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Sample records for merey anacardium occidentale

  1. Evaluación térmica y perfil de ácidos grasos del aceite de las semillas del merey, Anacardium occidentale L. | Thermal evaluation and fatty acid profile of cashew tree, Anacardium occidentale L. seed oil

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    Gabriel Ordaz González

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Oil from seeds of Anacardium occidentale L. (cashew nut was obtained by Soxhlet solvent extraction using hexane with a 26% yield. Concentrations of this oil lower than 1000 μg·mL-1 were innocuous in the lethality bioassay against Artemia salina. Analysis of Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC of this oil exhibited a wide melting range (Tonset = -22.60ºC, Tpico = -12.27ºC, which could be associated with the content of unsaturated fatty acids (76.24%. The oil showed thermal stability between 20 and 100ºC. The GC-MS analysis allowed to identify oleic (C18:1, ω-9, 51.3% and linoleic (C18:2, ω-6, 24.88% acids as major constituents.

  2. Leaf Extract Of Anacardium occidentale on Gastric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chigo Okwuosa

    Keywords; Anacardium occidentale, aqueous extract, gastric acid secretion, rats, intragastric. *Address for correspondence: . esajibola@yahoo.com. Revised version accepted: March 2010. INTRODUCTION. The plant, Anacardium occidentale. L belongs to the. Family; Anacardiaceae. It is popularly called cashew. Extracts ...

  3. Pharmacological properties of cashew ( Anacardium occidentale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anacardium occidentale L. is a tree native to Brazil, which is rich in phenolic lipids. Nowadays, the cashew bark (Cashew Nut Shell Liquid) has received great attention in the pharmaceutical industry, due to its economy, abundance and important chemical compounds. Net of cashew nut shell is classified according to the ...

  4. Antibacterial evaluation of Anacardium occidentale (Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    Microorganisms that cause losses are proving to be resistant to most known antibiotics, thereby encouraging the search for naturally occurring antibiotics. This study aimed to perform a phytochemical and bacterial study of ethanolic extracts of leaves and barks of Anacardium occidentale. L. The samples were submitted for ...

  5. Antibacterial evaluation of Anacardium occidentale (Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    Química Nova. 30(2):374-381. Gonçalves GMS, Gobbo J (2012). Antimicrobial Effect of Anacardium. Occidentale Extract and Cosmetic Formulation Development. Braz. Arc. Biol. Technol. 55(6): 843-850. Matos FJA (1997). Introdução à fitoquímica experimental. UFC Edições. pp. 44-46. Melo AFM, Santos EJV, Souza LFC, ...

  6. Pirolisis Kulit Biji Jambu Mete (Anacardium Occidentale L.) dengan Katalis Ni-Ag/Zeolit

    OpenAIRE

    Kartika, Eva Noer; Suyati, Linda; Nuryanto, Rahmad

    2012-01-01

    Telah dilakukan pirolisis kulit biji jambu mete (Anacardium occidentale L.) dengan katalis Ni-Ag/zeolit untuk mendapatkan produk cair hasil pirolisis dan membandingkannya dengan produk cair pirolisis dengan katalis Ni/zeolit.. Pirolisis dilakukan dengan variasi temperatur 200, 250, 300, 350, dan 400°C. Produk yang berupa gas dikondensasikan pada pendingin es-garam kemudian dianalisis dengan GC-MS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan semakin tinggi temperatur pirolisis semakin banyak massa produk cai...

  7. Synthesis of platinum nanoparticles using dried Anacardium occidentale leaf and its catalytic and thermal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheny, D S; Philip, Daizy; Mathew, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    An environment friendly approach for the synthesis of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) using dried leaf powder of Anacardium occidentale is reported. The formation of Pt NPs is monitored using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. FTIR spectra reveal that proteins are bound to Pt nanoparticles. TEM images show irregular rod shaped particles which are crystalline. The quantity of leaf powder plays a vital role in determining the size of particles. Synthesized NPs exhibit good catalytic activity in the reduction of aromatic nitrocompound. The effective thermal conductivity of synthesized Pt/water nanofluid has been measured and found to be enhanced to a good extent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of gamma radiation on the antioxidant action extracts from leaves of gross Anacardium occidentale Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos; Silva, Edvane Borges da; Amaral, Ademir de Jesus; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn. is popularly known as cashew plant, found in Northeastern Brazil, is of great scientific interest because it contains high levels of bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins, which characterize their applications as natural antioxidants, which can contribute to protect against oxidative processes in the human body. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of 60 Co gamma irradiation in the antioxidant action of the extracts of leaves of A. occidentale. The extracts of A. occidentale were extracted with 70% ethanol, evaporated under reduced pressure and divided into samples control and irradiation at 10 kGy. Subsequently analyzing the kidnapping of radical DPPH (concentrations of 6.25; 12.5; 25; 50; 100 and 200 ppm) and reducing power (concentrations of 25; 50; 100; 200; 400; 600; 800 and 1000 ppm). The results showed increased antioxidant actions dependent on the concentration and dose of 10 kGy in both assays. However, the kidnapping of DPPH activity showed variations from 50% to 92% for control, and 75% and 100% for irradiated. It is observed that the irradiated samples showed maximum activity (100%) in a 4-fold lower concentration (50 ppm) than the control samples. Featuring EC 50 of standards BHT (235.8%) and vitamin C (63.5%) was very low compared with control extracts (8.1%) and irradiated (0.48). However the results obtained in this study indicate that extracts of leaves of A. occidentale irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy exhibit strong antioxidant activity against DPPH and power reducer, this paves its use as a natural source of antioxidants

  9. Synthesis characterization and catalytic action of hexagonal gold nanoparticles using essential oils extracted from Anacardium occidentale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheny, D. S.; Mathew, Joseph; Philip, Daizy

    2012-11-01

    A new phytochemical method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles is reported. The essential oils extracted from the fresh leaves of Anacardium occidentale are used for the reduction of auric acid to Au nanoparticles (NPs). The formation and morphology of synthesized NPs are investigated with the help of UV-visible, TEM and FTIR spectroscopy. The NPs synthesized at room temperature are mono-dispersed and hexagonal in shape with an average size of 36 nm while those prepared at higher temperature are composed of a mixture of anisotropic particles. The UV-visible absorption spectra of these anisotropic NPs show asymmetry in the longer wavelength side. The quantity of oil is an important criterion modulating the shape of NPs. Possible biochemical mechanism leading to the formation of NPs is studied using FTIR spectroscopy. The potential of synthesized Au NPs as catalyst is explored for the hydrogenation of p-nitro phenol to p-amino phenol at room temperature.

  10. Inhibition effect of cashew stem bark extract (Anacardium Occidentale L. on biofilm formation of Streptococcus sanguinis

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    Rizni Amaliah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biofilm is communities of microorganisms attached to solid surface and enclosed in extracellular matrix that protected microorganisms from antibacterial agents and host defense. One of bacteria might have a role in initial colonization of biofilm formation is Streptococcus sanguinis (S. sanguinis. Previous studies showed that cashew stem bark extract (Anacardium occidentale L. can inhibit the growth of Streptococcus strains. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the inhibition effect of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. stem bark ethanol extract on biofilm formation of S. sanguinis. Methods: Streptococcus sanguinis grown in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI + 2% sucrose medium by using microplate polystyrene 96 wells. The samples were divided into 3 groups, 5% polyethyleneglycol (PEG as negative control, cashew stem bark extract (concentration 3.125 mg/ml, 6.25 mg/ml, 9.375 mg/ml, and 12.5 mg/ml, and 0.12% chlorhexidine (as positive control. Biofilm was stained by 1% crystal violet. Afterwards, optical density (OD of samples were measured by microplate reader λ 595 nm. The data of biofilm formation inhibition percentage were analyzed by one way ANOVA and then continued by Least Significant Difference (LSD test. Results: The result of one way ANOVA showed that there were significant differences in inhibition of S. sanguinis biofilm formation (p<0.05. LSD test showed that concentration extract 3.125 mg/ml had significant difference with concentration 9.375 mg/ml and 12.5 mg/ml. Reciprocally, concentration 6.25 mg/ml had significant difference with concentration 9.375 mg/ml and 12.5 mg/ml. Conclusion: Cashew stem bark extract was able to inhibit biofilm formation of S. sanguinis.Latar belakang: Biofilm merupakan sekumpulan mikroorganisme yang melekat pada permukaan solid dan diselubungi oleh matriks ekstraseluler yang melindungi mikroorganisme dari bahan-bahan antibakteri dan sel-sel pertahanan tubuh. Salah satu bakteri yang

  11. Diagnose laboratorial dos frutos e folhas de Anacardium occidentale L. (Caju

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    Luzia llza Ferreira Jorge

    Full Text Available Anacardium occidentale L. espécie nativa do continente centro e sul-americano, é planta amplamente utilizada, empregada na alimentação humana e animal, bem como na medicina popular. Neste trabalho objetivamos o reconhecimento das principais características diagnósticas das folhas e dos receptáculos carnosos. Detalhes como o tipo de cutícula, paredes celulares, anexos epidérmicos e inclusões celulares são destacados nas descrições e nas figuras. As folhas encerram flavonóides, saponinas,compostos fenólicos e óleo essencial.

  12. Anacardium occidentale

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La multiplication végétative des plants d'anacardiers est la seule alternative pour le moment au Bénin qui permet d'obtenir des plantations homogènes à productivité élevée. Cette recherche conduite sur le site de l'URPA/BA à Parakou vise à améliorer le taux de réussite du greffage chez l'anacardier en pépinière dans le.

  13. Interaction of gamma radiation on the functionality of the molluscicidal extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos; Silva, Edvane Borges da; Amorim, Elba Lucia C.; Peixoto Sobrinho, Tadeu J.S.; Melo, Ana Maria Mendonca de Albuquerque; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade

    2011-01-01

    Biological control of Biomphalaria glabrata that is the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, through molluscicides has been an alternative against schistosomiasis. Many studies have been developed to obtain molluscicide products, from plants. Anacardium occidentale L. (cashew), a plant rich in phenolic compounds shows molluscicidal activity in earlier assays. However there is an interest of enhancing the action of bioactive substances in order to use it in small concentrations, reducing costs in their utilization. This study were conducted using ethanolic extracts of bark and leaves of A. occidentale, before and after exposure to gamma radiation from 60 Co, checking their secondary metabolites, their biological activity against Biomphalaria glabrata and environmental toxicity. The extracts of A. occidentale were obtained by cold maceration in 70% ethanol, filtered, dried and divided into two experimental groups: control (0 kGy) and irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy. The quantification of metabolites was performed in six replicates for the determination of total phenols by Folin-Ciocalteau method and tannins, the precipitation of casein. Tests for biological control of embryos and adults of B. glabrata snails and assessment of environmental toxicity (using Artemia salina larvae) were performed in triplicate, following a period of 24 hours of exposure to extracts at a concentration of 100 mg/L and its respective controls. Data were expressed as percentages of means and standard deviations. The results showed that the gamma radiation from 60 Co resulted in leaf extracts, increased levels of total phenols and tannins, which enhanced the lethality for embryos and adults of B. glabrata. There was a reduction of the toxicity of leaf extracts after irradiation in the Artemia salina. Since in extracts of bark, gamma radiation did not alter the levels of total phenols and tannins, however, it was noted potentiation of lethality of adult snails of B. glabrata. The analysis

  14. Interaction of gamma radiation on the functionality of the molluscicidal extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos [Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia (GERAR) . Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, Edvane Borges da [Centro Academico de Vitoria. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil); Amorim, Elba Lucia C.; Peixoto Sobrinho, Tadeu J.S., E-mail: elba@ufpe.br [Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Melo, Ana Maria Mendonca de Albuquerque; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade [Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Biological control of Biomphalaria glabrata that is the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, through molluscicides has been an alternative against schistosomiasis. Many studies have been developed to obtain molluscicide products, from plants. Anacardium occidentale L. (cashew), a plant rich in phenolic compounds shows molluscicidal activity in earlier assays. However there is an interest of enhancing the action of bioactive substances in order to use it in small concentrations, reducing costs in their utilization. This study were conducted using ethanolic extracts of bark and leaves of A. occidentale, before and after exposure to gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co, checking their secondary metabolites, their biological activity against Biomphalaria glabrata and environmental toxicity. The extracts of A. occidentale were obtained by cold maceration in 70% ethanol, filtered, dried and divided into two experimental groups: control (0 kGy) and irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy. The quantification of metabolites was performed in six replicates for the determination of total phenols by Folin-Ciocalteau method and tannins, the precipitation of casein. Tests for biological control of embryos and adults of B. glabrata snails and assessment of environmental toxicity (using Artemia salina larvae) were performed in triplicate, following a period of 24 hours of exposure to extracts at a concentration of 100 mg/L and its respective controls. Data were expressed as percentages of means and standard deviations. The results showed that the gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co resulted in leaf extracts, increased levels of total phenols and tannins, which enhanced the lethality for embryos and adults of B. glabrata. There was a reduction of the toxicity of leaf extracts after irradiation in the Artemia salina. Since in extracts of bark, gamma radiation did not alter the levels of total phenols and tannins, however, it was noted potentiation of lethality of adult snails of B. glabrata. The

  15. Anti-inflammatory and bronchodilatory constituents of leaf extracts of Anacardium occidentale L. in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awakan, Oluwakemi Josephine; Malomo, Sylvia Omonirume; Adejare, Abdullahi Adeyinka; Igunnu, Adedoyin; Atolani, Olubunmi; Adebayo, Abiodun Humphrey; Owoyele, Bamidele Victor

    2018-01-01

    Anacardium occidentale L. leaf is useful in the treatment of inflammation and asthma, but the bioactive constituents responsible for these activities have not been characterized. Therefore, this study was aimed at identifying the bioactive constituent(s) of A. occidentale ethanolic leaf extract (AOEL) and its solvent-soluble portions, and evaluating their effects on histamine-induced paw edema and bronchoconstriction. The bronchodilatory effect was determined by measuring the percentage protection provided by plant extracts in the histamine-induced bronchoconstriction model in guinea pigs. The anti-inflammatory effect of the extracts on histamine-induced paw edema in rats was determined by measuring the increase in paw diameter, after which the percent edema inhibition was calculated. The extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify the bioactive constituents. Column chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used respectively to isolate and characterize the constituents. The bronchodilatory and anti-inflammatory activities of the isolated bioactive constituent were evaluated. Histamine induced bronchoconstriction in the guinea pigs and edema in the rat paw. AOEL, hexane-soluble portion of AOEL, ethyl acetate-soluble portion of AOEL, and chloroform-soluble portion of AOEL significantly increased bronchodilatory and anti-inflammatory activities (P 9-octadecenamide) was identified as the most abundant compound in the extracts and was isolated. Oleamide significantly increased bronchodilatory and anti-inflammatory activities by 32.97% and 98.41%, respectively (P < 0.05). These results indicate that oleamide is one of the bioactive constituents responsible for the bronchodilatory and anti-inflammatory activity of A. occidentale leaf, and can therefore be employed in the management of bronchoconstriction and inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Shanghai Changhai Hospital. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  16. Estimates of genetic correlations and correlated responses to selection in cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.

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    Diógenes Manoel Pedroza de Azevedo

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study estimates variances and genetic and phenotypic correlations for five traits in 27 progenies of cashew trees (Anacardium occidentale L.. Data were obtained from a trial conducted in 1992 at Pacajus, Ceará, experimental station of Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical. The characters studied were plant height (PH, North-South and East-West canopy spreads (NSS, EWS, and primary and secondary branch numbers (PBN, SBN. All genetic and phenotypic correlations presented positive and significant values. Selection to increase or decrease the average of any one of the five characteristics of cashew plants in the progenies studied affected the average of the others. The 16-month-old canopy spread can be predicted from NSS or EWS since correlations between them were high. Correlations between PH and SBN were low, indicating that there is a good possibility of obtaining smaller plants without causing drastic reductions in SBN. PH and SBN showed, respectively, the lowest and highest genetic variance estimates relative to the corresponding population means.Neste trabalho são estimadas variâncias, correlações genéticas e fenotípicas e respostas correlacionadas, envolvendo cinco caracteres em 27 progênies de cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L.. Os dados foram obtidos em Pacajus-CE, num ensaio conduzido no Campo Experimental da Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, em l992. Os caracteres estudados foram altura de planta (PH, envergaduras norte-sul (NSS e leste-oeste (EWS e número de ramos primários (PBN e secundários (SBN. Todas as correlacões genéticas e fenotípicas obtidas foram positivas e significativas. A seleção para aumentar ou reduzir a média de qualquer um dos cinco caracteres estudados nas progênies de cajueiro afetou indiretamente a média dos outros quatro caracteres. A envergadura da copa aos 16 meses pode ser representada por NSS ou EWS, tendo em vista que a correlação entre elas foi elevada. As correlações envolvendo PH

  17. Aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak etanolik kulit batang jambu mete (Anacardium occidentale Linn. terhadap Staphylococcus aureus

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    H. Harsini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of cashew stembark (Anacardium occidentale Linn on Staphylococcus aureus. Microbial activity acts as a sign of disruption of bacterial growth. The bark of cashew (Anacardium occidentale Linn. contains phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, tannins and anacardic acid which have an activity as antimicrobial. One of the Gram positivebacteria in the oral cavity was Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. The aim of the study was to observe the bacterial activity of ethanolic extract of the cashew to a metal ion, i.e. Ca2+ and K+ leakage from S aureus. This research used one ose bacteria S. aureus at a density of 106 standard Brown as much as 10 mL and centrifuged at a speed of 3500 rpm for 20 minutes. The filtrate discarded, pellets in the tube was washed using phosphate buffer pH 7.0. Furthermore the ethanolic extract of the bark of the cashew stembark was added in the concentrations of 3.5% and 7% without any extract as a control, each of which was in 5 tubes, incubated in an incubator for 24 hours. The suspension was centrifused with a speed of 3500 rpm for 20 minutes prior to be filtered. Supernatant liquid was taken and measured absorbance using AAS. Data were analyzed using one way Anova p = 0.05. The results showed that leakage of Ca2+ was  at concentrations of 0%, 3%, 5% and 7% were 2.42 ± 0.82; 32.87 ± 1.97; 49.10 ± 3.33; 66.73 ± 3.29, respectively while for the K+ metal was 15.28 ± 0.46; 606.36 ± 14.14; 895 ± 9.5; 1251 ± 11.54. Anova one way showed a significant effect (p <0.050 ethanolic extract of the bark of cashew against leakage of metal ions Ca2+ and K+ at S aureus bacteria. LSD test showed a significant difference among all treatment groups. It was concluded that there was antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of the cashew stembark on bacteria S. aureus based on leakage of metal ions Ca2+ and K+ The highest leakage of metal ions was at the concentrations of 7%.   ABSTRAK Aktivitas

  18. Potentiation of the antiinflammatory effect of Anacardium occidentale (Linn.) stem-bark aqueous extract by grapefruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojewole, J A O

    2004-04-01

    In an attempt to scientifically appraise some of the ethnomedical uses of Anacardium occidentale Linn. (family: Anacardiaceae), the present study was undertaken to examine the antiinflammatory effect of the plant's stem-bark aqueous extract in rats. Young adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were used. The antiinflammatory effect of A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract alone and in combination with grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) juice was investigated on fresh egg albumin-induced rat paw edema. Like diclofenac (100 mg/kg p.o.), aqueous extract of A. occidentale stem-bark (800 mg/kg p.o.) produced time-related, sustained and significant reduction (p extract was found to be approximately 8-15 times less than that of diclofenac. Coadministration of grapefruit juice (5 ml/kg p.o.) with A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract (800 mg/kg p.o.) or diclofenac (100 mg/kg p.o.) significantly potentiated (p extract and diclofenac on fresh egg albumin-induced rat paw edema. Although A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract is less potent than diclofenac as an antiinflammatory agent, the results of this experimental animal study indicate that the plant extract possesses antiinflammatory activity, and thus lend pharmacological support to the folkloric use of the plant in the management and/or control of arthritis and other inflammatory conditions among the Yoruba-speaking people of western Nigeria.

  19. Morfologia e distribuição de galhas foliares de Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae

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    Claudia Scareli-Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Galhas são estruturas que exibem associações específicas entre o indutor e a planta hospedeira, onde são evidenciadas modificações morfológicas, anatômicas e químicas dos tecidos vegetais. Objetivou-se descrever a morfologia e a distribuição de galhas foliares de Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae. Foram coletadas 294 folhas, da porção apical dos ramos, de indivíduos localizados na Universidade Federal do Tocantins - Campus Araguaína, TO. Foram realizadas análises morfológicas utilizando microscópio estereoscópico, paquímetro e bibliografia específica. Determinou-se o número de galhas no limbo foliar seguida da análise de regressão linear entre o número de galhas por limbo e o seu comprimento. Foram observadas galhas do tipo cônico atravessando a lâmina foliar, glabras, de coloração verde quando jovens e vermelho alaranjadas quando maduras, com distribuição isolada/agrupada e aderência total; internamente apresentou um lóculo e uma larva do indutor (Cecidomyiidae. A distribuição das galhas no limbo apresentou diferenças significativas (p<0,001, em ordem decrescente foi observado maior número de galhas entre as nervuras (57,1%, sobre a nervura secundária (35,7%, na margem (6,3% e na nervura central (1,2%; a análise de regressão linear apresentou fracamente positiva (r2= 0,03; coeficiente de Pearson= 0,2025, o que sugere que a oviposição está associada, em parte, com o tamanho do limbo e que outras variáveis podem ser determinantes. Estes são os primeiros registros de galhas em A. occidentale no estado do Tocantins.

  20. In vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Anacardium occidentale and Mangifera indica in oral care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Geethashri; Ravinanthan, Manikandan; Basaviah, Ravishankar; Shetty, A Veena

    2015-01-01

    Oral health is an integral and important component of general health. Infectious diseases such as caries, periodontal, and gingivitis indicate the onset of imbalance in homeostasis between oral micro biota and host. The present day medicaments used in oral health care have numerous side effects. The uses of herbal plants as an alternative have gained popularity due to side effects of antibiotics and emergence of multidrug resistant strains. Anacardium occidentale (cashew) and Mangifera indica (mango) have been used as traditional oral health care measures in India since time immemorial. The ethanol extracts of cashew and mango leaves were obtained by maceration method. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by clear zone produced by these plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans in agar plate method, determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC), and suppression of biofilm. The cytotoxic effects of plants extract was determined by microculture tetrazolium assay on human gingival fibroblast and Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79) cell lines. Cashew and mango leaf extract significantly (P < 0.05) produced larger zone of inhibition against test pathogens when compared to povidone-iodine-based mouth rinses. Although the MIC and MBC/MFC values of mouth rinses were effective in lower concentrations; plant extracts significantly (P < 0.001) suppressed the biofilms of oral pathogens. The leaf extracts were less cytotoxic (P < 0.001) compared to mouth rinses. Plant extracts are superior to the mouth rinses and have a promising role in future oral health care.

  1. In vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Anacardium occidentale and Mangifera indica in oral care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geethashri Anand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health is an integral and important component of general health. Infectious diseases such as caries, periodontal, and gingivitis indicate the onset of imbalance in homeostasis between oral micro biota and host. The present day medicaments used in oral health care have numerous side effects. The uses of herbal plants as an alternative have gained popularity due to side effects of antibiotics and emergence of multidrug resistant strains. Anacardium occidentale (cashew and Mangifera indica (mango have been used as traditional oral health care measures in India since time immemorial. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extracts of cashew and mango leaves were obtained by maceration method. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by clear zone produced by these plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans in agar plate method, determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC, and suppression of biofilm. The cytotoxic effects of plants extract was determined by microculture tetrazolium assay on human gingival fibroblast and Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79 cell lines. Results: Cashew and mango leaf extract significantly (P < 0.05 produced larger zone of inhibition against test pathogens when compared to povidone---iodine-based mouth rinses. Although the MIC and MBC/MFC values of mouth rinses were effective in lower concentrations; plant extracts significantly (P < 0.001 suppressed the biofilms of oral pathogens. The leaf extracts were less cytotoxic (P < 0.001 compared to mouth rinses. Conclusions: Plant extracts are superior to the mouth rinses and have a promising role in future oral health care.

  2. Radioprotective effect of the extract of Ziziphus joazeiro and Anacardium occidentale on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata submitted to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, Williams N.; Silva, Luanna R.S.; Silva, Edvane B.; Silva, Ronaldo C.; Lacerda, Laila B.N.; Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiations are energies that can be classified as non-ionizing and ionizing. This type of energy is propagated by a material medium and the vacuum. The important characteristic of ionizing radiation is the localized release of large amounts of energy. The biological effects of radiation result principally from damage to DNA, which is the critical target. Given these harmful effects caused by radiation highlights the importance of acquiring knowledge about the radioprotective substance, because they act to protect the living tissue, decreasing the damage he caused by the effects of radiation. In this study we investigated the radioprotective effect of extract hydroalcoholic of Ziziphus joazeiro and Anacardium occidentale on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata. The embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata pigmented were divided into 18 groups of 100 specimens. The experimental groups were exposed to the extracts at a concentration of 200 ppm and then irradiated. For irradiation, we used a source of 60 Co (Gammacell of Radionics Labs. Dose rate = 4.359 Gy/h). The viability of the embryos was examined using a stereoscopic microscope and statistical analysis was performed using the test Student-Newman-Keuls and χ 2 . Our results showed that the extracts of hydroalcoholic Ziziphus joazeiro showed radioprotective effect and that the aqueous extract of the bark of Anacardium occidentale exhibited a reduction in its embryotoxic effect. (author)

  3. Radioprotective effect of the extract of Ziziphus joazeiro and Anacardium occidentale on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata submitted to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Williams N.; Silva, Luanna R.S.; Silva, Edvane B. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Silva, Ronaldo C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica; Lacerda, Laila B.N.; Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de de Biofisica e Radiobiologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia

    2011-07-01

    Electromagnetic radiations are energies that can be classified as non-ionizing and ionizing. This type of energy is propagated by a material medium and the vacuum. The important characteristic of ionizing radiation is the localized release of large amounts of energy. The biological effects of radiation result principally from damage to DNA, which is the critical target. Given these harmful effects caused by radiation highlights the importance of acquiring knowledge about the radioprotective substance, because they act to protect the living tissue, decreasing the damage he caused by the effects of radiation. In this study we investigated the radioprotective effect of extract hydroalcoholic of Ziziphus joazeiro and Anacardium occidentale on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata. The embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata pigmented were divided into 18 groups of 100 specimens. The experimental groups were exposed to the extracts at a concentration of 200 ppm and then irradiated. For irradiation, we used a source of {sup 60}Co (Gammacell of Radionics Labs. Dose rate = 4.359 Gy/h). The viability of the embryos was examined using a stereoscopic microscope and statistical analysis was performed using the test Student-Newman-Keuls and {chi}{sup 2}. Our results showed that the extracts of hydroalcoholic Ziziphus joazeiro showed radioprotective effect and that the aqueous extract of the bark of Anacardium occidentale exhibited a reduction in its embryotoxic effect. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the acetone extract from Anacardium occidentale L

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    Frederico Argollo Vanderlinde

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The stem bark of Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae, commonly called cashew, is used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of gastric and inflammatory disorders. The present study was carried out to investigate the in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of the acetone extract (AE of the stem bark of A. occidentale. We evaluated the pharmacological activities of this plant material through the analgesic, antiedematogenic and chemotaxic inhibitory effects produced by the AE. The oral administration (p.o. of mice with the AE (0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 g/kg or positive control indomethacin (10 mg/kg inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing by 18.9, 35.9, 62.9 and 68.9%, respectively (ID50% = 530 mg/kg. The highest dose of the AE was able to inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema formation by 56.8% (indomethacin at 10 mg/kg, p.o. - 57.6% inhibition. When submitted to the carrageenan-induced peritonitis test, the AE (0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 g/kg, p.o. impaired leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity by 24.8, 40.5 and 49.6%, respectively. The positive control, dexamethasone (2 mg/kg, s.c., inhibited leukocyte migration by 66.9%. These results indicate the presence of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive principles in the acetone extract of Anacardium occidentale, and reinforce the plant's potential therapeutic use against pain and inflammatory diseases.As cascas do caule do Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae, conhecido como cajueiro, são popularmente utilizadas no Brasil para o tratamento de doenças gástricas e inflamatórias. Este estudo teve como objetivo a avaliação farmacológica in vivo da atividade antiinflamatória do extrato acetônico (AE obtido das cascas do A. occidentale, investigando os efeitos analgésico, antiedematogênico e inibitório sobre a quimiotaxia deste material botânico. A administração oral (p.o. em camundongos com o AE (0,1; 0,3 e 1 g/kg ou o controle positivo indometacina (10 mg/kg inibiu as contor

  5. Influence of gamma radiation on the antioxidant action extracts from leaves of gross Anacardium occidentale Linn; Influencia da radiacao gama na acao antioxidante de extratos brutos de folhas de Anacardium occidentale Linn.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos; Silva, Edvane Borges da; Amaral, Ademir de Jesus [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (GERAR/DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2014-07-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn. is popularly known as cashew plant, found in Northeastern Brazil, is of great scientific interest because it contains high levels of bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins, which characterize their applications as natural antioxidants, which can contribute to protect against oxidative processes in the human body. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation in the antioxidant action of the extracts of leaves of A. occidentale. The extracts of A. occidentale were extracted with 70% ethanol, evaporated under reduced pressure and divided into samples control and irradiation at 10 kGy. Subsequently analyzing the kidnapping of radical DPPH (concentrations of 6.25; 12.5; 25; 50; 100 and 200 ppm) and reducing power (concentrations of 25; 50; 100; 200; 400; 600; 800 and 1000 ppm). The results showed increased antioxidant actions dependent on the concentration and dose of 10 kGy in both assays. However, the kidnapping of DPPH activity showed variations from 50% to 92% for control, and 75% and 100% for irradiated. It is observed that the irradiated samples showed maximum activity (100%) in a 4-fold lower concentration (50 ppm) than the control samples. Featuring EC{sub 50} of standards BHT (235.8%) and vitamin C (63.5%) was very low compared with control extracts (8.1%) and irradiated (0.48). However the results obtained in this study indicate that extracts of leaves of A. occidentale irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy exhibit strong antioxidant activity against DPPH and power reducer, this paves its use as a natural source of antioxidants.

  6. Avaliação da toxicidade subcrônica do extrato bruto seco de Anacardium occidentale Linn em cães = Evaluation of the subchronic toxicity of the crude dry extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arquimedes Fernandes Monteiro de Melo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A busca de novos medicamentos tem levado ao desenvolvimento de novosfármacos que sejam eficientes e destituídos de toxicidade. Uma das fronteiras nessas pesquisas são os medicamentos fitoterápicos. No Brasil, a Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA regulariza essas pesquisas e padroniza os procedimentos. A Resoluçãoda Diretoria Colegiada (RDC 48/2004, por exemplo, regulariza o registro de fitoterápicos. O Anacardium occidentale Linn está entre as plantas mais estudadas, devido às ações antibiótica e antiinflamatória de seus metabólitos secundários, principalmente taninos. Esta planta também possui a capacidade de impedir a formação da placa bacteriana bucal. Diante dessas ações, formas farmacêuticas acabadas (cremes e géis foram desenvolvidas a partir do extrato bruto seco (EBS das cascas do caule do A. occidentale Linn para registro de um novo fitomedicamento. Entretanto, testes pré-clínicos e clínicos devem ser feitos de acordo com a lei vigente. O presente trabalho avaliou a toxicidade subcrônica do EBS em cães sem raçadefinida (SRD. Os testes revelaram apenas hepatotoxicidade transitória demonstrada pela elevação dos níveis da alanina transaminase (ALT e aspartato transaminase (AST. Research on new medicaments has led to the development of efficient and non-toxic drugs. In Brazil, the Agência Nacional de VigilânciaSanitária (National Department of Sanitary Supervision – ANVISA regularizes and standardizes the procedure. Anacardium occidentale is amongst the most researched plants, due to the antibiotics and antinflammatory properties of its secondary metabolites, mainlytannins and flavonoids. Furthermore, it prevents the dental plaque formation. On account of these actions, finished pharmaceutical forms (creams and gels were developed from the crude dry extract (CDE of A. occidentale Linn stem rinds, in order to register a new form.However, pre-clinical and clinical assays can be made in

  7. Aktivitas Zymomonas mobilis pada produk etanol dari buah semu jambu mete (Anacardium occidentale dengan variasi sumber nitrogen

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    AKHMAD MUSTOFA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Mustofa A, Suranto. 2010. Aktivitas Zymomonas mobilis pada produk etanol daribuah semu jambu mete (Anacardium occidentale dengan variasi sumber nitrogen. Bioteknologi 7: 1-9. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui kemampuan Zymomonas mobilis dalam memproduksi etanol melalui proses fermentasi batch (selama 24, 48 dan 72 jam, menggunakan sumber karbon sari buah jambu mete (varietas merah, hijau dan kuning dan sumber nitrogen berupa urea, ammonium sulfat, ekstrak kecambah kacang hijau dan ekstrak kacang koro (Mucuna pruriens. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa varietas buah jambu mete hijau dengan sumber nitrogen ammonium sulfat dan lama fermentasi 24 jam memberikan hasil etanol yang paling optimal. Pada perlakuan tersebut diperoleh nilai pH 5,87, kadar gula reduksi 7,64 g/100 mL (tingkat konsumsi 48,44%, jumlah bakteri 8,0x107 (µ = 0,154 dan etanol sebesar 33,02 g/L (Ye = 90,19%.

  8. Fenóis totais, atividade antioxidante e constituintes químicos de extratos de Anacardium occidentale L., Anacardiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana H. Chaves

    Full Text Available O presente artigo relata o isolamento e identificação do palmitato, oleato e linoleato de sitosterila, sitosterol, estigmasterol, 3-O-β-D-galactopiranosídeo do sitosterol, 3-O-β-Dgalactopiranosídeo do estigmasterol, 3-O-β-D-glicopiranosídeo do sitosterol e uma mistura de ácidos anacárdicos (monoeno e dieno do extrato etanólico de cascas do caule de Anacardium occidentale L., Anacardiaceae, bem como do sitosterol, estigmasterol, lupeol, β-amirina, catequina e epicatequina do extrato etanólico do tegumento da castanha de caju in natura. Os extratos EtOH da casca e do tegumento foram avaliados quanto ao conteúdo de fenóis totais e atividade antioxidante. O extrato etanólico das cascas do caule apresentou maior conteúdo de compostos fenólicos e percentual de atividade antioxidante.

  9. Analysis of toxicity of Anacardium occidentale L. extract submitted to ionizing radiation on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Lima, Claudia S.A.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.; Ribeiro, Luanna R.S.; Santos, Gustavo H.F.; Silva, Edvane B.

    2013-01-01

    The use of gamma radiation as a sterilization method for herbs, herbal medicines and foods, shows positive results regarding the retention of such products, economy and safety of the method. However, it is known that this method of processing plant material can cause chemical changes in these products related to the type of material, its components and the dose received. Evaluated, in the present study, the action of gamma radiation as a modifier of toxicity extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn. To evaluate the toxicity of the extract irradiated at doses of 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kGy and concentrations of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L was used bioassays with Artemia salina and Biomphalaria glabrata. For the test to A. salina, 520 specimens were used divided into groups of 10 larvae. For the bioassay with B. glabrata, 3900 specimens were used divided into groups of, approximately, 100 embryos. Larvae of A. salina and embryos were subjected to extracts irradiated and unirradiated for 24 hours. The bioassay with A. salina, showed a decrease, compared to extract unirradiated and irradiated at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 kGy, of extract irradiated with 10 kGy, where the mortality did not differ from the control group. In tests with embryos was observed an increase in the toxicity of the extract at a dose of 7.5 kGy and a decrease in the dose of 10.0 kGy. The radiation promoted changes in the toxicity of leaves extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn. on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina. (author)

  10. Analysis of toxicity of Anacardium occidentale L. extract submitted to ionizing radiation on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Lima, Claudia S.A.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A., E-mail: hiannaamfs@gmail.com, E-mail: luismuma6@gmail.com, E-mail: claudia.salima@gmail.com, E-mail: amancioff@bol.com.br, E-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Ribeiro, Luanna R.S.; Santos, Gustavo H.F.; Silva, Edvane B., E-mail: luannaribeiro_lua@hotmail.com, E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.com, E-mail: edvborges@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia

    2013-07-01

    The use of gamma radiation as a sterilization method for herbs, herbal medicines and foods, shows positive results regarding the retention of such products, economy and safety of the method. However, it is known that this method of processing plant material can cause chemical changes in these products related to the type of material, its components and the dose received. Evaluated, in the present study, the action of gamma radiation as a modifier of toxicity extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn. To evaluate the toxicity of the extract irradiated at doses of 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kGy and concentrations of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L was used bioassays with Artemia salina and Biomphalaria glabrata. For the test to A. salina, 520 specimens were used divided into groups of 10 larvae. For the bioassay with B. glabrata, 3900 specimens were used divided into groups of, approximately, 100 embryos. Larvae of A. salina and embryos were subjected to extracts irradiated and unirradiated for 24 hours. The bioassay with A. salina, showed a decrease, compared to extract unirradiated and irradiated at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 kGy, of extract irradiated with 10 kGy, where the mortality did not differ from the control group. In tests with embryos was observed an increase in the toxicity of the extract at a dose of 7.5 kGy and a decrease in the dose of 10.0 kGy. The radiation promoted changes in the toxicity of leaves extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn. on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina. (author)

  11. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Crude Extracts and Fractions of Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., Cajui (Anacardium microcarpum, and Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense C.: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Baptista

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The accentuated increase in the use of medicinal plants by the population to treat diseases makes it necessary to carry out pharmacological studies in order to contribute to the scientific knowledge and clarify the mechanisms involved in the main compounds present in these plants. Due to the difficulty of combating antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms, plants become a low-cost and effective alternative. The stem, fruit, and leaves of plants are used to measure antioxidant and antimicrobial capacity and to combat the oxidative degradation of free radicals produced in the presence of xenobiotics. A systematic review is a powerful tool that incorporates the variability among the studies, providing an overall estimate of the use of plant extracts as antioxidants and antimicrobial activities. In view of the controversies in the literature regarding the use of compounds from plants or the isolation and purification of the main substances for the prevention of bacterial various therapeutic actions, the aim of this was to present a systematic review on the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of cashew (Anacardium occidentale, cajui (Anacardium microcarpum, and pequi (Caryocar brasiliense. The following databases were analyzed: PubMed/Medline, Virtual Health Library (LILACS and SciELO, and Science Direct. Out of 425 articles, 33 articles have been used in this study, which were also represented in the Prisma Statement. In vitro antioxidant tests were conducted in 28 studies using different methodologies. Most of the tests involving the studied species demonstrated positive antioxidant potential and antimicrobial properties. The results provide important data and perspectives into the use of natural products that can contribute to the treatment of various diseases.

  12. Avaliaçao do efeito do extrato de casca de cajueiro-branco (Anacardium occidentale L. Sobre A infecção por Leishmania (Viannia brasiliensis

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    Flávio França

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma avaliação do efeito terapêutico do extrato hidroalcólico da casca de Anacardium occidentale L sobre a Leishmania (Viannia brasiliensis. No modelo in vitro o extrato vegetal mostrou-se ativo contra promastigotas do parasita, contrastando com o modelo in vivo, onde não se observou qualquer atividade curativa.

  13. PROSPECÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA: APLICAÇÃO DA GOMA DO CAJUEIRO (Anacardium occidentale EM NANOTECNOLOGIA

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    celia cunha e silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale, da família Anacardiaceae, é uma planta originária do Norte e Nordeste do Brasil, com arquitetura de copa tortuosa e de diferentes portes, bastante cultivada no Brasil, principalmente no Nordeste. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma prospecção, com busca de precedência e apresentar uma visão geral do estado atual de desenvolvimento científico e tecnológico relacionado à aplicação da goma do cajueiro na nonotecnologia, baseado no número de patentes depositadas e de artigos publicados. A prospecção foi realizada no Banco Europeu de Patentes (Europen Patent Office - EPO, no Banco da Organização Mundial de Propriedade Intelectual (World Intellectual Organization - WIPO, no Banco Americano de Marcas e Patentes (United States Patent and Trademark Office - USPTO e no Banco de dados do Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial do Brasil – INPI, bem como na base de periódicos, Web of Science. O Brasil detém o maior número de artigos científicos envolvendo a Anacardium ocidentale, enquanto o Japão se sobressai na proteção desta pesquisa. Foi observado que das patentes depositadas nas referidas bases, mais da metade foram depositadas no período de 2000 a 2012, demostrando um aumento nas pesquisas relacionadas com o cajueiro nos últimos 12 anos, e que a maior parte das patentes possuem código de classificaçao de patente A61K e A61P que estão relacionadas a necessidades humanas.

  14. Lipids Characterization and Industrial Potentials of Pumpkin Seeds (Telfairia occidentalis and Cashew Nuts (Anacardium occidentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Eddy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil from Telfaria occidentalis and Anarcardium occidentale has been extracted and characterized. The lipid content of the Telfaria occidentalis and Anarcardium occidentalis were 58.41% and 42.15% respectively. The physicochemical parameters of Telfaria occidentalis and Anarcardium occidentale seeds were; boiling point; (58.90, 62.60 °C, melting point; (18.50, 21.80 °C, refractive index; (1.462, 1.498, specific gravity; (0.87, 0.69 saponification value; (91.16, 92.57 iodine value; (51.52, 47.20, acid value; (0.76, 3.74 ester value; (90.40, 88.87, % free fatty acid; (.38, 1.88 and peroxide value; (11.75, 15.23 respectively. Oils from these seeds were found to exhibit the needed potentials for utilization in paint and food industries and as biofuel.

  15. Phenols and tannins contents of Anacardium occidentale Linn and Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos; Silva, Edvane Borges da; Amorim, Elba Lucia Cavalcanti de; Peixoto Sobrinho, Tadeu; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade

    2011-01-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn (cajueiro) and Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan (angico) are very know as a source of phenolic compounds, mainly tannins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference of phenols and tannins contents of crude extracts were measured after irradiation of barks and leaves of each plant source, using a source of 60 Co. The crude extracts were divided into control group and three groups which were separately after exposition to gamma radiation, in doses of 5; 7.5 and 10 kGy. From each group, the total phenols were quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteau method, while the contents of tannins were assessed using precipitation of the casein technique. For all doses, the total phenol and tannin percentages from 'cajueiro' barks presented no significant statistical alteration. However, for the leaves of 'cajueiro', their chemical composite levels significantly changed with the radiation absorbed dose. On the other hand, the gamma irradiation did not cause alterations in total phenols and tannins content of extracts from 'angico'. (author)

  16. Phenols and tannins contents of Anacardium occidentale Linn and Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan exposed to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (GERAR/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Silva, Edvane Borges da [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Centro Academico de Vitoria; Amorim, Elba Lucia Cavalcanti de; Peixoto Sobrinho, Tadeu, E-mail: elba@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2011-07-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn (cajueiro) and Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan (angico) are very know as a source of phenolic compounds, mainly tannins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference of phenols and tannins contents of crude extracts were measured after irradiation of barks and leaves of each plant source, using a source of {sup 60}Co. The crude extracts were divided into control group and three groups which were separately after exposition to gamma radiation, in doses of 5; 7.5 and 10 kGy. From each group, the total phenols were quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteau method, while the contents of tannins were assessed using precipitation of the casein technique. For all doses, the total phenol and tannin percentages from 'cajueiro' barks presented no significant statistical alteration. However, for the leaves of 'cajueiro', their chemical composite levels significantly changed with the radiation absorbed dose. On the other hand, the gamma irradiation did not cause alterations in total phenols and tannins content of extracts from 'angico'. (author)

  17. Clinical effect of a mouthwash containing Anacardium occidentale Linn. on plaque and gingivitis control: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Carlos Eduardo Bezerra; Cavalcante, Dhiogo Gonçalves; Filho, José Eduardo Girão; da Costa, Flávio Nogueira; da Silva Pereira, Sérgio Luís

    2016-01-01

    Plaque-associated gingivitis is a prevalent disease and research in its treatment using herbal agents must be encouraged to verify which would be a useful addition to the current range or chemotherapeutic treatment options. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effect of a mouth rinse containing 10% Anacardium occidentale (AO) Linn., a typical plant commonly found in the Northeast Region of Brazil, on the reduction of plaque and gingivitis in comparison to a gold-standard chemotherapeutic agent. Thirty normosystemic adult volunteers of both genders, who had a minimum of twenty natural teeth, aging between 18 and 32 years, were enrolled in this crossover, controlled, examiner-blind clinical study. They were randomly allocated into three groups: 10% AO Linn. (n = 10); 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate (CLX, n = 10); or placebo (PB, n = 10). All volunteers were instructed to brush their teeth with a fluoridated dentifrice two times a day (12/12 h) and to rinse for 1 min with one of the mouthwashes (AO, CLX, or PB) 30 min after tooth brushing for 1 month. Plaque index (PLI) and gingival bleeding index (BLI) were recorded on days 0 and 30. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests (α = 0.05) were performed to evaluate statistical differences among groups. There was a significant reduction (P gingivitis at day 30 just in CLX ([PLI = 0.47 ± 0.16; -30%]; [BLI = 0.15 ± 0.09; -55.8%]) and AO ([PLI = 0.49 ± 0.21; -31%]; [BLI = 0.13 ± 0.10; -56.6%]) groups, but no statistically significant difference was observed among them (P > 0.05). Mouthwash containing 10% AO was effective as an antiplaque and antigingivitis agent, in a similar manner that 0.12% CLX.

  18. Influence of gamma radiation on the levels of polyphenols and lethality of ethanol extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn., against Biomphalaria glabrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G.H.F.; Silva, E.B.; Melo, A.M.M.A.; Lima, C.S.A; Amorim, E.L.C.; Peixoto Sobrinho, T.J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Plant materials rich in phenolic compounds, such as Anacardium occidentale Linn., Have been used as alternatives to synthetic pesticides in Biomphalaria glabrata control programs, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. Studies show that ionizing radiation can influence the content of phenolic compounds and thus their biological actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gamma radiation of 60 Co in polyphenol composition of hydroalcoholic extracts of bark and leaves of A. occidentale and evaluate the toxicity of these extracts to embryos and adults of B. glabrata. To achieve this goal this, the extracts were irradiated at 10 kGy, the controls being maintained from 0 kGy and positive (CaCO 3 ) and negative (H 2 O). We quantified the total phenols by the Folin-Ciocalteau and tannins by precipitation of casein. Extracts were used at a concentration of 100 mg/L. The results showed that the radiation caused the changes to the leaves, the percentage of polyphenols and tannins, and the percentage of lethality in embryos and adults Biomphalaria glabrata, these percentages being: 13 ± 5 (0 kGy) and 27 ± 2.5 (10 kGy), and 36.67 ± 5.77 (0 kGy), and 56.67 ± 5.77 (10 kGy), respectively. Gamma radiation caused significant changes in the levels of polyphenols in the extracts of leaves of Anacardium ocidentale Linn., translated by the increased toxicity of this extract against embryos and adults of Biomphalaria glabrata. This indicates that gamma radiation can be used as an agent potentiating the toxicity of plant extracts on the alternate use of these materials as molluscicides. (author)

  19. Anacardium occidentale L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-05-05

    May 5, 2010 ... Crop Processing and Utilization Division, Cocoa Research Institute of ... tropical countries of the world from its centre of origin in South and Central America ... has acceptable organoleptic properties for human consumption [8].

  20. Sodium metabisulfite–induced polymerization of sickle cell hemoglobin incubated in the extracts of three medicinal plants (Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikezie, Paul Chidoka

    2011-01-01

    Background: The exploitation and utilization of vast varieties of herbal extracts may serve as alternative measures to deter aggregation of deoxygenated sickle cell hemoglobin (deoxyHbS) molecules. Objective: The present in vitro study ascertained the capacity of three medicinal plants, namely, Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa, to alter polymerization of HbS. Materials and Methods: Spectrophotometric method was used to monitor the level of polymerization of hemolysate HbS molecules treated with sodium metabisulfite (Na2 S2 O5) at a regular interval of 30 s for a period of 180 s in the presence of separate aqueous extracts of A. occidentale, P. guajava, and T. catappa. At time intervals of 30 s, the level of polymerization was expressed as percentage of absorbance relative to the control sample at the 180th s. Results: Although extracts of the three medicinal plants caused significant (P guajava exhibited the highest capacity to reduced polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules. Whereas at t > 60 s, extract concentration of 400 mg% of A. occidentale activated polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules by 6.23±1.34, 14.53±1.67, 21.15±1.89, and 24.42±1.09%, 800 mg% of T. catappa at t > 30 s gave values of 2.50±1.93, 5.09±1.96, 10.00±0.99, 15.38±1.33, and 17.31±0.97%. Conclusion: The capacity of the three medicinal plants to interfere with polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules depended on the duration of incubation and concentration of the extracts. PMID:21716622

  1. Teores de ácido anacárdico em pedúnculos de cajueiro Anacardium microcarpum e em oito clones de Anacardium occidentale var. nanum disponíveis no Nordeste do Brasil Anacardic acid content in cashew apples from Annacardium microcarpum and eight clones of Anacardium occidentale from Northeastern Brazil

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    Tânia da Silveira Agostini-Costa

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O ácido anacárdico, composto fenólico presente em pedúnculos de caju e em algumas plantas medicinais, vem sendo associado a uma série de atividades biológicas específicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o teor deste composto em pedúnculos de cajueiro A. microcarpum e em oito clones de A. occidentale var. nanum disponíveis na região Nordeste do Brasil, avaliando, também, algumas características físico-químicas e sensoriais destes pedúnculos. Os pedúnculos do clone BRS 189 apresentaram os maiores teores de ácido anacárdico. Pedúnculos da espécie Anacardium microcarpum e pedúnculos de cajueiro anão precoce, clones END 189 e 183, Embrapa 50 e 51 e CCP 09 não diferiram significativamente dos pedúnculos procedentes do clone controle, CCP 076. Pedúnculos do clone CCP 1001 apresentaram os menores teores de ácido anacárdico. As análises físico-químicas e sensoriais confirmaram evidências de que os clones CCP 09 e 1001 não são apropriados para o consumo in natura.Anacardic acid, a phenolic compound present in cashew apple and in some medicinal plants, is being associated to some specific biological effects. The purpose of this work was to determine anacardic acid content in peduncles of A. microcarpum and eight clones of A. occidentale from Northeastern Brazil, evaluating some physical-chemical and sensory characteristics of these peduncles. Cashew apples from BRS 189 clone of early cashew tree presented the highest values of anacardic acid. Cashew apples from A. microcarpum and END 189, END 183, Embrapa 50, Embrapa 51 e CCP 09 clones of early cashew tree did not differ from control CCP 076 clone. Cashew apples from CCP 1001 clone presented the minor values of anacardic acid. Physical-chemical and sensory analyses showed evidence that CCP 09 and CCP 1001 clone are not appropriate to fresh consuption.

  2. Avaliação da toxicidade subcrônica do extrato bruto seco de Anacardium occidentale Linn em cães - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1112 Evaluation of the subchronic toxicity of the crude dry extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn in dogs - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1112

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    Isabely de Souza Vera Cruz

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A busca de novos medicamentos tem levado ao desenvolvimento de novos fármacos que sejam eficientes e destituídos de toxicidade. Uma das fronteiras nessas pesquisas são os medicamentos fitoterápicos. No Brasil, a Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA regulariza essas pesquisas e padroniza os procedimentos. A Resolução da Diretoria Colegiada (RDC 48/2004, por exemplo, regulariza o registro de fitoterápicos. O Anacardium occidentale Linn está entre as plantas mais estudadas, devido às ações antibiótica e antiinflamatória de seus metabólitos secundários, principalmente taninos. Esta planta também possui a capacidade de impedir a formação da placa bacteriana bucal. Diante dessas ações, formas farmacêuticas acabadas (cremes e géis foram desenvolvidas a partir do extrato bruto seco (EBS das cascas do caule do A. occidentale Linn para registro de um novo fitomedicamento. Entretanto, testes pré-clínicos e clínicos devem ser feitos de acordo com a lei vigente. O presente trabalho avaliou a toxicidade subcrônica do EBS em cães sem raça definida (SRD. Os testes revelaram apenas hepatotoxicidade transitória demonstrada pela elevação dos níveis da alanina transaminase (ALT e aspartato transaminase (ASTResearch on new medicaments has led to the development of efficient and non-toxic drugs. In Brazil, the Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (National Department of Sanitary Supervision – ANVISA regularizes and standardizes the procedure. Anacardium occidentale is amongst the most researched plants, due to the antibiotics and antinflammatory properties of its secondary metabolites, mainly tannins and flavonoids. Furthermore, it prevents the dental plaque formation. On account of these actions, finished pharmaceutical forms (creams and gels were developed from the crude dry extract (CDE of A. occidentale Linn stem rinds, in order to register a new form. However, pre-clinical and clinical assays can be made in

  3. Assessment of Phenolic Compounds and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ethyl Acetate Phase of Anacardium occidentale L. Bark

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    Marina Suênia de Araújo Vilar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The bark of A. occidentale L. is rich in tannins. Studies have described various biological activities of the plant, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcerogenic and antiinflammatory actions. The objective of this study was to assess the activity of the ethyl acetate phase (EtOAc of A. occidentale on acute inflammation and to identify and quantify its phenolic compounds by HPLC. The method was validated and shown to be linear, precise and accurate for catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin and gallic acid. Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus were treated with saline, Carrageenan (2.5%, Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, Bradykinin (6 nmol and Prostaglandine E2 (5 µg at different concentrations of EtOAc - A. occidentale (12.5; 25; 50; and 100 mg/kg/weight p.o. for the paw edema test. Challenge was performed with carrageenan (500 µg/mL i.p. for the doses 50 and 100 mg/kg of EtOAc. Levels of cytokines IL-1, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 were also measured. All EtOAc - A. occidentale concentrations reduced the edema. At 50 and 100 mg/kg, an anti-inflammatory response of the EtOAc was observed. Carrageenan stimulus produced a neutrophil count of 28.6% while 50 and 100 mg/kg of the phase reduced this to 14.5% and 9.1%, respectively. The EtOAc extract reduced levels of IL-1 and TNF-α. These results suggest that the EtOAc plays a modulatory role in the inflammatory response. The chromatographic method can be used for the analysis of the phenolic compounds of the EtOAc phase.

  4. Contribution of the cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) for development of layer-by-layer films with potential application in nanobiomedical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, I.M.S. [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias da Natureza, CCN, Universidade Federal do Piaui, UFPI, Teresina, PI, 64049-550 (Brazil); Nucleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, Campus Parnaiba, CMRV, Universidade Federal do Piaui, UFPI, Parnaiba, PI, 64202-020 (Brazil); Zampa, M.F. [Nucleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, Campus Parnaiba, CMRV, Universidade Federal do Piaui, UFPI, Parnaiba, PI, 64202-020 (Brazil); Campus Parnaiba, Instituto Federal de Educacao Ciencia e Tecnologia do Piaui, IFPI, Parnaiba, PI, 64210-260 (Brazil); Moura, J.B.; Santos, J.R. dos [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias da Natureza, CCN, Universidade Federal do Piaui, UFPI, Teresina, PI, 64049-550 (Brazil); Eaton, P. [REQUIMTE, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, Porto, 4169-007 (Portugal); Zucolotto, V. [Grupo de Biofisica Molecular Sergio Mascarenhas, Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, IFSC, USP, Sao Carlos, SP, 13566-590 (Brazil); and others

    2012-08-01

    The search for bioactive molecules to be employed as recognition elements in biosensors has stimulated researchers to pore over the rich Brazilian biodiversity. In this sense, we introduce the use of natural cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) as an active biomaterial to be used in the form of layer-by-layer films, in conjunction with phthalocyanines, which were tested as electrochemical sensors for dopamine detection. We investigated the effects of chemical composition of cashew gum from two different regions of Brazil (Piaui and Ceara states) on the physico-chemical characteristics of these nanostructures. The morphology of the nanostructures containing cashew gum was studied by atomic force microscopy which indicates that smooth films punctuated by globular features were formed that showed low roughness values. The results indicate that, independent of the origin, cashew gum stands out as an excellent film forming material with potential application in nanobiomedical devices as electrochemical sensors. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study focused on the use of cashew gum for the formation of LbL films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LbL films containing cashew gums were investigated by AFM and cyclic voltammetry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cashew gum contributed to obtain stable films with well-defined redox processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cashew gum films detected dopamine in low concentrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These LbL films presented potential application in nanobiomedical devices.

  5. Contribution of the cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) for development of layer-by-layer films with potential application in nanobiomedical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araújo, I.M.S.; Zampa, M.F.; Moura, J.B.; Santos, J.R. dos; Eaton, P.; Zucolotto, V.

    2012-01-01

    The search for bioactive molecules to be employed as recognition elements in biosensors has stimulated researchers to pore over the rich Brazilian biodiversity. In this sense, we introduce the use of natural cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) as an active biomaterial to be used in the form of layer-by-layer films, in conjunction with phthalocyanines, which were tested as electrochemical sensors for dopamine detection. We investigated the effects of chemical composition of cashew gum from two different regions of Brazil (Piauí and Ceará states) on the physico-chemical characteristics of these nanostructures. The morphology of the nanostructures containing cashew gum was studied by atomic force microscopy which indicates that smooth films punctuated by globular features were formed that showed low roughness values. The results indicate that, independent of the origin, cashew gum stands out as an excellent film forming material with potential application in nanobiomedical devices as electrochemical sensors. Highlights: ► This study focused on the use of cashew gum for the formation of LbL films. ► LbL films containing cashew gums were investigated by AFM and cyclic voltammetry. ► Cashew gum contributed to obtain stable films with well-defined redox processes. ► Cashew gum films detected dopamine in low concentrations. ► These LbL films presented potential application in nanobiomedical devices.

  6. Removal of Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cr(III) from water using modified residues of Anacardium occidentale L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Gustavo Ferreira; Gonçalves, Affonso Celso; Schwantes, Daniel; Rodríguez, Esperanza Álvarez; Tarley, César Ricardo Teixeira; Dragunski, Douglas; Conradi Junior, Élio

    2018-06-01

    The pollution of water has been one of the greatest problems faced by the modern society, due to industrialization and urban growth. Rivers, lakes and seas have been continually suffering from the rising concentration of various pollutants, especially toxic elements. This study aimed to evaluate the use of cashew nut shell ( Anacardium occidentale) (CNS), after chemical modification with H2O2, H2SO4 and NaOH, as an new and renewable adsorbent material, for the removal of metals Cd2+, Pb2+ and Cr3+ in aqueous medium. The adsorbents were characterized by its chemical constitution, structure, infrared spectroscopy, morphology, by means of scanning electron microscopy, determination of the point of zero charge, thermogravimetrical analysis and porosimetry assessments. Tests were conducted to determine the optimal conditions (pH vs. adsorbent mass) for adsorption, by means of multivariate analysis using a central composite design. The adsorption kinetics was evaluated by models of pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion, while adsorption isotherms were linearized by Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich. The effect of initial concentration, temperature and desorption was also performed. The adsorbents exhibited irregular, spongy and heterogeneous structure. FTIR analysis confirms the presence of hydroxyl, aliphatic, phenolic and carboxylic acid groups, which are favorable adsorption characteristics. The pHPZC of adsorbent is 4.35, 2.50 e 6.92, respectively, for CNS H2O2, H2SO4 and NaOH. The optimum adsorption conditions were as follows: pH 5.0; relation of adsorbent mass/volume of water: 4 g L-1; 40 min of contact time for reaching the equilibration. Results suggest the predominance of chemisorption of Cd2+ and Cr3+. Most of biosorbents exhibited good fit by Langmuir and Freundlich, suggesting the occurrence of adsorption on mono- and multilayers. The adsorbents of cashew nut shell exhibited high removal efficiency of Cd, Pb

  7. Study of rheological behavior of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale, l., acerola (Malpighia emarginata, d.c. and mango (Mangifera indica, l. pulpsEstudo do comportamento reológico de polpas de caju (Anacardium occidentale, l., acerola (Malpighia emarginata, d.c. e manga (Mangifera indica, l.

