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Sample records for mereni system preparation

  1. Tallinna teekond mereni / Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Triin, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna sadamaala arendamise ajaloost 1990-ndatel aastatel ja 21. sajandi algul. Eraldi projektidest: Kalasadama ümbruse planeering (M. Truu, A. Andres, Nord Projekt, 2000-2006), elamukvartal Logi t. 8, 10 (M. Aunin, M. Melioranski, I. Melioranski, 2005), sadamaala detailplaneeringu eskiis (Tallinna Linnaplaneerimise Amet, 2005), hotell-konverentsikeskus-spaa (Ü. Mark, I. Tiigi, Urban Mark), Admiraliteedi kvartali planeeringu eskiis (Chapman Taylor, London, K-Projekt), Holiday City Tallinn (Evata, Soome), hotell "Merikaru" (M. Schuurman), Lootsi kvartali planeeringu ideeprojekt (Kosmos)

  2. Modular microfluidic system for biological sample preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Klint A.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Ness, Kevin Dean

    2015-09-29

    A reconfigurable modular microfluidic system for preparation of a biological sample including a series of reconfigurable modules for automated sample preparation adapted to selectively include a) a microfluidic acoustic focusing filter module, b) a dielectrophoresis bacteria filter module, c) a dielectrophoresis virus filter module, d) an isotachophoresis nucleic acid filter module, e) a lyses module, and f) an isotachophoresis-based nucleic acid filter.

  3. Robot system for preparing lymphocyte chromosome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayata, Isamu; Furukawa, Akira; Yamamoto, Mikio; Sato, Koki; Tabuchi, Hiroyoshi; Okabe, Nobuo.

    1992-01-01

    Towards the automatization of the scoring of chromosome aberrations in radiation dosimetry with the emphasis on the improvement of biological preparations, the conventional culture and harvesting method was modified. Based on this modified method, a culture and harvest robotic system (CHROSY) for preparing lymphocyte chromosome was developed. The targeted points of the modification are as in the preparing lymphocyte chromosome was developed. The targeted points of the modification are as in the following. 1) Starting culture with purified lymphocytes in a fixed cell number. 2) Avoiding the loss of cells in changing the liquids following centrifugalization. 3) Keeping the quantity of the liquids to be applied to the treatments of cells fixed. 4) Building a system even a beginner can handle. System features are as follows. 1) Operation system: Handling robot having 5 degrees of freedom; a rotator incubator with an automatic sliding door; units for setting and removing pipette tips; a centrifuge equipped with a position adjuster and an automatic sliding door; two aluminium block baths; two nozzles as pipettes and aspirators connected to air pumps; a capping unit with a nozzle for CO 2 gas; a compressor; and an air manipulated syringe. 2) Control system; NEC PC-9801RX21 with CRT; and program written in Basic and Assembly languages on MS-DOS. It took this system 2 hours and 25 minutes to harvest 2 cultures. A fairly good chromosome slide was made from the sample harvested by CHROSY automatically. (author)

  4. Preparing and evaluating delivery systems for proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, L; Moeller, E H; van de Weert, M

    2006-01-01

    From a formulation perspective proteins are complex and therefore challenging molecules to develop drug delivery systems for. The success of a formulation depends on the ability of the protein to maintain the native structure and activity during preparation and delivery as well as during shipping...... and long-term storage of the formulation. Therefore, the development and evaluation of successful and promising drug delivery systems is essential. In the present review, some of the particulate drug delivery systems for parenteral delivery of protein are presented and discussed. The challenge...... for incorporation of protein in particulate delivery systems is exemplified by water-in-oil emulsions....

  5. Orion Ammonia Boiler System Preflight Test Preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Julia L.

    2017-01-01

    The Environmental Controls and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) branch at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is currently undergoing preparations for ground testing of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) to prepare its subsystems for EM-1 (Exploration Mission-1). EM-1, Orions second unmanned flight, is a three-week long lunar mission during which the vehicle will complete a 6-day retrograde lunar orbit before returning to Earth. This paper focuses on the work done during the authors 16-week internship with the Mechanical Engineering Branch of KSCs Engineering Directorate. The authors project involved assisting with the preparations for testing the Orion MPCVs ammonia boiler system. The purpose of the ammonia boiler system is to keep the spacecraft sufficiently cool during the reentry portion of its mission, from service module (SM) separation to post-landing. This system is critical for keeping both the spacecraft (avionics and electronics) and crew alive during reentry, thus a successful test of the system is essential to the success of EM-1. XXXX The author was able to draft a detailed outline of the procedure for the ammonia system functional test. More work will need to be done on the vehicle power-up and power-down portions of the procedure, but the ammonia system testing portion of the procedure is thorough and includes vehicle test configurations, vehicle commands, and GSE. The author was able to compile a substantial list of questions regarding the ammonia system functional test with the help of her mentors. A significant number of these questions were answered in the teleconferences with Lockheed Martin.

  6. GES [Ground Engineering System] test site preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, C.M.; Mahaffey, M.K.; Miller, W.C.; Schade, A.R.; Toyoda, K.G.

    1987-10-01

    Activities are under way at Hanford to convert the 309 containment building and its associated service wing to a nuclear test facility for the Ground Engineering System (GES) test. Conceptual design is about 80% complete, encompassing facility modifications, a secondary heat transport system, a large vacuum system, a test article cell and handing system, control and data handling systems, and safety andl auxiliary systems. The design makes extensive use of existing equipment to minimize technical risk and cost. Refurbishment of this equipment is 25% complete. Cleanout of some 1000 m 3 of equipment from the earlier reactor test in the facility is 85% complete. An Environmental Assessment was prepared and revised to incorporate Department of Energy (DOE) comments. It is now in the DOE approval chain, where a Finding of No Significant Impact is expected. During the next year, definite design will be well advanced, long-lead procurements will be initiated, construction planning will be completed, an operator training plan will be prepared, and the site (preliminary) safety analysis report will be drafted

  7. Special Education Teacher Preparation in Singapore's Dual Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Global comparisons of teacher education programs should start with an understanding of the school systems that teachers are being prepared for in their local contexts. The purpose of this article is to describe Singapore's dual education system as well as teacher preparation in a country that educates many students with disabilities in a separate…

  8. Micro-CT assessment of two different endodontic preparation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cacio Moura-Netto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare two endodontic preparation systems using micro-CT analysis. Twenty-four one-rooted mandibular premolars were selected and randomly assigned to two groups. The samples (n = 12 of Group 1 were prepared using the ProTaper Universal rotary system, while Group 2 (n = 12 was prepared using the EndoEZE AET system complemented by manual apical preparation with K-type hand files up to #30. A 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution was used in both groups for irrigating. Both groups were scanned by high-resolution microcomputed tomography before and after preparation (SkyScan 1172, SkyScan, Kontich, Belgium. The root canal volume and surface area was measured before and after preparation, and the differences were calculated and analyzed for statistically significant differences using ANOVA complemented by the Tukey test (p < 0.05. The results showed no statistically significant differences between the mean volumes of dentin removal by the two systems. However, the EndoEZE AET system presented a significantly greater mean surface area compared to the ProTaper system (p < 0.05. The EndoEZE AET system enabled preparation of a greater root canal surface area when compared to the ProTaper Universal system. There seemed to be no difference in dentin volume loss between the two systems used.

  9. Process control system for fresh concrete preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachvarov, N.; Pavlov, P.; Shukov, H.

    1983-01-01

    The paper discusses the principles, structure and organization of a modular microprocessor based control system, designed to be used in fresh concrete fabrication plants. The system is based on the measurement of the aggregate moisture by means of a neutron moisture meter. (author)

  10. Preparing for a decision support system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, K

    2000-08-01

    The increasing pressure to reduce costs and improve outcomes is driving the health care industry to view information as a competitive advantage. Timely information is required to help reduce inefficiencies and improve patient care. Numerous disparate operational or transactional information systems with inconsistent and often conflicting data are no longer adequate to meet the information needs of integrated care delivery systems and networks in competitive managed care environments. This article reviews decision support system characteristics and describes a process to assess the preparedness of an organization to implement and use decision support systems to achieve a more effective, information-based decision process. Decision support tools included in this article range from reports to data mining.

  11. Capillarity-based preparation system for optical colorimetric sensor arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-Gang; Yi, Xin; Bu, Xiang-Nan; Hou, Chang-Jun; Huo, Dan-Qun; Yang, Mei; Fa, Huan-Bao; Lei, Jin-Can

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, optical colorimetric sensor arrays have demonstrated beneficial features, including rapid response, high selectivity, and high specificity; as a result, it has been extensively applied in food inspection and chemical studies, among other fields. There are instruments in the current market available for the preparation of an optical colorimetric sensor array, but it lacks the corresponding research of the preparation mechanism. Therefore, in connection with the main features of this kind of sensor array such as consistency, based on the preparation method of contact spotting, combined with a capillary fluid model, Washburn equation, Laplace equation, etc., this paper develops a diffusion model of an optical colorimetric sensor array during its preparation and sets up an optical colorimetric sensor array preparation system based on this diffusion model. Finally, this paper compares and evaluates the sensor arrays prepared by the system and prepared manually in three aspects such as the quality of array point, response of array, and response result, and the results show that the performance index of the sensor array prepared by a system under this diffusion model is better than that of the sensor array of manual spotting, which meets the needs of the experiment.

  12. ORIC RF system: preparation for HHIRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosko, S.W.; Rylander, J.D.; Schulze, G.K.

    1977-01-01

    The integration of the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC) into the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) requires several rf system modifications to permit injection of ion beams from the 25 MV tandem electrostatic accelerator into ORIC. A new dee eliminates structural interference with the injected beam path and provides an opportunity to improve the mechanical stability of the resonator and to reduce rf voltage gradients in areas susceptible to sparking. Space for structural improvements is realized by reducing the ion beam aperture from 4.8 cm to 2.4 cm. The complexity of the original ORIC rf power system was substantially reduced. A new broadband solid state driver amplifier between the frequency synthesizer and the main power amplifier eliminates most circuit tuning and permits the use of a new simplified dee rf voltage regulator loop. Most of the remaining instrumentation and control circuitry is TTL compatible and will eventually tie to the ORIC computer control system through a CAMAC interface

  13. Quadratic measurement and conditional state preparation in an optomechanical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Brawley, George; Vanner, Michael A.; Bowen, Warwick P.

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, quadratic measurement of mechanical motion in an optomechanical system. We use this nonlinear easurement to conditionally prepare classical non-Gaussian states of motion of a micro-mechanical oscillator.......We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, quadratic measurement of mechanical motion in an optomechanical system. We use this nonlinear easurement to conditionally prepare classical non-Gaussian states of motion of a micro-mechanical oscillator....

  14. Preparation and study of new rubber to steel adhesive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labaj, I.; Ondrusova, D.; Dubec, A.; Pajtasova, M.; Kohutiar, M.

    2017-01-01

    The present paper deals with the preparation of new rubber to steel adhesive systems using the steel surface treatment by applying the adhesive coats based on Co (II) and Cu(II) salts. For demonstration of coats chemical composition EDX analysis was used. The topography and microstructure of prepared adhesive coats were investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Finally the efficiency of adhesion between rubber blends and coated metal steel pieces was evaluated according to Test ASTM D429 Rubber to metal adhesion, method A. The adhesive strength resulting values of prepared steel samples with new adhesive coats were compared with samples covered with adhesive systems commonly used in industry. (authors)

  15. Preparation of targets using electron gun systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier-Komor, P.

    1975-01-01

    Most targets of isotopes with very low vapor pressure can only be fabricated by vacuum deposition using an electron gun system or a heavy ion sputtering system. Heavy ion sputtering is a very new technique with many unsolved problems. Therefore it seems to be easier to work with an electron gun. Different commercially available electron guns, which are all designed for the high evaporation rates used in industry, are examined for their qualification in processing small amounts of material as used in fabrication of isotope targets. Electron backscattering and the associated efficiency of the electron beam power is strongly dependent on the atomic number Z of the evaporant and the incident angle of the electron beam on the surface of the evaporant. This dependence leads also to the undesired effects to the target layers from electrons and ions. Some precautions are necessary against the effects of the electrons and ions, which are formed in the plasma directly over the beam impact point. Beam power and beam density have to be chosen to get a constant evaporation rate and a low enough condensation rate in order not to overheat the target substrates. To evaporate some metals it may be helpful to pulse the electron beam

  16. Sample preparation system for microfluidic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosier, Bruce P [San Francisco, CA; Crocker, Robert W [Fremont, CA; Patel, Kamlesh D [Dublin, CA; Harnett, Cindy K [Livermore, CA

    2007-05-08

    An apparatus that couples automated injection with flow feedback to provide nanoliter accuracy in controlling microliter volumes. The apparatus comprises generally a source of hydraulic fluid pressure, a fluid isolator joined to the outlet of the hydraulic pressure source and a flow sensor to provide pressure-driven analyte metering. For operation generally and particularly in microfluidic systems the hydraulic pressure source is typically an electrokinetic (EK) pump that incorporates gasless electrodes. The apparatus is capable of metering sub-microliter volumes at flowrates of 1 100 .mu.L/min into microsystem load pressures of up to 1000 50 psi, respectively. Flowrates can be specified within 0.5 .mu.L/min and volumes as small as 80 nL can be metered.

