitational waves is calculated using the method of continuous Bogoliubov coefficients, which avoids the problem of overproduction of gravitons at large frequencies. We found, on the sole basis of the mechanism of quantum fluctuations, that the resonance field leaves no explicit and distinctive imprint on the gravitational-wave energy spectrum, apart from an overall upward or downward translation. Therefore, the main features in the spectrum are due to the inflaton field, which leaves a characteristic imprint at frequencies of the order of MHz/GHz.
Stabilized lasers for advanced gravitational wave detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Willke, B; Danzmann, K; Kwee, P; Seifert, F; Frede, M; Kracht, D; Puncken, O; Schulz, B; Veltkamp, C; Wagner, S; Wessels, P; Winkelmann, L; King, P; Savage, R L Jr
2008-01-01
Second generation gravitational wave detectors require high power lasers with more than 100 W of output power and with very low temporal and spatial fluctuations. To achieve the demanding stability levels required, low noise techniques and adequate control actuators have to be part of the high power laser design. In addition feedback control and passive noise filtering is used to reduce the fluctuations in the so-called prestabilized laser system (PSL). In this paper, we discuss the design of a 200 W PSL which is under development for the Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detector and will present the first results. The PSL noise requirements for advanced gravitational wave detectors will be discussed in general and the stabilization scheme proposed for the Advanced LIGO PSL will be described
Parametric resonance and cosmological gravitational waves
Sá, Paulo M.; Henriques, Alfredo B.
2008-03-01
We investigate the production of gravitational waves due to quantum fluctuations of the vacuum during the transition from the inflationary to the radiation-dominated eras of the universe, assuming this transition to be dominated by the phenomenon of parametric resonance. The energy spectrum of the gravitational waves is calculated using the method of continuous Bogoliubov coefficients, which avoids the problem of overproduction of gravitons at large frequencies. We found, on the sole basis of the mechanism of quantum fluctuations, that the resonance field leaves no explicit and distinctive imprint on the gravitational-wave energy spectrum, apart from an overall upward or downward translation. Therefore, the main features in the spectrum are due to the inflaton field, which leaves a characteristic imprint at frequencies of the order of MHz/GHz.
Signatures of extra dimensions in gravitational waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andriot, David; Gómez, Gustavo Lucena, E-mail: andriotphysics@gmail.com, E-mail: glucenag@aei.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Mühlenberg 1, 14467 Potsdam-Golm (Germany)
2017-06-01
Considering gravitational waves propagating on the most general 4+ N -dimensional space-time, we investigate the effects due to the N extra dimensions on the four-dimensional waves. All wave equations are derived in general and discussed. On Minkowski{sub 4} times an arbitrary Ricci-flat compact manifold, we find: a massless wave with an additional polarization, the breathing mode, and extra waves with high frequencies fixed by Kaluza-Klein masses. We discuss whether these two effects could be observed.
Gravitational waves from scalar field accretion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nunez, Dario; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Moreno, Claudia
2011-01-01
Our aim in this work is to outline some physical consequences of the interaction between black holes and scalar field halos in terms of gravitational waves. In doing so, the black hole is taken as a static and spherically symmetric gravitational source, i.e. the Schwarzschild black hole, and we work within the test field approximation, considering that the scalar field lives in the curved space-time outside the black hole. We focused on the emission of gravitational waves when the black hole is perturbed by the surrounding scalar field matter. The symmetries of the space-time and the simplicity of the matter source allow, by means of a spherical harmonic decomposition, to study the problem by means of a one-dimensional description. Some properties of such gravitational waves are discussed as a function of the parameters of the infalling scalar field, and allow us to make the conjecture that the gravitational waves carry information on the type of matter that generated them.
Techniques for Targeted Fermi-GBM Follow-Up of Gravitational-Wave Events
Blackburn, L.; Camp, J.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Jenke, P.; Christensen, N.; Veitch, J.
2012-01-01
The Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo ground-based gravitational-wave (GW) detectors are projected to come online 2015 2016, reaching a final sensitivity sufficient to observe dozens of binary neutron star mergers per year by 2018. We present a fully-automated, targeted search strategy for prompt gamma-ray counterparts in offline Fermi-GBM data. The multi-detector method makes use of a detailed model response of the instrument, and benefits from time and sky location information derived from the gravitational-wave signal.
Gravity the quest for gravitational wave
Binétruy, Pierre
2018-01-01
What force do the Big Bang, the expansion of the Universe, dark matter and dark energy, black holes, and gravitational waves all have in common? This book uncovers gravity as a key to understanding these fascinating phenomena that have so captivated public interest in recent years. Readers will discover the latest findings on how this familiar force in our everyday lives powers the most colossal changes in the Universe. Written by the widely recognized French public scientist and leading astrophysicist Pierre Binetruy, the book also explains the recent experimental confirmation of the existence of gravitational waves.
Gravitational wave sources: reflections and echoes
Price, Richard H.; Khanna, Gaurav
2017-11-01
The recent detection of gravitational waves has generated interest in alternatives to the black hole interpretation of sources. A subset of such alternatives involves a prediction of gravitational wave ‘echoes’. We consider two aspects of possible echoes: first, general features of echoes coming from spacetime reflecting conditions. We find that the detailed nature of such echoes does not bear any clear relationship to quasi-normal frequencies. Second, we point out the pitfalls in the analysis of local reflecting ‘walls’ near the horizon of rapidly rotating black holes.
Gravitational wave sources: reflections and echoes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Price, Richard H; Khanna, Gaurav
2017-01-01
The recent detection of gravitational waves has generated interest in alternatives to the black hole interpretation of sources. A subset of such alternatives involves a prediction of gravitational wave ‘echoes’. We consider two aspects of possible echoes: first, general features of echoes coming from spacetime reflecting conditions. We find that the detailed nature of such echoes does not bear any clear relationship to quasi-normal frequencies. Second, we point out the pitfalls in the analysis of local reflecting ‘walls’ near the horizon of rapidly rotating black holes. (paper)
Gravity's shadow the search for gravitational waves
Collins, Harry
2004-01-01
According to the theory of relativity, we are constantly bathed in gravitational radiation. When stars explode or collide, a portion of their mass becomes energy that disturbs the very fabric of the space-time continuum like ripples in a pond. But proving the existence of these waves has been difficult; the cosmic shudders are so weak that only the most sensitive instruments can be expected to observe them directly. Fifteen times during the last thirty years scientists have claimed to have detected gravitational waves, but so far none of those claims have survived the scrutiny of the scie
Sources and astrophysical effects of gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rees, M.J.
1974-01-01
The probable sources of short intense gravitational wave emissions are discussed and it is concluded, on the basis of current astrophysical ideas, that the number of events detected by an apparatus such as Weber's would not be more than one pulse par century. Some proposed explanations of a higher event rate are examined briefly but it is suggested that the sensitivity would probably have to be improved by a factor 10 8 if a few events per year due to extragalactic supernovae are to be detectable. The article concludes by mentioning several other kinds of gravitational waves of potential interest in astrophysics
Virgo an interferometer for gravitational wave detection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Passaquieti, R.
2000-01-01
Gravitational waves propagating from rapidly accelerating star masses can be detected by means of interfer- ometric techniques. The Virgo detector is a Michelson interferometer, with two 3 km long Fabry-Perot cavities, that is going to be built in the countryside of Pisa (Italy). Principles of interferometric gravitational wave detection, and the main noise sources in the Virgo apparatus are treated. The Virgo optical scheme and its main components are also described. Finally, an overview on the status of works at the Virgo site is presented
The memory effect for plane gravitational waves
Zhang, P.-M.; Duval, C.; Gibbons, G. W.; Horvathy, P. A.
2017-09-01
We give an account of the gravitational memory effect in the presence of the exact plane wave solution of Einstein's vacuum equations. This allows an elementary but exact description of the soft gravitons and how their presence may be detected by observing the motion of freely falling particles. The theorem of Bondi and Pirani on caustics (for which we present a new proof) implies that the asymptotic relative velocity is constant but not zero, in contradiction with the permanent displacement claimed by Zel'dovich and Polnarev. A non-vanishing asymptotic relative velocity might be used to detect gravitational waves through the "velocity memory effect", considered by Braginsky, Thorne, Grishchuk, and Polnarev.
Hough transform search for continuous gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krishnan, Badri; Papa, Maria Alessandra; Sintes, Alicia M.; Schutz, Bernard F.; Frasca, Sergio; Palomba, Cristiano
2004-01-01
This paper describes an incoherent method to search for continuous gravitational waves based on the Hough transform, a well-known technique used for detecting patterns in digital images. We apply the Hough transform to detect patterns in the time-frequency plane of the data produced by an earth-based gravitational wave detector. Two different flavors of searches will be considered, depending on the type of input to the Hough transform: either Fourier transforms of the detector data or the output of a coherent matched-filtering type search. We present the technical details for implementing the Hough transform algorithm for both kinds of searches, their statistical properties, and their sensitivities
Effect of the Earth's gravitational field on the detection of gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denisov, V.I.; Eliseev, V.A.
1988-01-01
We consider the laboratory detection of high-frequency gravitational waves in theories of gravitation based on a pseudo-Euclidean space-time. We analyze the effects due to the Earth's gravitational field on the propagation velocities of gravitational and electromagnetic waves in these theories. Experiments to test the predictions of this class of theories are discussed
Cylindrical collapse and gravitational waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Herrera, L [Escuela de FIsica, Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela (Venezuela); Santos, N O [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS/FRE 2460 LERMA/ERGA, Tour 22-12, 4eme etage, BoIte 142, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Laboratorio Nacional de Computacao Cientifica, 25651-070 Petropolis RJ (Brazil); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil)
2005-06-21
We study the matching conditions for a collapsing anisotropic cylindrical perfect fluid, and we show that its radial pressure is non-zero on the surface of the cylinder and proportional to the time-dependent part of the field produced by the collapsing fluid. This result resembles the one that arises for the radiation-though non-gravitational-in the spherically symmetric collapsing dissipative fluid, in the diffusion approximation.
Optimal Search for an Astrophysical Gravitational-Wave Background
Smith, Rory; Thrane, Eric
2018-04-01
Roughly every 2-10 min, a pair of stellar-mass black holes merge somewhere in the Universe. A small fraction of these mergers are detected as individually resolvable gravitational-wave events by advanced detectors such as LIGO and Virgo. The rest contribute to a stochastic background. We derive the statistically optimal search strategy (producing minimum credible intervals) for a background of unresolved binaries. Our method applies Bayesian parameter estimation to all available data. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate that the search is both "safe" and effective: it is not fooled by instrumental artifacts such as glitches and it recovers simulated stochastic signals without bias. Given realistic assumptions, we estimate that the search can detect the binary black hole background with about 1 day of design sensitivity data versus ≈40 months using the traditional cross-correlation search. This framework independently constrains the merger rate and black hole mass distribution, breaking a degeneracy present in the cross-correlation approach. The search provides a unified framework for population studies of compact binaries, which is cast in terms of hyperparameter estimation. We discuss a number of extensions and generalizations, including application to other sources (such as binary neutron stars and continuous-wave sources), simultaneous estimation of a continuous Gaussian background, and applications to pulsar timing.
Optimal Search for an Astrophysical Gravitational-Wave Background
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rory Smith
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Roughly every 2–10 min, a pair of stellar-mass black holes merge somewhere in the Universe. A small fraction of these mergers are detected as individually resolvable gravitational-wave events by advanced detectors such as LIGO and Virgo. The rest contribute to a stochastic background. We derive the statistically optimal search strategy (producing minimum credible intervals for a background of unresolved binaries. Our method applies Bayesian parameter estimation to all available data. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate that the search is both “safe” and effective: it is not fooled by instrumental artifacts such as glitches and it recovers simulated stochastic signals without bias. Given realistic assumptions, we estimate that the search can detect the binary black hole background with about 1 day of design sensitivity data versus ≈40 months using the traditional cross-correlation search. This framework independently constrains the merger rate and black hole mass distribution, breaking a degeneracy present in the cross-correlation approach. The search provides a unified framework for population studies of compact binaries, which is cast in terms of hyperparameter estimation. We discuss a number of extensions and generalizations, including application to other sources (such as binary neutron stars and continuous-wave sources, simultaneous estimation of a continuous Gaussian background, and applications to pulsar timing.
Long gravitational waves in a closed universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grishchuk, L.P.; Doroshkevich, A.G.; Yudin, V.M.
The important part played by long gravitational waves in the evolution of a homogeneous closed universe (model of type IX in Biancki's classification) is discussed. It is shown that the metric of this model can be represented in the form of a sum of a background metric, describing nonstationary space of constant positive curvature, and a group of terms that may be interpreted as a set of gravitational waves of maximal length compatible with closure of the space. This subdivision of the metric is exact and does not presuppose necessary smallness of the wave corrections. For this reason the behavior of the wave terms can be traced at all stages of their evolution--both in the epoch when the contribution of the ''energy density'' and ''pressure'' of the gravitational waves to the dynamics of the background universe is negligibly small and in the epoch when this contribution is dominant. It was demonstrated, in particular, that in the limiting case of complete absence of ordinary matter the scale factor of the background metric, because of the negativity of gravitational ''pressure,''can pass during the evolution of the universe through a state of stable regular minimum
The detection of gravitational waves
Barish, Barry C
1996-01-01
General Relativity predicts the emission of gravitanional waves whenever compact concentrations of energy change shape. This could occur in a variety of astrophysical phenomena. For example, the coalescence of binary systems such as a pair of neutron stars or black holes emit gravitanional waves that propagate through space at the speed of light, and in principle, can be directly detected on the earth's surface. This lecture series will review the possible sources of gravitanional waves and the various approaches toward detection, with special emphasis on long baseline interferometer detectors. The Laser Interferometer Gravitanional Wave Observatory (LIGO) is being constructed with a goal to detect these waves and then to use them as a new tool to explore and study the Universe. The sources of gravitanional waves and techniques for detection will be presented, as well as the status and prospects for the LIGO project.
Gravitational waves from cosmic bubble collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; Yang, Jongmann; Yeom, Dong-han
2015-01-01
Cosmic bubbles are nucleated through the quantum tunneling process. After nucleation they would expand and undergo collisions with each other. In this paper, we focus in particular on collisions of two equal-sized bubbles and compute gravitational waves emitted from the collisions. First, we study the mechanism of the collisions by means of a real scalar field and its quartic potential. Then, using this model, we compute gravitational waves from the collisions in a straightforward manner. In the quadrupole approximation, time-domain gravitational waveforms are directly obtained by integrating the energy-momentum tensors over the volume of the wave sources, where the energy-momentum tensors are expressed in terms of the scalar field, the local geometry and the potential. We present gravitational waveforms emitted during (i) the initial-to-intermediate stage of strong collisions and (ii) the final stage of weak collisions: the former is obtained numerically, in full General Relativity and the latter analytically, in the flat spacetime approximation. We gain qualitative insights into the time-domain gravitational waveforms from bubble collisions: during (i), the waveforms show the non-linearity of the collisions, characterized by a modulating frequency and cusp-like bumps, whereas during (ii), the waveforms exhibit the linearity of the collisions, featured by smooth monochromatic oscillations. (orig.)
Neutron stars, magnetic fields, and gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lamb, F.K.
2001-01-01
The r-modes of rapidly spinning young neutron stars have recently attracted attention as a promising source of detectable gravitational radiation. These neutron stars are expected to have magnetic fields ∼ 10 12 G. The r-mode velocity perturbation causes differential motion of the fluid in the star; this is a kinematic effect. In addition, the radiation-reaction associated with emission of gravitational radiation by r-waves drives additional differential fluid motions; this is a dynamic effect. These differential fluid motions distort the magnetic fields of neutron stars and may therefore play an important role in determining the structure of neutron star magnetic fields. If the stellar field is ∼ 10 16 (Ω/Ω B ) G or stronger, the usual r-modes are no longer normal modes of the star; here Ω and Ω B are the angular velocities of the star and at which mass shedding occurs. Much weaker magnetic fields can prevent gravitational radiation from amplifying the r-modes or damp existing r-mode oscillations on a relatively short timescale by extracting energy from the modes faster than gravitational wave emission can pump energy into them. The onset of proton superconductivity in the cores of newly formed magnetic neutron stars typically increases the effect on the r-modes of the magnetic field in the core by many orders of magnitude. Once the core has become superconducting, magnetic fields of the order of 10 12 G or greater are usually sufficient to damp r-modes that have been excited by emission of gravitational radiation and to suppress any further emission. A rapid drop in the strength of r-mode gravitational radiation from young neutron stars may therefore signal the onset of superconductivity in the core and provide a lower bound on the strength of the magnetic field there. Hence, measurements of r-mode gravitational waves from newly formed neutron stars may provide valuable diagnostic information about magnetic field strengths, cooling processes, and the
Extreme gravity tests with gravitational waves from compact binary coalescences: (II) ringdown
Berti, Emanuele; Yagi, Kent; Yang, Huan; Yunes, Nicolás
2018-05-01
The LIGO/Virgo detections of binary black hole mergers marked a watershed moment in astronomy, ushering in the era of precision tests of Kerr dynamics. We review theoretical and experimental challenges that must be overcome to carry out black hole spectroscopy with present and future gravitational wave detectors. Among other topics, we discuss quasinormal mode excitation in binary mergers, astrophysical event rates, tests of black hole dynamics in modified theories of gravity, parameterized "post-Kerr" ringdown tests, exotic compact objects, and proposed data analysis methods to improve spectroscopic tests of Kerr dynamics by stacking multiple events.
Gravitational wave signals and cosmological consequences of gravitational reheating
Artymowski, Michał; Czerwińska, Olga; Lalak, Zygmunt; Lewicki, Marek
2018-04-01
Reheating after inflation can proceed even if the inflaton couples to Standard Model (SM) particles only gravitationally. However, particle production during the transition between de-Sitter expansion and a decelerating Universe is rather inefficient and the necessity to recover the visible Universe leads to a non-standard cosmological evolution initially dominated by remnants of the inflaton field. We remain agnostic to the specific dynamics of the inflaton field and discuss a generic scenario in which its remnants behave as a perfect fluid with a general barotropic parameter w. Using CMB and BBN constraints we derive the allowed range of inflationary scales. We also show that this scenario results in a characteristic primordial Gravitational Wave (GW) spectrum which gives hope for observation in upcoming runs of LIGO as well as in other planned experiments.
Gravitational Wave Detection in the Introductory Lab
Burko, Lior M.
2017-05-01
A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, two black holes, one of mass 36 solar masses and the other of mass 29 solar masses, were dancing their death waltz, leading to their coalescence and the emission of gravitational waves carrying away with them three solar masses of energy. More precisely, it happened 1.3 billion years ago at a distance of 410 Mpc. When the waves were emitted, the most complex life forms on Earth were eukaryotes. As the gravitational waves propagated toward Earth, it changed much. Five hundred million years after the waves were emitted, or 800 million years ago, the first multicellular life forms emerged on Earth. Earth saw the Cambrian explosion 500 million years ago. Sixty-six million years ago the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event caused the disappearance of the dinosaurs. The first modern humans appeared 250,000 years ago.
The present gravitational wave detection effort
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riles, Keith
2010-01-01
Gravitational radiation offers a new non-electromagnetic window through which to observe the universe. The LIGO and Virgo Collaborations have completed a first joint data run with unprecedented sensitivities to gravitational waves. Results from searches in the data for a variety of astrophysical sources are presented. A second joint data run with improved detector sensitivities is underway, and soon major upgrades will be carried out to build Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo with expected improvements in event rates of more than 1000. In parallel there is a vigorous effort in the radio pulsar community to detect nHz gravitational waves via the timing residuals in an array of pulsars at different locations in the sky.
Gravitational waves: an introduction and a progress report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamilton, W.O.
1983-01-01
The author gives a description of the effect an experimentalist has to measure to detect gravitational waves. He goes on to describe the design of gravitational wave detectors and the sensitivity of the components. (Auth.)
Multi-Messenger Astronomy with Gravitational Waves
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sound + images show Bailey was out in the India-Australia match on 12 Jan 2016. Image credit: Rediff / Fox news / Twitter. Page 10. Electromagnetic follow up: the Indian context. Page 11. Multi-Messenger Astronomy with Gravitational Waves | LIGO-G1601377-v2. Varun Bhalerao (IUCAA) | 1 July 2016. 11. 20 – 60 keV:.
LISA: Probing the Universe with Gravitational Waves
Prince, T.A.; Binetruy, P.; Centrella, J.; Finn, L.S.; Hogan, C.; Nelemans, G.A.; Phinney, E.S.; Schutz, B.; Team, L.I.S.
2006-01-01
LISA is a joint NASA/ESA space mission for detection and study of low-frequency gravitational waves in the band from 0.1 mHz to 0.1 Hz. The mission consists of three satellites separated by a nominal distance of 5 million kilometers, with precision metrology provided by laser ranging. LISA will
Present and Future of Gravitational Wave Experiments
CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit
2002-01-01
The status of the present detectors and of the main future projects will be reported. The recent results of a search for gravitational wave bursts, using the data collected by the ROG Collaboration cryogenic bar detectors EXPLORER (at CERN) and NAUTILUS (at LNF), will be discussed.
Chiral primordial gravitational waves from a Lifshitz point.
Takahashi, Tomohiro; Soda, Jiro
2009-06-12
We study primordial gravitational waves produced during inflation in quantum gravity at a Lifshitz point proposed by Horava. Assuming power-counting renormalizability, foliation-preserving diffeomorphism invariance, and the condition of detailed balance, we show that primordial gravitational waves are circularly polarized due to parity violation. The chirality of primordial gravitational waves is a quite robust prediction of quantum gravity at a Lifshitz point which can be tested through observations of cosmic microwave background radiation and stochastic gravitational waves.
Localization and Broadband Follow-Up of the Gravitational-Wave Transient GW150914
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
P. Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.
2016-01-01
A gravitational-wave (GW) transient was identified in data recorded by the Advanced Laser InterferometerGravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors on 2015 September 14. The event, initially designated G184098and later given the name GW150914, is described in detail elsewhere. By prior...... of the observations. As this event turned out to be a binary black hole merger,there is little expectation of a detectable electromagnetic (EM) signature. Nevertheless, this first broadbandcampaign to search for a counterpart of an Advanced LIGO source represents a milestone and highlights the broadcapabilities...... of the transient astronomy community and the observing strategies that have been developed to pursueneutron star binary merger events. Detailed investigations of the EM data and results of the EM follow-upcampaign are being disseminated in papers by the individual teams....
Astone, Pia; Weinstein, Alan; Agathos, Michalis; Bejger, Michal; Christensen, Nelson; Dent, Thomas; Graff, Philip; Klimenko, Sergey; Mazzolo, Giulio; Nishizawa, Atsushi
2015-01-01
The Amaldi 10 Parallel Session C2 on gravitational wave(GW) search results, data analysis and parameter estimation included three lively sessions of lectures by 13 presenters, and 34 posters. The talks and posters covered a huge range of material, including results and analysis techniques for ground-based GW detectors, targeting anticipated signals from different astrophysical sources: compact binary inspiral, merger and ringdown; GW bursts from intermediate mass binary black hole mergers, cosmic string cusps, core-collapse supernovae, and other unmodeled sources; continuous waves from spinning neutron stars; and a stochastic GW background. There was considerable emphasis on Bayesian techniques for estimating the parameters of coalescing compact binary systems from the gravitational waveforms extracted from the data from the advanced detector network. This included methods to distinguish deviations of the signals from what is expected in the context of General Relativity.
Astone, Pia; Weinstein, Alan; Agathos, Michalis; Bejger, Michał; Christensen, Nelson; Dent, Thomas; Graff, Philip; Klimenko, Sergey; Mazzolo, Giulio; Nishizawa, Atsushi; Robinet, Florent; Schmidt, Patricia; Smith, Rory; Veitch, John; Wade, Madeline; Aoudia, Sofiane; Bose, Sukanta; Calderon Bustillo, Juan; Canizares, Priscilla; Capano, Colin; Clark, James; Colla, Alberto; Cuoco, Elena; Da Silva Costa, Carlos; Dal Canton, Tito; Evangelista, Edgar; Goetz, Evan; Gupta, Anuradha; Hannam, Mark; Keitel, David; Lackey, Benjamin; Logue, Joshua; Mohapatra, Satyanarayan; Piergiovanni, Francesco; Privitera, Stephen; Prix, Reinhard; Pürrer, Michael; Re, Virginia; Serafinelli, Roberto; Wade, Leslie; Wen, Linqing; Wette, Karl; Whelan, John; Palomba, C; Prodi, G
The Amaldi 10 Parallel Session C2 on gravitational wave (GW) search results, data analysis and parameter estimation included three lively sessions of lectures by 13 presenters, and 34 posters. The talks and posters covered a huge range of material, including results and analysis techniques for ground-based GW detectors, targeting anticipated signals from different astrophysical sources: compact binary inspiral, merger and ringdown; GW bursts from intermediate mass binary black hole mergers, cosmic string cusps, core-collapse supernovae, and other unmodeled sources; continuous waves from spinning neutron stars; and a stochastic GW background. There was considerable emphasis on Bayesian techniques for estimating the parameters of coalescing compact binary systems from the gravitational waveforms extracted from the data from the advanced detector network. This included methods to distinguish deviations of the signals from what is expected in the context of General Relativity.