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    Evânia Altina Teixeira de Figueiredo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the fruit tropical pulps rheological behavior have a great importance for the consumers and food process industries. In this work it was studied the rheological behavior of the cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale, L., mango (Mangifera indica, L and acerola (Malpighia emarginata, DC single strength, frozen and pasteurized pulps. The experimental measurements were carried out in concentric cylinder rheometer and the experimental data were fitted to models of Ostwald-de-Waelle and Bingham. There were evaluated chemical, physical-chemical and microbiological parameters. In this work, in order to adjust the rheological parameters, the model that presented the best description was the Ostwald-de-Waelle for the mango and acerola pulps, and Bingham for cashew apple pulp. The samples presented non-Newtonian and pseudoplastic character. The chemical and physicochemical analysis showed the nutritional value of the studied fruits. The microbiological results presented satisfactory hygienic and sanitary conditions in pulps processing.O conhecimento do comportamento reológico das polpas de frutas tropicais é muito importante para os consumidores e para a indústria de alimentos. Neste trabalho se estudou o comportamento reológico de polpas de caju (Anacardium occidentale, L., manga (Mangifera indica, L e acerola (Malpighia emarginata, D.C. integrais, pasteurizadas e congeladas. As medidas experimentais foram realizadas em reômetro rotacional de cilindros concêntricos e os dados experimentais foram ajustados aos modelos de Ostwald-de-Waelle e Bingham. Também foram avaliados os parâmetros químicos, físico-químicos e microbiológicos. No estudo, para o ajuste dos parâmetros reológicos, o modelo que apresentou maior ajuste foi o de Ostwald-de-Waelle para as polpas de acerola e manga e Bingham para a polpa de caju. As amostras apresentaram comportamento não-newtoniano e caráter pseudoplástico. As caracterizações químicas e f

  8. DYNAMICS OF THE RUMINAL FERMENTATION IN SHEEP FEEDING WITH RATION CONTAINING DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CASHEW BY-PRODUCTS (Anacardium occidentale Efecto de la inclusion en los níveles crescentes del subproducto de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. en la dinámica de la fermentacion ruminal de ovinos DINÂMICA DA FERMENTAÇÃO RUMINAL EM OVINOS ALIMENTADOS COM RAÇÕES CONTENDO DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE COPRODUTOS DE CAJU (Anacardium occidentale

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    Marcos Cláudio Rogério

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The study aimed to evaluate the inclusion of cashew by-product (Anacardium occidentale L. on the ammoniac nitrogen concentrations (N-NH3, pH and vollatile fatty acids concentrations (VFA of the ruminal fluid, in sheep that received diets containing the cited by-product. Twenty male, entire sheep had been distributed in four treatments with different levels of cashew by-product inclusion (zero; 19%; 38%; 52% in a randomized block design, in a split-plot project, having in the parcels the diets and the sub-parcels the times of collection (zero, two, five, eight hours after-feeding with five replications. PH was remained inside of the normal standards cited by same literature in the raised cashew by-product inclusions. Diets with zero and 52% had gotten the biggest concentrations of N-NH3. The molar ratio of the AGV in the ruminal liquid in the diets with cashew by-product was typical of rich diets in voluminous. The relation acetate: propionate was not affected by the inclusion of the cashew by-product. The inclusion of the cashew by-product in up to 19 % of the dietary total presented better resulted in that it says respect to the parameters analyzed in this work.

    KEY WORDS: Ammoniac nitrogen, Ovis aries, pH, parameters ruminate, ruminants, volatile fatty acids.

    El estudio apunto evaluar la inclusión del subproducto de caju (Anacardium occidentale en la concentración de nitrogeno amoniacal (N-NH3, el pH y las concentraciones de los acidos grasos vollatiles (AGV en el liquido ruminal de ovinos ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE L.: PROSPECÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA APLICADA À TECNOLOGIA DE COMPOSTOS BIOATIVOS EM PRODUTOS ALIMENTÍCIOS

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    Lília Barretto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O agronegócio mundial do caju movimenta cerca de 2,4 bilhões de dólares por ano. No Brasil, a região Nordeste responde por mais de 95% da produção, com divisas na ordem de 220 milhões de dólares anuais. Apesar da importância desta atividade agroindustrial, observa-se que o seu potencial econômico permanece pouco explorado, principalmente com relação ao aproveitamento do pedúnculo. Além de rico em nutrientes, o caju é uma importante fonte de compostos bioativos, os quais podem ser usados na elaboração de produtos funcionais. Este trabalho apresenta um mapeamento tecnológico sobre as potencialidades do caju referentes às tecnologias de compostos bioativos baseado na evolução das competências tecnológicas traduzidas através dos depósitos de patentes. Para a realização desta pesquisa, utilizou-se a base de dados Derwent Innovations Index. Mesmo sem apresentar geografia nem clima favoráveis para a produção de caju, o Japão liderou os rankings apresentados neste estudo, com 14 pedidos quando realizada a pesquisa pela palavra-chave Anacardium occidentale e 04, quando usado o termo cashew apple. A Universidade Federal do Maranhão é o destaque brasileiro, com dois depósitos relacionados à área farmacêutica. O único protocolo nacional referente a compostos bioativos extraídos a partir do caju foi depositado pela Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais em 2009 e ressalta um método laboratorial para análises de taninos extraídos de bebidas como o suco de caju. Os resultados demonstram uma área promissora para o desenvolvimento de patentes brasileiras relacionadas ao caju e seus compostos bioativos, hoje atualmente explorados por países não produtores desta fruta.

  9. CARACTERIZAÇÃO FÍSICO-QUÍMICA DA AMÊNDOA DA CASTANHA DE CAJU (Anacardium occidentale L. CRUA E TOSTADA

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    M.L.P. MELO

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se a caracterização físico-química da amêndoa da castanha de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. crua e tostada, identificando-se as alterações provocadas pelo processo de tostagem. As amêndoas da castanha de caju crua e tostada apresentaram pH próximos à neutralidade. A composição centesimal da amêndoa crua apresentou os seguintes teores: umidade - 5,05 %, cinzas - 2,40 %, proteínas - 22,11 %, lipídios - 46,28 %, açúcares totais - 7,93 % e amido - 16,07 %. Para a amêndoa tostada os resultados foram: umidade - 1,18 %, cinzas - 2,43 %, proteínas - 21,76 %, lipídios - 48,35 %, açúcares totais - 8,23 % e amido - 17,30 %. A comparação destes resultados foi significativamente diferente nos níveis de lipídios, açúcares totais e amido, possivelmente em conseqüência da perda de água durante o processo de tostagem, pois quando estes foram comparados na base seca, os resultados passaram a não ter diferenças estatísticas.The purpose of this work was to evaluate the quality of the raw and toasted cashew nuts, identifying the changes that took place during the toasting process. The raw and toasted cashew nut showed pH near neutrality. The chemical composition of the raw cashew nut showed the following values: moisture - 5,05 %; ash - 2,40 %; protein - 22,11 %; lipids - 46,28 %; total sugar - 7,93 % and starch - 16,07 %. The toasted nut results were: moisture - 1,18 %; ash - 2,43 %; protein - 21,76 %; lipids - 48,35 %; total sugar - 8,23 % and starch - 17,30 %. The comparison of these values were significantly different for the levels of lipids, total sugars and starch, possibly due to the loss of water, during the toasting process, since when they were compared on dry matter basis, the results did not present differences.

  10. O polissacarídeo do Anacardium occidentale L. na fase inflamatória do processo cicatricial de lesões cutâneas

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    Schirato Giuliana Viegas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O efeito do polissacarídeo de Anacardium occidentale L. (POLICAJU foi avaliado na fase inflamatória do processo cicatricial em camundongos (Mus musculus Swiss (n=90, organizados de acordo com o tratamento empregado: Grupo I (NaCl 150mM, Grupo II (ácido ascórbico 75mg ml-1 e Grupo III (emulsão contendo POLICAJU 150mg ml-1 preparado em ácido ascórbico 75mg ml-1. As lesões cutâneas foram realizadas assepticamente na região torácica dorsal e cada ferida foi tratada em dose única (200ml imediatamente após a cirurgia. As feridas foram avaliadas diariamente sob o ponto de vista clínico e histopatológico até o 6degrees dia de pós-operatório (PO. No 5degrees dia PO, observou-se um menor percentual de edema e hiperemia no Grupo III em relação aos grupos controle, ao passo que os valores de área da ferida e do percentual de contração não foram estatisticamente significativos. A avaliação histopatológica do grupo tratado com POLICAJU demonstrou a presença de tecido de granulação fibrovascular no 6degrees dia PO, enquanto os grupos controle apresentavam tecido de granulação com padrão vascular. O tratamento proposto propiciou sinais flogísticos menos acentuados (edema e hiperemia durante o período inflamatório, compatível com o processo de reparação mais avançado do ponto de vista histopatológico, sugerindo a possível utilização clínica da emulsão contendo POLICAJU.

  11. Propriedades antioxidantes em subproduto do pedúnculo de caju (Anacardium occidentale L.: efeito sobre a lipoperoxidação e o perfil de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados em ratos Antioxidant properties in cashew apple byproduct (Anacardium occidentale L.: effect on lipoperoxidation and on the polyunsaturated fatty acids profile in rats

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    Priscila Regina Bolelli Broinizi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O caju (Anacardium occidentale L. apresenta substâncias fenólicas, as quais são atribuídas propriedades antioxidantes. Sendo assim, o presente trabalho objetivou verificar a capacidade antioxidante em subproduto, ou seja, no bagaço do pedúnculo do caju. O potencial antioxidante do extrato hidroalcoólico (EHAlc do bagaço do pedúnculo de caju foi avaliado em sistema de varredura do radical 2,2'-difenil-1-picrilhidrazilo (DPPH• e em ensaio in vivo. No sistema DPPH, o extrato demonstrou atividade antioxidante de cerca de 95% em sua maior concentração (1000 µg/mL. Para o estudo in vivo, foram utilizados ratos Wistar administrando oralmente EHAlc (200 e 400 mg/kg de peso corpóreo por 30 dias e analisados os tecidos plasmático, hepático e cerebral. Não houve alterações na peroxidação lipídica no plasma e no fígado dos animais tratados comparados ao grupo controle. Contudo, foi observada redução da lipoperoxidação no cérebro dos grupos tratados. Além do mais, neste tecido, os animais tratados apresentaram maior quantidade de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados (AGPI, destacando-se o ácido docosahexaenóico (DHA. Estes resultados indicam que o EHAlc contém antioxidantes naturais efetivos e que podem contribuir na redução da lipoperoxidação e preservação dos AGPICL no tecido cerebral de ratos, dando indícios da capacidade antioxidante do bagaço do pedúnculo de caju CCP-76.The cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L. contains phenolic compounds usually related with antioxidant properties. Then, the aim of this study was to investigate its antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant capacity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the cashew apple pulp (EHAlc. was assessed for the scavenging of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH by in vitro method and by an in vivo essay. For this essay a 30-day oral (gavage, EHAlc. 200 and 400 mg/kg study was conducted in Wistar male rats, evaluating hepatic, plasma and brain tissues. In

  12. Bioactive compounds and total antioxidant capacity of cashew apples (Anacardium occidentale L. during the ripening of early dwarf cashew clones Compostos bioativos e atividade antioxidante total de pedúnculos de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. durante o amadurecimento de clones de cajueiro anão-precoce

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    Mônica Maria de Almeida Lopes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lately, tropical fruit consumption has increased due to a higher knowledge of its nutritional and therapeutic value. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of cashew apples from different early dwarf clones during their ripening. The clones analyzed included: CCP 76, CCP 09, BRS 189 and BRS 265 in seven ripening stages. They were analyzed for vitamin C, total carotenoid, total anthocyanin, yellow flavonoids and polyphenol content and total antioxidant capacity. Clone BRS 265 ripe cashew apple presented the highest vitamin C content (279.37 mg x 100 g-1. The ripe BRS 189 cashew apple is colored bright red, and its total anthocyanin content was the highest (21.16 mg x 100 g-1. The yellow flavonoids content was higher for ripe CCP 76 and BRS 189 cashew apples with 56.32 and 50.75 mg x 100 g-1, respectively. The highest levels of extrable polyphenols and antioxidant capacity were observed in CCP 09 in the first five ripening stages. The antioxidant activity of cashew apples (Anacardium occidentale L. is mainly attributed to polyphenol content (r = 0.90; p Ultimamente, o consumo de frutas tropicais tem aumentado em razão de um maior conhecimento de seu valor nutricional e terapêutico. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o potencial antioxidante de pedúnculos de cajus de diferentes clones de cajueiro anão precoce, durante o seu amadurecimento. Os clones analisados foram: CCP 76, CCP 09, BRS 189 e BRS 265, em sete estádios de amadurecimento. Foram analisados para a vitamina C total, antocianinas, carotenóides totais, flavonóides amarelos, teor de polifenóis e capacidade antioxidante total. O clone BRS 265 maduro obteve o maior teor de vitamina C (279,37 mg x 100 g-1. O pedúnculo maduro BRS 189, apresentou o maior conteúdo de antocianinas totais (21,16 mg x 100 g-1. O conteúdo de flavonóides amarelos foi maior para os clones CCP 76 e BRS 189 maduros, com 56,32 e 50,75 mg x 100 g-1, respectivamente. Os maiores teores

  13. Influence of gamma radiation on the levels of polyphenols and lethality of ethanol extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn., against Biomphalaria glabrata; Influencia da radiacao gama na acao moluscicida de extratos de cajueiro em Biomphalaria glabrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, G.H.F.; Silva, E.B., E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Melo, A.M.M.A.; Lima, C.S.A [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica; Amorim, E.L.C.; Peixoto Sobrinho, T.J.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Farmacia

    2013-08-15

    Plant materials rich in phenolic compounds, such as Anacardium occidentale Linn., Have been used as alternatives to synthetic pesticides in Biomphalaria glabrata control programs, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. Studies show that ionizing radiation can influence the content of phenolic compounds and thus their biological actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co in polyphenol composition of hydroalcoholic extracts of bark and leaves of A. occidentale and evaluate the toxicity of these extracts to embryos and adults of B. glabrata. To achieve this goal this, the extracts were irradiated at 10 kGy, the controls being maintained from 0 kGy and positive (CaCO{sub 3}) and negative (H{sub 2}O). We quantified the total phenols by the Folin-Ciocalteau and tannins by precipitation of casein. Extracts were used at a concentration of 100 mg/L. The results showed that the radiation caused the changes to the leaves, the percentage of polyphenols and tannins, and the percentage of lethality in embryos and adults Biomphalaria glabrata, these percentages being: 13 ± 5 (0 kGy) and 27 ± 2.5 (10 kGy), and 36.67 ± 5.77 (0 kGy), and 56.67 ± 5.77 (10 kGy), respectively. Gamma radiation caused significant changes in the levels of polyphenols in the extracts of leaves of Anacardium ocidentale Linn., translated by the increased toxicity of this extract against embryos and adults of Biomphalaria glabrata. This indicates that gamma radiation can be used as an agent potentiating the toxicity of plant extracts on the alternate use of these materials as molluscicides. (author)

  14. Caracterização anatômica e histoquímica de raízes e folhas de plântulas de Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Lopes Ernesto Reis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae é uma espécie típica do Cerrado do Brasil Central e possui valor socioeconômico. Objetivou-se caracterizar anatômica e histoquimicamente as raízes e folhas desta espécie em diferentes estádios iniciais de desenvolvimento. Para a caracterização anatômica, as amostras foram fixadas em FAA50, incluídas em parafina e submetidas aos procedimentos usuais para microscopia de campo claro. Foram realizados testes histoquímicos para detecção de lipídios totais, taninos, lignina, amido e terpenoides com grupo carbonila nas folhas, bem como teste para amido nas raízes em cortes frescos. A raiz apresenta epiderme unisseriada, floema com canais secretores e xilema tetrarco. Aos cinco dias após a germinação, a planta apresenta regiões com crescimento secundário e possui região medular na raiz, com função de armazenamento de grãos de amido. As folhas exibem epiderme unisseriada, com tricomas glandulares, cutícula espessa e estômatos paracíticos, em ambas as faces. O mesofilo é dorsiventral, e a nervura central apresenta feixes vasculares colaterais com canais secretores associados ao floema. A caracterização histoquímica da folha evidenciou lipídios totais e compostos fenólicos, entre eles taninos e lignina, em diferentes tecidos da folha. A plântula apresenta características que demonstram sua adaptação ao ambiente Cerrado, como cutícula espessa, mesofilo dorsiventral, crescimento secundário e presença de tricomas, mesmo sendo cultivada em condições de viveiro.

  15. Antihyperglycemic and renal protective activities of Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats had been shown to be associated with functional and/or morphological changes in the kidney. Therefore, in the present investigation, we carried out studies on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes in rats chronically treated with Anacardium occidentale on the functional and ...

  16. Identification of antimicrobial properties of cashew, Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    3 *Department of. Plant Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Email: bionyananyo@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT: The antimicrobial capabilities of plant extract derived from the leaves of the cashew plant,. Anacardium occidentale L. (Family ...

  17. Climate change and cashew (Anacardium occidentale L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    217 RESULTS ... change effect on cashew productivity and to identify the adaptation ... Keywords: Adaptation strategies, Benin, cashew tree, climate change, ..... in the medium production area (Northwest) ... 75.9. 96.3. 89.7. 74.3. Widower. 24.1. 3.7. 7.7. 24.3. Origine. Native. 100 ..... a state of leaves plasmolysis unfavorable to.

  18. Morphological characterization of cashew (Anacardium occidentale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... prices on the market. The genetic ... apple length, apple nut ratio, nut weight, kernel weight, out turn percent and flower sex ratio accounted for most of ..... Horticulture. National horticulture development strategy for Malawi, a.

  19. Chromosome studies in Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-01-18

    Jan 18, 2007 ... behavior of chromosome in cashew populations growing in Nigeria. Cytological examination of these ... which penetrate very deep into the soil profile and lateral roots that sometimes ... The importance of cytological information to crop improvement ..... Tree nuts production, processing and products,. Vol.

  1. Chromosome studies in Cashew ( Anacardium occidentale L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the increased cultivation of cashew as a commodity crop in sub-Sahara Africa, Asia and South America there are few chromosome studies on it. The present study investigates number, structure and behavior of chromosome in cashew populations growing in Nigeria. Cytological examination of these populations ...

  2. Pharmacological properties of cashew (Anacardium occidentale)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rai Pablo Sousa de Aguiar

    2016-08-31

    Aug 31, 2016 ... according to the method of production of: (1) net of the shell of natural cashew nut (60-65% anacardic ... it available in the market as pharmaceutical products. Thus .... now seen as having anti-cancer properties, arrest the cell ..... nanomaterials. ... Characterization of phenolic compounds in jocote (Spondias.

  3. Antibacterial evaluation of Anacardium occidentale (Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    has led to the seeking of new antibiotics that are effective and opens paths for the ... to evaluate the antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of the leaves and stem peels of .... radiation intensity and production of phenol compounds such as ...

  4. Antibacterial and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: Anacardium occidentale is a local medicinal plant used in ethno medicine for the treatment of diarrhea, constipation,pain and inflammation. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of this plant parts were assessed for anti- inflammatory and antibacterial activities using experimental animal model and agar disc ...

  5. In vitro regeneration of hybrid plantlets of cashew (Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Embryos from immature nuts of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) were cultured in vitro to regenerate improved hybrid plantlets. Explants (embryo) were excised from developing F1 hybrid immature nuts derived from diallel cross and harvested at 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-weeks after pollination (WAPo) for in vitro culture.

  6. Larvicidal effects of leaf, bark and nutshell of Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of the larvicidal properties of aqueous extracts of leaves, bark and nutshell of Anacardium occidentale L. (Cashew) were evaluated on the larvae of Anopheles gambiae. Three concentrations of 10/100ml, 20/100ml and 30/100ml each of leaf, bark and nutshell were prepared in three replicates.

  7. Anthelmintic efficacy of cashew (Anarcadium occidentale L.) on in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-24

    Aug 24, 2011 ... The use of plants for the treatment of human and animal diseases continues to rise although there are few studies providing proof of these effects. Among them is the Anacardium occidentale L., popularly known as cashew. In vitro egg hatch and larval development and viability assays was conducted to.

  8. Powders and extracts of syzygium aromaticum and anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sitophilus oryzae est une peste majeure des grains de sorgho (Sorghum bicor L.) en stockage au Nigeria. Ainsi une étude a été réalisée pour évaluer les effets entomocides de Syzygium aromaticum et Anacardium occidentale à une temperature ambiante de 28±2 ºC et une humidité relative de 75±5%. Les poudres étaient ...

  9. antidiabetic activity of anacardium occidentale in alloxan – diabetic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ethanolic extract led to fractions that displayed diverse hypoglycemic effects at doses of 34.0,. 200.0 and 300.0 mg/kg body ... plates. TLC bands were visualized under UV lamps at 254 and 366 nm or with vanilin spray reagent. Plant Material.

  10. MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE LEAVES OF Anacardium occidentale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Quaresma Ramos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In morphological studies are analyzed various parameters, ranging from macro scale through the micro scale to the nanometer scale, which contribute to the study of taxonomy, pharmacognosy, ecology, among others. Among the structures found in plants, the leaves are most organs analyzed. This study aimed to analyze morphological features of the leaves of the cashew tree, which is a plant of great commercial importance in Brazil. In this work we observed sinuous epidermal cells in the adaxial and abaxial, characterize their stomata in paracytic surrounded subsidiaries cells. On the abaxial surface the presence of glandular trichomes was observed; and cross-sectional analysis showed a single-layered epidermis with compact mesophyll and several layers of parenchyma cells. Keywords: leaf anatomy; cashew tree; optical microscopy.

  11. Application of tissue culture to cashew ( Anacardium occidentale L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary of the previous works on the in vitro culture of cashew is highlighted with emphasis on the critical factors that influence the explants response and plantlet regeneration. The recalcitrant nature of cashew has been attributed to the limited success recorded so far in the in vitro culture of the crop and abnormal ...

  12. (Anacardium occidentale L.) kernel oil by lipolytic organisms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 9(31), pp. .... amount of NaOH used in the titration to bring the reaction mixture to. pH of 9.5 under the ..... Chemistry, Thomas Graham House, Science Park, Cambridge. Adebajo LO ...

  13. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) juice preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavinas, F C; Miguel, M A L; Lopes, M L M; Valente Mesquita, V L

    2008-08-01

    High hydrostatic pressure is an alternative to thermal processing to inactivate spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Cashew apple juice has a pleasant flavor and is rich in vitamin C. Studies to determine the effect of high pressure on microorganisms in cashew apple juice are still lacking. In this study, the inactivation of natural micropopulation and inoculated Escherichia coli by high pressure was evaluated in fresh cashew apple juice. The microbiological stability of pressure-treated juice was also evaluated. The applied high pressure levels ranged from 250 to 400 MPa for periods of 3 to 7 min. Treatments with 350 MPa for 7 min and 400 MPa for either 3 or 7 min reduced the aerobic mesophilic bacteria count to a level below the detection limit. Pressure treatments were also efficient in inactivating yeast and filamentous fungi. The inoculated E. coli (10(6) CFU/mL) was reduced to below 10 CFU/mL after a pressure treatment of 400 MPa for 3 min. The inactivation of this microorganism followed a 1st-order reaction kinetics. The decimal reduction time (D-value) ranged from 1.21 to 16.43 min, while pressure resistance value (z-value) was 123.46 MPa. Neither natural micropopulation growth nor E. coli repair was observed in postprocessed (400 MPa for 3 min) cashew apple juice kept under refrigerated storage (at 4 degrees C) during 8 wk. The results of this study demonstrated the efficacy of high-pressure treatment for preserving cashew apple juice.

  14. The effects of gamma irradiation on cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) and mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapade, A.G.; Barrida, A.C.; Veluz, A.M.S.; Aurigue, F.B.; Marbella, L.J.; Rama, M.G.

    2004-01-01

    A study on the effects of gamma radiation on cashew and mangosteen was conducted. In cashew seeds exposed to gamma radiation with dose raging from 100 to 400 Gy, the highest percentage emergence of 80% was obtained in the control and 100 Gy. Percent emergence decreased from 200-400 Gy. Seeds irradiated with 400 Gy gave the lowest percentage of only 10%, 4 weeks after sowing, Slight increase in emergence was observed at low dose of 5 and 10 Gy gamma rays over that of the control in mangosteen. However, at doses 20 and 30 Gy, percent emergence decreased. No shoot emergence was noted at 40 Gy, 7 weeks after sowing. In both cashew and mangosteen, gamma irradiation caused a decreased in seedling height and increased frequency of induced morphological changes (leaf abnormalities, stem bifurcation, reduction in internode length and changes in chlorophyll pattern). Differences in response of cashew and mangosteen to gamma radiation were attributed to species and dosage of radiation used. Based on the foregoing results, gamma radiation is an effective mutagenic agent in inducing morphological as well as genetic changes in both tree crop species. In the micropropagation of mangosteen using the in-vitro culture system, the best treatment for callus induction was MS basal medium and MS with 2 mg/1 BA; for root formation, the best treatment combination was 4 mg/ 1 BA + 6 mg/1 NAA; and for plantlet regeneration, the optium treatment was MS with 6 mg/1 BA + 6 mg/1 NAA. (Author)

  15. Effect of gamma radiation and storage on cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Adriana Régia Marques de; Brazaca, Solange Guidolin Canniatti; Arthur, Valter; Oliveira, Anderson Giovani Cândico; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet; Walder, Júlio Marcos Melges

    2009-01-01

    The non-efficiency or absence of techniques for adequate handling, transport, and storage of cashew stalks associated with a high level of perishability, generates high economic loss in the commercialization of these fruits, hence the development of conservation methods becomes a necessity in order to enhance the profitability. Cashew apples from precocious dwarf cashew tree were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, and 1.0 kGy and stored during nine days under refrigeration at 4 ºC for evaluation of the quality stability during storage. Chemical analyses were performed to verify changes in reducing sugars, Brix, vitamin C, and pH. Alterations in the firmness and color were also observed. The levels of vitamin C decreased as a function of storage as well as a function of the radiation doses employed. The firmness of the fruits was influenced by both the radiation doses and storage time, increasing during storage and decreasing as the radiation doses increased. Irradiation was shown to be efficient in the prolongation of the shelf-life of cashew stalks. (author) [pt

  16. Volatile profile of cashews (Anacardium occidentale L.) from different geographical origins during roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agila, Amal; Barringer, Sheryl Ann

    2011-01-01

    Volatile compounds were quantified in the headspace of Indian, Vietnamese, and Brazilian cashews, both raw and during roasting by selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry. The optimum roasting times based on color measurements were also determined. Raw cashews were oil roasted for 3 to 9 min at 143 °C and color and volatiles measured. An excellent correlation, following a pseudo 1st-order reaction, was found between L* value and roasting time; darkness increases as roasting time increases. The optimum roasting time was 6, 8, and 9 min for Vietnamese, Indian, and Brazilian cashews, respectively. Raw cashews had lower concentrations of volatiles than roasted cashews. Most volatiles significantly increased in concentration during roasting of Brazilian, Indian, and Vietnamese cashews. Only a few volatiles significantly decreased during roasting. Ethanol and 1-heptene significantly decreased during roasting in Brazilian cashews and toluene decreased in Vietnamese cashews. Brazilian cashews had significantly higher levels of most volatiles than Indian and Vietnamese cashews. Most volatile levels in Indian and Vietnamese cashews were not significantly different. Of the volatiles, Strecker aldehydes, including methylbutanal, 2-methylpropanal, and acetaldehyde, were at the highest concentration in roasted cashews. The Maillard reaction contributed to the formation of most of the volatiles in cashews from the 3 countries. There was also degradation of sugars to form furan-type compounds and oxidation of lipids to form alkanals such as hexanal. The volatile profile during roasting of cashews can be used to determine the best roasting time for each type of cashew. The rate of color development and the production of volatiles differ for the cashews from the 3 geographical locations. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Pyrolysis and gasification of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.) shell: liquid products characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Renata Andrade; Figueiredo, Flavio Augusto Bueno; Sanchez, Caio Glauco; Sanchez, Elisabete Maria Saraiva [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Combustion Lab.]. E-mails: flavioa@fem.unicamp.br; renataaf@fem.unicamp.br; caio@fem.unicamp.br; bete@fem.unicamp.br; Arauzo, Jesus; Sanchez, Jose Luis; Gonzalo, Alberto [University of Zaragoza (Spain). Aragon Institute of Engineering Research. Thermo-chemical Processes Group (GPT)]. E-mails: qtarauzo@unizar.es; jlsance@unizar.es; agonca@unizar.es

    2008-07-01

    The environment contamination with effluents generated in the biomass pyrolysis process has been waking up the scientific community's interest and concern in a larger number of countries, that are adopting measures to quantify and reduce the generated effluents. The pyrolysis and gasification are processes that can serve as alternative for the recovery of energy in the biomass usage. Considering that Brazil is one of the greatest world producers of biomass, the theme of the biomass usage in the generation of energy has been largely discussed. By the processes of pyrolysis and gasification, depending on the biomass type, the same can be transformed in fuel (liquid, char and gases in different proportions). However, the gases have a level of impurity that should be controlled to use it in a motor or turbine. The main impurities that should be controlled are tars, chars, ashes and nitrogenated compounds. The biomass used in this work is the cashew nut shell, from the Northeast of Brazil. In northeast there are industries that process the cashew nut which can use the cashew nut main reject (shell) as fuel, avoiding landfill sanitary deposit. By thermal conversion of the biomass in the pyrolysis and gasification process, it was quantified the production of solids (char), liquids (tar) and gases. It was evaluated the influences of the final temperature (800, 900 and 1000 deg C) and the use of N{sub 2} in pyrolysis case, and a mixture of N{sub 2} and vapor of water in the gasification case, in the amounts of char, tar and gas. The exhausted gas passes through a tar (liquid) condensation system, which consists of two glass condenser vessels cooled with a mixture of ice and water and an electrostatic precipitator. The liquid fractions are extracted with isopropanol and the sample is analyzed for CG-MS and CG-FID for the identification and quantification of the present compositions. Around 50 different composed have been detected in the liquid fraction obtained, most of them being present on very low concentrations. In order to facilitate the evolution study of the liquid composition fraction with the temperature, the compounds detected have been grouped according to their chemical nature. In this work, the classification of the compositions will be used proposed by Sanchez et al. (COBEM, 2007). It is observed that in the pyrolysis and gasification processes the liquid fraction production increases with the decrease of the temperature. The liquid fraction collected in the two processes presents predominance of oxygenated compounds. (author)

  18. Estimating energy requirement in cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut processing operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jekayinfa, S.O. [Department of Agricultural Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Oyo State (Nigeria); Bamgboye, A.I. [Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria)

    2006-07-15

    This work deals with a study on estimation of energy consumption in eight readily defined unit operations of cashew nut processing. Data for analysis were collected from nine cashew nut mills stratified into small, medium and large categories to represent different mechanization levels. Series of equations were developed to easily compute requirements of electricity, fuel and labour for each of the unit operations. The computation of energy use was done using spreadsheet program on Microsoft Excel. The results of application test of the equations show that the total energy intensity in the cashew nut mills varied between 0.21 and 1.161MJ/kg. Electrical energy intensity varied between 0.0052 and 0.029MJ/kg, while thermal energy intensity varied from 0.085 to 1.064MJ/kg. The two identified energy intensive operations in cashew nut processing are cashew nut drying and cashew nut roasting, altogether accounting for over 85% of the total energy consumption in all the three mill categories. Thermal energy, obtained from diesel fuel, represented about 90% of the unit energy cost for cashew nut processing. The developed equations have therefore proven to be a useful tool for carrying out budgeting, forecasting energy requirements and planning plant expansion. (author)

  19. Fermentasi Etanol Sari Buah Semu Jambu Mete (Anacardium occidentale L. oleh Zymomonas mobilis dengan Penambahan Urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATNA SETYANINGSIH

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cashew present in abundant amount in Indonesia but they had not muchbeen exploited. This research was to study ethanol fermentation from cashew juice by Zymomonas mobilis using urea as nitrogen source. The aims of this research was to know the best urea concentration and optimum fermentation duration to produce the highest content of ethanol in ethanol fermentation from cashew juice by Z. mobilis. The urea concentration in media was prepared 0%; 0.2% and 0.4%. The media cashew juice + urea (100 mL was inoculated with 1 mL Z. mobilis 2x108 cell/mL. Initial pH, reducing sugar, amount of microorganism and concentration of ethanol was calculated everyday during 3 days. It could be concluded that 0.2% of urea produced the highest content of ethanol that was an amount 40.51%, followed by urea 0% was 30.59% and urea 0.4% was 25.63%. The optimum fermentation duration to produce the highest content of ethanol was 2 days.

  20. Redução de vitamina C em suco de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. industrializado e cajuína Vitamin C degradation in industrialized cashew juice (Anacardium occidentale L. and in cajuina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eráclito Silva Lima

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C degradation was evaluated in industrialized cashew juice of high pulp content and in cajuina by the method of Tillmans during eleven days of storage after the opening of the flask. For recently opened juices, vitamin C was found in the concentration range of 112 to 170 mg for 100 g of juice. The degradation of vitamin C in industrialized cashew juices changes when different additives are used. All of the cajuinas presented a vitamin C content below that specified on the label.

  1. Recuperação e concentração de componentes do aroma de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. por pervaporação Recovery of aroma compounds of cashew apple fruit (Anacardium occidentale L. by pervaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André von Randow de Assis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A pervaporação é um processo de separação por membranas, no qual misturas líquidas são fracionadas devido à sua vaporização parcial através de uma membrana densa de permeabilidade seletiva. Este processo pode ser utilizado na recuperação e concentração de componentes de aromas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a pervaporação para obtenção de um extrato natural de aroma de caju, que poderá ser utilizado como aditivo na indústria de alimentos. Polpa de caju foi a matéria-prima utilizada no trabalho. O processo de pervaporação foi conduzido a 25 e 35 °C em membranas de polidimetilsiloxano. Foram recolhidas amostras do suco de caju, no início e ao final do processo, e do permeado para a caracterização do perfil aromático através de CG-EM. O processo de pervaporação apresentou um alto fluxo de permeado para o suco de caju, 0,11 e 0,17 kg.hm-2 a 25 e 35 °C, respectivamente. Os cromatogramas revelaram um grande aumento no número de picos nas amostras de permeado em relação aos cromatogramas das amostras do suco de caju original, sendo que cerca de 50% dos componentes identificados no permeado apresentaram um acréscimo em suas áreas em relação aos do suco original, indicando a potencialidade deste processo para a concentração do aroma de caju.Pervaporation is a membrane separation process in which components from liquid mixtures are fractionated due to their partial vaporisation through a dense selective membrane. This process can be used to recover aroma compounds. The objective of this work was to evaluate the pervaporation to obtain a natural aroma extract from cashew apple fruit, which can be used as an additive in the food industry. Cashew pulp was used as raw material. Pervaporation was carried out at 25 and 35 °C using polymethylsiloxane membranes. Samples of the cashew juice in the beginning and at the end of the pervaporation and from the permeate were picked to characterise the aromatic profile by GC-MS. The pervaporation of the cashew juice presented a high permeate flux, 0.11 kgh-1m-2 and 0.17 kg.hm-2, at 25 and 35 °C, respectively. The chromatograms showed an increase in the number of compounds in the permeate samples when compared to the chromatograms of the cashew juice. By comparing the peak areas, it could be observed that almost 50% of the identified components in the permeate samples presented an increase in the peak area, showing the potentiality of this process to the concentration of the aroma of cashew apple juice.

  2. Bioethanol production by cashew apple bagasse (Anacardium occidentale L.): comparison of acid diluted and alkali pre-treatments; Producao de bioetanol a partir da fibra do caju (Anacardium occidentale L.): comparacao entre o pre-tratamento acido e alcalino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Tigressa H.S.; Pinheiro, Alvaro D.T.; Goncalves, Luciana R.B. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Rocha, Maria V.P.; Macedo, Gorete R. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Due to the growing environmental awareness on the negative impact resulting from utilization of fossil fuels, and in the search for renewable energy sources, biofuels' interest as Bioethanol has rapidly expanded recently. In this context, lignocellulosic compounds have become center of attention as an abundant and economic alternative source of carbohydrates for ethanol production. In this study, cashew's bagasse acid hydrolysis was initially studied for glucose synthesis and its fermentation towards ethanol production. Sulfuric acid concentration, solids concentration and time were some of the factors evaluated. The highest glucose productivity value (162,9 mg.g de bagaco{sup -1}) , was obtained for 0,6 mol.L{sup -1} of sulfuric acid in an autoclave at 121 deg C for 15 min. For the fermentation of the hydrolyzed material by S. cerevisiae containing 16 {+-} 2,0 g.L{sup -1} of glucose metabolic, the yield and productivity obtained were 0,63 g-g glucose{sup -1} and 1,43 g.L{sup -1}h{sup -1} respectively. Ethanol concentration after 6 h of fermentation of this hydrolyzed was 11 g.L{sup -1}. In the best conditions of acid hydrolysis, a second pre-treatment with diluted sulfuric acid was performed to evaluate availability of hemicelluloses at 160 deg C and 180 deg C. For comparative purposes, alkali pre-treatment was evaluated under the conditions of 0,6 mol.L{sup -1}, 30% p/v of bagasse thermically treated at 121 deg C for 15 minutes. However, concentration of sugars was not sufficient for fermentation. Also, nitrogen supplementation of the hydrolyzed fraction did not influence significantly ethanol production. The results demonstrate that the hydrolyzed fraction from the acid pre-treatment of cashew's bagasse could be utilized for ethanol production. (author)

  3. CASHEW PULP MEALS (Anacardium occidentale L. FOR GROWING PIG: NUTRIENT METABOLISM AND PERFORMANCE PSEUDOFRUTO DO CAJUEIRO (Anacardium occidentale L. PARA SUÍNOS EM CRESCIMENTO: METABOLISMO DE NUTRIENTES E DESEMPENHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Atta Farias

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available These researches was planned to evaluate the digestibility and metabolizability of nutrient and nitrogen balance of the cashew pulp for growing pigs, as well as to evaluate the performance of these animals fed with different levels of inclusion of this by-product in the diets. The physiological aspects of the animal and economic viability of the diets was evaluated. In the metabolism assay, four pigs were fed with a standard ration and others four received a test ration, with 30% of substitution of the standard ration for the cashew pulp. In the performance assay, forty animals were distributed in a randomized block design, with five treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of the experimental rations with the levels 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of inclusion of the cashew pulp. The values obtained for the digestibility and metabolizability coefficients of the protein and energy of the cashew pulp meals were 12.30% and 11.38%; 23.43% and 21.91%, respectively. The digestible and metabolizability energy of cashew pulp meals is 1.123 and 1.051 kcal/kg. The cashew pulp meals can be included in diets until the level of 20% of the ration, and this inclusion of the by-product increases the financial yield of the production.KEY WORDS: Alternative feed, nitrogen balance, temperature, weight gain. A pesquisa destinou-se a avaliar a digestibilidade, o metabolismo de nutrientes e o balanço de nitrogênio do pseudofruto do cajueiro para suínos em crescimento, bem como o desempenho desses animais alimentados com diferentes níveis de inclusão desse subproduto nas dietas. Avaliaram-se ainda os aspectos fisiológicos dos animais e a viabilidade econômica das dietas testadas. No ensaio de metabolismo, quatro leitões foram alimentados com uma ração referência e outros quatro com uma dieta-teste, que apresentou 30% de substituição da ração referência pelo farelo do pseudofruto do cajueiro. No ensaio de desempenho utilizaram-se quarenta animais, distribuídos em blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos, quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de rações com os níveis de 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% e 20% de inclusão do pseudofruto do cajueiro. Os valores dos coeficientes de digestibilidade e dos metabolismos da proteína e da energia do pseudofruto do cajueiro obtidos foram 12,30 e 11,38%; 23,43 e 21,91%, respectivamente, sendo encontrados valores de 1.123 kcal/kg e 1.051 kcal/kg para energias digestível e metabolizável. O pseudofruto do cajueiro pode ser incluído nas dietas de suínos em crescimento até o nível de 20% da ração, e sua inclusão na forma de farelo melhora o rendimento financeiro da produção.PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Alimento alternativo, balanço de nitrogênio, ganho de peso, temperatura.

  4. Cinética e caracterização físico-química do fermentado do pseudofruto do caju (Anacardium occidentale L. Kinetic and physico-chemical characterization of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. wine

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    Alberto B. Torres Neto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of cashew apple wine has the purpose of minimizing the wastage in the Brazilian cashew production. Knowing that the cashew apple fermentation produces a good cashew wine, a study of alcoholic fermentation kinetics of the cashew apple and the physico-chemical characterization of the product were made. The cashew wine was produced in an stirred batch reactor. The results of the physico-chemical analysis of volatiles, residual sugars, total acidity and pH of cashew wine showed that their concentrations were within the standard limits established by the Brazilian legislation for fruit wines.

  5. Processo de secagem da goma de cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L.) e suas propriedades tecnolÃgicas.

    OpenAIRE

    Valeria Melo de Souza

    2011-01-01

    PaÃses tropicais, como o Brasil, sÃo depositÃrios de uma grande variedade de fontes de polissacarÃdeos vegetais conhecidos e outros ainda nÃo explorados que possuem grande potencial em aplicaÃÃes industriais. A goma de cajueiro pode ser citada como um desses polissacarÃdeos. Algumas pesquisas reportam a possibilidade do uso da goma de cajueiro em vÃrios setores e por sua semelhanÃa estrutural com a goma arÃbica, tem sido sugerida como substituta. Sendo assim, este projeto se propÃe a ...

  6. CARACTERIZAÇÃO E ARMAZENAMENTO DE FARINHAS OBTIDAS A PARTIR DO RESÍDUO DE CAJU (Anacardium occidentale L.

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    João Antonio Belmino dos Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é o terceiro maior produtor de frutas, com uma produção que superou 44 milhões de toneladas no ano de 2007, e com a indiscutível necessidade do aumento da produção de frutas e ampliar as exportações, torna-se imprescindível reduzir as perdas que ocorrem em toda cadeia produtiva. Além do desperdício, existe a crescente preocupação com o descarte, uma vez que pode levar a problemas ambientais. Este trabalho teve como objetivo produzir farinhas a partir de resíduos de caju por secagem em secador de circulação de ar forçado. A secagem foi realizada nas temperaturas de 50°C e 60°C. Foram avaliadas as alterações físico-químicas das farinhas após a secagem. Foi analisada a estabilidade das farinhas no armazenamento. O teor de umidade das farinhas atendeu os padrões exigidos pela legislação vigente. Verificou-se teor inicial de Vitamina C de 50,3mg/100g na farinha produzida pela secagem na temperatura de 50°C e de 47,7mg/100g em 60°C. No fim do armazenamento o teor de Vitamina C foi de 20,5mg/100g na farinha produzida pela secagem na temperatura de 50°C e de 15,1mg/100g em 60°C. As farinhas mostraram características, como o teor de Vitamina C, adequadas para o aproveitamento, portanto, para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos.

  7. Sperm parameters of male Wistar rats treated with Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Annacardium occidentale is a medicinal plant with several biological properties. Phytochemical screening of its leaf and stem bark was reported to be rich in alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins and saponins. Many plant extract with these phytochemicals are reputed for their antifertility activities. This study was ...

  8. L'implication Des Puissances Occidentales Dans Les Processus De ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'implication Des Puissances Occidentales Dans Les Processus De Démocratisation En Afrique: Analyse Des Actions Américaine Et Française Au Cameroun (1989-1997). Martin Dieudonné Ebolo. Abstract. No Abstract African Journal of Political Science Vol.4(2) 1999: 46-88. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ...

  9. Yogurt produced with cajuí (Anacardium othonianum Rizz

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    Camila Martins Fonseca

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Yogurt added with 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of cajuí pulp (Anacardium othonianum Rizz were characterized. Acidity, pH, protein, dry matter, firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and quantification of lactic acid bacteria were conducted at 0, 10, 20 and 30 days. Identification of volatiles compounds and sensory tests of preference, acceptance and consumption intention were performed on the first day of shelf-life. Preferred formulations are those that contain smaller proportions of pulp (5% which coincide with lower acidity. There was no significant effect (P>0.05 of the amount of pulp added and storage time on dry matter, lactic acid bacteria count, firmness, consistency and cohesiveness. Acidity and pH were significantly influenced (P <0.05 by the amount of pulp added and storage time. Protein levels were significantly lower (P <0.05 with the increase in the quantity of pulp added. Volatiles compounds in cajuí yogurt include ethyl butanoate, methyl butanoate, ethanol, hexanal, benzaldehyde and 3-methyl butanoate. There are technological potential in the production of yoghurt with cajuí with addition of 5% in proportion to the total volume of yogurt produced.

  10. Redução de vitamina C em suco de caju (Anacardium occidentale L.) industrializado e cajuína

    OpenAIRE

    Lima,Eráclito Silva; Silva,Elidiane Gomes Da; Moita Neto,José Machado; Moita,Graziella Ciaramella

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin C degradation was evaluated in industrialized cashew juice of high pulp content and in cajuina by the method of Tillmans during eleven days of storage after the opening of the flask. For recently opened juices, vitamin C was found in the concentration range of 112 to 170 mg for 100 g of juice. The degradation of vitamin C in industrialized cashew juices changes when different additives are used. All of the cajuinas presented a vitamin C content below that specified on the label.

  11. Desenvolvimento de nÃctares mistos à base de caju (Anacardium occidentale L) e aÃaà (Euterpe oleracea Mart.)

    OpenAIRE

    Analia Maria Pinheiro

    2008-01-01

    O setor que vem crescendo nos Ãltimos anos à o de bebidas. Em todos os paÃses os levantamentos estatÃsticos revelam nÃmeros crescentes de consumo, tanto per capita quanto global. Esses valores sÃo mais expressivos quando se refere a bebidas obtidas de frutas, pelo fato das mesmas se constituÃrem fontes importantes de vitaminas e minerais para a dieta humana, alÃm de seus atrativos sabores. O Norte e Nordeste do Brasil, por exemplo, sÃo regiÃes privilegiadas neste particular. Portanto, pode-se...

  12. Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P 0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100 mg/kg) when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250 mg/kg) and X. aethiopica (250 mg/kg). Catalase activity showed significant increase P 0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics. PMID:25525518

  13. Avaliação da metodologia microbiológica para determinação de 5-metiltetrahidrofolato em suco de caju (Anacardium occidentale L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sancho,Soraya de Oliveira; Maia,Geraldo Arraes; Figueiredo,Raimundo Wilane de; Rodrigues,Sueli; Rabelo,Maria Cristiane

    2010-01-01

    Embora o suco de caju seja bastante consumido no Brasil e muitos estudos sobre seu valor nutricional tenham sido publicados, a literatura não reporta estudos sobre a determinação de folatos nesse suco. Várias técnicas analíticas podem ser utilizadas visando à detecção da referida vitamina. Optou-se por utilizar o ensaio microbiológico oficial de determinação de folatos em alimentos, utilizando-se Lactobacillus casei como microrganismo de teste. Foram testados a utilização de ultrassom e trata...

  14. ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE L.: PROSPECÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA APLICADA À TECNOLOGIA DE COMPOSTOS BIOATIVOS EM PRODUTOS ALIMENTÍCIOS

    OpenAIRE

    Barretto, Lília; Freitas, Suely Pereira; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Moreira, Jane; Silva, Gabriel; Brito, Leidiane

    2014-01-01

    O agronegócio mundial do caju movimenta cerca de 2,4 bilhões de dólares por ano. No Brasil, a região Nordeste responde por mais de 95% da produção, com divisas na ordem de 220 milhões de dólares anuais. Apesar da importância desta atividade agroindustrial, observa-se que o seu potencial econômico permanece pouco explorado, principalmente com relação ao aproveitamento do pedúnculo. Além de rico em nutrientes, o caju é uma importante fonte de compostos bioativos, os quais podem ser usados na el...

  15. OBTENÇÃO DE BEBIDA A PARTIR DE SUCO DE CAJU (Anacardium occidentale, L. E EXTRATO DE GUARANÁ (Paullinia cupana sorbilis Mart. Ducke

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    SOARES LILIANA COSTA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir do extrato de semente de guaraná com 0,96% de cafeína, foram testadas várias formulações para obtenção de uma bebida, utilizando-se de suco de caju clarificado e concentrado, caramelo, aromatizantes artificiais de caju e guaraná e acidulante, tendo também como variável os diversos graus de doçura (ºBrix. As melhores formulações foram selecionadas de acordo com os resultados da avaliação sensorial, onde se utilizou o teste de ordenação. A formulação selecionada foi processada e envasada em embalagens de vidro. Para determinar a aceitabilidade, o produto final foi submetido a análises físico-químicas e sensoriais.

  16. Influência do porta-enxerto no comportamento fisiológico de mudas de cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L. submetidas a estresses

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    Matos Nilson Nogueira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de mudas enxertadas uniformiza o crescimento de plantas e antecipa o início da produção. Os porta-enxertos regulam aspectos, como taxa fotossintética e relações hídricas das mudas, e distúrbios sobre os mesmos afetam o vigor geral das mudas. Este trabalho objetivou comparar os níveis de resistência dos porta-enxertos CCP06 e CCP09, e das mudas enxertadas CCP76/06 e CCP76/09, submetidas a estresses hídrico e salino, através de algumas características bioquímicas e biofísicas. A comparação entre as mudas CCP76/06 e CCP76/09 mostrou comportamentos diferentes. As mudas CCP76/6 reproduziram o comportamento de abertura estomática do porta-enxerto CCP06, que foi mais resistente aos efeitos dos estresses hídrico e salino do que o CCP09. Portanto, deve ter propiciado uma melhor adaptação ao enxerto CCP76/06 sob aqueles tipos de estresse. Alguns mecanismos de controle do porta-enxerto na absorção de íons e trocas gasosas são também discutidos.

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anacardium occidentale L.) Abstract PDF · Vol 4, No 13 (2005) - Articles Application of tissue culture to cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) breeding: An appraisal. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1684-5315. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  18. Semi-preparative HPLC preparation and HPTLC quantification of tetrahydroamentoflavone as marker in Semecarpus anacardium and its polyherbal formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, S G; Arimboor, Ranjith; Rangan, Meena; Madhavan, Soumya N; Arumughan, C

    2008-11-04

    Application of modern scientific knowledge coupled with sensitive analytical technique is important for the quality evaluation and standardization of polyherbal formulations. Semecarpus anacardium, an important medicinal plant with wide medicinal properties, is frequently used in a large number of traditional herbal preparations. Tetrahydroamentoflavone (THA), a major bioactive biflavonoid was selected as a chemical marker of S. anacardium and RP-semi-preparative HPLC conditions were optimized for the isolation of tetrahydroamentoflavone. HPTLC analytical method was developed for the fingerprinting of S. anacardium flavonoids and quantification of tetrahydroamentoflavone. The method was validated in terms of their linearity, LOD, LOQ, precision and accuracy and compared with RP-HPLC-DAD method. The methods were demonstrated for the chemical fingerprinting of S. anacardium plant parts and some commercial polyherbal formulations and the amount of tetrahydroamentoflavone was quantified. HPTLC analysis showed that S. anacardium seed contained approximately 10 g kg(-1) of tetrahydroamentoflavone. The methods were able to identify and quantify tetrahydroamentoflavone from complex mixtures of phytochemicals and could be extended to the marker-based standardization of polyherbal formulations, containing S. anacardium.

  19. Isolation and characterization of an anticancer catechol compound from Semecarpus anacardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, P K Raveedran; Melnick, Steven J; Wnuk, Stanislaw F; Rapp, Magdalena; Escalon, Enrique; Ramachandran, Cheppail

    2009-04-21

    The fruits and seeds of Semecarpus anacardium are used widely for the treatment of human cancers and other diseases in the Ayurvedic and Sidda systems of medicine in India. The principal aim of this investigation was to isolate and characterize the anticancer compound from the kernel of Semecarpus anacardium nut. The bioactivity-tailored isolation and detailed chemical characterization were used to identify the active compound. Cytotoxicity, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest as well as synergism between the identified anticancer compound and doxorubicin in human tumor cell lines were analyzed. GC/MS, IR, proton NMR, carbon NMR and collisionally induced dissociation (CID) spectra analysis showed that the isolated active compound is 3-(8'(Z),11'(Z)-pentadecadienyl) catechol (SA-3C). SA-3C is cytotoxic to tumor cell lines with IC(50) values lower than doxorubicin and even multidrug resistant tumor cell lines were equally sensitive to SA-3C. SA-3C induced apoptosis in human leukemia cell lines in a dose-dependent manner and showed synergistic cytotoxicity with doxorubicin. The cell cycle arrest induced by SA-3C at S- and G(2)/M-phases correlated with inhibition of checkpoint kinases. SA-3C isolated from the kernel of Semecarpus anacardium can be developed as an important anticancer agent for single agent and/or multiagent cancer therapy.

  20. Avaliação da metodologia microbiológica para determinação de 5-metiltetrahidrofolato em suco de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. Evaluation of a microbiological method for the determination of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in cashew apple juice (Anacardium occidentale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya de Oliveira Sancho

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Embora o suco de caju seja bastante consumido no Brasil e muitos estudos sobre seu valor nutricional tenham sido publicados, a literatura não reporta estudos sobre a determinação de folatos nesse suco. Várias técnicas analíticas podem ser utilizadas visando à detecção da referida vitamina. Optou-se por utilizar o ensaio microbiológico oficial de determinação de folatos em alimentos, utilizando-se Lactobacillus casei como microrganismo de teste. Foram testados a utilização de ultrassom e tratamento enzimático como fases preparatórias, a fim de determinar qual a melhor metodologia a ser empregada. Foram comparados também o uso de padrões de ácido fólico e folato. Os resultados mostraram que o emprego de enzima é indicado como fase preparatória na determinação desta vitamina em suco de caju. A utilização de ultrassom não interferiu, significativamente, nos resultados encontrados, sendo seu emprego dispensável. Os teores de folato encontrados no suco de caju integral in natura indicam que o consumo de uma porção de 200 mL do suco equivale à ingestão de aproximadamente 500 µg de folato, valor superior à ingestão diária recomendada para adultos.Although cashew apple juice has been highly consumed in Brazil and several studies on its nutritional value have been published, no studies on the determination of folate contents in this juice were found in the literature. Several analytic techniques can be employed for the folate determination in foods. In this study, the microbiological assay using Lactobacillus casei was employed. Enzyme treatment and ultrasound waves were tested as pretreatment. The use of standards of folic acid and folate were also evaluated. The results showed that the enzyme treatment cannot be replaced by ultrasound treatment. The consumption of 200 mL of in natura cashew apple juice corresponds to a folate intake of 500 µg, which is higher than the recommended daily intake for adults.

  1. Análise técnica e econômica do cultivo do cajueiro-anão (Anacardium occidentale L. na regional de Jales-SP Technical and economical analysis of the cultivation of the dwarf cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale L. In the region of Jales-SP

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    Daniela Cintra de Araújo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estimar os custos de produção e lucratividade do caju in natura na Regional de Jales, noroeste do Estado de São Paulo. Os dados foram levantados junto a produtores, a partir da aplicação de questionário e da elaboração de planilhas, para caracterizar todo o processo produtivo e realizar análise econômica. A produção de fruta para mesa exige um sistema de cultivo mais intensivo, principalmente no controle de pragas e doenças; por sua vez, eleva o custo de produção que, via de regra, é compensada pelos preços alcançados. Os custos de produção são altos, mas o que deve ser destacada é a participação relativa das embalagens que pode chegar a um terço do custo operacional efetivo, seguido pelos custos pós-colheita. Os indicadores de lucratividade mostram que a produção de caju é rentável nesta região, e o índice de lucratividade foi de 46,50%.It was aimed to estimate the production costs and profitability of the cashew in natura in the Region of Jales, northwest of the State of São Paulo. The data were collected with producers through questionnaire application and elaboration of spreadsheets, to characterize the whole productive process and to accomplish economical analysis. The fruit production for table demands a system of more intensive cultivation mainly in the control of curses and diseases, as a result, the cost of the production which is increased is later compensated by the best reached prices. The costs of the production are high, but what should be outstanding is the relative participation of the packings that can arrive a third of the effective operational cost. The profitability indicators show that the cashew production is profitable in this area, the lucrativeness index was 46,50%.

  2. Avaliação da atividade antioxidante dos compostos fenólicos naturalmente presentes em subprodutos do pseudofruto de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds Naturally Contained in By-products of the Cashew Apple (Anacardium occidentale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Regina Bolelli Broinizi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como proposta avaliar a capacidade antioxidante do bagaço e do extrato bruto concentrado (EBC do pedúnculo de caju, tendo em vista o seu aproveitamento. O potencial antioxidante dos extratos aquoso (EAq e alcoólico (EAlc e das frações de ácidos fenólicos livres (AFL e esterificadas (solúvel AFS e insolúvel AFI desses subprodutos do pedúnculo de caju clone CCP-76 foi avaliado em sistema beta-caroteno/ácido linoléico, pelo teste de varredura de radical livre [2,2 difenil-1-pricril-hidrazil (DPPH•] e de Rancimat. Além do mais, o conteúdo de fenólicos totais e o perfil de ácidos fenólicos foram determinados usando-se o reagente de Folin-Ciocateau e por cromatografia gasosa, respectivamente. O EAq e a fração AFL dos subprodutos apresentaram o maior conteúdo de fenólicos. As frações de ácidos fenólicos exibiram expressiva atividade antioxidante, superior aos extratos estudados nos sistemas beta-caroteno e DPPH. Entretanto no teste Rancimat, os extratos apresentaram maior proteção à oxidação em relação às frações e ao BHT. Nas frações foram identificados os ácidos gálico, ferúlico, caféico, protocatecuico, quínico, cinâmico, gentíssico, p-cumárico e salicílico, os quais lhes conferem o potencial antioxidante. Estes resultados caracterizaram in vitro o potencial antioxidante do bagaço e do EBC do pedúnculo de caju clone CCP-76.This study aimed to determine the antioxidant capacity of cashew apple pulp and raw concentrated extract. The antioxidant potential of aqueous (EAq and alcoholic (EAlc extracts and of free phenolic acids (FPA and esterified (soluble - SPA and insoluble - IPA fractions of the by-products of the cashew apple clone CCP-76 were evaluated in a beta-carotene-linoleate system by the free radical [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•] scavenging assay and the Rancimat test. In addition, the total phenolic content and phenolic acid profile were determined using Folin-Ciocateau reagent and gas chromatography, respectively. The EAq and the FPA fraction of the by-products showed the highest phenolic content. The phenolic acid fractions generally displayed stronger antioxidant activity than the extracts tested with the beta-carotene-linoleate and DPPH systems. However, in the Rancimat test, the extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than the fractions and BHT. Nine phenolic acids (gallic, ferulic, caffeic, protocatechuic, quinic, cinnamic, gentisic, p-coumaric and salicylic acids, which give the fractions their antioxidant potential, were identified and quantified (both free and esterified forms. These results characterized the in vitro antioxidant capacity of the pulp and raw concentrated extract of the cashew apple clone CCP-76.

  3. Estabilidade microbiológica, físico-química e sensorial de pedúnculos de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. processados por métodos combinados Microbiological, physico-chemical and sensorial stability of cashew apples (Anacardium occidentale L. processed by combined methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Campos Mesquita

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Os pedúnculos de caju processados por métodos combinados e armazenados à temperatura ambiente (28ºC foram avaliados quanto à tendência a mudanças físico-químicas, microbiológicas e sensoriais. Os resultados confirmam que os tipos de obstáculos usados (redução da Aw, tratamento térmico brando, redução do pH, adição de ácido ascórbico, benzoato de sódio a 1000ppm e SO2 a 600 e 900ppm e sua intensidade foram capazes de assegurar a estabilidade microbiológica do produto durante a armazenagem à temperatura ambiente por 120 dias, bem como uma boa aceitação sensorial.Cashew apples processed by combined methods were stored at room temperature (28ºC in order to evaluate the tendency for chemical, microbiological and sensorial changes during 120 days of storage. Results confirmed that the obstacles used (reduction of water activity, mild heat treatment, pH reduction, ascorbic acid addition, 1000ppm sodium benzoate, 600 and 900ppm of SO2 and their intensities were capable to assure the microbiological stability and sensorial acceptance of the product during storage stability at room temperature for 120 days.

  4. Isolation and Characterization of an Acyclic Isoprenoid from Semecarpus anacardium Linn. and its Antibacterial Potential in vitro - Antimicrobial Activity of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. Seeds -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyakkannu Purushothaman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Semecarpus anacardium Linn. is a plant well-known for its antimicrobial, antidiabetic and anti-arthritic properties in the Ayurvedic and Siddha system of medicine. This has prompted the screening of this plant for antibacterial activity. The main aims of this study were to isolate compounds from the plant’s seeds and to evaluate their antibacterial effects on clinical bacterial test strains. Methods: The n-butanolic concentrate of the seed extract was subjected to thin layer chromatography (TLC and repeated silica gel column chromatography followed by elution with various solvents. The compound was identified based on observed spectral (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and high-resolution mass spectrometry data. The well diffusion method was employed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of the isolated acyclic isoprenoid compound (final concentration: 5 - 15 μg/mL on four test bacterial strains, namely, Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 96, Bacillus cereus

  5. Afrique occidentale et centrale — De nouveaux défis relevés avec ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    25 janv. 2011 ... Ainsi, les éleveurs de l'Afrique occidentale et centrale doivent composer avec un certain nombre de changements écologiques et sociaux, tels que la vente de pâturages à des agriculteurs. La privatisation de superficies qui étaient jusque-là réservées à la vaine pâture occasionne souvent des problèmes ...

  6. Transformer l'agriculture en Afrique centrale et occidentale grâce à ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 août 2017 ... La productivité agricole en Afrique centrale et occidentale demeure faible, mais il existe un solide potentiel de recherche pour améliorer la sécurité alimentaire et la nutrition dans la région. La mise en place d'une production agricole durable est essentielle à des stratégies efficaces pour une croissance ...