  17. Evaluation and optimisation of preparative semi-automated electrophoresis systems for Illumina library preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quail, Michael A; Gu, Yong; Swerdlow, Harold; Mayho, Matthew

    2012-12-01

    Size selection can be a critical step in preparation of next-generation sequencing libraries. Traditional methods employing gel electrophoresis lack reproducibility, are labour intensive, do not scale well and employ hazardous interchelating dyes. In a high-throughput setting, solid-phase reversible immobilisation beads are commonly used for size-selection, but result in quite a broad fragment size range. We have evaluated and optimised the use of two semi-automated preparative DNA electrophoresis systems, the Caliper Labchip XT and the Sage Science Pippin Prep, for size selection of Illumina sequencing libraries. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Indigenous development of automated metallographic sample preparation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, A.P.; Pandit, K.M.; Deshmukh, A.G.; Sahoo, K.C.

    2005-01-01

    Surface preparation of specimens for Metallographic studies on irradiated material involves a lot of remote handling of radioactive material by skilled manpower. These are laborious and man-rem intensive activities and put limitations on number of samples that can be prepared for the metallographic studies. To overcome these limitations, automated systems have been developed for surface preparation of specimens in PIE division. The system includes (i) Grinding and polishing stations (ii) Water jet cleaning station (iii) Ultrasonic cleaning stations (iv) Drying station (v) Sample loading and unloading station (vi) Dispenser for slurries and diluents and (vii) Automated head for movement of the sample holder disc from one station to other. System facilities the operator for programming/changing sequence of the sample preparations including remote changing of grinding/polishing discs from the stations. Two such systems have been installed and commissioned in Hot Cell for PIE Division. These are being used for preparation of irradiated samples from nuclear fuels and structural components. This development has increased the throughput of metallography work and savings in terms of (man-severts) radiation exposure to operators. This presentation will provide details of the challenges in undertaking this developmental work. (author)

  19. Flexibility of production systems and prepare-finish time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukićević Milan R.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the specificities of the large-serial and mass production is the almost neglected percentage of prepare-finish time in the production cycle. In the conditions of today dominant discontinuous production, it becomes a significant element of the production cycle. The eastern (Japan doctrine of increasing the flexibility of the production systems, is based inter alia also on the extreme reduction of the prepare-finish time. For this reason, the aim of this study was to identify the types and percentages of individual jobs within the group of prepare-finish jobs. The sample consisted of 3 (three production systems for the production of joinery, with the discontinuous production system. The research shows that the percentage of time of the jobs installation of work instruments, regulation of processing regime, and removal of work instruments is extremely long and that it ranges between 11.83% and 18.93% of the shift time. The reasons of the high percentage of these jobs are the wide range of products and the absence of the rationalisation of prepare-finish jobs. Within the efforts to minimize the effects of disruption and to increase the flexibility of the production systems, the rationalisation of prepare-finish jobs is the unavoidable condition.

  20. INFORMATION SYSTEM OF AUTOMATION OF PREPARATION EDUCATIONAL PROCESS DOCUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Matyushenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Information technology is rapidly conquering the world, permeating all spheres of human activity. Education is not an exception. An important direction of information of education is the development of university management systems. Modern information systems improve and facilitate the management of all types of activities of the institution. The purpose of this paper is development of system, which allows automating process of formation of accounting documents. The article describes the problem of preparation of the educational process documents. Decided to project and create the information system in Microsoft Access environment. The result is four types of reports obtained by using the developed system. The use of this system now allows you to automate the process and reduce the effort required to prepare accounting documents. All reports was implement in Microsoft Excel software product and can be used for further analysis and processing.

  1. Preparation of plant and system design description documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This standard prescribes the purpose, scope, organization, and content of plant design requirements (PDR) documents and system design descriptions (SDDs), to provide a unified approach to their preparation and use by a project as the principal means to establish the plant design requirements and to establish, describe, and control the individual system designs from conception and throughout the lifetime of the plant. The Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor (LWR) Requirements Document should be considered for LWR plants

  2. A document preparation system in a large network environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, M.; Bouchier, S.; Sanders, C.; Sydoriak, S.; Wheeler, K.

    1988-01-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed an integrated document preparation system that produces publication-quality documents. This system combines text formatters and computer graphics capabilities that have been adapted to meet the needs of users in a large scientific research laboratory. This paper describes the integration of document processing technology to develop a system architecture, based on a page description language, to provide network-wide capabilities in a distributed computing environment. We describe the Laboratory requirements, the integration and implementation issues, and the challenges we faced developing this system.

  3. Problems in modernization of automation systems at coal preparation plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myshlyaev, L. P.; Lyakhovets, M. V.; Venger, K. G.; Leontiev, I. A.; Makarov, G. V.; Salamatin, A. S.

    2018-05-01

    The factors influencing the process of modernization (reconstruction) of the automation systems at coal preparation plants are described. Problems such as heterogeneity of existing and developed systems, planning of reconstruction of a technological complex without taking into account modernization of automated systems, commissioning without stopping the existing technological complex, as well as problems of conducting procurement procedures are discussed. The option of stage-by-stage start-up and adjustment works in the conditions of modernization of systems without long stops of the process equipment is offered.

  4. Malaysian Preparation for Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Idris Taib; Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha; Kamarudin Sulaiman; Izhar Abu Hussin

    2011-01-01

    Instrumentation and Control System is required in Nuclear Power Plant for their safe and effective operation. The system is combination and integrated from detectors, actuators, analog system as well as digital system. Current design of system definitely follows of electronic as well as computer technology, with strictly follow regulation and guideline from local regulator as well as International Atomic Energy Agency. Commercial Off-The-Shelf products are extensively used with specific nucleonic instrumentation. Malaysian experiences depend on Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI Instrumentation and Control, Power Plant Instrumentation and Control as well as Process Control System. However Malaysians have capabilities to upgrade themself from Electronics, Computers, Electrical and Mechanical based. Proposal is presented for Malaysian preparation. (author)

  5. Development of an online preparation system for multitracer solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasamatsu, Yoshitaka [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)], E-mail: kasamatsu.yoshitaka@jaea.go.jp; Yatsukawa, Makoto; Sato, Wataru; Ninomiya, Kazuhiko; Ohki, Toshihiro; Takahashi, Naruto [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Yokoyama, Akihiko [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Kikunaga, Hidetoshi [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kinoshita, Norikazu [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Shibata, Sadao [Nuclear Safety Technology Center, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Shinohara, Atsushi [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

    2008-03-15

    We have developed a new target-irradiation system for the online preparation of multitracer solutions, where the nuclear-reaction products recoiling out of the target are directly implanted in a solvent as a liquid catcher. A rapid online transportation of the solution has enabled highly efficient recovery of the multitracer solutions having even short-lived radioactive isotopes without any chemical treatments. It has been suggested that the collection efficiency depends on the chemical properties of the recoil elements.

  6. Development of an online preparation system for multitracer solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasamatsu, Yoshitaka; Yatsukawa, Makoto; Sato, Wataru; Ninomiya, Kazuhiko; Ohki, Toshihiro; Takahashi, Naruto; Yokoyama, Akihiko; Kikunaga, Hidetoshi; Kinoshita, Norikazu; Shibata, Sadao; Shinohara, Atsushi

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a new target-irradiation system for the online preparation of multitracer solutions, where the nuclear-reaction products recoiling out of the target are directly implanted in a solvent as a liquid catcher. A rapid online transportation of the solution has enabled highly efficient recovery of the multitracer solutions having even short-lived radioactive isotopes without any chemical treatments. It has been suggested that the collection efficiency depends on the chemical properties of the recoil elements

  7. Prednisolone multicomponent nanoparticle preparation by aerosol solvent extraction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moribe, Kunikazu; Fukino, Mika; Tozuka, Yuichi; Higashi, Kenjirou; Yamamoto, Keiji

    2009-10-01

    Prednisolone nanoparticles were prepared in the presence of a hydrophilic polymer and a surfactant by the aerosol solvent extraction system (ASES). A ternary mixture of prednisolone, polyethylene glycol (PEG), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) dissolved in methanol was sprayed through a nozzle into the reaction vessel filled with supercritical carbon dioxide. After the ASES process was repeated, precipitates of the ternary components were obtained by depressurizing the reaction vessel. When a methanolic solution of prednisolone/PEG 4000/SDS at a weight ratio of 1:6:2 was sprayed under the optimized ASES conditions, the mean particle size of prednisolone obtained after dispersing the precipitates in water was observed to be ca. 230 nm. Prednisolone nanoparticles were not obtained by the binary ASES process for prednisolone, in the presence of either PEG or SDS. Furthermore, ternary cryogenic cogrinding, as well as solvent evaporation, was not effective for the preparation of prednisolone nanoparticles. As the ASES process can be conducted under moderate temperature conditions, the ASES process that was applied to the ternary system appeared to be one of the most promising methods for the preparation of drug nanoparticles using the multicomponent system.

  8. Two-dimensional preparative liquid chromatography system for preparative separation of minor amount components from complicated natural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Ying-Kun, E-mail: qyk@xmu.edu.cn; Chen, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Ling-Ling; Yan, Xia; Chen, Lin; Fang, Mei-Juan; Wu, Zhen, E-mail: wuzhen@xmu.edu.cn

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Preparative MDLC system was developed for separation of complicated natural products. • Medium-pressure LC and preparative HPLC were connected by interface of SPE. • Automated multi-step preparative separation of 25 compounds was achieved by using this system. - Abstract: An on-line comprehensive two-dimensional preparative liquid chromatography system was developed for preparative separation of minor amount components from complicated natural products. Medium-pressure liquid chromatograph (MPLC) was applied as the first dimension and preparative HPLC as the second one, in conjunction with trapping column and makeup pump. The performance of the trapping column was evaluated, in terms of column size, dilution ratio and diameter-height ratio, as well as system pressure from the view of medium pressure liquid chromatograph. Satisfactory trapping efficiency can be achieved using a commercially available 15 mm × 30 mm i.d. ODS pre-column. The instrument operation and the performance of this MPLC × preparative HPLC system were illustrated by gram-scale isolation of crude macro-porous resin enriched water extract of Rheum hotaoense. Automated multi-step preparative separation of 25 compounds, whose structures were identified by MS, {sup 1}H NMR and even by less-sensitive {sup 13}C NMR, could be achieved in a short period of time using this system, exhibiting great advantages in analytical efficiency and sample treatment capacity compared with conventional methods.

  9. Preparing accelerator systems for the RHIC sextant commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trbojevic, D.; Pilat, F.; Ahrens, L.

    1997-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) construction is progressing steadily towards completion in 1999 when beams will circulate in both collider rings. One of the major tests of the RHIC project was the commissioning of the first sextant with gold ion beams in early 1997. This is a report on preparation of the RHIC accelerator systems for the first sextant test. It includes beam position monitors, timing, injection correction through the magnetic septum and kickers, current transformers, flags and the ionization beam profile monitors, beam loss monitors, beam and quench permit link system, power supply controls, and the configuration database system. The software and hardware development and coordination of the different systems before commissioning were regularly checked during bi-weekly, and (later) weekly, progress report meetings

  10. A multileaf collimator field prescription preparation system for conventional radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, M.N.; Yu, C. X.; Symons, M.; Yan, D.; Taylor, R.; Matter, R.C.; Gustafson, G.; Martinez, A.; Wong, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to develop a prescription preparation system for efficient field shaping using a multileaf collimator that can be used in community settings as well as research institutions. The efficiency advantage of the computer-controlled multileaf collimator, over cerrobend blocks, to shape radiation fields has been shown in conformal treatments, which typically require complete volumetric computerized tomographic data for three-dimensional radiation treatment planning--a utility not readily available to the general community. As a result, most patients today are treated with conventional radiation therapy. Therefore, we believe that it is very important to fully use the same efficiency advantage of multileaf collimator as a block replacement in conventional practice. Methods and Material: The multileaf collimator prescription preparation system developed by us acquires prescription images from different sources, including film scanner and radiation treatment planning systems. The multileaf collimator angle and leaf positions are set from the desired field contour defined on the prescription image, by minimizing the area discrepancies. Interactive graphical tools include manual adjustment of collimator angle and leaf positions, and definition of portions of the field edges that require maximal conformation. Data files of the final leaf positions are transferred to the multileaf collimator controller via a dedicated communication link. Results: We have implemented the field prescription preparation system and a network model for integrating the multileaf collimator and other radiotherapy modalities for routine treatments. For routine plan evaluation, isodose contours measured with film in solid water phantom at prescription depth are overlaid on the prescription image. Preliminary study indicates that the efficiency advantage of the MLC over cerrobend blocks in conformal therapy also holds true for conventional treatments. Conclusion: Our

  11. Solid state amorphisation in binary systems prepared by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, G.; Sagarzazu, A.; Bonyuet, D.; D'Angelo, L.; Villalba, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work a detailed study of amorphisation in different systems prepared by mechanical alloying under the same experimental conditions was carried out, milling up to 50 and 100 h in some cases. The systems studied were: AlTi, AlNi, AlFe, FeNi, FeCo, NiMo, NiW, NiCo, MoW, CoMo. These systems were chosen to study the effect of Al-transition metal, transition metal-transition metal and also systems with large and small negative heat of mixing, different and similar crystal structures, atomic sizes and diffusion coefficients. Calculations based on the Miedema model for alloy formation and amorphisation on all the alloys studied were performed. The experimental results from X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed that the systems based on Fe (FeNi, FeCo and FeAl) did not amorphised, even after milling for 100 h, and formed a stable solid solution with a nanometric grain size of 7 nm. The systems NiMo, NiW, MoW and CoMo (systems with small negative heat of mixing), showed amorphisation after 50 h of milling. NiAl and TiAl form an intermediate amorphous phase after around 20 h of milling and with further milling they recrystallize into a fcc solid solution. Agreement between the theoretical calculations based on the Miedema model and the experimental results was found in most of the systems.