Gravitational wave echoes from macroscopic quantum gravity effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barceló, Carlos [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC),Glorieta de la Astronomía, 18008 Granada (Spain); Carballo-Rubio, Raúl [The Cosmology & Gravity Group and the Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings,Department of Mathematics & Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town,Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Garay, Luis J. [Departamento de Física Teórica II,Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (IEM-CSIC),Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)
2017-05-10
New theoretical approaches developed in the last years predict that macroscopic quantum gravity effects in black holes should lead to modifications of the gravitational wave signals expected in the framework of classical general relativity, with these modifications being characterized in certain scenarios by the existence of dampened repetitions of the primary signal. Here we use the fact that non-perturbative corrections to the near-horizon external geometry of black holes are necessary for these modifications to exist, in order to classify different proposals and paradigms with respect to this criterion and study in a neat and systematic way their phenomenology. Proposals that lead naturally to the existence of echoes in the late-time ringdown of gravitational wave signals from black hole mergers must share the replacement of black holes by horizonless configurations with a physical surface showing reflective properties in the relevant range of frequencies. On the other hand, proposals or paradigms that restrict quantum gravity effects on the external geometry to be perturbative, such as black hole complementarity or the closely related firewall proposal, do not display echoes. For the sake of completeness we exploit the interplay between the timescales associated with the formation of firewalls and the mechanism behind the existence of echoes in order to conclude that even unconventional distortions of the firewall concept (such as naked firewalls) do not lead to this phenomenon.
Acceleration of low energy charged particles by gravitational waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Voyatzis, G. [University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)]. E-mail: voyatzis@auth.gr; Vlahos, L. [University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Ichtiaroglou, S. [University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Papadopoulos, D. [University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)
2006-04-03
The acceleration of charged particles in the presence of a magnetic field and gravitational waves is under consideration. It is shown that the weak gravitational waves can cause the acceleration of low energy particles under appropriate conditions. Such conditions may be satisfied close to the source of the gravitational waves if the magnetized plasma is in a turbulent state.
Acceleration of low energy charged particles by gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Voyatzis, G.; Vlahos, L.; Ichtiaroglou, S.; Papadopoulos, D.
2006-01-01
The acceleration of charged particles in the presence of a magnetic field and gravitational waves is under consideration. It is shown that the weak gravitational waves can cause the acceleration of low energy particles under appropriate conditions. Such conditions may be satisfied close to the source of the gravitational waves if the magnetized plasma is in a turbulent state
First detections of gravitational waves from binary black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bejger, Michał
2017-01-01
Recent direct detections of gravitational waves from coalescing binary black holes systems herald a new era in the observational astronomy, as well as in experimental verifications of the theories of gravity. I will present the principles of detection of gravitational waves, current state-of-art laser interferometric detectors (Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo), and the most promising astrophysical sources of gravitational waves. (paper)
Gravitational wave detector on the basis of light diffraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Segizboev, T.I.; Uzhinskij, V.V.
1985-01-01
A method for detection of gravitational waves by means of light diffraction at the first maximum on oscillations in optically transparent matter under effect of gravitational waves is considered. Intensity of light flux scattering on oscillations of elastic rod is calculated. A possibility of using the diffraction method for detection of gravitational waves is disclosed
Detection of gravitational waves from inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamionkowski, M.; Jaffe, A.H.
2001-01-01
Recent measurements of temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) indicate that the Universe is flat and that large-scale structure grew via gravitational infall from primordial adiabatic perturbations. Both of these observations seem to indicate that we are on the right track with inflation. But what is the new physics responsible for inflation? This question can be answered with observations of the polarization of the CMB. Inflation predicts robustly the existence of a stochastic background of cosmological gravitational waves with an amplitude proportional to the square of the energy scale of inflation. This gravitational-wave background induces a unique signature in the polarization of the CMB. If inflation took place at an energy scale much smaller than that of grand unification, then the signal will be too small to be detectable. However, if inflation had something to do with grand unification or Planck-scale physics, then the signal is conceivably detectable in the optimistic case by the Planck satellite, or if not, then by a dedicated post-Planck CMB polarization experiment. Realistic developments in detector technology as well as a proper scan strategy could produce such a post-Planck experiment that would improve on Planck's sensitivity to the gravitational-wave background by several orders of magnitude in a decade timescale. (author)
Quantum metrology for gravitational wave astronomy.
Schnabel, Roman; Mavalvala, Nergis; McClelland, David E; Lam, Ping K
2010-11-16
Einstein's general theory of relativity predicts that accelerating mass distributions produce gravitational radiation, analogous to electromagnetic radiation from accelerating charges. These gravitational waves (GWs) have not been directly detected to date, but are expected to open a new window to the Universe once the detectors, kilometre-scale laser interferometers measuring the distance between quasi-free-falling mirrors, have achieved adequate sensitivity. Recent advances in quantum metrology may now contribute to provide the required sensitivity boost. The so-called squeezed light is able to quantum entangle the high-power laser fields in the interferometer arms, and could have a key role in the realization of GW astronomy.
Identifying the inflaton with primordial gravitational waves.
Easson, Damien A; Powell, Brian A
2011-05-13
We explore the ability of experimental physics to uncover the underlying structure of the gravitational Lagrangian describing inflation. While the observable degeneracy of the inflationary parameter space is large, future measurements of observables beyond the adiabatic and tensor two-point functions, such as non-gaussianity or isocurvature modes, might reduce this degeneracy. We show that, even in the absence of such observables, the range of possible inflaton potentials can be reduced with a precision measurement of the tensor spectral index, as might be possible with a direct detection of primordial gravitational waves.
Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detectors: Challenges
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2015-09-14
Sep 14, 2015 ... With arm-length of 4000 m,. δL. L. <10. −22. →δL < 3χ10. −19 m ... When these waves reach earth, what can they do to free masses? ... Even if we have a 4 km long interferometer, we need to detect 10—19 m and the best of ...
Gravitational waves from plunges into Gargantua
Compère, Geoffrey; Fransen, Kwinten; Hertog, Thomas; Long, Jiang
2018-05-01
We analytically compute time domain gravitational waveforms produced in the final stages of extreme mass ratio inspirals of non-spinning compact objects into supermassive nearly extremal Kerr black holes. Conformal symmetry relates all corotating equatorial orbits in the geodesic approximation to circular orbits through complex conformal transformations. We use this to obtain the time domain Teukolsky perturbations for generic equatorial corotating plunges in closed form. The resulting gravitational waveforms consist of an intermediate polynomial ringdown phase in which the decay rate depends on the impact parameters, followed by an exponential quasi-normal mode decay. The waveform amplitude exhibits critical behavior when the orbital angular momentum tends to a minimal value determined by the innermost stable circular orbit. We show that either near-critical or large angular momentum leads to a significant extension of the LISA observable volume of gravitational wave sources of this kind.
A kilonova as the electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational-wave source
Smartt, S. J.; Chen, T.-W.; Jerkstrand, A.; Coughlin, M.; Kankare, E.; Sim, S. A.; Fraser, M.; Inserra, C.; Maguire, K.; Chambers, K. C.; Huber, M. E.; Krühler, T.; Leloudas, G.; Magee, M.; Shingles, L. J.; Smith, K. W.; Young, D. R.; Tonry, J.; Kotak, R.; Gal-Yam, A.; Lyman, J. D.; Homan, D. S.; Agliozzo, C.; Anderson, J. P.; Angus, C. R.; Ashall, C.; Barbarino, C.; Bauer, F. E.; Berton, M.; Botticella, M. T.; Bulla, M.; Bulger, J.; Cannizzaro, G.; Cano, Z.; Cartier, R.; Cikota, A.; Clark, P.; De Cia, A.; Della Valle, M.; Denneau, L.; Dennefeld, M.; Dessart, L.; Dimitriadis, G.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Firth, R. E.; Flewelling, H.; Flörs, A.; Franckowiak, A.; Frohmaier, C.; Galbany, L.; González-Gaitán, S.; Greiner, J.; Gromadzki, M.; Guelbenzu, A. Nicuesa; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Hamanowicz, A.; Hanlon, L.; Harmanen, J.; Heintz, K. E.; Heinze, A.; Hernandez, M.-S.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Hook, I. M.; Izzo, L.; James, P. A.; Jonker, P. G.; Kerzendorf, W. E.; Klose, S.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Kowalski, M.; Kromer, M.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Lawrence, A.; Lowe, T. B.; Magnier, E. A.; Manulis, I.; Martin-Carrillo, A.; Mattila, S.; McBrien, O.; Müller, A.; Nordin, J.; O'Neill, D.; Onori, F.; Palmerio, J. T.; Pastorello, A.; Patat, F.; Pignata, G.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.; Pumo, M. L.; Prentice, S. J.; Rau, A.; Razza, A.; Rest, A.; Reynolds, T.; Roy, R.; Ruiter, A. J.; Rybicki, K. A.; Salmon, L.; Schady, P.; Schultz, A. S. B.; Schweyer, T.; Seitenzahl, I. R.; Smith, M.; Sollerman, J.; Stalder, B.; Stubbs, C. W.; Sullivan, M.; Szegedi, H.; Taddia, F.; Taubenberger, S.; Terreran, G.; van Soelen, B.; Vos, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Walton, N. A.; Waters, C.; Weiland, H.; Willman, M.; Wiseman, P.; Wright, D. E.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Yaron, O.
2017-11-01
Gravitational waves were discovered with the detection of binary black-hole mergers and they should also be detectable from lower-mass neutron-star mergers. These are predicted to eject material rich in heavy radioactive isotopes that can power an electromagnetic signal. This signal is luminous at optical and infrared wavelengths and is called a kilonova. The gravitational-wave source GW170817 arose from a binary neutron-star merger in the nearby Universe with a relatively well confined sky position and distance estimate. Here we report observations and physical modelling of a rapidly fading electromagnetic transient in the galaxy NGC 4993, which is spatially coincident with GW170817 and with a weak, short γ-ray burst. The transient has physical parameters that broadly match the theoretical predictions of blue kilonovae from neutron-star mergers. The emitted electromagnetic radiation can be explained with an ejected mass of 0.04 ± 0.01 solar masses, with an opacity of less than 0.5 square centimetres per gram, at a velocity of 0.2 ± 0.1 times light speed. The power source is constrained to have a power-law slope of -1.2 ± 0.3, consistent with radioactive powering from r-process nuclides. (The r-process is a series of neutron capture reactions that synthesise many of the elements heavier than iron.) We identify line features in the spectra that are consistent with light r-process elements (atomic masses of 90-140). As it fades, the transient rapidly becomes red, and a higher-opacity, lanthanide-rich ejecta component may contribute to the emission. This indicates that neutron-star mergers produce gravitational waves and radioactively powered kilonovae, and are a nucleosynthetic source of the r-process elements.
A kilonova as the electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational-wave source.
Smartt, S J; Chen, T-W; Jerkstrand, A; Coughlin, M; Kankare, E; Sim, S A; Fraser, M; Inserra, C; Maguire, K; Chambers, K C; Huber, M E; Krühler, T; Leloudas, G; Magee, M; Shingles, L J; Smith, K W; Young, D R; Tonry, J; Kotak, R; Gal-Yam, A; Lyman, J D; Homan, D S; Agliozzo, C; Anderson, J P; Angus, C R; Ashall, C; Barbarino, C; Bauer, F E; Berton, M; Botticella, M T; Bulla, M; Bulger, J; Cannizzaro, G; Cano, Z; Cartier, R; Cikota, A; Clark, P; De Cia, A; Della Valle, M; Denneau, L; Dennefeld, M; Dessart, L; Dimitriadis, G; Elias-Rosa, N; Firth, R E; Flewelling, H; Flörs, A; Franckowiak, A; Frohmaier, C; Galbany, L; González-Gaitán, S; Greiner, J; Gromadzki, M; Guelbenzu, A Nicuesa; Gutiérrez, C P; Hamanowicz, A; Hanlon, L; Harmanen, J; Heintz, K E; Heinze, A; Hernandez, M-S; Hodgkin, S T; Hook, I M; Izzo, L; James, P A; Jonker, P G; Kerzendorf, W E; Klose, S; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z; Kowalski, M; Kromer, M; Kuncarayakti, H; Lawrence, A; Lowe, T B; Magnier, E A; Manulis, I; Martin-Carrillo, A; Mattila, S; McBrien, O; Müller, A; Nordin, J; O'Neill, D; Onori, F; Palmerio, J T; Pastorello, A; Patat, F; Pignata, G; Podsiadlowski, Ph; Pumo, M L; Prentice, S J; Rau, A; Razza, A; Rest, A; Reynolds, T; Roy, R; Ruiter, A J; Rybicki, K A; Salmon, L; Schady, P; Schultz, A S B; Schweyer, T; Seitenzahl, I R; Smith, M; Sollerman, J; Stalder, B; Stubbs, C W; Sullivan, M; Szegedi, H; Taddia, F; Taubenberger, S; Terreran, G; van Soelen, B; Vos, J; Wainscoat, R J; Walton, N A; Waters, C; Weiland, H; Willman, M; Wiseman, P; Wright, D E; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Yaron, O
2017-11-02
Gravitational waves were discovered with the detection of binary black-hole mergers and they should also be detectable from lower-mass neutron-star mergers. These are predicted to eject material rich in heavy radioactive isotopes that can power an electromagnetic signal. This signal is luminous at optical and infrared wavelengths and is called a kilonova. The gravitational-wave source GW170817 arose from a binary neutron-star merger in the nearby Universe with a relatively well confined sky position and distance estimate. Here we report observations and physical modelling of a rapidly fading electromagnetic transient in the galaxy NGC 4993, which is spatially coincident with GW170817 and with a weak, short γ-ray burst. The transient has physical parameters that broadly match the theoretical predictions of blue kilonovae from neutron-star mergers. The emitted electromagnetic radiation can be explained with an ejected mass of 0.04 ± 0.01 solar masses, with an opacity of less than 0.5 square centimetres per gram, at a velocity of 0.2 ± 0.1 times light speed. The power source is constrained to have a power-law slope of -1.2 ± 0.3, consistent with radioactive powering from r-process nuclides. (The r-process is a series of neutron capture reactions that synthesise many of the elements heavier than iron.) We identify line features in the spectra that are consistent with light r-process elements (atomic masses of 90-140). As it fades, the transient rapidly becomes red, and a higher-opacity, lanthanide-rich ejecta component may contribute to the emission. This indicates that neutron-star mergers produce gravitational waves and radioactively powered kilonovae, and are a nucleosynthetic source of the r-process elements.
Conference: Seeing two black holes merge (with gravitational waves!) | 14 September | Uni Dufour
2016-01-01
GW150914: the first direct observation of gravitational waves from the inspiral and merger of two black holes - Conference by Prof. Bruce Allen, Albert Einstein Institute Hannover. "Seeing two black holes merge (with gravitational waves!)" Uni Dufour - Auditorium U300 Wednesday, 14 September at 7 p.m. Bruce Allen. (Photo: ©F. Vinken/MPG) Abstract: On 14 September 2015, the advanced LIGO gravitational wave instruments detected the gravitational wave signal emitted as two black holes, about one billion light years away from Earth, made a final few orbits around each other then merged together. This was big news around the world, because scientists have tried to make such observations for more than half a century. Before they merged, the two black holes were about 29 and 36 times as massive as the sun; after the merger was complete, a single black hole about 62 times the sun's mass was left behind. I'll describe what black holes are, how they (...
Equation of state with scale-invariant hidden local symmetry and gravitational waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lee Hyun Kyu
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The equation of state (EoS for the effective theory proposed recently in the frame work of the scale-invariant hidden local symmetry is discussed briefly. The EoS is found to be relatively stiffer at lower density and but relatively softer at higher density. The particular features of EoS on the gravitational waves are discussed. A relatively stiffer EoS for the neutron stars with the lower density induces a larger deviation of the gravitational wave form from the point-particle-approximation. On the other hand, a relatively softer EoS for the merger remnant of the higher density inside might invoke a possibility of the immediate formation of a black hole for short gamma ray bursts or the appearance of the higher peak frequency for gravitational waves from remnant oscillations. It is anticipated that this particular features could be probed in detail by the detections of gravitational waves from the binary neutron star mergers.
Breaking a dark degeneracy with gravitational waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lombriser, Lucas; Taylor, Andy, E-mail: llo@roe.ac.uk, E-mail: ant@roe.ac.uk [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)
2016-03-01
We identify a scalar-tensor model embedded in the Horndeski action whose cosmological background and linear scalar fluctuations are degenerate with the concordance cosmology. The model admits a self-accelerated background expansion at late times that is stable against perturbations with a sound speed attributed to the new field that is equal to the speed of light. While degenerate in scalar fluctuations, self-acceleration of the model implies a present cosmological tensor mode propagation at ∼<95 % of the speed of light with a damping of the wave amplitude that is ∼>5 % less efficient than in general relativity. We show that these discrepancies are endemic to self-accelerated Horndeski theories with degenerate large-scale structure and are tested with measurements of gravitational waves emitted by events at cosmological distances. Hence, gravitational-wave cosmology breaks the dark degeneracy in observations of the large-scale structure between two fundamentally different explanations of cosmic acceleration—a cosmological constant and a scalar-tensor modification of gravity. The gravitational wave event GW150914 recently detected with the aLIGO instruments and its potential association with a weak short gamma-ray burst observed with the Fermi GBM experiment may have provided this crucial measurement.
Gravitational wave searches using the DSN (Deep Space Network)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nelson, S.J.; Armstrong, J.W.
1988-01-01
The Deep Space Network Doppler spacecraft link is currently the only method available for broadband gravitational wave searches in the 0.01 to 0.001 Hz frequency range. The DSN's role in the worldwide search for gravitational waves is described by first summarizing from the literature current theoretical estimates of gravitational wave strengths and time scales from various astrophysical sources. Current and future detection schemes for ground based and space based detectors are then discussed. Past, present, and future planned or proposed gravitational wave experiments using DSN Doppler tracking are described. Lastly, some major technical challenges to improve gravitational wave sensitivities using the DSN are discussed
Gravitational waves emitted by extrasolar planetary systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berti, E.; Ferrari, V.
2001-01-01
The recently discovered Extrasolar Planetary Systems (EPS's) are potentially interesting sources of gravitational waves, since they are very close to Earth (at distances ∼ 10 pc), and their orbital features and positions in the sky are quite well known. As a first estimate, we compute the orbital emission of these systems using the quadrupole formula. Then we show that, in principle, the orbiting planet could resonantly excite the quasi-normal modes of the central star. We use the general-relativistic theory of stellar pulsations to estimate the effects of such a resonance on the gravitational-wave emission of the system. We also consider radiation-reaction effects on the orbital evolution, and give upper limits on the timescales required for a planet to get off-resonance. (author)
Gravitational wave memory in an expanding universe
Tolish, Alexander; Wald, Robert
2016-03-01
We investigate the gravitational wave memory effect in an expanding FLRW spacetime. We find that if the gravitational field is decomposed into gauge-invariant scalar, vector, and tensor modes after the fashion of Bardeen, only the tensor mode gives rise to memory, and this memory can be calculated using the retarded Green's function associated with the tensor wave equation. If locally similar radiation source events occur on flat and FLRW backgrounds, we find that the resulting memories will differ only by a redshift factor, and we explore whether or not this factor depends on the expansion history of the FLRW universe. We compare our results to related work by Bieri, Garfinkle, and Yau.
Comparison of advanced gravitational-wave detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harry, Gregory M.; Houser, Janet L.; Strain, Kenneth A.
2002-01-01
We compare two advanced designs for gravitational-wave antennas in terms of their ability to detect two possible gravitational wave sources. Spherical, resonant mass antennas and interferometers incorporating resonant sideband extraction (RSE) were modeled using experimentally measurable parameters. The signal-to-noise ratio of each detector for a binary neutron star system and a rapidly rotating stellar core were calculated. For a range of plausible parameters we found that the advanced LIGO interferometer incorporating RSE gave higher signal-to-noise ratios than a spherical detector resonant at the same frequency for both sources. Spheres were found to be sensitive to these sources at distances beyond our galaxy. Interferometers were sensitive to these sources at far enough distances that several events per year would be expected
Gravitational Wave Experiments - Proceedings of the First Edoardo Amaldi Conference
Coccia, E.; Pizzella, G.; Ronga, F.
1995-07-01
The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Foreword * Notes on Edoardo Amaldi's Life and Activity * PART I. INVITED LECTURES * Sources and Telescopes * Sources of Gravitational Radiation for Detectors of the 21st Century * Neutrino Telescopes * γ-Ray Bursts * Space Detectors * LISA — Laser Interferometer Space Antenna for Gravitational Wave Measurements * Search for Massive Coalescing Binaries with the Spacecraft ULYSSES * Interferometers * The LIGO Project: Progress and Prospects * The VIRGO Experiment: Status of the Art * GEO 600 — A 600-m Laser Interferometric Gravitational Wave Antenna * 300-m Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Detector (TAMA300) in Japan * Resonant Detectors * Search for Continuous Gravitational Wave from Pulsars with Resonant Detector * Operation of the ALLEGRO Detector at LSU * Preliminary Results of the New Run of Measurements with the Resonant Antenna EXPLORER * Operation of the Perth Cryogenic Resonant-Bar Gravitational Wave Detector * The NAUTILUS Experiment * Status of the AURIGA Gravitational Wave Antenna and Perspectives for the Gravitational Waves Search with Ultracryogenic Resonant Detectors * Ultralow Temperature Resonant-Mass Gravitational Radiation Detectors: Current Status of the Stanford Program * Electromechanical Transducers and Bandwidth of Resonant-Mass Gravitational-Wave Detectors * Fully Numerical Data Analysis for Resonant Gravitational Wave Detectors: Optimal Filter and Available Information * PART II. CONTRIBUTED PAPERS * Sources and Telescopes * The Local Supernova Production * Periodic Gravitational Signals from Galactic Pulsars * On a Possibility of Scalar Gravitational Wave Detection from the Binary Pulsars PSR 1913+16 * Kazan Gravitational Wave Detector “Dulkyn”: General Concept and Prospects of Construction * Hierarchical Approach to the Theory of Detection of Periodic Gravitational Radiation * Application of Gravitational Antennae for Fundamental Geophysical Problems * On
An Atomic Gravitational Wave Interferometric Sensor (AGIS)
Dimopoulos, Savas; Graham, Peter W.; Hogan, Jason M.; Kasevich, Mark A.; Rajendran, Surjeet
2008-01-01
We propose two distinct atom interferometer gravitational wave detectors, one terrestrial and another satellite-based, utilizing the core technology of the Stanford 10 m atom interferometer presently under construction. Each configuration compares two widely separated atom interferometers run using common lasers. The signal scales with the distance between the interferometers, which can be large since only the light travels over this distance, not the atoms. The terrestrial experiment with ba...
Diffractive Optics for Gravitational Wave Detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bunkowski, A; Burmeister, O; Clausnitzer, T; Kley, E-B; Tuennermann, A; Danzmann, K; Schnabel, R
2006-01-01
All-reflective interferometry based on nano-structured diffraction gratings offers new possibilities for gravitational wave detection. We investigate an all-reflective Fabry-Perot interferometer concept in 2nd order Littrow mount. The input-output relations for such a resonator are derived treating the grating coupler by means of a scattering matrix formalism. A low loss dielectric reflection grating has been designed and manufactured to test the properties of such a grating cavity
Superstring gravitational wave backgrounds with spacetime supersymmetry
Kiritsis, Elias B; Lüst, Dieter; Kiritsis, E; Kounnas, C; Lüst, D
1994-01-01
We analyse the stringy gravitational wave background based on the current algebra E.sup(c).sub(2). We determine its exact spectrum and construct the modular invariant vacuum energy. The corresponding N=1 extension is also constructed. The algebra is again mapped to free bosons and fermions and we show that this background has N=4 (N=2) unbroken spacetime supersymmetry in the type II (heterotic case).
Sparse representations of gravitational waves from precessing compact binaries.
Blackman, Jonathan; Szilagyi, Bela; Galley, Chad R; Tiglio, Manuel
2014-07-11
Many relevant applications in gravitational wave physics share a significant common problem: the seven-dimensional parameter space of gravitational waveforms from precessing compact binary inspirals and coalescences is large enough to prohibit covering the space of waveforms with sufficient density. We find that by using the reduced basis method together with a parametrization of waveforms based on their phase and precession, we can construct ultracompact yet high-accuracy representations of this large space. As a demonstration, we show that less than 100 judiciously chosen precessing inspiral waveforms are needed for 200 cycles, mass ratios from 1 to 10, and spin magnitudes ≤0.9. In fact, using only the first 10 reduced basis waveforms yields a maximum mismatch of 0.016 over the whole range of considered parameters. We test whether the parameters selected from the inspiral regime result in an accurate reduced basis when including merger and ringdown; we find that this is indeed the case in the context of a nonprecessing effective-one-body model. This evidence suggests that as few as ∼100 numerical simulations of binary black hole coalescences may accurately represent the seven-dimensional parameter space of precession waveforms for the considered ranges.