  7. Toxicidade do extrato aquoso das folhas de Anacardium humile para Bemisia tuberculata Toxicity of aqueous extract of Anacardium humile leaves on Bemisia tuberculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nézio Nery de Andrade Filho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A mosca-branca Bemisia tuberculata (Bondar, 1923 (Hem.: Aleyrodidae é uma das principais pragas da cultura da mandioca no Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul; no entanto, não há produtos registrados para seu controle. Produtos vegetais podem constituir em alternativa viável de controle de insetos e, por sua fotodegradabilidade, diminuir os riscos ao ambiente e ao homem. Objetivou-se, por meio deste trabalho, avaliar o efeito do extrato aquoso do "cajuzinho-do-cerrado" Anacardium humile St Hill (Anacardeaceae, nas concentrações de 2,0; 0,8; 0,4 e 0,05%, sobre a biologia de B. tuberculata, bem como identificar a classe de metabólitos secundários presentes no referido extrato. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, sob temperatura de 26±4°C. O extrato aquoso de A. humile causou aumento da duração da fase larval e mortalidade significativamente superior à testemunha em todas as concentrações testadas. Concluiu-se que o extrato aquoso de folhas de A. humile provoca mortalidade em ninfas de B. tuberculata e alongamento da fase das ninfas sobreviventes. O extrato aquoso de folhas de A. humile apresenta taninos, açúcares redutores e saponinas, e o seu índice de espuma (Índice Afrosimétrico é de 1250.The whitefly Bemisia tuberculata (Bondar, 1923 (Hem.: Aleyrodidae is the main pest of cassava crops in Mato Grosso do Sul state, however there are no products registered for its control. Plant products may represent a viable alternative for insect pest control and, due to their photo-degradability, they may reduce risks to the environment and to man. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of "cajuzinho-do-cerrado" Anacardium humile St Hill (Anacardeaceae aqueous leaf extract on the biology of B. tuberculata at the concentrations 2.0; 0.8; 0.4; 0.05%, as well as to identify the class of secondary metabolites present in the referred extract. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse at a temperature of 26±4°C. The

  8. Geografía, café y prosperidad en los andes occidentales de Colombia

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    Juan Barón

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Compuesta por los departamentos de Antioquia, Caldas, Quindío, Risaralda y Valle del Cauca, los Andes Occidentales ha sido por mucho años una de las regiones más prósperas de Colombia. Esta prosperidad se ha traducido en condiciones de vida e infraestructura superiores a las del resto del país. El éxito y bienestar que presentan hoy en día los Andes Occidentales están estrechamente ligados a la concentración de la producción de café, que se dio allí durante gran parte del siglo XX. El arraigo del café en la región no sólo se dio debido a que la geografía ofrecía las condiciones ideales para el cultivo, sino también a las instituciones cafeteras creadas para organizar la industria del café. A pesar de esta prosperidad, el constante descenso del precio internacional del café después del rompimiento del pacto de cuotas de producción en 1989, sumado al estancamiento de la industria manufacturera en algunos departamentos de la región, han afectado las economías departamentales menos diversificadas. Es así como la región de los Andes Occidentales Colombianos presenta las tasas de desempleo más altas del país, tasas que se han visto afectadas aún más con la crisis financiera internacional a través del menor flujo de remesas que los trabajadores oriundos de la región, y residentes en el exterior envían a sus familias.

  9. Partenariat entre l'Afrique occidentale et l'Afrique centrale pour la ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Des taux élevés de décès maternels et de grossesses précoces persistent en Afrique occidentale et centrale. Les efforts de recherche et de programmation ne parviennent pas à réduire ces taux de façon durable. Le défi consiste à relier les données sur les interventions en santé utiles avec les données sur l'exécution ...

  10. LA COMPARAISON DE LA MUSIQUE TURQUE ET OCCIDENTALE EN MATIERE DE GAMME, RYTHME ET TONALITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubilay Kolukirik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Après avoir fini mon Doctorat en musique à l’université d’Ankara en Turquie, j’ai travaillé en tant que Maitre de conférences à l’université de Nevşehir. J’ai alors été contacté par le Conservatoire Claude Debussy, situé dans le 17eme arrondissement de Paris, afin d’effectuer une recherche comparative sur le Jazz et la musique folklorique Turque. Dans ce contexte j'ai participé aux cours de jazz de Philippe Poussard avec mon instrument authentique turc nommé "bağlama". Avec ce dernier nous avons joué des chansons folkloriques Turques, et j'ai ressenti que lui et ses étudiants ont été impressionnés par la musique que nous avons jouée ensemble, enimprovisant. Nous avons ensuite discuté de différents sujets à propos des musiques Turque et Occidentale. J'ai alors constaté que les étudiants de ce conservatoire n'ont aucune connaissance sur la musique Turque en générale. J'ai alors décidé d’effectuer une analyse théorique sur les questions fondamentales de la musique Occidentale etde la musique Turque. Je pense qu'il est important de donner des informations sur la théorie de la musique dans les établissements scolaires occidentaux. Ceci est important pour la communication entre les deux cultures musicales. En rédigeant mon article j'ai utilisé la méthode d'analyse de documents. J'ai aussi utilisé mes expériences personnelles acquises au Conservatoire pour faire un travail de comparaison appliquée. J'ai constaté qu'en termes de gamme, rythme et tonalité il y avait beaucoup de différences mais également des similitudes dans la musique Turque et Occidentale. L'objectif de cet article est de comparer les théories musicales Turque et Occidentale c’est à dire étudier leurs aspects similaires et différents en terme de gamme, rythme et de tonalité.

  11. Assessment of functional traits in the assemblage of endophytic fungi of anacardium othonianum rizzini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, P. S.; Senabio, J. A.; Soares, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Plants maintain symbiotic relationships with microorganisms as a strategy to withstand adversities. From this exchange, organisms receive photoassimilates and provide benefits to the plant. Anacardium othonianum Rizzini, locally known as caju-de-arvore-do-cerrado (tree cashew of the cerrado), is a tree species of the family Anacardiaceae nativeto the Midwest region of Brazil. The objective of this study was to characterize the culturable endophytic fungal community, its functional traits and its association with the roots of A. othonianum. The roots of A. othonianum were fragmented (1 cm) and inoculated in medium for the isolation of endophytic microorganisms. The molecular identification of the isolates was performed through the partial sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS). The endophytic isolates were tested for the synthesis of indole acetic acid (IAA) and phosphate solubilization through the colorimetric method. The root fragments were cleared, stained and examined under a microscope. Structures characteristic of endomycorrhizal and endophytic microorganisms were found on the slides analyzed. A total of 67 fungal strains were isolated and identified in 12 species: Fusarium oxysporum, Bionectria ochroleuca, Periconia macrospinosa, Phomopsis lagerstroemiae, Penicillium kloeckeri, Eupenicillium shearii, Phomopsis asparagi, Penicillium pinophilum, Agaricomycetes sp., Diaporthe sp., Cladosporium cladosporioide sand Paecilomyces lilacinus. All the genera found have been reported in the literature as endophytic species. It can be concluded that A. othonianum maintains associations with endomycorrhizal and endophytic fungi. Twelve endophytic strains were isolated from A. othonianum Rizzini, seven of which have potential for phosphate solubilization and IAA synthesis. (author)

  12. Radiographic image analysis of Anacardium othonianum Rizz (anacardiaceae achenes subjected to desiccation

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    Lílian Abadia da Silva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies evaluating the internal morphology and seed quality of native species are essential for successful conservation programs. Our aim was to verify the efficiency of X-ray imagery in evaluating cashew-tree-of-the-cerrado (Anacardium othonianum Rizz. achene viability after desiccation. The achenes were collected at 12% water content (w.b. and dried in silica gel until they reached 10, 8, 6, and 4% (w.b.. The fruit morphology and the quality of the seeds were evaluated by X-ray test together with vigor, electrical conductivity and emergence tests. Achenes with different water contents were exposed to an X-ray machine at 18 kV for 11 s and were thereafter submitted to emergence tests. The images were analyzed, and the achenes were classified based on internal morphology as completely full, malformed, or empty. These results were compared to those from the emergence tests. The statistical design was a complete randomized factorial (5 x 3. Desiccation to 4% (w.b. did not damage or modify the internal structures. X-ray was efficient in evaluating the internal morphology and detecting achene quality, making it possible to remove empty and abnormal fruit and form vigorous seed lots, reducing the cost of storage and bedding plant production for this native species.

  13. Influência do estiolamento e do ácido indolebutírico na formação de raízes do alporque de cajueiro Anão Precoce (Anacardium Occidentale L.

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    Francisco Célio Guedes Almeida

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available O cajueiro é uma planta geralmente propagada por semente. Sua multiplicação vegetativa ainda não é comercialmente viável. Neste estudo os efeitos do estiolamento e do ácido indolebutírico (AIB na formação de raízes do alporque da planta de caju foram investigados. O estiolamento foi realizado 30 dias antes do início do processo de alporquia. Por ocasião do anelamento do ramo, o AIB foi aplicado. Após 30 dias da realização da alporquia, os ramos já enraizados foram removidos da planta progenitora. Em seguida foram colocados em saco plástico na casa de vegetação sob condições de irrigação intermitente. Os resultados sugeriram um prévio estiolamento do ramo antes do processo de alporquia e uma aplicação de AIB, por ocasião do anelamento para, garantir a sobrevivência do alporque após o desmame.The Cashew tree is usually propagated by seed since vegetative multiplication has not been fully satisfactory. In this work the effects of etiolation and AIB on air layered branches of the cashew tree were studied. Previous to airlayering procedure, the branches were etiolated during 30 days. The AIB was applied when the bark of the stem was cut. After 30 days the layers were removed from the parent plant at which roots stage were observed through the transparent bag. The rooted layers were planted in polyethylene bags and placed in a greenhouse under an intermitent-mist water spray condition. The results show that the previous etiolation and application of AIB to the exposed wound were beneficial to increase rooting and survival of cashew air layers.

  14. Goma de cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale: Avaliação das modificações químicas e físicas por extrusão termoplástica

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    Kelita C. S. Andrade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Países tropicais, como o Brasil, são depositários de uma grande variedade de fontes de polissacarídeos vegetais conhecidos e outros ainda não explorados que possuem grande potencial em aplicações industriais. Alguns estudos reportam a possibilidade de aplicação industrial da goma exsudada do cajueiro em substituição à goma arábica devido à semelhança estrutural e química. Neste estudo propôs-se caracterizar comparativamente algumas propriedades destas duas gomas, antes e após dois tratamentos de extrusão termoplástica. Nos resultados de composição centesimal as amostras de goma de cajueiro in natura e processadas destacaram-se pelo alto teor de fibra solúvel. Por outro lado, apresentaram menor teor de minerais que a goma arábica. Por meio da análise de viscosidade rápida, foi observado que este parâmetro aumentou nas amostras de goma arábica processadas, enquanto nas amostras processadas de goma de cajueiro houve redução. Nos resultados da análise de difração de raios X predominou-se a conformação amorfa das cadeias poliméricas de ambas as amostras. A partir dos parâmetros avaliados, a goma de cajueiro poderia ser indicada como substituta da goma arábica.

  15. Occurrence of Aspergillus section Flavi and section Nigri and aflatoxins in raw cashew kernels (Anacardium occidentale L.) from Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamboni, Yendouban; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Hell, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    -MS/MS). The average water content and the cashew nuts count were respectively 8.6% and 172 nuts/kg in NG and 8.7% and 174 nuts/kg in SS. Significant differences between villages in both zones were found for both water content and nuts count. In disinfected samples, strains of Aspergillus section Nigri were...... contamination, a total of 100 kernels/sample (with disinfection) and 40 kernels/sample (without disinfection) were plated. Seventy samples from fourteen villages were used. Aflatoxins occurrence was analysed on 84 samples by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC...

  16. Contributo di dati di gravità nella valutazione del vulcanismo CAMP in Africa Nord-Occidentale

    OpenAIRE

    Fabbri, Julius

    2015-01-01

    2013/2014 La domanda alla base di questa ricerca è stata se il metodo della gravimetria satellitare possa essere utilizzato per seguire le unità geologiche anche in luoghi difficilmente accessibili. L’obiettivo di questa ricerca è di verificare se le missioni satellitari di nuova generazione permettano di identificare la più grande delle province ignee della Terra (Bertrand et al., 2013), nota come CAMP (Central Atlantic Magmatic Province) in Africa nord-occidentale. Oltre alle motivazioni...

  17. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1964-01-13

    ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE. L. BY THOMAS M. VARGHESE AND Y. P. S. PUNDIR. (School of Plant Morphology, Meerut College, Meerut). Received January 13, 1964. (Communicated by Prof. V. Puri, F.A.Sc.) INTRODUCTION. Anacardium occidentale L., a native of Brazil, is one of the economically important species of ...

  18. Application of terrestrial photogrammetry for the mass balance calculation on Montasio Occidentale Glacier (Julian Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermattei, Livia; Carturan, Luca; Calligaro, Simone; Blasone, Giacomo; Guarnieri, Alberto; Tarolli, Paolo; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo; Vettore, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) of glaciated terrain are commonly used to measure changes in geometry and hence infer the mass balance of glaciers. Different tools and methods exist to obtain information about the 3D geometry of terrain. Recent improvements on the quality and performance of digital cameras for close-range photogrammetry, and the development of automatic digital photogrammetric processing makes the 'structure from motion' photogrammetric technique (SfM) competitive for high quality 3D models production, compared to efficient but also expensive and logistically-demanding survey technologies such as airborn and terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). The purpose of this work is to test the SfM approach, using a consumer-grade SLR camera and the low-cost computer vision-based software package Agisoft Photoscan (Agisoft LLC), to monitor the mass balance of Montasio Occidentale glacier, a 0.07km2, low-altitude, debris-covered glacier located in the Eastern Italian Alps. The quality of the 3D models produced by the SfM process has been assessed by comparison with digital terrain models obtained through TLS surveys carried out at the same dates. TLS technique has indeed proved to be very effective in determining the volume change of this glacier in the last years. Our results shows that the photogrammetric approach can produce point cloud densities comparable to those derived from TLS measurements. Furthermore, the horizontal and vertical accuracies are also of the same order of magnitude as for TLS (centimetric to decimetric). The effect of different landscape characteristics (e.g. distance from the camera or terrain gradient) and of different substrata (rock, debris, ice, snow and firn) was also evaluated in terms of SfM reconstruction's accuracy vs. TLS. Given the good results obtained on the Montasio Occidentale glacier, it can be concluded that the terrestrial photogrammetry, with the advantageous features of portability, ease of use and above all low costs

  19. Phytocompounds and modulatory effects of Anacardium microcarpum (cajui on antibiotic drugs used in clinical infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa-Filho VM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Valter M Barbosa-Filho,1,2 Emily P Waczuk,2 Nadghia F Leite,3 Irwin RA Menezes,1 José GM da Costa,1 Sírleis R Lacerda,1 Isaac A Adedara,2 Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho,4 Thais Posser,5 Jean P Kamdem2,6 1Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde (CCBS, Universidade Regional do Cariri (URCA, Crato, CE, Brazil; 2Programa de Pós-Graduação em Bioquímica Toxicológica, Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil; 3Departamento de Química Biológica, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde (CCBS, 4Laboratory of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Universidade Regional do Cariri (URCA, Crato, CE, Brazil; 5Campus São Gabriel, Universidade Federal do Pampa, São Gabriel, RS, Brazil; 6Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básica da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil Background: The challenge of antibiotic resistance and the emergence of new infections have generated considerable interest in the exploration of natural products from plant origins as combination therapy. In this context, crude ethanolic extract (CEE, ethyl acetate fraction (EAF, and methanolic fraction (MF from Anacardium microcarpum were tested alone or in combination with antibiotics (amikacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and imipenem against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods: Antibiotic resistance-modifying activity was performed using the microdilution method by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC. In addition, phytochemical prospecting analyses of tested samples were carried out. Results: Our results indicated that all the extracts showed low antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant strains (MIC =512 µg/mL. However, addition of CEE, EAF, and MF to the growth medium at the subinhibitory concentration (MIC/8=64 µg/mL significantly modulated

  20. HOMO VIATOR – O DIMENSIUNE FUNDAMENTALĂ A SPIRITUALITĂŢII OCCIDENTALE

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    Tatiana CIOCOI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Articolul de faţă reflectă modificările fundamentale care s-au produs în mentalitatea occidentală contemporană prin intermediul conceptului de călător (homo viator. Noţiunea de călător este tratată în sens culturologic larg drept  desco­peritor de lumi necunoscute, explorator, navigator sau aventurier al oricărui tip de cunoaştere, care reprezintă trăsătura fundamentală a omului occidental. Prototipul absolut al acestui model cultural îl reprezintă Ulise, eroul din Odiseea lui Homer. Conceptul de „călătorie” oferă, astfel, o viziune transversală asupra evoluţiei literaturii occidentale, al cărei centru iradiant – tensiunea cunoaşterii – a problematizat cele mai variate forme de călătorie şi de călător. Istoria romanului occidental este urmărit dea lungul secolelor şi a epocilor literare pentru a observa cum s-a modificat percepţia călătoriei, iar odată cu ea, şi spiritualitatea occidentală. Viziunea contemporană asupra călătoriei este analizată în baza romanului lui Michel Houellebecq „Harta şi teritoriul” (2010. HOMO VIATOR – A FUNDAMENTAL DIMENSION  OF WESTERN SPIRITUALITYThe article reflects the changes produced in the western contemporary mentality through the concept of the traveler (homo viator. The notion of traveler is approached in wide cultural meaning as a discoverer of unknown worlds, explorer, navigator or adventurer of every type of knowing, that represents the fundamental feature of the occidental man. The absolute prototype of this cultural model is represented by Ulysses, the hero of Homer’s Odyssey. The concept of “travel” offers thus a transverse vision upon the evolution of the occidental literature whose irradiant centre – the tension of knowing – discussed the problems of the most varied forms of travel and traveler. The history of the western novel is followed over centuries and literary epochs in order to observe which way the perception of travel

  1. In-Vitro Activity of Saponins of Bauhinia Purpurea Madhuca Longifolia Celastrus Paniculatus and Semecarpus Anacardium on Selected Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Jyothi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases.Materials and Methods: Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method.Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 µg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 µg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 µg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 µg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 µg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 µg/ml, respectively.Conclusion: The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases.

  2. In-Vitro Activity of Saponins of Bauhinia Purpurea, Madhuca Longifolia, Celastrus Paniculatus and Semecarpus Anacardium on Selected Oral Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, K. S.; Seshagiri, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases. Materials and Methods: Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 μg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 μg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 μg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 μg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 μg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases. PMID:23323183

  3. UtilizaÃÃo da casca da castanha de caju Anarcadium occidentale L. como biossorvente de metais

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Ferreira Coelho

    2014-01-01

    Este trabalho propÃe avaliar o uso da casca da castanha de caju (Anarcadium occidentale L.) â CCC â como adsorvente natural na remoÃÃo dos Ãons metÃlicos Cd2+, Pb2+ Cr3+, Cu2+ e Zn2+ de meio aquoso, como alternativa ao carvÃo ativado e demais tratamentos. As castanhas de caju foram coletadas em CurionÃpolis, no estado do ParÃ, sendo o experimento realizado no LaboratÃrio de QuÃmica Ambiental e Instrumental da UNIOESTE - Marechal CÃndido Rondon, ParanÃ. ApÃs a extraÃÃo do lÃquido da casca da c...

  4. La consommation de propylène en Europe occidentale Propylene Consumption in Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barraqué M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les besoins de l'Europe occidentale en propylène utilisé en pétrochimie sont actuellement de 7,4. 10 puissance 6 t/an. Au cours des prochaines années, le taux de progression moyen de la consommation devrait être de l'ordre de 1,8%/an; ainsi en 1995, la pétrochimie européenne utiliserait environ 8,7. 10 puissance 6 t de propylène. L'essentiel de la progression de cette consommation sera dû au fort accroissement de la production de polypropylène et à un degré moindre de l'oxyde de propylène, de l'isopropanol et de l'éthyl-2 hexanol. Par contre les débouchés représentés par l'acrylonitrile et le cumène resteront pratiquement stables. La consommation de propylène dans les productions de butanols devrait diminuer. La part des besoins en propylène satisfaite par les vapocraqueurs européens qui est en 1986 de 82 %, devrait être inférieure à 75 % en 1995. Il sera de plus en plus nécessaire de se tourner vers d'autres sources d'approvisionnement. En 1986 les raffineries européennes ont produit 1,05. 10 puissance 6 t de propylène utilisé en pétrochimie et les importations ont atteint 0,3. 10 puissance 6 t. En 1995 la différence entre la consommation et la production des vapocraqueurs pourrait dépasser 2,0. 10 puissance 6 t. Il semble peu probable que les unités de craquage catalytique puissent combler le déficit sauf si les rendements en propylène augmentent très notablement. On peut s'attendre à la construction de splitters propylène/propane et à une augmentation des importations. D'autre part, en raison de la tension qui risque d'apparaître sur les prix du propylène, l'intérêt de certaines voies de synthèse actuellement considérées comme non rentables pourrait augmenter; ces nouvelles voies sont : - la déshydrogénation du propane déjà considérée dans d'autres régions (Mexique, Indonésie, Malaisie; - la métathèse entre l'éthylène et les butènes-2, pouvant eux-mêmes être produits à partir d

  5. Pyrenean pastoralists’observations of environmental change: An exploratory study in los Valles Occidentales of Aragón

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    Fernández-Giménez, María E.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Observations of environmental change by local resource users may be an important source of information about past and current environmental conditions to complement scientific studies and monitoring. In this exploratory, qualitative study, we documented observations of environmental change made by 27 stockmen in the two westernmost valleys of the Central Western Pyrenees of Spain. Pastoralists reported changes in weather, corresponding declines in the flow of mountain springs, and an increase in shrub and tree cover in the mountains. Explanations for the increase in woody plant cover differed in the two valleys; however, the majority of stockmen from both villages believed that the lack of human presence in the mountains contributes to shrub encroachment. Stockmen’s observations of environmental change suggest additional research needs regarding climate and vegetation change in the Pyrenees, and highlight the potential contributions of Pyrenean pastoralists’ local knowledge to environmental monitoring, research and management.Las observaciones sobre el cambio medioambiental realizadas por usuarios locales pueden ser una importante fuente de información sobre las características medioambientales del pasado y del presente para complementar los estudios científicos y el monitoreo. En este estudio cualitativo documentamos observaciones sobre el cambio medioambiental realizadas por 27 ganaderos en los dos valles más occidentales de los Pirineos centro occidentales españoles. Resumen cambios climáticos relativos a la disminución del caudal de las fuentes de montaña y al aumento de la cubierta vegetal de matorrales y arbolado en las montañas. Las explicaciones sobre el aumento de arbolado difieren en los dos valles; sin embargo la mayoría de los ganaderos de ambos pueblos pensaban que la falta de presencia humana en las montañas contribuye a la invasión del matorral. Las observaciones de los ganaderos sobre los cambios medioambientales

  6. Salmonella spp. e antibiotico-resistenza in Mammiferi e Uccelli selvatici in Italia nord-occidentale dal 2002 al 2010

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    Velca Botti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La Salmonella è un importante agente patogeno responsabile di zoonosi di notevole rilevanza economica. In Europa la salmonellosi è la seconda infezione trasmessa per via alimentare, in Italia il microrganismo continua ad essere la causa più frequente di infezione alimentare. In Europa sono in atto molti piani di sorveglianza di Salmonella in animali da allevamento, tuttavia il monitoraggio del microrganismo in animali selvatici è effettuato solo occasionalmente. Lo studio ha avuto l'obiettivo di indagare la presenza di Salmonella in animali selvatici e i ceppi antibiotico-resistenti. Nel periodo 2002-2010, 2.713 animali selvatici (Canidi, Mustelidi, Uccelli, Roditori e Ungulati, provenienti da aree dell'Italia nord-occidentale, sono stati testati per Salmonella mediante metodo microbiologico colturale seguito da tipizzazione sierologica e biochimica. Di questi, 117 (63 Canidi, 25 Mustelidi, 24 Uccelli, 5 Ungulati sono risultati positivi per Salmonella (4,3%. Sono stati isolati 130 ceppi appartenenti a diversi sierotipi e Salmonella Typhimurium è risultato quello più rappresentato. La sensibilità agli antibiotici è stata testata su 88 ceppi con test di disco-diffusione. La maggior parte dei ceppi analizzati (97,7% si sono mostrati intermedi (I o resistenti (R ad almeno una classe di antibiotici. I più alti valori sono stati osservati per la classe delle tetracicline. La presenza di sierotipi di Salmonella antibiotico-resistenti e responsabili di zoonosi è stata riscontrata in diverse specie di animali selvatici.

  7. Perlas y piel de azabache. El negro en las pesquerías de las Indias Occidentales

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    Tardieu, Jean Pierre

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Not very long after the Discovery, the pearls from the West Indies competed with those from the Orient for the full regalia of the ladies of the gentry, or that of the most revered virgins, while raising the curiosity of the best known chroniclers and creating an excruciating tax system. Considering the legislation passed for the benefit of Indians, those were to a large extent replaced in the “pearl fisheries” by black slaves submitted by the covetousness of their masters and the interests of the Crown to horrendous living and working conditions which most of the time relentlessly led them to death.

    Poco después del Descubrimiento, las perlas de las Indias occidentales rivalizaron con las de Oriente para el adorno de las damas de la alta sociedad o de las Vírgenes más veneradas, suscitando la curiosidad científica de los cronistas más conocidos y una exigente legislación fiscal. Debido a las leyes emitidas a favor de los indios, éstos se sustituyeron en gran parte, en las pesquerías de perlas, por esclavos negros sometidos —por la codicia de los amos y el interés de la Corona— a despiadadas condiciones de vida y de trabajo que desembocaban las más veces en una muerte inexorable.

  8. Determination of Heavy Metals in Leaves of Mangifera Indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mango), Psidium guajava L. (Guava) and Anacardium occidentale L. (Cashew) grown in Trikania around the industrial area, were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The differences in the bioaccumulation of the metals varied.

  9. Soil characteristics under legume and non-legume tree canopies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %, 100% and 150% the distance from tree trunk to canopy edge of leguminous sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth.) and espinheiro (Machaerium aculeatum Raddi) and non-legume cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L.) and jaqueira ...

  10. Research Journal of Health Sciences - Vol 4, No 1 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sperm parameters of male Wistar rats treated with Anacardium occidentale L. leaf extract · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. O.O. Obembe, A.O. Ige, 83-89 ...

  11. Effect of interaction between seed size and sowing depth of cashew ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of interaction between seed size and sowing depth of cashew Anacardium occidentale (L) on seedlings emergence and height under treatment with organic and inorganic fertilizer in Gidan-Waya, Southern Guinea Savanna, Nigeria.

  12. Innovations et métallurgies en Méditerranée occidentale (XIIIe–XVe siècles

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    Verna, Catherine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available After a definition of technical innovation in the Middle Ages and it’s relationship to industry, this paper explores it’s characteristics in the fi eld of iron and silver (silver-bearing lead and copper metallurgy from the 13th to the 15th centuries in the western Mediterranean area. The exploration opens with a synthesis of the circulation of iron and steel products, with special care taken over the definition of their respective qualities, in particular the distinction between iron and steel; the exploration continues with an introduction to specific technical territories related to industrial “districts”, which allows the author to present the study of the circulation of technical knowledge. The paper concludes with a study of notables (Catalan in particular as rural entrepreneurs who invested in the technical innovation of their time.[fr] Après avoir défi ni l’innovation technique au Moyen Âge et ses rapports à l’industrie, cet article en étudie les caractéristiques dans les domaines de la métallurgie du fer et de l’argent (plomb et cuivre argentifères du XIIIe au XVe siècle, en Méditerranée occidentale. Cet examen s’ouvre par un tableau de la circulation des produits sidérurgiques, attentif à la définition de leurs qualités respectives, en particulier à la distinction fer-acier; il se poursuit par la présentation des territoires techniques spécifiques associés à des districts industriels, ce qui permet à l’auteur d’aborder l’étude des circulations des savoirs techniques. L’article se conclut par une étude des notables (en particulier catalans, entrepreneurs ruraux, qui ont investi dans l’innovation technique.

  13. SARDULUS SACERENSIS CASALE & MARCIA, NUOVA SPECIE IPOGEA DI COLEOTTERI ISTERIDI DELLA SARDEGNA NORD-OCCIDENTALE E SUA MORFOLOGIA LARVALE (Coleoptera, Histeridae

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    A. Casale

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Sardulus sacerensis Casale & Marcia, nuova specie di Histeridae ipogei della Grotta di Lu Gardu (Sassari, Sardegna nord-occidentale è descritta e comparata con le due specie note in precedenza della Sardegna centro-orientale, S. spelaeus Patrizi, 1955, e S. incrassatus Magrini & Fancello, 2005. Le caratteristiche morfologiche esternee i genitali maschili delle tre specie sono raffigurati. Inoltre, è fornita per la prima volta la descrizione della morfologia larvale di una specie di questo genere. S. spelaeus, specie nota fino ad ora di due grotte in territorio di Dorgali, è segnalata di una terza località: la Grotta di Istirzili o Stirzili, nel territorio di Baunei.

  14. Abstract Introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was more highly heritable than canopy diameter. at this stage in the establishment,and.hen.cewolJ.ld.l!e more readily manipulated byselectiondn.a breeding programme. ' .:;' -:_~ J',. ,,_,._ .. : . -.-' ... occidentale L.) grown in Tanzania, are, planted as unselected ...... selected cashew clones, (Anacardium occidentale linn). Tan-.

  15. Contribution à une étude phytoécologiques des groupements à Tetraclinis articulata du littoral de Honaine (Algérie occidentale).

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    CHERIF, ISMAHENE

    2012-01-01

    La zone sur laquelle porte notre contribution est localisées dans la partie occidentale du Nord-Ouest Algérien, elle fait partie intégrante des monts des Traras. Cette étude est consacrée à l’analyse phytoécologique des groupements à Tetraclinis articulata du littoral de Honaine. L’étude bioclimatique a révélé un décalage de certaines stations météorologiques, vers des ambiances plus sèches sur le climagramme pluviothermique d’Emberger, témoignant ainsi une tendance générale à ...

  16. Voyageuses occidentales et impérialisme : l’Orient à la croisée des représentations (XIXe siècle

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    Isabelle Ernot

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article s’appuie sur une dizaine de récits de voyages, effectués par des Françaises dans les régions arabo-musulmanes durant la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle. Ils constituent un matériau permettant d’articuler étude sur le genre et l’impérialisme. Le propos concerne particulièrement le rôle des Occidentales dans la construction d’un discours qui accompagne la colonisation et participe de la définition des hiérarchies sociales et/ou raciales. L’analyse comporte deux versants : le premier s’intéresse aux éléments mobilisés dans la production d’une représentation de la femme arabo-musulmane, figure de l’assujettissement et contre-modèle de l’Occidentale ; le second fait retour sur les locutrices elles-mêmes et questionne l’origine de leurs représentations.This article explores how gender and imperialism are articulated in the writings of a number of French women travelers to Eastern and Arab countries in the second half of the 19th century. It argues for the role of these Western women travelers in the construction of a discourse that accompanied the process of colonialism and contributed to the defining of social and/or racial hierarchies. The article begins with an examination of the rhetoric used to produce a representation of the oppressed Arab-Muslim woman, in opposition to that of the Western woman. It then examines the travel writers themselves in an effort to discern the origins of the representations they develop.

  17. Breeding sites of drosophilids (Diptera in the Brazilian Savanna. I. Fallen fruits of Emmotum nitens (Icacinaceae, Hancornia speciosa (Apocynaceae and Anacardium humile (Anacardiaceae Sítios de criação de drosofilídeos (Diptera no bioma Cerrado. I. Frutos caídos de Emmotum nitens (Icacinaceae, Hancornia speciosa (Apocynaceae e Anacardium humile (Anacardiaceae

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    Francisco Roque

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, drosophilids that bred in fruits of three common plant species of the Brazilian Savanna were investigated: Emmotum nitens, Hancornia speciosa and Anacardium humile, along with the temporal and spatial distribution of these insects among fruits obtained from six individuals of E. nitens. Fallen fruits were collected in natural environments, placed on moist sand in individual containers and all drosophilids that emerged from these resources during 15 days were collected, counted and identified. From 3,651 fruits collected (3,435 of E. nitens, 179 of A. humile and 37 of H. speciosa 4,541 flies emerged and were classified into 19 species of Drosophilidae. Their distribution was unequal among the three resources, also over time, and among the six individuals of E. nitens. Such fluctuations probably reflect the availability of resources in time and space and probably the action of selective factors such as larval competition.Neste estudo, são investigados os drosofilídeos que se criam em frutos de três espécies de plantas comuns do Cerrado brasileiro: Emmotum nitens, Hancornia speciosa e Anacardium humile, juntamente com a distribuição temporal e espacial desses insetos entre os frutos obtidos de seis indivíduos de E. nitens. Frutos recolhidos sobre a serrapilheira, em ambientes naturais, foram mantidos no laboratório e os drosofilídeos que deles emergiram foram contados e identificados. Dos 3.651 frutos coletados (3.435 de E. nitens, 179 de A. humile e 37 de H. speciosa emergiram 4.541 drosofilídeos, classificados em 19 espécies. A distribuição dessas espécies foi desigual entre os três tipos de recursos, ao longo do tempo, e também entre os seis indivíduos de E. nitens. Essas flutuações refletem a disponibilidade dos recursos no tempo e no espaço, e provavelmente a ação de forças seletivas como a competição entre as larvas.

  18. Composição do meio de cultivo para produção de microplantas de caju-de-árvore-do-Cerrado (Anacardium othonianum RIZZ. - Composition of the cultivation medium for the production of microplants of Cerrado-tree cashew (Anacardium othonianum RIZZ.

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    Ísis Danielle Sousa

    2017-07-01

    The Anacardium othonianum Rizz. It’s a typical plant of regions of tropical climate characterized by the exotic appearance and pleasant aroma. In the quest to diversify production and activities that provide greatest profitability, micropropagation has been an alternative for large-scale production in short time. Therefore, the objective of this work is to determine the best in vitro results for micropropagation of this species, for this, we evaluated the addition of different concentrations of AIB (Indolbutyric Acid, sucrose and activated charcoal in the in vitro culture medium. Five concentrations of AIB (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 mg L-1 and five sucrose concentrations (0, 15, 30, 45, 60 g L-1 were used in the absence or presence of activated charcoal, in WPM 50% medium. At 30 and 60 days, the number of oxidation, average length and number of leaves per explant were evaluated. It was found that the culture medium supplemented with activated charcoal and an addition of 4 mg L-1 of IBA, contributed to in vitro root growth. While the culture medium with 30 g L-1 sucrose and the presence of activated charcoal provided a longer length of the explants and a larger number of leaves. Key words: Native Fruit, Cerrado, Micropropagation.

  19. Cinquante années de recherches sur les débuts de l'Aurignacien en Europe occidentale

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    François Djindjian

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Une histoire des cinquante dernières années de rechercties sur les débuts de l'Aurignacien est tentée ici. Cet historique retrace brièvement les débuts entre 1860 et 1950 de la connaissance de l'Aurignacien resituant dans leur contexte les apports respectifs de Lartet, De Mortlllet, Breuil et Peyrony. Puis, les résultats des recherches des années 1950 à 1990 des différents acteurs (D. de Sonnevllle-Bordes, F. Bordes, H. M. Movius, H. Delporte, G. Laplace, J. Hahn, N. Soler, F. Bazile, F. Champagne, etc. concernant les débuts de l'Aurignacien sont analysés à la lueur des nouvelles données de fouilles en Aquitaine (Roc de Combe, La Ferrassie, Le Facteur, Caminade, Le Flageolet I, Le Plage, en Pyrénées (Gatzarria, Cueva h/iorin, en Jura-Souabe (Geissenklosterle et sur la côte méditerranéenne (abri l\\Aochi, La Laouza, l'Arbreda, L'Esquicho-Grapaou. Les apports des recherches sur le paléoenvironnement pour la reconstitution du climat et des méthodes mathématiques et informatiques dans les années 70 à la structuration chronologique de l'Aurignacien sont développés. Les différentes données à l'origine de l'existence d'un Protoaurignacien, d'un Aurignacien 0 en Périgord, d'un Aurignacien initial et la question de l'interstratification entre Castelperronien et Aurignacien sont discutées. Les récentes critiques depuis le début des années 90 concernant la fiabilité du cadre paléoclimatique des remplissages d'abrissous- roctie et la pertinence des approches typologiques sont examinées. Les conclusions amènent l'auteur à proposer suggérer que les débuts de I'Aurignacien, encore mal connus, ne sont pas uniformes suivant les régions et dans le temps. En Europe occidentale, l'existence d'un Aurignacien initial semble prouvé sur la côte méditerranéenne de la Ligurie jusqu'en Catalogne. L'expansion aurignacienne suit alors la bordure septentrionale pyrénéenne de l'Aude jusqu'en Cantabres et en Asturies. Puis, sous

  20. In vitro cultivation of Anacardium othonianum Rizz.: effects of salt concentration and culture medium volume=Cultivo in vitro de Anacardium othonianum Rizz.: efeito da variação das concentrações dos sais e volumes do meio de cultura

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    José Waldemar Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anacardium othonianum Rizz. is a medicinal plant species that is native to the Brazilian savannah. Adult plants are different from other genus members in this ecosystem due to their size, and efforts to locate the plants may lead to their extraction from the savannah and, frequently, plant death. Micropropagation has played a significant role in the propagation and preservation of specimens of several plant species; therefore, this study evaluated the effect of various salt concentrations and culture medium volumes on the in vitro cultivation of A. othonianum Rizz. Trial (I evaluated two culture media (MS and WPM and three salt concentrations (100, 50 and 25% in a completely randomized design. Trial (II evaluated two culture media and salt concentrations, MS (50% and WPM (100%, and five medium volumes (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mL per test tube as a 2 x 5 factorial in a completely randomized design. After 30 and 60 days of growth, the percentage of plantlet survival, average plantlet and leaf lengths and the average number of leaves and buds per explant were evaluated. The MS (50 and 25% media and WPM (100 and 50% media were the most effective for plantlet regeneration. The best responses were observed in 15- and 25-mL volumes of the MS (50% medium. Therefore, the use of a 15-mL volume is suggested for greater medium economy.O Anacardium othonianum Rizz. é uma espécie frutífera e medicinal nativa do Cerrado brasileiro. As plantas adultas distinguem-se das demais espécies do gênero existente nesse bioma em função do seu porte arbóreo. Sua exploração ocorre de forma extrativista e muitas vezes em caráter predatório. Sob esse contexto, a micropropagação tem dado significativas contribuições na propagação e preservação de caracteres de interesse em diversas espécies de plantas e, desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de sais e volumes do meio de cultura no cultivo in vitro de A

  1. Geología y vulcanología de La Palma y El Hierro, Canarias Occidentales

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    Pérez Torrado, F. J.

    2001-12-01

    construction of the El Golfo volcano seems to have taken place after a relatively long period of activity, probably coinciding with the maximum development of the Cumbre Nueva rift on La Palma. The initial subaerial activity at El Golfo was characterised by basaltic lavas that evolved to trachybasalts and trachytes, and finally towards more differentiated eruptive episodes indicative of the terminal state of the volcanic activity of the El Golfo volcano. The excessive growth of this volcano triggered the failure of its north flank, generating the spectacular scarp and present El Golfo depression. Subsequent volcanism, from emission vents arranged in a three-armed rift system (rift volcanism, with ages ranging from 145 ka to 2,500 years, with probably prehistoric eruptions, implies the much more moderate continuation of the earlier predominantly basanitic-tephritic volcanic activity. This period may correspond to that of maximum development of the Cumbre Vieja rift, in the island of La Palma.Las Canarias occidentales, relativamente poco estudiadas hasta hace unos años desde el punto de vista geológico, han aportado sin embargo datos decisivos para la comprensión de muchos de los problemas geológicos más importantes del archipiélago, que posiblemente se hubieran dilucidado más prontamente si su estudio se hubiese comenzado, como en la mayoría de las cadenas de islas volcánicas oceánicas, por su extremo más reciente. Como resumen de sus principales rasgos geológicos evolutivos de ambas islas destacamos las siguientes etapas de desarrollo: Durante el Plioceno se levanta en el extremo occidental del Archipiélago, en la isla de La Palma, un edificio o monte submarino constituido por pillow lavas, pillow brechas e hialoclastitas de composición basáltica, intruido por domos traquíticos, plutones de gabros y una densísima red de diques. Por el efecto de la intensa intrusión magmática y filoniana el edificio submarino sufrió un levantamiento hasta cotas de 1.500 m y

  2. La Coopération Scientifique et Technologique en Europe occidentale. 1ère Partie Scientific and Technological Cooperation in Western Europe. Part One

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    Bertrand V.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'exemple de la puissance américaine pendant et après le dernier conflit mondial a montré aux nations de l'Europe occidentale que leur développement économique dépendait étroitement de leur aptitude à la recherche scientifique et à l'innovation technologique. Devant la nécessité vitale d'élaborer une politique de la science et l'impossibilité de concurrencer individuellement les États-Unis sur l'ensemble du front, elles se sont progressivement engagées vers une collaboration de plus en plus réfléchie dans le domaine scientifique et technologique. Dans le même temps les grands organismes internationaux à vocation politique, économique ou militaire (ONU, OCDE, OTAN... créés après la guerre ont été aussi amenés à se préoccuper des problèmes de la science avant que ceux ci ne fassent l'objet d'une politique délibérée de coopération sous l'égide des Communautés européennes.Nous allons essayer. de faire le point sur toutes ces questions en exposant dans les différents chapitres I. La notion de politique de la science et son évolution dans le monde occidental. II. Les organismes internationaux impliqués dans une coopération scientifique et technologique en Europe occidentale. III et IV. Les résultats (scientifiques puis technologiques de cette coopération en dehors des grands organismes internationaux. V. Les actions menées dans le cadre de ces organismes. VI. La politique de coopération entreprise au sein des Communautés européennes. VII. La coopération européenne en matière d'énergie. The exemple of U.S. power during and after the last World War showed the countries in Western Europe that their economic development was closely linked to their capocity for scientific research and technological innovation. Faced with the vital need to draw up a science policy and the impossibilty of individually rivaling the United States in all areas, they gradually moved toward more and more deliberate coopération in

  3. Capacidad parasítica de Praon pos. occidentale (Hymenoptera: Braconidae sobre Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae en condiciones de laboratorio

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    Aragón Sandra

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Praon pos. occidentale es un parasitoide promisorio para regular poblaciones de áfidos Macrosiphum euphorbiae en cultivos comerciales bajo invernadero de rosas. Se evaluó la capacidad parasítica de P. pos. occidentale bajo tres temperaturas constantes (18, 25 y 28ºC y variando la densidad de su hospedero (5, 10, 20, 40, 80 y 150. En cada unidad experimental se liberó una pareja del parasitoide con 24 horas de edad y se mantuvieron durante 24 horas en incubadoras graduadas a cada temperatura en evauación, con 12 horas de luz y 12 de oscuridad. Se registró el número de áfidos parasitados y se permitió el desarrollo de los huevos depositados hasta adulto. Se estimó la tasa instantánea de búsqueda (a’ y el tiempo de manipulación (Th a partir de los cuales se ajustó el modelo de respuesta funcional tipo II para cada temperatura. La tasa instantánea de búsqueda (a’ fue más alta a 18ºC con un valor de 0,1081, seguida de 28ºC con 0,0323 y 25ºC con 0,0103. El tiempo de manipulación (Th más corto fue el que se presentó a 25ºC de 4,8913, seguido de 28º C con un tiempo de 5,7579 y 18ºC con 8,2697. El máximo número de individuos parasitados estimado fue de 4,9 a 25ºC. A 18ºC el 60% de los áfidos parasitados alcanzó la emergencia del adulto, el 74,2% a 25ºC y el 88% a 28ºC. No existe ningún efecto significativo de la densidad del hospedero ni de la temperatura en la proporción sexual de Praon pos. Occidentale.

  4. EZZERELLI Kaïs, Diplomatie occidentale et dissidence arabe. La France coloniale et le mouvement arabiste en Syrie ottomane (1912-1914), Tunis, Dar al-Wasla, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    d’Andurain, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Le dernier ouvrage de Kaïs Ezzerelli, publié par la toute jeune maison d’édition Dar Al-Wasla à Tunis, porte sur la diplomatie occidentale, et plus particulièrement française, face au mouvement arabiste en Syrie ottomane juste avant la Grande Guerre. C’est un travail sérieux, minutieux et de ce fait tout à fait précieux. À partir de travaux scientifiques précédents et d’archives issues du fonds « Nouvelle Série » Turquie du ministère français des Affaires étrangères, l’auteur présente la séri...

  5. Mycology and spoilage of retail cashew nuts | Adebajo | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the species recovered induced detectable loss in weights of the milled nuts, though to varying extents and would be expected to cause considerable spoilage of the nuts. Key words: Cashew nut, Anacardium occidentale, fungal count, mycology, Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., spoilage. African Journal of Biotechnology ...

  6. Smallholder Information Sources and Communication Pathways for Cashew Production and Marketing in Tanzania: An Ex-Post Study in Tandahimba and Lindi Rural Districts, Southern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyambo, Brigitte; Ligate, Elly

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To identify and review production and marketing information sources and flows for smallholder cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) growers in Tanzania and recommend systems improvements for better technology uptake. Design/methodology/approach: Two-stage purposive samples were drawn. First, two districts in the main cashew producing areas,…

  7. Synthesis and biological evaluation of new salicylate macrolactones from anacardic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logrado, Lucio P.L.; Santos, Maria Lucilia dos; Silveira, Damaris; Romeiro, Luiz A.S.; Moraes, Manoel O. de; Cavalcanti, Bruno C.; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia V.; Pessoa, Claudia do O

    2005-01-01

    In connection with our ongoing investigation in the search for new bioactive compounds using non-isoprenoid phenolic lipids from Anacardium occidentale as starting material, we describe the synthesis and cytotoxicity screening of some novel salicylate macrolactones prepared from anacardic acids, the major constituents of natural cashew nut-shell liquid (CNSL). (author)

  8. anti-inflammatory activity of selected nigerian medicinal plants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of nineteen plant species from an inventory of Nigerian medicinal plants were screened for activity in two in vitro anti-inflammatory model test systems, inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis and PAF-induced elastase release from neutrophilis. Anacardium occidentale and Acalipha hispida were active in both test ...

  9. Effects of some anti-diabetic plants on the hepatic marker enzymes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was embarked upon in order to evaluate the effects of the chloroform extracts of the leaves of Psidium guajava, Anacardium occidentale and Eucalyptus globulus and fruits of Xylopia aethiopica on hepatic marker enzymes of diabetic rats. The degree of hepatic damage caused by diabetes mellitus and the effects ...

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abba, Y. Vol 17 (2012) - Articles Determination of Heavy Metals in Leaves of Mangifera Indica, Psidium Guajava L. and Anacardium Occidentale L. in Trikania Industrial Area, Kaduna-Nigeria. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1119-0221. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  11. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kinetic studies of alkaline phosphatase extracted from rabbit (Lepus townsendii) liver. Abstract PDF · Vol 10, No 32 (2011) - Articles Sodium metabisulphite induced polymerization of sickle cell haemoglobin incubated in extracts of three medicinal plants (Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava and Terminalia catappa)

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prashith, KTR. Vol 2, No 3 (2013) - Articles Antibacterial, Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Potential of Vitex Negundo Var. Negundo and Vitex Negundo Var. Purpurascens – A Comparative Study Abstract PDF · Vol 2, No 3 (2013) - Articles Antibacterial Potential of Cashew Apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) Juice Against Clinical ...

  13. ORIGINAL ARTILE 141

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boaz

    extracts employed were from Azadirachta indica (Neem), Anacardium occidentale (Cashew), Euphorbia hirta (Asthma weed),Jatropha curcas (Physic nut), ... d'inhibition complète à l'égard d'aucun des isolats cliniques à 100 mg/ml mais montrent un souci nettement inférieur à la plus faible concentration de. 25 mg/ml mieux.

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 75 of 75 ... Vol 1, No 1 (2002), The cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) powdery mildew disease epidemic in Kenya, Abstract. George M Siboe. Vol 3, No 1 (2004), The Diversity of Biological Nitrogen Fixing Systems in Kenya, Abstract. JHP Kahindi, NK Karanja, D Odee, FB Mwaura. Vol 1, No 1 (2005), The effect of ...

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ogunwolu, S.O. Vol 10, No 5 (2010) - Articles Production of protein concentrate and isolate from cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1684-5374. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

  16. Services ecosystémiques du parc agroforestier à Cordyla pinnata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les résultats de l'enquête indiquent que les principales espèces ligneuses du parc citées pour leur fonction alimentaire dans la commune de. Keur Samba Guèye sont: Parkia biglobosa. (15%), Anacardium occidentale (13%),. Mangifera indica (10%), Zyziphus mauritiana. (10%), Detarium senegalensis (8%), Parinari.

  17. Proprietes antifongiques des extraits de trois especes d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neuf extraits hydroéthanoliques des feuilles, d'écorces de tige et de racines de trois Anacardiaceae (Mangifera indica A. (Rich.), Anacardium occidentale L., Spondias mombin L.) introduites au Togo ont fait objet de tests antifongiques en vue de justifier leurs usages en médecine traditionnelle contre les affections causées ...

  18. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saidou, Aliou. Vol 95 (2015) - Articles Optimization of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) apple juice's clarification process by using cassava and rice starch. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1997-5902. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  19. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malainy, Diatta. Vol 11, No 2 (2017) - Articles Influence de la flore ligneuse associée dans la production des parcs à Anacardium occidentale L. dans la communauté rurale de Djibanar (Casamance/Sénégal) Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1997-342X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  20. Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences - Vol 2, No 1 (1999)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on genotype-environment interaction (GxE) in half-sib progenies of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) in Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. PAL Masawe, EP Cundall, PDS Caligari ...

  1. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract PDF · Vol 17 (2012) - Articles Determination of some heavy metals in spinach and lettuce from selected markets in Kaduna metropolis. Abstract PDF · Vol 17 (2012) - Articles Determination of Heavy Metals in Leaves of Mangifera Indica, Psidium Guajava L. and Anacardium Occidentale L. in Trikania Industrial Area, ...

  2. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ahanchede, Adam. Vol 95 (2015) - Articles Optimization of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) apple juice's clarification process by using cassava and rice starch. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1997-5902. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  3. Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal - Vol 2, No 3 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial Potential of Cashew Apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) Juice Against Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. MN Vivek, M Manasa, S Pallavi, SHC Swamy, KTR Prashith ...

  4. Polyclonal Antibody-based ELISA in combination with specific PCR amplification of ITS 1 regions for the detection and quantitation of Lasiodiplodia theobromae, causal agent of 2 gummosis in cashew nut plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muniz, C.R.; Freire, F.C.O.; Viana, F.M.P.; Cardoso, J.E.; Correia, D.; Jalink, H.; Kema, G.H.J.; Silva, G.F.; Guedes, M.I.F.

    2012-01-01

    Members of Botryosphaeriaceae family are associated with serious diseases in different plants 18 across the world. In cashew nut plants (Anacardium occidentale L.), the fungus Lasiodiplodia 19 theobromae causes a severe group of symptoms related to gummosis that results in decreased nut 20

  5. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dossou, Joseph. Vol 10, No 1 (2016) - Articles Influence des bulles gazeuses et des préparations fermentatives complexes sur la viscosité des mélasses de betterave à sucre. Abstract PDF · Vol 11, No 4 (2017) - Articles Bioefficacy of powdery formulations based on kaolin powder and cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) ...

  6. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cashew produ~tion.in me.sputhern. 528-533.,. " .:: provience of Tanganyika. East African Agriq:lIture and. Intini, M. and M, E. R. Sijaona I 983.·.Li,ttle known disease of. Forestry Journal. July 1962. cashew (Anacardium occidentale L) in Tanzania.

  7. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial Potential of Cashew Apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) Juice Against Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and. Streptococcus mutans. Vivek MN, Manasa M, Pallavi S, Sachidananda Swamy HC and Prashith Kekuda TR*. P. G. Department of Studies and Research in Microbiology, Sahyadri Science ...

  8. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mshelia, MS. Vol 17 (2012) - Articles Determination of Heavy Metals in Leaves of Mangifera Indica, Psidium Guajava L. and Anacardium Occidentale L. in Trikania Industrial Area, Kaduna-Nigeria. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1119-0221. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  9. Assessment of Suitability of Wood Fibres of Four Nigerian Fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wood fibres of four fruit trees of Nigeria commonly found in Nsukka metropolis were studied and assessed for their suitability for paper-making. These trees include Mangifera indica, Anacardium occidentale, Persea americana and Dacryodes edulis. The parameters used in the study were the fibre dimensions and derived ...

  10. Germination and seedlings performance of cashew ( Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of nut-sowing orientations on the germination of cashew nuts and the responses of the resultant seedlings to cotyledon removed were studied in the nursery. While cashew nuts sown flat and those with stylar-end up had highest mean germination of 91.67 % and 92.50 % respectively the nuts sown with ...

  11. Hypoglycemic Effect of Methanolic Extract of Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chigo Okwuosa

    change over 4 hours and Tolbutamide caused a 63.1 % change over this same time period. When the rat ... be some cells of the pancreas that are working and therefore are ... week after the third injection, the rats were fasted again and the ...

  12. Urban domestic architecture of the western cities of Conventus Hispalensis: an exercise in critical historiography | La arquitectura doméstica urbana de las ciudades occidentales del Conventus Hispalensis: un ejercicio de crítica historiográfica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Corrales Álvarez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The domestic architecture of the western cities of Conventus Hispalensis remains an open line of research still being developed. So, even though there is a previous archaeological literature, there had not been a study establishing a comprehensive overview that integrates de analysis of its architecture, ornamental program, material culture and its incorporation into the urban network. All these explanatory factors are currently of great interest due to the importance of the domestic architecture in Hispania in the past decades (Corrales, 2012, 256. Therefore, the generation of a theoretical framework (Wallace-Hadrill, 1997, 219 was necessary in order to globally understand the urban domestic architecture in the ancient cities of the territory of Huelva. Thanks to new archaeological evidence, this could lead to a renewed interpretative approach. | La arquitectura doméstica de las ciudades occidentales del Conventus Hispalensis continúa siendo una línea de investigación abierta y aún por desarrollar. Así, a pesar de que existe una literatura arqueológica previa, hasta la fecha, no se había realizado un estudio que presentara una panorámica global que integrara el análisis de su arquitectura, programa ornamental, cultura material y su inserción en la trama urbana, factores explicativos de gran interés en la actualidad, a tenor del desarrollo que la arquitectura doméstica en Hispania ha sido objeto en las últimas décadas (Corrales, 2012, 256. Así, pues, se hacía necesaria la generación de un marco de trabajo teórico (Wallace– Hadrill, 1997, 219 mediante el cual, la edilicia doméstica de las ciudades del territorio onubense se entendiese como una reflexión global, en la que, de la mano de las nuevas evidencias arqueológicas, se pudiera producir una aproximación interpretativa renovada.

  13. Tradizione giuridica occidentale e modernizzazione latinoamericana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Somma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Latin America, where capitalist and democratic institutions advanced slowly, is usually considered as the periphery of the Western Legal Tradition. However, historical evidence will here be given that even in Europe and North America capitalism often established authoritarian or totalitarian political systems. Moreover, those who describe Latin American capitalism as less developed than the Western one, neglect the fact that underdevelopment was at least partially imposed; they also ignore the fact that, what is meant by underdevelopment, may also be seen as an alternative modernity program. The history and legal history of Venezuela in the first half of the past century shows that deficiencies in democracy were due to theories and practices which were widespread within the Western Legal Tradition; it also offers examples for considering some peculiarities in the development of capitalism as part of an original path to modernity, rather than a bad copy of it.

  14. Il nichilismo come destino della paideia occidentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Borrelli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available From Nietzsche to Heidegger, it seems that the will to power and the technique are not, if not the way today’s nihilism is articulated, ultimate fulfillment of the history of being as metaphysics but not as being. If these are the preconditions of the intrusiveness and of the inevitability nihilistic of Western metaphysics, which paideia today is still thinkable?

  15. Carboxy methylation of cashew nut tree exudate gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Durcilene A. da; Paula, Regina C.M.

    2001-01-01

    Anacardium occidentale exudate polysaccharide was carboxymethylated with monochloroacetic acid. The samples were characterized by NMR, solution viscometry, GPC and thermal analysis. Carboxymethylated cashew gum (CMGC) with a degree of substitution between 0,1-0,16 was obtained. Solution viscometry and GPC analysis showed that polymer molar mass degradation occurred. Sample with higher DS shows higher peak molar mass, intrinsic viscosity and thermal stability. NMR spectrum indicated that the carboxy methylation reaction occurs preferentially in C-6 of galactose residue. (author)

  16. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lawson, Renaud G. Vol 11, No 5 (2017) - Articles Contribution à l'amélioration du taux de réussite du greffage de l'anacardier (Anacardium occidentale) en pépinière dans la commune de Parakou au Nord-Bénin Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1997-342X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mere, Sabi Bira Joseph Tokore Orou. Vol 11, No 5 (2017) - Articles Contribution à l'amélioration du taux de réussite du greffage de l'anacardier (Anacardium occidentale) en pépinière dans la commune de Parakou au Nord-Bénin Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1997-342X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  18. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences - Vol 6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Croissance et aptitude au greffage de deux génotypes d'anacardier (Anacardium occidentale L.) élites utilisés comme porte–greffe en Côte d'Ivoire · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. J-BA Djaha, AA N'daadopo, EK Koffi, CK Ballo, M Coulibaly, 1453- ...

  19. 1756-IJBCS-Article-Sylvanus Yoa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    alimentaires améliore significativement la croissance et l'indice de consommation chez les porcelets (Albar et al., 2000 ; Burnham et al., 2000, Bertol et al., 2001). Ainsi, tout comme les graines précédemment citées, l'incorporation de la noix de cajou. (Anacardium occidentale) dans l'alimentation du bétail a présenté des ...

  20. Pirolisis Kulit Biji Jambu Mete (Cashew Nut Shell) dengan Katalis Ag/Zeolit

    OpenAIRE

    Astuti, Rimby Puji; Suyati, Linda; Nuryanto, Rahmad

    2012-01-01

    Tanaman jambu mete, Anacardium occidentale L. merupakan salah satu komoditi perkebunan yang memiliki nilai ekonomi cukup tinggi. Kulit biji jambu mete mengandung 50% minyak yang terdiri dari senyawa fenolat berupa 90% asam anakardat dan 10% berupa kardol dan kardanol. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mensintesis dan mengkarakterisasi katalis Ag/zeolit, melakukan pirolisis kulit jambu mete, mengetahui pengaruh temperatur pirolisis terhadap produk cair pirolisis dan membandingkan produk cair hasi...

  1. In vitro cultivation of Anacardium othonianum Rizz.: Effects of growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... the explants and the effect of lighting in the regeneration of A. othonianum Rizz. stem segments. The .... observed, although this led to increased length without multiple ... although at this stage, it is more interesting to grow the.

  2. Étude diachronique des changements du couvert végétal dans un écosystème montagneux par télédétection spatiale : cas des monts du Tessala (Algérie occidentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Eddine Bachir Bouiadjra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Une meilleure compréhension de l'évolution des modes d'utilisation des sols et du couvert végétal est une préoccupation majeure pour les pays dont les écosystèmes subissent des dégradations sévères. En effet, les dynamiques d'occupation des sols ont des implications directes sur la disponibilité des ressources naturelles. Notre étude menée sur les monts du Tessala en Algérie occidentale, en utilisant l'indice de végétation par différence normalisée (NDVI, met en évidence l'ampleur des changements du couvert végétal entre 1987 à 2007. Une évolution régressive prononcée du couvert végétal est constatée au sud-est et au nord-ouest des monts du Tessala, tout particulièrement dans la "forêt de Tessala", sur les communes d'Aïn-Thrid, Tessala et Sehala. Les principaux facteurs contribuant à la régression du couvert végétal sont : la déforestation (plus de 26 délits de coupe par an, le surpâturage (420 délits de pâturage illicite par an, les incendies de forêts (plus de 20 incendies par an et l'érosion hydrique qui en résulte (environ 72 % des superficies sont concernées.A better understanding of the changing patterns of land use and land cover, is a major concern for countries where ecosystems are being severely degraded. Indeed, the dynamic feature of land use has important implications on natural resources. Our study conducted on the Tessala mountains, by using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, put in evidence the importance of changes in vegetation cover between 1987 and 2007. A pronounced regressive evolution is observed in south-east and north-west of the Tessala mountains, especially in the "forest of Tessala", in the communes of Aïn-Thrid, Tessala and Sehala. The main factors of environmental degradation, are : deforestation (over 26 offenses cut every year, overgrazing (420 crimes of illegal grazing every year, forest fires (more than 20 fires every year and resultant erosion (more

  3. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2016-02-01

    Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  4. The search rate of the African weaver ant in cashew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Signe; Axelsen, Jørgen Aagaard; Lemming, Katrine Hansen

    2015-01-01

    Oecophylla longinoda is a species of eusocial colony living ants that prey upon other insects to feed their larva. Many of these insects are considered pests. An ecosystem model of the interactions between an O. longinoda colony and its potential prey is under construction by the team behind...... this article, and it is unknown which functional response equations are useful for eusocial insect colonies. We investigated the search rate of O. longinoda using artificial feeding experiments in a Tanzanian cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) orchard to determine the search efficiency of the ants...

  5. Methodology of Integration for Competitive Technical Intelligence with Blue Ocean Strategy: Application to an exotic fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisela Rodríguez Salvador

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new methodology that integrates Competitive Technical Intelligence with Blue Ocean Strategy. We explore new business niches taking advantage of the synergy that both areas offer, developing a model based on cyclic interactions through a process developed in two stages: Understanding opportunity that arise from idea formulation to decision making and strategic development. The validity of our approach (first stage was observed in the evaluation of an exotic fruit, Anacardium Occidentale, in the South of the State of Veracruz, Mexico with the support of the university ITESM, Campus Monterrey. We identified critical factors for success, opportunities and threats. Results confirm the attractiveness of this crop.