  12. Automated spike preparation system for Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Clark, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS) is a method frequently employed to measure dissolved, irradiated nuclear materials. A known quantity of a unique isotope of the element to be measured (referred to as the ''spike'') is added to the solution containing the analyte. The resulting solution is chemically purified then analyzed by mass spectrometry. By measuring the magnitude of the response for each isotope and the response for the ''unique spike'' then relating this to the known quantity of the ''spike'', the quantity of the nuclear material can be determined. An automated spike preparation system was developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to dispense spikes for use in IDMS analytical methods. Prior to this development, technicians weighed each individual spike manually to achieve the accuracy required. This procedure was time-consuming and subjected the master stock solution to evaporation. The new system employs a high precision SMI Model 300 Unipump dispenser interfaced with an electronic balance and a portable Epson HX-20 notebook computer to automate spike preparation

  13. Multi-spark discharge system for preparation of nutritious water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaso, Tetsushi; Harigai, Toru; Kusumawan, Sholihatta Aziz; Shimomura, Tomoya; Tanimoto, Tsuyoshi; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi

    2018-01-01

    The nitrogen compound concentration in water is increased by atmospheric-pressure plasma discharge treatment. A rod-to-water electrode discharge treatment system using plasma discharge has been developed by our group to obtain water with a high concentration of nitrogen compounds, and this plasma-treated water improves the growth of chrysanthemum roots. However, it is difficult to apply the system to the agriculture because the amount of treated water obtained by using the system too small. In this study, a multi-spark discharge system (MSDS) equipped multiple spark plugs is presented to obtain a large amount of plasma-treated water. The MSDS consisted of inexpensive parts in order to reduce the system introduction cost for agriculture. To suppress the temperature increase of the spark plugs, the 9 spark plugs were divided into 3 groups, which were discharged in order. The plasma-treated water with a NO3- concentration of 50 mg/L was prepared using the MSDS for 90 min, and the treatment efficiency was about 6 times higher than that of our previous system. It was confirmed that the NO2-, O3, and H2O2 concentrations in the water were also increased by treating the water using the MSDS.

  14. Is the Australian hospital system adequately prepared for terrorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Fitzgerald, Mark; Kossmann, Thomas; Pearce, Andrew; Joseph, Anthony; Joseph, Andrew; Tan, Gim; Gardner, Michele; Shapira, Shmuel

    Australian hospitals need to be prepared to deal with mass casualties from terrorist strikes, including bomb blasts and chemical, biological and radiation injury. Injuries from bomb explosions are more severe than those commonly seen in Australian hospitals. In disasters involving mass casualties in urban areas, many of the injured make their own way to hospital, often arriving before the more seriously injured casualties. Major hospitals in Australia should plan for large numbers of undifferentiated and potentially contaminated casualties arriving with minimal warning. It is critical that experienced and trained senior medical officers perform the triage of casualties in emergency departments, with frequent reassessment to detect missed injuries (especially pulmonary blast injury). Hospitals require well developed standard operating procedures for mass casualty events, reinforced by regular drills. Preparing for a major event includes training staff in major incident management, setting up an operational/control unit, nominating key personnel, ensuring there is an efficient intra-hospital communication system, and enhancing links with other emergency services and hospitals.

  15. CASK/MSC/WP PREPARATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Drummond

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this system description document (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the Cask/MSC/WP preparation system and their bases to allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This SDD is a living document that will be revised at strategic points as the design matures over time. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design, as they exist at this time, with emphasis on those attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD has been developed to be an engineering tool for design control. Accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This type of SDD both leads and trails the design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. This SDD trails the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD is a reflection of the results of the design process to date. This SDD addresses the ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canori and Leitner 2003 [DIRS 166275]) requirements. Additional PRD requirements may be cited, as applicable, to drive the design of specific aspects of the system, with justifications provided in the basis. Functional and operational requirements applicable to this system are obtained from the ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F and OR) (Curry 2004 [DIRS 170557]) document. Other requirements to support the design process have been taken from higher-level requirements documents such as the ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171599]) and the preclosure safety analyses

  16. CASK/MSC/WP PREPARATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Drummond

    2005-04-12

    The purpose of this system description document (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the Cask/MSC/WP preparation system and their bases to allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This SDD is a living document that will be revised at strategic points as the design matures over time. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design, as they exist at this time, with emphasis on those attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD has been developed to be an engineering tool for design control. Accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This type of SDD both leads and trails the design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. This SDD trails the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD is a reflection of the results of the design process to date. This SDD addresses the ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canori and Leitner 2003 [DIRS 166275]) requirements. Additional PRD requirements may be cited, as applicable, to drive the design of specific aspects of the system, with justifications provided in the basis. Functional and operational requirements applicable to this system are obtained from the ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Curry 2004 [DIRS 170557]) document. Other requirements to support the design process have been taken from higher-level requirements documents such as the ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171599]) and the preclosure safety analyses.

  17. The preparation of teaching simulation system of endovascular intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yiming; Wang Jie; Shi Haibin; Jin Xijun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To establish a teaching simulation system of endovascular intervention and to evaluate its application in clinical teaching practice. Methods: The vascular model, which had quite similar diameter and length to that of human arteries, was prepared with glass tubes of different diameters. Stainless steel tubes were cut and welded to manufacture the brackets of an operation bed and a C-arm, and then the above parts together with flat were assembled into the operation bed module. Fixed camera, computer and footswitch were assembled into the image module. The above three modules were integrated into the teaching simulation system of endovascular intervention. With the help of this system, the principal endovascular intervention manipulations were imitatively exercised. Results: The vascular model had the same proportions as in normal human subjects. The operation bed module could be moved in two dimensions. The image module could capture multiple and differently formatted images as well as dynamic images in different sizes. Also, this system carried the image-frozen function, which was just the same as last image hold function of DSA. This simulation system could imitate the basic manipulations of many kinds of endovascular interventions, such as the hepatic artery catheterization, carotid artery catheterization, the performing of looping-technique in uterine artery, etc. Conclusion: The simulation system can imitate many principal endovascular manipulations, and can distinctly display the relationship of the vascular anatomy and interventional instruments with their imaging shadows. Therefore, this simulation system has a promising prospect of being able to be used in the clinical teaching program concerning vascular interventional manipulations. (authors)

  18. System of preparing the personnel for railway of Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullaaziz ARTIKBAEV

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper, by the example of training for the railway industry in Uzbekistan, focuses on the experiences and characteristics of Uzbekistan's integration into the international system of education, a framework of qualifications of the European Commission. Tashkent Institute of Railway Engineering has: rated the students' knowledge of the possibility of mutual recognition and accreditation based on the comparability of disciplines and curricula; included in its institutional strategy doctoral program, which has national features aimed at providing career opportunities for young researchers and university teachers based on the fundamental nature and the humanization of education, providing the preparation of the highly qualified specialists, ensures the interconnection and interdependence at all levels of technical education: secondary, undergraduate, graduate, doctoral and post-graduate training and re-training to maintain the knowledge and skills of teachers at the level of requests engineering and production of the XXI century.

  19. Preparation of Astaxanthin Nanodispersions Using Gelatin-Based Stabilizer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navideh Anarjan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of lipophilic nutrients, such as astaxanthin (a fat soluble carotenoid in nanodispersion systems can either increase the water solubility, stability and bioavailability or widen their applications in aqueous food and pharmaceutical formulations. In this research, gelatin and its combinations with sucrose oleate as a small molecular emulsifier, sodium caseinate (SC as a protein and gum Arabic as a polysaccharide were used as stabilizer systems in the formation of astaxanthin nanodispersions via an emulsification-evaporation process. The results indicated that the addition of SC to gelatin in the stabilizer system could increase the chemical stability of astaxanthin nanodispersions significantly, while using a mixture of gelatin and sucrose oleate as a stabilizer led to production of nanodispersions with the smallest particle size (121.4 ± 8.6 nm. It was also shown that a combination of gelatin and gum Arabic could produce optimal astaxanthin nanodispersions in terms of physical stability (minimum polydispersity index (PDI and maximum zeta-potential. This study demonstrated that the mixture of surface active compounds showed higher emulsifying and stabilizing functionality compared to using them individually in the preparation of astaxanthin nanodispersions.

  20. Audit Report. Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System Preparation for Year 2000

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... The overall audit objective was to determine whether the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System was adequately preparing its information technology systems to resolve date-processing issues...

  1. Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) Preparation for CMIP6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denvil, S.; Murphy, S.; Greenslade, M. A.; Lawrence, B.; Guilyardi, E.; Pascoe, C.; Treshanksy, A.; Elkington, M.; Hibling, E.; Hassell, D.

    2015-12-01

    During the course of 2015 the Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) project began its preparations for CMIP6 (Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project 6) by further extending the ES-DOC tooling ecosystem in support of Earth System Model (ESM) documentation creation, search, viewing & comparison. The ES-DOC online questionnaire, the ES-DOC desktop notebook, and the ES-DOC python toolkit will serve as multiple complementary pathways to generating CMIP6 documentation. It is envisaged that institutes will leverage these tools at different points of the CMIP6 lifecycle. Institutes will be particularly interested to know that the documentation burden will be either streamlined or completely automated.As all the tools are tightly integrated with the ES-DOC web-service, institutes can be confident that the latency between documentation creation & publishing will be reduced to a minimum. Published documents will be viewable with the online ES-DOC Viewer (accessible via citable URL's). Model inter-comparison scenarios will be supported using the ES-DOC online Comparator tool. The Comparator is being extended to:• Support comparison of both Model descriptions & Simulation runs;• Greatly streamline the effort involved in compiling official tables.The entire ES-DOC ecosystem is open source and built upon open standards such as the Common Information Model (CIM) (versions 1 and 2).

  2. The Phobos-Grunt microgravity soil preparation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Kai-leung; Lam, Chi Wo; Ko, Sui Man; Foster, James Abbott

    2017-12-01

    To understand the composition of regolith on distant bodies it is important to make quantitative measurement of its composition. However, many instruments on board space missions can only make qualitative measurements. The SOil Preparation SYStem (SOPSYS) designed for the Phobos-grunt mission in 2011 was a unique spacecraft subsystem that can grind, sieve, transport and measure samples of regolith in the absence of gravity. Its mission was to produce a compact plug of regolith sample composed of particles no larger than 1 mm for a gas analytic package. It delivers a sample with specified volume enabling a quantitative analysis of the volatiles produced at different temperatures through heating. To minimize cross contamination, SOPSYS self-cleans after each sample is delivered. The apparatus was a cooperative development between China and Russia for the Phobos-Grunt mission to the Martian moon Phobos and will be reused on the upcoming reattempt of that mission and other similar missions. The paper presents an overview of the subsystem and the results of qualification model testing. The flight unit of SOPSYS has a low mass of 622 g including control electronics and compact dimensions of 247 mm by 102 mm by 45 mm.

  3. 40 CFR 205.171-2 - Test exhaust system sample selection and preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Systems § 205.171-2 Test exhaust system sample selection and preparation. (a)(1) Exhaust systems... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test exhaust system sample selection and preparation. 205.171-2 Section 205.171-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  4. Läänemerest Musta mereni / Ott Kurs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurs, Ott, 1939-

    2006-01-01

    Põhja-Euroopa ja Baltimaade ühendusest Baltoscandia, Krimmi poolsaare ajaloost ja elanikest ning Balti riikide huvist Krimmis. Artikkel on lühendatud tõlge ettekandest "The Black sea region, the Crimea and the Baltics" konverentsil Academia Baltoscandia's Paneve̓ysises Leedus 9. novembril 2002

  5. Preparing Pseudo-Pure States in a Quadrupolar Spin System Using Optimal Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Yi-Peng; Li Jun; Zhou Xian-Yi; Peng Xin-Hua; Du Jiang-Feng; Nie Xin-Fang; Chen Hong-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Pseudo-pure state (PPS) preparation is crucial in nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computation. There have been some methods in spin-1/2 systems and a few attempts in quadrupolar spin systems. As optimal control via gradient ascent pulses engineering (GRAPE) has been widely used in quantum information science, we apply this technique to PPS preparation in quadrupolar spin systems. This approach shows an effective and fast quantum control method for both the state preparation and the realization of quantum gates in quadrupolar systems

  6. Preparation of uranium electrodeposited target in aqueous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qiping; Li Yougen; Zhong Wenbin

    2006-03-01

    The main factors affecting uranium electrodeposition were tested and discussed. In the primary experiment about preparation of uranium isotopic target by electrodeposition, a stainless steel disk has been chosen as the target material, the electrolytic bath is comprised of UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 and (NH 4 ) 2 C 2 O 4 , which has been adjusted to a pH of 2-3. Composition of the lost electrolytic bath was analysed by spectrophotometer. The thickness of resulting film is about 8-10 mg/cm 2 , the target having a thin, continuous, uniform layer of uranium, and its electrodeposited rate is more than 80%. (authors)

  7. Attempts to prepare an all-carbon indigoid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeref Yildizhan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available First attempts are described to prepare a precursor for an all-carbon analog of indigo, the tetracyclic triene 4. Starting from indan-2-one (9 the α-methylene ketone 13 was prepared. Upon subjecting this compound to a McMurry coupling reaction, it dimerized to the bis-indene derivative 17, rather than providing the tetramethyl derivative of 4, the hydrocarbon 14. In a second approach, indan-1-one (18 was dimerized to the conjugated enedione 21 through the bis-1-indene dimer 19. All attempts to methylenate 21 failed, however. When 19 was treated with the Tebbe reagent, the dimer 23 was produced, presumably through a Cope reaction of the intermediately generated isomer 22. The bis-indene derivative 23 can be alkylated with 1,2-dibromoethane to produce a 1:1 mixture of the spiro compounds 24 and 25. Although 9 could be reductively dimerized to 30, the conversion of this olefin to 14 failed.