Relic gravitational waves and the generalized second law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Izquierdo, German; Pavon, Diego
2004-01-01
The generalized second law of gravitational thermodynamics is applied to the present era of accelerated expansion of the Universe. In spite of the fact that the entropy of matter and relic gravitational waves inside the event horizon diminish, the mentioned law is fulfilled provided that the expression for the entropy density of the gravitational waves satisfies a certain condition
Relic gravitational waves and extended inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, M.S.; Wilczek, F.
1990-08-01
In extended inflation, a new version of inflation where the transition from the false-vacuum phase to a radiation-dominated Universe is accomplished by bubble nucleation and percolation, bubble collisions supply a potent-and potentially detectable-source of gravitational waves. The present energy density in relic gravity waves from bubble collisions is expected to be about 10(exp -5) of closure density-many orders of magnitude greater than that of the gravity waves produced by quantum fluctuations. Their characteristic wavelength depends upon the reheating temperature T(sub RH): lambda is approximately 10(exp 4) cm (10(exp 14) GeV/T(sub RH)). If large numbers of black holes are produced, a not implausible outcome, they will evaporate producing comparable amounts of shorter wavelength waves, lambda is approximately 10(exp -6) cm (T(sub RH)/10(exp 14) GeV)
Gravitational waves: A challenge to theoretical astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrari, V.; Miller, J.C.; Rezzolla, L.
2001-01-01
During the 20th century, new windows on the Universe have been opened by the advent of radio astronomy and X-ray astronomy and these, together with the great advances in optical astronomy (both from the Earth's surface and from space), have revolutionized our understanding of the Universe and the way in which it works. Now, as we enter the twenty-first century, we await the opening of another new window - that provided by gravitational waves - which will allow us a closer 'view' of black holes and neutron stars, as well as providing a new probe of processes in the very early Universe. This is an exciting prospect but one which poses a serious challenge to theoretical astrophysics. The new generation of detectors (both laser interferometers and resonant detectors) require input from theoreticians regarding the possible mechanisms for generation of gravitational waves by astronomical sources and predictions of the waveforms produced. This input is essential in order both to tune the parameters of the detectors and to provide templates for use in extracting the tiny gravitational-wave signals from the ambient noise. Also, we need to understand how gravitational wave data, when it arrives, could be used in order to obtain information about the nature of the sources and about their dynamical evolution as well as, perhaps, giving deeper insights into some questions of fundamental physics by means of probing the state of matter under the extreme conditions of energy and pressure found in the interior of neutron stars and in the very early universe. This can provide opportunities beyond the capabilities of experiments carried out in terrestrial laboratories. For a week at the beginning of June 2000, 106 scientists from 28 countries came to Trieste for a meeting whose aim was to present a survey of the current status of the response of theoreticians to the challenge described above, as well as including progress reports on the different types of detector. The meeting was a
Gravitational Wave in Linear General Relativity
Cubillos, D. J.
2017-07-01
General relativity is the best theory currently available to describe the interaction due to gravity. Within Albert Einstein's field equations this interaction is described by means of the spatiotemporal curvature generated by the matter-energy content in the universe. Weyl worked on the existence of perturbations of the curvature of space-time that propagate at the speed of light, which are known as Gravitational Waves, obtained to a first approximation through the linearization of the field equations of Einstein. Weyl's solution consists of taking the field equations in a vacuum and disturbing the metric, using the Minkowski metric slightly perturbed by a factor ɛ greater than zero but much smaller than one. If the feedback effect of the field is neglected, it can be considered as a weak field solution. After introducing the disturbed metric and ignoring ɛ terms of order greater than one, we can find the linearized field equations in terms of the perturbation, which can then be expressed in terms of the Dalambertian operator of the perturbation equalized to zero. This is analogous to the linear wave equation in classical mechanics, which can be interpreted by saying that gravitational effects propagate as waves at the speed of light. In addition to this, by studying the motion of a particle affected by this perturbation through the geodesic equation can show the transversal character of the gravitational wave and its two possible states of polarization. It can be shown that the energy carried by the wave is of the order of 1/c5 where c is the speed of light, which explains that its effects on matter are very small and very difficult to detect.
Effect of Earth gravitational field on the detection of gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denisov, V.I.; Eliseev, V.A.
1987-01-01
Results of laboratory detection of high-frequency gravitational waves from the view point of gravitation theories formulated on the basis of pseudoeuclidean space-time are calculated. Peculiarities due to different effects of the Earth gravitational field on the rates of gravitational and electromagnetic wave propagation in these theories are analysed. Experiments on check of predictions of the given class of theories are suggested
On the cosmological gravitational waves and cosmological distances
Belinski, V. A.; Vereshchagin, G. V.
2018-03-01
We show that solitonic cosmological gravitational waves propagated through the Friedmann universe and generated by the inhomogeneities of the gravitational field near the Big Bang can be responsible for increase of cosmological distances.
Gravitational waves from the electroweak phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leitao, Leonardo; Mégevand, Ariel; Sánchez, Alejandro D.
2012-01-01
We study the generation of gravitational waves in the electroweak phase transition. We consider a few extensions of the Standard Model, namely, the addition of scalar singlets, the minimal supersymmetric extension, and the addition of TeV fermions. For each model we consider the complete dynamics of the phase transition. In particular, we estimate the friction force acting on bubble walls, and we take into account the fact that they can propagate either as detonations or as deflagrations preceded by shock fronts, or they can run away. We compute the peak frequency and peak intensity of the gravitational radiation generated by bubble collisions and turbulence. We discuss the detectability by proposed spaceborne detectors. For the models we considered, runaway walls require significant fine tuning of the parameters, and the gravitational wave signal from bubble collisions is generally much weaker than that from turbulence. Although the predicted signal is in most cases rather low for the sensitivity of LISA, models with strongly coupled extra scalars reach this sensitivity for frequencies f ∼ 10 −4 Hz, and give intensities as high as h 2 Ω GW ∼ 10 −8
Radiation and detection of gravitational waves in laboratory conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogolyubov, P.N.; Pisarev, A.F.; Shavokhina, N.S.
1981-01-01
Two variants are proposed and analyzed for an experiment on radiation and detection of gravitational waves in laboratory conditions in the optical and superhigh frequency range (band). In the first variant the laser light is parametrically transformed to the gravitational wave in the optical-inhomogeneous medium. The gravitational flux produced is registered by the inverse parametric transformation of the gravitational to light wave. In the second variant the radiation of gravitational waves is realized through hypersonic oscillations in piezocrystals, and the reception of waves is made by the superconducting coaxial resonator in which the gravitational wave resonantly transforms into the electromag= . netic wave. The analysis performed testifies to the possibility of an experiment of this type at the present time [ru
Astrometric and Timing Effects of Gravitational Waves from Localized Sources
Kopeikin, Sergei M.; Schafer, Gerhard; Gwinn, Carl R.; Eubanks, T. Marshall
1998-01-01
A consistent approach for an exhaustive solution of the problem of propagation of light rays in the field of gravitational waves emitted by a localized source of gravitational radiation is developed in the first post-Minkowskian and quadrupole approximation of General Relativity. We demonstrate that the equations of light propagation in the retarded gravitational field of an arbitrary localized source emitting quadrupolar gravitational waves can be integrated exactly. The influence of the gra...
Problems of generation and reception of gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pisarev, A.F.
1975-01-01
The present day status of the problems of gravitation, wave radiation and reception is surveyed. The physical presentation and mathematical description of the processes of radiation, propagation and interaction of gravitation waves with matter and the electromagnetic field are given. The experiments on the search for gravitation waves of astophysical nature are analysed. The laboratory and cosmic sources of these waves and the methods of their reception are described. Special attention is drawn to the analysis of the proposals to perform a complete laboratory gravitation wave experiment
Problems of generation and reception of gravitational waves. [Review
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pisarev, A F [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR)
1975-01-01
The present day status of the problems of gravitation, wave radiation and reception is surveyed. The physical presentation and mathematical description of the processes of radiation, propagation and interaction of gravitation waves with matter and the electromagnetic field are given. The experiments on the search for gravitation waves of astophysical nature are analysed. The laboratory and cosmic sources of these waves and the methods of their reception are described. Special attention is drawn to the analysis of the proposals to perform a complete laboratory gravitation wave experiment.
Extraction of gravitational waves in numerical relativity.
Bishop, Nigel T; Rezzolla, Luciano
2016-01-01
A numerical-relativity calculation yields in general a solution of the Einstein equations including also a radiative part, which is in practice computed in a region of finite extent. Since gravitational radiation is properly defined only at null infinity and in an appropriate coordinate system, the accurate estimation of the emitted gravitational waves represents an old and non-trivial problem in numerical relativity. A number of methods have been developed over the years to "extract" the radiative part of the solution from a numerical simulation and these include: quadrupole formulas, gauge-invariant metric perturbations, Weyl scalars, and characteristic extraction. We review and discuss each method, in terms of both its theoretical background as well as its implementation. Finally, we provide a brief comparison of the various methods in terms of their inherent advantages and disadvantages.
Rapid Monte Carlo Simulation of Gravitational Wave Galaxies
Breivik, Katelyn; Larson, Shane L.
2015-01-01
With the detection of gravitational waves on the horizon, astrophysical catalogs produced by gravitational wave observatories can be used to characterize the populations of sources and validate different galactic population models. Efforts to simulate gravitational wave catalogs and source populations generally focus on population synthesis models that require extensive time and computational power to produce a single simulated galaxy. Monte Carlo simulations of gravitational wave source populations can also be used to generate observation catalogs from the gravitational wave source population. Monte Carlo simulations have the advantes of flexibility and speed, enabling rapid galactic realizations as a function of galactic binary parameters with less time and compuational resources required. We present a Monte Carlo method for rapid galactic simulations of gravitational wave binary populations.
Relic gravitational waves and extended inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, M.S.; Wilczek, F.
1990-01-01
In extended inflation, a new version of inflation where the transition from an inflationary to a radiation-dominated Universe is accomplished by bubble nucleation, bubble collisions supply a potent---and potentially detectable---source of gravitational waves. The energy density in relic gravitons from bubble collisions is expected to be about 10 -5 of closure density. Their characteristic wavelength depends upon the reheating temperature T RH: λ∼(10 4 cm)[(10 14 GeV)/T RH ]. If black holes are produced by bubble collisions, they will evaporate producing shorter-wavelength gravitons
Cosmological constant and advanced gravitational wave detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Y.; Turner, E.L.
1997-01-01
Interferometric gravitational wave detectors could measure the frequency sweep of a binary inspiral (characterized by its chirp mass) to high accuracy. The observed chirp mass is the intrinsic chirp mass of the binary source multiplied by (1+z), where z is the redshift of the source. Assuming a nonzero cosmological constant, we compute the expected redshift distribution of observed events for an advanced LIGO detector. We find that the redshift distribution has a robust and sizable dependence on the cosmological constant; the data from advanced LIGO detectors could provide an independent measurement of the cosmological constant. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Improved Hough search for gravitational wave pulsars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sintes, Alicia M; Krishnan, Badri
2006-01-01
We describe an improved version of the Hough transform search for continuous gravitational waves from isolated neutron stars assuming the input to be short segments of Fourier transformed data. The method presented here takes into account possible nonstationarities of the detector noise and the amplitude modulation due to the motion of the detector. These two effects are taken into account for the first stage only, i.e. the peak selection, to create the time-frequency map of our data, while the Hough transform itself is performed in the standard way
Gravitational waves — A review on the theoretical foundations of gravitational radiation
Dirkes, Alain
2018-05-01
In this paper, we review the theoretical foundations of gravitational waves in the framework of Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity. Following Einstein’s early efforts, we first derive the linearized Einstein field equations and work out the corresponding gravitational wave equation. Moreover, we present the gravitational potentials in the far away wave zone field point approximation obtained from the relaxed Einstein field equations. We close this review by taking a closer look on the radiative losses of gravitating n-body systems and present some aspects of the current interferometric gravitational waves detectors. Each section has a separate appendix contribution where further computational details are displayed. To conclude, we summarize the main results and present a brief outlook in terms of current ongoing efforts to build a spaced-based gravitational wave observatory.
Gravitational waves from self-ordering scalar fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fenu, Elisa; Durrer, Ruth; Figueroa, Daniel G.; García-Bellido, Juan
2009-01-01
Gravitational waves were copiously produced in the early Universe whenever the processes taking place were sufficiently violent. The spectra of several of these gravitational wave backgrounds on subhorizon scales have been extensively studied in the literature. In this paper we analyze the shape and amplitude of the gravitational wave spectrum on scales which are superhorizon at the time of production. Such gravitational waves are expected from the self ordering of randomly oriented scalar fields which can be present during a thermal phase transition or during preheating after hybrid inflation. We find that, if the gravitational wave source acts only during a small fraction of the Hubble time, the gravitational wave spectrum at frequencies lower than the expansion rate at the time of production behaves as Ω GW (f) ∝ f 3 with an amplitude much too small to be observable by gravitational wave observatories like LIGO, LISA or BBO. On the other hand, if the source is active for a much longer time, until a given mode which is initially superhorizon (kη * 1, we find that the gravitational wave energy density is frequency independent, i.e. scale invariant. Moreover, its amplitude for a GUT scale scenario turns out to be within the range and sensitivity of BBO and marginally detectable by LIGO and LISA. This new gravitational wave background can compete with the one generated during inflation, and distinguishing both may require extra information
The Japanese space gravitational wave antenna-DECIGO
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawamura, Seiji; Nakamura, Takashi; Ando, Masaki
2006-01-01
DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO) is the future Japanese space gravitational wave antenna. It aims at detecting various kinds of gravitational waves between 1 mHz and 100 Hz frequently enough to open a new window of observation for gravitational wave astronomy. The pre-conceptual design of DECIGO consists of three drag-free satellites, 1000 km apart from each other, whose relative displacements are measured by a Fabry-Perot Michelson interferometer. We plan to launch DECIGO in 2024 after a long and intense development phase, including two pathfinder missions for verification of required technologies
Data quality studies of enhanced interferometric gravitational wave detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McIver, Jessica
2012-01-01
Data quality assessment plays an essential role in the quest to detect gravitational wave signals in data from the LIGO and Virgo interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Interferometer data contain a high rate of noise transients from the environment, the detector hardware and the detector control systems. These transients severely limit the statistical significance of gravitational wave candidates of short duration and/or poorly modeled waveforms. This paper describes the data quality studies that have been performed in recent LIGO and Virgo observing runs to mitigate the impact of transient detector artifacts on the gravitational wave searches. (paper)
Gravitational-Wave Stochastic Background from Cosmic Strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siemens, Xavier; Creighton, Jolien; Mandic, Vuk
2007-01-01
We consider the stochastic background of gravitational waves produced by a network of cosmic strings and assess their accessibility to current and planned gravitational wave detectors, as well as to big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), cosmic microwave background (CMB), and pulsar timing constraints. We find that current data from interferometric gravitational wave detectors, such as Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), are sensitive to areas of parameter space of cosmic string models complementary to those accessible to pulsar, BBN, and CMB bounds. Future more sensitive LIGO runs and interferometers such as Advanced LIGO and Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will be able to explore substantial parts of the parameter space
Reconstructing the massive black hole cosmic history through gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sesana, Alberto; Gair, Jonathan; Berti, Emanuele; Volonteri, Marta
2011-01-01
The massive black holes we observe in galaxies today are the natural end-product of a complex evolutionary path, in which black holes seeded in proto-galaxies at high redshift grow through cosmic history via a sequence of mergers and accretion episodes. Electromagnetic observations probe a small subset of the population of massive black holes (namely, those that are active or those that are very close to us), but planned space-based gravitational wave observatories such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) can measure the parameters of 'electromagnetically invisible' massive black holes out to high redshift. In this paper we introduce a Bayesian framework to analyze the information that can be gathered from a set of such measurements. Our goal is to connect a set of massive black hole binary merger observations to the underlying model of massive black hole formation. In other words, given a set of observed massive black hole coalescences, we assess what information can be extracted about the underlying massive black hole population model. For concreteness we consider ten specific models of massive black hole formation, chosen to probe four important (and largely unconstrained) aspects of the input physics used in structure formation simulations: seed formation, metallicity ''feedback'', accretion efficiency and accretion geometry. For the first time we allow for the possibility of 'model mixing', by drawing the observed population from some combination of the 'pure' models that have been simulated. A Bayesian analysis allows us to recover a posterior probability distribution for the ''mixing parameters'' that characterize the fractions of each model represented in the observed distribution. Our work shows that LISA has enormous potential to probe the underlying physics of structure formation.
Inflationary gravitational waves in collapse scheme models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mariani, Mauro, E-mail: mariani@carina.fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar [Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque S/N, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Bengochea, Gabriel R., E-mail: gabriel@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), UBA-CONICET, CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); León, Gabriel, E-mail: gleon@df.uba.ar [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria – Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2016-01-10
The inflationary paradigm is an important cornerstone of the concordance cosmological model. However, standard inflation cannot fully address the transition from an early homogeneous and isotropic stage, to another one lacking such symmetries corresponding to our present universe. In previous works, a self-induced collapse of the wave function has been suggested as the missing ingredient of inflation. Most of the analysis regarding the collapse hypothesis has been solely focused on the characteristics of the spectrum associated to scalar perturbations, and within a semiclassical gravity framework. In this Letter, working in terms of a joint metric-matter quantization for inflation, we calculate, for the first time, the tensor power spectrum and the tensor-to-scalar ratio corresponding to the amplitude of primordial gravitational waves resulting from considering a generic self-induced collapse.
Gravitational waves and electrodynamics: new perspectives.
Cabral, Francisco; Lobo, Francisco S N
2017-01-01
Given the recent direct measurement of gravitational waves (GWs) by the LIGO-VIRGO collaboration, the coupling between electromagnetic fields and gravity have a special relevance since it opens new perspectives for future GW detectors and also potentially provides information on the physics of highly energetic GW sources. We explore such couplings using the field equations of electrodynamics on (pseudo) Riemann manifolds and apply it to the background of a GW, seen as a linear perturbation of Minkowski geometry. Electric and magnetic oscillations are induced that propagate as electromagnetic waves and contain information as regards the GW which generates them. The most relevant results are the presence of longitudinal modes and dynamical polarization patterns of electromagnetic radiation induced by GWs. These effects might be amplified using appropriate resonators, effectively improving the signal to noise ratio around a specific frequency. We also briefly address the generation of charge density fluctuations induced by GWs and the implications for astrophysics.
Gravitational waves and electrodynamics: new perspectives
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cabral, Francisco; Lobo, Francisco S.N. [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Lisbon (Portugal)
2017-04-15
Given the recent direct measurement of gravitational waves (GWs) by the LIGO-VIRGO collaboration, the coupling between electromagnetic fields and gravity have a special relevance since it opens new perspectives for future GW detectors and also potentially provides information on the physics of highly energetic GW sources. We explore such couplings using the field equations of electrodynamics on (pseudo) Riemann manifolds and apply it to the background of a GW, seen as a linear perturbation of Minkowski geometry. Electric and magnetic oscillations are induced that propagate as electromagnetic waves and contain information as regards the GW which generates them. The most relevant results are the presence of longitudinal modes and dynamical polarization patterns of electromagnetic radiation induced by GWs. These effects might be amplified using appropriate resonators, effectively improving the signal to noise ratio around a specific frequency. We also briefly address the generation of charge density fluctuations induced by GWs and the implications for astrophysics. (orig.)
Relic gravitational waves in the accelerating Universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Yang; Yuan Yefei; Zhao Wen; Chen Yingtian
2005-01-01
Recent observations have indicated that the Universe at the present stage is in an accelerating expansion, a process that has great implications. We evaluate the spectrum of relic gravitational waves in the current accelerating Universe and find that there are new features appearing in the resulting spectrum as compared to the decelerating models. In the low-frequency range the peak of the spectrum is now located at a frequency ν E ∼ (OMEGA m /OMEGA Λ ) 1/3 ν H , where ν H is the Hubble frequency, and there appears a new segment of spectrum between ν E and ν H . In all other intervals of frequencies ≥ν H , the spectral amplitude acquires an extra factor (OMEGA m /OMEGA Λ ), due to the current acceleration; otherwise the shape of the spectrum is similar to that in the decelerating models. The recent WMAP result of CMB anisotropies is used to normalize the amplitude for gravitational waves. The slope of the power spectrum depends sensitively on the scale factor a(τ) ∝ vertical bar τ vertical bar 1+β during the inflationary stage with β = -2 for the exact de Sitter space. With increasing β, the resulting spectrum is tilted to be flatter with more power at high frequencies, and the sensitivity of the second science run of the LIGO detectors puts a restriction on the parameter β ≤ -1.8. We also give a numerical solution which confirms these features
The string soundscape at gravitational wave detectors
Garcia Garcia, Isabel; Krippendorf, Sven; March-Russell, John
2018-04-01
We argue that gravitational wave signals due to collisions of ultra-relativistic bubble walls may be common in string theory. This occurs due to a process of post-inflationary vacuum decay via quantum tunnelling. Though we study a specific string construction involving warped throats, we argue that our conclusions are more general. Many such transitions could have occurred in the post-inflationary Universe, as a large number of throats with exponentially different mass scales can be present in the string landscape, leading to several signals of widely different frequencies - a soundscape connected to the landscape of vacua. Detectors such as aLIGO/VIRGO, LISA, and pulsar timing observations with SKA and EPTA have the sensitivity to detect such signals. A distribution of primordial black holes is also a likely consequence, though reliable estimates of masses and their abundance require dedicated numerical simulations, as do the fine details of the gravitational wave spectrum due to the unusual nature of the transition.
Astrophysical Model Selection in Gravitational Wave Astronomy
Adams, Matthew R.; Cornish, Neil J.; Littenberg, Tyson B.
2012-01-01
Theoretical studies in gravitational wave astronomy have mostly focused on the information that can be extracted from individual detections, such as the mass of a binary system and its location in space. Here we consider how the information from multiple detections can be used to constrain astrophysical population models. This seemingly simple problem is made challenging by the high dimensionality and high degree of correlation in the parameter spaces that describe the signals, and by the complexity of the astrophysical models, which can also depend on a large number of parameters, some of which might not be directly constrained by the observations. We present a method for constraining population models using a hierarchical Bayesian modeling approach which simultaneously infers the source parameters and population model and provides the joint probability distributions for both. We illustrate this approach by considering the constraints that can be placed on population models for galactic white dwarf binaries using a future space-based gravitational wave detector. We find that a mission that is able to resolve approximately 5000 of the shortest period binaries will be able to constrain the population model parameters, including the chirp mass distribution and a characteristic galaxy disk radius to within a few percent. This compares favorably to existing bounds, where electromagnetic observations of stars in the galaxy constrain disk radii to within 20%.
An Atomic Gravitational Wave Interferometric Sensor (AGIS)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dimopoulos, Savas; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Graham, Peter W.; /SLAC; Hogan, Jason M.; Kasevich, Mark A.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Rajendran, Surjeet; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2008-08-01
We propose two distinct atom interferometer gravitational wave detectors, one terrestrial and another satellite-based, utilizing the core technology of the Stanford 10m atom interferometer presently under construction. Each configuration compares two widely separated atom interferometers run using common lasers. The signal scales with the distance between the interferometers, which can be large since only the light travels over this distance, not the atoms. The terrestrial experiment with baseline {approx} 1 km can operate with strain sensitivity {approx} 10{sup -19}/{radical}Hz in the 1 Hz-10 Hz band, inaccessible to LIGO, and can detect gravitational waves from solar mass binaries out to megaparsec distances. The satellite experiment with baseline {approx} 1000 km can probe the same frequency spectrum as LISA with comparable strain sensitivity {approx} 10{sup -20}/{radical}Hz. The use of ballistic atoms (instead of mirrors) as inertial test masses improves systematics coming from vibrations, acceleration noise, and significantly reduces spacecraft control requirements. We analyze the backgrounds in this configuration and discuss methods for controlling them to the required levels.