  6. Aminoácidos livres majoritários no suco de caju: variação ao longo da safra

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVEIRA,MARIA ELISABETH BARROS DE; OLIVEIRA,GERARDO SÉRGIO FRANCELINO DE; MAIA,GERALDO ARRAES; MOREIRA,RENATO DE AZEVEDO; MONTEIRO,ANA CRISTINA DE OLIVEIRA

    2002-01-01

    Visando a contribuir para o conhecimento dos aminoácidos livres majoritários presentes no suco de caju (Anacardium occidentale L.), estudou-se o seu comportamento ao longo da safra de 1995, no período de agosto a novembro, no clone de cajueiro-anão precoce, CCP 09, com aptidão para a produção de suco. O suco foi obtido de cajus cultivados no município de Pio IX, Estado do Piauí, Brasil. Os frutos foram colhidos em intervalos de 21 dias, perfazendo cinco amostragens. Os aminoácidos foram deter...

  7. Development and Antibacterial Activity of Cashew Gum-Based Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José dos S. Soares

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the development of a green synthesis of silver nanoparticles reduced and stabilized by exuded gum from Anacardium occidentale L. and evaluates in vitro their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. Characterization of cashew gum-based silver nanoparticles (AgNPs was carried out based on UV–Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis which revealed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles were spherical in shape, measuring about 4 nm in size with a uniform dispersal. AgNPs presented antibacterial activity, especially against Gram-negative bacteria, in concentrations where no significant cytotoxicity was observed.

  8. inovador de extração líquido-líquido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Asfora Sarubbo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The exudate gum from Anacardium occidentale L. is a branched acidic heteropolysaccharide easily found in Brazil. Given the importance of cashew tree culture to some regions of Brazil, especially the Brazilian north western, the knowledge of the characteristics of the gum and the results of researches developed to study its biotechnological application have awaken great scientific and industrial interests. In this work, we describe the literature regarding the polysaccharide and its utilization as an alternative to the conventional processes used in the biopurification of economically high valued compounds.

  9. Caractérisation physico-chimique et sensorielle de diverses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le matériel végétal utilisé était constitué de pommes de cajou (Anacardium occidentale L. Anacardiaceae) et d'ananas. (Ananas comosus). Les pommes de cajou. (Figure 1) utilisées sont composées de pommes rouges et jaunes provenant du centre de la Côte d'Ivoire dans la région des lacs plus précisément de la ville de ...

  10. Phenolic Lipids Affect the Activity and Conformation of Acetylcholinesterase from Electrophorus electricus (Electric eel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiuk, Maria; Janiszewska, Alicja; Kozubek, Arkadiusz

    2014-01-01

    Phenolic lipids were isolated from rye grains, cashew nutshell liquid (CNSL) from Anacardium occidentale, and fruit bodies of Merrulius tremellosus, and their effects on the electric eel acetylcholinesterase activity and conformation were studied. The observed effect distinctly depended on the chemical structure of the phenolic lipids that were available for interaction with the enzyme. All of the tested compounds reduced the activity of acetylcholinesterase. The degree of inhibition varied, showing a correlation with changes in the conformation of the enzyme tested by the intrinsic fluorescence of the Trp residues of the protein. PMID:24787269

  11. PENGARUH EKSTRAK BEBERAPA TANAMAN OBAT TERHADAP USUS TERISOLASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dzulkarnain

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of Anacardium occidentale L.leaves, Aegle marmelos Corr leaves and wood bark, Acorus calamus L. tuber and Desmodium triquetrum D.C. leaves has been tested on the isolated rabbit and guinea pig intestine. The extraction of A. occidentale L. leaves stimulated the isolated rabbit and guinea pig intestine which may due to the anacardic acid content. No consistent influence was seen by the extraction of A.marmelos Corr. leaves and wood bark. The A. calamus L. tuber extraction decreases the isolated intestine activities which is of the atropine-like type not antihistamin one. This may explain the use as antidysentri agent from the motility point of view. The D. triquetrum D.C. leaves extraction stimulated the isolated intestine which has a pilocarpine and histamine-like activity but does not exclude a seretonine-like action.

  12. Production of tannase through submerged fermentation of tannin-containing plant extracts by Bacillus licheniformis KBR6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Mohapatra, Pradeep K; Mondal, Keshab C; Pati, Bikas R

    2006-01-01

    Tannins are water-soluble polyphenolic compounds found in plants as secondary metabolites. The presence of these substances in the barks of eight different plants was initially examined and their crude extracts were used separately as a substrate for production of tannase through submerged fermentation by Bacillus licheniformis KBR6. Tannase production as well as biodegradation of the substrate reached a maximum within 15 to 18 h against crude tannin extract obtained from Anacardium occidentale. Among different concentrations of the crude tannin tested, 0.5% (w/v) induced maximum synthesis of enzyme. Tannase production was higher by almost two-fold in the presence of crude tannin compared to pure tannic acid used as a substrate. It seems that industrial production of tannase, using bark extract of A. occidentale can be a very simple and suitable alternative to presently used procedures.

  13. Resistencia antimicrobiana en Hospitales nor-occidentales de Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, Karen; Espinoza, Meylin; Mejía, Yaoli; Zambrana, Luis Enrrique; Silva, Erasmo; Rojas, Jency; Gadea, Walter; Chavarria, Sergio; Hernandez, Mario; Ramirez, María Mercedes; Membreño, Juana María; Lara, María Eugenia; Saenz, J. E.; Valle, S.; Torrez, A.

    2007-01-01

    En los últimos años se ha observado un incremento de la incidencia de la Resistencia Antimicrobiana entre patógenos que causan infecciones intra-hospitalarias principalmente y también en la comunidad. La Resistencia antimicrobiana es un problema global de salud pública, promovido básicamente por el uso y abuso de los antibióticos. El fenómeno de la Resistencia antimicrobiana es un área prioritaria de investigación del Centro de investigación de enfermedades infecciosas y como parte de sus act...

  14. "Tetsugaku Manga". Filosofia occidentale a fumetti in Giappone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Marca, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse some Japanese comics based on important works of Western philosophers. The focus is on the direct use of philosophical texts, by reference to the “Manga de Dokuha“ series published by East Press. Following a brief introduction of this series and its purposes, a more detailed analysis based on two well-known philosophical classics: Human, All Too Human, by Friederich Nietzsche, and The Prince, by Niccolò Machiavelli, is conducted.

  15. Valores occidentales en el discurso publicitario audiovisual argentino

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    Isidoro Arroyo Almaraz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se desarrolla un análisis del discurso publicitario audiovisual argentino. Se pretende identificar los valores sociales que comunica con mayor predominancia y su posible vinculación con los valores característicos de la sociedad occidental posmoderna. Con este propósito se analizó la frecuencia de aparición de valores sociales para el estudio de 28 anuncios de diferentes anunciantes . Como modelo de análisis se utilizó el modelo “Seven/Seven” (siete pecados capitales y siete virtudes cardinales ya que se considera que los valores tradicionales son herederos de las virtudes y los pecados, utilizados por la publicidad para resolver necesidades relacionadas con el consumo. La publicidad audiovisual argentina promueve y anima ideas relacionadas con las virtudes y pecados a través de los comportamientos de los personajes de los relatos audiovisuales. Los resultados evidencian una mayor frecuencia de valores sociales caracterizados como pecados que de valores sociales caracterizados como virtudes ya que los pecados se transforman a través de la publicidad en virtudes que dinamizan el deseo y que favorecen el consumo fortaleciendo el aprendizaje de las marcas. Finalmente, a partir de los resultados obtenidos se reflexiona acerca de los usos y alcances sociales que el discurso publicitario posee.

  16. Anthelmintic efficacy of cashew (Anarcadium occidentale L.) on in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-24

    Aug 24, 2011 ... concentrations between 1 and 0.0075 µg/ml. The control plates contained the diluents, water and acetone or 0.3% DMSO and the egg solution. The eggs were incubated in this mixture for 48 h at. 27°C and 70% relative humidity. After this time, a drop of Lugol's iodine solution (Reidel de Hae, Germany) was ...

  17. Jóvenes de otros mundos: ¿Tribus urbanas? ¿Culturas juveniles? Aportaciones desde contextos no occidentales Jovens de outros mundos: Tribos urbanas? Culturas jovens? Contribuições dos contextos no occidentais Young people of other worlds: Urban tribes? Youth cultures? Contributions from nonwestern contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Sánchez García

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A partir de una experiencia de campo en cuatro barrios de la ciudad de El Cairo, el autor traza una reflexión y hace un replanteamiento de las metodologías tradicionales instituidas para la investigación entre grupos generacionales en contextos occidentales. Aunque se defiende el carácter básicamente urbano de estas asociaciones, se discute la pertinencia de la aplicación de los conceptos de "tribu urbana" y "cultura juvenil" en escenarios culturales como los representados en sociedades que han sufrido una transición rápida a una modernidad impuesta por las redes transnacionales. En este sentido, el objetivo es la afinación de esas herramientas conceptuales ofreciendo una nueva perspectiva de las mismas que tenga en cuenta las peculiaridades históricas y sociales de la construcción de la categoría social "joven" en otros lugares. Por último, el texto intenta reivindicar a la antropología como una disciplina empírica y no apriorística.De uma experiência de campo em quatro distritos da cidade do Cairo, o autor levanta uma reflexão e um repensar das metodologias tradicionais instituídas para a investigação entre grupos geracionais em contextos ocidentais. Embora o caráter basicamente urbano destas associações seja defendido, discute à relevância da aplicação dos conceitos "da tribo urbana" e "de cultura jovem" em cenas culturais como representadas nas sociedades que se submeteram, em uma transição rápida, a uma modernidade imposta pelas redes transnacionais. Neste sentido, o objetivo é a afinação daquelas ferramentas conceptuais oferecendo uma perspectiva nova que considera as peculiaridades históricas e sociais da construção de "jovens" como categoria social em outros lugares. Finalmente, o texto tenta reivindicar a antropologia como uma disciplina empírica e não apriorística.From an experience of field in four districts of the city of Cairo, the author raises a reflection and a reframing of the instituted

  18. TANNIN POTENCIAL EVALUATION OF SIX FOREST SPECIES OF BRAZILIAN SEMI-ARID REGION

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    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The hide tanners of Brazil Northeast region have in Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Brenan var. cebil (Gris. Alts. their only source of tannins. As the activity of exploration is extractiviste without the concern of recovery of explored trees and the absence of other tannin sources, exposes the specie to exhaustion and the tanners and extractivistes family to go bankruptcy. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the tanin potential of Prosopis juliflora, Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil, Anacardium occidentale, Mimosa tenuiflora, Mimosa arenosa and Croton sonderianus. These species, Anacardium occidentale, Mimosa arenosa and Mimosa temuiflora showed, respectively, 19.83%, 18.11% and 17.74% of tannins. The Anadenanthera colubrina showed 11.89% and was inferior them mentioned species. The Prosopis juliflora and Croton sonderianus showed 3.02% and 6.62%, respectively. The abundance of Mimosa arenosa and Mimosa tenuiflora in the Brazilian Semi-arid proposes them as potential of tannin production. However, there is need of researches to verify their technical viability for skins, as well as for other uses for tannins.

  19. Exposure to Anacardiaceae volatile oils and their constituents induces lipid peroxidation within food-borne bacteria cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, Ricardo M; Barbosa, Luiz C A; Demuner, Antonio J; Silva, Cleber J; Andrade, Nelio J; Ismail, Fyaz M D; Barbosa, Maria C A

    2012-08-14

    The chemical composition of the volatile oils from five Anacardiaceae species and their activities against Gram positive and negative bacteria were assessed. The peroxidative damage within bacterial cell membranes was determined through the breakdown product malondialdehyde (MDA). The major constituents in Anacardium humile leaves oil were (E)-caryophyllene (31.0%) and α-pinene (22.0%), and in Anacardium occidentale oil they were (E)-caryophyllene (15.4%) and germacrene-D (11.5%). Volatile oil from Astronium fraxinifolium leaves were dominated by (E)-β-ocimene (44.1%) and α-terpinolene (15.2%), whilst the oil from Myracrodruon urundeuva contained an abundance of δ-3-carene (78.8%). However, Schinus terebinthifolius leaves oil collected in March and July presented different chemical compositions. The oils from all species, except the one from A. occidentale, exhibited varying levels of antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. Oil extracted in July from S. terebinthifolius was more active against all bacterial strains than the corresponding oil extracted in March. The high antibacterial activity of the M. urundeuva oil could be ascribed to its high δ-3-carene content. The amounts of MDA generated within bacterial cells indicate that the volatile oils induce lipid peroxidation. The results suggest that one putative mechanism of antibacterial action of these volatile oils is pro-oxidant damage within bacterial cell membrane explaining in part their preservative properties.

  20. Characteristics of postharvest quality in regional fruits treate with ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Josenilda M.; Villar, Heldio P. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/CNEN-NE), Recife, PE (Brazil)], e-mail: jmnilda@cnen.gov.br; Correia, Lidia C.S.A.; Maciel, Maria Ines S. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)], e-mail: aidil_alencar@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: marines@ufrpe.br

    2009-07-01

    In order to investigate the effects of irradiation on the main characteristics of quality postharvest of three cultivated species of the Northeast Region of Brazil, experiments with cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. var. Nanum), sapodilla (Manilkara sapodilla (L) Van Royen) and mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes) have been performed. Cashew peduncles stored for fourteen days under 6.5 deg C had presented best results in the sensorial analyses for external appearance, flavour and aroma when irradiated with 1 kGy. sapodillas irradiated with doses of 300, 600 and 900 Gy have not displayed harmed sensorial qualities when stored under 20 deg C during twelve days. Doses up to 800 Gy had not harmed the external and internal appearance of mangabas after being stored for a fortnight under 13 deg C. Chemical characteristics of TSS, TTA, pH and solid/acidity ratio have not been affected significantly by the different doses applied to the three studied species. Amount of ascorbic acid was lower in the irradiated fruits, with significant differences for the species Anacardium occidentale L. var. Nanum and Hancornia speciosa Gomes. (author)

  1. Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio França

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (L(Vb among the rural population of a cocoa- producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plant species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae, used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - Chenopodiaceae 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solatium americanum - Solanaceae (25% and transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae. 2%.Este trabalho relata as plantas usadas no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea, causada por Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (L(Vb, na população rural da faixa litorânea produtora de cacau do estado da Bahia, Brasil. Um inquérito realizado entre 100 pacientes, identificou 49 espécies de plantas usadas para tratar úlceras de pele causadas por esta espécie de Leishmânia. As principais plantas usadas foram o cajueiro-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae usado por 65% da população, a folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae 39%, a alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae 33%, o mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - henopodiaceae 31%, a erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum - Solanaceae 25% e a transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae 2%.

  2. Characteristics of postharvest quality in regional fruits treate with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Josenilda M.; Villar, Heldio P.; Correia, Lidia C.S.A.; Maciel, Maria Ines S.

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of irradiation on the main characteristics of quality postharvest of three cultivated species of the Northeast Region of Brazil, experiments with cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. var. Nanum), sapodilla (Manilkara sapodilla (L) Van Royen) and mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes) have been performed. Cashew peduncles stored for fourteen days under 6.5 deg C had presented best results in the sensorial analyses for external appearance, flavour and aroma when irradiated with 1 kGy. sapodillas irradiated with doses of 300, 600 and 900 Gy have not displayed harmed sensorial qualities when stored under 20 deg C during twelve days. Doses up to 800 Gy had not harmed the external and internal appearance of mangabas after being stored for a fortnight under 13 deg C. Chemical characteristics of TSS, TTA, pH and solid/acidity ratio have not been affected significantly by the different doses applied to the three studied species. Amount of ascorbic acid was lower in the irradiated fruits, with significant differences for the species Anacardium occidentale L. var. Nanum and Hancornia speciosa Gomes. (author)

  3. Attractiveness of Host Plant Volatile Extracts to the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri, is Reduced by Terpenoids from the Non-Host Cashew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancelli, Marilene; Borges, Miguel; Laumann, Raul A; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A; Blassioli-Moraes, Maria C

    2018-04-01

    Diaphorina citri is a vector of the bacterial causative agent of Huanglongbing (HLB = Citrus greening), a severe disease affecting citrus crops. As there is no known control for HLB, manipulating insect behaviour through deployment of semiochemicals offers a promising opportunity for protecting citrus crops. The behavioural responses of D. citri to plant volatiles, and the identity of these plant volatiles were investigated. Volatiles were collected from host plants Murraya paniculata, Citrus sinensis, C. reshni, C. limettioides, Poncirus trifoliata, and from non-host plants Psidium guajava, Mangifera indica, Anacardium occidentale. In behavioural assays, female D. citri spent more time in the arms containing volatiles from either M. paniculata or C. sinensis compared to the control arms. When D. citri was exposed to volatiles collected from A. occidentale, they preferred the control arm. Volatiles emitted from the other studied plants did not influence the foraging behaviour of D. citri. Chemical analyses of volatile extracts from C. sinensis, M. paniculata, and A. occidentale revealed the presence of the terpenoids (E)-4,8-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triene (DMNT) and (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene (TMTT) in higher amounts in A. occidentale. In further behavioural bioassays, female D. citri spent less time in arms containing a synthetic blend of DMNT and TMTT compared to the control arms. Female D. citri also spent less time in arms containing the synthetic blend in combination with volatile extracts from either M. paniculata or C. sinensis compared to the control arms. Results suggest that higher release of the two terpenoids by A. occidentale make this species unattractive to D. citri, and that the terpenoids could be used in reducing colonisation of citrus plants and therefore HLB infection.

  4. Nitrogen availability, leaf life span and nitrogen conservation mechanisms in leaves of tropical trees Disponibilidade de nitrogênio, longevidade foliar e mecanismos de conservação de nitrogênio em folhas de espécies arbóreas tropicais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Nascimento Corte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Evergreen species of temperate regions are dominant in low-nutrient soils. This feature is attributed to more efficient mechanisms of nutrient economy. Nevertheless, the cashew (Anacardium occidentale- Anacardiaceae, a deciduous species, is native to regions in Brazil with sandy soil, whilst the annatto (Bixa orellana- Bixaceae, classified as an evergreen species native to tropical America, grows spontaneously in regions with more humid soils. Evergreens contain robust leaves that can resist adverse conditions for longer. The physical aspects of the leaves and mechanisms of nutrient economy between the two species were compared, in order to verify whether the deciduous species had more efficient mechanisms that might explain its occurrence in regions of low soil fertility. The mechanisms of nitrogen economy were also compared for the two species at available concentrations of this nutrient. The following were analysed: (i leaf life span, (ii physical leaf characteristics (leaf mass per area, and rupture strain, (iii nitrogenous compounds (nitrogen, chlorophyll, and protein, (iv nitrogen conservation mechanisms (nitrogen resorption efficiency, resorption proficiency, and use efficiency, and (v nitrogen conservation mechanisms under different availability of this mineral. The higher values of leaf mass per area and leaf rupture strain found in A. occidentale were related to its longer leaf life span. A. occidentale showed lower concentrations of nitrogen and protein in the leaves than B. orellana. Under lower nitrogen availability, A. occidentale had higher nitrogen resorption proficiency, nitrogen use efficiency and leaf life span than B. orellana. These characteristics may contribute to the adaptation of this species to sandy soils with low nitrogen content.Perenifólias de clima temperado são dominantes em solos pouco férteis. Essa característica é atribuída a mecanismos mais eficientes de economia de nutrientes. O cajueiro (Anacardium

  5. Inquérito epidemiológico sobre plantas tóxicas das mesoregiões Central e Oeste do Rio Grande do Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Antonio Geraldo Neto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo para determinar as plantas tóxicas incriminadas como de interesse zootécnico em 35 municípios das mesorregiões Central e Oeste do estado do Rio Grande do Norte (RN. Foram entrevistados 180 produtores, 20 médicos veterinários, 12 técnicos agrícolas e 5 agrônomos. Os dados obtidos nas entrevistas foram compilados e analisados com auxílio do programa Epi Info versão 6.04. As plantas tóxicas relatadas pelos entrevistados como causadoras de diversos surtos foram Ipomoea asarifolia, Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Indigofera suffruticosa, Manihot carthaginensis subsp. glaziovii, Amorimia septentrionalis, Tephrosia cinerea, Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil, Marsdenia megalantha, Anacardium occidentale, Cnidoscolus quercifolius, Crotalaria retusa, Froelichia humboldtiana, Ipomoea carnea, Leucaena leucocephala, Manihot esculenta, Mimosa tenuiflora, Nerium oleander, Prosopis juliflora, Ricinus communis, Sorghum bicolor, Sorghum halepense e Urochloa (Brachiaria decumbens.

  6. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Marsaro Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit (Fabaceae, Morus nigra L. (Moraceae, Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae, Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae, Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae, Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae, in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  7. Mass attenuation coefficients of X-rays in different medicinal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morabad, R B [Department of Post-Graduate Studies and Research in Physics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585106, Karnataka (India); Kerur, B.R. [Department of Post-Graduate Studies and Research in Physics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585106, Karnataka (India)], E-mail: kerurbrk@yahoo.com

    2010-02-15

    The mass attenuation coefficients of specific parts of several plants, (fruits, leaves, stem and seeds) often used as medicines in the Indian herbal system, have been measured employing NaI (TI)) detector. The electronic setup used is a NaI (TI) detector, which is coupled to MCA for analysis of the spectrum. A source of {sup 241}Am is used to get X-rays in the energy range 8-32 keV from Cu, Rb, Mo, Ag and Ba targets. In the present study, the measured mass attenuation coefficient of Ocimum sanctum, Catharanthus roseus, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Azadirachta indica, Aegle marmelos, Zingiber officinalis, Emblica officinalis, Anacardium occidentale, Momordica charantia and Syzygium cumini show a linear relation with the energy.

  8. The total antioxidant capacity and fluorescence imaging of selected plant leaves commonly consumed in Brunei Darussalam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watu, Aswani; Metussin, Nurzaidah; Yasin, Hartini M.; Usman, Anwar

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the total antioxidant capacity and fluorescence imaging of several selected plants, namely Centella asiatica, Aidia borneensis and Anacardium occidentale, which are grown and traditionally consumed in Brunei Darussalam. The total antioxidant capacities of aqueous-methanolic infusions of their leaves were measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, and microscopic fluorescence images were measured to identify the fluorescent substances bound in the leaves. We found that the total antioxidant capacity of their infusions is estimated to be 150, 25, 15 folds, respectively, lower compared with that of the standard gallic acid. Accordingly, we demonstrated that the relative antioxidant activity of young and matured leaves agrees with the intensity of red light emission of their fresh leaves upon UV excitation. Thus, this non-invasive spectroscopic method can be potentially utilized to indicate the antioxidants in plant leaves qualitatively.

  9. Oxidation of cashew tree gum exudate polysaccharide with TEMPO reagent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Pablyana L.R.; Maciel, Jeanny S.; Paula, Regina C.M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Sierakowski, Maria Rita [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: judith@dqoi.ufc.br

    2007-07-01

    Cashew gum (CG), an exudate polysaccharide from Anacardium occidentale trees, was oxidized with TEMPO reagent and the product (CGOX) characterized by spectroscopic techniques (FTIR and NMR), chromatographic analyses (HPLC and GPC), viscosity measurements and thermal analysis (TGA). The yield of the reaction product was 96%. The uronic acid content in starting gum (7.2 m%) was increased to 36 m%. The degree of oxidation based on free galactose and glucose units was 68%. NMR data show that oxidation occurred preferentially at primary carbons of galactose units. High degradation degree after oxidation was estimated by the difference on the expected and observed {eta}{sub CGOX}/{eta}{sub CG} ratio. The presence of organic and inorganic impurities in the new polyelectrolyte was detected by TGA. A less thermally stable cashew gum is formed after the oxidation with TEMPO based on initial decomposition temperature and IPDT. (author)

  10. The association between chromaticity, phenolics, carotenoids, and in vitro antioxidant activity of frozen fruit pulp in Brazil: an application of chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Ávila, Suelen; Ito, Vivian; Nogueira, Alessandro; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Haminiuk, Charles Windson Isidoro

    2014-04-01

    A total of 19 Brazilian frozen pulps from the following fruits: açai (Euterpe oleracea), blackberry (Rubus sp.), cajá (Spondias mombin), cashew (Anacardium occidentale), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), coconut (Cocos nucifera), grape (Vitis sp.), graviola (Annona muricata), guava (Psidium guajava), papaya (Carica papaya), peach (Prunus persica), pineapple (Ananas comosus), pineapple and mint (A. comosus and Mentha spicata), red fruits (Rubus sp. and Fragaria sp.), seriguela (Spondias purpurea), strawberry (Fragaria sp.), tamarind (Tamarindus indica), umbu (Spondias tuberosa), and yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) were analyzed in terms of chromaticity, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and in vitro antioxidant activity using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Data were processed using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH and FRAP assays, which showed significant (P antioxidant activity. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Macrofungi in the lateritic scrub jungles of southwestern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Greeshma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A pilot study on macrofungi in scrub jungles (with and without fire-impact in lateritic region of southwestern coast of India was carried out.  Out of 11 species in 10 genera recovered, six and five species were confined to scrub jungle and fire-impacted scrub jungle, respectively.  An ectomycorrhizal Amanita sp. was the most frequent in scrub jungle associated with exotic (Acacia auriculiformis and A. mangium and plantation (Anacardium occidentale trees.  Based on traditional knowledge, it is a highly edible and nutritional delicacy in the coastal regions.  Astraeus odoratus was another common ectomycorrhizal fungus in native trees Hopea ponga, which was recovered from the fire-impacted scrub jungle and is possibly edible.  Edible termite mound mushroom Termitomyces striatus was also common in the fire-impacted scrub jungle.  Chlorophyllum molybdites was the most frequent mushroom in the fire-impacted scrub jungle.  

  12. Reducing losses inflicted by insect pests on cashew, using weaver ants as a biological control agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anato, Florence; Wargui, Rosine; Sinzogan, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cashew (Anacardium occidentale Linnaeus) is the largest agricultural export product in Benin. However, yields and quality are lost due to inefficient pest control. Weaver ants (Oecophylla spp.) may control pests in this crop as they eat and deter pests. In Benin, cashew pest damages......, nut quality and yield were compared among: (i) trees with weaver ant (Oecophylla longinoda Latreille), (ii) trees where weaver ants were fed sugar, (iii) IPM trees with weaver ants combined with GF-120 (a natural insecticide), and (iv) control trees receiving no control measures. RESULTS: Thrips...... damages on nuts were higher than other damage symptoms and significantly lower on control trees compared to other treatments. Percentage of first quality nuts was higher in the control compared to ants treatments, but not different from the IPM-treatment. However, compared to the control treatment, ants...

  13. Oxidation of cashew tree gum exudate polysaccharide with TEMPO reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Pablyana L.R.; Maciel, Jeanny S.; Paula, Regina C.M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A.; Sierakowski, Maria Rita

    2007-01-01

    Cashew gum (CG), an exudate polysaccharide from Anacardium occidentale trees, was oxidized with TEMPO reagent and the product (CGOX) characterized by spectroscopic techniques (FTIR and NMR), chromatographic analyses (HPLC and GPC), viscosity measurements and thermal analysis (TGA). The yield of the reaction product was 96%. The uronic acid content in starting gum (7.2 m%) was increased to 36 m%. The degree of oxidation based on free galactose and glucose units was 68%. NMR data show that oxidation occurred preferentially at primary carbons of galactose units. High degradation degree after oxidation was estimated by the difference on the expected and observed η CGOX /η CG ratio. The presence of organic and inorganic impurities in the new polyelectrolyte was detected by TGA. A less thermally stable cashew gum is formed after the oxidation with TEMPO based on initial decomposition temperature and IPDT. (author)

  14. Bioconversion of hydrolyzed cashew peduncle bagasse for ethanol and xylitol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena L. de Medeiros

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The agro-industrial waste deposited in the environment causes problems in nature that can be solved with the use and generation of bioproducts. Thus, the objective was to study the lignocellulosic fraction of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. peduncle bagasse and fermentation on large scale (8-16 times using the strain Candida guilliermondii CCT-3544 as production agent. According to the obtained results, it can be noted that the dry cashew peduncle bagasse has 21.45% of cellulose, 10.96% of hemicellulose and 35.39% of lignin. During fermentation, C. guilliermondii 3544-CAT was able to grow on medium containing hydrolysate, with maximum cell growth concentration of 3.5 g L-1. The behavior of the sugars in the fermentation process was similar in the different variables, with maximum production of ethanol and xylitol at 48 h of fermentation.

  15. Identification and pest status of Holopothrips fulvus (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae on dwarf-cashew crops in northeastern Brazil

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    Maria G.A. Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract Cashew, Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae, is one of the most important sources of agricultural income in northeastern Brazil, but many of the arthropods associated with the crop have yet to be identified. We describe here for the first time the damage caused by Holopothrips fulvus (Morgan (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae to dwarf-cashew trees cultivated in the municipality of Pacajús, Ceará, Brazil. Leaf tissue injuries were caused by the sucking mouthparts of the insect and were characterized by dark necrotic spots on the epidermis that resulted in yellowing, wilting and, ultimately, abscission of the leaves. H. fulvus also fed on developing kernels and pseudofruits producing injuries that manifested in the form of chlorotic specks. Additional information is given on the pest status and important aspects of the morphology of the insect, including sexual dimorphism, redescription of the adults and description of the second instar larvae.

  16. Mass attenuation coefficients of X-rays in different medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morabad, R.B.; Kerur, B.R.

    2010-01-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients of specific parts of several plants, (fruits, leaves, stem and seeds) often used as medicines in the Indian herbal system, have been measured employing NaI (TI)) detector. The electronic setup used is a NaI (TI) detector, which is coupled to MCA for analysis of the spectrum. A source of 241 Am is used to get X-rays in the energy range 8-32 keV from Cu, Rb, Mo, Ag and Ba targets. In the present study, the measured mass attenuation coefficient of Ocimum sanctum, Catharanthus roseus, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Azadirachta indica, Aegle marmelos, Zingiber officinalis, Emblica officinalis, Anacardium occidentale, Momordica charantia and Syzygium cumini show a linear relation with the energy.

  17. Storage stability of cashew apple juice preserved by hot fill and aseptic processes Estabilidade do suco de caju preservado pelo método ''hot fill'' e processo asséptico

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    Maria Cecília Oliveira Costa

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. apples from Pacajus, Ceará State, Brazil, were processed into high pulp content juice. The juice was packed either by hot fill or an aseptic process and evaluated for physical, physical-chemical, and sensorial changes during a 12-month storage period at room temperature. The results indicated that pH, soluble solids, total acidity, total sugar content and color did not change significantly during storage nor were affected by the type of filling. The sensorial analysis showed that juice acceptance remained high throughout the storage period regardless of the filling system. Differences in juice viscosity persisted between both processes.Pedúnculos de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. de Pacajus, Estado do Ceará, Brasil, foram processados na forma de suco com alto teor de polpa. O suco foi acondicionado através do processo hot fill ou asséptico e verificada as alterações físicas, físico-químicas e sensoriais durante armazenagem por doze meses à temperatura ambiente. Os resultados indicaram que pH, sólidos solúveis, acidez total, conteúdo de açúcar e cor não mudaram de modo significativo durante a armazenagem nem foram afetadas pelo modo de acondicionamento. Análise sensorial mostrou que a aceitação do suco foi mantida alta durante o período de armazenagem a despeito do sistema de enchimento. Diferenças na viscosidade dos sucos persistiram entre ambos processos.

  18. Exposure to Anacardiaceae Volatile Oils and Their Constituents Induces Lipid Peroxidation within Food-Borne Bacteria Cells

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    Ricardo M. Montanari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the volatile oils from five Anacardiaceae species and their activities against Gram positive and negative bacteria were assessed. The peroxidative damage within bacterial cell membranes was determined through the breakdown product malondialdehyde (MDA. The major constituents in Anacardium humile leaves oil were (E-caryophyllene (31.0% and α-pinene (22.0%, and in Anacardium occidentale oil they were (E-caryophyllene (15.4% and germacrene-D (11.5%. Volatile oil from Astronium fraxinifolium leaves were dominated by (E-β-ocimene (44.1% and α-terpinolene (15.2%, whilst the oil from Myracrodruon urundeuva contained an abundance of δ-3-carene (78.8%. However, Schinus terebinthifolius leaves oil collected in March and July presented different chemical compositions. The oils from all species, except the one from A. occidentale, exhibited varying levels of antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. Oil extracted in July from S. terebinthifolius was more active against all bacterial strains than the corresponding oil extracted in March. The high antibacterial activity of the M. urundeuva oil could be ascribed to its high δ-3-carene content. The amounts of MDA generated within bacterial cells indicate that the volatile oils induce lipid peroxidation. The results suggest that one putative mechanism of antibacterial action of these volatile oils is pro-oxidant damage within bacterial cell membrane explaining in part their preservative properties.

  19. Charcoal anatomy of Brazilian species. I. Anacardiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Thaís A P; Scheel-Ybert, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Anthracological studies are firmly advancing in the tropics during the last decades. The theoretical and methodological bases of the discipline are well established. Yet, there is a strong demand for comparative reference material, seeking for an improvement in the precision of taxonomic determination, both in palaeoecological and palaeoethnobotanical studies and to help preventing illegal charcoal production. This work presents descriptions of charcoal anatomy of eleven Anacardiaceae species from six genera native to Brazil (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardium parvifolium, Astronium graveolens, Astronium lecointei, Lithrea molleoides, Schinus terebenthifolius, Spondias mombin, Spondias purpurea, Spondias tuberosa, Tapirira guianensis, and Tapirira obtusa). They are characterized by diffuse-porous wood, vessels solitary and in multiples, tyloses and spiral thickenings sometimes present; simple perforation plates, alternate intervessel pits, rounded vessel-ray pits with much reduced borders to apparently simple; parenchyma paratracheal scanty to vasicentric; heterocellular rays, some with radial canals and crystals; septate fibres with simple pits. These results are quite similar to previous wood anatomical descriptions of the same species or genera. Yet, charcoal identification is more effective when unknown samples are compared to charred extant equivalents, instead of to wood slides.

  20. Charcoal anatomy of Brazilian species. I. Anacardiaceae

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    THAÍS A.P. GONÇALVES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anthracological studies are firmly advancing in the tropics during the last decades. The theoretical and methodological bases of the discipline are well established. Yet, there is a strong demand for comparative reference material, seeking for an improvement in the precision of taxonomic determination, both in palaeoecological and palaeoethnobotanical studies and to help preventing illegal charcoal production. This work presents descriptions of charcoal anatomy of eleven Anacardiaceae species from six genera native to Brazil (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardium parvifolium, Astronium graveolens, Astronium lecointei, Lithrea molleoides, Schinus terebenthifolius, Spondias mombin, Spondias purpurea, Spondias tuberosa, Tapirira guianensis, and Tapirira obtusa. They are characterized by diffuse-porous wood, vessels solitary and in multiples, tyloses and spiral thickenings sometimes present; simple perforation plates, alternate intervessel pits, rounded vessel-ray pits with much reduced borders to apparently simple; parenchyma paratracheal scanty to vasicentric; heterocellular rays, some with radial canals and crystals; septate fibres with simple pits. These results are quite similar to previous wood anatomical descriptions of the same species or genera. Yet, charcoal identification is more effective when unknown samples are compared to charred extant equivalents, instead of to wood slides.

  1. Aplicación de un modelo experimental de valoración económica del uso y manejo de la flora colombiana. Estudio de caso: Meliaceae y Anacardiaceae

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    Nydia Johanna Muñoz Castaño

    2006-07-01

    (L. Sleumer (trompillo, Anacardium occidentale L. (marañón, Anacardium giganteum Hancock ex Engler (marañón gigante, Spondias mombin L. (hobo, Camnosperma panamense Standl. (sajo y Astronium graveolens Jacq. (diomate o quiebracha. El modelo y el indicador propuestos integran todos los tópicos que se consideraron partícipes del valor económico de las especies en dos grandes aspectos: el biológico y el biocultural y socioeconómico. El indicador produce un valor aproximado de la especie valorando los aspectos contemplados en el modelo a través de cinco componentes: valor actual de uso, valor actual de importancia cultural, valor actual de los productos y servicios, valor potencial de los productos y servicios y estatus de la información. Con su aplicación en el estudio de caso se determinó a Cedrela odorata como la especie más valiosa.

  2. Plant species used in giardiasis treatment: ethnopharmacology and in vitro evaluation of anti-Giardia activity

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    Vanessa do A. Neiva

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compile the traditional knowledge about plants used for the treatment of giardiasis, and also to carry out experimental research to evaluate the anti-Giardia activity of five species.To reach this objective, 398 interviews were performed using a previously prepared questionnaire, followed by an in vitro evaluation of giardicidal potential of hydroalcoholic leaf extracts of Anacardium occidentale L., Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Passiflora edulis Sims, Psidium guajava L., and Stachytarpheta cayennensis(Rich. Vahl. Among the interviewed people, 55.53% reported the use of plants to treat diarrhea, the most severe symptom of giardiasis. The results indicated 36 species used by this population for these problems. The use of leaves (72.50% of a single plant (64.25% collected from backyards and gardens (44.34% and prepared by decoction were predominant. The majority of the interviewees (85.52% attributed their cure to the use of plants. In the experimental tests, all extracts inhibited the growth of Giardia lambliatrophozoites in different intensities: A. occidentale and P. guajava extracts elicited a moderate activity (250 ≤ IC50 ≤ 500 μg/ml, C. ambrosioides and S. cayennensis extracts evoked a high activity (100 ≤ IC50 ≤ 250 μg/ml, and P. edulis extract showed very high activity (IC50≤ 100 μg/ml. This study shows that an ethnopharmacological approach is useful in the selection of plant materials with potential giardicidal activity.

  3. Registro fósil precuaternario de tetrápodos en los Pirineos occidentales

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    Ana Berreteaga

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de los niveles fosilíferos continentales y marinos del Cretácico Superior y del Terciario de la Región Vasco-Cantabrica (Sinclinorio Subcantábrico y cuencas surpirenaicas adyacentes (Cuenca de Pamplona, Sector Noroccidental de la Depresión del Ebro ha puesto de manifiesto su potencial paleontológico en restos fósiles de vertebrados. Algunos de estos yacimientos son de gran relevancia en el Cretácico final de Europa, incluyendo nuevas especies de tortugas, escamosos, cocodrilos, dinosaurios y mamíferos. En la misma cantera del yacimiento alavés de Zambrana, compuesta principalmente por reptiles y mamíferos, es de gran interés paleontológico y contribuye a un mejor conocimiento de las faunas del Eoceno superior de la Península Ibérica. En Zambrana se ha reconocido hasta la fecha varias nuevas especies de perisodáctilos ecuoideos. En el Neogeno, se han descubierto nuevas localidades del Mioceno (Rambliense, Aragoniense en las Bardenas Reales de Navarra y otras áreas colindantes de la Cuenca del Ebro, que han proporcionado restos de anfibios, escamosos, tortugas, cocodrilos, aves y varios grupos de mamíferos. Por otro lado, una notable variedad de icnofacies de aves y mamíferos ha sido hallada en diferentes afloramientos de los potentes depósitos marinos litorales (Eoceno superior y continentales (Oligoceno-Mioceno inferior de la Alta Navarra.

  4. The Muslim Emigration in Western Anatolia L’émigration musulmane de 1914 en Anatolie occidentale

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    Elçin Macar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Avec les guerres balkaniques, toute la région apprit à connaître un nouveau concept : le nettoyage ethnique. Les États cherchant à homogénéiser leur population le firent de deux manières : par les traités ou par la force. Les statistiques démographiques devinrent ainsi un instrument politique et commença alors « la manipulation ethnique ». Parmi les Chrétiens anatoliens, les Grecs ottomans furent la première cible du CUP qui craignait de perdre « le dernier territoire restant ». Talat Pacha, ministre de l'Intérieur parla aux diplomates allemands de débarrasser le pays « des ennemis de l’intérieur ». Expulsions, terreur et déportations : entre 1912 et 1918, sur les deux rives de l’Égée, près de la moitié des 17,5 millions d’habitants ont été « déplacés ». Le legs le pire de cette période est la tendance des États à croire qu’ils ont le droit d’échanger ou de déporter leurs populations comme du bétail.With the Balkan Wars, the whole region was introduced to a new concept: Ethnic cleansing. States looking to homogenize their population did this in two ways: either by treaty or by force. Population statistics thus became one political instrument and then started the “ethnic engineering”. Among Anatolian Christians, Ottoman Greeks were the first target of the CUP who feared losing the “last remaining territory”. Talat Pasha, Minister of the Interior, talked to German diplomats about ridding the country of “internal enemies”. After expulsions, terrorism and deportations between 1913 and 1918, on both sides of the Aegean, almost half the population of 17.5 million changed places. The era’s worst legacy is the idea that states have a right to exchange or deport their populations like property.

  5. Tecnica e riproducibilità: gli esiti della metafisica occidentale e la nuova dimensione estetica

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    Antonio Martino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractNihilism coincides with the accomplishment of metaphysics which, in turn, culminates in the triumph of the scientific rationality. The essence of metaphysics, in its last accomplishment (nihilism, consists of the oblivion of being, while the essence of nihilism represents the awareness of that oblivious accomplishment. The shadow of the Being (Seiende covers the Being (Sein while the real facts lead the scientific-experimental thought determining, from Galileo on, the supremacy of the experimentally reproducible objectivity as well as of the scientific method on the actually productive subjectivity. The result is the so-called «technological planetary orientation»: lost the sense of the metaphysic question, philosophy comes to the end. In other words, after Nietzsche there is only science/technique. Therefore, how has all that weighed on the aesthetic dimension? The artistic productivity, though reflecting the torment of the human soul, towards the nothing of sensemiraculously tends to make the light of the Being (Sein appear from the shadow of the material Being (Seiende. Every originating artistic shine of the Being (Seinis an aesthetic expression from the pure creative human act which celebrates its own being as a dynamic bond of connections (inter-essewould say evocatively Kierkegaard-Climacus that cannot understand the origin but spread its form. Der Nihilismus entspricht der Erfüllung der Metaphysik, die wiederum im Triumph der wissenschaftlichen Rationalität. Das Wesen der Metaphysik, in seiner extremen Erfüllung (Nihilismus, besteht aus dem Vergessen des Seins und das Wesen des Nihilismus ist das Bewusstsein solcher vergessender Erfüllung. Der Schatten des Seiendes verdeckt das Sein und die Elemente der realen Welt (die Tatsachenlenken das wissenschaftliche, experimentelle Denken, das seit Galileo, die Hegemonieder experimentell reproduzierbaren Objektivität, und der wissenschaftlichen Methode über die effektive Subjektivität auslöst. Das Ergebnis ist die sogenannte „technologische/planetarische Ordnung“: geht der Sinn der metaphysischen Frage verloren, kommt die Philosophie zu einem Ende. Mit anderen Worten, nach Nietzsche gibt es nur Wissenschaft/Technik. Nun, wie hat all dies die ästhetische Dimension beeinflusst? Obwohl die künstlerische Produktivität das Leiden der menschlichen Seele angesichts des Nichts des Sinns wiederspiegelt, so neigt sie doch dazu, das Licht des Seins (wie durch ein Wunder aus dem Schatten des materiellen Seiende sichtbar werden zu lassen. Die Quelleeines jeden künstlerischen Schaffens des Wesens ist die ästhetische Manifestation des reinen kreativen Akt des Menschen, der  das eigeneSein als dynamischen Kern von Beziehungen zelebriert (inter-esse würde Kierkegaard-Climacus sagen der nicht im Stande ist, den Ursprung zu erfassen, sondern nur dessen Formen verbreiten.

  6. Strategie militari e strategie narrative in Tucidide : la Grecia occidentale nella guerra archidamica

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    Ugo Fantasia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available I. Una guerra più complessa delle altreL’altisonante affermazione che leggiamo in apertura della ξυγγραφή, che la guerra di cui Tucidide ha scritto la storia « fu certamente il più grande sconvolgimento che abbia interessato i Greci e una parte dei Barbari e che si sia esteso, per così dire, alla maggior parte dell’umanità » (I, 1, 2, può apparire a prima vista, e in parte sicuramente è, uno degli strumenti retorici di cui Tucidide si serve per dimostrare l’assunto di fondo della archaiologi...

  7. Les transformations de l'image de Saladin dans les sources occidentales

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    Jean Richard

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Le personnage de Salāh al-din Yūsuf, officier kurde au service de Nūr al-dïn devenu maître de l'Égypte puis de Damas et enfin d'Alep, et fondateur de l'empire ayyoubide, a été fort controversé de son vivant avant de devenir pour la postérité « le plus pur des héros de l'Islam ». Pour ses adversaires, les Francs d'Orient, il a de bonne heure suscité leur curiosité, et ceux-ci ont recueilli des informations qu'ils ont utilisées, dès avant 1187, dans un Carmen de Saladino où l'aventurier qu'il était à leurs yeux est présenté sous des traits peu recommandables. Son manque de fidélité envers ses maîtres est particulièrement souligné. Les coups très durs qu'il a portés aux Francs ont été assortis de traits de cruauté ; mais ce sont les manifestations d'un esprit chevaleresque, dont les valeurs étaient communes aux deux camps, qui ont vite retenu l'attention. Le trouvère Ambroise le regarde encore comme un ennemi fort capable de perfidie ; mais le traducteur de Guillaume de Tyr adoucit les remarques du livre qu'il mettait en français pour le rendre plus sympathique. Les textes de caractère épique où il apparaît dans la première moitié du XIIIe siècle (Estoires d'Outremer, Ordene de Chevalerie accentuent ce caractère. Mais c'est dans le second cycle de la croisade qu'on le pare des qualités les plus éminentes qu'on attend d'un chevalier. On lui prête des origines chrétiennes (La fille du comte de Ponthieu et on lui attribue le beau rôle, en insistant sur sa générosité et sur sa bravoure, en lui faisant arbitrer des controverses religieuses, en lui prêtant enfin une aspiration à une mort chrétienne, qui sont bien loin du portrait que faisaient de lui les Francs de la fin du XIIe siècle.

  8. PERIODICIDAD DIURNA DE TRES ESPECIES ENDEMICAS DE MILIPEDOS (ARTHROSPHAERA EN LOS GHATS OCCIDENTALES, INDIA

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    B.S. Kadamannaya

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available   Se evaluó la periodicidad diurna y conducta de tres species endémicas de milipedos pertenecientes al género Arthrosphaera (Sphaerotheriidae (Arthrosphaera dalyi, A. davisoni y A. fumosa en dos plantaciones mixtas (Kadaba y Basrikallu y en un bosque semi-perene (Madikeri durante la estación de monzon. El incremento de las temperaturas del aire (27.44 °C y suelo (26.13 °C indujeron un fase de descanso en A. dalyi en Kadaba. La fase de descanso no fue influenciada por la temperatura en A. davisoni (Basrikallu: aire, 20.5 °C, suelo 19.81 °C y en A. fumosa (Madikeri: aire, 19.69 °C, suelo 19.13 °C debido a las relativamente bajas temperaturas en su habitat. En el patron de conducta diurna, la mayoría de las actividades de Arthrosphaera estan confinadas al crepusculo o noche. Los patrones de conducta diurna de estas tres especies son predichas por diferencias entre localidades geográficas y habitat.

  9. Structures de l'apprentissage dans les pays de l'Europe Occidentale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengrand, Paul

    1982-06-01

    In West European countries, as in most modern societies, learning can be divided into three sectors. Informal education occupies the greatest space, both because of its duration and because it extends into every part of life. It happens in many and various ways and circumstances — from learning the language and socialisation in the family environment to the experiences of retirement and the third age. A large number of factors are involved, particularly married life, family responsibilities, work, the influence of mass media and participation in political activities. It is also the area of self-education. Formal education, dispensed by schools and universities, corrects and guides what is learned in the informal sector. It provides part of the necessary learning in the fields of the arts and of the sciences. However, it falls short so far as the evolution of ideas, morals and social behaviour are concerned. It also only imperfectly fulfils its function of democratization, and because of its concentration on matters intellectual, it does not promote the development of the diverse capacities of the whole person. Nonformal education resembles informal education in that it relates to life, and formal education in its structured character. It is the domain of educational innovation, especially in the context of social relationships. Through the harmonious combination of these three sectors of learning, the principles of a global and integrated lifelong education can be implemented.

  10. Use of fibres obtained from the cashew (Anacardium ocidentale, L and guava (Psidium guayava fruits for enrichment of food products

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    Maria de Fátima O. Matias

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of using the cashew and guava dried bagasse for enrichment of cookies, a study of drying process was done. The physico- chemical characterization included the determination of pH, soluble solids, total acidity, protein, lipids, fiber, ash, moisture and total and reducing sugars. Total coli forms, yeasts and molds counting were the microbiological analyses conducted. Enriched cookies were prepared by adding 5, 10 and 15% (of total weight of dry residues of cashew and guava. Appearance, color, odor, taste and texture were the sensorial attributes evaluated for the enriched and non-enriched cookies. The granulometric analysis defined that more adequate particle to add were between 65 and 100 mesh. The enriched cookies with cashew and guava fibers in 10% e 5%, respectively, showed a high rate of acceptability in relation to flavor.Foi realizado o estudo de secagem dos bagaços de caju e de goiaba, visando sua utilização no enriquecimento de biscoitos. Determinou-se pH; sólidos solúveis, acidez total titulável, proteína, lipídios, fibras, cinzas, umidade e açúcares redutores e redutores totais. Foram realizadas também as contagens de coliformes totais e fecais e de bolores e leveduras. Adicionou-se aos biscoitos bagaços desidratados de caju e goiaba em percentuais de 5, 10 e 15%. Os atributos avaliados nos biscoitos com e sem adição de bagaços desidratados foram aparência, cor, odor, sabor e textura. Os resultados da caracterização físico-química foram coerentes com os da literatura consultada. As partículas retidas das peneiras entre 65 e 100 mesh foram consideradas as mais adequadas a serem incorporadas ao alimento. As formulações com 10% de bagaço desidratado de caju e 5% de bagaço desidratado de goiaba apresentaram os maiores índices de aceitabilidade com relação ao sabor, 84,9% e 81,8%, respectivamente.

  11. Intoxicações por plantas em ruminantes e equídeos no Sertão Paraibano Plant poisonings in ruminants and equidae in the Sertão of Paraiba, Brazil

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    Tales S. Assis

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento das intoxicações por plantas em 20 municípios do Sertão Paraibano, onde foram entrevistados 50 produtores e 11 médicos veterinários. De acordo com o levantamento realizado, Ipomoea asarifolia e Mascagnia rigida são as intoxicações mais importantes. Indigofera suffruticosa, as plantas cianogênicas (Sorghum vulgare, Piptadenia macrocarpa e Manihot spp., Mimosa tenuiflora, Aspidosperma pyrifolium e Crotalaria retusa são plantas importantes como causa de intoxicações na região. Os entrevistados relataram casos esporádicos de intoxicação por Ricinus communis, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Prosopis juliflorae Brachiaria decumbens. Ziziphus joazeiro, Passiflora sp., Caesalpina ferrea e Crescentia cujete foram mencionadas como causa de abortos em ruminantes. Frutos de Crescentia cujete foram administrados a duas cabras prenhes causando mortalidade perinatal e abortos. As cascas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris e Vigna unguiculata e as folhas de Licania rigida (oiticica são associadas à sobrecarga ruminal em bovinos. As frutas de Mangifera indica (mangae Anacardium occidentale (cajú são responsabilizadas por causarem intoxicação etílica. Dalechampia sp. e Croton sp. foram citadas pelos entrevistados como possíveis plantas tóxicas, que ainda não tiveram sua toxicidade comprovada.A survey of plant poisoning in ruminants and equidae was conducted in 20 municipalities of the semiarid region of the Sertão Paraibano. Fifty farmers and 11 veterinary practitioners were interviewed. Ipomoea asarifolia and Mascagnia rigida are the most important poisonous plants in the region. Indigofera suffruticosa, the cianogenic plants (Sorghum vulgare, Piptadenia macrocarpa, and Manihot spp., Mimosa tenuiflora, Aspidosperma pyrifolium and Crotalaria retusa cause also important intoxications in the area. Sporadic outbreaks of poisonings by Ricinus communis, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Prosopis juliflora and Brachiaria

  12. Isotermas de adsorção do pedúnculo seco do caju Adsorption isotherms of the dry cashew apple

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    Siumara R. Alcântara

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A atividade de água constitui um fator importante no processo de fermentação semi-sólida, haja vista sua relação com a quantidade de água disponível ao microrganismo responsável pelo metabolismo do produto, sendo necessário à obtenção de isotermas de sorção para caracterização do substrato. Ante o exposto, objetivou-se a construção das isotermas de adsorção do pedúnculo seco do caju (Anacardium occidentale L. nas temperaturas usuais de fermentação (25, 30, 35 e 40 ºC. Ajustaram-se as isotermas com os modelos de BET, GAB, Oswin, Henderson e Smith. Observou-se que o modelo de GAB apresentou melhor ajuste, de vez que, na faixa de atividade de água que maximiza a biossíntese do microrganismo, para produção de pectinases por Aspergillus niger, a umidade do substrato deve estar acima de 35% b.s.Water activity is a very important factor in a solid state fermentation process due to its relation with the water quantity available to the microorganism that will synthesize the product. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain the sorption isotherms for the characterization of the substrate. The objective of this study is to obtain adsorption isotherms of the dry cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L. at normal temperatures of fermentation process (25, 30, 35 e 40 ºC. Five mathematical models were fitted to the experimental data: BET, GAB, Oswin, Henderson e Smith. The GAB model was better fitted to the product. The isotherms allowed the determination of the appropriate moisture content to obtain the water activities that maximize the biosynthesis of the microorganism for the pectin production by solid state fermentation process. The moisture content of the substrate should be above 35% d.b.

  13. Heterose em cajueiro anão precoce Heterosis in precocious dwarf cashew

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    José Jaime Vasconcelos Cavalcanti

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a heterose no cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L. anão precoce. O experimento foi composto por seis clones parentais (CCP 06, CCP 09, CCP 76, CCP 1001, C1P3 e P399E e 18 combinações híbridas. Utilizou-se delineamento de blocos casualizados, com duas repetições e cinco plantas por parcela. A heterose média foi de 12,09%, 19,38%, 98,01%, 96,97% e -2,11%, respectivamente, para altura da planta, diâmetro da copa, número de castanha por planta, produtividade de castanha e peso médio de castanha, indicando presença de vigor híbrido nos cruzamentos, para todos os caracteres, exceto para peso médio de castanha, demonstrando a importância de sua exploração, com perspectivas de avanços genéticos sobre caracteres da cultura do caju. A conseqüência seria a obtenção de clones comerciais com características de produção desejáveis e a formação de populações-base para o programa de melhoramento populacional. Os híbridos CCP 06 x C1P3, CCP 09 x P399E e CCP 09 x CCP 06 são os mais promissores.The objective of this work was to evaluate the heterosis in dwarf cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.. The experiment had six parent clones (CCP 06, CCP 09, CCP 76, CCP 1001, C1P3, and P399E and 18 hybrid plants. A randomized complete block experimental design with two replications and five plants per plot was used. The average heterosis was 12%, 19%, 98%, 97%, and -2%, for the parent clones, based on the traits plant height, canopy diameter, number of nuts per plant, nut yield, and nut weight. It should be pointed out the presence of hybrid vigor in all crosses for all traits, except nut weight. This stresses the importance of hybrid vigor exploration, with perspectives of significant genetic improvement of the cashew culture, by obtaining superior commercial clones and establishing base-populations for the population breeding program. The hybrid combinations CCP 06 x C1P3, CCP 09 x P399E

  14. Influência de porta-enxertos na resistência de mudas de cajueiro ao estresse salino Influence of rootstocks on the resistance of cashew plantlets to salt stress

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    Sérgio Luiz Ferreira-Silva

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de porta-enxertos na resistência de mudas de cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L. à salinidade. As mudas foram obtidas pela enxertia do clone BRS 226 sobre os porta-enxertos CAPI 4, CCP 09 e BRS 226. Foram expostas a meio hidropônico sem NaCl (controle ou com NaCl 200 mM (tratamento salino, sob condições controladas de temperatura, umidade e luminosidade, durante 12 dias. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3x2 (três combinações de enxerto/porta-enxerto e duas concentrações de NaCl, com quatro repetições. Foram determinados a concentração de Na+, Cl-, K+ e solutos orgânicos e os sintomas visuais de toxicidade nas folhas. Os conteúdos de Na+ e Cl-, a relação K+/Na+ e as concentrações de aminoácidos e de prolina livres nas folhas tiveram relação direta com os sintomas visuais de toxicidade. Os porta-enxertos CAPI 4, CCP 09 e BRS 226 foram classificados como sensível, intermediário e resistente à salinidade elevada, respectivamente. Essa variação foi decorrente da influência do porta-enxerto na partição do Na+ e do Cl-.The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. rootstocks on salt resistance in grafted plantlets. The plantlets were obtained by grafting the BRS 226 scion on CAPI 4, CCP 09 and BRS 226 rootstocks, and were exposed to nutrient solution without NaCl (control or with 200 mM NaCl (salt treatment in hydroponics under controlled temperature, humidity, and luminosity conditions during 12 days. The experimental design was a completely randomized in factorial arrangement 3x2 (three scion/rootstock combinations, two NaCl concentrations with four replicates. Na+, Cl-, K+ and organic solute concentrations and toxicity symptoms on leaves were determined. Na+ and Cl- contents, the K+/Na+ ratio and the free amino acid and proline concentrations in leaves were directly related to the visual

  15. Aspectos florísticos da vegetação de restinga no litoral de Pernambuco Floristics aspects of restinga vegetation in the coast of Pernambuco - Brazil

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    Ana Cláudia Sacramento

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As zonas costeiras acolhem quadros de alta riqueza e relevância ecológica que as qualificam como importante ecossistema para conservação. O objetivo deste estudo foi listar as espécies que compõem a restinga da praia do Paiva e descrever a sua fisionomia. A área de restinga compreende 147 ha, situa-se no Município do Cabo de Santo Agostinho, PE, sob as coordenadas 08º07'30"S e 35º00'55"W. As coletas florísticas foram realizadas durante 28 meses, em todos os estratos. O solo foi classificado como Neossolo Quartzarênico; foram determinadas duas fisionomias: a floresta não-inundável e o fruticeto aberto não-inundável. Foram listadas 124 espécies, distribuídas em 103 gêneros e 55 famílias. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Myrtaceae, com 11 espécies, Cyperaceae (10, Fabaceae (8, Euphorbiaceae (7, Rubiaceae (6 e Asteraceae (5. As espécies Anacardium occidentale, Tapirira guianensis, Chamaecrista ramosa, Protium heptaphyllum, Byrsonima sericea, Myrcia rotundifolia e Marlierea schotti são encontradas na maioria das restingas do Nordeste. No entanto, devido à incipiência dos estudos na Região não foram verificadas espécies endêmicas.The high biodiversity and richness of the coastal zone make it an important ecosystem to be preserved. The aim of this study is to list the species composition of the restinga area (147 ha. of Paiva beach, in Cabo de Santo Agostinho-Pernambuco (08º07'30"S and 35º00'55"W and describe the physiognomies. Floristic survey was carried out for 28 months for all strata. The soil was classified as Quartzarenic Neosoil and two physiognomies were determined: unflooded forest and unflooded open shrubby vegetation. One hundred-twenty-four species were recorded, distributed in 103 genera and 55 families. The families with the highest number of species were: Myrtaceae (11, Cyperaceae (10, Fabaceae (8, Euphorbiaceae (7, Rubiaceae (6 and Asteraceae (5. Anacardium occidentale, Byrsonima sericea

  16. Indol-butyric acid levels on cashew cloning by air-layering process Níveis de ácido indolbutírico na clonagem do cajueiro pelo processo de mergulhia aérea

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    Rodrigo Luiz Lopes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the possibility of cashew (Anacardium occidentale cloning by air-layering and influence of IBA (indol-butyric acid on this process. It was adopted a completely randomized design with 4 treatments, 10 air layers each and 4 replications, reaching 160 air layers. The IBA levels on the treatments were, as follow: 0, 1000, 3000 and 5000 mg.kg-1. It was evaluated: survival, callus and rooting percentage, average number and length of roots. The highest survival rate (67.5% was registered with no growth regulator and IBA at 1000 mg.kg-1, while the best rooting percentage (82% referred to 1000 mg.kg-1. In spite of average number and length of roots, the highest results were observed with IBA at 5000 mg.kg-1. IBA concentrations had no influence on cashew air-layering formation.Um estudo foi conduzido com a finalidade de determinar a possibilidade de clonagem do cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale por alporquia e a influência do AIB (ácido indolbutírico nesse processo. Adotou-se delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com 4 tratamentos, 10 alporques por parcela, repetidos por 4 vezes, num total de 160 alporques. Os tratamentos constaram das concentrações de AIB: 0 (testemunha, 1.000, 3.000 e 5.000 mg.kg-1. Foram avaliadas as percentagens de sobrevivência, calejamento e enraizamento, bem como número e comprimento médio de raízes. A maior percentagem de sobrevivência (67,5% foi observada para a testemunha e concentração de 1.000 mg.kg-1, enquanto a melhor percentagem de enraizamento (82% foi relacionada com o nível de 1.000 mg.kg-1. Para o número e comprimento médio de raízes, os melhores resultados foram concernentes à dose de 5.000 mg.kg-1. Não houve influência do AIB na clonagem do cajueiro por alporquia.