  8. Preparation of uranium electrodeposited target in aqueous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiping, Chen; Yougen, Li; Wenbin, Zhong [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China). Inst. of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry

    2006-03-15

    The main factors affecting uranium electrodeposition were tested and discussed. In the primary experiment about preparation of uranium isotopic target by electrodeposition, a stainless steel disk has been chosen as the target material, the electrolytic bath is comprised of UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, which has been adjusted to a pH of 2-3. Composition of the lost electrolytic bath was analysed by spectrophotometer. The thickness of resulting film is about 8-10 mg/cm{sup 2}, the target having a thin, continuous, uniform layer of uranium, and its electrodeposited rate is more than 80%. (authors)

  9. Vertical integration models to prepare health systems for capitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cave, D G

    1995-01-01

    Health systems will profit most under capitation if their vertical integration strategy provides operational stability, a strong primary care physician base, efficient delivery of medical services, and geographic access to physicians. Staff- and equity-based systems best meet these characteristics for success because they have one governance structure and a defined mission statement. Moreover, physician bonds are strong because these systems maximize physicians' income potential and control the revenue stream.

  10. Control landscapes for observable preparation with open quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Rebing; Pechen, Alexander; Rabitz, Herschel; Hsieh, Michael; Tsou, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    A quantum control landscape is defined as the observable as a function(al) of the system control variables. Such landscapes were introduced to provide a basis to understand the increasing number of successful experiments controlling quantum dynamics phenomena. This paper extends the concept to encompass the broader context of the environment having an influence. For the case that the open system dynamics are fully controllable, it is shown that the control landscape for open systems can be lifted to the analysis of an equivalent auxiliary landscape of a closed composite system that contains the environmental interactions. This inherent connection can be analyzed to provide relevant information about the topology of the original open system landscape. Application to the optimization of an observable expectation value reveals the same landscape simplicity observed in former studies on closed systems. In particular, no false suboptimal traps exist in the system control landscape when seeking to optimize an observable, even in the presence of complex environments. Moreover, a quantitative study of the control landscape of a system interacting with a thermal environment shows that the enhanced controllability attainable with open dynamics significantly broadens the range of the achievable observable values over the control landscape

  11. Quotum for CO2. Trading system in preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Weijden, C.; Dingenen, S.

    2002-01-01

    CO2 emission rights trading is one of the most promising tools for limiting the release of CO2 in the short term. While development of a trading system continues at the European Union level, the Netherlands is working on a system of its own, which will differ from its European counterpart in various critical respects. Although the Netherlands is likely to be one of the main beneficiaries of emission trading, the nation nevertheless has an obligation to pursue technical innovation [nl

  12. Louisville region demonstration of travel management coordination center : system pre-deployment preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the Greater Louisville Region Demonstration of Travel Management Coordination Center (TMCC): System Pre-Deploy-ment Preparation grant was to further phased implementation of the regions TMCC design by focusing on two major component...

  13. Platelet collection efficiencies of three different platelet-rich plasma preparation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Fatma; Pancar Yuksel, Esra; Albayrak, Davut

    2015-06-01

    Different systems have been used for the preparation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), but platelet collection efficiencies of these systems are not clear. To evaluate the platelet collection efficiencies of three different PRP preparation systems. Blood samples were obtained from the same 16 volunteers for each system. The samples were centrifuged and PRP was prepared by three systems. The ratio of the total number of platelets in PRP to the total number of platelets of the venous blood sample of the patient expressed in percentage was named as platelet collection efficiency and calculated for each system. Mean platelet collection efficiencies were 66.6 (min: 56.9, max: 76.9), 58.3 (min: 27.3, max: 102.8), 50.8 (min: 27.2, max: 73) for top and bottom bag system, system using citrated tube, and the system using tube with Ficoll and cell extraction kit, respectively. Statistically significant difference was found only between the platelet collection efficiencies of systems using the tube with ficoll and cell extraction kit and the top and bottom bag system (p = 0.002). All three systems could be used for PRP preparation, but top and bottom bag system offers a slight advantage over the system using Ficoll and cell extraction kit regarding the platelet collection efficiency.

  14. Structure, preparation and properties of refractory compounds and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holleck, H.; Thuemmler, F.

    1977-01-01

    At the beginning of this report the possibilities of hardness optimization of refractory carbides are generally discussed. Three papers deal with TaC-basis refractories and hard metals. In particular, carbides with very low nonmetal/metal ratios and composites with hard phases formed by decomposition of tantalum carbonitrides are discussed. Another contribution reports investigations concerning the influence of the microstructure on the hardness of polycristaline mixed carbides. In a series of four papers, results are presented on the work of optimization conventional WC hard metals by introduction of a Fe,Co,Ni-binder: The influence of composition, carbon content and sintering conditions, as well as the wetting behaviour between carbides and binder metals are discussed. Phase relations in the refractory nitride and refractory nitride-binder metal systems as well as phase stabilities of ordered transition metal phases are reported in three papers, fundamental in character. Finally, the work concerning chemical analysis of refractory systems is described. (orig.) [de

  15. Systems and methods for preparation and separation of products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Ryan J.; Boggs, Bryan; Self, Kyle; Leclerc, Margarete K.; Gorer, Alexander; Weiss, Michael J.; Miller, John H.; Mohanta, Samaresh

    2015-12-01

    There are provided methods and systems for an electrochemical cell including an anode and a cathode where the anode is contacted with a metal ion that converts the metal ion from a lower oxidation state to a higher oxidation state. The metal ion in the higher oxidation state is reacted with hydrogen gas, an unsaturated hydrocarbon, and/or a saturated hydrocarbon to form products.

  16. Preparation structure and dielectric behaviour of the system Sr1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    perovskite oxide system Sr1–xLaxTi1–xFexO3 (x ≤ 0⋅50). XRD studies ..... Here ωis the angular frequency, which is equal to. 2πfmax and τD .... Dipole or dipolar polarisation is also referred to as orientation polarisation involves the ... attributed to the formation of barrier layers at grain–grain-boundaries interfaces similar to.

  17. Preparations for Upgrading the RF Systems of the PS Booster

    CERN Document Server

    Albright, Simon; Shaposhnikova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    The accelerators of the LHC injector chain need to be upgraded to provide the HL-LHC beams. The PS Booster, the first synchrotron in the LHC injection chain, uses three different RF systems (first, second and up to tenth harmonic) in each of its four rings. As part of the LHC Injector Upgrade the current ferrite RF systems will be replaced with broadband Finemet cavities, increasing the flexibility of the RF system. A Finemet test cavity has been installed in Ring 4 to investigate its effect on machine performance, especially beam stability, during extensive experimental studies. Due to large space charge impedance Landau damping is lost through most of the cycle in single harmonic operation, but is recovered when using the second harmonic and controlled longitudinal emittance blow-up. This paper compares beam parameters during acceleration with and without the Finemet test cavity. Comparisons were made using beam measurements and simulations with the BLonD code based on a full PS Booster impedance model. Thi...

  18. Responses to Information Systems Graduate Preparation and Job Needs: Implications for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, DeShea; Jackson, Kanata

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the perspectives on academic preparation and job skill needs of Information Systems program graduates from an Eastern state in the US. A historical review of the literature surrounding information systems skill requirements was conducted for this study, to provide an understanding of the changes in information systems over the…

  19. A laser-powered hydrokinetic system for caries removal and cavity preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, J; Young, D A; Eversole, L R; Gornbein, J A

    2000-06-01

    Laser systems have been developed for the cutting of dental hard tissues. The erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet, or Er,Cr:YSGG, laser system used in conjunction with an air-water spray has been shown to be efficacious in vitro for cavity preparation. The authors randomly selected subjects for cavity preparation with conventional air turbine/bur dental surgery or an Er,Cr:YSGG laser-powered system using a split-mouth design. They prepared Class I, III and V cavities, placed resin restorations and evaluated subjects on the day of the procedure and 30 days and six months postoperatively for pulp vitality, recurrent caries, pain and discomfort, and restoration retention. Sixty-seven subjects completed the study. There were no statistical differences between the two treatment groups for the parameters measured with one exception; there was a statistically significant decrease in discomfort levels for the laser system at the time of cavity preparation for subjects who declined to receive local anesthetic. The Er,Cr:YSGG laser system is effective for preparation of Class I, III and V cavities and resin restorations are retained by lased tooth surfaces. Hard-tissue cutting lasers are being introduced for use in operative dentistry. In this study, an Er,Cr:YSGG laser has been shown to be effective for cavity preparation and restoration replacement.

  20. Nanoparticulated magnetic drug delivery systems: Preparation and magnetic characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, P C, E-mail: pcmor@unb.b [Universidade de BrasIlia, Instituto de Fisica, Nucleo de Fisica Aplicada, Brasilia DF 70910-900 (Brazil)

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes how magnetic resonance can be successfully used as a tool to help customize and quantify nanosized magnetic particles while labeling cells and administered in animals for targeting different biological sites. Customization of magnetic nanoparticles is addressed here in terms of production of complex magnetic drug delivery systems whereas quantification of magnetic nanoparticle in different biological compartments emerges as a key experimental information to assess time-dependent magnetic nanoparticle biodistribution profiles. Examples of using magnetic resonance in unfolding information regarding the pharmacokinetics of intravenously-injected surface-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles in animals are included in the paper.

  1. Preparing a feasibility study for a maglev transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessel, H

    1984-06-01

    The Transrapid test facility in Emsland is almost completed, and the phase of putting into operation with the TR 06 maglev vehicle has commenced. This will be followed by a general test phase to check the practicability of the maglev system. It is now time to clarify, by means of a feasibility study, what steps are necessary for the introduction of the maglev system in West Germany. Taking two existing railway lines as example, namely Hamburg-Hannover and Duesseldorf Airport-Cologne/Bonn Airport, the effect will be examined of the public-law licensing procedure, participation of the general public in planning procedures, and the information of the media. Also, the technical framework data will be revised on the basis of the experience gained in building the Transrapid facility and the technical improvements made subsequently. Proposed track routing plans are to take particular account of environmental protection considerations, while cost accounting models will be developed which allow fast and reliable forecasts to be made for future projects in respect of investment and operating costs, and optimal operating procedures will be determined by means of simulation.

  2. Dispatcher's monitoring systems of coal preparation processes. Systemy dyspozytorskiej kontroli procesow wzbogacania wegla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cierpisz, S [Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland); Cierpisz, T; Glowacki, D; Puczylowski, T [Min-Tech Sp. z o.o., Katowice (Poland)

    1994-08-01

    The computer-based control and dispatcher's monitoring systems for coal preparation plants are described. The article refers to the local automation systems of coal blending production, control systems of heavy media separation process and dispatcher's visualization systems of technological lines operation. The effects of implementation of the above mentioned systems as well as some experiences gained at the designing and operational stages are given. (author). 2 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Preparation and evaluation of nattokinase-loaded self-double-emulsifying drug delivery system

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaona; Jiang, Sifan; Wang, Xinyue; Liao, Jie; Yin, Zongning

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we prepared nattokinase-loaded self-double-emulsifying drug delivery system (SDEDDS) and investigated its preliminary pharmacodynamics. The type and concentration of oil phase, inner aqueous phase and emulsifier were screened to prepare optimum nattokinase-loaded SDEDDS. Next, the optimum formulations were characterized based on microstructure, volume-weighted mean droplet size, self-emulsifying rate, yield, storage stability, in vitro release and in vivo pharmacodynamic...

  4. Recycle Waste Collection Tank (RWCT) simulant testing in the PVTD feed preparation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrigo, G.P.; Daume, J.T.; Halstead, S.D.; Myers, R.L.; Beckette, M.R.; Freeman, C.J.; Hatchell, B.K.