Localization and Broadband Follow-up of the Gravitational-wave Transient GW150914
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Barthelmy, S.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. C.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. C.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavagliá, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. C.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; De Rosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Castro, J. M. G.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Haris, K.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, N.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, A.; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, R. J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palliyaguru, N.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration; Allison, J.; Bannister, K.; Bell, M. E.; Chatterjee, S.; Chippendale, A. P.; Edwards, P. G.; Harvey-Smith, L.; Heywood, Ian; Hotan, A.; Indermuehle, B.; Marvil, J.; McConnell, D.; Murphy, T.; Popping, A.; Reynolds, J.; Sault, R. J.; Voronkov, M. A.; Whiting, M. T.; Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder (ASKAP Collaboration); Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Cunniffe, R.; Jelínek, M.; Tello, J. C.; Oates, S. R.; Hu, Y.-D.; Kubánek, P.; Guziy, S.; Castellón, A.; García-Cerezo, A.; Muñoz, V. F.; Pérez del Pulgar, C.; Castillo-Carrión, S.; Castro Cerón, J. M.; Hudec, R.; Caballero-García, M. D.; Páta, P.; Vitek, S.; Adame, J. A.; Konig, S.; Rendón, F.; Mateo Sanguino, T. de J.; Fernández-Muñoz, R.; Yock, P. C.; Rattenbury, N.; Allen, W. H.; Querel, R.; Jeong, S.; Park, I. H.; Bai, J.; Cui, Ch.; Fan, Y.; Wang, Ch.; Hiriart, D.; Lee, W. H.; Claret, A.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Pandey, S. B.; Mediavilla, T.; Sabau-Graziati, L.; BOOTES Collaboration; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Armstrong, R.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Berger, E.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Brout, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Chornock, R.; Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doctor, Z.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Drout, M. R.; Eifler, T. F.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Fernandez, E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Foley, R. J.; Fong, W.-F.; Fosalba, P.; Fox, D. B.; Frieman, J.; Fryer, C. L.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Herner, K.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Johnson, M. D.; Johnson, M. W. G.; Karliner, I.; Kasen, D.; Kent, S.; Kessler, R.; Kim, A. G.; Kind, M. C.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Lin, H.; Maia, M. A. G.; Margutti, R.; Marriner, J.; Martini, P.; Matheson, T.; Melchior, P.; Metzger, B. D.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Neilsen, E.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Nugent, P.; Ogando, R.; Petravick, D.; Plazas, A. A.; Quataert, E.; Roe, N.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rosell, A. C.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Scolnic, D.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, N.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Stebbins, A.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, R. C.; Tucker, D. L.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.; Wester, W.; Yanny, B.; Zhang, Y.; Zuntz, J.; Dark Energy Survey Collaboration; Dark Energy Camera GW-EM Collaboration; Connaughton, V.; Burns, E.; Goldstein, A.; Briggs, M. S.; Zhang, B.-B.; Hui, C. M.; Jenke, P.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, E.; Cleveland, W.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Giles, M. M.; Gibby, M. H.; Greiner, J.; von Kienlin, A.; Kippen, R. M.; McBreen, S.; Mailyan, B.; Meegan, C. A.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R. D.; Roberts, O.; Sparke, L.; Stanbro, M.; Toelge, K.; Veres, P.; Yu, H.-F.; Blackburn, L.; Fermi GBM Collaboration; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Anderson, B.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonino, R.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bruel, P.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caragiulo, M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Costanza, F.; Cuoco, A.; D'Ammando, F.; de Palma, F.; Desiante, R.; Digel, S. W.; Di Lalla, N.; Di Mauro, M.; Di Venere, L.; Domínguez, A.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Favuzzi, C.; Ferrara, E. C.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Gomez-Vargas, G. A.; Green, D.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Hewitt, J. W.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kensei, S.; Kocevski, D.; Kuss, M.; La Mura, G.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Li, J.; Li, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Magill, J.; Maldera, S.; Manfreda, A.; Marelli, M.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Meyer, M.; Michelson, P. F.; Mirabal, N.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Negro, M.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Racusin, J. L.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Salvetti, D.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Sgrò, C.; Simone, D.; Siskind, E. J.; Spada, F.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Venters, T. M.; Vianello, G.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Zhu, S.; Zimmer, S.; Fermi LAT Collaboration; Brocato, E.; Cappellaro, E.; Covino, S.; Grado, A.; Nicastro, L.; Palazzi, E.; Pian, E.; Amati, L.; Antonelli, L. A.; Capaccioli, M.; D'Avanzo, P.; D'Elia, V.; Getman, F.; Giuffrida, G.; Iannicola, G.; Limatola, L.; Lisi, M.; Marinoni, S.; Marrese, P.; Melandri, A.; Piranomonte, S.; Possenti, A.; Pulone, L.; Rossi, A.; Stamerra, A.; Stella, L.; Testa, V.; Tomasella, L.; Yang, S.; GRAvitational Wave Inaf TeAm (GRAWITA); Bazzano, A.; Bozzo, E.; Brandt, S.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Ferrigno, C.; Hanlon, L.; Kuulkers, E.; Laurent, P.; Mereghetti, S.; Roques, J. P.; Savchenko, V.; Ubertini, P.; INTEGRAL Collaboration; Kasliwal, M. M.; Singer, L. P.; Cao, Y.; Duggan, G.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Bhalerao, V.; Miller, A. A.; Barlow, T.; Bellm, E.; Manulis, I.; Rana, J.; Laher, R.; Masci, F.; Surace, J.; Rebbapragada, U.; Cook, D.; Van Sistine, A.; Sesar, B.; Perley, D.; Ferreti, R.; Prince, T.; Kendrick, R.; Horesh, A.; Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF Collaboration); Hurley, K.; Golenetskii, S. V.; Aptekar, R. L.; Frederiks, D. D.; Svinkin, D. S.; Rau, A.; von Kienlin, A.; Zhang, X.; Smith, D. M.; Cline, T.; Krimm, H.; InterPlanetary Network; Abe, F.; Doi, M.; Fujisawa, K.; Kawabata, K. S.; Morokuma, T.; Motohara, K.; Tanaka, M.; Ohta, K.; Yanagisawa, K.; Yoshida, M.; J-GEM Collaboration; Baltay, C.; Rabinowitz, D.; Ellman, N.; Rostami, S.; La Silla-QUEST Survey; Bersier, D. F.; Bode, M. F.; Collins, C. A.; Copperwheat, C. M.; Darnley, M. J.; Galloway, D. K.; Gomboc, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Mazzali, P.; Mundell, C. G.; Piascik, A. S.; Pollacco, Don; Steele, I. A.; Ulaczyk, K.; Liverpool Telescope Collaboration; Broderick, J. W.; Fender, R. P.; Jonker, P. G.; Rowlinson, A.; Stappers, B. W.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Low Frequency Array (LOFAR Collaboration); Lipunov, V.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tyurina, N.; Kornilov, V.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Buckley, D.; Rebolo, R.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Israelian, G.; Budnev, N. M.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Poleshuk, V.; Tlatov, A.; Yurkov, V.; MASTER Collaboration; Kawai, N.; Serino, M.; Negoro, H.; Nakahira, S.; Mihara, T.; Tomida, H.; Ueno, S.; Tsunemi, H.; Matsuoka, M.; MAXI Collaboration; Croft, S.; Feng, L.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Gaensler, B. M.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Morales, M. F.; Tingay, S. J.; Wayth, R. B.; Williams, A.; Murchison Wide-field Array (MWA Collaboration); Smartt, S. J.; Chambers, K. C.; Smith, K. W.; Huber, M. E.; Young, D. R.; Wright, D. E.; Schultz, A.; Denneau, L.; Flewelling, H.; Magnier, E. A.; Primak, N.; Rest, A.; Sherstyuk, A.; Stalder, B.; Stubbs, C. W.; Tonry, J.; Waters, C.; Willman, M.; Pan-STARRS Collaboration; Olivares E., F.; Campbell, H.; Kotak, R.; Sollerman, J.; Smith, M.; Dennefeld, M.; Anderson, J. P.; Botticella, M. T.; Chen, T.-W.; Della Valle, M.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Fraser, M.; Inserra, C.; Kankare, E.; Kupfer, T.; Harmanen, J.; Galbany, L.; Le Guillou, L.; Lyman, J. D.; Maguire, K.; Mitra, A.; Nicholl, M.; Razza, A.; Terreran, G.; Valenti, S.; Gal-Yam, A.; PESSTO Collaboration; Ćwiek, A.; Ćwiok, M.; Mankiewicz, L.; Opiela, R.; Zaremba, M.; Żarnecki, A. F.; Pi of Sky Collaboration; Onken, C. A.; Scalzo, R. A.; Schmidt, B. P.; Wolf, C.; Yuan, F.; SkyMapper Collaboration; Evans, P. A.; Kennea, J. A.; Burrows, D. N.; Campana, S.; Cenko, S. B.; Giommi, P.; Marshall, F. E.; Nousek, J.; O'Brien, P.; Osborne, J. P.; Palmer, D.; Perri, M.; Siegel, M.; Tagliaferri, G.; Swift Collaboration; Klotz, A.; Turpin, D.; Laugier, R.; TAROT Collaboration; Zadko Collaboration; Algerian National Observatory Collaboration; C2PU Collaboration; Beroiz, M.; Peñuela, T.; Macri, L. M.; Oelkers, R. J.; Lambas, D. G.; Vrech, R.; Cabral, J.; Colazo, C.; Dominguez, M.; Sanchez, B.; Gurovich, S.; Lares, M.; Marshall, J. L.; DePoy, D. L.; Padilla, N.; Pereyra, N. A.; Benacquista, M.; TOROS Collaboration; Tanvir, N. R.; Wiersema, K.; Levan, A. J.; Steeghs, D.; Hjorth, J.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Malesani, D.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Watson, D.; Irwin, M.; Fernandez, C. G.; McMahon, R. G.; Banerji, M.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Schulze, S.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Thoene, C. C.; Cano, Z.; Rosswog, S.; VISTA Collaboration
2016-07-01
A gravitational-wave (GW) transient was identified in data recorded by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors on 2015 September 14. The event, initially designated G184098 and later given the name GW150914, is described in detail elsewhere. By prior arrangement, preliminary estimates of the time, significance, and sky location of the event were shared with 63 teams of observers covering radio, optical, near-infrared, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths with ground- and space-based facilities. In this Letter we describe the low-latency analysis of the GW data and present the sky localization of the first observed compact binary merger. We summarize the follow-up observations reported by 25 teams via private Gamma-ray Coordinates Network circulars, giving an overview of the participating facilities, the GW sky localization coverage, the timeline, and depth of the observations. As this event turned out to be a binary black hole merger, there is little expectation of a detectable electromagnetic (EM) signature. Nevertheless, this first broadband campaign to search for a counterpart of an Advanced LIGO source represents a milestone and highlights the broad capabilities of the transient astronomy community and the observing strategies that have been developed to pursue neutron star binary merger events. Detailed investigations of the EM data and results of the EM follow-up campaign are being disseminated in papers by the individual teams.
LOCALIZATION AND BROADBAND FOLLOW-UP OF THE GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE TRANSIENT GW150914
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abernathy, M. R.; Adhikari, R. X. [LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Abbott, T. D. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Acernese, F.; Addesso, P. [Università di Salerno, Fisciano, I-84084 Salerno (Italy); Ackley, K. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Adams, C. [LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754 (United States); Adams, T. [Laboratoire d’Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules (LAPP), Université Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS/IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Allen, B. [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K. [Nikhef, Science Park, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Aggarwal, N. [LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Aguiar, O. D. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, 12227-010 São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Aiello, L. [INFN, Gran Sasso Science Institute, I-67100 L’Aquila (Italy); Ain, A. [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune 411007 (India); Ajith, P., E-mail: lsc-spokesperson@ligo.org, E-mail: virgo-spokesperson@ego-gw.eu, E-mail: Julie.E.McEnery@nasa.gov [International Centre for Theoretical Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bangalore 560012 (India); Collaboration: LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration; Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) Collaboration; BOOTES Collaboration; Dark Energy Survey and the Dark Energy Camera GW-EM Collaborations; Fermi GBM Collaboration; Fermi LAT Collaboration; GRAvitational Wave Inaf TeAm (GRAWITA); INTEGRAL Collaboration; Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) Collaboration; InterPlanetary Network; J-GEM Collaboration; La Silla–QUEST Survey; Liverpool Telescope Collaboration; Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) Collaboration; MASTER Collaboration; MAXI Collaboration; Murchison Wide-field Array (MWA) Collaboration; Pan-STARRS Collaboration; PESSTO Collaboration; Pi of the Sky Collaboration; SkyMapper Collaboration; Swift Collaboration; TAROT, Zadko, Algerian National Observatory, and C2PU Collaboration; TOROS Collaboration; VISTA Collaboration; and others
2016-07-20
A gravitational-wave (GW) transient was identified in data recorded by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors on 2015 September 14. The event, initially designated G184098 and later given the name GW150914, is described in detail elsewhere. By prior arrangement, preliminary estimates of the time, significance, and sky location of the event were shared with 63 teams of observers covering radio, optical, near-infrared, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths with ground- and space-based facilities. In this Letter we describe the low-latency analysis of the GW data and present the sky localization of the first observed compact binary merger. We summarize the follow-up observations reported by 25 teams via private Gamma-ray Coordinates Network circulars, giving an overview of the participating facilities, the GW sky localization coverage, the timeline, and depth of the observations. As this event turned out to be a binary black hole merger, there is little expectation of a detectable electromagnetic (EM) signature. Nevertheless, this first broadband campaign to search for a counterpart of an Advanced LIGO source represents a milestone and highlights the broad capabilities of the transient astronomy community and the observing strategies that have been developed to pursue neutron star binary merger events. Detailed investigations of the EM data and results of the EM follow-up campaign are being disseminated in papers by the individual teams.
LOCALIZATION AND BROADBAND FOLLOW-UP OF THE GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE TRANSIENT GW150914
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abernathy, M. R.; Adhikari, R. X.; Abbott, T. D.; Acernese, F.; Addesso, P.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Allen, B.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.
2016-01-01
A gravitational-wave (GW) transient was identified in data recorded by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors on 2015 September 14. The event, initially designated G184098 and later given the name GW150914, is described in detail elsewhere. By prior arrangement, preliminary estimates of the time, significance, and sky location of the event were shared with 63 teams of observers covering radio, optical, near-infrared, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths with ground- and space-based facilities. In this Letter we describe the low-latency analysis of the GW data and present the sky localization of the first observed compact binary merger. We summarize the follow-up observations reported by 25 teams via private Gamma-ray Coordinates Network circulars, giving an overview of the participating facilities, the GW sky localization coverage, the timeline, and depth of the observations. As this event turned out to be a binary black hole merger, there is little expectation of a detectable electromagnetic (EM) signature. Nevertheless, this first broadband campaign to search for a counterpart of an Advanced LIGO source represents a milestone and highlights the broad capabilities of the transient astronomy community and the observing strategies that have been developed to pursue neutron star binary merger events. Detailed investigations of the EM data and results of the EM follow-up campaign are being disseminated in papers by the individual teams.
GW170817: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Neutron Star Inspiral.
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2017-10-20
On August 17, 2017 at 12∶41:04 UTC the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave detectors made their first observation of a binary neutron star inspiral. The signal, GW170817, was detected with a combined signal-to-noise ratio of 32.4 and a false-alarm-rate estimate of less than one per 8.0×10^{4} years. We infer the component masses of the binary to be between 0.86 and 2.26 M_{⊙}, in agreement with masses of known neutron stars. Restricting the component spins to the range inferred in binary neutron stars, we find the component masses to be in the range 1.17-1.60 M_{⊙}, with the total mass of the system 2.74_{-0.01}^{+0.04}M_{⊙}. The source was localized within a sky region of 28 deg^{2} (90% probability) and had a luminosity distance of 40_{-14}^{+8} Mpc, the closest and most precisely localized gravitational-wave signal yet. The association with the γ-ray burst GRB 170817A, detected by Fermi-GBM 1.7 s after the coalescence, corroborates the hypothesis of a neutron star merger and provides the first direct evidence of a link between these mergers and short γ-ray bursts. Subsequent identification of transient counterparts across the electromagnetic spectrum in the same location further supports the interpretation of this event as a neutron star merger. This unprecedented joint gravitational and electromagnetic observation provides insight into astrophysics, dense matter, gravitation, and cosmology.
Detecting high-frequency gravitational waves with optically levitated sensors.
Arvanitaki, Asimina; Geraci, Andrew A
2013-02-15
We propose a tunable resonant sensor to detect gravitational waves in the frequency range of 50-300 kHz using optically trapped and cooled dielectric microspheres or microdisks. The technique we describe can exceed the sensitivity of laser-based gravitational wave observatories in this frequency range, using an instrument of only a few percent of their size. Such a device extends the search volume for gravitational wave sources above 100 kHz by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude, and could detect monochromatic gravitational radiation from the annihilation of QCD axions in the cloud they form around stellar mass black holes within our galaxy due to the superradiance effect.
The black hole symphony: probing new physics using gravitational waves.
Gair, Jonathan R
2008-12-13
The next decade will very likely see the birth of a new field of astronomy as we become able to directly detect gravitational waves (GWs) for the first time. The existence of GWs is one of the key predictions of Einstein's theory of general relativity, but they have eluded direct detection for the last century. This will change thanks to a new generation of laser interferometers that are already in operation or which are planned for the near future. GW observations will allow us to probe some of the most exotic and energetic events in the Universe, the mergers of black holes. We will obtain information about the systems to a precision unprecedented in astronomy, and this will revolutionize our understanding of compact astrophysical systems. Moreover, if any of the assumptions of relativity theory are incorrect, this will lead to subtle, but potentially detectable, differences in the emitted GWs. Our observations will thus provide very precise verifications of the theory in an as yet untested regime. In this paper, I will discuss what GW observations could tell us about known and (potentially) unknown physics.
Versatile directional searches for gravitational waves with Pulsar Timing Arrays
Madison, D. R.; Zhu, X.-J.; Hobbs, G.; Coles, W.; Shannon, R. M.; Wang, J. B.; Tiburzi, C.; Manchester, R. N.; Bailes, M.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Dai, S.; Dempsey, J.; Keith, M.; Kerr, M.; Lasky, P.; Levin, Y.; Osłowski, S.; Ravi, V.; Reardon, D.; Rosado, P.; Spiewak, R.; van Straten, W.; Toomey, L.; Wen, L.; You, X.
2016-02-01
By regularly monitoring the most stable millisecond pulsars over many years, pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) are positioned to detect and study correlations in the timing behaviour of those pulsars. Gravitational waves (GWs) from supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) are an exciting potentially detectable source of such correlations. We describe a straightforward technique by which a PTA can be `phased-up' to form time series of the two polarization modes of GWs coming from a particular direction of the sky. Our technique requires no assumptions regarding the time-domain behaviour of a GW signal. This method has already been used to place stringent bounds on GWs from individual SMBHBs in circular orbits. Here, we describe the methodology and demonstrate the versatility of the technique in searches for a wide variety of GW signals including bursts with unmodelled waveforms. Using the first six years of data from the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array, we conduct an all-sky search for a detectable excess of GW power from any direction. For the lines of sight to several nearby massive galaxy clusters, we carry out a more detailed search for GW bursts with memory, which are distinct signatures of SMBHB mergers. In all cases, we find that the data are consistent with noise.
Measuring the neutron star equation of state with gravitational wave observations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Read, Jocelyn S.; Markakis, Charalampos; Creighton, Jolien D. E.; Friedman, John L.; Shibata, Masaru; Uryu, Koji
2009-01-01
We report the results of a first study that uses numerical simulations to estimate the accuracy with which one can use gravitational wave observations of double neutron-star inspiral to measure parameters of the neutron-star equation of state. The simulations use the evolution and initial-data codes of Shibata and Uryu to compute the last several orbits and the merger of neutron stars, with matter described by a parametrized equation of state. Previous work suggested the use of an effective cutoff frequency to place constraints on the equation of state. We find, however, that greater accuracy is obtained by measuring departures from the point-particle limit of the gravitational waveform produced during the late inspiral. As the stars approach their final plunge and merger, the gravitational wave phase accumulates more rapidly for smaller values of the neutron-star compactness (the ratio of the mass of the neutron-star to its radius). We estimate that realistic equations of state will lead to gravitational waveforms that are distinguishable from point-particle inspirals at an effective distance (the distance to an optimally oriented and located system that would produce an equivalent waveform amplitude) of 100 Mpc or less. As Lattimer and Prakash observed, neutron-star radius is closely tied to the pressure at density not far above nuclear. Our results suggest that broadband gravitational wave observations at frequencies between 500 and 1000 Hz will constrain this pressure, and we estimate the accuracy with which it can be measured. Related first estimates of radius measurability show that the radius can be determined to an accuracy of δR∼1 km at 100 Mpc.
Gravitational waves from phase transition in split NMSSM
Demidov, S. V.; Gorbunov, D. S.; Kirpichnikov, D. V.
2018-04-01
We discuss gravitational wave signal from the strongly first order electroweak phase transition in the split NMSSM. We find that for sets of parameters predicting successful electroweak baryogenesis the gravitational wave signal can be within the reach of future experiments LISA, BBO and Ultimate DECIGO.
Observing gravitational-wave transient GW150914 with minimal assumptions
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwa, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. C.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, T.C; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brocki, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderon Bustillo, J.; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chatterji, S.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, S. E.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Clark, M.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, A.L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.A.; DeRosa, R. T.; Rosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M.G.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.M.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. R.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J. -D.; Franco, S; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritsche, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; de Haas, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hinder, I.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, D.H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kefelian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.E.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijhunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinsey, M.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Laguna, P.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, R.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lueck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R.M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mende, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, J.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M. B.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Page, J.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prolchorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, P.S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoenbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shah, S.; Shithriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Simakov, D.; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Toyra, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlhruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; Van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, R. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, D.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.
2016-01-01
The gravitational-wave signal GW150914 was first identified on September 14, 2015, by searches for short-duration gravitational-wave transients. These searches identify time-correlated transients in multiple detectors with minimal assumptions about the signal morphology, allowing them to be
Gravitational wave generation by stellar core collapse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moore, T.A.
1981-01-01
Stars which have masses greater than 5 to 8 solar masses are thought to undergo a stage of catastrophic core collapse and subsequent supernova explosion at the end of their lives. If the core is not spherically symmetric, the bounce which halts its collapse at transnuclear densities will generate a pulse of gravitational waves. This thesis presents a fully relativistic model of core collapse which treats deviations from spherical symmetry as small perturbations on a spherical background. This model may be used to predict qualitative and quantitative features of the gravitational radiation emitted by stellar cores with odd-parity, axisymmetric fluid perturbations, and represents a first step in the application of perturbative methods to more general asymmetries. The first chapter reviews the present consensus on the physics of core collapse and outlines the important features, assumptions, and limitations of the model. A series of model runs are presented and discussed. Finally, several proposals for future research are presented. Subsequent chapters explore in detail the mathematical features of the present model and its realization on the computer
Japanese space gravitational wave antenna DECIGO and DPF
Musha, Mitsuru
2017-11-01
The gravitational wave detection will open a new gravitational wave astronomy, which gives a fruitful insight about early universe or birth and death of stars. In order to detect gravitational wave, we planed a space gravitational wave detector, DECIGO (DECi-heltz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory), which consists of three drag-free satellites forming triangle shaped Fabry-Perot laser interferometer with the arm length of 1000 km, and whose strain sensitivity is designed to be 2x10-24 /√Hz around 0.1 Hz. Before launching DECIGO around 2030, a milestone mission named DECIGO pathfinder (DPF) is planed to be launched whose main purpose is the feasibility test of the key technologies for DECIGO. In the present paper, the conceptual design and current status of DECIGO and DPF are reviewed.
VIGOR: Virtual Interaction with Gravitational Waves to Observe Relativity
Kitagawa, Midori; Kesden, Michael; Tranm, Ngoc; Venlayudam, Thulasi Sivampillai; Urquhart, Mary; Malina, Roger
2017-05-01
In 2015, a century after Albert Einstein published his theory of general relativity, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detected gravitational waves from binary black holes fully consistent with this theory. Our goal for VIGOR (Virtual-reality Interaction with Gravitational waves to Observe Relativity) is to communicate this revolutionary discovery to the public by visualizing the gravitational waves emitted by binary black holes. VIGOR has been developed using the Unity game engine and VR headsets (Oculus Rift DK2 and Samsung Gear VR). Wearing a VR headset, VIGOR users control an avatar to "fly" around binary black holes, experiment on the black holes by manipulating their total mass, mass ratio, and orbital separation, and witness how gravitational waves emitted by the black holes stretch and squeeze the avatar. We evaluated our prototype of VIGOR with high school students in 2016 and are further improving VIGOR based on our findings.
Gravitational-wave detection using redshifted 21-cm observations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bharadwaj, Somnath; Guha Sarkar, Tapomoy
2009-01-01
A gravitational-wave traversing the line of sight to a distant source produces a frequency shift which contributes to redshift space distortion. As a consequence, gravitational waves are imprinted as density fluctuations in redshift space. The gravitational-wave contribution to the redshift space power spectrum has a different μ dependence as compared to the dominant contribution from peculiar velocities. This, in principle, allows the two signals to be separated. The prospect of a detection is most favorable at the highest observable redshift z. Observations of redshifted 21-cm radiation from neutral hydrogen hold the possibility of probing very high redshifts. We consider the possibility of detecting primordial gravitational waves using the redshift space neutral hydrogen power spectrum. However, we find that the gravitational-wave signal, though present, will not be detectable on superhorizon scales because of cosmic variance and on subhorizon scales where the signal is highly suppressed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tao Fuzhen; He Zhiqiang
1983-01-01
If the effect of gravitational wave on electromagnetic fields is used, and the gravitational wave is detected through the changes in electromagnetic fields, one can expect that the difficulty about the weakness of the signal of mechanical receiver can be avoided. Because of the effect of gravitational wave, the electromagnetic field emits energy, therefore, the energy which is detected will be higher than that by the mechanical receiver. The authors consider the Maxwell equations on the curved spacetime. They give solutions when the detecting fields are a free electromagnetic wave, standing wave and a constant field. (Auth.)