  17. Development of Bottom Oil Recovery Systems. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    ahead of the filtration process. Stage 6 Disposal: Collection of oil , oiled debris, and decontaminated sand/sediments. 7 NET ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFIT......Sea HFO / 10.7 X 1983 T/V Hanon Jade Yosu, South Korea Heavy Arabian Crude Oil X (salt) ( burn residue) 1984 T/V Alvenus Louisiana Merey

  18. Descentramiento de fuentes escritas occidentales: hipótesis desde el género y los procesos educativos.

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    Suzy Bermúdez Q.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La escritura alfabética de origen judeocristiano, como cualquier otra herramienta de construcción y transmisión de conocimiento, forma parte de marcos socio-culturales y espacio-temporales específicos. En el caso de Occidente, por siglos, ha sido más utilizada en ámbitos masculinos hegemónicos. El artículo plantea que si bien los estudios feministas letrados, en disciplinas como la historia, han realizado invaluables aportes en la recuperación del ayer de las mujeres, es pertinente revisar las tecnologías a partir de las cuales se apoya su labor. Lo anterior, por cuanto tales tecnologías parecen estar tañidas por perspectivas androcéntricas y antropocéntricas. Argumenta igualmente que las fuentes no escritas no sólo son de importancia para las/os no letradas/os, sino para visibilizar, desde ópticas más femeninas y menos eurocéntricas, el cotidiano iletrado de los sectores hegemónicos.

  19. Impact of temperature on performance in two species of South African dwarf chameleon, Bradypodion pumilum and B. occidentale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, Marion; Tolley, Krystal A; Vanhooydonck, Bieke; Measey, G John; Herrel, Anthony

    2013-10-15

    Temperature is an extrinsic factor that influences reptile behavior because of its impact on reptile physiology. Understanding the impact of temperature on performance traits is important as it may affect the ecology and fitness of ectothermic animals such as reptiles. Here, we examined the temperature dependence of performance in two species of South African dwarf chameleon (Bradypodion): one adapted to a semi-arid environment and one to a mesic environment. Ecologically relevant performance traits were tested at different temperatures to evaluate their thermal dependence, and temperature-performance breadths for 80% and 90% of each performance trait were calculated. Our results show distinct differences in the thermal dependence of speed- versus force-related performance traits. Moreover, our results show that the semi-arid species is better adapted to higher temperatures and as such has a better chance of coping with the predicted increases in environmental temperature. The mesic area-adapted species seems to be more sensitive to an increase in temperature and could therefore potentially be threatened by the predicted future climate change. However, further studies investigating the potential for acclimation in chameleons are needed to better understand how animals may respond to future climate change.

  20. Etica, filosofia e mediazione linguistica: dall’Etica della filosofia occidentale al codice deontologico della mediazione linguistica

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    Mette Rudvin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – Over the last few years, the issue of professional ethics has received much attention in the field of interpreting and translation, and in particular in the field of Community Interpreting (CI or Public Service Interpreting (PSI. (In this chapter we will refer to CI or PSI in Italian as ‘Mediazione Linguistica’. Today, ‘ethics’ figures prominently in the literature, in international conferences, in interpreting courses, in translation/interpreting mailing lists as well as in the working lives of professional interpreters. As an object of theoretical inquiry (meta-ethics as well as a guide for human conduct (normative ethics, ethics has been a prime focus of Western moral philosophy since the time of the Ancient Greeks. This chapter situates the main ethical tenets of the CI/PSI interpreting profession within the framework of the main principles of moral philosophy, namely notions of ‘good’, ‘virtue’, ‘duty’, ‘responsibility’, ‘utility’ and ‘consequence of actions’. The three principal ethical tenets of CI/PSI discussed in this chapter, Accuracy, Impartiality and Confidentiality, were identified on the basis of a general literature review and more specifically from a variegated (and to some degree representative sample of CI/PSI Codes of Ethics. The chapter argues that there is an underlying connection between the principal tenets of moral philosophy and those of the interpreting profession (which mirror similar ethical principles in other professions. The tenet of Accuracy could be seen as a ‘contract’ between interpreter and client, interpreter and source, interpreter and text/translation process/profession. The chapter situates the interpreter’s sense of duty and responsibility towards this tenet at an individual and collective level, within the Kantian tradition of Duty. The other two tenets – impartiality and confidentiality – safeguard the interpreter’s conduct towards the source (author/speaker, professional community and institution as well as towards the receiver (reader/listener.

  1. Mangiare alla greca a Spina. Vasi, ricette e culture nel Mediterraneo occidentale tra VI e III secolo BCE

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    Lorenzo Zamboni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cooking is the vital process of rendering potential foodstuffs edible, accessible and appropriate both in biological and in socio-cultural terms. Despite being too long neglected in archaeological studies, the food production processes have left remains that make up a very large part of the archaeological record. The aim of this paper is to outline a scenario of the Greek-style cooking vessels found along the western Mediterranean coasts between the Archaic and the Hellenistic period, namely within the main Etruscan and Greek ports of trade and wrecks, in order to highlight the cultural impact and the developments of this crucial aspect in the cultural and social life. The main objects of the research is a particular cooking ware produced in Greece between the sixth century BCE and the Romanization, widespread all around the Mediterranean sea, consisting of handy and refractory vessels (named for example chytra, kakkabe, lopas, thyeia etc.. The case-study is the Adriatic hub of Spina (near Comacchio, Ferrara, founded by the Etruscans at the end of the 6th century BCE, and one of the main economic partners of Athens during the 5th until the middle 4th BCE. Ongoing multidisciplinary projects are trying to return the complex interaction between the local (i.e ‘etruscan’ culinary habits and the Greek culture, in terms of availability, preferences, economic choices, trough the adoption of multiple investigation methodologies including archaeology, archaeometry, archaeozoology, archaeobotany, biochemistry.

  2. Leggere i Classici in Oriente. Il mito della letteratura occidentale in Dai Sijie, Murakami Haruki, Azar Nafisi

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    Niccolò Scaffai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on three recent literary works (fiction and non-fiction novels written by authors of Asiatic origins: the French-speaking Chinese writer, Dai Sijie, the Iranian professor, Azar Nafisi, and the Japanese writer, Murakami Haruki. In the titles of these international bestsellers (Balzac and the Little Chinese Seamstress, Reading Lolita in Tehran, and Kafka on the Shore, we find an oxymoron: the name of a famous, canonical Western writer or character is used in an unusual context, linked to the geography of the near or far East. The consequent effect of estrangement can restore strength to literature, perhaps with greater determination than is possible in Western cultures. By using (and reversing the coordinates of Edward Said’s idea of Orientalism and, as in Kafka on the Shore, certain concepts of the Lacanian theory, this study analyzes the transfer of the European literary myths towards Eastern cultures.

  3. Emplazamiento hacia el ENE del manto de Los Reales (Alpujarrides occidentales: criterios estructurales y de petrofábrica

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    Tubía, J. M.

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available Los Reales nappe rests over Ojén nappe to the North of Sierra Alpujata. The nappe contact zone shows a intense plastic deformation with mylonitic rocks, The deformation decreases progressively going away from the contacto The structural study of footwall and hangingwall roen permits to attribute this deformation to the Los Reales nappe emplacement over that of Ojén. The foliation and stretching lineation distributions show a WSW-ENE shear direction. The mylonite microstructural characteristics and the enstatite crystalline preferred orientations in the basal peridotites give a mear sense in according that, Los Reales nappe is displaced, in their present position, from the WSW towards the ENE.

    El manto de Los Reales descansa sobre el manto de Ojén, al norte de Sierra Alpujata. La zona de contacto entre mantos exhibe una intensa deformación plástica con rocas miloníticas; la deformación disminuye progresivamente al alejarse del contacto. El estudio estructural de las rocas infra y suprayacentes al contacto permite atribuir esta deformación al emplazamiento del manto de Los Reales sobre el de Ojén. , Las distribuciones de la foliación y de la lineación, de estiramiento indican una dirección de cizallamiento WSW-ENE. Las características microestructurales de las milonitas y las orientaciones preferentes cristalinas de la enstatita en las peridotitas basales proporcionan un sentido de cizallamiento tal que el manto de Los Reales se ha desplazado, en su posición actual, desde el WSW hacia el ENE.

  4. VIABILIDADE TÉCNICA DOS TANINOS DE QUATRO ESPÉCIES FLORESTAIS DE OCORRÊNCIA NO SEMI-ÁRIDO BRASILEIRO NO CURTIMENTO DE PELES

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    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable tannins are found in several forest species. Actually, the Northeast Brazilian tanners have, on Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil, their only source of vegetable tannins. This study aimed to evaluate the tanning capacity of tannins extracted from four vegetable species of Brazilian Semi-arid region, seeking to make possible the diversification of species to be used in tannings in the region. Thus, physical and mechanical characteristics of bovid treated skins with extract tannic of Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil, Anacardium occidentale, Mimosa tenuiflora and Mimosa arenosa were analyzed. The bovid skins were tanned with extracted tannins of those species and compared to tanned skins by tannins of Acacia mearnsii (“Seta Natur” commercial tannin. The samples of tanned skins were submitted to tension, lengthening and progressive tear resistance tests. Good results were verified to tanned skins by Mimosa tenuiflora and Mimosa arenosa. Due to the abundance of these species in Brazilian Semi-arid region, they showed potential to exploration of tannins. However, researches are necessaries to indicate the best forms of application of obtained tannins.

  5. Host Plant and Leaf-Age Preference of Luprops tristis (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Lagriinae: Lupropini: A Home Invading Nuisance Pest in Rubber Plantation Belts

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    Sabu K. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive seasonal invasion by the litter-dwelling beetle Luprops tristis, into residential buildings prior to monsoon rains, and their prolonged state of dormancy render them a very serious nuisance pest in rubber plantations in the Western Ghats in southern India. Feeding preferences of L. tristis towards leaf litter of seven trees co-occurring in rubber plantations, cashew (Anacardium occidentale, mango (Mangifera indica, jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus, wild jack (Artocarpus hirsutus, cocoa (Theobroma cacao, cassia (Cassia fistula, sapota (Manilkara zapota and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis were analyzed with no-choice and multiple-choice leaf disc tests. Results showed that L. tristis is a generalist feeder with a defined pattern of preference, with the leaf litter of rubber being the most preferred followed by those of jackfruit and cocoa. Tender leaves were preferred over mature leaves except for cocoa and sapota. Equal preference towards tender and mature cocoa leaves, presence of patches of cocoa plantations and the scarce distribution of other host plants in rubber plantation belts leads to the proposal that in the absence of tender and mature rubber leaves, cocoa becomes the major host plant of L. tristis.

  6. Traditional pattern of cashew cultivation : A lesson from Sumenep-Madura, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadid, Nurul; Sutikno, Dewi, Dyah Santhi; Nurhidayati, Tutik; Abdulgani, Nurlita; Muzaki, Farid Kamal; Arraniry, Byan Arasyi; Mardika, Rizal Kharisma; Rakhman, R. Yuvita

    2017-11-01

    Belonging to the Anacardiaceae family, the cashew tree (Anacardium Occidentale, Linn.) is one of the important tropical plants that possess high economic value. This plant is commonly grown in Indonesian regions including Sumenep, Madura, where the red sandy loam type of soil is commonly present. This study aims to obtain rough data on the pattern of cashew cultivation and identify the cashew cultivation knowledge of local communities. Data were taken in Bringin village, Sumenep-Madura. Our field survey showed that the cashew's cultivation pattern in this village applies the so-called traditional organic farming. Cashew trees are planted along the boundaries of the owner's farm field, functioning as a fence of their farm. Nevertheless, our survey also indicated that this pattern of cultivation is still below standard of cultivation. The planting distance between the cashew trees with one another is relatively close (< 5 meters), causing the cashew branches to overlap with each other. Moreover, we observed that there was no rejuvenation of old cashew trees. Finally, knowledge of the community about post-harvest processing is limited. Therefore, we suggest that educating the community about good standard cashew cultivation is required to improve productivity as well as the quality of cashew nuts.

  7. Tracking cashew economically important diseases in the West African region using metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Filipa; Romeiras, Maria M.; Figueiredo, Andreia; Sebastiana, Mónica; Baldé, Aladje; Catarino, Luís; Batista, Dora

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, agricultural land-uses in West Africa were marked by dramatic shifts in the coverage of individual crops. Nowadays, cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) is one of the most export-oriented horticulture crops, notably in Guinea-Bissau. Relying heavily on agriculture to increase their income, developing countries have been following a strong trend of moving on from traditional farming systems toward commercial production. Emerging infectious diseases, driven either by adaptation to local conditions or inadvertent importation of plant pathogens, are able to cause tremendous cashew production losses, with economic and social impact of which, in developing countries is often underestimated. Presently, plant genomics with metagenomics as an emergent tool, presents an enormous potential to better characterize diseases by providing extensive knowledge on plant pathogens at a large scale. In this perspective, we address metagenomics as a promising genomic tool to identify cashew fungal associated diseases as well as to discriminate the causal pathogens, aiming at obtaining tools to help design effective strategies for disease control and thus promote the sustainable production of cashew in West African Region. PMID:26175748

  8. FRUIT FLIES AND THEIR PARASITOIDS IN THE FRUIT GROWING REGION OF LIVRAMENTO DE NOSSA SENHORA, BAHIA, WITH RECORDS OF UNPRECEDENTED INTERACTIONS

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    SUZANY AGUIAR LEITE

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Several fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae assume the status of primary pests in fruit trees grown in Brazil, causing direct production losses. The aims of the study were to know aspects of diversity of fruit flies and their parasitoids in the fruit growing region of Livramento de Nossa Senhora, Bahia. Fruit samples were collected from 19 plant species during November/2011 and June/2014. Infestation rates were calculated in pupae.kg-1 of fruit and pupae.fruit-1. The results indicate the occurrence of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann and Neosilba pendula (Bezzi. Plant species Anacardium occidentale, Averrhoa carambola, Carica papaya, Eugenia uniflora, Malpighia emarginata, Mangifera indica var. “Haden”, “Rosa” and “Tommy Atkins”, Opuntia ficus indica, Pereskia bahiensis, Psidium guajava, Spondias lutea, Spondias purpurea and Spondias tuberosa are hosts of fruit flies in the region. Unprecedented bitrophic relationships between P. bahiensis and C. capitata and Anastrepha sp. and between Opuntia ficus indica and C. capitata and A. obliqua were recorded. Unprecedented tritrophic relationship for the state of Bahia Averrhoa carambola and C. capitata and parasitoid of the Pteromalidae Family were also recorded. Tritrophic associations between M. indica var. “Tommy Atkins” and S. purpurea and A. obliqua and Doryctobracon areolatus; and between S. purpurea and A. obliqua and Utetes anastrephae were observed.

  9. Combinatorial treatment with anacardic acid followed by TRAIL augments induction of apoptosis in TRAIL resistant cancer cells by the regulation of p53, MAPK and NFκβ pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsha Raj, M; Yashaswini, B; Rössler, Jochen; Salimath, Bharathi P

    2016-05-01

    TRAIL, an apoptosis inducing cytokine currently in phase II clinical trial, was investigated for its capability to induce apoptosis in six different human tumor cell lines out of which three cell lines showed resistance to TRAIL induced apoptosis. To investigate whether Anacardic acid (A1) an active component of Anacardium occidentale can sensitize the resistant cell lines to TRAIL induced apoptosis, we treated the resistant cells with suboptimal concentration of A1 and showed that it is a potent enhancer of TRAIL induced apoptosis which up-regulates the expression of both DR4 and DR5 receptors, which has been observed in the cellular, protein and mRNA levels. The death receptors upregulation consequent to A1 treatment was corroborated by the activation of p53 as well as phosphorylation of p38 and JNK MAP kinases and concomitant inactivation of NFκβ and ERK signaling cascades. Also, A1 modulated the expression of key apoptotic players like Bax, Bcl-2 and CAD along with the abatement of tumor angiogenesis in vivo in EAT mouse model. Thus, post A1 treatment the TRAIL resistant cells turned into TRAIL sensitive cells. Hence our results demonstrate that A1 can synergize TRAIL induced apoptosis through the upregulation of death receptors and downregulation of anti-apoptotic proteins in cancer context.

  10. Application of Cross-Flow Filtration Technique in Purification and Concentration of Juice from Vietnamese Fruits

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    Huynh Cang Mai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is to offer a 1st insight in the use of membrane process for the purification and concentration of Vietnamese fruit juices: cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale Line., dragon fruit (Cactus hémiépiphytes, pineapple (Ananas comosus, pomelo (Citrus grandis L., and gac aril oil (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.. On a laboratory scale, the effect of different operating parameters such as trans-membrane pressures (TMP, temperature and membrane pore sizes on permeate flux was determined in order to optimize process conditions that would ensure acceptable flux with adequate juice quality. The quality of the samples coming from the ultrafiltration (UF process was evaluated in terms of: total soluble solids (TSS, suspended solids (SS, and vitamin C. For example, the purification process of cashew apple juice by cross-flow filtration was optimized at 0.5 μm membrane pore size, 2.5 bars TMP, and 60 min filtration time. Besides, this technique was applied to enhance carotenoids concentration from gac oil. Optimum conditions for a high permeate flux and a good carotenoids retention are 5 nm, 2 bars, and 40 °C of membrane pore size, TMP, and temperature, respectively. Carotenoids were concentrated higher than that in feeding oil.

  11. Alpha-Amylase Inhibition and Antioxidative Capacity of Some Antidiabetic Plants Used by the Traditional Healers in Southeastern Nigeria

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    Sunday O. Oyedemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome including diabetes mellitus (DM. The inhibition of alpha-amylase is an important therapeutic target in the regulation of postprandial increase of blood glucose in diabetic patients. The present study investigated the alpha-amylase inhibitory and antioxidant potential of selected herbal drugs used in the treatment of DM by the traditional healers in Isiala Mbano and Ikwuano regions of southeastern Nigeria. Antioxidant activity was evaluated in terms of free radical scavenging, reducing power, and total phenolic (TPC and flavonoid content (TFC in consonance with the TLC profiling. The results showed that methanol crude extracts from Anacardium occidentale (AO and Ceiba pentandra (CP recorded higher TPC and TFC, potent free radical scavenging, and efficient reducing power (RP as compared with other plant samples. All the plant extracts exhibited a relative alpha-amylase inhibition apart from Strophanthus hispidus (SH extract with a negative effect. We discovered a mild to weak correlation between alpha-amylase inhibition or antioxidative capacity and the total phenol or flavonoid content. At least in part, the results obtained in this work support the traditional use of certain plant species in the treatment of patients with DM.

  12. Alpha-Amylase Inhibition and Antioxidative Capacity of Some Antidiabetic Plants Used by the Traditional Healers in Southeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedemi, Blessing O.; Ijeh, Ifeoma I.; Ohanyerem, Princemartins E.; Aiyegoro, Olayinka A.

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome including diabetes mellitus (DM). The inhibition of alpha-amylase is an important therapeutic target in the regulation of postprandial increase of blood glucose in diabetic patients. The present study investigated the alpha-amylase inhibitory and antioxidant potential of selected herbal drugs used in the treatment of DM by the traditional healers in Isiala Mbano and Ikwuano regions of southeastern Nigeria. Antioxidant activity was evaluated in terms of free radical scavenging, reducing power, and total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid content (TFC) in consonance with the TLC profiling. The results showed that methanol crude extracts from Anacardium occidentale (AO) and Ceiba pentandra (CP) recorded higher TPC and TFC, potent free radical scavenging, and efficient reducing power (RP) as compared with other plant samples. All the plant extracts exhibited a relative alpha-amylase inhibition apart from Strophanthus hispidus (SH) extract with a negative effect. We discovered a mild to weak correlation between alpha-amylase inhibition or antioxidative capacity and the total phenol or flavonoid content. At least in part, the results obtained in this work support the traditional use of certain plant species in the treatment of patients with DM. PMID:28367491

  13. Effect of Soil Use and Coverage on the Spectral Response of an Oxisol in the VIS-NIR-MIR Region

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    Javier M. Martín-López

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the spectral responses obtained from a Typic Red Hapludox (oxisol were analyzed under different uses and occupations: Ficus elastica cultivation, Citrus + Arachis association cultivation, transitional crops, forest, Mangifera indica, Anacardium occidentale, Elaeis guineensis (18 years, Brachiaria decumbens, Brachiaria brizantha, and Musa × paradisiaca + Zea mays at the La Libertad Research Center in the department of Meta in Colombia (4°04′ North latitude, 73°30′ West longitude, 330 MAMSL. Sampling was performed with four random replicates of the horizon A and B to determine the contents of organic carbon (CO, pH, exchangeable acidity (Ac. I, cation exchange capacity (Cc, P, Ca, Mg, K, Na, sand, lime, and clay and spectral responses were obtained in the visible band (VIS, near infrared (NIR, and infrared (MIR for each sample under laboratory conditions. A comparison was made between the obtained spectra, determining the main changes in soil properties due to their use and coverage. Variation of soil characteristics such as color, organic carbon content, presence of ferrous compounds, sand, silt, and clay content and mineralogy allow the identification of the main spectral changes of soils, demonstrating the importance of the use of reflectance spectroscopy as a tool of comparison and estimation between physical-chemical properties of the soils.

  14. Plants of restricted use indicated by three cultures in Brazil (Caboclo-river dweller, Indian and Quilombola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Eliana

    2007-05-04

    A detailed record of plants cited during ethnopharmacological surveys, suspected of being toxic or of triggering adverse reactions, may be an auxiliary means to pharmacovigilance of phytomedicines, in that it provides greater knowledge of a "bad side" to plant resources in the Brazilian flora. This study describes 57 plant species of restricted use (abortive, contraceptive, contraindicated for pregnancy, prescribed in lesser doses for children and the elderly, to easy delivery, in addition to poisons to humans and animals) as indicated during ethnopharmacological surveys carried out among three cultures in Brazil (Caboclos-river dwellers, inhabitants of the Amazon forest; the Quilombolas, from the pantanal wetlands; the Krahô Indians, living in the cerrado savannahs). These groups of humans possess notions, to a remarkable extent, of the toxicity, contraindications, and interaction among plants. A bibliographical survey in the Pubmed, Web of Science and Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases has shown that 5 out of the 57 species have some toxic properties described up to the present time, they are: Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae), Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul (Moraceae), Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae), Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (Fabaceae), Strychnos pseudoquina A. St.-Hil. (Loganiaceae) and Vernonia brasiliana (L.) Druce (Asteraceae).

  15. Matrix Effect on the Spray Drying Nanoencapsulation of Lippia sidoides Essential Oil in Chitosan-Native Gum Blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Haroldo C B; Oliveira, Erick F; Carneiro, Maria J M; de Paula, Regina C M

    2017-03-01

    Essential oils have many applications in the pharmaceutical, chemical, and food fields, however, their use is limited to the fact that they are very labile, requiring their a priori encapsulation, aiming to preserve their properties.This work reports on the preparation of chitosan-gum nanoparticles loaded with thymol containing Lippia sidoides essential oil, using exudates of Anacardium Occidentale (cashew gum), Sterculia striata (chichá gum), and Anadenanthera macrocarpa trees (angico gum). Nanoparticles were produced by spray drying an emulsion of L. sidoides essential oil and aqueous solution of gums with different chitosan : gum ratios. Samples were characterized by FTIR and UV/VIS spectroscopy, particle size, volume distribution, and zeta potential. The FTIR spectrum showed the main signals of chitosan and the gums. Data obtained revealed that the samples had sizes in the nano range, varying from 17 nm to 800 nm. The zeta potential varied from + 30 mV to - 40 mV. Nanoparticle loading values varied from 6.7 % to 15.6 %, with an average encapsulating efficiency of 62 %, where the samples with high ratios of cashew gum and chichá gum presented high oil loading values. The data revealed that both the chitosan : gum ratio and polysaccharide characteristics play major roles in nanoencapsulation processes. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Thermochemical Properties of Hydrophilic Polymers from Cashew and Khaya Exudates and Their Implications on Drug Delivery

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    Emmanuel O. Olorunsola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of a polymer is essential for determining its suitability for a particular purpose. Thermochemical properties of cashew gum (CSG extracted from exudates of Anacardium occidentale L. and khaya gum (KYG extracted from exudates of Khaya senegalensis were determined and compared with those of acacia gum BP (ACG. The polymers were subjected to different thermal and chemical analyses. Exudates of CSG contained higher amount of hydrophilic polymer. The pH of 2% w/v gum dispersions was in the order KYG < CSG < ACG. Calcium was the predominant ion in CSG while potassium was predominant in KYG. The FTIR spectra of CSG and KYG were similar and slightly different from that of ACG. Acacia and khaya gums exhibited the same thermal behaviour which is different from that of CSG. X-ray diffraction revealed that the three gums are the same type of polymer, the major difference being the concentration of metal ions. This work suggests the application of cashew gum for formulation of basic and oxidizable drugs while using khaya gum for acidic drugs.

  17. Morphometric Analysis of the Developmental Stages and Insecticidal Efficacy of Three Botanical Oils Against Adult Callosobruchus analis

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    Olufemi-Salami Folasade Kemisola

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The developmental stages of Callosobruchus analis were observed under laboratory conditions at 28 ± 2 °C and 72 ± 5% relative humidity. The results showed that female C. analis began to lay eggs within 24 hours and have an oviposition period of 8.50 ± 0.70 days and an average of 13.00 ± 0.50 eggs were laid by individual C. analis throughout their lifetime. The mean developmental periods from egg to larva and larva to pupa were observed to be 8.50 ± 0.79 and 4.50 ± 0.70 days, respectively. The unmated bruchids were observed to have lived longer than the mated bruchids as the unmated bruchids lifespan was on average 10.50 ± 0.81 days, as opposed to 2.50 ± 0.75 days for mated females. Adult male C. analis have an average antenna length of 2.96 ± 0.08 mm which is slightly longer than 2.42 ± 0.12 mm on average for female bruchids. The three botanical oil extracts from Capsicum frutescens, Anacardium occidentale and Xylopia aethiopica used at 10.0% concentration were not effective, as none of them resulted in a mortality rate of 50% when recorded 3 days after treatment.

  18. Vasorelaxation induced by common edible tropical plant extracts in isolated rat aorta and mesenteric vascular bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnie, I; Salleh, M N; Mohamed, S; Head, R J; Abeywardena, M Y

    2004-06-01

    In this study, the vasodilatory actions of nine edible tropical plant extracts were investigated. Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato leaf), Piper betle (betel leaf), Anacardium occidentale (cashew leaf), Gynandropsis gynandra (maman leaf), Carica papaya (papaya leaf), and Mentha arvensis (mint leaf) extracts exhibited more than 50% relaxing effect on aortic ring preparations, while Piper betle and Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass stalk) showed comparable vasorelaxation on isolated perfused mesenteric artery preparation. The vascular effect on the aortic ring preparations were mainly endothelium-dependent, and mediated by nitric oxide (NO) as supported by the inhibition of action in the presence of N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (NOLA), an nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, or by the removal of endothelium. In contrast, vasodilatory actions in resistance vessels (perfused mesenteric vascular beds) appear to involve several biochemical mediators, including NO, prostanoids, and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs). Total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities varied among different extracts and found to be independent of vascular relaxation effects. This study demonstrates that many edible plants common in Asian diets to possess potential health benefits, affording protection at the vascular endothelium level.

  19. Tracking cashew economically important diseases in the West African region using metagenomics

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    Filipa eMonteiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, agricultural land-uses in West Africa were marked by dramatic shifts in the coverage of individual crops. Nowadays, cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. is one of the most export-oriented horticulture crops, notably in Guinea-Bissau. Relying heavily on agriculture to increase their income, developing countries have been following a strong trend of moving on from traditional farming systems towards commercial production. Emerging infectious diseases, driven either by adaptation to local conditions or inadvertent importation of plant pathogens, are able to cause tremendous cashew production losses, with economic and social impact of which, in developing countries is often underestimated. Presently, plant genomics with metagenomics as an emergent tool, presents an enormous potential to better characterize diseases by providing extensive knowledge on plant pathogens at a large scale. In this perspective, we address metagenomics as a promising genomic tool to identify cashew fungal associated diseases as well as to discriminate the causal pathogens, aiming at obtaining tools to help design effective strategies for disease control and thus promote the sustainable production of cashew in West African region.

  20. Description of immatures and mating behavior of Liogenys bidenticeps Moser, 1919 (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Melolonthinae

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    Sérgio Roberto Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Abstract Description of immatures and mating behavior of Liogenys bidenticeps Moser, 1919 (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Melolonthinae. Some species of Melolonthinae are associated with several species of cropped plants, with larvae consuming roots and, in some cases, are considered as crop pests. In some agricultural regions of Brazil, larvae of L. bidenticeps are found associated with cultivated plants, and little information is available about this taxon. This study, aiming at expanding the knowledge about the morphology and behavior of this species, provides the description of immatures and mating behavior of adults. The studies were conducted at the experimental farm of the Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul in Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil, and the adults were collected with light trap and raised in the laboratory. Mating behavior was documented on video both in the field and under laboratory conditions. Descriptions and illustrations of the third instar larva and pupa are presented. Adults have crepuscular flight activity and their copulation lasts an average of 20.25 min, occurring from 19:00 to 22:00 h. On some occasions, females did not accept males for copulation, indicating an active selection of males by females. Field observations demonstrated that adults feed on Brazilian pepper leaves (Schinus terebinthifolius, Anacardiaceae and cashew flowers (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardiaceae, where male and female meet each other and copulation occurs.

  1. Estudo das propriedades do pseudofruto do cajueiro na adsorção de Cr (VI

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    Thiago C. Medeiros

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Study of the cashew properties for Cr (VI adsorptionIn this study, the Cr(VI adsorption properties by cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. were studied in a batch system. The effects of pH (5.0 and 7.0, drying process – S (oven-dried and lyophilized, particle size – P (0.10 – 0.25 and 0.25 – 0.84 mm, mass of adsorbent – m (1.0 and 1.5 g initial chromium concentration – C (500 and 1000 mg L-1 contact time – t (1 and 3 h and stirring rate – v (0 and 150 rpm, on the adsorption process were studied using a fractional factorial design (27-4. Under ideal conditions the efficiency of adsorption of 87.24% for total chromium and 100.00% for Cr (VI were achieved. The maximum adsorption capacity achieved was 11.43 mg/g. The adsorbent was characterized by infrared and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Test reactions performed with Cr(VI in conjunction with the aqueous extract of the adsorbent and pH monitoring during adsorption were carried out to better understand the mechanisms of adsorption. The proposed mechanism consists of two steps: reduction of Cr(VI in solution or at the surface of the adsorbent, and subsequent adsorption of Cr(III by ion exchange or complexation.

  2. Biology, behaviour and functional response of Cydnocoris gilvus Brum. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae a predator of Tea Mosquito Bug (Helopeltis antonii Sign. on cashew in India

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    K.K. Srikumar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Helopeltis spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae are major sucking pests of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. in India. Cydnocoris gilvus Brum. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae is recorded as a potential predator of Helopeltis spp. Biology, mating behaviour and functional response of C. gilvus were studied by rearing in the laboratory (temperature 26-28 0C; relative humidity 89-94 % with wax moth, Galleria mellonella, larvae. Based on laboratory rearing, the fecundity was 56.33 eggs in 8.67 batches per female. The average stadial period was 37.3 days, with a maximum of 11 days for V instar and a minimum of 4.5 days for III instars. C. gilvus took 45.5 days to complete a generation. The innate capacity of natural increase was 0.07 with a gross reproduction of 67.8 females per female. The adult exhibited a pin and jab mode of predation in a sequence of actions. The sequential action of mating comprised arousal (1.32 min, approach (12.30 min, riding over (140.48 min and copulation (85.40 min. The predator responded to increasing prey density by killing more prey than at lower prey densities

  3. Influência da irrigação e do genótipo na produção de castanha em cajueiro-anão-precoce

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    Oliveira Vitor Hugo de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência da irrigação e do genótipo na produção de castanha em cajueiro-anão-precoce (Anacardium occidentale L. durante três anos. Foram estudados três clones (CP 09, CP 76 e CP 1001 e quatro regimes hídricos (testemunha sem irrigação e intervalos de irrigação de um, três e cinco dias. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, em parcelas subsubdivididas, com quatro repetições, com os regimes hídricos nas parcelas, os clones nas subparcelas, cada uma com quatro plantas, e os anos de produção nas subsubparcelas. A quantidade de água aplicada nos três tratamentos irrigados baseou-se na evaporação do tanque classe A. Em relação à produção de castanha, os clones de cajueiro-anão-precoce não apresentaram comportamento diferencial em resposta à irrigação; os clones CP 09 e CP 76 mostraram-se superiores ao CP 1001 quanto à estabilidade de safra; independentemente do regime hídrico estudado, o clone CP 76 mostrou-se menos produtivo do que os clones CP 09 e CP 1001.

  4. Forest remnants enhance wild pollinator visits to cashew flowers and mitigate pollination deficit in NE Brazil

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    Breno Magalhães Freitas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pollination deficit could cause low yields in cashew (Anacardium occidentale and it is possible that deforestation surrounding cashew plantations may prevent effective pollinators from visiting cashew flowers and contribute to this deficit. In the present work, we investigated the proximity effect of small and large forest fragments on the abundance and flower visits by feral Apis mellifera and wild native pollinators to cashew flowers and their interactions with yield in cashew plantations. Cashew nut yield was highest when plantations bordered a small forest fragment and were close to the large forest fragment. Yield from plantations that did not border small forest fragments but were close to the large forest fragment did not differ to yield from plantations at a greater distance to the large forest fragment. Flower visits by wild native pollinators, mainly Trigona spinipes, were negatively affected by distance to the large forest remnant and their numbers were directly correlated to nut yield. The number of A. mellifera visiting cashew flowers did not change significantly with distance to forest fragments, nor was it correlated with yield. We conclude that increasing the number of wild pollinator visits may increase yield, and proximity to large forest fragments are important for this.

  5. Cashew nut shell liquid and formulation: toxicity during the germination of lettuce, tomato seeds and coffee senna and seedling formation

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    Rosemary Matias

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cashew (Anacardium occidentale nut shell liquid (CNSL has been successfully used in trials as an Aedes aegypti larvicide, but little is known about its environmental effects. In this study, the potential effects of CNSL and a CNSL-based phyto-product formulation on the germination and growth of Lactuca sativa (lettuce, Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato and Senna obtusifolia (coffee senna were assessed. The pH of CNSL and the formulation were 6.4 and 6.8, respectively; the electrical conductivities were 2.89 μS cm-1 (CNSL and 2.21 μS cm-1 (formulation, respectively, and both contained anacardic acid (53.2% and degradation products. In bioassays for germination and growth, CNSL (25, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg mL-1, the formulation (100 mg mL-1 and the control were used in a completely randomized design. The results demonstrated the chemical effects of CNSL, which negatively affected the germination and vigor of lettuce and tomato and the vigor of coffee senna; for growth, it negatively influenced both the root and aerial parts of lettuce and tomato, but only the roots of coffee senna. The formulation had negative effects on the vigor of coffee senna and the growth of tomato and lettuce seedlings (roots and aerial parts. The results indicate the phytotoxicity of CNSL and the formulation for the plant species tested.

  6. Acute Renal Failure Induced by Chinese Herbal Medication in Nigeria

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    Effiong Ekong Akpan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional herbal medicine is a global phenomenon especially in the resource poor economy where only the very rich can access orthodox care. These herbal products are associated with complications such as acute renal failure and liver damage with a high incidence of mortalities and morbidities. Acute renal failure from the use of herbal remedies is said to account for about 30–35% of all cases of acute renal failure in Africa. Most of the herbal medications are not usually identified, but some common preparation often used in Nigeria includes “holy water” green water leaves, bark of Mangifera indica (mango, shoot of Anacardium occidentale (cashew, Carica papaya (paw-paw leaves, lime water, Solanum erianthum (Potato tree, and Azadirachta indica (Neem trees. We report a rare case of a young man who developed acute renal failure two days after ingestion of Chinese herb for “body cleansing” and general wellbeing. He had 4 sessions of haemodialysis and recovered kidney function fully after 18 days of admission.

  7. ESPÉCIES FLORESTAIS DE RESTINGAS COMO POTENCIAIS INSTRUMENTOS PARA GESTÃO COSTEIRA E TECNOLOGIA SOCIAL EM CARAVELAS, BAHIA (BRASIL

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    Henrique Machado Dias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Caravelas, located in southern Bahia state, the main vegetation formations are the mangrove forests and ‘restingas’ (sandbanks presenting, the latter, a high degree of degradation. The aim of this paper is to describe the main forest species of these ‘restingas’ and their direct uses associated with the recovery and management of degraded areas and creation of jobs and income, making thus an important tool for integrated coastal zone. For this, elaborate floral listings and field visits were necessary for recognizing the environment. In the selection of species, a literature about the use, management and value of each species were used, and from there, four species with potential for generating jobs and income along of this proposal were recognized: Mangaba ( Hancornia speciosa , Pitanga ( Eugenia uniflora , Mangaba ( Anacardium occidentale and Aroeira ( Schinus terebinthifolius . The first three are associated with the use of its fruit food, serving these ‘aroeiras’ as pepper trees, with a high value on the world market, and cashew, because of its fertile structure. The identification of products provided sustainable use of species and environment and the Non-Timber Forest Products can be strategic in coastal management, making it an instrument to subsidize social inclusion through the creation of jobs and income, under the movement of Social Technology, contributing to reduce the social vulnerability of traditional coastal communities.

  8. Aspectos de biologia floral de cajueiros anão precoce e comum Floral biology aspects of the early dwarf and common cashew

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    Larissa Barbosa de Sousa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da biologia floral é de suma importância para o desenvolvimento da cultura do cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L.. Com relação aos aspectos botânicos, as características morfológicas das flores contribuíram efetivamente para a determinação das espécies do gênero Anacarduim conhecidas. No presente trabalho, objetivou-se estudar a biologia floral dos cajueiros anão precoce e comum. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida na área experimental do Departamento de Fitotecnia, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal do Piauí, em Teresina, PI, avaliando-se nove clones de cajueiro anão ("CAP 14", "Embrapa 09", "Embrapa 50", "Embrapa 51", "Embrapa 76", "Embrapa 183", "Embrapa 189", "FAGA 01", "FAGA 11" e um clone de cajueiro comum ("CCA", utilizando-se quatro panículas por planta, cada uma com orientação norte, sul, leste e oeste. Os tipos varietais, cajueiro comum e anão precoce, apresentam pouca variação para a maioria dos caracteres avaliados. A proporção entre flores hermafroditas e o total de flores, em cajueiro comum, pode levá-lo a uma maior produção de frutos por panícula do que nos clones de cajueiro anão precoce analisados. O número de frutos desenvolvidos é bastante reduzido nos dois tipos varietais. As panículas situadas em diferentes orientações cardeais são semelhantes em todos os clones estudados quanto aos aspectos relacionados à biologia floral do cajueiro.The knowledge of the floral biology is very important for the development of the cashew's culture (Anacardium occidentale L.. In relation to botanical aspects, the morphological characteristics of flowers contributed effective to determination of the well-known species of Anacardium. It was aimed at studing the floral biology of the early dwarf and common cashew. The research was developed in the experimental area of the Department of Fitotecnia, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal do Piauí, in Teresina, PI, and nine

  9. Perfil sensorial e direcionadores de preferência em bebida de caju (Anacardium ocidentale L.) com finalidade dietética, adicionada de psyllium

    OpenAIRE

    Adriane Cherpinski Correa

    2014-01-01

    Resumo: As pessoas que necessitam substituir a sacarose em função da dieta devido a doenças como diabetes, obesidade e hipertensão, ou ainda aquelas pessoas interessadas em manter uma alimentação saudável, podem se beneficiar do gosto doce sem a adição de calorias ou com teor reduzido através da utilização de edulcorantes. A falta de tempo do consumidor para seguir uma alimentação balanceada e saudável tem exigido da indústria alimentos adaptados que possam oferecer mais benefícios em um únic...

  10. Germinação e crescimento inicial de genótipos de cajueiro anão-precoce em condições de salinidade Germination and initial growth of precocious dwarf cashew genotypes under saline conditions

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    Paulo T. Carneiro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados, em casa-de-vegetação, os efeitos de quatro níveis de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação (CEa: 0,7; 1,4; 2,1 e 2,8 dS m-1, a 25 ºC contendo Na:Ca:Mg na proporção equivalente 7:2:1, sobre a germinação e o crescimento inicial, durante 50 dias, de cinco clones de cajueiro anão-precoce (Anacardium occidentale L.: CCP06, CCP09, CCP1001, EMBRAPA50 e EMBRAPA51. O experimento foi conduzido em blocos ao acaso e esquema fatorial 4 x 5, com 4 repetições. Avaliaram-se, também, as variáveis de germinação (dias e percentagens de plântulas emergidas e de crescimento (altura de planta, número de folhas, área foliar e fitomassa de raízes, da parte aérea e total. A maioria das variáveis estudadas foi influenciada pela salinidade da água de irrigação e variou entre clones sem, entretanto, haver efeito interativo desses fatores. Em CEa de 1,48 dS m-1 foi obtida uma produção relativa de 90% da fitomassa total, podendo este valor ser considerado limite de tolerância à salinidade, para o crescimento inicial do cajueiro anão-precoce. Em geral, os clones EMBRAPA51 e CCP1001 foram os de menor e maior desenvolvimento, respectivamente, em todo o período de estudo.The effects of four levels of electrical conductivity of irrigation water (ECw: 0.7; 1.4; 2.1 and 2.8 dS m-1, at 25 ºC, containing Na:Ca:Mg in equivalent proportions of 7:2:1, on germination and initial growth stages of five clones of precocious dwarf cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.: CCP06, CCP09, CCP1001, EMBRAPA50 and EMBRAPA51, during the first 50 days were studied in greenhouse. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design and 4 x 5 factorial scheme with 4 replications. The germination (days and percentage of emergence and growth variables (plant height, number of leaves, leaf area and dry weight of root, shoot and total were evaluated. The majority of variables were found to be influenced by ECw and clones, however no significant

  11. Produção e fisiologia de plantas de cajueiro anão precoce sob condições de sequeiro e irrigado Production and physiology of dwarf cashew plants under rainfed and irrigated conditions

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    Aiala V Amorim

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A exploração do cajueiro sob condições de irrigação tem-se mostrado bastante promissora, especialmente no estado do Ceará, porém a resposta dessa cultura ao regime hídrico depende do genótipo. Objetivouse, com este trabalho, comparar respostas fisiológicas e bioquímicas (teores de solutos orgânicos e inorgânicos e trocas gasosas, tal como a produtividade de plantas de cajueiro anão precoce (Anacardium occidentale L. sob dois regimes hídricos (sequeiro e irrigado. O experimento foi conduzido no Campo Experimental da Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, em Pacajus CE, no período de agosto de 2006 a janeiro de 2007. As plantas foram submetidas a dois tratamentos: um sem irrigação e outro com água de poço com condutividade elétrica (CEa de 0,5 dS m-1. As respostas fisiológicas foram avaliadas mensalmente e os dados de produção foram obtidos no período de novembro a janeiro. Os teores foliares de N-aminossolúveis e prolina foram mais elevados nas plantas cultivadas em condições de sequeiro do que naquelas irrigadas, porém não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos para as trocas gasosas, teores de carboidratos solúveis, K+, Na+ e Cl-. Entretanto, com exceção da fotossíntese, todas as variáveis estudadas apresentaram alterações com as épocas de coleta. Apesar das alterações em algumas variáveis ao longo do experimento, a produtividade das plantas não foi afetada pelo estresse hídrico.The exploitation of cashew under irrigated conditions has been very promising, especially in the state of Ceará, however, the response of this crop to the water regime depends on the genotype. This work attempts to compare the physiological and biochemical responses (content of organic and inorganic solutes and gas exchange and yield of precocious dwarf cashew (Anacardium occidentale L plants under two water regimes (irrigated and rainfed. The experiment was conducted at the experimental field of Embrapa Agroind

  12. Trocas gasosas em folhas de sol e sombreadas de cajueiro anão em diferentes regimes hídricos Gas exchange in leaves of sun and shade of cashew in different water regimes

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    Michella de Albuquerque Lima

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas as variações sazonais nas taxas de trocas gasosas em lâminas foliares, sombreadas e a pleno sol, de cajueiro anão precoce (Anacardium occidentale L., quando submetidas aos regimes de irrigação e de sequeiro. Os clones CCP 76 e BRS 189 foram mensalmente avaliados quanto ao seu desempenho fisiológico em relação à condutância estomática (g s, às taxas transpiratórias (E e fotossintéticas (A, à temperatura foliar e à relação entre as concentrações interna e externa de CO2 (Ci/Ce. O experimento foi conduzido entre setembro de 2006 e agosto de 2007, na estação experimental da Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, localizada no município de Paraipaba, Ceará. As variáveis A, g s, E e Ci/Ce foram afetadas apenas em função da época do ano e dos tipos de folhas. A maior influência nos fatores fisiológicos analisados ocorreu devido às condições em que as folhas estavam submetidas (sol ou sombra e aos fatores meteorológicos e não à supressão da irrigação. Isto, possivelmente porque os resultados aqui obtido estejam mais bem relacionados com as fases fenológicas da cultura do que com os tratamentos, demonstrando assim o conspícuo efeito fisiológico da força dos drenos e da irradiância nessas plantas.In this experiment we analyzed the seasonal variations in gas exchange rates of dwarf cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. when exposed to irrigated and rainfed conditions. Full sun and shaded of clones CCP 76 and BRS 189 were monthly assessed for determination of stomatal conductance (g s, transpiration rate (E and photosynthesis (A, internal and external CO2 (Ci/Ce and leaf temperature. The experiment was carried out between September 2006 and August 2007, at the experimental station of Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, located at Paraipaba County, state of Ceará, Brazil. In general, the variables A, g s, E and Ci/Ce were affected only in terms of time of year and types of leaves. Light influenced the

  13. CHEMICAL AND FERMENTATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF ELEPHANT GRASS ENSILED WITH INCREAS-ING LEVELS OF DENIDRATED CASHEW FRUIT BY-PRODUCT CARACTERÍSTICAS QUÍMICAS E FERMENTATIVAS DO CAPIM-ELEFANTE ENSILADO COM NÍVEIS CRESCENTES DE SUBPRODUTO DA AGROINDÚSTRIA DO CAJU

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    Warley Efrem Campos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Nutritive value of silages of Elephant grass (Pen-nisetum   purpureum, Schum. mixed with 0; 3.5%; 7.0%; 10.5% and 14.0 %  of dehydrated by product from juice industry of cashew fruit (Anacardium occidentale, L (DBC was determined. A randomized design was used with four replicates. Silages were opened after 65 days and samples taken for analysis of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, hemicellulose HCEL, cellulose (CEL, lig-nin (LIG, crude energy (CE, ash, neutral detergent inso-luble nitrogen (NDIN and acid detergent insoluble nitro-gen (ADIN. Were also analyzed, pH, ammonia nitrogen and organic acids (lactic, acetic, butyric and propionic. Regarding fermentative parameters, there was an expected decrease in pH and the increasing levels of DBC did not affect the concentrations of N-NH3/NT and organic acids. It is concluded that dehydrated cashew by product can be ensiled along with Elephant grass without altering its fer-mentative characteristics. On the other side, the increased cell walls and ADIN contents of the silage may affect its nutritional value.

    Key-words: Cashew byproducts, nutritive value, tropical grass.

    O trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de se avaliar o valor nutritivo das silagens de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. com adição de 0%; 3,5%; 7%; 10,% e 14% do subproduto do pseudofruto do caju (Anacardium occidentale, L. desidratado (subproduto da agroindústria do suco de caju. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Após 65 dias, os silos foram abertos e coletadas amostras para determinação dos teores de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, hemicelulose (HCEL, celulose (CEL, lignina (LIG, energia bruta (EB, cinzas, nitrogênio insolúvel em detergente neutro (NIDN e nitrog

  14. Avaliação antimicrobiana de extratos vegetais e possível interação farmacológica in vitro

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    Sarah Carobini Werner de Souza Eller

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A atividade biológica de plantas medicinais tem sido o alvo de intensa investigação científica, constituindo uma importante fonte de novos produtos biologicamente ativos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana interativa, in vitro, de seis extratos vegetais, sendo eles: cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L., barbatimão (Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart. Coville, aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva, favela [Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus (Müll. Arg. Pax & Hoffm L.], fedegoso (Heliotropium indicum L. e quixaba [Sideroxylon obtusifolium (Humb. ex Roem. & Schult. TD Penn.], através do método de difusão em disco, frente às cepas padrão American Type Culture Collection (ATCC: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. Os resultados revelaram que dentre os extratos testados 50% deles apresentaram atividade frente à cepa de S. aureus ATCC 25923. Os extratos ativos foram cajueiro, barbatimão e aroeira. Os demais extratos não apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana frente às cepas em estudo. Quando se avaliou a ação interativa entre os extratos ativos, observou-se interferência antagônica, constatada pela redução dos diâmetros dos halo de inibição de crescimento bacteriano nas associações com os extratos de cajueiro/barbatimão, cajueiro/aroeira e barbatimão/aroeira. De modo que, o uso concomitante extratos vegetais merece um olhar muito cuidadoso pela possibilidade de ocorrer interferências entre eles, reduzindo a potência da atividade antimicrobiana, em relação a sua potência quando utilizados isoladamente.Palavras-chave: Plantas medicinais. Atividade antimicrobiana. Extratos vegetais. Interação. ABSTRACTInteractive study of the antimicrobial activity of plant extractsThe biological activity of medicinal plants has been the subject of intensive scientific research and is an important source of new biologically active products. The aim of this

  15. Woody medicinal plants of the caatinga in the state of Pernambuco (Northeast Brazil Plantas medicinais arbóreas da caatinga no Estado de Pernambuco (Nordeste do Brasil

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    Ana Carolina Oliveira da Silva

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Floristic and phytosociological studies undertaken in six areas of the state of Pernambuco were selected with the aim of analyzing the Relative Importance of the woody medicinal plant species of Pernambuco's caatinga from an ethnobotanical perspective. For the data analysis, only those identified up to the species level were selected and information on medicinal properties was obtained for each one from the literature. The Relative Importance was calculated for each species. From the 57 woody species, 22 had therapeutic indications; from these, Anacardium occidentale L., Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC Standley, Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl., and Myracrodruon urundeuva (Engl. Fr. All. had the greatest values of Relative Importance. The correlation analysis made clear that the Relative Importance of the species is negatively correlated with the Density and Relative Frequency (pCom o objetivo de analisar, a partir de uma perspectiva etnobotânica, a importância relativa das espécies arbóreas medicinais da caatinga pernambucana, foram selecionados trabalhos florísticos e fitossociológicos realizados em seis áreas no Estado de Pernambuco. Para análise dos dados, foram selecionadas apenas as espécies identificadas até o nível de espécie e para cada uma levantou-se informações medicinais disponíveis na literatura. Para cada espécie calculou-se a importância relativa. Das 57 espécies arbóreas, 22 possuem indicação terapêutica, sendo Anacardium occidentale L., Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC Standley, Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl. e Myracrodruon urundeuva (Engl. Fr. All., as espécies com os maiores valores de Importância Relativa. A análise de correlação evidenciou que a importância relativa das espécies encontra-se negativamente correlacionada com a Densidade e Freqüência Relativas (p< 0,05. As espécies mais importantes, do ponto de vista etnobotânico, são também as mais vulneráveis devido à exploração sistem

  16. Adição de extratos de Ginkgo biloba e Panax ginseng em néctares mistos de frutas tropicais Addition of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng extracts to mixed tropical fruit nectars

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    Paulo Henrique Machado de Sousa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou desenvolver formulações de néctares mistos de frutas tropicais, acrescidos de diferentes concentrações de extratos de Ginkgo biloba, Panax ginseng e misturas de Ginkgo biloba e Panax ginseng, avaliar características sensoriais, físico-químicas e químicas dos néctares selecionados. As formulações dos néctares tiveram a seguinte composição de polpa: caju (Anacardium occidentale, 12,25%; manga (Mangifera indica L, 21%; e acerola (Malpighia emarginata D.C., 1,75%. Foram desenvolvidas diferentes formulações, com a adição dos extratos nas concentrações variando de 15 a 30 mg.100 mL-1 de néctar. A avaliação sensorial da impressão global, sabor e aroma foi feita por meio de teste de aceitação. Para as bebidas formuladas com Panax ginseng, somente o atributo sabor apresentou variação com o aumento da concentração do extrato. Para as bebidas acrescidas de Ginkgo biloba, observou-se um decréscimo linear para todos os atributos avaliados com o aumento da concentração do extrato. Para a mistura de extratos, não se observou variação das médias com o aumento da concentração dos extratos. Conclui-se que a adição de extrato de Panax ginseng até a concentração de 20 mg.100 mL-1 de néctar e a mistura dos extratos, em concentrações de 7,5 mg.100 mL-1 de néctar de cada extrato, apresentam boa aceitação sensorial. A adição dos extratos não afetou a composição química dos néctares que apresentaram quantidades elevadas de vitamina C, carotenoides, fenólicos totais e antocianinas.The objectives of this study were to develop formulations of mixed nectars of tropical fruits adding different concentrations of Ginkgo biloba, Panax ginseng, and a mixture of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng extracts and to assess sensory, physicochemical, and chemical characteristics of selected nectars. The nectar formulations had the following pulp composition: cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale, 12.25%, mango

  17. SUKSESI VEGETASI ALAMI DI BEKAS TAMBANG TIMBAH PULAU BANGKA (Succession of Natural Vegetation in Post Tin-Mining Bangka Island

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    Guat Tjhiaw

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK  Penelitian ini mempelajari suksesi vegetasi alami berbagai umur sere di bekas tambang timah Pulau Bangka. Komunitas sere tersebut terdiri dari overburdern 2 bulan, overburden 1 tahun, subsoil 1 tahun, tailing 3 tahun, overburden 20 tahun dan tailing > 20 tahun. Hasil tersebut dibandingkan dengan hutan alam yang belum ditambang. Metode yang digunakan adalah kuadrat plot yang disesuaikan dengan persebaran vegetasi di lokasi dengan ukuran 2m x 4 m, 5m x 5m dan 10m x 20 m serta ulangan berkisar 30-15 kali. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa growthform komunitas sere overburden lebih banyak dibandingan dengan tailing. Vegetasi yang dominan pada sere awal adalah rumput Ischaemum muticum dan Imperata cylindrica. Pada sere selanjutnya didominasi oleh semak Melastoma malbathricum, juga ditemukan familia Leguminosae dan Nepenthes sp sebagai indikator miskinnya hara tanah. Sedangkan seedling pohon terbesar jarang terdiri dari Macaranga sp, Malleuca leucadendron, Schima wallichii, Viotex pubescens, Anacardium occidentale, dan Alstonia schoolaris. Ternyata kehadiran vegetasi merespon pada kandungan hara, terutama bahan organik dan nitrat. Pada komunitas sere overburden 20 tahun, serta tailing > 20 tahun ditemukan introduce species, yaitu Acacia spp. Adanya pohon Dyera costulata (jelutung di hutan alam sebagai indikasi hutan tersebut adalah hutan rawa gambut. Sebaliknya pada hutan alam dengan tekstur tanahnya mirip dengan tekstur tanah pada semua komunitas sere didominasi oleh pohon dan sapling Eugenia palembanica serta seedling Eugenia longiflora.   ABSTRACT Succession of natural vegetation at various seral-stages were studied in post tin-mining Bangka Island. These seral stages were 2 months of overburden, 1 year of tailing, 1 year of subsoil, 3 years of tailing, 10 years of overburden, 10 years of tailing, 20 years of overburden, and 20 years of tailing and were compared to the natural forest. Data were collected based on various growthforms

  18. Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae

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    Anne M. Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Studies on Ceratitis capitata, a world fruit pest, can aid the implementation of control programs by determining the plants with higher vulnerability to attacks and plants able to sustain their population in areas of fly distribution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of eight tropical fruits on the following biological and behavioral parameters of C. capitata: emergence percentage, life cycle duration, adult size, egg production, longevity, fecundity, egg viability, and oviposition acceptance. The fruits tested were: acerola (Malpighia glabra L., cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L., guava (Psidium guajava L., soursop (Annona muricata L., yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L., Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense L., and umbu (Spondias tuberosa L.. The biological parameters were obtained by rearing the recently hatched larvae on each of the fruit kinds. Acceptance of fruits for oviposition experiment was assessed using no-choice tests, as couples were exposed to two pieces of the same fruit. The best performances were obtained with guava, soursop, and star fruit. Larvae reared on cashew and acerola fruits had regular performances. No adults emerged from yellow mombin, Malay apple, or umbu. Fruit species did not affect adult longevity, female fecundity, or egg viability. Guava, soursop, and acerola were preferred for oviposition, followed by star fruit, Malay apple, cashew, and yellow mombin. Oviposition did not occur on umbu. In general, fruits with better larval development were also more accepted for oviposition.Influência de diferentes frutos tropicais em aspectos biológicos e comportamentais da mosca-das-frutas Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Estudos em Ceratitis capitata, uma praga agrícola, pode auxiliar

  19. Redução assimilatória de NO-3 em plantas de cajueiros cultivados em meio salinizado NO-3 assimilatory reduction in cashew plants grown in salinized medium

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    Ricardo A. Viégas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se avaliar os efeitos e mecanismos iniciais da ação da salinidade sobre a redução de NO-3 e a acumulação de solutos nitrogenados, plantas de cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L., CCP - 1001, com 42 dias de idade foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva contendo 100 mmol L-1 de NaCl, durante 8 dias, em casa de vegetação. A transpiração foi o principal fator de regulação da atividade de redutase de NO-3 (RN que foi fortemente reduzida nas folhas. Contrariamente, a atividade de glutamina sintetase (GS aumentou nas folhas em resposta à salinidade. Esta tendência de aumento da atividade de GS nas folhas foi acompanhada pelas concentrações de aminoácidos solúveis totais, particularmente prolina e proteínas solúveis totais. Por outro lado, o aumento nas concentrações das frações orgânicas de N, nas folhas, foi seguido por decréscimos nas concentrações de clorofilas e por acréscimos nas concentrações de NH+4 . É provável que o aumento da atividade de GS nas folhas de plantas de cajueiro, tenha sido induzido por um adicional suprimento de NH+4 e glutamato, a partir do catabolismo de aminoácidos e de proteínas e por aumentos na atividade fotorrespiratória.To evaluate the effects and initial-action mechanism of salinity on NO-3 reduction and N compounds accumulation, 42-day-old Anacardium occidentale (CCP-1001 plants were hydroponically grown in 100 mmol L-1 NaCl for 8 days (short-term experiment, in greenhouse. The results show that reduction in transpiration rates due to salinity had a relevant role in the regulation of NO-3 reductase (NR activity, which decreased considerably in leaf. On the contrary, glutamine sintetase (GS activity increased in leaf due to salinity. The increase in activity of GS in leaf was followed by the soluble amino acids concentration, in particular proline, and by the total soluble proteins content as well. On the other hand, increase in concentration of organic N fractions in

  20. Qualidade de cajus-de-mesa obtidos nos sistemas de produção integrada e convencional Post-harvest quality of the cashew apples gotten in the integrated fruit production and the conventional cropping systems

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    Ana Paula Silva de Andrade

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L. é uma planta de grande importância econômica para o Nordeste brasileiro, pela diversidade de produtos proporcionados pelo fruto e pedúnculo e pela quantidade de empregos gerados. Apesar disso, inexiste uma padronização nos sistemas de produção empregados, com reflexos negativos na produção e qualidade da matéria-prima destinada ao consumo in natura e à indústria. A conversão dos sistemas de produção vigentes para o sistema de produção integrada poderá contribuir para atenuar esse quadro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar os sistemas de produção integrada e convencional para cajueiro-anão precoce quanto à qualidade do pedúnculo. O experimento foi instalado em um pomar comercial, localizado no município de Beberibe (CE, numa área de aproximadamente 1,0 ha, onde foram desenvolvidos os sistemas de Produção Integrada (PI e Convencional (PC. Cada um ocupou uma área de 0,5 ha, separados entre si por uma bordadura composta de cinco fileiras de plantas. No sistema PI, foram aplicadas as práticas recomendadas nas Normas Técnicas de Produção Integrada de Caju. No PC, foram aplicadas as práticas comumente utilizadas pelo produtor. Foram avaliados cor da película, firmeza de polpa, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (AT, teor de vitamina C e pH. Para essas variáveis, foram estimadas médias a partir das 12 amostras obtidas nos dois tratamentos, que foram comparadas, utilizando-se do teste t (PThe cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale L. is a plant of great importance for the Brazilian Northeast Region, due to the diversity of products generated for the fruit and peduncle and the amount of generated jobs. Despite this, there is no standardization in the cropping systems presently used, with negative consequences in the yield and quality of the raw material for consumption and for industry. The conversion of traditional orchards to the integrated fruit production

  1. Caracterização físico-química do mel de abelhas proveniente da florada do cajueiro Physicochemical characterization of the bee honey originating in the cashew flowering

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    Juliana do Nascimento Bendini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivos identificar e caracterizar o mel proveniente da florada do cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L.. O estudo foi realizado a partir de 24 amostras de mel coletadas em apiários distribuídos num cajueiral de aproximadamente 1000 hectares, localizado no município de Cascavel, Estado do Ceará, Brasil. As mesmas foram submetidas a análises melissopalinológicas e físico-químicas (umidade, acidez total, cinzas, açúcares totais, Lund, pH, condutividade elétrica, HMF, atividade de água e densidade. Com base nas análises melissopalinológicas, o mel foi considerado monofloral, proveniente da floradado cajueiro. Os intervalos de variação dos parâmetros físico-químicos analisados foram: 16,5-19,2% (umidade, 22-40meq kg-1 (acidez total, 0,182-0,301% (cinzas, 80,8-83,5% (açúcares totais, 1,0-2,0mL (Lund, 3,48-3,83 (pH, 179-198µS cm-1 (condutividade elétrica, 9,6-30,91mg kg-1 (HMF, 0,62-0,76 (atividade de água e 1,33-1,43g mL-1 (densidade. As análises mostraram que o mel da florada do cajueiro apresenta características físico-químicas dentro dos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação vigente.The present study was aimed at the identification and characterization of the bee honey (Apis mellifera derived from cashew flowers (Anacardium occidentale L.. The study was carried out through the analysis of 24 samples of honey collected from apiaries distributed in a cashew plantation of about 1000 hectares, located in the area around the town of Cascavel, in the state of Ceará, Brazil. The samples were submitted to melissopalinological and physicochemical analysis (humidity, total acidity, ashes, total sugars, Lund, pH, electrical conductivity, HMF, water activity, and density. On the basis of the melissopalinological analysis, the honey was considered unifloral, with its origin traced to the cashew flowering. The variation intervals of the physicochemical parameters under analysis were: 16

  2. Meningo-encefalite equina da Halicephalobus gingivalis: contributo casistico nell’ambito delle attività di sorveglianza della Febbre del Nilo occidentale (West Nile disease

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    Gabriella Di Francesco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Un cavallo di 7 anni è stato abbattuto dopo aver manifestato una grave sindrome neurologica a rapida evoluzione. Campioni tessutali sono stati inviati al Centro Studi Malattie Esotiche dell’Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Abruzzo e del Molise “G. Caporale” (Istituto G. Caporale per gli accertamenti diagnostici del caso. Gli esami per le più comuni virosi neurologiche equine non hanno evidenziato la presenza di infezioni in atto. Istologicamente, si è osservata a livello encefalico la presenza di manicotti perivascolari e numerosi corpi parassitari, morfologicamente riferibili a Halicephalobus gingivalis. Il rinvenimento ha consentito di formulare la diagnosi di meningo-encefalite da H. gingivalis. Il caso riportato conferma che le encefaliti parassitarie devono essere annoverate nella diagnosi differenziale delle encefalopatie equine e sottolinea l’utilità dell’approccio diagnostico multidisciplinare.