    1996-03-01

    (This is part of the radwaste vitrification program at Hanford.) RWCT was to routinely receive final canister decontamination sand blast frit and rinse water, Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank bottoms, and melter off-gas Submerged Bed Scrubber filter cake. In order to address the design needs of the RWCT system to meet performance levels, the PNL Vitrification Technology (PVTD) program used the Feed Preparation Test System (FPTS) to evaluate its equipment and performance for a simulant of RWCT slurry. (FPTS is an adaptation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility feed preparation system and represents the initially proposed Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant feed preparation system designed by Fluor-Daniel, Inc.) The following were determined: mixing performance, pump priming, pump performance, simulant flow characterization, evaporator and condenser performance, and ammonia dispersion. The RWCT test had two runs, one with and one without tank baffles

  5. Errors detected in pediatric oral liquid medication doses prepared in an automated workflow management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Sarah; Van Buskirk, Alex; Falconer, R James; Hollon, Andrew; Hoebing, Wendy; Jokic, Sladan

    2018-02-01

    The effectiveness of barcode-assisted medication preparation (BCMP) technology on detecting oral liquid dose preparation errors. From June 1, 2013, through May 31, 2014, a total of 178,344 oral doses were processed at Children's Mercy, a 301-bed pediatric hospital, through an automated workflow management system. Doses containing errors detected by the system's barcode scanning system or classified as rejected by the pharmacist were further reviewed. Errors intercepted by the barcode-scanning system were classified as (1) expired product, (2) incorrect drug, (3) incorrect concentration, and (4) technological error. Pharmacist-rejected doses were categorized into 6 categories based on the root cause of the preparation error: (1) expired product, (2) incorrect concentration, (3) incorrect drug, (4) incorrect volume, (5) preparation error, and (6) other. Of the 178,344 doses examined, 3,812 (2.1%) errors were detected by either the barcode-assisted scanning system (1.8%, n = 3,291) or a pharmacist (0.3%, n = 521). The 3,291 errors prevented by the barcode-assisted system were classified most commonly as technological error and incorrect drug, followed by incorrect concentration and expired product. Errors detected by pharmacists were also analyzed. These 521 errors were most often classified as incorrect volume, preparation error, expired product, other, incorrect drug, and incorrect concentration. BCMP technology detected errors in 1.8% of pediatric oral liquid medication doses prepared in an automated workflow management system, with errors being most commonly attributed to technological problems or incorrect drugs. Pharmacists rejected an additional 0.3% of studied doses. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Some aspects of preparation and testing of group constants group constant system ABBN-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, M.N.; Tsiboulia, A.M.; Manturov, G.N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of activities performed to prepare and test the group constants ABBN-90. The ABBN-90 set is designed for application calculations of fast, intermediate and thermal nuclear reactors. The calculations of subgroup parameters are discussed. The processing code system GRUCON is mentioned in comparison to the NJOY code system. Proposals are made for future activities. (author). Figs, tabs

  7. Environmental contamination, product contamination and workers exposure using a robotic system for antineoplastic drug preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessink, Paul J M; Leclercq, Gisèle M; Wouters, Dominique-Marie; Halbardier, Loïc; Hammad, Chaïma; Kassoul, Nassima

    2015-04-01

    Environmental contamination, product contamination and technicians exposure were measured following preparation of iv bags with cyclophosphamide using the robotic system CytoCare. Wipe samples were taken inside CytoCare, in the clean room environment, from vials, and prepared iv bags including ports and analysed for contamination with cyclophosphamide. Contamination with cyclophosphamide was also measured in environmental air and on the technicians hands and gloves used for handling the drugs. Exposure of the technicians to cyclophosphamide was measured by analysis of cyclophosphamide in urine. Contamination with cyclophosphamide was mainly observed inside CytoCare, before preparation, after preparation and after daily routine cleaning. Contamination outside CytoCare was incidentally found. All vials with reconstituted cyclophosphamide entering CytoCare were contaminated on the outside but vials with powdered cyclophosphamide were not contaminated on the outside. Contaminated bags entering CytoCare were also contaminated after preparation but non-contaminated bags were not contaminated after preparation. Cyclophosphamide was detected on the ports of all prepared bags. Almost all outer pairs of gloves used for preparation and daily routine cleaning were contaminated with cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide was not found on the inner pairs of gloves and on the hands of the technicians. Cyclophosphamide was not detected in the stationary and personal air samples and in the urine samples of the technicians. CytoCare enables the preparation of cyclophosphamide with low levels of environmental contamination and product contamination and no measurable exposure of the technicians. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. Preparation and Properties of Polyester-Based Nanocomposite Gel Coat System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jawahar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite gel coat system is prepared using unsaturated polyester resin with aerosil powder, CaCO3, and organoclay. The influence of organoclay addition on mechanical and water barrier properties of gel coat system is studied for different amount (1, 2, and 3 wt % of organoclay. The nanolevel incorporation of organoclay improves the mechanical and water barrier properties of nanocomposite gel coat system. The nanocomposite gel coat system exhibits 55% improvement in tensile modulus and 25% improvement in flexural modulus. There is a 30% improvement in impact property of nanocomposite gel coat system. The dynamic mechanical analysis shows a slight increase in glass transition temperature for nanocomposite gel coat system.

  9. Preparation and impedance characterization of all-solid-state thin film battery systems

    OpenAIRE

    Schichtel, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    In this thesis the behavior and properties of solid-state batteries based on multiple electrodes are analysed. For this purpose thin film systems of the relevant materials are prepared to achieve model system for more detailed analysis of the material specific properties. The characterisation of the systems is carried out with typical physical and electrochemical methods and especially using impedance spectroscopy. The first material analysed in this thesis is Li4Ti5O12 which was recognize...

  10. Preparation and analysis of standardized waste samples for Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carden, J. L.; Browner, R.

    1982-01-01

    The preparation and analysis of standardized waste samples for controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS) are considered. Analysis of samples from wet oxidation experiments, the development of ion chromatographic techniques utilizing conventional high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipment, and an investigation of techniques for interfacing an ion chromatograph (IC) with an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICPOES) are discussed.

  11. Development of a sample preparation system for AMS radiocarbon dating at CRICH, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung-Jin; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Lim, Eun-Soo [Cultural Research Institute of Chungcheong Heritage, Gongju (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Duk-Geun [Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soon-Bal [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Youn, Min-Young [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    We developed a sample preparation system for radiocarbon dating by using AMS measurement at Cultural Research Institute of Chungcheong Heritage, Korea. From the investigation of the reduction process, the optimum graphitization temperature was chosen as 625 .deg. C. Using Aldrich graphite powder of 0.75 {+-} 0.023 pMC, the background value of our preparation system was controlled at a low level. The robustness against chemical treatment and contamination was also observed from samples of Oxalic acid II and IAEA-C4. The resultant values, 134.04 {+-} 0.99 pMC and 0.38 {+-} 0.043 pMC, were in good agreement with the consensus values. Based on comparison, our conventional ages agreed very well with those of Beta Analytic Co. and SNU-AMS. No memory effect existed in the preparation system. Therefore, we concluded that the sample preparation system was operated in a stable manner and that the basic radiocarbon dating procedures were completely verified.

  12. Combining Operations Management and Information Systems Curricula: Assessing Alumni Preparations for the Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, David; McFadden, Kathleen L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore how well a curriculum that combines operations management and information systems uniquely prepares students for the workforce. To address our research questions, a Web-based survey was developed. We sent our survey to 203 alumni that graduated from the Department of Operations Management and Information…

  13. Local Preparation and Evaluation of Double - antibody Liquid Phase Radioimmunoassay System for Detection of Human Testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafik, H.M.; Sallam, Kh.M.; Ebeid, N.H.; Elshaer, M.R.; Elshae, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    Preparation, evaluation and optimization of testosterone radioimmunoassay (RIA) system using liquid phase double antibody is considered to be the main objective. Three primary components were prepared and characterized to obtain valid and accurate system. These components were polyclonal testosterone antibody, the "1"2"5I-testosterone tracer and set of testosterone standards. The production of polyclonal testosterone antibody was undertaken by immunizing two groups of females white New-Zealand rabbits with testosterone-3-(O-carboxy methyloxime): BSA as immunogen through primary immunization and five boosters. Both R 1 and R 4 gave anti-serum has a high immuno reactivity. The preparation of "1"2"5I-testosterone tracer was carried out using three different conjugates (testosterone-3-TME, testosterone-3-histamine and testosterone-3-BSA) by electrophilic substitution mechanism using chloramine-T as oxidizing agent. Tracers were characterized in terms of radiochemical yield %, radiochemical purity %, specific activity and immuno reactivity. A set of testosterone standards were prepared using highly purified testosterone antigen. Optimization and validation tests of the local liquid phase RIA system were carried out. In conclusion, the results showed that, the local testosterone RIA system is sensitive, specific and accurate with significant cost reduction in comparison with commertial kit and extended use of the method for routine investigation of variety of diseases especially hypogonadism and associated male infertility

  14. Influence of the preparation route on the supramolecular organization of lipids in a vesicular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elizondo, Elisa; Larsen, Jannik; Hatzakis, Nikos

    2012-01-01

    A confocal fluorescence microscopy-based assay was used for studying the influence of the preparation route on the supramolecular organization of lipids in a vesicular system. In this work, vesicles composed of cholesterol and CTAB (1/1 mol %) or cholesterol and DOPC (2/8 mol %) and incorporating...

  15. Comparative study of six rotary nickel-titanium systems and hand instrumentation for root canal preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelzow, A; Stamm, O; Martus, P; Kielbassa, A M

    2005-10-01

    To compare ex vivo various parameters of root canal preparation using a manual technique and six different rotary nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) instruments (FlexMaster, System GT, HERO 642, K3, ProTaper, and RaCe). A total of 147 extracted mandibular molars were divided into seven groups (n = 21) with equal mean mesio-buccal root canal curvatures (up to 70 degrees), and embedded in a muffle system. All root canals were prepared to size 30 using a crown-down preparation technique for the rotary nickel-titanium instruments and a standardized preparation (using reamers and Hedströem files) for the manual technique. Length modifications and straightening were determined by standardized radiography and a computer-aided difference measurement for every instrument system. Post-operative cross-sections were evaluated by light-microscopic investigation and photographic documentation. Procedural errors, working time and time for instrumentation were recorded. The data were analysed statistically using the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney U-test. No significant differences were detected between the rotary Ni-Ti instruments for alteration of working length. All Ni-Ti systems maintained the original curvature well, with minor mean degrees of straightening ranging from 0.45 degrees (System GT) to 1.17 degrees (ProTaper). ProTaper had the lowest numbers of irregular post-operative root canal diameters; the results were comparable between the other systems. Instrument fractures occurred with ProTaper in three root canals, whilst preparation with System GT, HERO 642, K3 and the manual technique resulted in one fracture each. Ni-Ti instruments prepared canals more rapidly than the manual technique. The shortest time for instrumentation was achieved with System GT (11.7 s). Under the conditions of this ex vivo study all Ni-Ti systems maintained the canal curvature, were associated with few instrument fractures and were more rapid than a standardized manual technique. Pro

  16. Chitosan-based delivery systems for diclofenac delivery: preparation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreve, Simina; Kacso, Irina; Bratu, Ioan; Indrea, Emil

    2009-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of novel materials for drug delivery has rapidly gained importance in development of innovative medicine. The paper concerns the uses of chitosan as an excipient in oral formulations and as a drug delivery vehicle for burnt painful injuries. The use of chitosan (CTS) as base in polyelectrolyte complex systems, to prepare liquid release systems as hydrogels and solid release systems as sponges is presented. In this paper the preparation of CTS hydrogels and sponges carrying diclofenac (DCF), as anti-inflammatory drug is reported. The immobilization of DCF in CTS is done by mixing the CTS hydrogel with the anti-inflammatory drug solutions. The concentration of anti-inflammatory drug in the CTS hydrogel generating the sponges was of 57 mg/l, 72 mg/l and 114 mg/l. The CTS sponges with anti-inflammatory drugs were prepared by freeze-drying at -610 0 C and 0,09 atm. The characterization of the hydrogels and sponges was done by infrared spectra (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS). The results indicated the formation of CTS-DCF intermediates. The DCF molecules are forming temporary chelates in CTS hydrogels and sponges and they are compatible with skin or some of biological fluids with satisfactory results.

  17. Chitosan-based delivery systems for diclofenac delivery: preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreve, Simina; Kacso, Irina; Bratu, Ioan; Indrea, Emil, E-mail: simina.dreve@itim-cj.r [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    The preparation and characterization of novel materials for drug delivery has rapidly gained importance in development of innovative medicine. The paper concerns the uses of chitosan as an excipient in oral formulations and as a drug delivery vehicle for burnt painful injuries. The use of chitosan (CTS) as base in polyelectrolyte complex systems, to prepare liquid release systems as hydrogels and solid release systems as sponges is presented. In this paper the preparation of CTS hydrogels and sponges carrying diclofenac (DCF), as anti-inflammatory drug is reported. The immobilization of DCF in CTS is done by mixing the CTS hydrogel with the anti-inflammatory drug solutions. The concentration of anti-inflammatory drug in the CTS hydrogel generating the sponges was of 57 mg/l, 72 mg/l and 114 mg/l. The CTS sponges with anti-inflammatory drugs were prepared by freeze-drying at -610{sup 0}C and 0,09 atm. The characterization of the hydrogels and sponges was done by infrared spectra (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS). The results indicated the formation of CTS-DCF intermediates. The DCF molecules are forming temporary chelates in CTS hydrogels and sponges and they are compatible with skin or some of biological fluids with satisfactory results.