Gravitational wave: gamma-ray burst connections.
Hough, Jim
2007-05-15
After 35 years of experimental research, we are rapidly approaching the point at which gravitational waves (GWs) from astrophysical sources may be directly detected by the long-baseline detectors LIGO (USA), GEO 600 (Germany/UK), VIRGO (Italy/France) and TAMA 300 (Japan), which are now in or coming into operation.A promising source of GWs is the coalescence of compact binary systems, events which are now believed to be the origin of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In this paper, a brief review of the state of the art in detector development and exploitation will be given, with particular relevance to a search for signals associated with GRBs, and plans for the future will be discussed.
Testing fundamental physics with gravitational waves
CERN. Geneva
2017-01-01
The landmark detection of gravitational waves (GWs) has opened a new era in physics, giving access to the hitherto unexplored strong-gravity regime, where spacetime curvature is extreme and the relevant speed is close to the speed of light. In parallel to its countless astrophysical applications, this discovery can have also important implications for fundamental physics. In this context, I will discuss some outstanding, cross-cutting problems that can be finally investigated in the GW era: the nature of black holes and of spacetime singularities, the limits of classical gravity, the existence of extra light fields, and the effects of dark matter near compact objects. Future GW measurements will provide unparalleled tests of quantum-gravity effects at the horizon scale, exotic compact objects, ultralight dark matter, and of general relativity in the strong-field regime.
Interaction of gravitational waves with magnetic and electric fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrabes, C.; Hogan, P. A.
2010-01-01
The existence of large-scale magnetic fields in the universe has led to the observation that if gravitational waves propagating in a cosmological environment encounter even a small magnetic field then electromagnetic radiation is produced. To study this phenomenon in more detail we take it out of the cosmological context and at the same time simplify the gravitational radiation to impulsive waves. Specifically, to illustrate our findings, we describe the following three physical situations: (1) a cylindrical impulsive gravitational wave propagating into a universe with a magnetic field, (2) an axially symmetric impulsive gravitational wave propagating into a universe with an electric field and (3) a 'spherical' impulsive gravitational wave propagating into a universe with a small magnetic field. In cases (1) and (3) electromagnetic radiation is produced behind the gravitational wave. In case (2) no electromagnetic radiation appears after the wave unless a current is established behind the wave breaking the Maxwell vacuum. In all three cases the presence of the magnetic or electric fields results in a modification of the amplitude of the incoming gravitational wave which is explicitly calculated using the Einstein-Maxwell vacuum field equations.
Asymmetric rotator as a detector of monochromatic gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gliner, Eh.B.; Mitrofanov, I.G.
1979-01-01
The interaction between a rotating asymmetric (principal moments of inertia are different) body with a gravitational wave is considered. A resonance rotational detector of monocrhomatic gravitational waves is proposed in which the turning due to the incident wave and the rotation which ensures resonance between the detector and wave correspond to different degrees of freedom. This significantly facilitates the creation of such detectors. The interference due to the gradient of the gravitational acceleration of the Earth and to rotation of the detector as a whole is estimated
Searching for gravitational waves from neutron stars
Idrisy, Ashikuzzaman
In this dissertation we discuss gravitational waves (GWs) and their neutron star (NS) sources. We begin with a general discussion of the motivation for searching for GWs and the indirect experimental evidence of their existence. Then we discuss the various mechanisms through which NS can emit GWs, paying special attention the r-mode oscillations. Finally we end with discussion of GW detection. In Chapter 2 we describe research into the frequencies of r-mode oscillations. Knowing these frequencies can be useful for guiding and interpreting gravitational wave and electromagnetic observations. The frequencies of slowly rotating, barotropic, and non-magnetic Newtonian stars are well known, but subject to various corrections. After making simple estimates of the relative strengths of these corrections we conclude that relativistic corrections are the most important. For this reason we extend the formalism of K. H. Lockitch, J. L. Friedman, and N. Andersson [Phys. Rev. D 68, 124010 (2003)], who consider relativistic polytropes, to the case of realistic equations of state. This formulation results in perturbation equations which are solved using a spectral method. We find that for realistic equations of state the r-mode frequency ranges from 1.39--1.57 times the spin frequency of the star when the relativistic compactness parameter (M/R) is varied over the astrophysically motivated interval 0.110--0.310. Following a successful r-mode detection our results can help constrain the high density equation of state. In Chapter 3 we present a technical introduction to the data analysis tools used in GW searches. Starting from the plane-wave solutions derived in Chapter 1 we develop the F-statistic used in the matched filtering technique. This technique relies on coherently integrating the GW detector's data stream with a theoretically modeled wave signal. The statistic is used to test the null hypothesis that the data contains no signal. In this chapter we also discuss how to
Motion of photons in a gravitational wave background
Chang, Zhe; Huang, Chao-Guang; Zhao, Zhi-Chao
2017-09-01
Photon motion in a Michelson interferometer is re-analyzed in terms of both geometrical optics and wave optics. The classical paths of the photons in the background of a gravitational wave are derived from the Fermat principle, which is the same as the null geodesics in general relativity. The deformed Maxwell equations and the wave equations of electric fields in the background of a gravitational wave are presented in a flat-space approximation. Both methods show that even the envelope of the response of an interferometer depends on the frequency of a gravitational wave, but it is almost independent of the frequency of the mirror’s vibrations. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11275207, 11375203, 11690022, 11675182) and Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences “Multi-waveband Gravitational Wave Universe” (XDB23040000)
Congratulations on the direct detection of gravitational waves
2016-01-01
This week saw the announcement of an extraordinary physics result: the first direct detection of gravitational waves by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, which includes the GEO team, and the Virgo Collaboration, using the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. Albert Einstein predicted gravitational waves in a paper published 100 years ago in 1916. They are a natural consequence of the theory of general relativity, which describes the workings of gravity and was published a few months earlier. Until now, they have remained elusive. Gravitational waves are tiny ripples in space-time produced by violent gravitational phenomena. Because the fractional change in the space-time geometry can be at the level of 10-21 or smaller, extremely sophisticated, high-sensitivity instruments are needed to detect them. Recently, the Advanced LIGO detector increased its sensitivity by alm...
Galaxy Strategy for Ligo-Virgo Gravitational Wave Counterpart Searches
Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.; Kanner, Jonah; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Nissanke, Samaya; Singer, Leo P.
2016-01-01
In this work we continue a line of inquiry begun in Kanner et al. which detailed a strategy for utilizing telescopes with narrow fields of view, such as the Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT), to localize gravity wave (GW) triggers from LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory) / Virgo. If one considers the brightest galaxies that produce 50 percent of the light, then the number of galaxies inside typical GW error boxes will be several tens. We have found that this result applies both in the early years of Advanced LIGO when the range is small and the error boxes large, and in the later years when the error boxes will be small and the range large. This strategy has the beneficial property of reducing the number of telescope pointings by a factor 10 to 100 compared with tiling the entire error box. Additional galaxy count reduction will come from a GW rapid distance estimate which will restrict the radial slice in search volume. Combining the bright galaxy strategy with a convolution based on anticipated GW localizations, we find that the searches can be restricted to about 18 plus or minus 5 galaxies for 2015, about 23 plus or minus 4 for 2017, and about 11 plus or minus for 2020. This assumes a distance localization at the putative neutron star-neutron star (NS-NS) merger range mu for each target year, and these totals are integrated out to the range. Integrating out to the horizon would roughly double the totals. For localizations with r (rotation) greatly less than mu the totals would decrease. The galaxy strategy we present in this work will enable numerous sensitive optical and X-ray telescopes with small fields of view to participate meaningfully in searches wherein the prospects for rapidly fading afterglow place a premium on a fast response time.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Favata, Marc
2009-01-01
The Christodoulou memory is a nonlinear contribution to the gravitational-wave field that is sourced by the gravitational-wave stress-energy tensor. For quasicircular, inspiralling binaries, the Christodoulou memory produces a growing, nonoscillatory change in the gravitational-wave 'plus' polarization, resulting in the permanent displacement of a pair of freely-falling test masses after the wave has passed. In addition to its nonoscillatory behavior, the Christodoulou memory is interesting because even though it originates from 2.5 post-Newtonian (PN) order multipole interactions, it affects the waveform at leading (Newtonian/quadrupole) order. The memory is also potentially detectable in binary black-hole mergers. While the oscillatory pieces of the gravitational-wave polarizations for quasicircular, inspiralling compact binaries have been computed to 3PN order, the memory contribution to the polarizations has only been calculated to leading order (the next-to-leading order 0.5PN term has previously been shown to vanish). Here the calculation of the memory for quasicircular, inspiralling binaries is extended to 3PN order. While the angular dependence of the memory remains qualitatively unchanged, the PN correction terms tend to reduce the memory's magnitude. Explicit expressions are given for the memory contributions to the plus polarization and the spin-weighted spherical-harmonic modes of the metric and curvature perturbations. Combined with the recent results of Blanchet et al.[Classical Quantum Gravity 25, 165003 (2008)], this completes the waveform polarizations to 3PN order. This paper also discusses: (i) the difficulties in extracting the memory from numerical relativity simulations, (ii) other nonoscillatory effects that enter the waveform polarizations at high PN orders, and (iii) issues concerning the observability of the memory in gravitational-wave detectors.
Constraints on Short, Hard Gamma-Ray Burst Beaming Angles from Gravitational Wave Observations
Williams, D.; Clark, J. A.; Williamson, A. R.; Heng, I. S.
2018-05-01
The first detection of a binary neutron star merger, GW170817, and an associated short gamma-ray burst confirmed that neutron star mergers are responsible for at least some of these bursts. The prompt gamma-ray emission from these events is thought to be highly relativistically beamed. We present a method for inferring limits on the extent of this beaming by comparing the number of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) observed electromagnetically with the number of neutron star binary mergers detected in gravitational waves. We demonstrate that an observing run comparable to the expected Advanced LIGO (aLIGO) 2016–2017 run would be capable of placing limits on the beaming angle of approximately θ \\in (2\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 88,14\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 15), given one binary neutron star detection, under the assumption that all mergers produce a gamma-ray burst, and that SGRBs occur at an illustrative rate of {{ \\mathcal R }}grb}=10 {Gpc}}-3 {yr}}-1. We anticipate that after a year of observations with aLIGO at design sensitivity in 2020, these constraints will improve to θ \\in (8\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 10,14\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 95), under the same efficiency and SGRB rate assumptions.
Gravitational-wave detector realized by a superconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishidoshiro, K.; Ando, M.; Takamori, A.; Okada, K.; Tsubono, K.
2010-01-01
In this article, we present a new gravitational-wave detector based on superconducting magnetic levitation and results of its prototype test. Our detector is composed of the suspended test mass that is rotated by gravitational waves. Gravitational wave signals are readout by monitoring its angular motion. Superconducting magnetic levitation is used for the suspension of the test mass, since it has many advantages, such as zero mechanical loss and resonant frequency around its suspension axis in an ideal situation. For the study of actual performance of such gravitational-wave detector, a prototype detector has been developed. Using the prototype detector, the actual loss factor and resonant frequency are measured as 1.2 x 10 -8 Nms/rad and 5 mHz respectively. A detector noise is also evaluated. The current noise level is determined by the magnetic coupling with external magnetic field and mechanical coupling between translation and angular motion. The prototype detector has already one of the lowest noise levels for gravitational waves at 0.1 Hz among current gravitational-wave detectors. We have succeeded at the demonstration of the advantages of our torsion gravitational-wave detector.
Gravitational waves from self-ordering scalar fields
Fenu, Elisa; Durrer, Ruth; Garcia-Bellido, Juan
2009-01-01
Gravitational waves were copiously produced in the early Universe whenever the processes taking place were sufficiently violent. The spectra of several of these gravitational wave backgrounds on subhorizon scales have been extensively studied in the literature. In this paper we analyze the shape and amplitude of the gravitational wave spectrum on scales which are superhorizon at the time of production. Such gravitational waves are expected from the self ordering of randomly oriented scalar fields which can be present during a thermal phase transition or during preheating after hybrid inflation. We find that, if the gravitational wave source acts only during a small fraction of the Hubble time, the gravitational wave spectrum at frequencies lower than the expansion rate at the time of production behaves as $\\Omega_{\\rm GW}(f) \\propto f^3$ with an amplitude much too small to be observable by gravitational wave observatories like LIGO, LISA or BBO. On the other hand, if the source is active for a much longer tim...
GRAVITATIONAL WAVE SIGNATURES OF HYPERACCRETING COLLAPSAR DISKS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kotake, Kei; Takiwaki, Tomoya; Harikae, Seiji
2012-01-01
By performing two-dimensional special relativistic (SR) magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we study possible signatures of gravitational waves (GWs) in the context of the collapsar model for long-duration gamma-ray bursts. In our SR simulations, the central black hole is treated as an absorbing boundary. By doing so, we focus on the GWs generated by asphericities in neutrino emission and matter motions in the vicinity of the hyperaccreting disks. We compute nine models by adding initial angular momenta and magnetic fields parametrically to a precollapse core of a 35 M ☉ progenitor star. As for the microphysics, a realistic equation of state is employed and the neutrino cooling is taken into account via a multi-flavor neutrino leakage scheme. To accurately estimate GWs produced by anisotropic neutrino emission, we perform a ray-tracing analysis in general relativity by a post-processing procedure. By employing a stress formula that includes contributions from both magnetic fields and SR corrections, we also study the effects of magnetic fields on the gravitational waveforms. We find that the GW amplitudes from anisotropic neutrino emission show a monotonic increase with time, whose amplitudes are much larger than those from matter motions of the accreting material. We show that the increasing trend of the neutrino GWs stems from the excess of neutrino emission in the direction near parallel to the spin axis illuminated from the hyperaccreting disks. We point out that a recently proposed future space-based interferometer like Fabry-Perot-type DECIGO would permit the detection of these GW signals within ≈100 Mpc.
Gravitational waves from spinning eccentric binaries
Csizmadia, Péter; Debreczeni, Gergely; Rácz, István; Vasúth, Mátyás
2012-12-01
This paper is to introduce a new software called CBwaves which provides a fast and accurate computational tool to determine the gravitational waveforms yielded by generic spinning binaries of neutron stars and/or black holes on eccentric orbits. This is done within the post-Newtonian (PN) framework by integrating the equations of motion and the spin precession equations, while the radiation field is determined by a simultaneous evaluation of the analytic waveforms. In applying CBwaves various physically interesting scenarios have been investigated. In particular, we have studied the appropriateness of the adiabatic approximation, and justified that the energy balance relation is indeed insensitive to the specific form of the applied radiation reaction term. By studying eccentric binary systems, it is demonstrated that circular template banks are very ineffective in identifying binaries even if they possess tiny residual orbital eccentricity, thus confirming a similar result obtained by Brown and Zimmerman (2010 Phys. Rev. D 81 024007). In addition, by investigating the validity of the energy balance relation we show that, contrary to the general expectations, the PN approximation should not be applied once the PN parameter gets beyond the critical value ˜0.08 - 0.1. Finally, by studying the early phase of the gravitational waves emitted by strongly eccentric binary systems—which could be formed e.g. in various many-body interactions in the galactic halo—we have found that they possess very specific characteristics which may be used to identify these type of binary systems. This paper is dedicated to the memory of our colleague and friend Péter Csizmadia a young physicist, computer expert and one of the best Hungarian mountaineers who disappeared in China’s Sichuan near the Ren Zhong Feng peak of the Himalayas on 23 Oct. 2009. We started to develop CBwaves jointly with Péter a couple of months before he left for China.
Adrian-Martinez, S.; Samarai, Al; Albert, A.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.;
2013-01-01
We present the results of the first search for gravitational wave bursts associated with high energy neutrinos. Together, these messengers could reveal new, hidden sources that are not observed by conventional photon astronomy, particularly at high energy. Our search uses neutrinos detected by the underwater neutrino telescope ANTARES in its 5 line configuration during the period January - September 2007, which coincided with the fifth and first science runs of LIGO and Virgo, respectively. The LIGO-Virgo data were analysed for candidate gravitational-wave signals coincident in time and direction with the neutrino events. No significant coincident events were observed. We place limits on the density of joint high energy neutrino - gravitational wave emission events in the local universe, and compare them with densities of merger and core-collapse events.
Speed of Gravitational Waves from Strongly Lensed Gravitational Waves and Electromagnetic Signals.
Fan, Xi-Long; Liao, Kai; Biesiada, Marek; Piórkowska-Kurpas, Aleksandra; Zhu, Zong-Hong
2017-03-03
We propose a new model-independent measurement strategy for the propagation speed of gravitational waves (GWs) based on strongly lensed GWs and their electromagnetic (EM) counterparts. This can be done in two ways: by comparing arrival times of GWs and their EM counterparts and by comparing the time delays between images seen in GWs and their EM counterparts. The lensed GW-EM event is perhaps the best way to identify an EM counterpart. Conceptually, this method does not rely on any specific theory of massive gravitons or modified gravity. Its differential setting (i.e., measuring the difference between time delays in GW and EM domains) makes it robust against lens modeling details (photons and GWs travel in the same lensing potential) and against internal time delays between GW and EM emission acts. It requires, however, that the theory of gravity is metric and predicts gravitational lensing similar to general relativity. We expect that such a test will become possible in the era of third-generation gravitational-wave detectors, when about 10 lensed GW events would be observed each year. The power of this method is mainly limited by the timing accuracy of the EM counterpart, which for kilonovae is around 10^{4} s. This uncertainty can be suppressed by a factor of ∼10^{10}, if strongly lensed transients of much shorter duration associated with the GW event can be identified. Candidates for such short transients include short γ-ray bursts and fast radio bursts.
Bayesian reconstruction of gravitational wave bursts using chirplets
Millhouse, Margaret; Cornish, Neil J.; Littenberg, Tyson
2018-05-01
The LIGO-Virgo Collaboration uses a variety of techniques to detect and characterize gravitational waves. One approach is to use templates—models for the signals derived from Einstein's equations. Another approach is to extract the signals directly from the coherent response of the detectors in the LIGO-Virgo network. Both approaches played an important role in the first gravitational wave detections. Here we extend the BayesWave analysis algorithm, which reconstructs gravitational wave signals using a collection of continuous wavelets, to use a generalized wavelet family, known as chirplets, that have time-evolving frequency content. Since generic gravitational wave signals have frequency content that evolves in time, a collection of chirplets provides a more compact representation of the signal, resulting in more accurate waveform reconstructions, especially for low signal-to-noise events, and events that occupy a large time-frequency volume.
Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Blackburn, Lindy L.; Camp, J. B.; Gehrels, N.; Graff, P. B.
2014-01-01
We report results from a search for gravitational waves produced by perturbed intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in data collected by LIGO and Virgo between 2005 and 2010. The search was sensitive to astrophysical sources that produced damped sinusoid gravitational wave signals, also known as ringdowns, with frequency 50 less than or equal to italic f0/Hz less than or equal to 2000 and decay timescale 0.0001 approximately less than t/s approximately less than 0.1 characteristic of those produced in mergers of IMBH pairs. No significant gravitational wave candidate was detected. We report upper limits on the astrophysical coalescence rates of IMBHs with total binary mass 50 less than or equal to M/solar mass less than or equal to 450 and component mass ratios of either 1:1 or 4:1. For systems with total mass 100 less than or equal to M/solar mass 150, we report a 90%-confidence upper limit on the rate of binary IMBH mergers with non-spinning and equal mass components of 6:9 x 10(exp 8) Mpc(exp -3)yr(exp -1). We also report a rate upper limit for ringdown waveforms from perturbed IMBHs, radiating 1% of their mass as gravitational waves in the fundamental, l=m=2, oscillation mode, that is nearly three orders of magnitude more stringent than previous results.
Gravitational-wave astronomy: delivering on the promises
Schutz, B. F.
2018-05-01
Now that LIGO and Virgo have begun to detect gravitational-wave events with regularity, the field of gravitational-wave astronomy is beginning to realize its promise. Binary black holes and, very recently, binary neutron stars have been observed, and we are already learning much from them. The future, with improved sensitivity, more detectors and detectors like LISA in different frequency bands, has even more promise to open a completely hidden side of the Universe to our exploration. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue `The promises of gravitational-wave astronomy'.
Displacement-noise-free gravitational-wave detection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawamura, Seiji; Chen Yanbei
2004-01-01
We present a new idea that allows us to detect gravitational waves without being disturbed by any kind of displacement noise, based on the fact that gravitational waves and test-mass motions affect the propagations of light differently. We demonstrate this idea by analyzing a simple toy model consisting of three equally-separated objects on a line. By taking a certain combination of light travel times between these objects, we construct an observable free from the displacement of each object, which has a reasonable sensitivity to gravitational waves
Gravitational-wave astronomy: delivering on the promises.
Schutz, B F
2018-05-28
Now that LIGO and Virgo have begun to detect gravitational-wave events with regularity, the field of gravitational-wave astronomy is beginning to realize its promise. Binary black holes and, very recently, binary neutron stars have been observed, and we are already learning much from them. The future, with improved sensitivity, more detectors and detectors like LISA in different frequency bands, has even more promise to open a completely hidden side of the Universe to our exploration.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The promises of gravitational-wave astronomy'. © 2018 The Author(s).
Axial gravitational waves in FLRW cosmology and memory effects
Kulczycki, Wojciech; Malec, Edward
2017-09-01
We show initial data for gravitational axial waves that are twice differentiable but that are not C2. They generate wave pulses that interact with matter in the radiation cosmological era. This forces the radiation matter to rotate. This rotation is permanent—it persists after the passage of the gravitational pulse. The observed inhomogeneities of the cosmic microwave background radiation put a bound onto discontinuities of superhorizon metric perturbations. We explicitly show that a class of smooth initial metrics that are at least C2 gives rise to gravitational wave pulses that do not interact with the background during the radiation epoch.
Scalar field vacuum expectation value induced by gravitational wave background
Jones, Preston; McDougall, Patrick; Ragsdale, Michael; Singleton, Douglas
2018-06-01
We show that a massless scalar field in a gravitational wave background can develop a non-zero vacuum expectation value. We draw comparisons to the generation of a non-zero vacuum expectation value for a scalar field in the Higgs mechanism and with the dynamical Casimir vacuum. We propose that this vacuum expectation value, generated by a gravitational wave, can be connected with particle production from gravitational waves and may have consequences for the early Universe where scalar fields are thought to play an important role.
Gravitational waves from the axial perturbations of hyperon stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wen De-Hua; Yan Jing; Liu Xue-Mei
2012-01-01
The eigen-frequencies of the axial w-mode oscillations of hyperon stars are examined. It is shown that as the appearance of hyperons softens the equation of state of the super-density matter, the frequency of gravitational waves from the axial w-mode of hyperon star becomes smaller than that of a traditional neutron star at the same stellar mass. Moreover, the eigenfrequencies of hyperon stars also have scaling universality. It is shown that the EURO third-generation gravitational-wave detector has the potential to detect the gravitational-wave signal emitted from the axial w-mode oscillations of a hyperon star. (general)
Testing strong gravity with gravitational waves and Love numbers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franzin, E; Cardoso, V; Raposo, G; Pani, P
2017-01-01
The LIGO observation of GW150914 has inaugurated the gravitational-wave astronomy era and the possibility of testing gravity in extreme regimes. While distorted black holes are the most convincing sources of gravitational waves, similar signals might be produced also by other compact objects. In particular, we discuss what the gravitational-wave ringdown could tell us about the nature of the emitting object, and how measurements of the tidal Love numbers could help us in understanding the internal structure of compact dark objects. (paper)
Gravitational-wave research: Current status and future prospects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thorne, K.S.
1980-01-01
There is a reasonably good change that in the 1980s cosmic gravitational waves will be discovered and will become a powerful tool for astronomy. This prospect has stimulated a three-pronged research effort. First, relativity theorists are developing new mathematical tools for the analysis of gravitational radiation: including (i) methods of analyzing the generation of gravity waves by sources with strong self-gravity and large internal velocities (e.g., collisions of black holes), (ii) methods of computing radiation reaction in sources, and (iii) methods of analyzing how gravitational waves propagate through our lumpy curved-space Universe. Second, astrophysicists are attempting to identify the most promissing sources of gravitational waves, and are using the relativity theorists' mathematical tools to estimate the characteristics of the waves they emit. Third, with the estimated wave characteristics in mind, experimenters are designing and constructing a second generation of gravitational-wave detectors: detectors of three types: Doppler tracking of interplanetary spacecraft, Earth-based laser interferometers, and Earth-based Weber-type resonant bars. This article reviews, in brief, all three prongs of the research effort and gives references to more detailed articles about specialized aspects of gravitational-wave physics
Three-point statistics of cosmological stochastic gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adshead, Peter; Lim, Eugene A.