  3. Preliminary evidence for a Hercynian age of the Versoyen complex, western Alps; Evidence preliminaire d'un age Hercynian pour le complexe du Versoyen, Alpes occidentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharer, U. [Paris-7 Univ., Lab. de Geochronologie, UMR 7578, 75 (France); Cannic, S.; Lapierre, H. [Universite Joseph-Fourier, Lab. de Geologie des Chaines Alpines, Upres A5025, Institut Dolomieu, Grenoble I, 38 (France)

    2000-03-01

    To date the magmatic event that generated the Versoyen mafic complex, four fractions of zircon from a cross-cutting leuco-gabbro dike, has been analyzed by the U-Pb method, defining a regression line that intercepts the concordia curve at 309 {+-} 6 (2 {sigma}) Ma and 3 240 {+-} 34 Ma. These two ages can be interpreted to date, respectively, emplacement of the leuco-gabbro into the Versoyen complex, and the age of inherited Archean zircon cores, present in the newly formed crystals. The age of 309 Ma suggests that both Versoyen mafic magmatism and subsequent eclogite facies metamorphism belong to the Hercynian, and not the Alpine orogenic cycle. (authors)

  4. First thermo-chronological data; Premieres donnees thermo-chronologiques sur les socles sarde et kabylo-peloritain submerges dans le canal de Sardaigne (Mediterranee occidentale)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouillin, J.P.; Poupeau, G.; Tricart, P.; Bigot-Cormier, F.; Mascle, G. [Grenoble-1 Univ., 38 (France). Laboratoire de geodynamique des chaines alpines; Torelli, L. [Universita degli studi di Parma (Italy). Dept. di Scienze della Terra; Compagnoni, R.; Mascle, J.; Pecher, A.; Peis, D.; Rekhiss, F.; Rolfo, F

    1998-04-01

    Granite and gneiss sampled from the submarine fault scarps of the Sardinia Channel were dated using the apatite fission-track method. One sample provides an age of 22.8 {+-} 1.3 Ma, which is in the range of the cooling ages of the Calabrian-Peloritan basement, where cooling is due to erosion. Three other samples have ages around 10 Ma, probably due to a tectonic denudation during the Tortonian extension in the Sardinia Channel. (authors)

  5. Copépodes, Cladocères et Rotifères du lac Sidi M'hamed Benali (Algérie Nord-Occidentale

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    Mohamed Ali Bouzidi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available En 2008, 33 espèces de Cladocères, Copépodes et Rotifères ont été observées dans le lac Sidi M'hamed Benali (contre 12 seulement en 1992.Les Copépodes dominent en mars, avril, juillet, août et septembre, avec respectivement des dominances (Do égales à : 56,6 %, 55,0 %, 55,0 %, 46,4 % et 90,0 %. Les Cladocères dominent en février (Do = 37,2 %, mai (Do = 47,4 % et décembre (Do = 48,6 %. Les Rotifères sont extrêmement abondants et présentent une large dominance en janvier (Do = 95,3 %. La population zooplanctonique est très faible en juillet et en août. Au cours de l'année le peuplement varie en fonction de la température, des conditions hydrologiques, de l'abondance de la nourriture et de la prédation par les poissons.In 2008, 33 species of Cladocers, Copepods and Rotifers have been observed in Sidi M’hamed Benali Lake (against only 12 species in 1992. The Copepods dominate in March, April, July, August and September, respectively with dominance (Do equal to 56.6 %, 55.0 %, 55.0 %, 46.4 % and 90.0 %. Cladocers dominated in February (Do = 37.2 %, May (Do = 47.4 % and December (Do = 48.6 %. The rotifers are extremely abundant and have a wide dominance in January (Do = 95.3%. The zooplankton population is very low in July and August. During the year, the population varies with temperature, water conditions, abundance of food and predation by fishes.

  6. IL CONTRIBUTO DI INNOCENZO III ALLA FORMAZIONE DELLA CULTURA GIURIDICA OCCIDENTALE: IN PARTICOLARE IN RELAZIONE AL NOTO PRINCIPIO «REI PUBLICAE INTEREST NE CRIMINA REMANEANT IMPUNITA»

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    Cesare Edoardo Varalda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the period so called renovatio, many principles contained in the Roman legal sources have been explained in a new and innovative way, influencing the history of juridical thought and contributing to the development of the European legal experience. In fact, the principle "Rei publice interest it crimina remaneant impunita" (mentioned in two decretals of Innocent III: i.e. the Inauditum in 1199 and i.e. the Ut famae in 1203 has an essential role in the development of the conceptual system of modern criminal law. The content of this study will be, on the one hand, the detailed study of historical iter by which this principle has been consolidated and has been embraced by canonical experience and, more generally, in the Western one; on the other hand, it will analyse both from a technical and a metagiuridico point of view the origin of such formula and on the contribution that Christian theology might have given by clarifying and specifying its meaning. Therefore, it’s clear the importance of this principle in the development of the European legal system and, broadly, in the Western legal experience.

  7. L'economia occidentale negli anni settanta: valutazioni e prospettive. (Western economic performance in the 1970s: a perspective and assessment

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    A. MADDISON

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nel " periodo d'oro " degli anni 1950 e 1960 la crescita economica nei paesi capitalisti avanzati ha superato tutti i record storici . La performance di crescita nel 1970 si è quindi significativamente deteriorata , e il ritmo di inflazione è più che raddoppiato . Il presente lavoro si concentra sui temi del rallentamento dei tassi di crescita e l'accelerazione degli aumenti dei prezzi in questo periodo . L'aurore analizza per prima cosa le favoreboli condizioni degli anni '50 e '60 e le buone politiche applicate . sucessivamente viene analizzato il deterioramentonegli delle politiche economiche negli anni '70 . Infine viene trattato il grado di successo o il fallimento della politica economica negli anni '70 .In the “golden age” of the 1950s and 1960s economic growth in the advanced capitalist countries surpassed virtually all historical records. Growth performance in the 1970s then deteriorated significantly, and the pace of inflation more than doubled. The present paper looks at questions related to the slowdown in growth rates and the acceleration of price increases in this period. The author first analyses to what extent favourable performance in the 50s and 60s was due to chance or good policy. Conversely, the extent to which deterioration in the 70s was due to circumstance or bad policy is then considered. Finally, the degree of success or failure of economic policy in the 70s is dealt with. JEL: E31, E65

  8. En busca de independencia y productividad: cómo influyen las culturas occidentales en las explicaciones individuales y científicas del envejecimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Laura L. Carstensen; Corinna E. Löckenhoff; Cara J. Rice

    2002-01-01

    El artículo analiza, y sobre todo, cuestiona la influencia de la cultura occidental ---de países industrializados- en expectativas culturales, teorías implícitas y estereotipos acerca del envejecimiento y la vejez; en las formas de vivir y envejecer; así como en la formulación de políticas públicas. Destaca el influjo de dicha cultura en la investigación y la literatura científicas, particularmente en ciencias sociales, al tiempo que plantea miradas alternativas respaldadas por investigacione...

  9. En busca de independencia y productividad: cómo influyen las culturas occidentales en las explicaciones individuales y científicas del envejecimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Cara J. Rice; Corinna E. Löckenhoff; Laura L. Carstensen

    2002-01-01

    El artículo analiza, y sobre todo, cuestiona la influencia de la cultura occidental ---de países industrializados- en expectativas culturales, teorías implícitas y estereotipos acerca del envejecimiento y la vejez; en las formas de vivir y envejecer; así como en la formulación de políticas públicas. Destaca el influjo de dicha cultura en la investigación y la literatura científicas, particularmente en ciencias sociales, al tiempo que plantea miradas alternativas respaldada...

  10. Les anophèles et la transmission du paludisme à Ambohimena, village de la marge occidentale des Hautes-Terres Malgaches

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    Rajaonarivelo V.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Une étude a été menée dans le Moyen-Ouest de Madagascar à 940 mètres d'altitude dans le village d'Ambohimena. Ce village est situé en dehors de la zone d'aspersions intra-domiciliaires d'insecticides rémanents. Deux vecteurs, An. funestus Giles, 1900 et An. arabiensis Patton, 1905 y sont présents. An. funestus est abondant au cours de la saison chaude et humide, avec deux pics d'abondance en décembre et avril. L'endophagie d' An. funestus est faible (taux d'endophagie = 35,3 % . C'est une espèce endophile (Taux d'endophilie = 78 % et anthropophile (taux d'anthropophilie = 64 %. Son infectivité est faible (taux d'infectivité = 0,20 %. Le taux d'inoculation spécifique de Plasmodium falciparum par l'espèce An. funestus a été de moins de 10 piqûres par homme et par an. Cette espèce présente une capacité vectrice maximale à la fin du premier tour de riz (janvier alors que son abondance maximale est observée à la fin du deuxième tour (avril-mai An. arabiensis est abondant entre décembre et janvier et est lié à la présence des gîtes pluviaux favorables au développement larvaire. C'est une espèce exophage (taux d'endophagie = 27,5 % et zoophile (taux d'anthropophilie = 7,8 %. An. arabiensis jouerait un rôle secondaire dans la transmission du paludisme car la présence des plasmodies n'a pas été mise en évidence (effectif testé = 871. Dans ce village, la stabilité du paludisme est modérée ou intermédiaire ; plus proche de l'instabilité que de la stabilité avérée. Il est suggéré que la lutte antivectorielle soit étendue aux zones de transition stabilité-instabilité qui constitueraient un réservoir de vecteurs et de plasmodies, afin de prévenir l'émergence de nouvelles épidémies sur les Hautes-Terres.

  11. L'influence occidentale sur le développement du théâtre moderne siamois : le cas du Roi Vajiravudh (1910-1925)

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    Inthano , Theeraphong

    2013-01-01

    Siam – Thailand as it has been known for several decades – is the result of a mix of people, cultures and literatures, which is still dynamic nowadays. Western influence appeared there at the beginning of the 16th century and increased very quickly during the 19th century when its kings had to prepare the kingdom to face the British and Frenchcolonial greed. King Vajiravudh (1910-1925), who studied about ten years in Great Britain, tried to make Occidental-style drama become well-known with h...

  12. Coupled study of radionuclides and stable lead isotopes in Western Mediterranean; Etude couplee des radionucleides et des isotopes stables du plomb en Mediterranee occidentale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miralles, J

    2004-05-15

    The aim of this work is to identified an environmental deposit able to have stored the atmospheric signal over large time-scale leaning our investigations on lead stable isotopes ({sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb, {sup 208}Pb) and radionuclide ({sup 210}Pb, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu) analysis. Owing to prior studies on anthropogenic lead sources, emission intensity and sedimentary accumulation, we choose to investigate the marine sediments of the Western Mediterranean. In the Gulf of Lions, the sedimentary accumulation is 110 {+-} 7 {mu}g.cm{sup -2} high in good agreement with the atmospheric inventory estimate we made from salt marshes of Camargue (99 {mu}g.cm{sup -2}). The reconstructed lead accumulation through a modelling step coupling {sup 210}Pb and stable isotopes corroborates the regional anthropogenic emissions (Ferrand, 1996). Briefly, in this context of the marine sediments are a relevant proxy to study past lead atmospheric concentration over the last hundred years. In the Alboran Sea, the study area is less constrained and more complex in terms of climatic, meteorological and hydrological conditions. The sedimentary inventory is of 153 {+-} 47 {mu}g.cm{sup -2}, 1,5 higher than in the margin sediments of the Gulf of Lions. The analysis of aerosols, sediments and settling particles evidences a continuity between the atmospheric signal and the sedimentary record. In spite of this encouraging results, the knowledge of the Alboran system is still too restricted in order to unambiguously conclude on accuracy of deep marine sediments of this area to study past atmospheric fallouts. (author)

  13. Organización comunitaria de los yumanos occidentales: Una revisión etnográfica y prospecto arqueológico

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    Don Laylander

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Existe actualmente múltiples aspectos sobre la cultura de las sociedades aborígenes de Baja California antes del contacto europeo que se desconocen en gran medida. Uno de estos aspectos es la organización de la comunidad ¿Cómo podemos aproximarnos a esta información?El autor de este trabajo presenta de una forma crítica las experiencias de distintos etnógrafos de este siglo con respecto a este tema y en base al análisis cuidadoso de la información propone una hipótesis. Finalmente, demuestra que el uso de estudios arqueológicos es útil como apoyo en el conocimiento de este aspecto sociocultural de los pueblos indígenas.

  14. La guerra asimétrica. Una lectura crítica de la transformación de las doctrinas militares occidentales

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    Raúl Zelik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de que contradicen la concepción de “conflictos de baja intensidad”, las ocupaciones de Irak y Afganistán están fuertemente influidas por los conceptos más antiguos de las “guerras pequeñas” -small wars- y de las “intervenciones de bajo perfil” -low footprint interventions-. El autor describe la evolución del concepto de ‘guerra asimétrica’ y se argumenta que la conducción asimétrica de la guerra ha sido un elemento de las estrategias bélicas de Occidente durante el siglo XX, mucho antes de que concluyera la confrontación de los bloques o aparecieran las llamadas “nuevas guerras” -new wars-. El autor identifica tres tendencias en la evolución de la guerra en conexión con los conflictos asimétricos: 1 una reorientación que conduce de los asuntos militares al problema del control social de la población; 2 una irregularización de la violencia, que implica una ruptura con las leyes y los acuerdos internacionales, y 3 la subcontratación -outsourcing- del ejercicio de la guerra a fuerzas irregulares aliadas, tales como corporaciones militares privadas, milicias, grupos paramilitares, señores de la guerra e incluso, crimen organizado.

  15. Partenariat de recherche en Hautes écoles spécialisées Santé Travail social de Suisse occidentale

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    Kim Stroumza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Au cœur des nouvelles politiques de la recherche tournée vers l’innovation, les Hautes écoles spécialisées suisses, récemment portées au niveau universitaire, ont pour mandat la recherche appliquée et le développement. Si la valorisation scientifique des travaux réalisés sous ce régime est visible dans les supports habituels, il n’en va pas de même de l’activité partenariale elle-même et des processus qui participent à sa constitution. L’analyse des narrations des protagonistes des partenariats permet de mettre en visibilité les phénomènes qui font la spécificité de cette activité, que les modèles de la diffusion sont impuissants à saisir. Prise entre pratique ordinaire, activité professionnelle et activité scientifique, soumise à la temporalité du processus, l’activité partenariale interroge la conception même du savoir qui sous-tend les modèles de recherche appliquée.Research partnership in the Swiss Universities of applied sciencesAt the heart of the new research policies tending towards innovation, the Swiss Universities of applied sciences, recently promoted to tertiary academic rank, have been given, as primary mission, to extend their activities in Applied Research and Development. If scientific valorization of this kind of research is visible in current media and publications, it is not so apparent for the partnership itself or the processes which constituted its development in the first place. The analysis of the narrations of the protagonists of the partnership shows the phenomenon which illustrates the specificity of this activity, that valorization models are unable to grasp. Caught between regular practice, professional and scientific activities, subject also to the temporality of the process, partnership activities question the very concept of the knowledge which underlines the models of applied research.Investigaciones conjuntas en Escuelas Superiores de Sanidad y Trabajo Social en Suiza occidental: compromiso de los agentes implicados y aprendizajes cruzadosEn el seno de las nuevas políticas de investigación orientadas hacia la innovación, las Escuelas Superiores especializadas suizas, recientemente incluidas en el ámbito universitario, tienen como objeto la investigación aplicada y el desarrollo. Si la valorización científica de los trabajos realizados dentro de este contexto es visible concretamente, no ocurre lo mismo por lo que respecta a la actividad conjunta y a los procesos que les dan forma. El análisis de las narraciones de los protagonistas pone visiblemente en evidencia los fenómenos que subrayan lo específico de este encaminamiento que los modelos de  difusión son incapaces de mostrar.  Estando entra la práctica habitual, la actividad profesional y la actividad científica, sometida está a la temporalidad el proceso, la actividad conjunta interroga la concepción misma de conocimientos que desembocan en métodos específicos de la investigación práctica.

  16. Il sistema delle orchestre e dei cori giovanili di Abreu nel contesto occidentale. Un tentativo di dare significato pedagogico al trapianto dell’esperienza venezuelana

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    Daniele Branca

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The System of Children and Youth Choirs and Orchestras founded forty years ago by Josè Antonio Abreu in Venezuela, has become a significant alternative to the social ills faced by children and young people of the most disadvantaged neighborhoods of the South American metropolis, not only drugs and crime, but also the nihilistic logic that lacks all hope. It makes sense to transfer this experience in the wealthy West where the discomfort takes different forms? The answer is positive: music made together is ideal for sharing basic social values, construction of meaning and important experiences. The group is a perfect example of positive interdependence, commitment and responsibility, emblem of the community, micro-ideal society. Tolerance, inclusion, shared goals: values that can be a solution as well for our ills (bullying, eating disorders, depression, immaturity, inability to decision and commitment, dependence on families etc.. The System of Abreu is the credible alternative to the traditional way of teaching music, cold and elitist, and it stresses the importance of teachers in their role of great responsibility, both pedagogical and psychological. 

  17. L'industrie photovoltaïque en Suisse occidentale : l’émergence d’un milieu valorisateur multi-local

    OpenAIRE

    Livi, Christian; Jeannerat, Hugues; Crevoisier, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Développée à partir des années 1980, différents modèles territoriaux d’innovation ont mis en perspective comment certains systèmes de production régionaux se développent à partir de dynamiques d’innovation et d’apprentissage propres à certains milieu locaux. Ces modèles reflètent une globalisation économique caractérisée par une mobilité accrue des biens et services mais limitée des facteurs de production à la base de l’innovation telle que la connaissance et le capital de développement. Cet ...

  18. Interethnic partnerships of Western Europeans: between preferences and opportunities (Parejas interétnicas de europeos occidentales: entre la preferencia y la oportunidad

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    Recchi, Ettore

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Los estudios previos sobre la integración social de los migrantes en sus países de destino, en particular sobre parejas interétnicas, coinciden en dar importancia al mismo conjunto de variables. Este estudio pretende proporcionar una prueba más del valor generalizable de los hallazgos en los diferentes contextos, utilizando los datos de una encuesta a migrantes adultos intra-europeos, un grupo que se diferencia en muchos aspectos de los grupos de migrantes analizados hasta ahora. La migración por motivos de trabajo cualificado, estudios, jubilación y la 'calidad de vida' está bien representada, mientras que la migración laboral no cualificada, que predominaba tradicionalmente la investigación en este campo, es de menor importancia, aunque sigue presente.Abstract: Previous studies on determinants of social integration of migrants in the destination countries, and of interethnic partnerships in particular, converge in attributing importance to the same set of variables. This study aims at providing a further test of the generality of findings across different contexts using survey data of intra-European adult migrants, a group which differs in many respects from the hitherto mainly analyzed migrant groups. High-skilled labor, study, retirement, and 'quality of life' migration are well represented, while low-skilled labor migration which dominates traditional research in the field is of minor importance, yet still present.

  19. Viabilidade técnica dos taninos de quatro espécies florestais de ocorrência no semi-árido brasileiro no curtimento de peles.

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    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Os taninos vegetais são encontrados em várias espécies florestais. Atualmente, os curtidores da Região Nordeste têm no angico-vermelho (Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil, sua única fonte de taninos. Este estudo teve como objetivos avaliar o potencial tanífero e a capacidade curtente dos taninos, por meios das características físico-mecânicas das peles curtidas, de quatro espécies florestais de ocorrência no Semi-Árido brasileiro, visando a possibilitar a diversificação de espécies a serem utilizadas nos curtumes da região. Os taninos foram obtidos de angico (Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil, cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale, jurema-preta (Mimosa tenuiflora e de jurema-vermelha (Mimosa arenosa. Peles de caprinos foram curtidas com os taninos extraídos dessas espécies e comparadas a peles curtidas com tanino comercial de acácia negra ("Seta Natur". Amostras de peles curtidas foram submetidas a testes de resistência à tração, ao alongamento e ao rasgamento progressivo. Verificaram-se bons resultados das peles curtidas com os taninos obtidos de jurema-preta e jurema-vermelha. Pela abundância no Semi-Árido brasileiro, a jurema-preta e a jurema-vermelha apresentam potencial de exploração para obtenção de taninos, havendo a necessidade pesquisas que indiquem as melhores formas de aplicação dos taninos obtidos.

  20. VIABILIDADE TÉCNICA DOS TANINOS DE QUATRO ESPÉCIES FLORESTAIS DE OCORRÊNCIA NO SEMI-ÁRIDO BRASILEIRO NO CURTIMENTO DE PELES

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    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Os taninos vegetais são encontrados em várias espécies florestais. Atualmente, os curtidores da Região Nordeste têm no angico-vermelho (Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil, sua única fonte de taninos. Este estudo teve como objetivos avaliar o potencial tanífero e a capacidade curtente dos taninos, por meios das características físico-mecânicas das peles curtidas, de quatro espécies florestais de ocorrência no Semi-Árido brasileiro, visando a possibilitar a diversificação de espécies a serem utilizadas nos curtumes da região. Os taninos foram obtidos de angico (Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil, cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale, jurema-preta (Mimosa tenuiflora e de jurema-vermelha (Mimosa arenosa. Peles de caprinos foram curtidas com os taninos extraídos dessas espécies e comparadas a peles curtidas com tanino comercial de acácia negra (”Seta Natur”. Amostras de peles curtidas foram submetidas a testes de resistência à tração, ao alongamento e ao rasgamento progressivo. Verificaram-se bons resultados das peles curtidas com os taninos obtidos de jurema-preta e jurema-vermelha. Pela abundância no Semi-Árido brasileiro, a jurema-preta e a jurema-vermelha apresentam potencial de exploração para obtenção de taninos, havendo a necessidade pesquisas que indiquem as melhores formas de aplicação dos taninos obtidos.

  1. Influência da irrigação na produção de pedúnculo e de castanha em clones de cajueiro-anão-precoce

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    Oliveira Vitor Hugo de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a influência da irrigação na produção de pedúnculo e na relação peso de pedúnculo:peso de castanha em cajueiro-anão-precoce (Anacardium occidentale L.. Foram avaliados três clones (CP 09, CP 76 e CP 1001, submetidos a quatro regimes hídricos (A: testemunha sem irrigação; B: intervalo de irrigação de 1 dia; C: intervalo de irrigação de 3 dias; e D: intervalo de irrigação de 5 dias. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições, tendo-se os regimes hídricos nas parcelas e os clones nas subparcelas, cada uma com 4 plantase 3 anos de avaliação. A quantidade de água aplicada nos três tratamentos irrigados baseou-se na evaporação do tanque classe A. Os resultados levaram às seguintes conclusões: a resposta do cajueiro-anão-precoce à irrigação é genótipo-dependente; o CP 76 apresenta a maior relação peso de pedúnculo:peso de castanha, constituindo-se num clone mais apto para o consumo in natura; o CP 1001 apresenta-se como o mais promissor para o cultivo sob condições de sequeiro.

  2. Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae and their parasitoids on cultivated and wild hosts in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Tiago Ledesma Taira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae and their parasitoids on cultivated and wild hosts in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Information on frugivorous flies in cultivated or wild host plants and their parasitoids in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul is presented and discussed. Fruit fly samples were collected weekly in specific fruit trees, and McPhail® traps were installed in the same trees for a period of two years. The fruit flies infested ripe and unripe fruits of Averrhoa carambola L., Schoepfia sp., Psidium guajava L. and Pouteria torta (Mart. Radlk and mature fruits of Anacardium occidentale L. and Inga laurina (Sw. Willd. Nineteen fruit fly species were obtained with the combination of sampling methods (collecting fruits and trapping, nine of them obtained with both methods, five found only in fruits and five only in traps. This is the first record of Anastrepha striata Schiner in a species of Sapotaceae, as well as for A. castanea Norrbom and A. daciformes Bezzi in Schoepfia sp. (Olacaceae, and for A. distincta Greene in fruits of P. guajava in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Fruit collections simultaneously associated with capture of fruit flies by McPhail traps in the same host plants are essential to understand the diversity of fruit flies and their relationship with hosts and parasitoids. Species of Braconidae and Pteromalidae were recovered, where Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti was the most abundant parasitoid in larvae of tephritids infesting both cultivated and wild host fruits.

  3. Qualidade de pedúnculo de cajueiro-anão precoce cultivado sob irrigação e submetido a difrentes sistemas de condução e espaçamento

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    DAMASCENO JÚNIOR JOSÉ ADEMIR

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve com objetivo estudar a influência do espaçamento sobre as características químicas e físico-químicas em pedúnculos de cajueiro-anão precoce (Anacardium occidentale L irrigado. O experimento foi conduzido na Estação Experimental do Vale do Curu, no município de Paraipaba-Ce, ocupando uma área de 1,57 ha. Foram estudados 4 espaçamentos, sendo um convencional (6,0 x 8,0 m e três adensados (4 x 3, 6 x 3 e 8 x 3 m, onde foram aplicadas podas e desbastes. Os pedúnculos para a realização das análises foram colhidos em agosto de 1998 e encaminhados ao Laboratório de Fisiologia e Tecnologia Pós-Colheita da Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical. Para a caracterização química e físico-química, foram analisados: sólidos solúveis totais (SST, açúcares solúveis totais (AST, acidez total titulável (ATT, relação SST/ATT, vitamina C e taninos (poliméricos, dímeros e oligoméricos. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos com relação às variáveis estudadas, como também os valores encontrados para essas variáveis são semelhantes àqueles encontrados na literatura.

  4. Plantas e constituintes químicos empregados em Odontologia: revisão de estudos etnofarmacológicos e de avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana in vitro em patógenos orais

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    D.R.P. Vieira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Produtos derivados de plantas podem representar estratégia promissora na odontologia. Desse modo, o objetivo deste trabalho foi levantar na literatura os estudos sobre o uso popular de plantas em afecções orais, bem como os estudos de avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de extratos vegetais e compostos isolados sobre patógenos orais, no período de 1996 a 2011. Quarenta e sete famílias botânicas foram referidas, com maior número de citações para Anacardiaceae, sendo Anacardium occidentale L., a espécie mais citada. O levantamento sobre estudos de avaliação antimicrobiana relacionou extratos de sessenta e seis espécies vegetais pertencentes a trinta e oito famílias botânicas, destacando-se Anacardiaceae, com pesquisas realizadas de forma predominante com as folhas, investigadas pelo método de difusão em ágar. Cinquenta e oito substâncias isoladas de plantas foram avaliadas, demonstrando que Terminalia chebula Retz (Combretaceae representa a espécie vegetal com atividade antimicrobiana in vitro mais significativa, apresentando halo de inibição de 32,97 mm contra Staphylococcus aureus, microrganismo encontrado em infecções orais; enquanto ácido tetra iso-alfa isolada de Humulus lupulus L. (Canabinaceae apresentou maior halo de inibição para Streptococcus mutans (26,0 mm. Os resultados apresentados devem estimular o desenvolvimento dos estudos de validação na garantia do uso seguro e eficaz de espécies vegetais em odontologia.

  5. Biotechnological process for obtaining new fermented products from cashew apple fruit by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Suzane Macêdo; Silva, Cristina Ferraz; Moreira, Jane Jesus Silveira; Narain, Narendra; Souza, Roberto Rodrigues

    2011-09-01

    In Brazil, the use of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) to obtain new products by biotechnological process represents an important alternative to avoid wastage of a large quantity of this fruit, which reaches about 85% of the annual production of 1 million tons. This work focuses on the development of an alcoholic product obtained by the fermentation of cashew apple juice. The inoculation with two different strains of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae viz. SCP and SCT, were standardized to a concentration of 10(7 )cells ml(-1). Each inoculum was added to 1,500 ml of cashew must. Fermentation was performed at 28 ± 3°C and aliquots were withdrawn every 24 h to monitor soluble sugar concentrations, pH, and dry matter contents. The volatile compounds in fermented products were analyzed using the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system. After 6 days, the fermentation process was completed, cells removed by filtration and centrifugation, and the products were stabilized under refrigeration for a period of 20 days. The stabilized products were stored in glass bottles and pasteurized at 60 ± 5°C/30 min. Both fermented products contained ethanol concentration above 6% (v v(-1)) while methanol was not detected and total acidity was below 90 mEq l(-1), representing a pH of 3.8-3.9. The volatile compounds were characterized by the presence of aldehyde (butyl aldehyde diethyl acetal, 2,4-dimethyl-hepta-2,4-dienal, and 2-methyl-2-pentenal) and ester (ethyl α-methylbutyrate) representing fruity aroma. The strain SCT was found to be better and efficient and this produced 10% more alcohol over that of strain SCP.

  6. Dwarf cashew growth irrigated with saline waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Orlando Carvallo Guerra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The cashew production is one of the most important agricultural activities from the social-economical viewpoint for the North East of Brazil; besides to produce a great deal of hand labor, it is very important as an exporting commodity. The inadequate use of irrigation in the semi arid regions of the North East of Brazil has induced soil salinization and consequently problems for the irrigated agriculture. In spite of this, few works have been conducted to study the effect of saline stress on the growth and development of the cashew. Because of the lack of information for this crop, an experiment was conducted to study the effect of salinity stress on the phytomass production and nutrient accumulation on the different organs of the precocious dwarf cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. clone CCP76. The study was conducted under controlled conditions using as statistical scheme a randomized block design factorial with six replicates. Five salinity treatments were considered for the irrigation water (electrical conductivities of 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2 and 4.0 dS m-1 at 25oC. The increasing in salinity of the irrigation water reduced the phytomass at different organs of the studied plant. The nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, chloride and sodium in the plant varied with the salinity of the irrigation water according with the part of the plant analyzed; in some parts increased, in others decreased, in others increased initially and decreased afterwards, and finally, in other part of the plant the salinity of the irrigation water did not affect the nutrient concentration.

  7. Aminoácidos livres majoritários no suco de caju: variação ao longo da safra Major free amino acids in cashew apple juice: behaviour during the harvest season

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    MARIA ELISABETH BARROS DE OLIVEIRA

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Visando a contribuir para o conhecimento dos aminoácidos livres majoritários presentes no suco de caju (Anacardium occidentale L., estudou-se o seu comportamento ao longo da safra de 1995, no período de agosto a novembro, no clone de cajueiro-anão precoce, CCP 09, com aptidão para a produção de suco. O suco foi obtido de cajus cultivados no município de Pio IX, Estado do Piauí, Brasil. Os frutos foram colhidos em intervalos de 21 dias, perfazendo cinco amostragens. Os aminoácidos foram determinados utilizando-se um auto-analisador de aminoácidos. Preliminarmente, foram feitos ensaios para conhecer o espectro total dos aminoácidos livres presentes no suco; destes, foram escolhidos os oito majoritários, sobre os quais está baseado o estudo. Os aminoácidos majoritários encontrados, na ordem decrescente, foram: alanina, serina, fenilalnina, leucina, ácido glutâmico, ácido aspártico, prolina e tirosinaThe major free amino acids in cashew apple juice were studied during the crop season August to November 1995. The cashew apples were obtained from the clone CCP 09 cultivated in the county of Pio IX, state of Piauí-Brazil. Analysis were carried out in five samples harvested at twenty-one days intervals by using an amino acid analyser. The amino acids present in the juice were preliminary evaluated. Only the major eight ones were selected. The major amino acids detected, in decreasing order were: alanine, serine, phenylalanine, leucine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, proline and tyrosine.

  8. Biology of the tea mosquito bug (Helopeltis theivora Waterhouse on Chromolaena odorata (L. R.M. King & H. Rob.

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    K.K Srikumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Helopeltis theivora Waterhouse, pest of tea, is emerging as a commonly occurring major pest of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. in recent times. The field observation revealed Chromolaena odorata (L. R.M. King & H. Rob. weed support as an alternate host of this pest during off season of cashew. Biology of H. theivora on this weed was studied for the first time. The incubation period of eggs was 10.5 ± 1.2 d. The 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th nymphal instar developmental times were 36.11 ± 9.52, 43.29 ± 7.35, 27.15 ± 8.41, 41.31 ± 10.13, and 73.91 ± 5.67 h, respectively. Survival percentage of eggs was lower (60.53% than nymphal instars. Adult females and males lived for 22.6 ± 3.29 and 11.8 ± 1.64 d, respectively. Females showed dynamic patterns of fecundity with the number of eggs laid per female ranging 19 to 34. Longevity and fecundity of H. theivora on this weed were significantly lesser when compared on cashew. Egg parasitoids viz., Telenomus sp., Chaetostricha sp. and Erythmelus helopeltidis Gahan were recorded from H. theivora eggs on C. odorata for the first time. For better management decisions, it is important to know about this mirid biology, particularly their life cycle on their alternate hosts so that the right assessment can be made before taking up spray.

  9. AVALIAÇÃO DE PLANTAS MEDICINAIS NO COMBATE A MASTITE BOVINA

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    Samoel Alexandre Fonseca Dantas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mastite é a inflamação da glândula mamária da vaca, sendo infecto-contagiosa que mais se propaga nos rebanhos e geralmente causando grandes prejuízos a indústria de laticínios, pode ser provocada por cerca de 130 agentes envolvidos, dentre eles, bactérias, vírus, algas e fungos. As bactérias são os agentes de maior importância como causa da doença. Por esta razão o IFRN aprovou o projeto para avaliação de qual o melhor tratamento com plantas medicinais nativas a ser utilizada na cura da mastite. O enfoque do resultado do projeto estaria direcionado para o diagnóstico e cura da doença na criação de rebanhos leiteiros de pequenos produtores do Vale do Assu. Para a realização desse diagnóstico e investigação sobre planta medicinal a ser utilizado nas vacas acometidas pela mastite, serão realizados exames de antibiograma para investigar a susceptibilidade da bactéria a determinadas plantas. Nos resultados preliminares, realizados em laboratório, foi identificado que a casca do caule do cajueiro roxo (Anacardium occidentale L tem ação antibiótica e a flor da catingueira (Caesalpinia pyramidalis inibe a proliferação das bactérias existentes no leite de vacas infectadas com mastite sub-clínica. Desta maneira, sugere-se a possibilidade do uso deste vegetal no combate e cura a esta doença. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Mastite, Antibiograma, Plantas medicinais.

  10. Crescimento e conteúdo de nutrientes do cajueiro anão irrigado com águas salinas

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    Arlington Ricardo de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The cashew production is one of the most important agricultural activities from the social-economical viewpoint for the North East of Brazil; besides to produce a great deal of hand labor, it is very important as an exporting commodity. The inadequate use of irrigation in the semi arid regions of the North East of Brazil has induced soil salinization and consequently problems for the irrigated agriculture. In spite of this, few works have been conducted to study the effect of saline stress on the growth and development of the cashew. Because of the lack of information for this crop, an experiment was conducted to study the effect of salinity stress on the phytomass production and nutrient accumulation on the different organs of the precocious dwarf cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. clone CCP76. The study was conducted under controlled conditions using as statistical scheme a randomized block design factorial with six replicates. Five salinity treatments were considered for the irrigation water (electrical conductivities of 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2 and 4.0 dS m-1 at 25oC. The increasing in salinity of the irrigation water reduced the phytomass at different organs of the studied plant. The nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, chloride and sodium in the plant varied with the salinity of the irrigation water according with the part of the plant analyzed; in some parts increased, in others decreased, in others increased initially and decreased afterwards, and finally, in other part of the plant the salinity of the irrigation water did not affect the nutrient concentration.

  11. Propolis or cashew and castor oils effects on composition of Longissimus muscle of crossbred bulls finished in feedlot

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    Maribel Velandia Valero

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural additive products (propolis or essential oils, in replacing antibiotics, could be used as an alternative for feed strategies to improve animal production. This work was performed to evaluate the effect of natural additives as propolis or essential oils on meat quality of crossbred (Aberdeen Angus vs. Nellore bulls. Thirty bulls were kept in feedlot (individual pen for 55 d and randomly assigned to one of three diets (n = 10: control (CON, propolis (PRO, or essential oils (OIL. CON diet consists of corn silage (45% DM and concentrate (cracked corn, soybean meal, glycerin, limestone, and mineral salt, 55% DM. The PRO group received same CON diet plus 3 g animal-1 d-1 of propolis premix added to the concentrate. The OIL group received same CON diet and 3 g animal-1 d-1 of a premix (cashew Anacardium occidentale L. and castor Ricinus communis L. oils added to the concentrate. Fat thickness (5.0 mm, pH (5.9, Longissimus muscle area 58.0 cm², marbling, texture, color (L* = 36.6, a* = 17.3, and b* = 5.9, lipid oxidation (0.08 malonaldehyde kg-1 meat, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (3.3 kg were unaffected by the diet. PRO and OIL diets had no effect neither on moisture (73.7%, ashes (1.1%, protein (23.8%, and lipids (1.7%, fatty acid composition or polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid (PUFA/ SFA, 0.13, and n-6/n-3 ratio (6.9 on Longissimus muscle. Addition of natural additives as propolis extract or cashew and castor oils in the diet of bulls when they are finished in a feedlot did not change meat qualities.

  12. CARACTERÍSTICAS FÍSICAS DE PEDÚNCULOS DE CAJUEIRO PARA COMERCIALIZAÇÃO IN NATURA

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    MOURA CARLOS FARLEY H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de selecionar pedúnculos de cajueiro-anão precoce (Anacardium occidentale L. var. nanum para comercialização in natura, foram avaliados 09 clones selecionados a partir de um experimento de competição sob irrigação, no município de Mossoró-RN. O clone CCP 76 foi utilizado como testemunha. Os cajus foram colhidos em agosto de 1997 e avaliados quanto às seguintes características: textura, tamanho (diâmetros apical e basal e comprimento, formato, coloração (carta de cores e pigmentos e peso (total e pedúnculo. Dentre os materiais avaliados, apenas o CCP 09 apresentou cor inferior à testemunha, sendo que os clones CAP 6 (500, END 157, END 189 e END 329 destacaram-se com coloração mais intensa que a mesma. Além da testemunha, apenas os clones END 157, 183 e 189 apresentaram pedúnculos que podem ser classificados como tipo 4 (de maior valor comercial, enquanto, com relação à forma, apenas os clones CAP 6 (500, END 157 e END 183 apresentaram formato piriforme. O clone END 157 apresentou as melhores características para comercialização in natura, inclusive quando comparado à testemunha. Os clones END 183 e 189 apresentaram resultados semelhantes à testemunha, com exceção da cor para o 183 e do formato para o 189.

  13. Minimal effective dose of phosphine to control the cashew root borer, Marshallius bondari Rosado-Neto (Coleoptera: Curculionidae Dose mínima efetiva de fosfina no controle da broca-da-raiz do cajueiro, Marshallius bondari Rosado-Neto (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervino Bleicher

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine, in field conditions, the minimal of phosphine effective dose for the cashew root borer control. Three experiments were set up at three different periods: August, October and November, 1994, to control the cashew root borer, Marshallius bondari Rosado-Neto (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, in Piaui State, Brazil. One, two, three and six phosphine tablets of three gram each, per plant were tested. In the August essay, phosphine was inefficient to control the borer. In the October essay, control was achieved using as little as 2 tablets per plant and in November with one tablet per plant to control the adult borers in the soil. Higher efficiency was achieved when treatment was applied far away from the last rain, in other words, as soil dries out.Objetivou-se determinar, em condições de campo, a dose mínima de fosfina para o controle da broca da raiz do cajueiro. Foram instalados 3 experimentos em épocas distintas, sendo o primeiro em agosto, o segundo em outubro e o terceiro em novembro de 1994 para o controle de Marshallius bondari Rosado-Neto (Coleoptera: Curculionidae em cajueiro, Anacardium occidentale L. no município de Pio IX, Estado do Piauí. Foram testadas 1; 2; 3 e 6 pastilhas de fosfina na forma de fosfeto de alumínio, de 3 gramas cada, por planta. No ensaio conduzido em agosto nenhum tratamento foi eficiente para o controle de brocas adultas no solo. No ensaio instalado em outubro, a fosfina foi eficiente a partir de duas pastilhas por planta e no ensaio de novembro a partir de uma pastilha por planta para o controle de adultos no solo. A eficiência foi tanto maior quanto maior foi o tempo decorrido após a última chuva, estando, portanto, o solo mais seco.

  14. Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae

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    Anne M. Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Studies on Ceratitis capitata, a world fruit pest, can aid the implementation of control programs by determining the plants with higher vulnerability to attacks and plants able to sustain their population in areas of fly distribution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of eight tropical fruits on the following biological and behavioral parameters of C. capitata: emergence percentage, life cycle duration, adult size, egg production, longevity, fecundity, egg viability, and oviposition acceptance. The fruits tested were: acerola (Malpighia glabra L., cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L., guava (Psidium guajava L., soursop (Annona muricata L., yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L., Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense L., and umbu (Spondias tuberosa L.. The biological parameters were obtained by rearing the recently hatched larvae on each of the fruit kinds. Acceptance of fruits for oviposition experiment was assessed using no-choice tests, as couples were exposed to two pieces of the same fruit. The best performances were obtained with guava, soursop, and star fruit. Larvae reared on cashew and acerola fruits had regular performances. No adults emerged from yellow mombin, Malay apple, or umbu. Fruit species did not affect adult longevity, female fecundity, or egg viability. Guava, soursop, and acerola were preferred for oviposition, followed by star fruit, Malay apple, cashew, and yellow mombin. Oviposition did not occur on umbu. In general, fruits with better larval development were also more accepted for oviposition.

  15. EXTRAÇÃO DE LIPÍDEOS DA AMÊNDOA DE CASTANHA DE CAJU COM CO2 SUPERCRÍTICO

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    LAMEIRA Claudia Pilar

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, vem crescendo o interesse em alimentos com baixo índice de calorias. Nos métodos tradicionais de extração de lipídeos com solventes orgânicos, devido as condições de extração, a integridade dos compostos extraídos e da matriz pode ser afetada pela decomposição térmica ou por contaminação pelo solvente. A extração com fluido supercrítico (EFSC pode proporcionar um método alternativo para remover lipídeos, sem que haja redução significativa nas propriedades organolépticas do produto. O objetivo deste trabalho é extrair parcialmente o óleo contido na amêndoa da castanha de caju (Anacardium occidentale com dióxido de carbono (CO2 supercrítico em condições de pressão de 100-170 bar e temperatura de 40-80 (C, para obter um produto de valor calórico reduzido que poderá ser usado como substituto para o amendoim e outras amêndoas na indústria de confeitos. Os experimentos foram realizados em um extrator de 300 ml, dispondo de sistemas de agitação magnética e variação de temperatura. Os resultados experimentais mostraram que o aumento da pressão acarretou um aumento na eficiência de extração. O efeito da temperatura foi o mesmo porém menos significativo.

  16. Sobrevivência e crescimento inicial de espécies arbóreas nativas do Cerrado em consórcio com mandioca

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    Fernando Martinotto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sobrevivência e o crescimento inicial de seis espécies arbóreas do Cerrado em consórcio com mandioca (Manihot esculenta, com ou sem adubação fosfatada. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 6x2x2, com quatro repetições. As variáveis consideradas foram as espécies: Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (angico-vermelho, Anacardium occidentale (caju, Dipteryx alata (cumbaru, Hymenaea stigonocarpa (jatobá, Hancornia speciosa (mangaba e Sclerolobium paniculatum var. rubiginosum (taxi-branco, em monocultivo ou em consórcio com mandioca, com ou sem adubação fosfatada. Uma distância fixa de 3x3 m foi usada para as espécies arbóreas e de 1,00x0,60 m para a mandioca. Até a idade de 20 meses, as espécies arbóreas foram avaliadas quatro vezes quanto à altura e ao diâmetro do coleto. A produção de biomassa da mandioca foi avaliada aos 20 meses. A taxa média de sobrevivência das espécies arbóreas foi crescente na seguinte ordem: cumbaru (79%, taxi-branco (86%, jatobá (95%, mangaba (98%, angico (99% e caju (100%. O taxi-branco apresentou maiores taxas de crescimento relativo em diâmetro e altura, enquanto jatobá e cumbaru apresentaram os menores valores. A adubação fosfatada favoreceu apenas ao taxi-branco. A produtividade de mandioca não foi afetada pelo consórcio. Caju, angico-vermelho e taxi-branco são as espécies mais indicadas para o consórcio com mandioca no Cerrado.

  17. Repetibilidade de caracteres de produção e porte da planta em clones de cajueiro-anão precoce

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    CAVALCANTI JOSÉ JAIME VASCONCELOS

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estimar coeficientes de repetibilidade (r, comparar a eficiência das metodologias utilizadas no processo de estimação, e determinar o número de avaliações necessárias à seleção clonal de cajueiro-anão (Anacardium occidentale L. precoce. As metodologias aplicadas para estimação do coeficiente de repetibilidade constaram da análise de variância, na qual o efeito temporário do ambiente é removido do erro (ANOVA; de análise dos componentes principais obtidos da matriz de correlações (CPCOR e da matriz de variâncias e covariâncias fenotípicas (CPCOV; e da análise estrutural, com base no autovalor teórico da matriz de correlações ou correlação média (AECOR. Foram avaliados, em trinta clones, os caracteres altura da planta (AP, diâmetro da copa (DC e produção de castanha (PC, durante cinco anos. Verificou-se que em relação aos caracteres AP e DC os valores de r variaram de 0,85 (ANOVA a 0,96 (CPCOV. Quanto à produção, os valores de r foram de 0,51 (ANOVA a 0,88 (CPCOV. Desta forma, constatou-se que o método de componentes principais utilizando a matriz de variâncias e covariâncias fenotípicas é mais eficiente para estimação do coeficiente de repetibilidade, sobretudo no que se refere ao carácter produção de castanha. Observou-se que são suficientes duas medições da AP e do DC, e três medições da PC no processo seletivo.

  18. Agro-Forestry system in West Africa: integrating a green solution to cope with soil depletion towards agricultural sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Filipa; Vidigal, Patricia; Romeiras, Maria Manuel; Ribeiro, Ana; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Viegas, Wanda; Catarino, Luís

    2017-04-01

    During the last decades, agriculture in West Africa has been marked by dramatic shifts with the coverage of single crops, increasing pressure over the available arable land. Yet, West African countries are still striving to achieve sustainable production at an increased scale for global market needs. Market-driven rapid intensification is often a major cause for cropland area expansion at the expense of deforestation and soil degradation, especially to export commodities in times of high prices. Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) is nowadays an important export-oriented crop, being produced under intensive cultivation regimes in several tropical regions. Particularly, among the main cashew production areas, West Africa is the most recent and dynamic in the world, accounting for 45% of the world cashew nuts production in 2015. Considering its global market values, several developing countries rely on cashew nuts as national economy revenues, namely in Guinea-Bissau. Considering the intensive regime of cashew production in Guinea-Bissau, and as widely recognized, intensive agriculture linked with extensification can negatively impact ecosystems, affecting natural resources availability, soil erosion and arability compromised by excessive salinity. Ultimately this will result in the disruption of carbon - nitrogen cycle, important to the agricultural ecosystem sustainability. As such, tree intercropped with legumes as cover crops, offers a sustainable management of the land area, thus creating substantial benefits both economically and environmentally, as it enhances diversification of products outputs and proving to be more sustainable than forestry and/or agricultural monocultures. Soil fertility improvement is a key entry point for achieving food security, and also increment agriculture commodities of the agro-system. Without using inorganic fertilizers, the green solution for improving soil management is to incorporate adapted multi-purpose legumes as cover crops

  19. Análise dialélica para avaliação de híbridos interpopulacionais de cajueiro

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    CAVALCANTI JOSÉ JAIME VASCONCELOS

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram obter informações dos componentes de médias de populações de cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L., por meio de análise dialélica parcial, e verificar o potencial per se de dois grupos distintos de parentais: um, constituído por clones comerciais de cajueiro-anão-precoce (CCP06, CCP76, CCP09 e CCP1001, e o outro, por matrizes de cajueiro comum (CP07, CP12, CP77, CP96 e BTON, e a heterose em suas respectivas combinações híbridas. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os caracteres avaliados foram altura da planta, diâmetro da copa, número da castanhas por planta, produtividade de castanhas, peso médio da castanha, peso médio da amêndoa e relação peso da amêndoa/peso da castanha. Constatou-se que os efeitos de parentais e heterose são importantes componentes das médias das populações em estudo, em relação a todos os caracteres. Entre os componentes heteróticos, a heterose média apresentou-se como o mais expressivo, indicando presença de dominância e considerável divergência genética entre os dois grupos. Apenas em relação aos caracteres número de castanhas e produtividade a capacidade específica de combinação foi significativa. As combinações híbridas CCP76 x CP07, CCP09 x BTON e CCP09 x CP77 são as mais promissoras, sendo indicadas para formação de populações-base para programas de melhoramento do cajueiro.

  20. Fenólicos totais e capacidade antioxidante in vitro de polpas de frutos tropicais

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    Luanne Morais Vieira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O consumo de frutos e suas polpas tem sido muito recomendado por seu valor nutricional, alto teor de fibras, vitamina C e carotenoides. Trabalhos recentes têm apontado esses alimentos como fontes de compostos fenólicos com ação antioxidante, portanto sequestradores de radicais livres, com ação protetora contra o surgimento e/ou desenvolvimento de processos degenerativos que conduzem a doenças crônicas não transmissíveis. Devido à crescente comercialização e consumo de polpas de frutas no Brasil, especialmente na cidade de Teresina-Piauí, este trabalho selecionou um grupo de polpas de frutos de elevado consumo local para avaliação do teor de fenólicos totais e da atividade antioxidante in vitro pelo método de captura de radicais livres: DPPH (radical 1,1-diphenil-2-picrilhydrazil e ABTS (radical 2,2'azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid. Os frutos selecionados foram: Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC., Bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart., Cajá (Spondias mombin L., Caju (Anacardium occidentale, Goiaba(Psidium guajava e Tamarindo (Tamarindus indica L.. Os teores de fenólicos totais encontrados nas polpascongeladas destes frutos exibiram quantidades relevantes de polifenóis, destacando-se a polpa de acerola com 835,25 ± 32,44 e 449,63 ± 10,24 mg /100g nos extratos aquosos e hidroalcoólicos, respectivamente, seguido pela polpa de caju com 201,61 ± 19,15 e 165,07 ± 4,10 mg /100g. As polpas de bacuri e tamarindo foram as que apresentaram os menores teores de fenólicos totais. Com relação à atividade antioxidante in vitro, os melhores resultados foram encontrados para os extratos aquosos e hidroalcoólicos das polpas de acerola, caju e goiaba. A capacidade antioxidante destas polpas (EC50 em µg/mL variou de 24,42 a 413,36 e de 1,74 a 259,18 para os extratos aquosos e hidroalcoólicos, respectivamente. Utilizando o radical ABTS, a atividade antioxidante para essas mesmas polpas de frutas apresentou valores TEAC que

  1. Medicinal plants used in the traditional management of diabetes and its sequelae in Central America: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Peter; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R; Edwards, Sarah E

    2016-05-26

    Globally 387 million people currently have diabetes and it is projected that this condition will be the 7th leading cause of death worldwide by 2030. As of 2012, its total prevalence in Central America (8.5%) was greater than the prevalence in most Latin American countries and the population of this region widely use herbal medicine. The aim of this study is to review the medicinal plants used to treat diabetes and its sequelae in seven Central American countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama. We conducted a literature review and extracted from primary sources the plant use reports in traditional remedies that matched one of the following disease categories: diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, urinary problems, skin diseases and infections, cardiovascular disease, sexual dysfunctions, visual loss, and nerve damage. Use reports were entered in a database and data were analysed in terms of the highest number of use reports for diabetes management and for the different sequelae. We also examined the scientific evidence that might support the local uses of the most reported species. Out of 535 identified species used to manage diabetes and its sequelae, 104 species are used to manage diabetes and we found in vitro and in vivo preclinical experimental evidence of hypoglycaemic effect for 16 of the 20 species reported by at least two sources. However, only seven of these species are reported in more than 3 studies: Momordica charantia L., Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. ex Cass., Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth, Persea americana Mill., Psidium guajava L., Anacardium occidentale L. and Hamelia patens Jacq. Several of the species that are used to manage diabetes in Central America are also used to treat conditions that may arise as its consequence such as kidney disease, urinary problems and skin conditions. This review provides an overview of the medicinal plants used to manage diabetes and its sequelae in Central America and of

  2. ESPÉCIES FLORESTAIS DE RESTINGAS COMO POTENCIAIS INSTRUMENTOS PARA GESTÃO COSTEIRA E TECNOLOGIA SOCIAL EM CARAVELAS, BAHIA (BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Machado Dias

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815732Em Caravelas, município localizado no sul do estado da Bahia, as principais formações vegetais são as florestas de mangue e as restingas apresentando, estas últimas, alto grau de degradação. O objetivo deste artigo consiste em descrever as principais espécies florestais de restingas e seus usos diretos associados, com vistas à recuperação e ao manejo de áreas degradadas e à geração de trabalho e renda, compondo, dessa forma, importante ferramenta para a gestão integrada da zona costeira. Para isso, a elaboração de listagens florísticas e visitas ao campo foram necessárias para reconhecimento do ambiente. Na seleção das espécies, uma literatura referente ao uso, manejo e valor agregado de cada uma das espécies identificadas foi utilizada e, a partir daí, foram reconhecidas quatro espécies com potencialidade para geração de trabalho e renda nos moldes dessa proposta: mangaba (Hancornia speciosa, pitanga (Eugenia uniflora, caju (Anacardium occidentale e aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius. As três primeiras apresentam associação de seus frutos ao uso alimentar, servindo a aroeira como condimentação, com alta valorização no mercado mundial, e o caju, a partir da sua estrutura fértil (castanha e polpa. A identificação dos subprodutos vegetais fornecidos assegura a utilização sustentada das espécies e do ambiente e os Produtos Florestais Não Madeiráveis podem ser estratégicos no gerenciamento costeiro, tornando-se instrumento para se alcançar inclusão social através da geração de trabalho e renda, sob o movimento da Tecnologia Social, contribuindo, portanto, para a redução da vulnerabilidade social de comunidades costeiras tradicionais.

  3. Influência do tempo de aclimatação na resposta do cajueiro à salinidade Influence of acclimatization time on response of cashew plant to salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean C. A. Brilhante

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A resposta das plantas à salinidade depende de fatores fisiológicos, bioquímicos e genéticos. Com este trabalho, objetivou-se estudar o impacto do tempo de aclimatação à solução nutritiva sobre a resposta do cajueiro à salinidade. Plantas de Anarcadium occidentale L., CCP06, cultivadas em vermiculita durante 28 dias, foram transferidas para solução nutritiva de Hoagland com 1/10 de sua força iônica, onde permaneceram por 1 e 7 dias. Ao final dos dois tempos, a solução nutritiva foi suplementada com 200 mM de NaCl, condições em que as plantas foram cultivadas por 0, 12, 24, 48 e 72 h. As plantas aclimatadas por 7 dias á solução de Hoagland apresentaram sinais fisiológicos mais compatíveis com a tolerância ao NaCl, como menor acumulação de Na+ e, também, menores danos nas membranas, peroxidação dos lipídeos, degradação de proteínas, acumulação de aminoácidos livres e acumulação de prolina. A amônia livre foi o melhor indicador da intensidade do estresse salino. Os danos de membranas aumentaram com a acumulação de Na+ nas folhas. Os resultados evidenciam que o tempo de aclimatação das raízes à solução nutritiva influencia a expressão de fatores capazes de atenuar os efeitos do estresse salino.The plant response to salinity depends on physiological, biochemical and genetic factors and on their interaction with external environment. This work aimed to study the impact of adaptation time in nutrient solution on the cashew response to salinity. Seedlings of Anacardium occidentale L (CCP06 grown in vermiculite, for 28 days, were placed to grow in 1/10 ionic strength Hoagland solution for 1 and 7 days. At the end of each time the solution was supplemented with 200 mM NaCl, and under this condition the plants were monitored for 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. The 7 days Hoagland solution acclimated plants had physiological index more compatible to tolerance to NaCl such as low Na+ accumulation and also low membrane

  4. Biología y ciclo reproductivo de Praon pos. occidentale (Hymenoptera: Braconidae parasitoide de Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera:Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantor Fernando

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Trabajos preliminares realizados en cultivos comerciales de rosa en la Sabana de Bogotá han permitido evidenciar la presencia de avispas del género Praon parasitando áfidos. Con el fin de explorar su potencial como controlador biológico, el presente estudio caracterizó la biología y el ciclo reproductivo de Praon sp. en condiciones de laboratorio bajo seis temperaturas constantes: 15, 17, 20, 25, 28 y 30°C. Áfidos parasitados fueron mantenidos en incubadoras a la temperatura deseada con 12 horas luz y 12 horas de oscuridad. Diariamente se realizaron disecciones de los áfidos parasitados para determinar el estado de desarrollo del parasitoide, lo que hizo posible determinar la duración promedio en días de cada estado, desde huevo hasta adulto. A todas las temperaturas, excepto a 15°C, se observó un desarrollo completo de los diferentes estadios, para los cuales se ajustaron modelos de tasa de desarrollo en función de la temperatura. El estado de huevo presentó el mayor umbral de temperatura mínima requerida para completar su desarrollo. Tanto hembras como machos son más longevos a temperaturas bajas. A temperaturas de 17 y 20°C se encontró mayor número de machos, mientras que a 25, 28 y 30°C se halló mayor número de hembras.

  5. Plutonium distribution and remobilization in sediments of the Rhone River mouth (North-Western Mediterranean); Distribution et remobilisation du plutonium dans les sediments du prodelta du Rhone (Mediterranee nord-occidentale)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansard, B

    2004-06-15

    The aim of the present study was to describe the distribution and remobilization of plutonium (Pu) in the sediments off the Rhone river mouth. Most of the {sup 238}Pu and {sup 239,240}Pu isotopes introduced into the Rhone River were discharged by the liquid effluents released from the Marcoule reprocessing plant, located 120 km upstream the river mouth. Due to its high affinity for particles and its long half life, {sup 238}Pu is a promising tracer to follow the dispersion of particulate matter from the Rhone River to the Mediterranean Sea. During the 3 REMORA cruises, sediment samples were specifically collected in the Rhone pro-delta area and more offshore on the whole continental shelf of the Gulf of Lions. The measurements of alpha emitters gave a first detailed spatial distribution of Pu isotope concentrations in surface sediments off the Rhone mouth. Using {sup 137}Cs concentrations and their correlations with Pu isotopes, we were able to give a first estimate of Pu inventories for the sediments of the study area. In 2001, plutonium inventories were estimated to 92 {+-} 7 GBq of {sup 238}Pu and 522 {+-} 44 GBq of {sup 239,240}Pu for an area of 500 km{sup 2} in front of the Rhone River mouth. Roughly, 50 % of these inventories are trapped in an area of 100 km{sup 2} corresponding to the extent of the Rhone pro-delta zone. In spring 2002, an ADCP, with current velocity and wave measurements, was moored off the Rhone River mouth. This unique in situ dataset highlights the major role of South-East swells in the erosion of pro-deltaic sediments and their dispersion to the South-Westward direction. Plutonium remobilization was examined using a new experimental design based on sediment resuspension processes studied within a linear recirculating flume. For Gulf of Lions sediments and for a given hydrodynamic stress, remobilization fluxes raised a maximum of 0.08 Bq.m{sup -2}.h{sup -1} for {sup 238}Pu and 0.64 Bq.m{sup -2}.h{sup -1} for {sup 239,240}Pu. A first plutonium budget determined for the study area indicates that at least 85 % of the Pu discharged over the 40 past years by the Marcoule reprocessing plant, are currently trapped in the sediments off the Rhone River mouth. Plutonium remobilization is potentially an important process but dispersion of contaminated sediments appeared to be limited in space. These results suggest a low exportation of particulate matter introduced by the Rhone River towards the continental shelf of the Gulf of Lions and the North-Western Mediterranean basin. (author)

  6. «Approchez avec crainte de Dieu, foi et amour» : le programme iconographique de la travée occidentale de l’abside en Moldavie (XVe – XVIe siècles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Bedros

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper, informed by an inventory of the apse iconography in Moldavian monuments from the late 15th to the first half of the 16th century, draws attention to an overlooked element of the otherwise familiar iconographic system employed – with occasional nuances – within the Post-Byzantine tradition in the aftermath of the Alosis: the selection of themes to be displayed in the bay which links the apse to the naos. The arrangements encountered in monuments dating from (approx. 1490 to 1535 put forward a variety of formulas which – although described in a sequence that deliberately emphasizes the similarities which came across – are nonetheless indicative of a broad and not necessarily fluent use of the late Byzantine tradition. It seems that the basic message conveyed by these iconographic boundaries aims at stressing the holiness of the sanctuary (involving a separation from the iconography of the naos, in the cases of Probota and Saint-Georges in Suceava but also, in a manner which could be informed by the late Byzantine perception of the liturgy – as deduced from the writings of Nicolas Cabasilas and St. Simeon of Thessaloniki –, at joining together naos and apse, via ‘iconographic belts’ (most frequently the Passion cycle, which sets out from and ends up in the sanctuary. The abundance of theophanic themes invites one to consider this iconographic thresholds in relation with the receiving of Communion, administered on the solea which lies underneath.