  18. IAEA preparations for the year 2000 compliance of safeguards equipment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparo, M.; Barnes, B.; Lewis, W.; Hsiung, Sue

    1999-01-01

    The Department of Safeguards, IAEA, has used equipment systems for acquiring relevant data to support safeguards evaluation and verification activities. Typically an equipment system consists of EPROM (embedded system), a connecting personal computer with instrument software for data acquisition, and may include data evaluation software. Complementing the equipment systems is a collection of general evaluation software systems (application software) which support the analysis of the acquired data. In preparing for the year 2000 compliance of all safeguards systems, SGTS (Safeguards Division of Technical Services) in IAEA, must ascertain the equipment systems and the evaluation software authorised for inspection use can properly operate through the passage of year 2000. We present the year 2000 challenge for these systems, the approach we use to tackle the problem, and the status of our year 2000 project. (author)

  19. Energy efficient cooking systems, food-preparation facilities, and human diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newborough, M.

    1987-07-01

    The opportunities for saving energy, which are available to those working within the final link of the UK food system, i.e. at, or in relation to, the points of consumption are identified. Substantial prospective savings exist, because relatively little attention has, as yet, been given to energy-thrift in food-preparation facilities. Within the food-service industry, cooking systems are characterised by high thermal capacities, excessive external surface temperatures and poorly-designed control systems. Catering staff, who use such appliances, are rarely trained to use energy wisely when preparing foods, and kitchens tend to be designed without sufficient regard to energy-thrift. Similar problems prevail in domestic kitchens. However, manufacturers still provide household appliances, which are unnecessarily energy-profligate. (author).

  20. Preparing and Conducting Review Missions of Instrumentation and Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-07-01

    The IERICS (Independent Engineering Review of Instrumentation and Control Systems) mission is a comprehensive engineering review service directly addressing strategy and the key elements for implementation of modern instrumentation and control (I&C) systems, noting in applicable cases, specific concerns related to the implementation of advanced digital I&C systems and the use of software and/or digital logic in safety applications of a nuclear power plant. The guidelines outlined in this publication provide a basic structure, common reference and checklist across the various areas covered by an IERICS mission. Publications referenced in these guidelines could provide additional useful information for the counterpart while preparing for the IERICS mission. A structure for the mission report is given in the Appendix. In 2016, this publication was revised by international experts who had participated in previous IERICS missions. The revision reflects experiences and lessons learned from the preparation and conduct of those missions

  1. Modeling the Thermal Rocket Fuel Preparation Processes in the Launch Complex Fueling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zolin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to carry out fuel temperature preparation for space launch vehicles using hydrocarbon propellant components. A required temperature is reached with cooling or heating hydrocarbon fuel in ground facilities fuel storages. Fuel temperature preparing processes are among the most energy-intensive and lengthy processes that require the optimal technologies and regimes of cooling (heating fuel, which can be defined using the simulation of heat exchange processes for preparing the rocket fuel.The issues of research of different technologies and simulation of cooling processes of rocket fuel with liquid nitrogen are given in [1-10]. Diagrams of temperature preparation of hydrocarbon fuel, mathematical models and characteristics of cooling fuel with its direct contact with liquid nitrogen dispersed are considered, using the numerical solution of a system of heat transfer equations, in publications [3,9].Analytical models, allowing to determine the necessary flow rate and the mass of liquid nitrogen and the cooling (heating time fuel in specific conditions and requirements, are preferred for determining design and operational characteristics of the hydrocarbon fuel cooling system.A mathematical model of the temperature preparation processes is developed. Considered characteristics of these processes are based on the analytical solutions of the equations of heat transfer and allow to define operating parameters of temperature preparation of hydrocarbon fuel in the design and operation of the filling system of launch vehicles.The paper considers a technological system to fill the launch vehicles providing the temperature preparation of hydrocarbon gases at the launch site. In this system cooling the fuel in the storage tank before filling the launch vehicle is provided by hydrocarbon fuel bubbling with liquid nitrogen. Hydrocarbon fuel is heated with a pumping station, which provides fuel circulation through the heat exchanger-heater, with

  2. Applications of the systems theory to the designing of the sand preparation sub-system in foundry plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wrona

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study provides the basic principles for designing the functional structure of manufacturing systems and their components. The analysis of functional values is applied to create the technological and manufacturing model underlying the design of the foundry equipment with machine units and materials handling systems. Quoted examples illustrate the approved procedure to be applied to control the sand preparation process in a foundry.

  3. Temperature Increase during Different Post Space Preparation Systems: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari Moghadam, Kiumars; Shahab, Shahriar; Shirvani, Soghra; Kazemi, Ali

    2011-01-01

      The purpose of this study was to evaluate external root surface temperature rise during post space preparation using LA Axxess bur, Beefill pack System, and Peeso Reamer drill. The distal canals of forty-five extracted human permanent mandibular first molars were instrumented in crown-apical manner and obturated with lateral condensation technique. Teeth were then randomly divided into three groups according to post space preparation technique including: group 1. LA Axxess bur (Sybronendo Co., CA, USA), group 2 Beefill pack System (VD W Co., Munich, Germany) and group 3 Peeso Reamer drill (Mani Co., Tochigi-ken, Japan). Temperature was measured by means of digital thermometer MT-405 (Comercio Co., Sao Paulo, Brazil) which was installed on the root surfaces. Data was collected and submitted to one-way ANOVA and Post hoc analysis. Root surface temperatures were found to be significantly higher (7.3±2.7 vs. 4.3±2.1 and 4±2.4,) in samples of Beefill pack System compared with the two other groups (P<0.02). Using Beefill pack System during post space preparation may be potentially hazardous for periodontal tissues.

  4. Ultra-High-Throughput Sample Preparation System for Lymphocyte Immunophenotyping Point-of-Care Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David I; Murthy, Shashi K; Russom, Aman

    2016-10-01

    Point-of-care (POC) microfluidic devices often lack the integration of common sample preparation steps, such as preconcentration, which can limit their utility in the field. In this technology brief, we describe a system that combines the necessary sample preparation methods to perform sample-to-result analysis of large-volume (20 mL) biopsy model samples with staining of captured cells. Our platform combines centrifugal-paper microfluidic filtration and an analysis system to process large, dilute biological samples. Utilizing commercialization-friendly manufacturing methods and materials, yielding a sample throughput of 20 mL/min, and allowing for on-chip staining and imaging bring together a practical, yet powerful approach to microfluidic diagnostics of large, dilute samples. © 2016 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  5. Use of robotic systems for radiochemical sample changing and for analytical sample preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmastro, J.R.; Hartenstein, S.D.; Wade, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Two uses of the Perkin-Elmer (PE) robotic system will be presented. In the first, a PE robot functions as an automatic sample changer for up to five low energy photon spectrometry (LEPS) detectors operated with a Nuclear Data ND 6700 system. The entire system, including the robot, is controlled by an IBM PC-AT using software written in compiled BASIC. Problems associated with the development of the system and modifications to the robot will be presented. In the second, an evaluation study was performed to assess the abilities of the PE robotic system for performing complex analytical sample preparation procedures. For this study, a robotic system based upon the PE robot and auxiliary devices was constructed and programmed to perform the preparation of final product samples (UO 3 ) for accountability and impurity specification analyses. These procedures require sample dissolution, dilution, and liquid-liquid extraction steps. The results of an in-depth evaluation of all system components will be presented

  6. Comparison of Dentinal Crack Formation With Reciproc, Mtwo and ProTaper Root Canal Preparation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazari Moghaddam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Instrumentation with rotary instruments could potentially cause dentinal cracks possibly leading to tooth fracture. Reciproc files require a single file to finalize the root canal preparation and the effect of this procedure has not been compared with other systems. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of dentinal micro-cracks following root canal preparations with ProTaper, Mtwo and Reciproc files. Materials and Methods In an experimental in vitro trial, 80 maxillary and mandibular first molars were selected and their crowns and distal roots were cut. The roots were then examined to remove any previous cracks and defects. An impression polyether material was used to simulate teeth periodontal ligament (PDL. The teeth were divided to four experimental groups (n = 20 and prepared using Reciproc, Mtwo and ProTaper or remained unprepared as a control group. The specimens were then sectioned horizontally on 3, 5 and 9 mm from the apex and number of micro-cracks was determined by stereomicroscope. The incidence of dentinal cracks on different systems or sections were statistically analyzed by means of the chi-square test. Results Dentinal defects on 3-mm, 5-mm and 9-mm sections from the apex were noted in 10 (5.6%; 7 (3.9% and 9 (5.0% samples of all, respectively. Following canal preparation using Reciproc, ProTaper and Mtwo systems, the defects were observed in 7 (3.9%, 12 (6.7% and 7 (3.9% the sections, respectively. No significant differences were observed regarding the defect incidence on the studied instrumentation files or sections. Conclusions Regarding the study limitations, dentinal cracks were observed in all files and distances from the apex. Although there was more crack incidence in ProTaper files, no significant differences were noted regarding the studied systems and sections from the apex.

  7. Active methods of teaching in the system of preparation of specialists on physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pechko O.M.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The uses of simulation games given about directions are resulted in pedagogical practice. Practice is conducted during the increase of professional qualification of specialists. Possibilities of the use of pedagogical situations are considered in the system of preparation of specialist. Pedagogical situations are an aggregate of facilities and methods of becoming of professional specialist. The prospects of the use of simulation games are indicated in an educational process. Acquisition of the proper qualities options are rotined.

  8. A complete remote-control system for reliable preparation of [18F]altanserin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P Z; Baldwin, R M; Soufer, R; Garg, P K; Charney, D S; Innis, R B

    1999-05-01

    A complete remote control system was constructed for production of the PET 5-HT2A ligand [18F]altanserin by nitro-for-fluoro exchange. Comparing with published methods, the key features include (1) conducting azeotropic distillation and nucleophilic displacement in an open vessel heated by a commercial microwave oven; (2) purifying the product by a single HPLC procedure and (3) removing HPLC solvent by solid phase extraction. The preparation took 114 min with 23% yield and high quality.

  9. Design and fabrication of a mechanical alloying system for preparing intermetallic, nanocrystalline, amorphous and quasicrystalline compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonifacio M, J.; Iturbe G, J.L.; Castaneda J, G.

    2002-01-01

    In this work a grinding system was designed and fabricated which allowed to improve the operation conditions in time, frequency, temperature and selection of the grinding media and that allow the contamination decrease of the compounds. By means of this method of mechanical alloying new metallic compounds can be produced, starting from elemental powders, with fine and controlled microstructures. These compounds prepared by this method are going to be used as materials for the hydrogen storage. (Author)

  10. Young Investigator Proposal, Research Area 7.4 Reactive Chemical Systems: Multifunctional, Bimetallic Nanomaterials Prepared by Atomic Layer Electroless Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-30

    Report: Young Investigator Proposal, Research Area 7.4 Reactive Chemical Systems: Multifunctional, Bimetallic Nanomaterials Prepared by Atomic Layer ...Chemical Systems: Multifunctional, Bimetallic Nanomaterials Prepared by Atomic Layer Electroless Deposition Report Term: 0-Other Email: pcappillino... Layer Electroless Deposition (ALED, Figure 1) is the ability to tune growth mechanism, hence growth morphology, by altering conditions. In this

  11. Highly oriented Bi-system bulk sample prepared by a decomposition-crystallization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Zhengping; Zhou Lian; Ji Chunlin

    1992-01-01

    A decomposition-crystallization method, preparing highly oriented Bi-system bulk sample is reported. The effects of processing parameter, decomposition temperature, cooling rate and post-treatment condition on texture and superconductivity are investigated. The method has successfully prepared highly textured Bi-system bulk samples. High temperature annealing does not destroy the growing texture, but the cooling rate has some effect on texture and superconductivity. Annealing in N 2 /O 2 atmosphere can improve superconductivity of the textured sample. The study on the superconductivity of the Bi(Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O bulk material has been reported in numerous papers. The research on J c concentrates on the tape containing the 2223 phase, with very few studies on the J c of bulk sample. The reason for the lack of studies is that the change of superconducting phases at high temperatures has not been known. The authors have reported that the 2212 phase incongruently melted at about 875 degrees C and proceeded to orient the c-axis perpendicular to the surface in the process of crystallization of the 2212 phase. Based on that result, a decomposition-crystallization method was proposed to prepare highly oriented Bi-system bulk sample. In this paper, the process is described in detail and the effects of processing parameters on texture and superconductivity are reported

  12. Preparation of Simvastatin Hydrogel through Arginine Addition for Drug Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosyida Niswati Fathmah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Simvastatin is a lipid lowering agent which has been used recently as drug delivery system for stimulating bone regeneration. Because of low therapeutic efficacy and bioavailability, it is necessary to deliver simvastatin by local administration e.g. by hydrogel system. However, simvastatin has very poor solubility which restricts to prepare hydrogel formulation. The aim of this study is to improve solubility of simvastatin with arginine as co-solvent for developing a controlled released drug delivery system by loading simvastatin into gelatin hydrogel. The solubility study was performed by addition of an excess mass of simvastatin into the specified molar solutions of the arginine. All conical flasks were placed in a mechanical water bath shaker at the temperature of 25, 40, and 50 °C and shaken for a maximum period of 72 hours. The drug concentration was analyzed by UV/Visible spectroscopy at 238 nm. The hydrogel was prepared by a dehydrothermal method. The results showed that simvastatin solubility increases with increasing arginine concentrations and temperature. Characterizations showed a successful preparation of simvastatin-loaded gelatin hydrogel. The arginine simvastatin hydrogel and the gelatin hydrogel (as a blank exhibited a comparable swelling index (ca. 6.5. Furthermore, microparticles of the material show a narrow particle size distribution in the range between 150-250 μm.