2010-01-01
We consider the three-point function (i.e. the bispectrum or non-Gaussianity) for stochastic backgrounds of gravitational waves. We estimate the amplitude of this signal for the primordial inflationary background, gravitational waves generated during preheating, and for gravitational waves produced by self-ordering scalar fields following a global phase transition. To assess detectability, we describe how to extract the three-point signal from an idealized interferometric experiment and compute the signal to noise ratio as a function of integration time. The three-point signal for the stochastic gravitational wave background generated by inflation is unsurprisingly tiny. For gravitational radiation generated by purely causal, classical mechanisms we find that, no matter how nonlinear the process is, the three-point correlations produced vanish in direct detection experiments. On the other hand, we show that in scenarios where the B-mode of the cosmic microwave background is sourced by gravitational waves generated by a global phase transition, a strong three-point signal among the polarization modes is also produced. This may provide another method of distinguishing inflationary B-modes. To carry out this computation, we have developed a diagrammatic approach to the calculation of stochastic gravitational waves sourced by scalar fluids, which has applications beyond the present scenario.
Gravitational wave tests of general relativity with the parameterized post-Einsteinian framework
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cornish, Neil; Sampson, Laura; Yunes, Nicolas; Pretorius, Frans
2011-01-01
Gravitational wave astronomy has tremendous potential for studying extreme astrophysical phenomena and exploring fundamental physics. The waves produced by binary black hole mergers will provide a pristine environment in which to study strong-field dynamical gravity. Extracting detailed information about these systems requires accurate theoretical models of the gravitational wave signals. If gravity is not described by general relativity, analyses that are based on waveforms derived from Einstein's field equations could result in parameter biases and a loss of detection efficiency. A new class of ''parameterized post-Einsteinian'' waveforms has been proposed to cover this eventuality. Here, we apply the parameterized post-Einsteinian approach to simulated data from a network of advanced ground-based interferometers and from a future space-based interferometer. Bayesian inference and model selection are used to investigate parameter biases, and to determine the level at which departures from general relativity can be detected. We find that in some cases the parameter biases from assuming the wrong theory can be severe. We also find that gravitational wave observations will beat the existing bounds on deviations from general relativity derived from the orbital decay of binary pulsars by a large margin across a wide swath of parameter space.
Gravitational wave detection and data analysis for pulsar timing arrays
Haasteren, Rutger van
2011-01-01
Long-term precise timing of Galactic millisecond pulsars holds great promise for measuring long-period (months-to-years) astrophysical gravitational waves. In this work we develop a Bayesian data analysis method for projects called pulsar timing arrays; projects aimed to detect these gravitational
Gravitational wave production from preheating: parameter dependence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Figueroa, Daniel G. [Theory Division, CERN, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Torrentí, Francisco, E-mail: daniel.figueroa@cern.ch, E-mail: f.torrenti@csic.es [Instituto de Física Teórica IFT-UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco 28049 Madrid, Spain. (Spain)
2017-10-01
Parametric resonance is among the most efficient phenomena generating gravitational waves (GWs) in the early Universe. The dynamics of parametric resonance, and hence of the GWs, depend exclusively on the resonance parameter q . The latter is determined by the properties of each scenario: the initial amplitude and potential curvature of the oscillating field, and its coupling to other species. Previous works have only studied the GW production for fixed value(s) of q . We present an analytical derivation of the GW amplitude dependence on q , valid for any scenario, which we confront against numerical results. By running lattice simulations in an expanding grid, we study for a wide range of q values, the production of GWs in post-inflationary preheating scenarios driven by parametric resonance. We present simple fits for the final amplitude and position of the local maxima in the GW spectrum. Our parametrization allows to predict the location and amplitude of the GW background today, for an arbitrary q . The GW signal can be rather large, as h {sup 2Ω}{sub GW}( f {sub p} ) ∼< 10{sup −11}, but it is always peaked at high frequencies f {sub p} ∼> 10{sup 7} Hz. We also discuss the case of spectator-field scenarios, where the oscillatory field can be e.g. a curvaton, or the Standard Model Higgs.
Parametric instabilities in advanced gravitational wave detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gras, S; Zhao, C; Blair, D G; Ju, L
2010-01-01
As the LIGO interferometric gravitational wave detectors have finished gathering a large observational data set, an intense effort is underway to upgrade these observatories to improve their sensitivity by a factor of ∼10. High circulating power in the arm cavities is required, which leads to the possibility of parametric instability due to three-mode opto-acoustic resonant interactions between the carrier, transverse optical modes and acoustic modes. Here, we present detailed numerical analysis of parametric instability in a configuration that is similar to Advanced LIGO. After examining parametric instability for a single three-mode interaction in detail, we examine instability for the best and worst cases, as determined by the resonance condition of transverse modes in the power and signal recycling cavities. We find that, in the best case, the dual recycling detector is substantially less susceptible to instability than a single cavity, but its susceptibility is dependent on the signal recycling cavity design, and on tuning for narrow band operation. In all cases considered, the interferometer will experience parametric instability at full power operation, but the gain varies from 3 to 1000, and the number of unstable modes varies between 7 and 30 per test mass. The analysis focuses on understanding the detector complexity in relation to opto-acoustic interactions, on providing insights that can enable predictions of the detector response to transient disturbances, and of variations in thermal compensation conditions.
Gravitational wave background from reheating after hybrid inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Figueroa, Daniel G.; Sastre, Alfonso
2008-01-01
The reheating of the Universe after hybrid inflation proceeds through the nucleation and subsequent collision of large concentrations of energy density in the form of bubblelike structures moving at relativistic speeds. This generates a significant fraction of energy in the form of a stochastic background of gravitational waves, whose time evolution is determined by the successive stages of reheating: First, tachyonic preheating makes the amplitude of gravity waves grow exponentially fast. Second, bubble collisions add a new burst of gravitational radiation. Third, turbulent motions finally sets the end of gravitational waves production. From then on, these waves propagate unimpeded to us. We find that the fraction of energy density today in these primordial gravitational waves could be significant for grand unified theory (GUT)-scale models of inflation, although well beyond the frequency range sensitivity of gravitational wave observatories like LIGO, LISA, or BBO. However, low-scale models could still produce a detectable signal at frequencies accessible to BBO or DECIGO. For comparison, we have also computed the analogous gravitational wave background from some chaotic inflation models and obtained results similar to those found by other groups. The discovery of such a background would open a new observational window into the very early universe, where the details of the process of reheating, i.e. the big bang, could be explored. Moreover, it could also serve in the future as a new experimental tool for testing the inflationary paradigm
A Gravitational Wave Detector Based on an Atom Interferometer
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gravitational waves are tiny perturbations in the curvature of space-time that arise from accelerating masses – according to Einstein's general theory of relativity....
Polarized Microwave Background Technologies for Inflationary Gravitational Wave Detection
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The detection of primordial gravitational waves (PGWs) from the epoch of inflation is one of the next majors goals in cosmology. These PGWs leave a signature on the...
Scattering of spinning test particles by gravitational plane waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bini, D.; Gemelli, G.
1997-01-01
The authors study the motion of spinning particles in the gravitational plane-wave background and discuss particular solutions under a suitable choice of supplementary conditions. An analysis of the discontinuity of the motion across the wavefront is presented too
Reduced time delay for gravitational waves with dark matter emulators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Desai, S.; Kahya, E. O.; Woodard, R. P.
2008-01-01
We discuss the implications for gravitational wave detectors of a class of modified gravity theories which dispense with the need for dark matter. These models, which are known as dark matter emulators, have the property that weak gravitational waves couple to the metric that would follow from general relativity without dark matter whereas ordinary particles couple to a combination of the metric and other fields which reproduces the result of general relativity with dark matter. We show that there is an appreciable difference in the Shapiro delays of gravitational waves and photons or neutrinos from the same source, with the gravitational waves always arriving first. We compute the expected time lags for GRB 070201, for SN 1987a and for Sco-X1. We estimate the probable error by taking account of the uncertainty in position, and by using three different dark matter profiles
Development of Mirror Coatings for Gravitational Wave Detectors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stuart Reid
2016-11-01
Full Text Available The first detections of gravitational waves, GW150914 and GW151226, were associated with the coalescence of stellar mass black holes, heralding the opening of an entirely new way to observe the Universe. Many decades of development were invested to achieve the sensitivities required to observe gravitational waves, with peak strains associated with GW150914 at the level of 10−21. Gravitational wave detectors currently operate as modified Michelson interferometers, where thermal noise associated with the highly reflective mirror coatings sets a critical limit to the sensitivity of current and future instruments. This article presents an overview of the mirror coating development relevant to gravitational wave detection and the prospective for future developments in the field.
Multiple Signal Classification for Gravitational Wave Burst Search
Cao, Junwei; He, Zhengqi
2013-01-01
This work is mainly focused on the application of the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm for gravitational wave burst search. This algorithm extracts important gravitational wave characteristics from signals coming from detectors with arbitrary position, orientation and noise covariance. In this paper, the MUSIC algorithm is described in detail along with the necessary adjustments required for gravitational wave burst search. The algorithm's performance is measured using simulated signals and noise. MUSIC is compared with the Q-transform for signal triggering and with Bayesian analysis for direction of arrival (DOA) estimation, using the Ω-pipeline. Experimental results show that MUSIC has a lower resolution but is faster. MUSIC is a promising tool for real-time gravitational wave search for multi-messenger astronomy.
Gravitational Waves: An Entirely New Window onto the Cosmos
CERN. Geneva
2017-01-01
On September 14, 2015, scientists from the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration using the LIGO detectors observed the collision and fusion of two black holes by directly measuring the gravitational waves emitted during their collision. This detection came almost exactly 100 years after Einstein developed his revolutionary general theory of relativity that predicted their existence, and 50 years after scientists began searching for them in earnest. Since then, two more gravitational-wave events have been confidently detected. These discoveries have truly profound implications for physics and astronomy. Gravitational waves provide unique information on the most energetic astrophysical events, revealing unique insights into the nature of gravity, matter, space, and time. LIGO has opened a new window onto the cosmos. I will talk about how we made the detection and discuss how gravitational wave astronomy promises to change our understanding o...
Astrophysical Gravitational Wave Sources Literature Catalog
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Numerically-generated gravitational waveforms for circular inspiral into Kerr black holes. These waveforms were developed using Scott Hughes' black hole perturbation...
Accuracy of inference on the physics of binary evolution from gravitational-wave observations
Barrett, Jim W.; Gaebel, Sebastian M.; Neijssel, Coenraad J.; Vigna-Gómez, Alejandro; Stevenson, Simon; Berry, Christopher P. L.; Farr, Will M.; Mandel, Ilya
2018-04-01
The properties of the population of merging binary black holes encode some of the uncertain physics underlying the evolution of massive stars in binaries. The binary black hole merger rate and chirp-mass distribution are being measured by ground-based gravitational-wave detectors. We consider isolated binary evolution, and explore how accurately the physical model can be constrained with such observations by applying the Fisher information matrix to the merging black hole population simulated with the rapid binary-population synthesis code COMPAS. We investigate variations in four COMPAS parameters: common-envelope efficiency, kick-velocity dispersion, and mass-loss rates during the luminous blue variable and Wolf-Rayet stellar-evolutionary phases. We find that ˜1000 observations would constrain these model parameters to a fractional accuracy of a few per cent. Given the empirically determined binary black hole merger rate, we can expect gravitational-wave observations alone to place strong constraints on the physics of stellar and binary evolution within a few years. Our approach can be extended to use other observational data sets; combining observations at different evolutionary stages will lead to a better understanding of stellar and binary physics.
Optical Follow-up of Gravitational-wave Events with Las Cumbres Observatory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arcavi, Iair; McCully, Curtis; Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Howell, D. Andrew; Vasylyev, Sergiy [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Poznanski, Dovi; Zaltzman, Michael; Maoz, Dan [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Singer, Leo [Joint Space-Science Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Valenti, Stefano [Department of Physics, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-5270 (United States); Kasen, Daniel [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720-8169 (United States); Barnes, Jennifer [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY, 10027 (United States); Piran, Tsvi [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Fong, Wen-fai, E-mail: arcavi@ucsb.edu [CIERA and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)
2017-10-20
We present an implementation of the Gehrels et al. galaxy-targeted strategy for gravitational-wave (GW) follow-up using the Las Cumbres Observatory global network of telescopes. We use the Galaxy List for the Advanced Detector Era (GLADE) galaxy catalog, which we show is complete (with respect to a Schechter function) out to ∼300 Mpc for galaxies brighter than the median Schechter function galaxy luminosity. We use a prioritization algorithm to select the galaxies with the highest chance of containing the counterpart given their luminosity, their position, and their distance relative to a GW localization, and in which we are most likely to detect a counterpart given its expected brightness compared to the limiting magnitude of our telescopes. This algorithm can be easily adapted to any expected transient parameters and telescopes. We implemented this strategy during the second Advanced Detector Observing Run (O2) and followed the black hole merger GW170814 and the neutron star merger GW170817. For the latter, we identified an optical kilonova/macronova counterpart thanks to our algorithm selecting the correct host galaxy fifth in its ranked list among the 182 galaxies we identified in the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO)/Virgo localization. This also allowed us to obtain some of the earliest observations of the first optical transient ever triggered by a GW detection (as presented in a companion paper).
GRB 170817A as a jet counterpart to gravitational wave trigger GW 170817
Lamb, Gavin P.; Kobayashi, Shiho
2018-05-01
Fermi/GBM (Gamma-ray Burst Monitor) and INTEGRAL (the International Gamma-ray Astrophysics Laboratory) reported the detection of the γ-ray counterpart, GRB 170817A, to the LIGO (Light Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory)/Virgo gravitational wave detected binary neutron star merger, GW 170817. GRB 170817A is likely to have an internal jet or another origin such as cocoon emission, shock-breakout, or a flare from a viscous disc. In this paper we assume that the γ-ray emission is caused by energy dissipation within a relativistic jet and we model the afterglow synchrotron emission from a reverse- and forward-shock in the outflow. We show the afterglow for a low-luminosity γ-ray burst (GRB) jet with a high Lorentz-factor (Γ); a low-Γ and low-kinetic energy jet; a low-Γ, high kinetic energy jet; structured jets viewed at an inclination within the jet-half-opening angle; and an off-axis `typical' GRB jet. All jet models will produce observable afterglows on various timescales. The late-time afterglow from 10-110 days can be fit by a Gaussian structured jet viewed at a moderate inclination, however the GRB is not directly reproduced by this model. These jet afterglow models can be used for future GW detected NS merger counterparts with a jet afterglow origin.
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2018-03-02
The LIGO Scientific and Virgo Collaborations have announced the event GW170817, the first detection of gravitational waves from the coalescence of two neutron stars. The merger rate of binary neutron stars estimated from this event suggests that distant, unresolvable binary neutron stars create a significant astrophysical stochastic gravitational-wave background. The binary neutron star component will add to the contribution from binary black holes, increasing the amplitude of the total astrophysical background relative to previous expectations. In the Advanced LIGO-Virgo frequency band most sensitive to stochastic backgrounds (near 25 Hz), we predict a total astrophysical background with amplitude Ω_{GW}(f=25 Hz)=1.8_{-1.3}^{+2.7}×10^{-9} with 90% confidence, compared with Ω_{GW}(f=25 Hz)=1.1_{-0.7}^{+1.2}×10^{-9} from binary black holes alone. Assuming the most probable rate for compact binary mergers, we find that the total background may be detectable with a signal-to-noise-ratio of 3 after 40 months of total observation time, based on the expected timeline for Advanced LIGO and Virgo to reach their design sensitivity.
Measuring the Viewing Angle of GW170817 with Electromagnetic and Gravitational Waves
Finstad, Daniel; De, Soumi; Brown, Duncan A.; Berger, Edo; Biwer, Christopher M.
2018-06-01
The joint detection of gravitational waves (GWs) and electromagnetic (EM) radiation from the binary neutron star merger GW170817 ushered in a new era of multi-messenger astronomy. Joint GW–EM observations can be used to measure the parameters of the binary with better precision than either observation alone. Here, we use joint GW–EM observations to measure the viewing angle of GW170817, the angle between the binary’s angular momentum and the line of sight. We combine a direct measurement of the distance to the host galaxy of GW170817 (NGC 4993) of 40.7 ± 2.36 Mpc with the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO)/Virgo GW data and find that the viewing angle is {32}-13+10 +/- 1.7 degrees (90% confidence, statistical, and systematic errors). We place a conservative lower limit on the viewing angle of ≥13°, which is robust to the choice of prior. This measurement provides a constraint on models of the prompt γ-ray and radio/X-ray afterglow emission associated with the merger; for example, it is consistent with the off-axis viewing angle inferred for a structured jet model. We provide for the first time the full posterior samples from Bayesian parameter estimation of LIGO/Virgo data to enable further analysis by the community.
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E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Lück, H.; Lumaca, D.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macas, R.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña Hernandez, I.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magaña Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markakis, C.; Markosyan, A. S.; Markowitz, A.; Maros, E.; Marquina, A.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Massera, E.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matas, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McCuller, L.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McNeill, L.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. 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M.; Pirello, M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Porter, E. K.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Pratten, G.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rajbhandari, B.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K. E.; Ramos-Buades, A.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ren, W.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Ricker, P. M.; Rieger, S.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romel, C. L.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Ross, M. P.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Rutins, G.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sanchez, L. E.; Sanchis-Gual, N.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheel, M.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schulte, B. W.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seidel, E.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shah, A. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaner, M. B.; Shao, L.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Somala, S.; Son, E. J.; Sonnenberg, J. A.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staats, K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Stops, D. J.; Strain, K. A.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Strunk, A.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Suresh, J.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Tait, S. C.; Talbot, C.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Tasson, J. D.; Taylor, J. A.; Taylor, R.; Tewari, S. V.; Theeg, T.; Thies, F.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres-Forné, A.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tsang, K. W.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Tsukada, L.; Tsuna, D.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ueno, K.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walet, R.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, W. H.; Wang, Y. F.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessel, E. K.; Weßels, P.; Westerweck, J.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Wilken, D.; Williams, D.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Wofford, J.; Wong, K. W. K.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wysocki, D. M.; Xiao, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, L.; Yap, M. J.; Yazback, M.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zelenova, T.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y.-H.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S. J.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration
2018-03-01
The LIGO Scientific and Virgo Collaborations have announced the event GW170817, the first detection of gravitational waves from the coalescence of two neutron stars. The merger rate of binary neutron stars estimated from this event suggests that distant, unresolvable binary neutron stars create a significant astrophysical stochastic gravitational-wave background. The binary neutron star component will add to the contribution from binary black holes, increasing the amplitude of the total astrophysical background relative to previous expectations. In the Advanced LIGO-Virgo frequency band most sensitive to stochastic backgrounds (near 25 Hz), we predict a total astrophysical background with amplitude ΩGW(f =25 Hz )=1. 8-1.3+2.7×10-9 with 90% confidence, compared with ΩGW(f =25 Hz )=1. 1-0.7+1.2×10-9 from binary black holes alone. Assuming the most probable rate for compact binary mergers, we find that the total background may be detectable with a signal-to-noise-ratio of 3 after 40 months of total observation time, based on the expected timeline for Advanced LIGO and Virgo to reach their design sensitivity.
High-energy astrophysics and the search for sources of gravitational waves.
O'Brien, P T; Evans, P
2018-05-28
The dawn of the gravitational-wave (GW) era has sparked a greatly renewed interest into possible links between sources of high-energy radiation and GWs. The most luminous high-energy sources-gamma-ray bursts (GRBs)-have long been considered as very likely sources of GWs, particularly from short-duration GRBs, which are thought to originate from the merger of two compact objects such as binary neutron stars and a neutron star-black hole binary. In this paper, we discuss: (i) the high-energy emission from short-duration GRBs; (ii) what other sources of high-energy radiation may be observed from binary mergers; and (iii) how searches for high-energy electromagnetic counterparts to GW events are performed with current space facilities. While current high-energy facilities, such as Swift and Fermi, play a crucial role in the search for electromagnetic counterparts, new space missions will greatly enhance our capabilities for joint observations. We discuss why such facilities, which incorporate new technology that enables very wide-field X-ray imaging, are required if we are to truly exploit the multi-messenger era.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The promises of gravitational-wave astronomy'. © 2018 The Author(s).
Optical Follow-up of Gravitational-wave Events with Las Cumbres Observatory
Arcavi, Iair; McCully, Curtis; Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Howell, D. Andrew; Vasylyev, Sergiy; Poznanski, Dovi; Zaltzman, Michael; Maoz, Dan; Singer, Leo; Valenti, Stefano; Kasen, Daniel; Barnes, Jennifer; Piran, Tsvi; Fong, Wen-fai
2017-10-01
We present an implementation of the Gehrels et al. galaxy-targeted strategy for gravitational-wave (GW) follow-up using the Las Cumbres Observatory global network of telescopes. We use the Galaxy List for the Advanced Detector Era (GLADE) galaxy catalog, which we show is complete (with respect to a Schechter function) out to ˜300 Mpc for galaxies brighter than the median Schechter function galaxy luminosity. We use a prioritization algorithm to select the galaxies with the highest chance of containing the counterpart given their luminosity, their position, and their distance relative to a GW localization, and in which we are most likely to detect a counterpart given its expected brightness compared to the limiting magnitude of our telescopes. This algorithm can be easily adapted to any expected transient parameters and telescopes. We implemented this strategy during the second Advanced Detector Observing Run (O2) and followed the black hole merger GW170814 and the neutron star merger GW170817. For the latter, we identified an optical kilonova/macronova counterpart thanks to our algorithm selecting the correct host galaxy fifth in its ranked list among the 182 galaxies we identified in the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO)/Virgo localization. This also allowed us to obtain some of the earliest observations of the first optical transient ever triggered by a GW detection (as presented in a companion paper).
High-energy astrophysics and the search for sources of gravitational waves
O'Brien, P. T.; Evans, P.
2018-05-01
The dawn of the gravitational-wave (GW) era has sparked a greatly renewed interest into possible links between sources of high-energy radiation and GWs. The most luminous high-energy sources-gamma-ray bursts (GRBs)-have long been considered as very likely sources of GWs, particularly from short-duration GRBs, which are thought to originate from the merger of two compact objects such as binary neutron stars and a neutron star-black hole binary. In this paper, we discuss: (i) the high-energy emission from short-duration GRBs; (ii) what other sources of high-energy radiation may be observed from binary mergers; and (iii) how searches for high-energy electromagnetic counterparts to GW events are performed with current space facilities. While current high-energy facilities, such as Swift and Fermi, play a crucial role in the search for electromagnetic counterparts, new space missions will greatly enhance our capabilities for joint observations. We discuss why such facilities, which incorporate new technology that enables very wide-field X-ray imaging, are required if we are to truly exploit the multi-messenger era. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue `The promises of gravitational-wave astronomy'.
Nonlinear wave breaking in self-gravitating viscoelastic quantum fluid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mitra, Aniruddha, E-mail: anibabun@gmail.com [Center for Plasma Studies, Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700 032 (India); Roychoudhury, Rajkumar, E-mail: rajdaju@rediffmail.com [Advanced Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Phenomena, 1175 Survey Park, Kolkata 700075 (India); Department of Mathematics, Bethune College, Kolkata 700006 (India); Bhar, Radhaballav [Center for Plasma Studies, Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700 032 (India); Khan, Manoranjan, E-mail: mkhan.ju@gmail.com [Center for Plasma Studies, Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700 032 (India)
2017-02-12
The stability of a viscoelastic self-gravitating quantum fluid has been studied. Symmetry breaking instability of solitary wave has been observed through ‘viscosity modified Ostrovsky equation’ in weak gravity limit. In presence of strong gravitational field, the solitary wave breaks into shock waves. Response to a Gaussian perturbation, the system produces quasi-periodic short waves, which in terns predicts the existence of gravito-acoustic quasi-periodic short waves in lower solar corona region. Stability analysis of this dynamical system predicts gravity has the most prominent effect on the phase portraits, therefore, on the stability of the system. The non-existence of chaotic solution has also been observed at long wavelength perturbation through index value theorem. - Highlights: • In weak gravitational field, viscoelastic quantum fluid exhibits symmetry breaking instability. • Gaussian perturbation produces quasi-periodic gravito-acoustic waves into the system. • There exists no chaotic state of the system against long wavelength perturbations.
Cosmological constraints on the amplitude of relic gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novosyadlij, B.; Apunevich, S.
2005-01-01
The evolution of the amplitude of relic gravitational waves (RGW) generated in early Universe has been analyzed. The analytical approximation is presented for angular power spectrum of cosmic microwave background anisotropies caused by gravitational waves through Sachs-Wolfe effect. The estimate of the most probable value for this amplitude was obtained on the basis of observation data on cosmic microwave background anisotropies from COBE, WMAP and BOOMERanG experiments along with large-scale structure observations
Effect of extra dimensions on gravitational waves from cosmic strings.