  7. Le Silurien de la région d'Oulad Abbou (Meseta occidentale, Maroc) : une sédimentation péritidale sous contrôle tectonique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attou, Ahmed; Hamoumi, Naima

    2004-07-01

    In the Oulad Abbou syncline, western coastal Meseta, the Silurian deposits exhibit siliciclastic or mixed siliciclastic/carbonate tidal facies that recorded alkaline basalt flows and syn-sedimentary deformations. These facies are staked into peritidal shallowing upward sequences reflecting the evolution from an infratidal to a supratidal environment. These sequences recorded low-amplitude and high-frequency sea-level variations. The built-up of these rhythmic sequences is related to distensive tectonic that allowed the development of isolated platform from extensive siliciclastic influx. This tectonic event is well recorded in the palaeogeographic evolution of the northern Gondwana platform during the Lower Palaeozoic time. To cite this article: A. Attou, N. Hamoumi, C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  8. Un exemple de volcanisme calco-alcalin de type orogénique mis en place en contexte de rifting (Cambrien de l'oued Rhebar, Meseta occidentale, Maroc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hadi, Hassan; Tahiri, Abdelfatah; Simancas Cabrera, Fernando; González Lodeiro, Francisco; Azor Pérez, Antonio; Jesús Martínez Poyatos, David

    2006-03-01

    The Middle Cambrian calc-alkaline Oued Rhebar volcanic complex (western Meseta, Morocco) compares with rocks originated in orogenic contexts. The La/Nb ratios are relatively high (5.2), suggesting a lithospheric mantle origin. The La/Ta ratios, higher than 26, and the negative Nb anomaly indicate a lithospheric source contaminated by the continental crust. These rocks were generated in the Mesetian Mid-Cambrian rift and would have inherited their orogenic signature from the partial melting of a previously metasomatized mantle. To cite this article: H. El Hadi et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  9. Impact de la littérature indigène au Brésil : une redéfinition des théories euro-occidentales

    OpenAIRE

    Behr , Héloïse

    2017-01-01

    As Karl Marx summarized, the colonized "cannot represent themselves; they must berepresented.” The Natives of Brazil have always held a special place in Brazilianliterature. Since the 80s, they have become the subject of their works.From Metade Cara, Metade Máscara Eliane Potiguara (2004); Falling from the sky.Words of a Yanomami shaman co-written by the shaman Davi Kopenawa andanthropologist Bruce Albert (2010) and Geografia indígena jointly by teachers intraining from Parque Indígena do Xin...

  10. Effects of the global changes on the aquatic ecosystems in West Europe - role of the plankton communities; Effets des changements globaux sur les ecosystemes aquatiques d'Europe Occidentale - role des communautes planctoniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souissi, S. [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Ecosystem COmplexity REsearch Group, Station Marine de Wimereux, CNRS - FRE 2816 ELICO, 62 - Wimereux (France)

    2007-07-01

    Examination of long-term records of aquatic ecosystems has provided useful information to find out their major driving forces. Understanding the impact of climate change on these ecosystems, the management of their resources and the extrapolation between sites are the main scopes of actual and emerging studies. Such goals can be achieved by inter-site and inter-ecosystem comparisons. This approach was undertaken during our project which has the originality to tackle with marine and freshwater ecosystems. It allowed us to compile and validate several multi-decadal time series of planktonic and other physical driving forces at local and regional scales. Then, the same methodology based on the analysis of the variability of climate indices and biological data across several spatial scales was used. The different ecosystems analyzed here showed clear response to the North Atlantic climate variability. Although the local differences abrupt changes in community composition occurred in all ecosystems in the middle of the years 80. During this period there was also a major shift in climatic conditions during winter and early spring, suggesting an impact of climatic factors. Phenological changes were also observed in plankton communities in all sites. The consequences of the modifications of plankton dynamics on higher trophic levels were also showed. Fluctuations in plankton have resulted in long-term changes in cod recruitment in the North Sea (bottom-up control). On the other hand, both climate change and the improvement of trophic status in Geneva Lake favored the outbreak of whitefish during the years 90. Lower larval mortality and better recruitment are supposed to be linked to faster growth associated with warmer temperatures and better food conditions induced by better temporal overlap between larvae hatching and zooplankton development. (author)

  11. Western oil companies in the eighties and nineties: from multi-nationalization to globalization?; Les compagnies petrolieres occidentales dans les decennies quatre-vingt et quatre-vingt-dix: de la multinationalisation a la globalisation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, B. [Grenoble-1 Univ., 38 (France)

    1997-12-31

    Ways and intensity of trans-nationalization process of Western oil companies have dramatically changed over the last thirty years. After a decline from 1970 to 1984, a new era of investment extraversion from home base is developing. We discuss then the extent to witch this new era is a part of a larger process of firms globalization interacting witch political internationalization. The existence of a clear globalization trend is recognized inside the oil industry, but with a persisting specificity coming from the access conditions to the oil deposits. (author)

  12. De la plate-forme urgonienne au bassin vocontien : le Barrémo-Bédoulien des Alpes occidentales entre Isère et Buëch (Vercors méridional, Diois oriental et Dévoluy)

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaud , Hubert

    1981-01-01

    Vol. 1 : Stratigraphie. Vol. 2 : Sédimentologie et paléogéographie. Vol. 3 (écrit en commun avec Annie Arnaud-Vanneau) : Atlas des microfaciès et de la microfaune de la plate-forme urgonienne entre la Chartreuse et le Dévoluy Géologie alpine. Mémoire.- 1981, n° 12; Entre la plate-forme urgonienne et la bordure septentrionale du bassin vocontien, les assises barrémo-bédouliennes du Vercors, de la zone de Borne et du Dévoluy sont caractérisées par des variations constantes d'épaisseur et de fac...

  13. The plutonium as transfer tracer and particulates contribution accumulating from the Rhone to the north-western Mediterranean sea; Le plutonium comme traceur du transfert et de l`accumulation des apports particulaires du Rhone en Mediterranee nord-occidentale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, M.H.

    1996-03-29

    To follow the alluvial deposits from the Rhone in Mediterranean Sea, since the principle hydroelectric constructions (1960), it was necessary to find an adequate tracer. The plutonium isotopes have satisfied to the different characteristics. The specificity of the Rhone contribution is bound to the existence of the irradiated spent fuels reprocessing plant of Marcoule; the releases of this plant are characterized by the predominance of Plutonium 238. The results of this study show that the percentage of sediments coming from the Rhone in the recent contribution, is low beyond the pro delta: less than 5% of the sediment of the continental shelf concern the Rhone contribution. However, there are two zones for which the contribution is important and could play a role in the particulate transfer towards the high sea. (N.C.). 157 refs., 60 figs., 50 tabs.

  14. Lutte contre les ravageurs des stocks de céréales et de légumineuses au Sénégal et en Afrique occidentale : synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guèye, MT.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling pests of cereals and legumes in Senegal and West Africa: a review. Post-harvest losses of cereals and legumes are a major problem in Senegal and West Africa. The solutions to eliminate insects, major pests of stored products were mainly chemical. However, due to pollution associated with pesticides use, selection of resistant strains, environmental pollution, poisoning, the search for alternatives is needed. It is reported on different methods of protecting stocks performed alternatively or in combination with pesticides. The major pest species encountered, particularly Prostephanus truncatus (Horn, insect emerging in Senegal, could be controlled by alternative methods including specially the use of insecticide plants. Different aspects related to this alternative way to chemical pesticides are reviewed herein.

  15. Arte rupestre paleolítico y postpaleolítico al aire libre en los Montes de Toledo occidentales (Toledo, Castilla - La Mancha, España: noticia preliminar

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    Jesús F. JORDÁ PARDO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se dan a conocer en este trabajo los grabados y pinturas rupestres localizados recientemente en el extremo occidental de los Montes de Toledo (comarca toledana de La Jara en la vertiente meridional de la Cuenca del Tajo. Una primera zona, situada en el valle del río Huso, se desarrolla al aire libre sobre afloramientos de pizarras y en ella se localizan al menos dos conjuntos rupestres: uno caracterizado por grabados de trazo fino atribuidos al Paleolítico Superior y otro realizado mediante diversas técnicas de grabado con una cronología muy amplia desde la Prehistoria reciente hasta épocas históricas. La segunda zona corresponde al valle del río Gévalo y por el momento corresponde a un único gran abrigo desarrollado en cuarcitas en cuyas paredes aparecen pinturas rojas atribuibles a la Prehistoria reciente sobre las que se superponen grabados de trazo fino y repiqueteado con elementos claramente prehistóricos y otros con un marcado carácter histórico.ABSTRACT: This paper deals with rock art findings recently located on the Western edge of Toledo Mountains at the Southern slope of Tagus Basin. The first finding área, placed in the valley of the Huso River, is an open air rock art site on shale outcrop where two main groups of patterns may be seen: fine - line engravings from Upper Palaeolithic times as well as several motifs using various engraving techniques rahging a wider time span from later prehistoric ages to historical times. The second área lies in the valley of the Gévalo River and is a large quartzite rock shelter containing on his walls red paintings dated on Postpalaeolithic times that placed under engravings made using fine-line and beating techbiques both from prehistórica! and historical ages.

  16. La guerra asimétrica. Una lectura crítica de la transformación de las doctrinas militares occidentales Asymmetric War. A Critical Reading of the Transformation of Western Military Doctrines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Zelik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de que contradicen la concepción de ''conflictos de baja intensidad'', las ocupaciones de Irak y Afganistán están fuertemente influidas por los conceptos más antiguos de las ''guerras pequeñas'' -small wars- y de las ''intervenciones de bajo perfil'' -low footprint interventions-. El autor describe la evolución del concepto de 'guerra asimétrica' y se argumenta que la conducción asimétrica de la guerra ha sido un elemento de las estrategias bélicas de Occidente durante el siglo XX, mucho antes de que concluyera la confrontación de los bloques o aparecieran las llamadas ''nuevas guerras'' -new wars-. El autor identifica tres tendencias en la evolución de la guerra en conexión con los conflictos asimétricos: 1 una reorientación que conduce de los asuntos militares al problema del control social de la población; 2 una irregularización de la violencia, que implica una ruptura con las leyes y los acuerdos internacionales, y 3 la subcontratación -outsourcing- del ejercicio de la guerra a fuerzas irregulares aliadas, tales como corporaciones militares privadas, milicias, grupos paramilitares, señores de la guerra e incluso, crimen organizado.In spite of contradicting the concept of ''low intensity conflicts'', the military occupations of Iraq and Afghanistan are strongly influenced by older concepts of ''small wars'' and ''low footprint'' interventions. The author outlines the development of the notion of ''asymmetric war'' and argues that asymmetric warfare has been an element of Western military strategies throughout the 20th century-long before the end of the block confrontation and the emergence of so called ''new wars.'' The author identifies three tendencies of state warfare in the context of asymmetric conflicts: 1 a reorientation that leads from military issues to the problem of social control of the population, 2 an irregularization of state violence implying the breaking of laws and international conventions, and 3 the outsourcing of warfare to allied irregular forces such as private military companies, militias, paramilitary groups, warlords and even organized crime.

  17. Être là ou ne pas être là – esquisse de typologie du spectral dans quelques œuvres littéraires occidentales contemporaines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Grall

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abrstact (english Contemporary realistic fiction sometimes includes features which echo ancient ghost tales. Some characters come back after their death, other experience great difficulties inhabiting the present, as if they were haunted. Can we suggest and interpret a categorization of such novels ? A varied corpus enables us to make a few hypotheses, to be explored in further  research developments. Novels in French, English, Spanish, Portuguese, German or Serbian reveal at least three non exclusive groups : the past, other  cultures, unaccomplished revolutions trouble realistic writings, that can be enlightened by theories of the novel (Ricœur, Pavel, theses taken from aesthtetics (Warburg, Foster, Didi-Hubermann, ideas coming from cultural studies and philosophy (Bhabha, Zizek, Derrida. Through such fictions, the reader is confronted with radical forms of alterity which he cannot ignore. It is a new « ideographic » dimension (to borrow Pavel’s word in La Pensée du roman, in which the paradigm of actions is replaced by pathetic patterns which take on broader social and ethical issues.   Résumeé (français La fiction contemporaine soucieuse du monde actuel accueille parfois, de manière paradoxale, des phénomènes qui font penser aux récits de fantômes anciens : certains  personnages sont des revenants, d’autres, comme hantés, éprouvent de vraies difficultés à vivre au présent. Peut-on définir une typologie de ces personnages et celle-ci peut-elle être interprétée? Un corpus assez varié permet d’esquisser des hypothèses, à développer dans un travail plus ample. Des romans de langues française, anglaise, espagnole, portugaise, allemande, serbe révèlent au moins trois grandes catégories, qui ne sont pas exclusives : le passé, l’autre culture, la révolution non accomplie travaillent des écritures que l’on peut éclairer grâce à des théories du roman (Ricœur, Pavel, des emprunts à l’esthétique plastique (Warburg, Foster, Didi-Hubermann et à des considérations culturalistes et philosophiques (Bhabha, Zizek, Derrida. Ces fictions qui mettent en scène un monde réaliste font éprouver une altérité radicale en son sein même, comme une nécessité à reconnaître : il s’agit d’une nouvelle dimension idéographique de la fiction (selon le mot de Pavel dans La Pensée du roman, où la paradigme actantiel cède au profit de formes pathétiques qui expriment des enjeux collectifs.

  18. Intestinal digestibility of protein of adapted forages and by-products in Brazilian Northeast by three-steps technique Digestão intestinal da proteína de forrageiras e co-produtos da agroindústria produzidos no Nordeste Brasileiro por intermédio da técnica de três estágios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gilson Lousada Regadas Filho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed to estimate the intestinal digestibility (ID of rumen-undegradable protein (RUDP of several feeds by a three-steps procedure. The evaluated forages were algaroba (Prosopis juliflora, canafístula (Pithecellobium multiflorum, flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera, jitirana (Ipomea sp., juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro, mata-pasto (Senna obtusifolia, sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth, palma gigante (Opuntia ficus indica and xique-xique (Cereus gounellei, and the agroindustry byproducts were pineapple (Ananas comosus L., barbados cherry (Malpighia emarginata, cashew (Anacardium occidentale, coconut (Cocos nucifera L., melon (Cucumis melo, passion fruit (Passiflora eduli, grape (Vitis labrusca and anatto seeds (Bixa orellana L.. The feeds were incubated in rumen during 16 hours to determine the RUDP, and the residue was submitted to the digestion with pepsin solution during one hour, and pancreatic solution during 24 hours at 38ºC, those residues were analyzed for total nitrogen. The estimative of RUDP forage ranged from 13.37 to 83.6%, and the RUDP by-product ranged from 39.14 to 89.06%. The intestinal digestion of RUDP of the forages ranged from 26.09 to 80.68%, while for by-products varied from 22.26 to 76.82%. The sabiá was the forage that presented the highest intestinal digestibility and digestive rumen-undegradable protein (RUDPd, and the flor-de-seda, the lowest digestibility; while for by-products, melon and cashew presented, respectively, the highest values for DI and RUDP. The coconut presented the lowest values for ID and RUDPd. Although, some formulation systems of diets for ruminant consider that the RUDP present constant ID, the data obtained in this work suggest variation among the different feeds.A pesquisa objetivou estimar a digestibilidade intestinal (DI da proteína não-degradada no rúmen (PNDR de alimentos por intermédio da técnica de três estágios. As forragens avaliadas foram algaroba (Prosopis juliflora

  19. Non-overlap of hosts used by three congeneric and sympatric loranthaceous mistletoe species in an Amazonian savanna: host generalization to extreme specialization Não-sobreposição de hospedeiros utilizados por três espécies de ervas-de-passarinho lorantáceas congêneres e simpátricas em uma savana Amazônica: generalização pelo hospedeiroà extrema especialização

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    Rodrigo Ferreira Fadini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Two main hypotheses predominate in the literature on mistletoe-host specificity: (1 mistletoes are only likely to specialize on plant species on which they are frequently deposited; and (2 compatibility between mistletoes and plant species is a prerequisite for mistletoe-host parasitism. I explored these hypotheses by studying the seed deposition patterns and mistletoe-host compatibility in populations of three congeneric and sympatric mistletoe species of the genus Psittacanthus (P. biternatus, P. eucalyptifolius and P. plagiophyllus - Loranthaceae. I recorded the presence or absence of these mistletoe species in 15 tree species in a savanna patch in Amazonia. Among the five tree species that I found to be potential hosts (at least one tree individual infected, I also recorded if they had at least one mistletoe seed of any species attached to their branches. Finally, I planted seeds of all mistletoe species on the same individual trees in various hosts and non-host species and recorded seed survivorship and seedling establishment within 7 (P. plagiophyllus to 12 months (P. biternatus and P. eucalyptifolius after planting. There was no overlap among trees used as hosts by the three Psittacanthus species. Th e most specialized mistletoe species occurred in different host tree species with low relative abundance at the study site (Psittacanthus eucalyptifolius on Vatairea macrocarpa (Benth. Ducke, and P. plagiophyllus on Anacardium occidentale L.. Mistletoe-host compatibility, and not seed deposition patterns, was the factor most likely to explain patterns of host use by Psittacanthus species at this study site.Duas hipóteses principais predominam na literatura sobre a especificidade entre ervas-de-passarinho e hospedeiros: (1 ervas-de-passarinho só poderão se especializar em espécies de plantas em que elas são frequentemente depositadas; e (2 compatibilidade entre as ervas-depassarinho e as espécies de plantas é um prerequisito para o

  20. Physicochemical properties and mineral and protein content of honey samples from Ceará state, Northeastern Brazil Propriedades físico-químicas, minerais e teor de proteínas em amostras de méis do estado do Ceará, nordeste do Brasil

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    Maria da Conceição Tavares Cavalcanti Liberato

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the physicochemical properties and protein and mineral content of honey samples from Ceará State, Northeastern Brazil, one of the major honey exporters in the country. Nutritional importance of the minerals detected was also analyzed. Physicochemical properties were examined according to the AOAC and CAC official methods; the protein content was determined using the Bradford method, and the minerals were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. All analyses were performed in triplicate. The levels of macrominerals sodium (Na, potassium (K, calcium (Ca, and magnesium (Mg varied from 1.80-47.20, 21.30-1513.30, 14.58-304.82, and 2.48-28.33 mg/kg, respectively, and the trace elements iron (Fe, copper (Cu, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, selenium (Se, and chromium (Cr varied from 0.12-8.76, 0.07-1.29, 0.06-1.96, 0.07-1.85 mg/kg, 0.36 × 10-3-62.00 × 10-3 and 22.50 × 10-3-170.33 × 10-3 µg/kg, respectively. Myracrodruon urundeuva honey sample had high contents of macrominerals (Na, K, Ca, and Mg. Protein content of the Anacardium occidentale honey sample was the highest (1121.00 µg/g among the samples analyzed. Among the minerals detected in the honey samples, K showed the highest concentration, followed by Ca, Na, and Mg. The presence of trace elements can show environmental contamination. The honey samples studied were free of trace elements contamination, except for Mn; the Piptadenia moniliformis was the only honey sample that was in compliance with the law requirements. The variations of the chemical constituents in the honey samples are probably related to differences in the floral origin and mineral and protein contents and confirm the nutritional importance of Ceará State honey.Este trabalho avaliou propriedades físico-químicas, teores de proteína e minerais em méis do Ceará, um dos principais exportadores do País. Também foi analisada a importância nutricional com relação aos minerais detectados. As

  1. Diversidade e uso de recursos medicinais do carrasco na APA da Serra da Ibiapaba, Piauí, Nordeste do Brasil Diversity and use of medicinal resources of "carrasco" in the EPA of Serra da Ibiapaba, Piauí, Northeast Brazil

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    E.M.F. Chaves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado na Área de Proteção Ambiental da Serra da Ibiapaba no município de Cocal, Piauí. Objetivou-se realizar o levantamento das plantas utilizadas pela comunidade, das partes usadas, das indicações, das formas de uso e de administração dessas plantas. Foram realizadas 80 entrevistas com 100% dos moradores de notório saber, residentes no município que utilizavam e/ou comercializavam plantas de uso medicinal. Para definição da amostra utilizou-se o método de bola de neve. Em incursões guiadas por membros da comunidade, foram coletadas as etnoespécies citadas. Após essa etapa, as espécies foram identificadas em laboratório e calculado o Fator de Consenso dos Informantes (FCI para cada categoria de doença. O material foi incorporado ao acervo do Herbário Graziela Barroso (TEPB/UFPI. Foram identificadas 76 espécies, distribuídas em 61 gêneros e 36 famílias. Sobresairam-se Leguminosae com 22 espécies (28,9%, seguida por Euphorbiaceae com 6 (7,8%, e Solanaceae 4 (5,2%. Os gêneros Croton L. e Hymenaea L. obtiveram o maior destaque, somando 8 (10,5% do total de espécies. As espécies mais presentes nas indicações de uso foram Ximenia americana com 14 (5,9%, Tabebuia impetiginosa com 9 (3,9% e Anacardium occidentale com 7 (2,9%. Observou-se que 80,5% dos entrevistados tinham mais de 50 anos e residiam no município a mais de 20 anos, sendo que 70% possuíam apenas ensino fundamental incompleto e 20 % eram analfabetos. Houve maior consenso entre os informantes para tratamento das doenças do sistema respiratório (0,66 e do aparelho digestório (0,65. A maioria das indicações de usos 81 (34,17% relatados para 28 (36,8% das espécies visavam curar males do sistema respiratório, tais como asma, bronquite, gripe, inflamação na garganta, pneumonia e sinusite. Para o preparo dos remédios, as partes mais utilizadas foram as cascas (30,5%, as folhas (29,4% e as raízes (12,6%. As preparações mais

  2. Comparación entre formas de amostragen en estudios etnobotânicos en la comunidad rural Carrasco, Ciudad de Arapiraca, Alagoas, Brasil

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    Janimara Marques-Da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Estudios etnobotánicos ayudan en la elaboración de estrategias conservacionistas y muchas son las maneras que se tienen de colectar los datos para tales estudios. Para obtener información segura que permita decidir acciones conservacionistas surge la necesidad de comparar los métodos de colecta existentes. Así, este trabajo tuvo como objetivo comparar la efi cacia de distintas técnicas de colecta de datos etnobotánicos, partiendo de una herramienta básica, la entrevista. La investigación fue realizada en la Comunidad Rural Carrasco, que se ubica en la ciudad de Arapiraca, región Agreste del Estado de Alagoas, en Brasil. Fue presentado un Plazo de Consentimiento Libre y Esclarecido para los informantes que participaron de la pesquisa, todos con más de 18 años de edad. Se aplicó entrevistas semiestructuradas y para el muestreo fueron empleadas tres metodologías de colecta de datos: snowball, censo y sorteo. En la técnica snowball, participaron 42 informantes, en el censo 173 y en el sorteo se consideró 130 entrevistas. En el sorteo y en el censo la planta más recordada frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. enmarcada en la categoría agrícola, en el snowball la más recordada fue el ‘cajueiro’ (Anacardium occidentale L., categoría alimenticia. Se concluyó que la elección de la técnica de colecta empleada debe tener congruencia con los objetivos de la investigación, ya cada una tiene sus peculiaridades. El snowball posibilitó la identifi cación de especialistas locales así como la optimización del tiempo de realización de la pesquisa y el censo posibilitó un mayor número de informaciones, el sorteo se mostró muy efi caz para delimitar la muestra de la población que será estudiada en la pesquisa cuando ésta es muy alta. Resalta que las tres técnicas permitieron defi nir un perfi l de la comunidad, siendo éste agrícola, una vez que las plantas de cultivo agrícola fueron las más acordadas y habladas.Estudos etnobot

  3. Qualidade de pedúnculos de caju submetidos à aplicação pós-colheita de cálcio e armazenados sob refrigeração Quality of cashew pseudofruits treated with calcium at postharvest and stored under refrigeration

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    Raimundo Wilane de Figueiredo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de cálcio pós-colheita nas características químicas, físico-químicas e nos teores de cálcio em pedúnculos de cajueiro-anão precoce CCP-76, submetidos a armazenamento refrigerado sob atmosfera modificada. Os cajus foram imersos em água e em soluções com diferentes concentrações de cloreto de cálcio (0,5, 1 e 2% p/v, por dois minutos. Os cajus foram acondicionados em bandejas de isopor, envolvidos em filme de PVC e armazenados a 5±1°C e 88±3% de umidade relativa, durante 25 dias. Os teores de sólidos solúveis e açúcares solúveis diminuíram durante o armazenamento. Os pedúnculos de caju, independentemente da dose de cálcio, apresentaram tendência à diminuição da acidez e da vitamina C com o armazenamento, enquanto o pH apresentou um pequeno e gradual crescimento. Não houve variação nas antocianinas, nos pseudofrutos de caju tratados com cálcio. Verificaram-se pequenas reduções nas frações fenólicas menos polimerizadas, durante o armazenamento. O cálcio aplicado nas doses de 0,5 e 2% aumentou os teores de cálcio nos pedúnculos até o 15º dia, com diminuição posterior até o final do experimento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of postharvest calcium applications on chemical and physico-chemical characteristics, quality atributes and calcium tissue concentration of early dwarf cashew pseudofruits (Anacardium occidentale L., stored under refrigeration and modified atmosphere. The cashews were immersed in water and in different calcium chloride solution concentrations (0.5, 1 and 2% (w/v for two minutes. Cashews were put in polysterene trays, packed in polyvinyl chloride (PVC and storaged at 5±1°C, 88±3% RH for 25 days. The total soluble solids (Brix and soluble sugars decreased during storage. The pseudofruits, independent of the chloride calcium concentration, showed a tendency to decrease the total titratable acidity

  4. SIMULTANEOUS SELECTION FOR GENOTYPIC PRODUCTION, ADAPTABILITY, AND STABILITY IN CASHEW CLONES BY MIXED MODELS SELEÇÃO SIMULTÂNEA PARA PRODUÇÃO, ADAPTABILIDADE E ESTABILIDADE GENOTÍPICAS EM CLONES DE CAJUEIRO, VIA MODELOS MISTOS

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    José Jaime Vasconcelos Cavalcanti

    2009-01-01

    genotypic adaptability and stability. The experiments were set up employing a complete block design, with eleven treatments, three repetitions and five plants per plot. The results showed an alteration in the clone order, in the different environments, as reflected from the genotypic correlation of average magnitude (0.58. The heritability of clones presented moderate to high magnitude for the different traits, indicating excellent possibilities for selection, allowing selective accuracy of 83%. The methods MHVG, PRVG, and MHPRVG can be part of selective criteria in the cashew breeding program.

     

    KEY-WORDS: Anacardium occidentale; genotype x environment interaction; BLUP/REML.

  1. African Journal of Political Science - Vol 4, No 2 (1999)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'implication Des Puissances Occidentales Dans Les Processus De Démocratisation En Afrique: Analyse Des Actions Américaine Et Française Au Cameroun (1989-1997) · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Martin Dieudonné Ebolo, 46-88.

  2. Editorial - Les Defis de la Pratique medicale en Afrique sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La solution à ce dilemme semble se trouver dans un assemblage harmonieux entre les valeurs profondes de l'Afrique, notamment l'esprit de solidarité, et les certitudes de la technologie occidentale. C'est à cette transhumance intellectuelle que les praticiens du continent doivent se livrer pour réduire les disparités de prise ...

  3. La suerte de la inteligencia

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    Iván Ulchur Collazos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Confirma que la telenovela latinoamericana es el principal medio de expresión del continente, con más penetración que el cine, la novela o el teatro. Analiza "Betty la fea" que rompe con estereotipos occidentales de que las mujeres son solo objetos para la apetencia de los machos.

  4. 11 Penel 03

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Philosophy and his academic career has taken him to .... and chief councillor of the AOF (L'Afrique Occidentale Française – French West Africa, the fe- ... Dosso and agreed to assist Med Hondo, the Mauritanian film director, when he wanted to ...

  5. Cómo mejorar el diagnóstico de esofagitis eosinofílica: experiencia de una serie de casos en México

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    R. Soto-Solís

    2017-01-01

    Conclusiones: Los pacientes con EEo en México tienen características similares a los de series occidentales. La sospecha clínica incrementa el diagnóstico por endoscopia hasta en un 40% cuando se mejora el conocimiento acerca de la enfermedad.

  6. Bangalore, ville des nouvelles technologies

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    Clarisse Didelon

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Bangalore est devenue la Silicon Valley de l’Inde. Une partie de ses habitants y vit à l’occidentale mais le reste de la population souffre de la croissance spectaculaire de la ville. Face à l’insuffisance des infrastructures, Bangalore devient de moins en moins attractive pour les entreprises internationales.

  7. Classi plurilingue in condizioni di super-diversita

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spotti, Max

    2015-01-01

    Il plurilinguismo nelle classi è e rimane un punto di preoccupazione per gli insegnanti fin dall'inizio della scuola dell'obbligo. In Italia, cosi come in tutta l’Europa occidentale, da quando le scuole hanno aperto le loro porte ai bambini appartenenti a comunità immigrate, i docenti si sono dovuti

  8. Genetic diversity of seed lipid content and fatty acid composition in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity in seed oil content and fatty acid composition in six wild species of genus Sesamum viz., Sesamum mulayanum, Sesamum capense, Sesamum laciniatum, Sesamum latifolium, Sesamum occidentale and Sesamum schinzianum were studied and compared with the cultivated species Sesamum indicum or ...

  9. Résultats de recherche | Page 418 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Plus de 30 ans après l'accession à l'indépendance de plusieurs pays de l'Afrique occidentale, la région reste très divisée. Et les différences commerciales, linguistiques et culturelles accentuent cette division. Publication Date. 1 janvier 1995. Livres ...

  10. Sud du Sahara | Page 279 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Lors de sa visite en Afrique occidentale, en août, l'honorable Marie-Claude Bibeau, ... recognizable from the cluster of red grains emerging from between its leaves; ... Un projet financé par le CRDI mise sur la technologie des textos pour lutter ...

  11. 4. Bend.pmd

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    sulaiman.adebowale

    25 févr. 2008 ... C'est après la deuxième guerre mondiale que naît la notion de ..... cependant pas à ignorer des situations qui, très contrastées à l'échelle de la ..... nante occidentale, ils ne semblent cependant pas préconiser autre chose que.

  12. Diasporicità sull’esempio di Erich Auerbach in Gad Lerner e Miro Silvera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.M.; Arts, Clemens

    2011-01-01

    A partire dall’esilio di Erich Auerbach a Istanbul dal 1936 al 1947, il contributo propone una riflessione sui concetti di diaspora e di esilio da adattare a due scrittori italo‐ebrei provenienti dalla diaspora orientale: Miro Silvera con Il passeggero occidentale (2009) e Gad Lerner con Scintille

  13. Secondary metabolite comparison of the species within the Heterobasidion annosum s.l. complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, David; Wubshet, Sileshi Gizachew; Olson, Åke

    2014-01-01

    The metabolite production of the five members of the fungal species complex Heterobasidion annosum s.l., i.e. H. annosum s.s., H. abietinum, H. parviporum, H. occidentale and H. irregulare, was analyzed by LC–HRMS. The five members are described to have differences in host preferences: H. annosum...

  14. Le CRDI félicite la première cohorte de chercheuses en science des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 mai 2018 .... de la biomasse africaine, ainsi que les répercussions de la pollution atmosphérique sur la santé en Afrique occidentale. ... et les températures extrêmes en Côte d'Ivoire dans le contexte de l'Accord de Paris sur le climat.

  15. Compostos voláteis em méis florais Volatile compounds in floral honeys

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    Carlos Alberto Bastos De Maria

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A review about origin, composition and importance of volatile compounds in floral honeys is presented. Hydrocarbons, aromatic components, acids, diacids, terpenoids, ketones, aldehydes, esters and alcohols have been found in honey aroma of different botanical origin. Cis-rose oxide has been proposed as an indicator for Tilia cordata honey. Citrus honeys are known to contain methyl anthranilate, a compound which other honeys virtually lack. Linalool, phenylethylalcohol, phenylacetaldehyde, p-anisaldehyde and benzaldehyde are important contributors for the aroma of different unifloral honeys. Both isovaleric acid, gama-decalactone and benzoic acid appears to be important odourants for Anarcadium occidentale and Croton sp. honeys from Brazil. The furfurylmercaptan, benzyl alcohol, delta-octalactone, eugenol, phenylethylalcohol and guaiacol appear to be only relevant compounds for Anarcadium occidentale. The vanillin was considered an important odourant only for Croton sp..

  16. Presence of large and medium-sized mammals in a burned pine forest in southwestern Turkey

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    Anil Soyumert

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto
    Presenza di grandi e medi mammiferi in pinete incendiate della Turchia sud-occidentale
    Nel periodo Novembre 2005-Agosto 2006, è stata verificata, tramite trappole fotografiche, la presenza di mammiferi di grandi e medie dimensioni in foreste di Pinus brutia integre e incendiate della Turchia sud-occidentale. Sono state ottenute fotografie di tre specie, cinghiale (Sus scrofa, volpe (Vulpes vulpes e faina (Martes foina. Le prime due sono state rinvenute in entrambe le aree, mentre la faina è stata accertata solo in boschi incendiati. I risultati del presente studio suggeriscono che gli stadi successionali intermedi successivi ai roghi possono essere ricolonizzati dalle comunità di mammiferi.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-21.1-4488

  17. Acupuncture

    CERN Multimedia

    Chao Ming Te

    1972-01-01

    M.Bloess présente le Docteur Chao Ming Te, un des plus grands experts en médecine chinoise (acupuncture). Il a commencé ses études en Chine en médecine occidentale. Après avoir vu des très grands effets par les aiguilles, il s'est intéressé à cette médecine qui est pour nous difficile à comprendre. Il est allé à la source et a appris cette médecin en Chine et a lu les anciens textes, qui sont la base de la médecine chinoise et datent de 1000 ans avant J.C. Il a essayé de transmettre ses connaissances en médecine chinoise aux médecins occidentales et a aussi écrit un livre.

  18. South of Sahara | Page 11 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La productivité agricole en Afrique centrale et occidentale demeure faible, mais il existe un solide potentiel de recherche pour améliorer la sécurité alimentaire et la nutrition dans la région. La mise en place d'une production agricole durable est essentielle à des stratégies efficaces pour une croissance économique durable ...

  19. Les attaques des Termites (Isoptera) dans les parcelles de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 août 2016 ... habitations, les agro systèmes et les pâturages dans une savane sahélienne à Matam. (Sénégal). Mémoire de DEA, Université Ch. A. Diop de Dakar, pp. 51. Silvestri F : 1914-15. Contribuzione alla conoscenza dei. Termitidi e Termitophili dell'Africa occidentale. I. Termitidi. Bolletino del Laboratorio di ...

  20. Dégâts des bruches sur le pouvoir germinatif des graines de quatre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    29 févr. 2016 ... cultures vivrières de base en Afrique Occidentale et centrale (MULEBA et al., 1997). En RD Congo il est ... correspondant à deux cycles de reproduction, avec des trous ou des œufs sur elles. Les trous ... tout simplement de déterminer le nombre des bruches et leurs espèces à charger dans chaque boite ...

  1. L’économie politique de l’ "aide boomerang" dans la Région autonome du Tibet

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    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractCet article explique comment la contestation de la domination chinoise au Tibet est exacerbée par la croissance rapide que les régions tibétaines de Chine occidentale connaissent depuis le milieu des années 1990. Dans un contexte général où les populations tibétaines continuent à ne pas

  2. La Geografia dell’Antidistopia. Come mappare l’ecologismo contemporaneo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Foti

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available E’ con il 1968 e la Contestazione che l’ecologismo entra di prepotenza nella scena pubblica occidentale. In Nordamerica, grazie alla pubblicazione di Silent Spring di Rachel Carson – testo fondativo dell’ambientalismo sugli effetti nefasti del DDT sulla catena alimentare – e alle grandi manifestazioni legate all’istituzione dell’Earth Day (1970, l’ecologismo lavora in profondità nella società civile, dando vita a ONG internazionali del peso di Greenpeace.

  3. Anelídeos poliquetos associados a um briozoário: II. Palmyridae Polychaetous annelids associated to a bryozoan: II. Palmyridae

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    Eloisa H Morgado

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Palmyridae were found in colonies of the bryozoan Schizoporella unicorns (Johnston: Bhawania brunea new for the science, and Chrysopetalum occidentale Johnson, cited for the first time for the Brazilian coast. These two species are described and their distribution is established. Bhawania brunea sp. nov. is conspicuously characterized by the structures on the prostomium and the configuration of the paleae.

  4. Gender | Page 25 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La productivité agricole en Afrique centrale et occidentale demeure faible, mais il existe un solide potentiel de recherche pour améliorer la sécurité alimentaire et la nutrition dans la région. La mise en place d'une production agricole durable est essentielle à des stratégies efficaces pour une croissance économique durable ...

  5. Le suivi de la pauvreté dans les Philippines | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 juil. 2011 ... La province de Palawan, formée d'un étroit archipel de 1 700 îles qui bordent la frontière occidentale des Philippines, est saisissante par sa beauté — et son extrême pauvreté. Beaucoup de ses habitants n'ont ni eau potable, ni installations sanitaires adéquates, ni électricité. Un grand nombre sont illettrés, ...

  6. Experimental evidence for the ancestry of allotetraploid Trifolium repens and creation of synthetic forms with value for plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Warren M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background White clover (Trifolium repens is a ubiquitous weed of the temperate world that through use of improved cultivars has also become the most important legume of grazed pastures world-wide. It has long been suspected to be allotetraploid, but the diploid ancestral species have remained elusive. Putative diploid ancestors were indicated by DNA sequence phylogeny to be T. pallescens and T. occidentale. Here, we use further DNA evidence as well as a combination of molecular cytogenetics (FISH and GISH and experimental hybridization to test the hypothesis that white clover originated as a hybrid between T. pallescens and T. occidentale. Results T. pallescens plants were identified with chloroplast trnL intron DNA sequences identical to those of white clover. Similarly, T. occidentale plants with nuclear ITS sequences identical to white clover were also identified. Reciprocal GISH experiments, alternately using labeled genomic DNA probes from each of the putative ancestral species on the same white clover cells, showed that half of the chromosomes hybridized with each probe. F1 hybrids were generated by embryo rescue and these showed strong interspecific chromosome pairing and produced a significant frequency of unreduced gametes, indicating the likely mode of polyploidization. The F1 hybrids are inter-fertile with white clover and function as synthetic white clovers, a valuable new resource for the re-incorporation of ancestral genomes into modern white clover for future plant breeding. Conclusions Evidence from DNA sequence analyses, molecular cytogenetics, interspecific hybridization and breeding experiments supports the hypothesis that a diploid alpine species (T. pallescens hybridized with a diploid coastal species (T. occidentale to generate tetraploid T. repens. The coming together of these two narrowly adapted species (one alpine and the other maritime, along with allotetraploidy, has led to a transgressive hybrid with a

  7. Experimental evidence for the ancestry of allotetraploid Trifolium repens and creation of synthetic forms with value for plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Warren M; Ellison, Nicholas W; Ansari, Helal A; Verry, Isabelle M; Hussain, S Wajid

    2012-04-24

    White clover (Trifolium repens) is a ubiquitous weed of the temperate world that through use of improved cultivars has also become the most important legume of grazed pastures world-wide. It has long been suspected to be allotetraploid, but the diploid ancestral species have remained elusive. Putative diploid ancestors were indicated by DNA sequence phylogeny to be T. pallescens and T. occidentale. Here, we use further DNA evidence as well as a combination of molecular cytogenetics (FISH and GISH) and experimental hybridization to test the hypothesis that white clover originated as a hybrid between T. pallescens and T. occidentale. T. pallescens plants were identified with chloroplast trnL intron DNA sequences identical to those of white clover. Similarly, T. occidentale plants with nuclear ITS sequences identical to white clover were also identified. Reciprocal GISH experiments, alternately using labeled genomic DNA probes from each of the putative ancestral species on the same white clover cells, showed that half of the chromosomes hybridized with each probe. F1 hybrids were generated by embryo rescue and these showed strong interspecific chromosome pairing and produced a significant frequency of unreduced gametes, indicating the likely mode of polyploidization. The F1 hybrids are inter-fertile with white clover and function as synthetic white clovers, a valuable new resource for the re-incorporation of ancestral genomes into modern white clover for future plant breeding. Evidence from DNA sequence analyses, molecular cytogenetics, interspecific hybridization and breeding experiments supports the hypothesis that a diploid alpine species (T. pallescens) hybridized with a diploid coastal species (T. occidentale) to generate tetraploid T. repens. The coming together of these two narrowly adapted species (one alpine and the other maritime), along with allotetraploidy, has led to a transgressive hybrid with a broad adaptive range.

  8. L'espace mondial des grandes manifestations sportives internationales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel MATHIEU

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available La carte des grandes manifestations sportives mondiales montre une forte concentration des épreuves dans un petit nombre de pays développés, en particulier l'Europe occidentale. L'examen des nations concernées par les tournois majeurs du tennis et par le cyclisme professionnel soulignent, avec les nuances propres à chacun des sports, l'étroitesse des espaces intéressés.

  9. Simmetria e natura dalle armonie delle figure alle invarianze delle leggi

    CERN Document Server

    Castellani, Elena

    2000-01-01

    Dagli antichi in poi, la simmetria ha sempre esercitato una funzione importante nella storia del pensiero occidentale. Ma quale simmetria? Che cosa ha in comune la simmetria degli antichi, fondata sulla proporzione e sull’armonia, con la simmetria dei moderni e della scienza contemporanea? Il rapporto tra simmetria e natura apre una prospettiva privilegiata per intendere il concetto di simmetria nelle sue caratteristiche essenziali.

  10. Structures et dynamiques de l'espace gabonais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane LEROY

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available L’organisation spatiale du Gabon peut être envisagée comme le résultat de l’arrangement particulier de structures spatiales générales, communes à la grande majorité des pays côtiers de l’Afrique occidentale et équatoriale. La modélisation graphique permet de le vérifier.

  11. Pondération de la base juridique du droit au logement au Zimbabwe ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 déc. 2016 ... La criminalité et la pauvreté au Ghana urbain. La manière dont la criminalité et la pauvreté interagissent a été étudiée et débattue dans la littérature de recherche occidentale, mais on sait pe. Voir davantageLa criminalité et la pauvreté au Ghana urbain ...

  12. Le CRDI au Forum de la révolution verte en Afrique 2017 | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 oct. 2017 ... La criminalité et la pauvreté au Ghana urbain. La manière dont la criminalité et la pauvreté interagissent a été étudiée et débattue dans la littérature de recherche occidentale, mais on sait pe. Voir davantageLa criminalité et la pauvreté au Ghana urbain ...

  13. Un logiciel pour la justice | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 oct. 2010 ... La criminalité et la pauvreté au Ghana urbain. La manière dont la criminalité et la pauvreté interagissent a été étudiée et débattue dans la littérature de recherche occidentale, mais on sait pe. Voir davantageLa criminalité et la pauvreté au Ghana urbain ...

  14. IDRC at the Africa Green Revolution Forum 2017 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 oct. 2017 ... La criminalité et la pauvreté au Ghana urbain. La manière dont la criminalité et la pauvreté interagissent a été étudiée et débattue dans la littérature de recherche occidentale, mais on sait pe. Voir davantageLa criminalité et la pauvreté au Ghana urbain ...

  15. Pauvreté, croissance démographique et violence chez les jeunes ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 avr. 2016 ... La criminalité et la pauvreté au Ghana urbain. La manière dont la criminalité et la pauvreté interagissent a été étudiée et débattue dans la littérature de recherche occidentale, mais on sait pe. Voir davantageLa criminalité et la pauvreté au Ghana urbain ...

  16. Weighing the legal basis for housing rights in Zimbabwe | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 déc. 2016 ... La criminalité et la pauvreté au Ghana urbain. La manière dont la criminalité et la pauvreté interagissent a été étudiée et débattue dans la littérature de recherche occidentale, mais on sait pe. Voir davantageLa criminalité et la pauvreté au Ghana urbain ...

  17. Profil de la ville : Transformation et injustice à Mumbai | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 déc. 2016 ... La criminalité et la pauvreté au Ghana urbain. La manière dont la criminalité et la pauvreté interagissent a été étudiée et débattue dans la littérature de recherche occidentale, mais on sait pe. Voir davantageLa criminalité et la pauvreté au Ghana urbain ...

  18. Stealing the sacred: Why 'global heritage' discourse is perceived as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fomba gasy est un concept étroitement lié à la terre car il fournit une toile environnementale, sociale, économique, existentielle, culturelle et ontologique, qui relie les générations passées, présentes et futures. Les conceptualisations globales ou occidentales du patrimoine tendent généralement à adopter une définition ...

  19. Culture de la violence, destruction des normes et déshumanisation en Afrique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gewald, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    La violence a été omniprésente dans l'Afrique du XXe siècle, et si son impact politique a été vu sous l'angle de l'État, la portée sociale et culturelle de la violence, elle, a été minimisée. Or la violence telle qu'elle se manifeste actuellement en Afrique australe (Zimbabwe), occidentale (Liberia,

  20. Ingesta de huevo y factores de riesgo cardiovascular en adolescentes; papel de la actividad física: Estudio HELENA

    OpenAIRE

    A. Soriano-Maldonado; M. Cuenca-García; L. A. Moreno; M. González-Gross; C. Leclercq; O. Androutsos; E. J. Guerra-Hernández; M. J. Castillo; J. R. Ruiz

    2013-01-01

    Introducci??n: Las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECVs) suponen la principal causa de morbi-mortalidad en los pa??ses occidentales. El incremento del colesterol plasm??tico se ha relacionado con el desarrollo de ECV. El huevo, por su alto contenido en colesterol, ha sido indirectamente relacionado con el riesgo de desarrollar ECVs. Objetivo: Examinar la asociaci??n entre ingesta de huevo y factores de riesgo cardiovascular en adolescentes, estudiando si dicha relaci??n est?? influenciada por ...

  1. Passando per Milano. Kebba Suwareh, immigrato dal Gambia, e le conseguenze dell’illegalità

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Bellagamba

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Il centro d’accoglienza Naga-Har, l’abitazione del cugino, le carceri di San Vittore e di Bollate sono alcuni dei luoghi tra il 2005 e il 2007 attraversati da Kebba Suwareh - richiedente asilo originario del Gambia (un piccolo paese dell’Africa Occidentale affacciato sull’Oceano Atlantico e circondato su tre lati dal Senegal - mentre aspettava che la sua domanda d’asilo politico fosse valutata dalla commissione territoriale di Milano.

  2. Phytochemicals with radioprotection and radio-sensitizing potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Yamini B., E-mail: yaminiok@yahoo.com [Dept. of Medicinal Chemistry, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India)

    2012-07-01

    Ionizing radiation induces DNA damage and are harmful to mankind. They act through free radical generation, which target the double bonds of all cellular macromolecules. The radiation damage may be classified as probabilistic or deterministic, depending on the dose of radiation exposure. Since radiation affects multiple organs so those drugs which protect many organs, would be more beneficial. In this process herbal extracts, which are cocktail of several phyto-chemicals, would be more promising. Initially sulphur containing bio-molecules were identified as radio-protector, but now many secondary metabolites from plant kingdom, have been reported to be radio-protective. They have different mechanism of action, but most of them either prevent the FR induced DNA damage or accelerate the DNA repair process. Aminofostine, WR-2721, 159243, 2926 are some of the examples. However they have limited use because of associated cytotoxicity. Eicosanoids, topoisornerase inhibitors (e.g. camptothecin, topotecan), and the hypoxia-activated anthraquinone AQ4N have shown radioprotecting potential. Several plant products, derived from Tulsi, Vinca alkaloids, taxans, turmeric, Rubia cordifolia, Semecarpus anacardium and several plants rich in polyphenols and flavones have shown hemotherapeutic potential. Similarly, Hippophae, rhodiola imbricata, Podophyllum hexandrum, Ocimum sancturn, Plumbago zeylanica etc have shown radioprotection. Rubia cordifolia has shown both chemotherapeutic and radioprotective property in rats and A-431 cells. Similarly Semecarpus anacardium extract has shown cell cycle arrest in DU-145 cells. (author)

  3. Phytochemicals with radioprotection and radio-sensitizing potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, Yamini B.

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induces DNA damage and are harmful to mankind. They act through free radical generation, which target the double bonds of all cellular macromolecules. The radiation damage may be classified as probabilistic or deterministic, depending on the dose of radiation exposure. Since radiation affects multiple organs so those drugs which protect many organs, would be more beneficial. In this process herbal extracts, which are cocktail of several phyto-chemicals, would be more promising. Initially sulphur containing bio-molecules were identified as radio-protector, but now many secondary metabolites from plant kingdom, have been reported to be radio-protective. They have different mechanism of action, but most of them either prevent the FR induced DNA damage or accelerate the DNA repair process. Aminofostine, WR-2721, 159243, 2926 are some of the examples. However they have limited use because of associated cytotoxicity. Eicosanoids, topoisornerase inhibitors (e.g. camptothecin, topotecan), and the hypoxia-activated anthraquinone AQ4N have shown radioprotecting potential. Several plant products, derived from Tulsi, Vinca alkaloids, taxans, turmeric, Rubia cordifolia, Semecarpus anacardium and several plants rich in polyphenols and flavones have shown hemotherapeutic potential. Similarly, Hippophae, rhodiola imbricata, Podophyllum hexandrum, Ocimum sancturn, Plumbago zeylanica etc have shown radioprotection. Rubia cordifolia has shown both chemotherapeutic and radioprotective property in rats and A-431 cells. Similarly Semecarpus anacardium extract has shown cell cycle arrest in DU-145 cells. (author)

  4. Deporte, género y etnicidad. El caso de las mujeres inmigrantes

    OpenAIRE

    Pfister, Gertrud

    2004-01-01

    Este artículo se centra en el papel de las actividades deportivas en la vida de los inmigrantes de origen islámico. Se pone especial énfasis en las oportunidades y problemas a las que se enfrentan las mujeres inmigrantes en los países occidentales, así como en las actividades físicas que desarrollan. Tomando Alemania como ejemplo, se analiza e interpreta el grado de implicación de los inmigrantes en el deporte, en relación con sus creencias religiosas y sus condiciones de vida. En la segunda ...

  5. Poetizas mayas:subjetividades contra la corriente

    OpenAIRE

    Maya, Gloria Chacón

    2013-01-01

    Este ensayo examina la emergencia de poetisas mayas en México y Guatemala como parte de un movimiento indígena ás amplio que clama su derecho a la diferencia cultural. Arguyo que aunque la mujer maya está inmersa en los discursos del nacionalismo oficial, nacionalismos étnicos y feminismos occidentales, crea sus propias subjetividades multidimensionales, vía la poesía. El análisis se enfoca en la resignificación de símbolos culturales tradicionales y la negociación de cultura, poder y género....

  6. Acerca de la relación infantil y asistencia escolar: apuntes para su comprensión

    OpenAIRE

    Rausky, María Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    En sociedades occidentales el trabajo de los niños suele pensarse como un fenómeno problemático en tanto entra en contradicción con lo que se considera adecuado para dicho período de la vida. Concretamente, a partir de la época moderna se ha ido consolidando la idea de que la infancia es un momento especial en el curso de vida de los sujetos en el que se van construyendo los elementos necesarios para el desarrollo. Entendiendo que los niños son seres vulnerables, que necesitan de cuidados esp...

  7. Propiedades nutritivas y saludables de algas marinas y su potencialidad como ingrediente funcional

    OpenAIRE

    Quitral R, Vilma; Morales G, Carla; Sepúlveda L, Marcela; Schwartz M, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Las algas marinas se han consumido en Asia desde tiempos remotos, mientras que en países occidentales su principal aplicación ha sido como agente gelificante y coloide para la industria de alimentos, farmacéutica y cosmética. Las algas son buena fuente de nutrientes como proteínas, vitaminas, minerales y fibra dietética, al respecto, la fibra dietética de algas es particularmente rica en fracción soluble. Si se comparan las algas con vegetales terrestres, se encuentran más componentes benefic...

  8. Burmanniaceae endémicas del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca León

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La familia Burmanniaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar ocho géneros y 16 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993, principalmente hierbas saprófitas. En este trabajo reconocemos un endemismo en el genero Burmannia. Esta especie endémica posee un amplio grado de adaptación ambiental, habiéndosele localizado en las vertientes occidentales, valles interandinos, páramos y bosques montanos orientales, entre los 1200 y 4100 m de altitud. Esta especie se encuentra representada en un área natural protegida.

  9. Ajustes endocrino-metabólicos durante el ayuno de Ramadán en jóvenes deportistas

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero-Morilla, Raúl; Ramírez-Rodrigo, Jesús; Ruiz-Villaverde, Gonzalo; Sánchez- Caravaca, Mª Ángeles; Pérez-Moreno, Bárbara Alejandra; Villaverde-Gutiérrez, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    El precepto islámico del Ramadán (R), implica importantes modificaciones fisiológicas debido a las restricciones hídricas y dietéticas a lo largo del día y durante un mes, lo que tiene una especial repercusión física e intelectual de los musulmanes, particularmente en sociedades occidentales, en las que no se producen reajustes horarios para las actividades cotidianas. Entre las modificaciones impuestas por el R, el ayuno intermitente día/noche, desencadena mecanismos de adaptación para renta...

  10. Tela, piel, color: retratando los mercados de las Antillas como un inventario de la diversidad humana

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Lafont

    2016-01-01

    La confrontación de las poblaciones heterogéneas y de razas mixtas en las Indias Occidentales con el material pictórico (lienzo y pigmentos) y los sistemas de clasificación humana propios de la era de las ilustraciones de la Enciclopedia, demuestra ser un campo de investigación notablemente interesante en términos de raza y el proceso de racialización,. Sin embargo, hasta hoy, la idea de pintura caribeña de la modernidad temprana no se ha presentado como tal, y esto es precisamente lo que pro...

  11. Antropología y ciudad culturas urbanas de fin de siglo: la mirada antropológica

    OpenAIRE

    Néstor Gorda Canclini

    2014-01-01

    Alterminar el siglo XX,la antropología parece una disciplina dispuesta a abarcarlo todo. Desde hace varias décadas trascendió el estudio de pueblos campesinos no europeos o no occidentales, en losque se especializó al comenzar su historia como disciplina. Ha desarrollado investigaciones sobre las metrópolis, se fue ocupando de todo tipo de sociedades complejas, tradicionales ymodernas, de ciudades y redes transnacionales. Autores  posmodernos muestran incluso que el estilo antropológico de co...

  12. La criminalité et la pauvreté au Ghana urbain | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 déc. 2016 ... La manière dont la criminalité et la pauvreté interagissent a été étudiée et débattue dans la littérature de recherche occidentale, mais on sait peu de choses sur ces dynamiques en Afrique. Dans une série de sept articles, ce numéro spécial de 2016 du Journal de la géographie du Ghana contribue à ...

  13. Matrices biológicas y biomarcadores de exposición fetal a drogas de abuso durante el tercer trimestre de la gestación

    OpenAIRE

    Ortigosa Gómez, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Introducción El abuso de sustancias en los países occidentales ha acontecido un problema de salud pública. Estas sustancias también son consumidas por embarazadas, afectando al feto y recién nacido, especialmente vulnerables. Desde la década de los ochenta, la eventual presencia y disposición de una sustancia de abuso en el organismo y su correlación con efectos clínicos y/o subjetivos ha sido evaluada mediante el análisis de plasma u orina. Sin embargo, realizar estas determinaciones en flui...

  14. Programas de actividad física extraescolar. Revisión de la literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Reloba-Martínez; Ignacio Martín-Tamayo; Emilio José Martínez-López; Laura Guerrero-Almeida

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo fue realizar un análisis de la producción científicadesarrollada hasta la fecha sobre actividad física (AF) extracurricular en niños occidentales de 6 a 12 años. Se utilizaron las bases de datos Medline/Pub-Med, Scopus y metabuscador Google Scholar para recoger artículos publicados entre enero de 1990 y mayo de 2013. Se analizó un total de 104 publicaciones. Los parámetros de composición corporal son los más utilizados para valorar los resultados de los estudios, seguidos de aquel...

  15. Cáncer de mama y ejercicio físico: estudio piloto

    OpenAIRE

    Casla Barrio, S.; Sampedro Molinuelo, J.; López Díaz de Durana, A.; Coterón López, F.J.; Barakat Carballo, R.O.

    2012-01-01

    El cáncer de mama (CM) es el más común entre las mujeres occidentales, con un alto porcentaje de supervivencia, la cual no está exenta de numerosos efectos secundarios tanto por los tratamientos como por la enfermedad, afectando a la calidad de vida de estas mujeres. El objetivo de este proyecto es conocer el efecto de un programa de ejercicio físico conducido en la calidad de vida de mujeres afectadas por cáncer de mama. Método. El programa de ejercicio físico consistió en 24 sesiones (d...

  16. Lutte contre le papillon ravageur des palmiers : Un brevet déposé et des perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Tabone, Elisabeth; Peltier, Jean Benoît

    2007-01-01

    Un nouveau ravageur, Paysandisia archon, s' est disséminé en Méditerranée occidentale : Espagne, Italie puis France. Introduit depuis les années 1990-95, à la faveur d' importations incontrôlées de palmiers en provenance d' Argentine, ce papillon a été découvert en 2011 dans la région Provence-Alpes-Côte d' Azur par Jean Drescher entomologiste à l' Inra. Deux stratégies de lutte naturelles et non polluantes, sont actuellement explorées à l' Inra dans les centres de Montpellier et de Sop...

  17. Nora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Frontori

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available L’Università degli Studi di Milano, sotto la direzione scientifica del Prof. G. Bejor, opera a Nora (Pula, Cagliari dal 2002, in un progetto sostenuto da quattro atenei italiani. Oggetto della ricerca sono il settore centrale della penisola e le due fasce abitative collocate sulla costa occidentale e meridionale. Nel quartiere centrale le recenti campagne di scavo stanno portando alla luce l’isolato sottostante le Terme Centrali e le domus mosaicate, dimostrando una continuità di vita dall’età repubblicana fino al periodo tardoantico.

  18. 2471-IJBCS-Article-Lamine Baba Moussa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Revue documentaire sur les filières agricoles et le crédit vivrier au. Bénin : cas de la filière maïs. Rapport d'étude, 38p. Guèye MT, Seck D, Wathelet J-P, Lognay G. 2011. Lutte contre les ravageurs des stocks de céréales et de légumineuses au. Sénégal et en Afrique occidentale : synthèse bibliographique. Biotechnol.

  19. Jean-Baptiste Comby, La Question climatique. Genèse et dépolitisation d’un problème public (Raisons d’Agir, 2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Tasset, Cyprien

    2016-01-01

    Une sociologie de la dépolitisation du changement climatique La radicalité climatique Comment se fait-il que la question du réchauffement climatique, qui est portée à l’attention publique dans les démocraties occidentales depuis de nombreuses années maintenant, n’ait pas abouti à des changements politiques proportionnés à l’extrême gravité que lui prêtent les scientifiques ? Dans La Question climatique, issu d’une thèse en information-communication soutenue en 2008, Jean-Baptiste Comby propos...

  20. Semen, óvulos y úteros nómadas. Representaciones sobre mujer, maternidad y nuevas técnicas de reproducción asistida

    OpenAIRE

    Mercedes de Grado González

    2012-01-01

    A pesar de los cambios políticos, socio-económicos y demográficos habidos en los países occidentales en las últimas décadas, las estructuras simbólicas y los imaginarios colectivos en torno a las mujeres, su función social y la maternidad no han cambiado tanto. El orden patriarcal hoy en Occidente se configura como un patriarcado de consentimiento. En dicha estructura social la retórica ideológica representa la maternidad c...

  1. Arquetipos iconográficos femeninos en el cómic y la animación japonesa para adolescentes masculinos

    OpenAIRE

    López Rodríguez, Francisco Javier; García Pacheco, Juan A.

    2011-01-01

    El cómic japonés (manga) y la animación japonesa (anime) son poderosas industrias culturales que, progresivamente, se han ido expandiendo internacionalmente. A medida que estas obras han ido llegando a los mercados occidentales, la atención de los investigadores se ha fijado en las particularidades expresivas, narrativas y culturales de estos productos. La investigación en género relacionada con el manga y el anime se ha centrado principalmente en las obras destinadas a un público femenino y,...