  13. Observation particle morphology of colloidal system by conventional SEM with an improved specimen preparation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Hou, Zhaosheng; Yuan, Xiaojiao; Guo, Hong

    2011-08-01

    On the basis of our previous report that polymer emulsion with different viscosity can be investigated by conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we have developed an improved specimen preparation technique for obtaining particle morphology and size of colloidal silver, collagen, glutin, and polymer microspheres. In this study, we expect to provide a means for charactering the three-dimensional surface microstructure of colloidal particles. Dilution of the samples with appropriate volatile solvent like ethanol is effective for SEM specimen preparation. At a proper ratio between sample and ethanol, the colloidal particles are dispersed uniformly in ethanol and then deposited evenly on the substrate. Different drying methods are studied to search a proper drying condition, in which the small molecule solvent is removed without destroying the natural particle morphology. And the effects of ethanol in the specimen preparation process are described by analyzing the physicochemical properties of ethanol. The specimen preparation technique is simple and can be achieved in common laboratory for charactering the particle morphology of colloidal system. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Rapid preparation of functional polysaccharides from Pyropia yezoensis by microwave-assistant rapid enzyme digest system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hyeok; Kim, Hyung-Ho; Ko, Ju-Young; Jang, Jun-Ho; Kim, Gwang-Hoon; Lee, Jung-Suck; Nah, Jae-Woon; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-11-20

    This study describes a simple preparation of functional polysaccharides from Pyropia yezoensis using a microwave-assistant rapid enzyme digest system (MAREDS) with various carbohydrases, and evaluates their antioxidative effects. Polysaccharide hydrolysates were prepared using MAREDS under different hydrolytic conditions of the carbohydrases and microwave powers. Polysaccharides less than 10kDa (Low molecular weight polysaccharides, LMWP, ≤10kDa) were efficiently obtained using an ultrafiltration (molecular weight cut-off of 10kDa). MAREDS increases AMG activation via an increased degree of hydrolysis; the best AMG hydrolysate was prepared using a 10:1 ratio of substrate to enzyme for 2h in MAREDS with 400W. LMWP consisted of galactose (27.3%), glucose (64.5%), and mannose (8.3%) from the AMG hydrolysate had stronger antioxidant effects than the high molecular weight polysaccharides (>10kDa). We rapidly prepared functional LMWPs by using MAREDS with carbohydrases, and suggest that LMWP might be potentially a valuable algal polysaccharide antioxidant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modern Evaluation of Liquisolid Systems with Varying Amounts of Liquid Phase Prepared Using Two Different Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Vraníková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquisolid systems are an innovative dosage form used for enhancing dissolution rate and improving in vivo bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. These formulations require specific evaluation methods for their quality assurance (e.g., evaluation of angle of slide, contact angle, or water absorption ratio. The presented study is focused on the preparation, modern in vitro testing, and evaluation of differences of liquisolid systems containing varying amounts of a drug in liquid state (polyethylene glycol 400 solution of rosuvastatin in relation to an aluminometasilicate carrier (Neusilin US2. Liquisolid powders used for the formulation of final tablets were prepared using two different methods: simple blending and spraying of drug solution onto a carrier in fluid bed equipment. The obtained results imply that the amount of liquid phase in relation to carrier material had an effect on the hardness, friability, and disintegration of tablets, as well as their height. The use of spraying technique enhanced flow properties of the prepared mixtures, increased hardness values, decreased friability, and improved homogeneity of the final dosage form.

  16. Geometric analysis of root canals prepared by four rotary NiTi shaping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Ahmed Abdel Rahman; Ghoneim, Angie Galal; Lutfy, Reem Ahmed; Foda, Manar Yehia; Omar, Gihan Abdel Fatah

    2012-07-01

    A great number of nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary systems with noncutting tips, different cross-sections, superior resistance to torsional fracture, varying tapers, and manufacturing method have been introduced to the market. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of 4 rotary NiTi preparation systems, Revo-S (RS; Micro-Mega, Besancon Cedex, France), Twisted file (TF; SybronEndo, Amersfoort, The Netherlands), ProFile GT Series X (GTX; Dentsply, Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK), and ProTaper (PT; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), on volumetric changes and transportation of curved root canals. Forty mesiobuccal canals of mandibular molars with an angle of curvature ranging from 25° to 40° were divided according to the instrument used in canal preparation into 4 groups of 10 samples each: group RS, group TF, group GTX, and group PT. Canals were scanned using an i-CAT CBCT scanner (Imaging Science International, Hatfield, PA) before and after preparation to evaluate the volumetric changes. Root canal transportation and centering ratio were evaluated at 1.3, 2.6, 5.2, and 7.8 mm from the apex. The significance level was set at P ≤ .05. The PT system removed a significantly higher amount of dentin than the other systems (P = .025). At the 1.3-mm level, there was no significant difference in canal transportation and centering ratio among the groups. However, at the other levels, TF maintained the original canal curvature recording significantly the least degree of canal transportation as well as the highest mean centering ratio. The TF system showed superior shaping ability in curved canals. Revo-S and GTX were better than ProTaper regarding both canal transportation and centering ability. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A high throughput system for the preparation of single stranded templates grown in microculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolner, D E; Guilfoyle, R A; Smith, L M

    1994-01-01

    A high throughput system for the preparation of single stranded M13 sequencing templates is described. Supernatants from clones grown in 48-well plates are treated with a chaotropic agent to dissociate the phage coat protein. Using a semi-automated cell harvester, the free nucleic acid is bound to a glass fiber filter in the presence of chaotrope and then washed with ethanol by aspiration. Individual glass fiber discs are punched out on the cell harvester and dried briefly. The DNA samples are then eluted in water by centrifugation. The processing time from 96 microcultures to sequence quality templates is approximately 1 hr. Assuming the ability to sequence 400 bases per clone, a 0.5 megabase per day genome sequencing facility will require 6250 purified templates a week. Toward accomplishing this goal we have developed a procedure which is a modification of a method that uses a chaotropic agent and glass fiber filter (Kristensen et al., 1987). By exploiting the ability of a cell harvester to uniformly aspirate and wash 96 samples, a rapid system for high quality template preparation has been developed. Other semi-automated systems for template preparation have been developed using commercially available robotic workstations like the Biomek (Mardis and Roe, 1989). Although minimal human intervention is required, processing time is at least twice as long. Custom systems based on paramagnetic beads (Hawkins et al., 1992) produce DNA in insufficient quantity for direct sequencing and therefore require cycle sequencing. These systems require custom programing, have a fairly high initial cost and have not proven to be as fast as the method reported here.

  18. Planning "discrete" movements using a continuous system: insights from a dynamic field theory of movement preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Anne R; Spencer, John P

    2007-04-01

    The timed-initiation paradigm developed by Ghez and colleagues (1997) has revealed two modes of motor planning: continuous and discrete. Continuous responding occurs when targets are separated by less than 60 degrees of spatial angle, and discrete responding occurs when targets are separated by greater than 60 degrees . Although these two modes are thought to reflect the operation of separable strategic planning systems, a new theory of movement preparation, the Dynamic Field Theory, suggests that two modes emerge flexibly from the same system. Experiment 1 replicated continuous and discrete performance using a task modified to allow for a critical test of the single system view. In Experiment 2, participants were allowed to correct their movements following movement initiation (the standard task does not allow corrections). Results showed continuous planning performance at large and small target separations. These results are consistent with the proposal that the two modes reflect the time-dependent "preshaping" of a single planning system.

  19. Qualitative dosimetric system for radiation processing. Technology for pilot scale preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraru, R.

    1998-01-01

    Good manufacturing practice for radiation processing requires a very strictly tracking of the processed products. A method of labelling and identification of the irradiated and nonirradiated products is required. The qualitative dosimetric system provides a fast method for monitoring the product flow. Such dosimeters are attached on each product box, usually as labels, and offer a YES/NO information about the passing of products through the radiation field. Usually, this information consists in a change of colour. The qualitative dosimetric system that we realised is based on the degradation of polyvinylchloride (PVC) under radiation field. An amount of hydrochloric acid is released in this reaction. A pH indicator, included in the system, changes its colour at different absorbed dose. The changes of colour happened in a certain pH interval called turning range. We used as pH indicator the RED CONGO colorant with turning range of pH = 3 to 5 (from blue to red). A schematic view of the qualitative dosimeter is given. The initial colour is red and it continuously changes to brown, at 1 kGy absorbed dose, and to blue-green, for 5-100 kGy. The main features of this qualitative dosimetric system are: - Quick and easy to read information about product passing through radiation field; - Absorbed dose range, 1-300 kGy; - Independence of absorbed dose rate in the interval 5-100 kGy/h; - Stability, 3 year in the dark and 1 year in sun light; - Good reproducibility. The preparation technology consists in the following steps: 1. Preparation of the solutions: a) PVC in cyclohexanone solution b) RED CONGO in water solution; 2. Preparation of the system support consisting in dropping the PVC solution on adhesive labels; 3. Sample preparation consists in dropping the colorant solution on the system support; 4. Batch trial tests. The trial test was performed at IETI 10000 irradiation plant belonging to IFIN-HH and the reference absorbed dose was determined by Fricke dosimetry. The

  20. Investigation and Development of the Thermal Preparation System of the Trailbuilder Machinery Hydraulic Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konev, V.; Polovnikov, E.; Krut, O.; Merdanov, Sh; Zakirzakov, G.

    2017-07-01

    It’s determined that the main part of trailbuilders operated in the North is the technology equipped by the hydraulic actuator. Further development of the northern territories will demand using of various means and ways machinery thermal preparation, and also the machinery of the northern fulfillment. On this basis problems in equipment operation are defined. One of the main is efficiency supplying of a hydraulic actuator. On the basis of the operating conditions’ analysis of trailbuilder hydraulic actuator operation it is determined, that under low negative temperatures the means of thermal preparation are necessary. The existing systems warm up only a hydraulic tank or warming up of the hydro equipment before the machinery operation is carried out under loading with intensive wears. Thus, with the purpose to raise the efficiency of thermal hydraulic actuator, operated far from stationary bases autonomous, energy saving, not expensive in creation and operation systems are necessary. In accordance with the analysis of means and ways of the thermal preparation of the hydraulic actuator and the thermal balance calculations of the (internal) combustion engine the system of the hydraulic actuator heating is offered and is being investigated. It contains a local hydraulic actuator warming up and the system of internal combustion engine heat utilization. Within research operation conditions of the local hydraulic actuator heating are viewed and determined, taking into account constructive changes to the local hydraulic actuator heating. Mathematical modelling of the heat technical process in the modernized hydraulic actuator is considered. As a result temperature changes of the heat-transfer and the hydraulic cylinder in time are determined. To check the theoretical researches and to define dependences on hydraulic actuator warming up, the experimental installation is made. It contains the measuring equipment, a small tank with the heat exchanger of the burnt gases

  1. Energy-efficient cooking systems, food-preparation facilities, and human diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newborough, M.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis aims at identifying the opportunities for saving energy, which are available to those working within the final link of the UK food system (i.e., at, or in relation to, the points of consumption). Substantial prospective savings exist, because relatively little attention has, as yet, been given to energy-thrift in food-preparation facilities. Within the food-service industry, cooking systems are characterized by high thermal capacities, excessive external surface temperatures and poorly-designed control systems. Catering staff, who use such appliances, are rarely trained to use energy wisely when preparing foods, and kitchens (and their associated dining facilities) tend to be designed without sufficient regard to energy-thrift. Similar problems prevail in domestic kitchens, but to a lesser extent because the cooks there usually pay (or contribute towards) the fuel bills. However, manufacturers still provide household appliances, which are unnecessarily energy-profligate. Furthermore most people have insufficient knowledge of the nutritional suitabilities and the primary-energy costs of their diets. Thus a major educational need exists, which must be satisfied if industrialized food systems are to become more energy efficient.

  2. Preparation and characterization of a new carbonaceous material for electrochemical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZI JI LIN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A new carbonaceous material was successfully prepared by the py-rolysis of scrap tire rubber at 600 °C under a nitrogen atmosphere. The physical characteristics of the prepared carbonaceous material were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. It was proved that the carbonaceous material had a disordered structure and spherical morphology with an average particle size about 100 nm. The prepared carbonaceous material was also used as electrodes in electrochemical systems to examine its electrochemical performances. It was demonstrated that it delivered a lithium insertion capacity of 658 mA h g-1 during the first cycle with a coulombic efficiency of 68 %. Cyclic voltammograms test results showed that a redox reaction occurred during the cycles. The chemical diffusion coefficient based on the impedance diagram was about 10-10 cm2 s-1. The pyrolytic carbonaceous material derived from scrap tire rubber is therefore considered to be a potential anode material in lithium secondary batteries or capacitors. Furthermore, it is advantageous for environmental protection.