O'Callaghan, Eimear; Chadburn, Sarah; Geshnizjani, Ghazal; Gregory, Ruth; Zavala, Ivonne
2010-08-20
We show how the motion of cosmic superstrings in extra dimensions can modify the gravitational wave signal from cusps. Additional dimensions both round off cusps, as well as reducing the probability of their formation, and thus give a significant dimension dependent damping of the gravitational waves. We look at the implication of this effect for LIGO and LISA, as well as commenting on more general frequency bands.
Constraining Relativistic Generalizations of Modified Newtonian Dynamics with Gravitational Waves.
Chesler, Paul M; Loeb, Abraham
2017-07-21
In the weak-field limit of general relativity, gravitational waves obey linear equations and propagate at the speed of light. These properties of general relativity are supported by the observation of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays as well as by LIGO's recent detection of gravitation waves. We argue that two existing relativistic generalizations of modified Newtonian dynamics, namely, the generalized Einstein-aether theory and bimetric modified Newtonian dynamics, display fatal inconsistencies with these observations.
Soft Gravitons & the Memory Effect for Plane Gravitational Waves
Zhang, P. -M.; Duval, C.; Gibbons, G. W.; Horvathy, P. A.
2017-01-01
The "gravitational memory effect" due to an exact plane wave provides us with an elementary description of the diffeomorphisms associated with soft gravitons. It is explained how the presence of the latter may be detected by observing the motion of freely falling particles or other forms of gravitational wave detection. Numerical calculations confirm the relevance of the first, second and third time integrals of the Riemann tensor pointed out earlier. Solutions for various profiles are constr...
Gravitational waves from a pulsar kick caused by neutrino conversions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loveridge, Lee C.
2004-01-01
It has been suggested that the observed pulsar velocities are caused by an asymmetric neutrino emission from a hot neutron star during the first seconds after the supernova collapse. We calculate the magnitude of gravitational waves produced by the asymmetries in the emission of neutrinos. The resulting periodic gravitational waves may be detectable by LIGO and LISA in the event of a nearby supernova explosion
Gravitational waves from global second order phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jr, John T. Giblin [Department of Physics, Kenyon College, 201 North College Rd, Gambier, OH 43022 (United States); Price, Larry R.; Siemens, Xavier; Vlcek, Brian, E-mail: giblinj@kenyon.edu, E-mail: larryp@caltech.edu, E-mail: siemens@gravity.phys.uwm.edu, E-mail: bvlcek@uwm.edu [Center for Gravitation and Cosmology, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States)
2012-11-01
Global second-order phase transitions are expected to produce scale-invariant gravitational wave spectra. In this manuscript we explore the dynamics of a symmetry-breaking phase transition using lattice simulations. We explicitly calculate the stochastic gravitational wave background produced during the transition and subsequent self-ordering phase. We comment on this signal as it compares to the scale-invariant spectrum produced during inflation.
Laser amplitude stabilization for advanced interferometric gravitational wave detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barr, B W; Strain, K A; Killow, C J
2005-01-01
We present results of experiments into the stabilization of the amplitude of Nd:YAG lasers for use in advanced gravitational wave detectors. By feeding back directly to the pump-diode driving current we achieved shot-noise-limited stabilization at frequencies up to several kHz with some residual noise at lower frequencies (sub ∼100 Hz). The method used is applicable to higher powered laser systems planned for advanced interferometric gravitational wave detectors
Gravitational wave emission from the coalescence of white dwarfs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia-Berro, E; Loren-Aguilar, P; Isern, J; Pedemonte, A G; Guerrero, J; Lobo, J A
2005-01-01
We have computed the gravitational wave emission arising from the coalescence of several close white dwarf binary systems. In order to do so, we have followed the evolution of such systems using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. Here we present some of the results obtained so far, paying special attention to the detectability of the emitted gravitational waves. Within this context, we show which could be the impact of individual merging episodes for LISA
Numerical Relativity for Space-Based Gravitational Wave Astronomy
Baker, John G.
2011-01-01
In the next decade, gravitational wave instruments in space may provide high-precision measurements of gravitational-wave signals from strong sources, such as black holes. Currently variations on the original Laser Interferometer Space Antenna mission concepts are under study in the hope of reducing costs. Even the observations of a reduced instrument may place strong demands on numerical relativity capabilities. Possible advances in the coming years may fuel a new generation of codes ready to confront these challenges.
Observation of gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Arain, M.A.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K.M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón, J.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cruise, A. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, Laura; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.A.; DeRosa, R. T.; Rosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M. Di; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurs, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fong, H.; Fournier, J. -D.; Franco, S; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Abhirup Ghosh, Ghosh; Archisman,; Ghosh, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glaefke, A.; Gleason, J. R.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heefner, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heinzel, G.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M. B.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, D.H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Johnson-McDaniel, N. K.; Johnson-McDaniel, N. K.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J.G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.E.; Keppel, D. G.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Nam-Gyu Kim, Kim; Namjun Kim, Kim; Kim, Y.M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Koranda, S.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwee, P.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Li, T. G.F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R.M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Arunava Mukherjee, Mukherjee; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Richard, J. Oram; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Pickenpack, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J. H.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramet, C. R.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, Perminder S; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, G. H.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Simakov, D.; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, R.M.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stevenson-Moore, P.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; Van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; Van Den Brand, J. F.J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Waldman, S. J.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, H.A.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wiesner, K.; Wilkinson, C.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, L.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkelmann, L.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wiseman, A. G.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.
2017-01-01
Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, first published a century ago, was described by physicist Max Born as "the greatest feat of human thinking about nature."We report on two major scientific breakthroughs involving key predictions of Einstein's theory: the first direct detection of
Experimental Limits on Gravitational Waves in the MHz frequency Range
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lanza, Robert Jr. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)
2015-03-01
This thesis presents the results of a search for gravitational waves in the 1-11MHz frequency range using dual power-recycled Michelson laser interferometers at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. An unprecedented level of sensitivity to gravitational waves in this frequency range has been achieved by cross-correlating the output fluctuations of two identical and colocated 40m long interferometers. This technique produces sensitivities better than two orders of magnitude below the quantum shot-noise limit, within integration times of less than 1 hour. 95% confidence level upper limits are placed on the strain amplitude of MHz frequency gravitational waves at the 10^{-21} Hz^{-1/2} level, constituting the best direct limits to date at these frequencies. For gravitational wave power distributed over this frequency range, a broadband upper limit of 2.4 x 10^{-21}Hz^{-1/2} at 95% confidence level is also obtained. This thesis covers the detector technology, the commissioning and calibration of the instrument, the statistical data analysis, and the gravitational wave limit results. Particular attention is paid to the end-to-end calibration of the instrument’s sensitivity to differential arm length motion, and so to gravitational wave strain. A detailed statistical analysis of the data is presented as well.
Response of a Doppler canceling system to plane gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caporali, A.
1982-01-01
This paper discusses the interaction of long periodic gravitational waves with a three-link microwave system known as the Doppler canceling system. This system, which was developed for gravitational red-shift experiment, uses one-way and two-way Doppler information to construct the beat signal of two reference oscillators moving with respect to each other. The geometric-optics approximation is used to derive the frequency shift produced on a light signal propagating in a gravitational-wave space-time. The signature left on the Doppler-canceled beat by bursts and continuous gravitational waves is analyzed. A comparison is made between the response to gravitational waves of the Doppler canceling system and that of a (NASA) Doppler tracking system which employs two-way, round-trip radio waves. A threefold repetition of the gravitational wave form is found to be a common feature of the response functions of both systems. These two functions otherwise exhibit interesting differences
The electromagnetic interferent antennae for gravitational waves detection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulak, A.
1984-01-01
An electromagnetic wave propagating in the toroidal waveguide is considered as an electromagnetic gravitational antenna. An interferometric method is applied to measure the disturbances of phase of the electromagnetic field caused by the incident gravitational wave. The calculations presented take into account the dispersive and dissipative phenomena occurring during the interaction between electromagnetic and gravitational fields. The active cross-section of the antenna interacting with coherent and pulsed gravitational radiation is estimated. Experimental possibilities presently available are discussed. Limiting fluxes in the astrophysical range of frequencies measured by the interferometric electromagnetic antenna are a factor of ten or so smaller than in the case of a classic mechanical antenna. Moreover the antenna could be used for carrying out a gravitational Hertz experiment. (author)
Gravitational wave memory in ΛCDM cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bieri, Lydia; Garfinkle, David; Yunes, Nicolás
2017-01-01
We examine gravitational wave memory in the case where sources and detector are in a ΛCDM cosmology. We consider the case where the Universe can be highly inhomogeneous, but gravitational radiation is treated in the short wavelength approximation. We find results very similar to those of gravitational wave memory in an asymptotically flat spacetime; however, the overall magnitude of the memory effect is enhanced by a redshift-dependent factor. In addition, we find the memory can be affected by lensing. (paper)
On constraining the speed of gravitational waves following GW150914
Blas, Diego; Sawicki, Ignacy; Sibiryakov, Sergey
2016-07-31
We point out that the observed time delay between the detection of the signal at the Hanford and Livingston LIGO sites from the gravitational wave event GW150914 places an upper bound on the speed of propagation of gravitational waves, $c_{gw}\\lesssim 1.7$ in the units of speed of light. Combined with the lower bound from the absence of gravitational Cherenkov losses by cosmic rays that rules out most of subluminal velocities, this gives a model-independent double-sided constraint $1\\lesssim c_{gw}\\lesssim 1.7$. We compare this result to model-specific constraints from pulsar timing and cosmology.
iPTF SEARCH FOR AN OPTICAL COUNTERPART TO GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE TRANSIENT GW150914
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kasliwal, M. M.; Cao, Y.; Barlow, T.; Bellm, E.; Cook, D.; Duggan, G. E.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Lunnan, R. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cenko, S. B.; Singer, L. P. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Corsi, A.; Palliyaguru, N. [Texas Tech University, Physics Department, Lubbock, TX 79409-1051 (United States); Bhalerao, V. [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Ferretti, R. [The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Frail, D. A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM (United States); Horesh, A.; Manulis, I. [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Kendrick, R. [Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Laher, R. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, M/S 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Masci, F. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others
2016-06-20
The intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) autonomously responded to and promptly tiled the error region of the first gravitational-wave event GW150914 to search for an optical counterpart. Only a small fraction of the total localized region was immediately visible in the northern night sky, due both to Sun-angle and elevation constraints. Here, we report on the transient candidates identified and rapid follow-up undertaken to determine the nature of each candidate. Even in the small area imaged of 126 deg{sup 2}, after extensive filtering, eight candidates were deemed worthy of additional follow-up. Within two hours, all eight were spectroscopically classified by the Keck II telescope. Curiously, even though such events are rare, one of our candidates was a superluminous supernova. We obtained radio data with the Jansky Very Large Array and X-ray follow-up with the Swift satellite for this transient. None of our candidates appear to be associated with the gravitational-wave trigger, which is unsurprising given that GW150914 came from the merger of two stellar-mass black holes. This end-to-end discovery and follow-up campaign bodes well for future searches in this post-detection era of gravitational waves.
Low-Frequency Gravitational-Wave Science with eLISA/ NGO
Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Aoudia, Sofiane; Babak, Stanislav; Binetruy, Pierre; Berti, Emanuele; Bohe, Alejandro; Caprini, Chiara; Colpi, Monica; Cornish, Neil J.; Danzmann, Karsten;
2011-01-01
We review the expected science performance of the New Gravitational-Wave Observatory (NGO, a.k.a. eLISA), a mission under study by the European Space Agency for launch in the early 2020s. eLISA will survey the low-frequency gravitational-wave sky (from 0.1 mHz to 1 Hz), detecting and characterizing a broad variety of systems and events throughout the Universe, including the coalescences of massive black holes brought together by galaxy mergers; the inspirals of stellar-mass black holes and compact stars into central galactic black holes; several millions of ultracompact binaries, both detached and mass transferring, in the Galaxy; and possibly unforeseen sources such as the relic gravitational-wave radiation from the early Universe. eLISA's high signal-to-noise measurements will provide new insight into the structure and history of the Universe, and they will test general relativity in its strong-field dynamical regime.
Accuracy of Estimating Highly Eccentric Binary Black Hole Parameters with Gravitational-wave Detections
Gondán, László; Kocsis, Bence; Raffai, Péter; Frei, Zsolt
2018-03-01
Mergers of stellar-mass black holes on highly eccentric orbits are among the targets for ground-based gravitational-wave detectors, including LIGO, VIRGO, and KAGRA. These sources may commonly form through gravitational-wave emission in high-velocity dispersion systems or through the secular Kozai–Lidov mechanism in triple systems. Gravitational waves carry information about the binaries’ orbital parameters and source location. Using the Fisher matrix technique, we determine the measurement accuracy with which the LIGO–VIRGO–KAGRA network could measure the source parameters of eccentric binaries using a matched filtering search of the repeated burst and eccentric inspiral phases of the waveform. We account for general relativistic precession and the evolution of the orbital eccentricity and frequency during the inspiral. We find that the signal-to-noise ratio and the parameter measurement accuracy may be significantly higher for eccentric sources than for circular sources. This increase is sensitive to the initial pericenter distance, the initial eccentricity, and the component masses. For instance, compared to a 30 {M}ȯ –30 {M}ȯ non-spinning circular binary, the chirp mass and sky-localization accuracy can improve by a factor of ∼129 (38) and ∼2 (11) for an initially highly eccentric binary assuming an initial pericenter distance of 20 M tot (10 M tot).
Gravitational Waves and Intermediate-mass Black Hole Retention in Globular Clusters
Fragione, Giacomo; Ginsburg, Idan; Kocsis, Bence
2018-04-01
The recent discovery of gravitational waves (GWs) has opened new horizons for physics. Current and upcoming missions, such as LIGO, VIRGO, KAGRA, and LISA, promise to shed light on black holes of every size from stellar mass (SBH) sizes up to supermassive black holes. The intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) family has not been detected beyond any reasonable doubt. Recent analyses suggest observational evidence for the presence of IMBHs in the centers of two Galactic globular clusters (GCs). In this paper, we investigate the possibility that GCs were born with a central IMBH, which undergoes repeated merger events with SBHs in the cluster core. By means of a semi-analytical method, we follow the evolution of the primordial cluster population in the galactic potential and the mergers of the binary IMBH-SBH systems. Our models predict ≈1000 IMBHs within 1 kpc from the galactic center and show that the IMBH-SBH merger rate density changes from { \\mathcal R }≈ 1000 Gpc‑3 yr‑1 beyond z ≈ 2 to { \\mathcal R }≈ 1{--}10 Gpc‑3 yr‑1 at z ≈ 0. The rates at low redshifts may be significantly higher if young massive star clusters host IMBHs. The merger rates are dominated by IMBHs with masses between 103 and 104 M ⊙. Currently, there are no LIGO/VIRGO upper limits for GW sources in this mass range, but our results show that at design sensitivity, these instruments will detect IMBH-SBH mergers in the coming years. LISA and the Einstein Telescope will be best suited to detect these events. The inspirals of IMBH-SBH systems may also generate an unresolved GW background.
The formation and gravitational-wave detection of massive stellar black hole binaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belczynski, Krzysztof; Walczak, Marek; Buonanno, Alessandra; Cantiello, Matteo; Fryer, Chris L.; Holz, Daniel E.; Mandel, Ilya; Miller, M. Coleman
2014-01-01
If binaries consisting of two ∼100 M ☉ black holes exist, they would serve as extraordinarily powerful gravitational-wave sources, detectable to redshifts of z ∼ 2 with the advanced LIGO/Virgo ground-based detectors. Large uncertainties about the evolution of massive stars preclude definitive rate predictions for mergers of these massive black holes. We show that rates as high as hundreds of detections per year, or as low as no detections whatsoever, are both possible. It was thought that the only way to produce these massive binaries was via dynamical interactions in dense stellar systems. This view has been challenged by the recent discovery of several ≳ 150 M ☉ stars in the R136 region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Current models predict that when stars of this mass leave the main sequence, their expansion is insufficient to allow common envelope evolution to efficiently reduce the orbital separation. The resulting black hole-black hole binary remains too wide to be able to coalesce within a Hubble time. If this assessment is correct, isolated very massive binaries do not evolve to be gravitational-wave sources. However, other formation channels exist. For example, the high multiplicity of massive stars, and their common formation in relatively dense stellar associations, opens up dynamical channels for massive black hole mergers (e.g., via Kozai cycles or repeated binary-single interactions). We identify key physical factors that shape the population of very massive black hole-black hole binaries. Advanced gravitational-wave detectors will provide important constraints on the formation and evolution of very massive stars.
Cai, Rong-Gen; Yang, Tao
2017-02-01
We investigate the constraint ability of the gravitational wave (GW) as the standard siren on the cosmological parameters by using the third-generation gravitational wave detector: the Einstein Telescope. The binary merger of a neutron with either a neutron or black hole is hypothesized to be the progenitor of a short and intense burst of γ rays; some fraction of those binary mergers could be detected both through electromagnetic radiation and gravitational waves. Thus we can determine both the luminosity distance and redshift of the source separately. We simulate the luminosity distances and redshift measurements from 100 to 1000 GW events. We use two different algorithms to constrain the cosmological parameters. For the Hubble constant H0 and dark matter density parameter Ωm, we adopt the Markov chain Monte Carlo approach. We find that with about 500-600 GW events we can constrain the Hubble constant with an accuracy comparable to Planck temperature data and Planck lensing combined results, while for the dark matter density, GWs alone seem not able to provide the constraints as good as for the Hubble constant; the sensitivity of 1000 GW events is a little lower than that of Planck data. It should require more than 1000 events to match the Planck sensitivity. Yet, for analyzing the more complex dynamical property of dark energy, i.e., the equation of state w , we adopt a new powerful nonparametric method: the Gaussian process. We can reconstruct w directly from the observational luminosity distance at every redshift. In the low redshift region, we find that about 700 GW events can give the constraints of w (z ) comparable to the constraints of a constant w by Planck data with type-Ia supernovae. Those results show that GWs as the standard sirens to probe the cosmological parameters can provide an independent and complementary alternative to current experiments.
George, Daniel; Huerta, E. A.
2018-03-01
The recent Nobel-prize-winning detections of gravitational waves from merging black holes and the subsequent detection of the collision of two neutron stars in coincidence with electromagnetic observations have inaugurated a new era of multimessenger astrophysics. To enhance the scope of this emergent field of science, we pioneered the use of deep learning with convolutional neural networks, that take time-series inputs, for rapid detection and characterization of gravitational wave signals. This approach, Deep Filtering, was initially demonstrated using simulated LIGO noise. In this article, we present the extension of Deep Filtering using real data from LIGO, for both detection and parameter estimation of gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers using continuous data streams from multiple LIGO detectors. We demonstrate for the first time that machine learning can detect and estimate the true parameters of real events observed by LIGO. Our results show that Deep Filtering achieves similar sensitivities and lower errors compared to matched-filtering while being far more computationally efficient and more resilient to glitches, allowing real-time processing of weak time-series signals in non-stationary non-Gaussian noise with minimal resources, and also enables the detection of new classes of gravitational wave sources that may go unnoticed with existing detection algorithms. This unified framework for data analysis is ideally suited to enable coincident detection campaigns of gravitational waves and their multimessenger counterparts in real-time.
The potential for very high-frequency gravitational wave detection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cruise, A M
2012-01-01
The science case for observing gravitational waves at frequencies in the millihertz-kilohertz range using LIGO, VIRGO, GEO600 or LISA is very strong and the first results are expected at these frequencies. However, as gravitational wave astronomy progresses beyond the first detections, other frequency bands may be worth exploring. Early predictions of gravitational wave emission from discrete sources at very much higher frequencies (megahertz and above) have been published and more recent studies of cosmological signals from inflation, Kaluza-Klein modes from gravitational interactions in brane worlds and plasma instabilities surrounding violent astrophysical events, are all possible sources. This communication examines current observational possibilities and the detector technology required to make meaningful observations at these frequencies. (paper)
Gravitational Waves From a Dark (Twin) Phase Transition
Schwaller, Pedro
2015-01-01
In this work, we show that a large class of models with a composite dark sector undergo a strong first order phase transition in the early universe, which could lead to a detectable gravitational wave signal. We summarise the basic conditions for a strong first order phase transition for SU(N) dark sectors with n_f flavours, calculate the gravitational wave spectrum and show that, depending on the dark confinement scale, it can be detected at eLISA or in pulsar timing array experiments. The gravitational wave signal provides a unique test of the gravitational interactions of a dark sector, and we discuss the complementarity with conventional searches for new dark sectors. The discussion includes Twin Higgs and SIMP models as well as symmetric and asymmetric composite dark matter scenarios.
Pulsar timing arrays: the promise of gravitational wave detection.
Lommen, Andrea N
2015-12-01
We describe the history, methods, tools, and challenges of using pulsars to detect gravitational waves. Pulsars act as celestial clocks detecting gravitational perturbations in space-time at wavelengths of light-years. The field is poised to make its first detection of nanohertz gravitational waves in the next 10 years. Controversies remain over how far we can reduce the noise in the pulsars, how many pulsars should be in the array, what kind of source we will detect first, and how we can best accommodate our large bandwidth systems. We conclude by considering the important question of how to plan for a post-detection era, beyond the first detection of gravitational waves.
Wang, Sai; Wang, Yi-Fan; Huang, Qing-Guo; Li, Tjonnie G F
2018-05-11
Advanced LIGO's discovery of gravitational-wave events is stimulating extensive studies on the origin of binary black holes. Assuming that the gravitational-wave events can be explained by binary primordial black hole mergers, we utilize the upper limits on the stochastic gravitational-wave background given by Advanced LIGO as a new observational window to independently constrain the abundance of primordial black holes in dark matter. We show that Advanced LIGO's first observation run gives the best constraint on the primordial black hole abundance in the mass range 1M_{⊙}≲M_{PBH}≲100M_{⊙}, pushing the previous microlensing and dwarf galaxy dynamics constraints tighter by 1 order of magnitude. Moreover, we discuss the possibility to detect the stochastic gravitational-wave background from primordial black holes, in particular from subsolar mass primordial black holes, by Advanced LIGO in the near future.
Wang, Sai; Wang, Yi-Fan; Huang, Qing-Guo; Li, Tjonnie G. F.
2018-05-01
Advanced LIGO's discovery of gravitational-wave events is stimulating extensive studies on the origin of binary black holes. Assuming that the gravitational-wave events can be explained by binary primordial black hole mergers, we utilize the upper limits on the stochastic gravitational-wave background given by Advanced LIGO as a new observational window to independently constrain the abundance of primordial black holes in dark matter. We show that Advanced LIGO's first observation run gives the best constraint on the primordial black hole abundance in the mass range 1 M⊙≲MPBH≲100 M⊙, pushing the previous microlensing and dwarf galaxy dynamics constraints tighter by 1 order of magnitude. Moreover, we discuss the possibility to detect the stochastic gravitational-wave background from primordial black holes, in particular from subsolar mass primordial black holes, by Advanced LIGO in the near future.
Infrared observations of gravitational-wave sources in Advanced LIGO's second observing run
Pound Singer, Leo; Kasliwal, Mansi; Lau, Ryan; Cenko, Bradley; Global Relay of Observatories Watching Transients Happen (GROWTH)
2018-01-01
Advanced LIGO observed gravitational waves (GWs) from a binary black hole merger in its first observing run (O1) in September 2015. It is anticipated that LIGO and Virgo will soon detect the first binary neutron star mergers. The most promising electromagnetic counterparts to such events are kilonovae: fast, faint transients powered by the radioactive decay of the r-process ejecta. Joint gravitational-wave and electromagnetic observations of such transients hold the key to many longstanding problems, from the nature of short GRBS to the cosmic production sites of the r-process elements to "standard siren" cosmology. Due to the large LIGO/Virgo error regions of 100 deg2, synoptic survey telescopes have dominated the search for LIGO counterparts. Due to the paucity of infrared instruments with multi-deg2 fields of view, infrared observations have been lacking. Near-infrared emission should not only be a more robust signature of kilonovae than optical emission (independent of viewing angle), but should also be several magnitudes brighter and be detectable for much longer, weeks after merger rather than days. In Advanced LIGO's second observing run, we used the FLAMINGOS-2 instrument on Gemini-South to hunt for the near-infrared emission from GW sources by targeted imaging of the most massive galaxies in the LIGO/Virgo localization volumes. We present the results of this campaign, rates, and interpretation of our near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy. We show that leveraging large-scale structure and targeted imaging of the most massive ~10 galaxies in a LIGO/Virgo localization volume may be a surprisingly effective strategy to find the electromagnetic counterpart.
Singularities and horizons in the collisions of gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yurtsever, U.H.