  2. Unbinding Bodies and Desires. Re-searching the home, the world and the in-between in Nara-Naree, the only Bengali journal on health, hygiene, sex (1939-1950)

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Sutanuka

    2015-01-01

    Durante la primera mitad del siglo XX se manifestó un creciente interés por la reforma sexual mediante la llamada “ciencia sexual”. Este interés se desarrolló en muy diversos contextos sociales y culturales, incluido Bengala. En este marco, se establecieron conexiones entre los reformistas bengalíes y occidentales, y surgieron discursos transnacionales sobre la “ciencia conyugal” y el control de la natalidad. Así, se conformaron nuevas visiones de la modernidad en las que jugaron un important...

  3. Soutenir la production de vaccins de grande qualité contre l ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cette situation nuit également à l'économie nationale, car le bétail représente de 10 à 17 % du produit intérieur brut. Parmi ces maladies, mentionnons la septicémie hémorragique, l'entérotoxémie et la fièvre de la vallée du Rift, qui sont toutes présentes au Kenya et Afrique occidentale en général. La fièvre de la vallée du ...

  4. Emoción y cultura: los Síndromes Culturales

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Hernando, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    [ES]Dado que las diferentes aportaciones demuestran que la cultura influye notablemente en las emociones y cómo éstas se experimentan y manifiestan, estas divergencias pueden causar también discrepancias importantes en cuanto a los síndromes encontrados en diversas culturas. Según la antropología cultural los CBS (Cultural Bound Syndromes) son aquellos síndromes que proceden de diferente origen cultural, cuyas manifestaciones difieren de los trastornos mentales típicos occidentales. Puesto...

  5. Influência do tempo de aclimatação na resposta do cajueiro à salinidade

    OpenAIRE

    Brilhante, Jean C. A.; Silveira, Joaquim A. G.; Rocha, Iza M. A.; Morais, Déborah L. de; Viégas, Ricardo A.

    2007-01-01

    A resposta das plantas à salinidade depende de fatores fisiológicos, bioquímicos e genéticos. Com este trabalho, objetivou-se estudar o impacto do tempo de aclimatação à solução nutritiva sobre a resposta do cajueiro à salinidade. Plantas de Anarcadium occidentale L., CCP06, cultivadas em vermiculita durante 28 dias, foram transferidas para solução nutritiva de Hoagland com 1/10 de sua força iônica, onde permaneceram por 1 e 7 dias. Ao final dos dois tempos, a solução nutritiva foi suplementa...

  6. Influência do tempo de aclimatação na resposta do cajueiro à salinidade Influence of acclimatization time on response of cashew plant to salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Jean C. A. Brilhante; Joaquim A. G. Silveira; Iza M. A. Rocha; Déborah L. de Morais; Ricardo A. Viégas

    2007-01-01

    A resposta das plantas à salinidade depende de fatores fisiológicos, bioquímicos e genéticos. Com este trabalho, objetivou-se estudar o impacto do tempo de aclimatação à solução nutritiva sobre a resposta do cajueiro à salinidade. Plantas de Anarcadium occidentale L., CCP06, cultivadas em vermiculita durante 28 dias, foram transferidas para solução nutritiva de Hoagland com 1/10 de sua força iônica, onde permaneceram por 1 e 7 dias. Ao final dos dois tempos, a solução nutritiva foi suplementa...

  7. OtimizaÃÃo e ValidaÃÃo de MÃtodos Empregando LC-ESI-MS/MS e Quechers para DeterminaÃÃo de ResÃduos de AgrotÃxicos em CajÃ

    OpenAIRE

    Renata de Oliveira Silva

    2013-01-01

    O cajueiro (Anarcadium occidentale) Ã uma planta tÃpica da regiÃo do nordeste que responde por mais de 95% da produÃÃo nacional, sendo os estados do CearÃ, PiauÃ, Rio Grande do Norte e Bahia os principais produtores. Com o incremento de Ãreas plantadas com o cajueiro anÃo precoce, verificou-se que esta cultura era susceptÃvel ao ataque de pragas, causando prejuÃzos no desenvolvimento, produÃÃo e qualidade do fruto. Para evitar esses prejuÃzos, estudos foram realizados no sentido de controlar ...

  8. APROXIMACIÓN A LA PROBLEMÁTICA ETICA Y JURÍDICA DE LA MATERNIDAD SUBROGADA

    OpenAIRE

    José López Guzmán; Ángela Aparisi Miralles

    2012-01-01

    La maternidad subrogada es un tema que presenta, en la actualidad, una gran complejidad. Para algunos, se trata de una práctica lícita, que debe ser admitida jurídicamente. Frente a ello, los sistemas jurídicos occidentales tradicionalmente han entendido que, frente a la libre disposición de los objetos, las personas, incluyendo el cuerpo humano, sus órganos y funciones más esenciales, no pueden ser objeto de comercio. De este modo, la libertad de los individuos para establecer contratos ...

  9. Veta Esperanza Sudeste, un caso particular de enriquecimiento Supergénico en el yacimiento Alto de la blenda, distrito minero Agua de Dionisio, provincia de Catamarca Veta Esperanza Sudeste, a particular case of supergenic enrichment in the Alto de la Blenda deposit, Agua de Dionisio mining district, Catamarca Province.

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Salado Paz; Ana S Fogliata; Julio C Avila; Nicolás Montenegro

    2011-01-01

    Veta Esperanza Sudeste se localiza en el distrito minero Agua de Dionisio, Catamarca, dentro de la provincia geológica de las Sierras Pampeanas Occidentales. La geología del mismo corresponde a rocas metamórficas de bajo grado y cuerpos ígneos intrusivos graníticos a granodioríticos paleozoicos, sedimentos clásticos continentales terciarios y rocas pertenecientes al Complejo Volcánico Farallón Negro del Mioceno. Además, a areniscas, tobas del Plioceno y depósitos fluviales del Cuaternario. En...

  10. Veta Esperanza Sudeste, un caso particular de enriquecimiento Supergénico en el yacimiento Alto de la blenda, distrito minero Agua de Dionisio, provincia de Catamarca

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Salado Paz; Ana S Fogliata; Julio C Avila; Nicolás Montenegro

    2011-01-01

    Veta Esperanza Sudeste se localiza en el distrito minero Agua de Dionisio, Catamarca, dentro de la provincia geológica de las Sierras Pampeanas Occidentales. La geología del mismo corresponde a rocas metamórficas de bajo grado y cuerpos ígneos intrusivos graníticos a granodioríticos paleozoicos, sedimentos clásticos continentales terciarios y rocas pertenecientes al Complejo Volcánico Farallón Negro del Mioceno. Además, a areniscas, tobas del Plioceno y depósitos fluviales del Cuaternario. En...

  11. Interrelaciones del perfil osteomineral y la obesidad en la edad pediátrica

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Urrutia, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    1. Introducción o motivación de la tesis Desde una perspectiva epidemiológica, la obesidad se está convirtiendo en el principal enemigo de la salud pública en la mayoría de los países occidentales. Supone el trastorno nutricional más frecuente en los pueblos desarrollados, tornándose el concepto de bienestar y salud al que antes se correspondía, hasta llegar a constituir la enfermedad crónica no trasmisible más frecuentes en nuestros días. Desde una perspectiva biológica, en...

  12. Lydon, Ghislaine — On Trans-Saharan Trails: Islamic Law, Trade Networks, and Cross-Cultural Exchange in Nineteenth-Century Western Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Scheele

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Le livre de Ghislaine Lydon ouvre un nouveau chapitre dans les recherches historiques sur le Sahara. L’auteure reprend certes un sujet classique : le commerce transsaharien. Mais elle l’étudie à partir de sources locales qui, malgré leur richesse et leur abondance, n’ont jusqu’ici que trop peu attiré l’intérêt des chercheurs des universités occidentales – à l’exception de quelques travaux isolés tels ceux de Paul Pascon au Maroc, d’Ulrich Haarmann en Libye, ou de Rainer Osswald en Mauritanie....

  13. Actitudes parentales y sobrepeso infantil: el papel de la comunicación = Parental attitudes and childhood overweight : the role of communication=

    OpenAIRE

    Gimenez Garcia-Conde, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN El sobrepeso adulto e infantil se han convertido en una pandemia en las últimas décadas, en particular en los países occidentales. Esta tesis tiene dos objetivos principales: En primer lugar confirmar como las actitudes parentales influyen en sus comportamientos y estos en los de los hijos y como están relacionados con el sobrepeso. En segundo lugar averiguar que mensajes son más eficientes a la hora de convencer a los padres de la importancia de favorecer hábitos saludables para...

  14. Parental attitudes and childhood overweight : the role of communication= Actitudes parentales y sobrepeso infantil: el papel de la comunicación

    OpenAIRE

    Giménez García-Conde, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN El sobrepeso adulto e infantil se han convertido en una pandemia en las últimas décadas, en particular en los países occidentales. Esta tesis tiene dos objetivos principales: En primer lugar confirmar como las actitudes parentales influyen en sus comportamientos y estos en los de los hijos y como están relacionados con el sobrepeso. En segundo lugar averiguar que mensajes son más eficientes a la hora de convencer a los padres de la importancia de favorecer hábitos saludables p...

  15. La evolución reciente de la fecundidad en España

    OpenAIRE

    ISABEL AGÜERO; A. OLANO REY

    1980-01-01

    Se analiza la tasa de natalidad y el promedio de edad y períodos temporales relativos a la reproducción durante el siglo XX. Se comparan lo patrones de fecundidad en España con las tendencias generales de los países de la OCDE en general. Se comenta la alta tasa de natalidad española en 1977, tan sólo superada por Irlanda, Portugal y probablemente Turquía. Sin embargo, este fenómeno debe comprenderse en el contexto de un declive generalizado de las tasas de natalidad en los países occidentale...

  16. Élaboration et distribution d'un nouveau vaccin contre la babésiose ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 mars 2018 ... La criminalité et la pauvreté au Ghana urbain. La manière dont la criminalité et la pauvreté interagissent a été étudiée et débattue dans la littérature de recherche occidentale, mais on sait pe. Voir davantageLa criminalité et la pauvreté au Ghana urbain · Ce que nous faisons · Financement · Ressources ...

  17. Un think tank ouest-africain accroît son rayonnement et renforce ses ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 avr. 2016 ... La criminalité et la pauvreté au Ghana urbain. La manière dont la criminalité et la pauvreté interagissent a été étudiée et débattue dans la littérature de recherche occidentale, mais on sait pe. Voir davantageLa criminalité et la pauvreté au Ghana urbain · Ce que nous faisons · Financement · Ressources ...

  18. Un institut nigérien accorde la priorité à la gestion financière | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 avr. 2016 ... La criminalité et la pauvreté au Ghana urbain. La manière dont la criminalité et la pauvreté interagissent a été étudiée et débattue dans la littérature de recherche occidentale, mais on sait pe. Voir davantageLa criminalité et la pauvreté au Ghana urbain · Ce que nous faisons · Financement · Ressources ...

  19. L'avant-projet : définition et enjeux

    OpenAIRE

    Gautier , Frédéric; Lenfle , Sylvain

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the strategic role of front-end activities in project performance. More precisely it focuses on what is called pre-project. Using case studies from auto aeronautics we propose a definition of this phase and we discuss the question it raises.; Depuis la fin des années 80, la place prise par les stratégies de différenciation dans les économies occidentales est à l'origine de mutations importantes de l'organisation de la conception de produits nouveaux dans les entreprises. C...

  20. La producción de enfermedad en el paradigma de la salud del siglo XXI

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Zoya, Paula G.

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo pone en relación el imperativo de cuidado del cuerpo y la salud paraalcanzar una salud perfecta y el fenómeno de expansión de la medicalización a travésde la invención de enfermedades. La tesis central sostiene que la imbricación de ambosfenómenos constituye los fundamentos del paradigma sanitario que se arraiga en lassociedades occidentales del siglo XXI. La investigación problematiza la articulaciónde dichos fenómenos a partir de la circulación social de significaciones en torn...

  1. Uber Erfahrungen mit Sprengungen zur Untersuchung der hòheren Teile der Erdkruste in Deutschland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    h. Closs

    1959-06-01

    Full Text Available Si passano brevemente in rassegna i recenti lavori condotti nella GermaniaOccidentale, lo scopo dei quali era la determinazione, mediante rilevazionisismiche a rifrazione o a riflessione, della discontuinità fra stratisedimentari e basamento, della discontuinità di Conrad (P e di quelladi Mohorovicic (Pn. Per le rilevazioni sismiche a rifrazione ed a riflessionesono state usate esplosioni di mine da cava con cariche di peso variante da1 a 10 t; si è potuto anche applicare in parte il normale metodo sismico ariflessione. Le rilevazioni sono state realizzate fino a distanze di 200 km daipunti di esplosione.

  2. L'objectivation et la perfection des femmes dans la publicité. La perception des consommateurs vis-à-vis des femmes représentées dans des campagnes publicitaires et ses effets sur la marque et sur eux-mêmes.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dessel, Sophie; Loir, Estelle

    2017-01-01

    Depuis son apparition, la publicité contribue consciemment ou inconsciemment au changement de perception du corps de la femme. Dans la société occidentale, utiliser le corps de la femme pour inciter à l’achat d’un produit est une pratique commune dans le marketing. Un ensemble d’effets en tous genres sont à observer sur la perception des consommateurs à propos du produit et sur la marque, sur leur perception vis-à-vis des mannequins et des femmes en général et finalement sur la perception qu’...

  3. Evolución psicológica a largo plazo en pacientes con obesidad mórbida que se someten a cirugía bariátrica

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Valdeita, María del Sagrario

    2014-01-01

    Actualmente en las sociedades occidentales la obesidad viene siendo un problema de salud importante al que es necesario prestar atención desde diferentes disciplinas. En los últimos años ha habido un importante y preocupante aumento de la prevalencia de esta enfermedad, aunque no está clasificada como un trastorno de la conducta alimentaria, y ello al margen de que algunos estudios demuestren que las personas diagnosticadas de obesidad mórbida presentan desórdenes alimentarios que se han mant...

  4. ¿De la muerte (de)negada a la muerte reivindicada? Análisis de la muerte en la sociedad española actual: Muerte sufrida, muerte vivida y discursos sobre la muerte

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Aboitiz, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo fundamental de la Tesis es el análisis de la construcción social de la Muerte en la sociedad española actual. Este objetivo se ha abordado a partir de consecución de 5 objetivos secundarios que se complementan en la explicación: a) Identificación de los componentes básicos de la construcción social de la Muerte en el contexto de las sociedades occidentales; b) Caracterización del como construcción social mediadora entre el individuo y su muerte inevitable; c) Análisis de las cara...

  5. Lipoatrofia marrón, obesidad y daño vascular: mecanismos moleculares de resistencia a la insulina en células cardiovasculares

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Otero, Yolanda

    2010-01-01

    En las sociedades occidentales se ha producido un aumento de la prevalencia de la obesidad y de las enfermedades metabólicas relacionadas con ella, tales como el síndrome metabólico y la diabetes tipo 2 [Haffner, S. y Taegtmeyer 2003]. Los individuos aquejados de las dolencias citadas, sufren los efectos de la resistencia a la acción de la insulina [Saltiel y Kahn 2001] y del daño cardiovascular, y éste es una de las principales causas de muerte en la población con enfermedad cardiovascular. ...

  6. La traducción social de la naturaleza. La domesticación y la ingobernabilidad de los genes en la discusión sobre los organismos transgénicos

    OpenAIRE

    Larrión Cartujo, Jósean

    2009-01-01

    Este trabajo muestra que la realidad supuestamente más indiscutible e innegociable de la naturaleza es interpretada de manera muy distinta por los múltiples actores individuales y colectivos que conforman las sociedades occidentales contemporáneas. Se analiza aquí una de las cuestiones centrales suscitadas en relación con la controversia general sobre la viabilidad humana y ambiental de los organismos modificados genéticamente (OMG). El problema inicial, en apariencia sencillo y fácilmente re...

  7. Chaînes globales de valeur et audit social

    OpenAIRE

    Barraud De Lagerie , Pauline

    2016-01-01

    La mondialisation ne se réduit pas à une extension de la sphère des échanges commerciaux à l’échellede la planète; elle prend aussi la forme d’une internationalisation de la production et de la division dutravail. Ainsi, les travailleurs des pays du Sud fabriquent désormais une grande part des produits venduspar des firmes occidentales à des consommateurs occidentaux. Cette configuration des «globalcommodity chains» (Gereffi, 1999) ou «global value chains» (Bair, 2010; Palpacuer et Balas, 201...

  8. Sculpture africaine. Blessures et altérité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Speranza

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Au delà de la notion de “blessure” relative à l’objet, l’auteur s’attache aux traumatismes culturels résultant de la rencontre entre la sculpture africaine et le monde occidental. Un exemple particulier est celui des instruments de musique ethnographiques, dont la restauration est souvent tributaire des conceptions occidentales.Beyond the notion of « injury » for the object, the author dwells on cultural traumatisms resulting from the meeting between African sculpture and the western world. A particular example is the one of ethnographical musical instruments for which restoration is often tributary of western conceptions.

  9. The Black Theatre Movement in the United Sttates and in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Barrios Herrero, Olga

    2008-01-01

    [ES]El florecimiento de los movimientos sociopolíticos entre los años 60 y 90 en los Estados Unidos y en Sudáfrica estableció los firmes cimientos sobre los que, con una fuerza e ímpetu sin precedentes, se forjó el teatro negro de estos años. Forma y contenido surgieron a la par del compromiso político y artístico adoptado por estos artistas contra el imperialismo, colonialismo y racismo occidentales. Por primera vez en la historia, el teatro negro de los Estados Unidos y de Sudáfrica analiza...

  10. 'Engel, Alexander, Farben der Globalisierung. Die Entstehung moderner Märkte für Farbstoffe 1500-1900'

    OpenAIRE

    Garner, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    « Les couleurs de la globalisation » : c’est sous ce titre suggestif que l’auteur propose une étude portant sur le marché des colorants en Europe occidentale du XVIe au début du XXe siècle. Fondé sur des sources abondantes et variées, qui comprennent principalement des listes de prix de colorants publiées à Londres, Hambourg et Amsterdam, des relevés de statistique douanière et un vaste corpus de textes économiques et scientifiques sur les colorants naturels et artificiels, cet ouvrage analys...

  11. Bajo un sol desconocido: László Hudec, Antonin Raymond y la construcción de la arquitectura moderna en Asia Oriental

    OpenAIRE

    Anghel, Anamaría Andreea

    2015-01-01

    La arquitectura es un reflejo directo de la cultura, siempre cambiando, con el fin de adaptarse a las necesidades de la época. La sociedad china sufrió cambios inesperados, a lo largo de los fines del siglo XIX y principios del XX, marcada por las invasiones de los poderes occidentales, La Primera y La Segunda Guerras Mundiales, rebeliones, derrumbes de viejos regímenes y de la fundación de la Nueva China en 1949. En comparación con China, Japón se enfrenta a constantes problemas de terremoto...

  12. Des relations plus humaines ?

    OpenAIRE

    Ricciardi, Ferruccio

    2013-01-01

    À partir d’une approche sociohistorique, cet article s’intéresse aux effets de la croissance économique sur l’identité des cadres, en l’occurrence les groupements de cadres et patrons italiens qui, au lendemain de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, essaient de conjuguer les principes du catholicisme social dont ils se réclament dans l’arène publique avec les logiques issues du productivisme managérial américain qui s’impose en Europe occidentale. Le prisme des méthodes de « relations humaines » pour...

  13. Estudio sobre la percepción de calidad de vida que presentan pacientes que han sufrido un accidente cerebrovascular a través de la ECVI-38

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Álvarez, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Trabajo fin de Grado, curso 2015/2016 [ES] Introducción. La OMS define el accidente cerebrovascular como la interrupción del suministro de sangre al cerebro, por lo general debido a que un vaso sanguíneo se rompe o es bloqueado por un coágulo. Esto corta el suministro de oxígeno y nutrientes, causando daños en el tejido cerebral. El Ictus representa la tercera causa de muerte y la primera de invalidez en los adultos de los países occidentales, con una incidencia de 200 casos por cada 10...

  14. Los factores socioculturales: clave de internacionalización de la empresa occidental en el mercado chino.

    OpenAIRE

    Martín de Bernardo Galiana, José

    2017-01-01

    China se ha convertido en uno de los principales mercados del mundo para las exportaciones occidentales y para su localización de joint ventures y filiales. Sin embargo, China es un país con una cultura muy diferente basada principalmente en el confucianismo y taoísmo, junto con una historia que ha moldeado tanto su sociedad como la cultura de los negocios. De hecho, uno de los aspectos más importantes para tener éxito en China reside en los factores socioculturales y en la forma de adaptars...

  15. Estudio del cumplimiento terapéutico del tratamiento oncológico dispensado en oficina de farmacia en pacientes con cáncer de mama y cáncer de próstata

    OpenAIRE

    González Gragera, María

    2017-01-01

    El cáncer es, actualmente, uno de los problemas de salud más importantes en la mayoría de los países occidentales, no solo porque se ha convertido en una de las principales causas de muerte en todo el mundo, sino también por el impacto psicosocial de los pacientes, por la incidencia en la calidad de vida de los mismos y su entorno, y por los recursos sanitarios implicados en su asistencia y tratamiento. Pero, además, el paciente oncológico presenta muchas veces síntomas que requieren tratamie...

  16. Conflicto en Crimea: discurso político en los medios de comunicación

    OpenAIRE

    Petrino, Jessica Eliana

    2014-01-01

    Al ingresar en un conflicto internacional, cualquier gobierno democrático necesita contar con el apoyo de su población. Para lograrlo, debe legitimar sus posiciones por medio de un discurso coherente y ordenado en los medios de comunicación. El conflicto en la región de Crimea no es la excepción: tanto Rusia como Estados Unidos –junto a las potencias occidentales y Ucrania- utilizaron los mass media para justificar sus acciones y poner a la opinión pública internacional de su lado. El objetiv...

  17. Desarrollo de tecnologías acústicas como terapia para la enfermedad de Parkinson

    OpenAIRE

    Gálvez García, Gerardo Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Las patologías neurológicas en la población -principalmente en la tercera edad- están experimentando un incremento en incidencia y prevalencia, básicamente por el aumento de la media de edad en las sociedades occidentales, así como debido a problemas medioambientales. Esta situación es oportuna para la aparición de nuevas terapias complementarias a las habituales de tratamientos farmacológicos, con efectos secundarios importantes o a la propia cirugía, muy invasiva. Si consideramos a la músic...

  18. An appraisal of irrigated temperate and tropical millet varieties in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le mil est la principale culture vivrière dans les régions semi-arides de l'Afrique Occidentale. Les faibles rendements enregistrés dans les systèmes de culture de subsistance sont le fait d'une gestion inadéquate et de la rareté de l'eau. Cette étude a pour but de déterminer l'aptitude du mil à s'intégrer dans une rotation ...

  19. Estudio de la variación a largo plazo de los parámetros bioquímicos metabólicos en pacientes con obesidad mórbida e intervenidos mediante bypass gástrico laparoscópico

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez Abril, Segundo Angel

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN La Obesidad es ya uno de los mayores problemas de salud pública en los países occidentales y se prevé que en un futuro cercano sea una verdadera epidemia. La naturaleza de este problema no es estética, como es habitual que se valore en nuestro entorno social. Tiene un sinfín de repercusiones. Empezando por las comorbilidades metabólicas que la acompañan, las complicaciones osteoarticulares que desencadena o simplemente el rechazo social que muchas veces genera. Todo ello sumad...

  20. Pourquoi la philosophie indienne ne doit pas être laissée aux seuls philosophes

    OpenAIRE

    Bronkhorst, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Des historiens de l’astronomie, de la linguistique ou de la médecine indiennes anciennes, on attend généralement qu’ils soient familiers des contreparties occidentales modernes de ces disciplines. Mais qu’en est-il de la philosophie ? Et tout d’abord, existe-t-il en Inde ancienne quelque chose comme une philosophie dont on pourrait faire l’histoire ? Et si oui, qui en sera le meilleur exégète ? Le philosophe attentif aux enjeux systématiques, ou l’historien sensible aux contextes de productio...

  1. Estudo fitoquímico de espécies arbóreas do cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Soares Godinho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi detectar os constituintes químicos dos extratos de folhas e cascas de sete espécies arbóreas do Cerrado, isto é, materiais vegetais compostos de folhas e cascas de plantas adultas de Brosimum gaudichauddi, Eugenia dysenterica, Astronium fraxinifolium, Myracrodruon urundeuva, Solanum lycocarpum, Solanum paniculatum e Anacardium humile. Os procedimentos para extração e identificação dos constituintes químicos foram adotados em função da classe química. Assim, observaram-se resultados positivos para flavonóides, taninos, antraquinonas, alcalóides, catequinas, saponinas, polissacarídeos, e ácidos orgânicos. A. humile foi a única planta a apresentar todas as substâncias analisadas. As espécies arbóreas estudadas apresentaram alto potencial medicinal e farmacológico.

  2. Diurnal changes in flavonoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veit, M.; Bilger, W.; Mühlbauer, T.; Brummet, W.; Winter, K.

    1996-01-01

    Field studies of a tropical tree, Anacardium excelsum, and a northern hemisphere high altitude fern, Cryptogramma crispa, revealed marked diurnal changes in soluble flavonoid content of leaves and fronds, respectively. The flavonoid content increased during the morning and decreased during the afternoon. In plants of C. crispa covered with UV-B absorbing filters, the flavonoid content remained at a constant level throughout the day/night cycle. Upon removal of UV-B absorbing filters (at night), the flavonoid content increased the next morning in a fashion similar to that observed in control plants maintained without filters. Decreases in photosystem II photochemical efficiency upon exposure of C. crispa to natural daylight were similar in plants previously covered with UV-B absorbing filters and in control plants, probably owing to the observed ability of plants to rapidly accumulate UV-B protective flavonoids. (author)

  3. Crop Management Practices in the Humid Hills from Northeastern Brazil between 670-530 Yrs BP: Palynological Evidences from Archaeological Site Evaristo I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gonçalves Freitas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The first cultural traces of ancient pottery towns in the Serra de Baturité are presented. The pollen spectrum of sediments reveals a mosaic of moist mountainous vegetation, xerophytes, annual nitrophilous, hygrophilous and bog plants. Useful pollen recovered from ceramic, such as cassava (Manihot type, sweet potatoes (Ipomoea type, cotton (Gossypium type, palm trees and fruitful (Arecaceae, cf. Astronium and Anacardium type, together with pathogenic microfungi corn, cotton and some tubers (Curvularia type, Alternaria, Puccinia type and cf. Ustilago maydis indicate agricultural and livelihood activities. The coprophilous fungi of humans and other animals (Cercophora type Gelasinospora type and Sordariaceae reflect the time spent by these groups in the archaeological area. The Gelasinospora fungus also shows the use of fire as fuel for agricultural practices and hunting. These data demonstrate the use of ceramics in funerary and domestic contexts.

  4. EVALUATION OF SEEDLINGS EMERGENCE OF NATIVE FRUITS FROM “CERRADO” AVALIAÇÃO DA EMERGÊNCIA DE PLÂNTULAS DE ESPÉCIES FRUTÍFERAS NATIVAS DO CERRADO GOIANO

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    Domingos Tiveron Filho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In order to obtain preliminary information about sexual propagation of some species of native from “cerrado”, this study was carried out in nursery conditions, at Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás (Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil, from October 1991 to February 1992. The species studied and their percentage of seedlings emergence obtained were: baru (Dypterix alota Vog.; Fabaceae 68%, cajuzinho-do-cerrado (Anacardium othonianum Rizz.; Anacardiaceae 38.67%; gabiroba herbácea (Campomanesia sp; Myrtaceae 95%; mama-cadela (Brosimum gaudichaudii Tréc.; Moraceae 71.25%; mangaba (Harconia speciosa Gomez; Apocynaceae 45%; marmelada-de-cachorro [Alibertia edulis (L. Rich. A. Rich.; Rubiaceae] 75.71%. The behaviour of these specie indicates the viability of sexual propagation.

    Visando a obter informações preliminares sobre a propagação sexuada de algumas espécies frutíferas nativas do cerrado, realizou-se este estudo no período de outubro de 1991 a fevereiro de 1992, em condições de viveiro, na Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás (Goiânia, GO. As espécies estudadas e as melhores porcentagens de emergência de plântulas que respectivamente apresentaram foram baru (Dypterix alata Vog.; Fabaceae 68%; cajuzinho-do-cerrado (Anacardium othonianum Rizz.; Anacardiaceae 38,67%; gabiroba herbácea (Campomanesia sp, Myrtaceae 95%; mama-cadela (Brosimum gaudichaudii Tréc, Moraceae 71,25%; mangaba (Harcornia speciosa Gomez; Apocynaceae 45%, marmelada-de-cachorro [Alibertia edulis (L. Rich. A. Rich.; Rubiaceae], 75,71%. O comportamento dessas espécies indica a viabilidade de sua propagação sexuada.

  5. Estudio de la flora y la vegetaciòn del bosque en la estaciòn de primates Coloso-Sucre

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    Ruben Dario Patiño Uribe

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en Coloso, Sucre, en la planicie del litoral Caribe, se efectuaron muestreos enla zona del arroyo el “Sereno” de la estación de primates. Se realizaron 14 levantamientos,utilizando el método de parcela y subparcelas, de 50 x 10 m2. Se censaron indivuidos con DAP =10 cm. La vegetación del sector “arroyo Sereno” fitosociológicamente se agrupa en la alianzaPoulsenio armatae- Anacardion excelsi, entre cuyas especies características también figuran: Achrasexcelsi, Brownea ariza, Brosimun guianense, Samanea saman, Pachira acuatica, Erythroxylumamazonicum y Aspidosperma spegazzinii. Comprende las asociaciones Ocoteo glomeratae- Spondietum mombinis entrecuyas especies características figuran: Ficus gigantea, Ocotea glomerata, Platymiscium pinnatumy Xylopiagrandifloray Astronio graveolentis- Guazumetum ulmifoliaecon Pseudobombax septenatum, Trichiliaacuminatay Stemmadenia grandiflora. Las especies con mayores valores de IVI (Índice de valor de im-portancia e IPF (Índice de predominio fisiónomico son Anacardium excelsum, Pulsenia armata,Spondias mombin, Ocotea glomerata, Astronium graveolensy Guazuma ulmifolia.En los censos se encon-traron 38 familias y 80 especies entre las cuales se destacan por número de género y especies Leguminosae, Bombacaceae, Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Apocynaceae, Bignoniaceae. Entre los génerosmás diversificados figuran Xylopia(Anonaceae, Aspidosperma (Apocynaceae y Bombax, Cavanillesia,Ciebas, Pseudobombax (Bombacaceae. En general los tipos de vegetación que se encontrarontambién se distribuyen en localidades de la región tropical de los valles del Magdalena y del Caucaconstituyendo una formación vegetal definida por el dominio de especies como Guazuma ulmifolia,Astronium graveolens, Spondias mombin, Anacardium occidentalisy especies de Tabebuia.

  6. Adiestramiento en el diagnóstico de las parasitosis intestinales en la red de laboratorios de Cuba

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    Núñez Fidel Angel

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En 1997, se desarrolló un proyecto nacional de adiestramiento integral para el diagnóstico de las parasitosis intestinales, el que incluyó 4 cursos; uno com carácter nacional, y otros 3 en las provincias centrales, orientales y occidentales. Al comparar los errores diagnósticos, vimos que Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanensis y los leucocitos mostraron un porcentaje significativamente menor de fallas después del curso que al comienzo (p 0,05. Por otra parte, al comparar las medias de las puntuaciones antes y después de los cursos, se encontró un aumento significativo en el curso de las provincias centrales (p<0,05, en las occidentales (p < 0,01, y en la totalidad (p < 0,01, lo que demonstró la efectividad a corto plazo de esta intervención. Sin embargo, pensamos que estas actividades de educación continuada deberian seguirse junto com programas nacionales para el control de la calidad.

  7. Adiestramiento en el diagnóstico de las parasitosis intestinales en la red de laboratorios de Cuba

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    Fidel Angel Núñez

    Full Text Available En 1997, se desarrolló un proyecto nacional de adiestramiento integral para el diagnóstico de las parasitosis intestinales, el que incluyó 4 cursos; uno com carácter nacional, y otros 3 en las provincias centrales, orientales y occidentales. Al comparar los errores diagnósticos, vimos que Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanensis y los leucocitos mostraron un porcentaje significativamente menor de fallas después del curso que al comienzo (p 0,05. Por otra parte, al comparar las medias de las puntuaciones antes y después de los cursos, se encontró un aumento significativo en el curso de las provincias centrales (p<0,05, en las occidentales (p < 0,01, y en la totalidad (p < 0,01, lo que demonstró la efectividad a corto plazo de esta intervención. Sin embargo, pensamos que estas actividades de educación continuada deberian seguirse junto com programas nacionales para el control de la calidad.

  8. Allegory of the East: The pact with the Devil in Tawfiq al-Hakim

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    Roberta Tanzi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available 1. Scopo L’obiettivo di questo lavoro è quello di indagare le modalità e la fenomenologia della penetrazione di un mito profondamente occidentale — come quello di Faust — nella produzione di uno tra i più noti scrittori e drammaturghi arabi del Novecento: Tawfiq al-Hakim, concentrandosi in particolare su una sua novella del 1938, Ahd al-Shaytān (Il patto col diavolo. 2. Metodologia La novella, scelta in quanto exemplum rappresentativo di una pratica corrente nella produzione dell’autore, ovvero la rifunzionalizzazione di argomenti e personaggi mitologici di varia derivazione, viene analizzata nella prospettiva di una rivisitazione della leggenda di Faust e del suo patrimonio tematico e iconografico. La sua analisi permette di rilevare le tappe di un percorso assai interessante: quello della penetrazione e integrazione di un mito dell’Occidente moderno nella tradizione araba, considerato alla luce degli effetti che l’interazione con gli elementi tradizionali e autoctoni di quel patrimonio producono sul processo di assimilazione. 3. Risultati In quest’ottica, il corpus di Tawfiq al-Hakim appare fondante, non solo in virtù della sua familiarità con la trattazione di temi mitici provenienti anche dalla tradizione occidentale, ma per gli elementi di novità ed esclusività che da quella trattazione emergono.

  9. Stoneflies of the genus Zwicknia Murányi, 2014 (Plecoptera: Capniidae) from western Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reding, Jean-Paul G

    2018-02-21

    Le genre Zwicknia Murányi, de la famille des Capniidae, a récemment été proposé pour inclure Capnia bifrons (Newman), ce qui a rendu nécessaire la révision du matériel collecté en Suisse occidentale et identifié précédemment comme correspondant à cette espèce. Cette révision, qui a depuis abouti à la description d'une espèce nouvelle pour la science, Zwicknia ledoarei Reding et al., est maintenant complétée, permettant de signaler la présence de deux espèces supplémentaires, Z. bifrons et Z. westermanni Boumans Murányi, la dernière nouvelle pour la Suisse. Des informations sur la distribution, les préférences écologiques, la zoogéographie et le statut de conservation de ces espèces en Suisse occidentale sont également apportées. Finalement, une clé d'identification pour les larves et les adultes mâles des espèces précitées est proposée.

  10. Distribucion geografica de Lutzomyia verrucarum (Townsend, 1913 (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae, vector de la batonellosis humana en el Peru Geographical distribution of Lutzomyia verrucarum (Townsend, 1913 (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae vector of human bartonellosis in Peru

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    Abraham G. Caceres

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia verrucarum (Townsend, 1913 (Diptera: Psychodidae, vector natural de la verruga peruana o enfermedad de Carrión es una especie propia del Perú. Su distribución geográfica esta entre los paralelos 5º y 13º25' de latitud Sur, se encuentra en los valles Occidentales e Interandinos de los Andes. La distribución altitudinal de Lu. verrucarum en los diversos valles es variable; asi: Occidentales, desde 1100 hasta 2980 msnm e Interandinos, de 1200 a 3200 msnm. En ciertas áreas verrucógenas no hay correlación entre la presencia de Lu. verrucarum y la enfermedad de Carrión lo que suguiere la existencia de vectores secundarios.Lutzomyia verrucarum (Townsend, 1913 (Diptera: Psychodidae; the natural vector of Bartonella bacilliformis, agent of human bartonellosis (peruvian verruga or Carrion's disease, is a native specie of Peru; its geographic distribution occurres between latitudes 5º and 13º 25' South: in the Occidental and Interandean valleys of the Andean. The altitudinal distribution of Lu. verrucarum in the different valleys is as follows: Occidental between 1100 and 2980 m sea level and Interandean from 1200 to 3200 m sea level. Some discrepancies between the distribution of Carrion's disease and Lu. verrucarum suggest the existence of secondary vectors in certain areas where Lu. verrucarum is not present

  11. Taxonomic and phytogeographic implications from ITS phylogeny in Berberis (Berberidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Dong; Kim, Sung-Hee; Landrum, Leslie R

    2004-06-01

    A phylogeny based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences from 79 taxa representing much of the diversity of Berberis L. (four major groups and 22 sections) was constructed for the first time. The phylogeny was basically congruent with the previous classification schemes at higher taxonomic levels, such as groups and subgroups. A notable exception is the non-monophyly of the group Occidentales of compound-leaved Berberis (previously separated as Mahonia). At lower levels, however, most of previous sections and subsections were not evident especially in simple-leaved Berberis. Possible relationship between section Horridae (group Occidentales) and the simple-leaved Berberis clade implies paraphyly of the compound-leaved Berberis. A well-known South America-Old World (mainly Asia) disjunctive distribution pattern of the simple-leaved Berberis is explained by a vicariance event occurring in the Cretaceous period. The ITS phylogeny also suggests that a possible connection between the Asian and South American groups through the North American species ( Berberis canadensis or B. fendleri) is highly unlikely.

  12. Western imperialism and eastern accounting: the story of Chartered Institute of Management Accountants in Sri Lanka

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    Bala Balachandran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El documento es el resultado de una investigación sobre el crecimiento de la profesión contable en Sri Lanka. La pregunta orientadora del mismo es si las prácticas constables de gestión occidental pueden ser efectivas aún sin tener en cuenta las necesidades locales. Este es un aspecto sin antecedentes en la literatura. El estudio se desarrolló mediante la ejecución de entrevistas semiestructuradas a miembros fundadores del Instituto de contadores de gestión y algunos practicantes de Sri Lanka. Los resultados evidencian una brecha entre las técnicas de contabilidad de gestión utilizadas en Occidente y la práctica de la contabilidad de gestión en Oriente. El documento anota algunas razones para explicar esta brecha, encontrando que el contexto es diferente, seguido que las prácticas occidentales no se ajustan a las exigencies de desarrollo de un país post-colonial. Mientras la teoría sigue los planteamientos occidentales, la práctica sigue las exigencias de oriente. El artículo contribuye al debate sobre si el imperialismo occidental, la contabilidad y dinámica comunidades de las comunidades contables locales. Finalmente, el papel hace un aporte a los trabajos que debaten la forma como los cuerpos profesionales en contaduría se van estructurando.

  13. Yuánmíng Yuán en el siglo XVIII: Arte entre la diplomacia y la filosofía; entre Europa y Pekín

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    Pedro Luengo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio pretende probar que el Yuánmíng Yuán fue diseñado como una representación del macrocosmos imperial a partir de la filosofía de la China de Qianlong. Para ello se valorará la función simbólica de los palacios de estilo europeo a partir de las descripciones de embajadas orientales y occidentales. Esta información se pondrá en relación con las diferentes representaciones pictóricas del jardín, conservadas tanto en grabados o acuarelas como en pinturas murales. A partir de toda esta información se pretende valorar su utilización en las visitas de diferentes legados diplomáticos extranjeros. En concreto, se intenta comprobar que los palacios europeos se utilizaron eminentemente para impresionar a las misiones orientales, y no tanto a las occidentales.

  14. Avaliação de óleos essenciais de plantas aromáticas com atividade inseticida em Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae = Evaluation of essential oils with insecticidal activity in Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

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    Suellem Petilim Gomes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A doenca de Chagas e um dos maiores problemas de saude publica na America Latina. Neste trabalho, foi avaliada a acao inseticida de oleos essenciais de Anacardium humile Cymbopogon nardus, Ocimum basilicum e Eucalyptus urograndis em ninfas do 3‹ e 4‹ estadios dedesenvolvimento de Triatoma infestans por acao topica e pressao a vapor (fumigacao. Para o teste topico foram realizadas duas repeticoes cada uma com cinco ninfas de 3‹ e 4‹ estadios de desenvolvimento de T. infestans. Foi aplicado 1ƒÊL de cada concentracao na regiao dorsal de cada individuo. Para o teste de fumigacao foram utilizados potes de 2 L com tampa vedante. Os oleos essenciais de O. gratissimum e E. urograndis apresentaram atividadeinseticida para T. infestans, e A. humile e C. nardus apresentaram em media 5 e 15% de mortalidade, respectivamente. Para fumigacao, somente o oleo de E. urograndis teve efeito, com 100% de mortalidade sobre T. infestans , sendo que para os outros oleos nao foiobservado efeito de fumigacao. Esse trabalho relata pela primeira vez a acao inseticida de E. urograndis em potes fumigenos para o controle de triatomineos. Os resultados sao importantes devido a busca por novos modelos moleculares com acao inseticida em triatomineos resistentes aos inseticidas sinteticos.Chagas disease is a major public health problem in Latin America. This work aimed to evaluate the insecticide action of essential oils of Anacardium humile, Cymbopogon nardus, Ocimum basilicum and Eucalyptus urograndis on Triatoma infestans nymphs of third and fourth stages of development by topic action and steam pressure (fumigation. Two repetitions were performed at the topic test with five nymphs of third and fourth stages of development of T. infestans. It was applied 1ƒÊL of each concentration on the dorsal region of each nymph. Two-liter pots with sealing covers were used at the fumigation test. The essential oils of O. gratissimum and E. urograndis showed insecticidal

  15. Cargas polínicas de abelhas polinizadoras de Byrsonima chrysophylla Kunth. (Malpighiaceae: fidelidade e fontes alternativas de recursos florais Pollen loads of pollinator bees of Byrsonima chrysophylla Kunth. (Malpighiaceae: fidelity and alternative sources of flower resources

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    Éville Karina Maciel Delgado Ribeiro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Byrsonima chrysophylla, conhecida popularmente como murici pitanga, é uma espécie arbustiva que ocorre em restinga. Dentre seus visitantes, além de abelhas da tribo Centridini, também se encontram com freqüência abelhas Xylocopini. Para verificação das espécies vegetais utilizadas pelas abelhas visitantes mais freqüentes, cargas polínicas de suas pernas posteriores (n = 5, bem como de ninhos naturais de Centris caxiensis (n = 7 foram analisados através de acetólise. Durante toda a floração, Byrsonima chrysophylla foi a principal fonte de pólen utilizada por suas abelhas visitantes. Comolia lythrarioides e Myrcia obtusa foram fontes secundárias de pólen, Mouriri guianensis foi fonte secundária de óleo e pólen, enquanto Anacardium microcarpum, Cuphea tenella, Matayba discolor e Phthirusa pyrifolia mostraram-se importantes fontes de néctar durante esse período, sendo o pólen detectado nas amostras, provavelmente aderido ao corpo das abelhas durante a coleta de néctar. Os resultados demonstram que as abelhas visitantes não misturaram os recursos polínicos durante o vôo para a coleta de pólen, apresentando fidelidade às flores de Byrsonima chrysophylla.Byrsonima chrysophylla, known as "murici pitanga", is a shrubby species occurring in 'restinga'. Among its visitors, bees of the Centridini tribe as well as Xylocopini bees are frequently found. To detect which plant species have been used by the most frequent visitors, pollen loads from the back legs (n = 5 and also from natural nests of Centris caxiensis (n = 7 were treated by acetolysis. During flowering of Byrsonima chrysophylla, this plant species was the main pollen source used by bees. Comolia lythrarioides and Myrcia sylvatica were secondary pollen sources, Mouriri guianensis was a secondary oil and pollen source, while Anacardium microcarpum, Cuphea tenella, Matayba discolor and Phthirusa pyrifolia were important nectar sources at this time. The pollen detected in

  16. Sédimentation et diagenèse des minéraux argileux du Jurassique supérieur-Crétacé dans le Jura méridional et le domaine subalpin (France, Sud-Est). Comparaison avec le domaine Atlantique Nord

    OpenAIRE

    Deconinck , Jean-François

    1984-01-01

    Le but de cette thèse est de décrire et d'expliquer l'évolution des assemblages argileux dans les Alpes occidentales depuis l'Oxfordien jusqu'au Crétacé supérieur, et de la comparer à celle connue dans l'Atlantique nord grâce aux forages DSDP. Etude géologique, sédimentologique et géochimique. Les assemblages argileux du Mésozolque supérieur (Malm - Crétacé) du domaine subalpin et du Jura mérldional sont étudiés par diffraction des rayons X, microscopie électronique à transmission et analyses...

  17. Aves y endemismo en los bosques relictos de la vertiente occidental andina del norte del Perú y sur del Ecuador

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    Jeremy N. M. Flanagan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Los bosques relictos de las vertientes occidentales de los Andes del norte del Perú y el sur del Ecuador forman parte de dos regiones, una la denominada región de endemismo tumbesina (caracterizada principalmente por bosques secos y otra, en altitudes mayores, la región de endemismo del sur de los Andes centrales (caracterizada por bosques nublados y páramo. La región tumbesina es reconocida por albergar gran cantidad de aves endémicas, muchas de las cuales están amenazadas, y también por el alto grado de deforestación y fragmentación de sus hábitats naturales. Este artículo presenta un resumen del estado de conservación de dichas aves y bosques, con recomendaciones para mejorar la conservación de los últimos bosques de la vertiente occidental.

  18. RIESGOS PARA LA SALUD DERIVADOS DEL CONSUMO VOLUNTARIO E INVOLUNTARIO DE TABACO

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    Finn Edler von Eyben

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo examina y actualiza los aspectos sanitarios del consumo de tabaco basándose especialmente en estudios llevados a cabo en países europeos, con énfasis en el tabaquismo en el lugar de trabajo. Se revisan los riesgos del consumo de tabaco para la salud en ambos sexos, el impacto en la esperanza de vida, las ventajas del abandono del consumo de tabaco, el patrón social del tabaquismo en las sociedades occidentales y las diferencias sociales en las enfermedades que causa. Se describen también los efectos inmediatos y a largo plazo del consumo involuntario de tabaco, sus consecuencias en el lugar de trabajo, y las técnicas de medida del Aire Contaminado por Humo de Tabaco (ACHT.

  19. Oulebsir Nabila et Volait Mercedes (dir., L’Orientalisme architectural entre imaginaires et savoirs, Paris, CNRS et Picard, 2009, 300 p.

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    Rémi Labrusse

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available D’usage potentiellement aussi large qu’est vague la notion d’Orient dont il est issu, le terme « orientalisme », en histoire de l’art et de l’architecture, sert le plus souvent, faute de mieux, à caractériser l’emploi de formes issues des arts de l’Islam, décontextualisées puis réappropriées dans le cadre de pratiques propres à la culture occidentale (celles-ci fussent-elles endossées par des artistes non-occidentaux. Ces pratiques, le xixe siècle, pour des raisons à la fois scientifiques (l...

  20. Genre, raison et nation

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    Rada Ivekovic

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail s’intéresse aux mécanismes de sexuation et de subjectivation dans la construction de la nation. Quelques-uns ont postulé le “retard” de certains groupes sociaux par rapport à l’avènement de la “modernité”, concernant notamment les sujets extraeuropéens, mais aussi les femmes. En réalité, il n’y a pas de retard soit des femmes, soit des peuples colonisés en matière de modernité, parce que la norme de celle-ci est établie elle-même de façon arbitraire à partir d’une position de domination hégémonique depuis la modernité occidentale.

  1. Autun (Saône-et-Loire. Étude archéologique du cloître canonial de Saint-Nazaire

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    Walter Berry

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available L’année 2003, qui marquait à la fois les 20 ans de recherches entreprises à l’initiative de Christian Sapin et la fin des investigations de terrain, fut très fructueuse. En effet, outre une étude complémentaire de la zone occidentale du cloître, riche en découvertes, la galerie orientale qui a particulièrement retenu notre attention, recelait des informations capitales pour comprendre de façon plus précise l’histoire du site. À l’est, justement, d’autres parties d’une vaste habitation de l’An...

  2. La protección social en una sociedad de semejantes

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    Robert Castel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Los cambios que durante las tres últimas décadas han afectado al estatuto del empleo y las protecciones, a él asociadas, han generado una creciente sensación de inseguridad en las sociedades occidentales. El profesor Castel, tomando como ejemplo el caso francés, examina este fenómeno proponiendo en primer lugar una distinción básica entre inseguridad civil e inseguridad social. Posteriormente se concentra en el segundo tipo de inseguridad y reflexiona sobre los cambios económicos y sociales que acarrea la presente preponderancia del "trabajo flexible". El artículo llama así la atención sobre los peligros de una visión unilateral y simplista de la sociedad y el Estado y sobre el papel determinante que juega la propiedad social en la construcción de una verdadera democracia.

  3. Notas para el estudio del origen de la comunicación social

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    Dra. María José Ruiz Acosta

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available En los años que cierran el siglo XX resulta gratuito cuestionar el grado de protagonismo adquirido por los medios de comunicación social en las naciones occidentales. Indiscutiblemente unidos a la evolución del hombre desde sus primeras expresiones, es, no obstante, desde la pasada centuria cuando esa ligazón adquiere tintes determinantes; alianza que pone de manifiesto la misma denominación de nuestra época como "era de la información". Desde la citada premisa, el presente trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar uno de los aspectos más atractivos -así como problemáticos- que conciernen a la comunicación: el origen de sus manifestaciones.

  4. Mirando a la Pachamama: globalización y territorio en el Tarapacá andino

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    Sergio Gonzu00E1lez Miranda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aborda la distancia cultural entre las poblaciones indígenas y la sociedad occidental desde la Colonia hasta nuestros días a través del concepto tiempo y espacio (devenir y territorio, empleando el concepto agua como un elemento vital y ritual. Se analizan las oportunidades y los riesgos que les plantea la globalización a las comunidades andinas, ofreciendo una propuesta, basada en la teoría de Sergio Boisier, que podría resolver el dilema entre globalización y desarrollo endógeno en la sociedad indígena. Se señala la importancia de la nueva geografía cultural, como disciplina, para entender la importancia del territorio en sociedades y culturas no occidentales como la andina.

  5. Antropología del poder (Anuario de Estudios Indígenas (VV.AA.

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    Sergio Daniel López

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Se puede afirmar que el estado mexicano de Chiapas es uno de los lugares más privilegiados, ricos y diversos para estudiar desde la disciplina antropológica el poder social. La variedad de culturas y lenguas encontradas dentro de fronteras comunes; las disputas centenarias sobre la legislación de las tierras; la mezcla de los modelos políticos occidentales que chocan o conviven con las organizaciones ejidales o los sistemas de cargos tradicionales; las revoluciones campesinas, la lucha por los derechos indígenas y el establecimiento de comunidades autónomas; el abuso, la corrupción y la apropiación del espacio político; la competencia religiosa por el liderazgo espiritual serían sólo algunos ejemplos de las temáticas que sirven como objeto de estudio disciplinar en esta fascinante región.

  6. La violence politique au prisme du genre à travers la presse française (1970-1994, thèse de doctorat en histoire contemporaine sous la direction de Christine Bard, Université d'Angers, 2011

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    Fanny Bugnon

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Située à la croisée deux thématiques – l'histoire des femmes et l'histoire de la violence – cette thèse s'inscrit dans la dynamique relativement récente de l'histoire de la violence des femmes en France. Double « silence de l'histoire », la violence des femmes est ici envisagée dans sa dimension politique à partir de sa médiatisation, interrogeant ainsi un double phénomène propre aux démocraties occidentales : la résurgence, dans l'après-68, d'actes violents et organisés motivés par des raiso...

  7. Antropología y ciudad culturas urbanas de fin de siglo: la mirada antropológica

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    Néstor Gorda Canclini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Alterminar el siglo XX,la antropología parece una disciplina dispuesta a abarcarlo todo. Desde hace varias décadas trascendió el estudio de pueblos campesinos no europeos o no occidentales, en losque se especializó al comenzar su historia como disciplina. Ha desarrollado investigaciones sobre las metrópolis, se fue ocupando de todo tipo de sociedades complejas, tradicionales ymodernas, de ciudades y redes transnacionales. Autores  posmodernos muestran incluso que el estilo antropológico de conocer tiene algo peculiar que revelarnos sobre las formas de multiculturalidad que proliferan en la globalización.

  8. Image-Analysis Based on Seed Phenomics in Sesame

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    Prasad R.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The seed coat (testa structure of twenty-three cultivated (Sesamum indicum L. and six wild sesame (s. occidentale Regel & Heer., S. mulayanum Nair, S. prostratum Retz., S. radiatum Schumach. & Thonn., S. angustifolium (Oliv. Engl. and S. schinzianum Asch germplasm was analyzed from digital and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM images with dedicated software using the descriptors for computer based seed image analysis to understand the diversity of seed morphometric traits, which later on can be extended to screen and evaluate improved genotypes of sesame. Seeds of wild sesame species could conveniently be distinguished from cultivated varieties based on shape and architectural analysis. Results indicated discrete ‘cut off values to identify definite shape and contour of seed for a desirable sesame genotype along with the con-ventional practice of selecting lighter colored testa.

  9. Barbara Levick, Catiline

    OpenAIRE

    Landrea, Cyrielle

    2017-01-01

    La collection Ancients in Action a un double but  : offrir de courtes biographies sur des figures essentielles de l’Histoire ancienne et en analyser la réception dans la civilisation occidentale. B. Levick s’est ainsi vu confier la tâche d’écrire une brève monographie sur le controversé Catilina, en souhaitant replacer l’épiphénomène de la conjuration dans le temps long, même si elle a joué un rôle dans l’effondrement de la res publica. La thèse de ce livre est de considérer les politiciens c...

  10. L’ampliamento come occasione di recupero della memoria e dell’identità

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    Giuseppe Pellitteri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Presentiamo il progetto di ampliamento di un cimitero isolato di una cittadina della Sicilia occidentale in quanto esemplificativo del modo di affrontare il progetto dell’“addizione”. L’ampliamento si confronta con un ancora leggibile caratteristico impianto ottocentesco. Pur introducendo caratteri necessariamente innovativi, l’architettura progettata cerca di risolvere il difficile rapporto tra il nuovo impianto ed il vecchio cimitero dalla speciale forma a “campana”, in un sito in forte pendenza, a monte dell’abitato. Il recupero del luogo della memoria collettiva, depositata nel segno di un recinto chiuso, viene pensato attraverso l’intermediazione di uno spazio che cerca di mantenere, recuperandola e rafforzandola, l’identità dei luoghi, alterati negli ultimi anni da interventi incontrollati, restituendo la memoria stessa alla città.

  11. The Politics of Religion in the United States Manifestations politiques de la religion aux États-Unis

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    Josef Braml

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Aux États-Unis, les attitudes religieuses ont plus d’influence sur les choix politiques que dans n’importe quelle autre démocratie occidentale. L’engagement religieux/moral de la droite chrétienne polarise les États-Unis, ce qui a des conséquences sur le plan électoral mais aussi sur les choix politiques réels. L’importance de la droite chrétienne dans la coalition électorale du Parti républicain oblige celui-ci à mettre l’accent sur les questions liées à la sécurité nationale, en particulier la lutte anti-terroriste, afin de mieux souder une coalition électorale hétérogène.

  12. La circulation des déchets au sein de l’Union européenne. Etude des rapports entre le régime mis en place par le Titre II du Règlement n°1013/2006 et la circulation des marchandises.

    OpenAIRE

    Krack, Noémie

    2017-01-01

    La gestion des déchets n’a pas toujours été une priorité pour nos sociétés, et ce même si les Romains et les Grecs faisaient figure de précurseurs. Les découvertes scientifiques relatives aux épidémies de grandes ampleurs, telle la peste noire, démontrèrent l’importance d’un traitement correct des déchets. En effet, leur abandon et leur accumulation sont responsables de la prolifération de germes et microbes pathogènes. Or il faut savoir qu’à l’époque les cités occidentales étaient malsaines ...

  13. Garip Turunç, La Turquie aux marches de l’Europe, Paris : l’Harmatan, 2001, 162 p., tableaux, annexes, bibliographie, préface de Maurice Catin.

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    Gérard Groc

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Les relations entre la Turquie et l'Europe, de la Communauté Économique Européenne du Traité de Rome (1957 à l'Union Européenne du Traité de Maastricht (1993 sont à la fois longues et embrouillées. En effet, premier pays, avec la Grèce, à avoir signé, en 1963, un accord d'association avec le Marché Commun, la Turquie est tout à la fois un ancien partenaire de l'Europe occidentale et un vieux prétendant à l'adhésion, jamais satisfait et toujours éconduit. Et la complexité de ces relations vi...

  14. The turn towards the past. Reflections on its nature and impact

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    Jefferson Jaramillo Marín

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Las ciencias sociales han experimentado, desde mediados del siglo XX, varios giros epistemológicos, culturales y políticos en la forma de producir el conocimiento social. Sin lugar a dudas, los de mayor impacto han sido el “giro lingüístico” y el “giro cultural”. En este artículo reflexionamos, sin embargo, sobre el “giro hacia el pasado” que ocurre en el último cuarto del siglo XX. Éste giro repercute en el procesamiento y trámite del pasado, además de situar en la escena pública una preocupación cultural y política por el recuerdo, el olvido y la memoria en las sociedades occidentales.

  15. Dimensión social de la publicidad exterior

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    Lic. Marta Pacheco Rueda

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available La publicidad exterior moderna nace en España a principios de los años 60, en un período en que desde el gobierno se acomete una serie de iniciativas tendentes a reactivar la economía del país. La incipiente apertura económica no es desaprovechada por grandes firmas internacionales que aumentan sus inversiones e introducen en el mercado español productos con una larga tradición de consumo en los países occidentales industrializados. Se produce el asentamiento definitivo de las agencias multinacionales de publicidad, de procedencia norteamericana sobre todo, que traen consigo técnicas que responden a una filosofía de marketing, término que si en aquel momento resulta un tanto extraño, con el paso de los años se convierte en un vocablo de uso extendido.

  16. ¿Tartarow, origen, en forma y función, de Tarthssów?

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    J. VARA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Algunos arqueólogos creen a pies juntillas en ciertas fuentes de la antigüedad tardía que hablan de la existencia de una ciudad llamada Tarteso, situada en los confines occidentales del mundo entonces conocido, allá por la zona de la desembocadura del Guadalquivir o sus aledaños. Es curioso, y no deja de extrañar, que sean los arqueólogos los que, a falta de datos que les son propios, esto es, de arqueología, utilicen fuentes escritas para sostener su tesis de la existencia de Tarteso, mientras los filólogos no opinan sobre el particular, dejando de lado el análisis de los textos, que es asunto de su competencia.

  17. Académico Honorario J. Hernando Ordóñez Garay.

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    Z Cuéllar-Montoya

    2006-06-01

    Villeta es la capital nacional de la panela y por lo tanto, en las hermosas estribaciones montañosas que la circundan, son incontables las plantaciones de caña de azúcar, especialmente en las laderas occidentales, las que ascienden hacia el Alto del Trigo. En ella y en su cálido clima -22º promedio-, a 800 metros sobre el nivel del mar, buscaron la salud perdida y entregaron su alma al Todo Poderoso personalidades de la medicina como los Profesores Antonio Vargas Reyes 3, Manuel Plata Azuero 4 y Federico Rivas Mejía 5, todos miembros de la Sociedad de Medicina y Ciencias Naturales de Bogotá...

  18. Les réminiscences spartiates dans les discours et la politique de Robespierre de 1789 à Thermidor

    OpenAIRE

    Rosso, Maxime

    2010-01-01

    La Grèce antique est une des sources les plus riches de la pensée politique occidentale. Les réflexions de ses philosophes et les institutions de ses cités ont servi de modèles et appuyé les constructions intellectuelles, depuis la fin de cet ancien monde jusqu’au XXe siècle, où, il est vrai, la référence antique s’estompe un peu. Deux systèmes se détachent de l’ensemble et ont retenu l’attention de par leur importance historique et de par l’obstination des auteurs à opposer leurs lois et leu...

  19. AdsorÃÃo de Ãons MetÃlicos de Efluente Aquoso Usando BagaÃo do PedÃnculo de Caju: Estudo de Batelada e Coluna de Leito Fixo.

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah de Abreu Moreira AraÃjo

    2008-01-01

    O uso de resÃduos agroindustriais puros ou modificados quimicamente para a remoÃÃo de metais em efluentes industriais aparece como uma alternativa promissora Ãs tecnologias existentes. Os agroresÃduos sÃo bastante estudados devido à sua abundÃncia, baixo custo, biodegradabilidade e a nÃo formaÃÃo de lodo. Neste trabalho utilizou-se o bagaÃo do pedÃnculo de caju (Anarcadium occidentale L.) como adsorvente para remoÃÃo de metais pesados de soluÃÃo aquosa e de efluente produzido por uma indÃstri...

  20. Felicidad: lecciones de una nueva ciencia

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    Fernando Tula Molina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este libro busca comprender la paradoja por la cual cuando las sociedades occidentales se volvieron más ricas, sus integrantes no se volvieron más felices La hipótesis es que el individualismo falló: no aumentó la felicidad de los individuos; si realmente deseamos ser felices necesitamos de un concepto debien común al cual contribuir... exige cuidado del otro, tanto cuanto de nosotros mismos. El marco filosófico de esta reflexión lo proporciona el pensamiento de Jeremy Bentham según el cual la mejor política pública es la que produce más felicidad.