1989-01-01
This thesis presents a study of the dynamical, nonlinear interaction of colliding gravitational waves, as described by classical general relativity. In the work on the collisions of exactly-plane waves, it is shown that Killing horizons in any plane-symmetric spacetime are unstable against small plane-symmetric perturbations. It is thus concluded that the Killing-Cauchy horizons produced by the collisions of some exactly plane gravitational waves are nongeneric, and the generic initial data for the colliding plane waves always produce pure spacetime singularities without such horizons. This conclusion is later proved rigorously (using the full nonlinear theory rather than perturbation theory), in connection with an analysis of the asymptotic singularity structure of a general colliding plane-wave spacetime. This analysis also proves that asymptotically the singularities created by colliding plane waves are of inhomogeneous-Kasner type; the asymptotic Kasner axes and exponents of these singularities in general depend on the spatial coordinate that runs tangentially to the singularity in the non-plane-symmetric direction. In the work on collisions of almost-plane gravitational waves, first some general properties of single almost-plane gravitational-wave spacetimes are explored. It is shown that, by contrast with an exact plane wave, an almost-plane gravitational wave cannot have a propagation direction that is Killing; i.e., it must diffract and disperse as it propagates. It is also shown that an almost-plane wave cannot be precisely sandwiched between two null wave-fronts; i.e., it must leave behind tails in the spacetime region through which is passes
Limits on the speed of gravitational waves from pulsar timing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baskaran, D.; Polnarev, A. G.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Postnov, K. A.
2008-01-01
In this work, analyzing the propagation of electromagnetic waves in the field of gravitational waves, we show the presence and significance of the so-called surfing effect for pulsar timing measurements. It is shown that, due to the transverse nature of gravitational waves, the surfing effect leads to enormous pulsar timing residuals if the speed of gravitational waves is smaller than the speed of light. This fact allows one to place significant constraints on parameter ε, which characterizes the relative deviation of the speed of gravitational waves from the speed of light. We show that the existing constraints from pulsar timing measurements already place stringent limits on ε and consequently on the mass of the graviton m g . The limits on m g -24 are 2 orders of magnitude stronger than the current constraints from Solar System tests. The current constraints also allow one to rule out massive gravitons as possible candidates for cold dark matter in the galactic halo. In the near future, the gravitational wave background from extragalactic super massive black hole binaries, along with the expected submicrosecond pulsar timing accuracy, will allow one to achieve constraints of ε < or approx. 0.4% and possibly stronger.
First Search for Nontensorial Gravitational Waves from Known Pulsars
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Afrough, M.; Agarwal, B.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, G.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Amato, A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Antier, S.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Bader, M. K.M.; Bertolini, A.; Bulten, H. J.; Del Pozzo, W.; Jonker, R. J.G.; Li, T. G.F.; Meidam, J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Van Bakel, N.; Van Den Brand, J. F.J.; Veitch, J.
2018-01-01
We present results from the first directed search for nontensorial gravitational waves. While general relativity allows for tensorial (plus and cross) modes only, a generic metric theory may, in principle, predict waves with up to six different polarizations. This analysis is sensitive to continuous
Turbulence of Weak Gravitational Waves in the Early Universe.
Galtier, Sébastien; Nazarenko, Sergey V
2017-12-01
We study the statistical properties of an ensemble of weak gravitational waves interacting nonlinearly in a flat space-time. We show that the resonant three-wave interactions are absent and develop a theory for four-wave interactions in the reduced case of a 2.5+1 diagonal metric tensor. In this limit, where only plus-polarized gravitational waves are present, we derive the interaction Hamiltonian and consider the asymptotic regime of weak gravitational wave turbulence. Both direct and inverse cascades are found for the energy and the wave action, respectively, and the corresponding wave spectra are derived. The inverse cascade is characterized by a finite-time propagation of the metric excitations-a process similar to an explosive nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation, which provides an efficient mechanism to ironing out small-scale inhomogeneities. The direct cascade leads to an accumulation of the radiation energy in the system. These processes might be important for understanding the early Universe where a background of weak nonlinear gravitational waves is expected.
Quantum field theory in a gravitational shock wave background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klimcik, C.
1988-01-01
A scalar massless non-interacting quantum field theory on an arbitrary gravitational shock wave background is exactly solved. S-matrix and expectation values of the energy-momentum tensor are computed for an arbitrarily polarized sourceless gravitational shock wave and for a homogeneous infinite planar shell shock wave, all performed in any number of space-time dimensions. Expectation values of the energy density in scattering states exhibit a singularity which lies exactly at the location of the curvature singularity found in the infinite shell collision. (orig.)
CMB statistical anisotropy from noncommutative gravitational waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shiraishi, Maresuke; Ricciardone, Angelo [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Università degli Studi di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131, Padova (Italy); Mota, David F. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); Arroja, Frederico, E-mail: maresuke.shiraishi@pd.infn.it, E-mail: d.f.mota@astro.uio.no, E-mail: angelo.ricciardone@pd.infn.it, E-mail: arroja@pd.infn.it [INFN, Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131, Padova (Italy)
2014-07-01
Primordial statistical anisotropy is a key indicator to investigate early Universe models and has been probed by the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. In this paper, we examine tensor-mode CMB fluctuations generated from anisotropic gravitational waves, parametrised by P{sub h}(k) = P{sub h}{sup (0)}(k) [ 1 + ∑{sub LM} f{sub L}(k) g{sub LM} Y{sub LM} ( k-circumflex )], where P{sub h}{sup (0)}(k) is the usual scale-invariant power spectrum. Such anisotropic tensor fluctuations may arise from an inflationary model with noncommutativity of fields. It is verified that in this model, an isotropic component and a quadrupole asymmetry with f{sub 0}(k) = f{sub 2}(k) ∝ k{sup -2} are created and hence highly red-tilted off-diagonal components arise in the CMB power spectra, namely ℓ{sub 2} = ℓ{sub 1} ± 2 in TT, TE, EE and BB, and ℓ{sub 2} = ℓ{sub 1} ± 1 in TB and EB. We find that B-mode polarisation is more sensitive to such signals than temperature and E-mode polarisation due to the smallness of large-scale cosmic variance and we can potentially measure g{sub 00} = 30 and g{sub 2M} = 58 at 68% CL in a cosmic-variance-limited experiment. Such a level of signal may be measured in a PRISM like experiment, while the instrumental noise contaminates it in the Planck experiment. These results imply that it is impossible to measure the noncommutative parameter if it is small enough for the perturbative treatment to be valid. Our formalism and methodology for dealing with the CMB tensor statistical anisotropy are general and straightforwardly applicable to other early Universe models.
Imprints of relic gravitational waves in cosmic microwave background radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baskaran, D.; Grishchuk, L. P.; Polnarev, A. G.
2006-01-01
A strong variable gravitational field of the very early Universe inevitably generates relic gravitational waves by amplifying their zero-point quantum oscillations. We begin our discussion by contrasting the concepts of relic gravitational waves and inflationary 'tensor modes'. We explain and summarize the properties of relic gravitational waves that are needed to derive their effects on cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies. The radiation field is characterized by four invariants I, V, E, B. We reduce the radiative transfer equations to a single integral equation of Voltairre type and solve it analytically and numerically. We formulate the correlation functions C l XX ' for X, X ' =T, E, B and derive their amplitudes, shapes and oscillatory features. Although all of our main conclusions are supported by exact numerical calculations, we obtain them, in effect, analytically by developing and using accurate approximations. We show that the TE correlation at lower l's must be negative (i.e. an anticorrelation), if it is caused by gravitational waves, and positive if it is caused by density perturbations. This difference in TE correlation may be a signature more valuable observationally than the lack or presence of the BB correlation, since the TE signal is about 100 times stronger than the expected BB signal. We discuss the detection by WMAP of the TE anticorrelation at l≅30 and show that such an anticorrelation is possible only in the presence of a significant amount of relic gravitational waves (within the framework of all other common assumptions). We propose models containing considerable amounts of relic gravitational waves that are consistent with the measured TT, TE and EE correlations
Dark matter structures and emission of very long gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G.S.
2005-01-01
Formation of large structure in the Universe as a result of gravitational instability in cold dark matter is investigated in a simple analytical model. Collapse of the rotating spheroid is approximated by a system of ordinary differential equations describing its dynamics. The gravitational potential is approximated by the one of the uniform Maclaurin spheroid. Development of gravitational instability and collapse in the dark matter medium do not lead to any shock formation or radiation, but is characterized by non-collisional relaxation, which is accompanied by the mass and angular momentum losses. Phenomenological account of these processes is done in this model. Formation of the equilibrium configuration dynamics of collapse is investigated. A very long gravitational wave emission during the collapse is estimated, and their possible connection with the observed gravitational lenses is discussed
Nuclear limits on gravitational waves from elliptically deformed pulsars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krastev, Plamen G.; Li Baoan; Worley, Aaron
2008-01-01
Gravitational radiation is a fundamental prediction of General Relativity. Elliptically deformed pulsars are among the possible sources emitting gravitational waves (GWs) with a strain-amplitude dependent upon the star's quadrupole moment, rotational frequency, and distance from the detector. We show that the gravitational wave strain amplitude h 0 depends strongly on the equation of state of neutron-rich stellar matter. Applying an equation of state with symmetry energy constrained by recent nuclear laboratory data, we set an upper limit on the strain-amplitude of GWs produced by elliptically deformed pulsars. Depending on details of the EOS, for several millisecond pulsars at distances 0.18 kpc to 0.35 kpc from Earth, the maximalh 0 is found to be in the range of ∼[0.4-1.5]x10 -24 . This prediction serves as the first direct nuclear constraint on the gravitational radiation. Its implications are discussed
First VESF School on Advanced Detectors for Gravitational Waves
Advanced Interferometers and the Search for Gravitational Waves
2014-01-01
The search for gravitational radiation with optical interferometers is gaining momentum worldwide. Beside the VIRGO and GEO gravitational wave observatories in Europe and the two LIGOs in the United States, which have operated successfully during the past decade, further observatories are being completed (KAGRA in Japan) or planned (ILIGO in India). The sensitivity of the current observatories, although spectacular, has not allowed direct discovery of gravitational waves. The advanced detectors (Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo), at present in the development phase, will improve sensitivity by a factor of 10, probing the universe up to 200 Mpc for signal from inspiraling binary compact stars. This book covers all experimental aspects of the search for gravitational radiation with optical interferometers. Every facet of the technological development underlying the evolution of advanced interferometers is thoroughly described, from configuration to optics and coatings, and from thermal compensation to suspensio...
Streamlining Collaboration for the Gravitational-wave Astronomy Community
Koranda, S.
2016-12-01
In the morning hours of September 14, 2015 the LaserInterferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) directlydetected gravitational waves from inspiraling and coalescingblack holes, confirming a major prediction of AlbertEinstein's general theory of relativity and beginning the eraof gravitational-wave astronomy. With the LIGO detectors in the United States, the Virgo andGEO detectors in Europe, and the KAGRA detector in Japan thegravitational-wave astrononmy community is opening a newwindow on our Universe. Realizing the full science potentialof LIGO and the other interferometers requires globalcollaboration not only within the gravitational-wave astronomycommunity but also with the astronomers and astrophysicists acrossmultipe disciplines working to realize and leverage the powerof multi-messenger astronomy. Enabling thousands of researchers from around the world andacross multiple projects to efficiently collaborate, share,and analyze data and provide streamlined access to services,computing, and tools requires new and scalable approaches toidentity and access management (IAM). We will discuss LIGO'sIAM journey that began in 2007 and how today LIGO leveragesinternal identity federations like InCommon and eduGAIN toprovide scalable and managed access for the gravitational-waveastronomy community. We will discuss the steps both largeand small research organizations and projects take as theirIAM infrastructure matures from ad-hoc silos of independent services to fully integrated and federated services thatstreamline collaboration so that scientists can focus onresearch and not managing passwords.
Low-Frequency Gravitational Wave Searches Using Spacecraft Doppler Tracking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Armstrong J. W.
2006-01-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses spacecraft Doppler tracking, the current-generation detector technology used in the low-frequency (~millihertz gravitational wave band. In the Doppler method the earth and a distant spacecraft act as free test masses with a ground-based precision Doppler tracking system continuously monitoring the earth-spacecraft relative dimensionless velocity $2 Delta v/c = Delta u/ u_0$, where $Delta u$ is the Doppler shift and $ u_0$ is the radio link carrier frequency. A gravitational wave having strain amplitude $h$ incident on the earth-spacecraft system causes perturbations of order $h$ in the time series of $Delta u/ u_0$. Unlike other detectors, the ~1-10 AU earth-spacecraft separation makes the detector large compared with millihertz-band gravitational wavelengths, and thus times-of-flight of signals and radio waves through the apparatus are important. A burst signal, for example, is time-resolved into a characteristic signature: three discrete events in the Doppler time series. I discuss here the principles of operation of this detector (emphasizing transfer functions of gravitational wave signals and the principal noises to the Doppler time series, some data analysis techniques, experiments to date, and illustrations of sensitivity and current detector performance. I conclude with a discussion of how gravitational wave sensitivity can be improved in the low-frequency band.
Direct detection of the inflationary gravitational-wave background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, Tristan L.; Kamionkowski, Marc; Cooray, Asantha
2006-01-01
Inflation generically predicts a stochastic background of gravitational waves over a broad range of frequencies, from those accessible with cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements, to those accessible directly with gravitational-wave detectors, like NASA's Big-Bang Observer (BBO) or Japan's Deci-Hertz Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observer (DECIGO), both currently under study. Here we investigate the detectability of the inflationary gravitational-wave background at BBO/DECIGO frequencies. To do so, we survey a range of slow-roll inflationary models consistent with constraints from the CMB and large-scale structure (LSS). We go beyond the usual assumption of power-law power spectra, which may break down given the 16 orders of magnitude in frequency between the CMB and direct detection, and solve instead the inflationary dynamics for four classes of inflaton potentials. Direct detection is possible in a variety of inflationary models, although probably not in any in which the gravitational-wave signal does not appear in the CMB polarization. However, direct detection by BBO/DECIGO can help discriminate between inflationary models that have the same slow-roll parameters at CMB/LSS scales
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Braginsky, V.B.; Kardashev, N.S.; Polnarev, A.G.; Novikov, I.D.
1989-12-01
Propagation of an electromagnetic wave in the field of gravitational waves is considered. Attention is given to the principal difference between the electromagnetic wave propagation in the field of random gravitational waves and the electromagnetic wave propagation in a medium with a randomly-inhomogeneous refraction index. It is shown that in the case of the gravitation wave field the phase shift of an electromagnetic wave does not increase with distance. The capability of space radio interferometry to detect relic gravitational waves as well as gravitational wave bursts of non cosmological origin are analyzed. (author). 64 refs, 2 figs
Gravitational waves from a very strong electroweak phase transition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leitao, Leonardo; Mégevand, Ariel, E-mail: lleitao@mdp.edu.ar, E-mail: megevand@mdp.edu.ar [IFIMAR (UNMdP-CONICET), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UNMdP, Deán Funes 3350, (7600) Mar del Plata (Argentina)
2016-05-01
We investigate the production of a stochastic background of gravitational waves in the electroweak phase transition. We consider extensions of the Standard Model which can give very strongly first-order phase transitions, such that the transition fronts either propagate as detonations or run away. To compute the bubble wall velocity, we estimate the friction with the plasma and take into account the hydrodynamics. We track the development of the phase transition up to the percolation time, and we calculate the gravitational wave spectrum generated by bubble collisions, magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, and sound waves. For the kinds of models we consider, we find parameter regions for which the gravitational waves are potentially observable at the planned space-based interferometer eLISA. In such cases, the signal from sound waves is generally dominant, while that from bubble collisions is the least significant of them. Since the sound waves and turbulence mechanisms are diminished for runaway walls, the models with the best prospects of detection at eLISA are those which do not have such solutions. In particular, we find that heavy extra bosons provide stronger gravitational wave signals than tree-level terms.
Mass loss due to gravitational waves with $\\Lambda>0$
Saw, Vee-Liem
2017-01-01
The theoretical basis for the energy carried away by gravitational waves that an isolated gravitating system emits was first formulated by Hermann Bondi during the 1960s. Recent findings from looking at distant supernovae revealed that the rate of expansion of our universe is accelerating, which may be well-explained by sticking in a positive cosmological constant into the Einstein field equations for general relativity. By solving the Newman-Penrose equations (which are equivalent to the Ein...
Chiral gravitational waves and baryon superfluid dark matter
Alexander, Stephon; McDonough, Evan; Spergel, David N.
2018-05-01
We develop a unified model of darkgenesis and baryogenesis involving strongly interacting dark quarks, utilizing the gravitational anomaly of chiral gauge theories. In these models, both the visible and dark baryon asymmetries are generated by the gravitational anomaly induced by the presence of chiral primordial gravitational waves. We provide a concrete model of an SU(2) gauge theory with two massless quarks. In this model, the dark quarks condense and form a dark baryon charge superfluid (DBS), in which the Higgs-mode acts as cold dark matter. We elucidate the essential features of this dark matter scenario and discuss its phenomenological prospects.
Workshop on gravitational waves and relativistic astrophysics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
runs of LIGO, so crucial for detection of 'chirp' signals from compact binaries, have ... Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) like quasars and radio-galaxies require ... Shrirang Deshingkar described a new scheme for extracting gravitational ... and was applied to certain test problems, second-order convergence of the News to.
Electromagnetic radiation accompanying gravitational waves from black hole binaries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dolgov, A. [Dept. of Physics, Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Postnov, K., E-mail: dolgov@fe.infn.it, E-mail: kpostnov@gmail.com [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow M.V. Lomonosov State University, Universitetskij pr. 13, 119234 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2017-09-01
The transition of powerful gravitational waves, created by the coalescence of massive black hole binaries, into electromagnetic radiation in external magnetic fields is considered. In contrast to the previous calculations of the similar effect we study the realistic case of the gravitational radiation frequency below the plasma frequency of the surrounding medium. The gravitational waves propagating in the plasma constantly create electromagnetic radiation dragging it with them, despite the low frequency. The plasma heating by the unattenuated electromagnetic wave may be significant in hot rarefied plasma with strong magnetic field and can lead to a noticeable burst of electromagnetic radiation with higher frequency. The graviton-to-photon conversion effect in plasma is discussed in the context of possible electromagnetic counterparts of GW150914 and GW170104.
Electromagnetic radiation accompanying gravitational waves from black hole binaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolgov, A.; Postnov, K.
2017-01-01
The transition of powerful gravitational waves, created by the coalescence of massive black hole binaries, into electromagnetic radiation in external magnetic fields is considered. In contrast to the previous calculations of the similar effect we study the realistic case of the gravitational radiation frequency below the plasma frequency of the surrounding medium. The gravitational waves propagating in the plasma constantly create electromagnetic radiation dragging it with them, despite the low frequency. The plasma heating by the unattenuated electromagnetic wave may be significant in hot rarefied plasma with strong magnetic field and can lead to a noticeable burst of electromagnetic radiation with higher frequency. The graviton-to-photon conversion effect in plasma is discussed in the context of possible electromagnetic counterparts of GW150914 and GW170104.
Development of mirror coatings for gravitational-wave detectors
Steinlechner, J.
2018-05-01
Gravitational waves are detected by measuring length changes between mirrors in the arms of kilometre-long Michelson interferometers. Brownian thermal noise arising from thermal vibrations of the mirrors can limit the sensitivity to distance changes between the mirrors, and, therefore, the ability to measure gravitational-wave signals. Thermal noise arising from the highly reflective mirror coatings will limit the sensitivity both of current detectors (when they reach design performance) and of planned future detectors. Therefore, the development of coatings with low thermal noise, which at the same time meet strict optical requirements, is of great importance. This article gives an overview of the current status of coatings and of the different approaches for coating improvement. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue `The promises of gravitational-wave astronomy'.
Precision cosmology from future lensed gravitational wave and electromagnetic signals.
Liao, Kai; Fan, Xi-Long; Ding, Xuheng; Biesiada, Marek; Zhu, Zong-Hong
2017-10-27
The standard siren approach of gravitational wave cosmology appeals to the direct luminosity distance estimation through the waveform signals from inspiralling double compact binaries, especially those with electromagnetic counterparts providing redshifts. It is limited by the calibration uncertainties in strain amplitude and relies on the fine details of the waveform. The Einstein telescope is expected to produce 10 4 -10 5 gravitational wave detections per year, 50-100 of which will be lensed. Here, we report a waveform-independent strategy to achieve precise cosmography by combining the accurately measured time delays from strongly lensed gravitational wave signals with the images and redshifts observed in the electromagnetic domain. We demonstrate that just 10 such systems can provide a Hubble constant uncertainty of 0.68% for a flat lambda cold dark matter universe in the era of third-generation ground-based detectors.
A perturbative solution for gravitational waves in quadratic gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neto, Edgard C de Rey; Aguiar, Odylio D; Araujo, Jose C N de
2003-01-01
We find a gravitational wave solution to the linearized version of quadratic gravity by adding successive perturbations to Einstein's linearized field equations. We show that only the Ricci-squared quadratic invariant contributes to give a different solution to those found in Einstein's general relativity. The perturbative solution is written as a power series in the β parameter, the coefficient of the Ricci-squared term in the quadratic gravitational action. We also show that, for monochromatic waves of a given angular frequency ω, the perturbative solution can be summed out to give an exact solution to the linearized version of quadratic gravity, for 0 1/2 . This result may lead to implications for the predictions for gravitational wave backgrounds of cosmological origin
Causal properties of nonlinear gravitational waves in modified gravity
Suvorov, Arthur George; Melatos, Andrew
2017-09-01
Some exact, nonlinear, vacuum gravitational wave solutions are derived for certain polynomial f (R ) gravities. We show that the boundaries of the gravitational domain of dependence, associated with events in polynomial f (R ) gravity, are not null as they are in general relativity. The implication is that electromagnetic and gravitational causality separate into distinct notions in modified gravity, which may have observable astrophysical consequences. The linear theory predicts that tachyonic instabilities occur, when the quadratic coefficient a2 of the Taylor expansion of f (R ) is negative, while the exact, nonlinear, cylindrical wave solutions presented here can be superluminal for all values of a2. Anisotropic solutions are found, whose wave fronts trace out time- or spacelike hypersurfaces with complicated geometric properties. We show that the solutions exist in f (R ) theories that are consistent with Solar System and pulsar timing experiments.
Detecting stochastic backgrounds of gravitational waves with pulsar timing arrays
Siemens, Xavier
2016-03-01
For the past decade the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) has been using the Green Bank Telescope and the Arecibo Observatory to monitor millisecond pulsars. NANOGrav, along with two other international collaborations, the European Pulsar Timing Array and the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array in Australia, form a consortium of consortia: the International Pulsar Timing Array (IPTA). The goal of the IPTA is to directly detect low-frequency gravitational waves which cause small changes to the times of arrival of radio pulses from millisecond pulsars. In this talk I will discuss the work of NANOGrav and the IPTA, as well as our sensitivity to stochastic backgrounds of gravitational waves. I will show that a detection of the background produced by supermassive black hole binaries is possible by the end of the decade. Supported by the NANOGrav Physics Frontiers Center.
Stochastic background of gravitational waves from hybrid preheating.
García-Bellido, Juan; Figueroa, Daniel G
2007-02-09
The process of reheating the Universe after hybrid inflation is extremely violent. It proceeds through the nucleation and subsequent collision of large concentrations of energy density in bubblelike structures, which generate a significant fraction of energy in the form of gravitational waves. We study the power spectrum of the stochastic background of gravitational waves produced at reheating after hybrid inflation. We find that the amplitude could be significant for high-scale models, although the typical frequencies are well beyond what could be reached by planned gravitational wave observatories. On the other hand, low-scale models could still produce a detectable stochastic background at frequencies accessible to those detectors. The discovery of such a background would open a new window into the very early Universe.
Detectability of Gravitational Waves from High-Redshift Binaries.
Rosado, Pablo A; Lasky, Paul D; Thrane, Eric; Zhu, Xingjiang; Mandel, Ilya; Sesana, Alberto
2016-03-11
Recent nondetection of gravitational-wave backgrounds from pulsar timing arrays casts further uncertainty on the evolution of supermassive black hole binaries. We study the capabilities of current gravitational-wave observatories to detect individual binaries and demonstrate that, contrary to conventional wisdom, some are, in principle, detectable throughout the Universe. In particular, a binary with rest-frame mass ≳10^{10}M_{⊙} can be detected by current timing arrays at arbitrarily high redshifts. The same claim will apply for less massive binaries with more sensitive future arrays. As a consequence, future searches for nanohertz gravitational waves could be expanded to target evolving high-redshift binaries. We calculate the maximum distance at which binaries can be observed with pulsar timing arrays and other detectors, properly accounting for redshift and using realistic binary waveforms.
Forward modeling of space-borne gravitational wave detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rubbo, Louis J.; Cornish, Neil J.; Poujade, Olivier
2004-01-01
Planning is underway for several space-borne gravitational wave observatories to be built in the next 10 to 20 years. Realistic and efficient forward modeling will play a ke