  3. Preparing and Characterizing Chitosan Nanoparticles Containing Hemiscorpius lepturus Scorpion Venom as an Antigen Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadpour Dounighi, N.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, chitosan nanoparticles have been studied widely for protein delivery. In this study, Hemiscorpius lepturus (HL venom was encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles. The aim of the present work was to carry out a systematic study for preparing biocompatible and biodegradable nanoparticles for loading HL scorpion venom and to evaluate their potential as an antigen delivery system. In this study, HL venom loaded chitosan nanoparticles fabricated by ionic gelation of chitosan and tripolyphosphate and the factors which may be influenced in the preparation of nanoparticles were analyzed. Also, their physicochemical properties and in vitro release behavior were studied. The optimum encapsulation efficiency and capacity were observed when the chitosan concentration and HL venom were 2mg/ml and 500µg/ml, respectively. The HL venom loaded nanoparticles were in the size range of 130-160nm (polydispersity index values of 0.423 and exhibited the positive zeta potential. Transmission electron microscope imaging showed spherical and smooth surface of nanoparticles. The profiles of the release exhibited a burst releases about 50% in the first 4 hr and then slowed down at a constant rate. The obtained results suggested that the chitosan nanoparticles prepared in this work had the potential for antigen delivery.

  4. Study of data I/O performance on distributed disk system in mask data preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Shuichiro; Odaira, Hiroyuki; Chikanaga, Tomoyuki; Hamaji, Masakazu; Yoshioka, Yasuharu

    2010-09-01

    Data volume is getting larger every day in Mask Data Preparation (MDP). In the meantime, faster data handling is always required. MDP flow typically introduces Distributed Processing (DP) system to realize the demand because using hundreds of CPU is a reasonable solution. However, even if the number of CPU were increased, the throughput might be saturated because hard disk I/O and network speeds could be bottlenecks. So, MDP needs to invest a lot of money to not only hundreds of CPU but also storage and a network device which make the throughput faster. NCS would like to introduce new distributed processing system which is called "NDE". NDE could be a distributed disk system which makes the throughput faster without investing a lot of money because it is designed to use multiple conventional hard drives appropriately over network. NCS studies I/O performance with OASIS® data format on NDE which contributes to realize the high throughput in this paper.

  5. Studies on preparation of the database system for clinical records of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Tsuyoshi

    1981-01-01

    Construction of the database system aimed at multipurpose application of data on clinical medicine was studied through the preparation of database system for clinical records of atomic bomb survivors. The present database includes the data about 110,000 atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki City. This study detailed: (1) Analysis of errors occurring in a period from generation of data in the clinical field to input into the database, and discovery of a highly precise, effective method of input. (2) Development of a multipurpose program for uniform processing of data on physical examinations from many organizations. (3) Development of a record linkage method for voluminous files which are essential in the construction of a large-scale medical information system. (4) A database model suitable for clinical research and a method for designing a segment suitable for physical examination data. (Chiba, N.)

  6. Process for preparing organoclays for aqueous and polar-organic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiko, David J.

    2001-01-01

    A process for preparing organoclays as thixotropic agents to control the rheology of water-based paints and other aqueous and polar-organic systems. The process relates to treating low-grade clay ores to achieve highly purified organoclays and/or to incorporate surface modifying agents onto the clay by adsorption and/or to produce highly dispersed organoclays without excessive grinding or high shear dispersion. The process involves the treatment of impure, or run-of-mine, clay using an aqueous biphasic extraction system to produce a highly dispersed clay, free of mineral impurities and with modified surface properties brought about by adsorption of the water-soluble polymers used in generating the aqueous biphasic extraction system. This invention purifies the clay to greater than 95%.

  7. LevelScheme: A level scheme drawing and scientific figure preparation system for Mathematica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprio, M. A.

    2005-09-01

    LevelScheme is a scientific figure preparation system for Mathematica. The main emphasis is upon the construction of level schemes, or level energy diagrams, as used in nuclear, atomic, molecular, and hadronic physics. LevelScheme also provides a general infrastructure for the preparation of publication-quality figures, including support for multipanel and inset plotting, customizable tick mark generation, and various drawing and labeling tasks. Coupled with Mathematica's plotting functions and powerful programming language, LevelScheme provides a flexible system for the creation of figures combining diagrams, mathematical plots, and data plots. Program summaryTitle of program:LevelScheme Catalogue identifier:ADVZ Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADVZ Operating systems:Any which supports Mathematica; tested under Microsoft Windows XP, Macintosh OS X, and Linux Programming language used:Mathematica 4 Number of bytes in distributed program, including test and documentation:3 051 807 Distribution format:tar.gz Nature of problem:Creation of level scheme diagrams. Creation of publication-quality multipart figures incorporating diagrams and plots. Method of solution:A set of Mathematica packages has been developed, providing a library of level scheme drawing objects, tools for figure construction and labeling, and control code for producing the graphics.

  8. Construction of sputtering system and preparation of high temperature superconducting thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaynak, E.

    2000-01-01

    The preparation of high T c superconducting thin film is important both for the understanding of fundamental behaviours of these materials and for the investigations on the usefulness of technological applications. High quality thin films can be prepared by various kinds of techniques being used today. Among these, sputtering is the most preferred one. The primary aim of this work is the construction of a r. f. and c. magnetron sputtering system. For this goal, a magnetron sputtering system was designed and constructed having powers up to 500W (r.f.) and 1KW (d.c.) that enables to deposit thin films of various kinds of materials: metals, ceramics and magnetic materials. The temperature dependence of the electrical resistance of the films was investigated by using four-point probe method. The zero resistance and the transition with of the films were measured as 80-85 K, and 2-9 K, respectively. The A.C. susceptibility experiments were done by utilising the system that was designed and constructed. The applied field dependence of the real and imaginary components of the susceptibility that were measured between the 77-120 K temperature interval and at a fixed frequency was investigated

  9. One-component solution system to prepare nanometric anatase TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trung, Tran; Ha, Chang-Sik

    2004-01-01

    A novel one-pot synthesis route was proposed to prepare nanometric anatase TiO 2 using trichloroethylene as reaction medium, which may have great advantage over multicomponent solution systems when TiO 2 is used as a reinforcing filler for polymers dissolved in trichloroethylene. The anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). It was found that the diameters of TiO 2 nanoparticles are in the range from 5 to 13 nm

  10. In vitro characterization of a novel polymeric system for preparation of amorphous solid drug dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Zahra N; Upadhye, Sampada B; Ferrizzi, David; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali R

    2014-07-01

    Preparation of amorphous solid dispersions using polymers is a commonly used formulation strategy for enhancing the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs. However, often a single polymer may not bring about a significant enhancement in solubility or amorphous stability of a poorly water-soluble drug. This study describes application of a unique and novel binary polymeric blend in preparation of solid dispersions. The objective of this study was to investigate amorphous solid dispersions of glipizide, a BCS class II model drug, in a binary polymeric system of polyvinyl acetate phthalate (PVAP) and hypromellose (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, HPMC). The solid dispersions were prepared using two different solvent methods: rotary evaporation (rotavap) and fluid bed drug layering on sugar spheres. The performance and physical stability of the dispersions were evaluated with non-sink dissolution testing, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and modulated differential scanning calorimetry (mDSC). PXRD analysis demonstrated an amorphous state for glipizide, and mDSC showed no evidence of phase separation. Non-sink dissolution testing in pH 7.5 phosphate buffer indicated more than twofold increase in apparent solubility of the drug with PVAP-HPMC system. The glipizide solid dispersions demonstrated a high glass transition temperature (Tg) and acceptable chemical and physical stability during the stability period irrespective of the manufacturing process. In conclusion, the polymeric blend of PVAP-HPMC offers a unique formulation approach for developing amorphous solid dispersions with the flexibility towards the use of these polymers in different ratios and combined quantities depending on drug properties.

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Escherichia coli Liposomes as a New Drug Delivery System to Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kargar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Liposomes are spherical vesicles composed of concentric phospholipid bilayers that can entrap hydrophilic, hydrophobic drugs. Liposomes can be prepared from natural phospholipids, synthetic lipids or bacterial lipids. The aim of this study was to formulate liposome from bacterial lipids and evaluate physicochemical properties. Materials and methods: This study was performed experimentally on E.coli. The lipids were extracted from E.coli. using chloroform and methanol. Film method was used for preparing nano-systems and methylene blue was used as a drug model. Then their particle sizes were determined using particle sizer. The release methylene blue was carried out using dialysis membrane. Also, trailing them in cancer cells was evaluated by using carboxyfluorescein. Results: The average particle size of E.coli. liposomal was 338 nm. Encapsulation efficiency was 53.33 ± 2.88% and the value of release after 24 h was 97.54% ± 0.00. Liposomes could deliver the carboxyfluorescein to cancer cells. Discussion and conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that bacterial liposome has probably a suitable nano-particle such as particle size and desirable loading and it is possible to use them as drug delivery system.

  12. Preparation of gaseous CRMs from the primary system for "2"2"2Rn activity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B.J.; Kim, B.C.; Lee, K.B.; Lee, J.M.; Park, T.S.

    2016-01-01

    For disseminating the gaseous radon standard traceable to the KRISS primary system based on the defined solid angle counting method, two kinds of radon CRM (a glass ampule type and a stainless steel cylinder type) were developed. The activity of the CRM was certified by subtracting a residual activity from the measured activity by the primary system. After certification, the ampule CRM was used to calibrate a radon-monitoring instrument and the cylinder CRM to calibrate an HPGe system. We also improved the measurement procedure of the radon primary system. In a typical radon energy spectrum, the radon peak overlaps with the polonium peak. For more reliable and accurate measurement of radon activity, a fitting method was adopted for the evaluation of radon area in the alpha energy spectrum. The result of radon activity evaluated by using the fitting method is in good agreement with that by the previous integration method. - Highlights: • Preparation of gaseous Rn-222 CRMs from primary measurement system. • Convolution of 3 left-handed exponentials with a Gaussian function to count radon. • Calibration of continuous radon monitor using glass ampoule CRM. • Calibration of HPGe system as secondary standard for stainless steel cylinder CRM.

  13. [Quality of buffy-coat-derived platelet concentrates prepared using automated system terumo automated centrifuge and separator integration (TACSI)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowska, Agnieszka; Lipska, Alina; Rogowska, Anna; Bujno, Magdalena; Nedzi, Marta; Radziwon, Piotr

    2011-03-01

    Platelet recovery, and viability, and function is strongly dependent on the method of the preparation of platelet concentrate (PC). The glucose consumption, decrease of pH, release of alpha granules during storage in platelet concentrate impair their clinical effectiveness. To compare of the quality of buffy-coat-derieved platelet concentrates prepared using automatic system terumo automated centrifuge and separator integration (TACSI) and stored over 7 days. PCs were prepared from buffy coats using manual method (group I), or automatic system TACSI (group II). Fifteen PCs prepared from the 5 buffy coats each were stored over 7 days in 22-24 degrees C and tested. Samples were taken from the PCs container on days 1 and 7. The following laboratory tests were performed: number of platelets, platelets derived microparticles, CD62P expression, platelet adhesion, pH, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase activity. We have observed higher expression of CD62P in PCs prepared using manual method compared to the PCs produced automatically Platelet recovery was significantly higher in PCs prepared using automatic systems compare to manual method. Compared to manual methods, automatic system for preparation of buffy coats, is more efficient and enable production of platelets concentrates of higher quality.

  14. Shear bond strength of two bonding systems on dentin surfaces prepared with Er:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'Magro, Eduardo

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the shear bond strength of two bonding dentin systems, one 'one step' (Single Bond - 3M) and one 'self-etching' (Prompt-L-ESPE), when applied on dentin surfaces prepared with Er:YAG laser (2,94μm) that underwent ar not, acid etched. Forty one human molars just extracted were selected and after the cut with diamond disc and included in acrylic resin, resulting in 81 specimens (hemi crowns). After, the specimens were divided in one group treated with sand paper and another two groups treated with Er:YAG laser with 200 mJ and 250 mJ of energy and 2 Hz of frequency. Next, the prepared surfaces received three treatments with following application: 1) acid + Single Bond + Z 250 resin, 2) prompt-L-Pop + Z 250 resin, and 3) acid without, Single Bond + Z 250 resin. The Z 250 resin was applied and photopolymerized in increments on a Teflon matrix that belonged to an apparatus called 'Assembly Apparatus' machine producing cylinders of 3,5 mm of diameter and 5 mm of height. After these specimens were submitted to thermo cycling during 1 minute the 55 deg C and during 1 minute with 5 deg C with a total of 500 cycles for specimen, and the measures of shear bond strength were abstained using EMIC model DL 2000 rehearsed machine, with speed of 0,5 mm/min, measuring the final rupture tension (Mpa). The results showed an statistic superiority of 5% of probability level in dentin flattened with sandpaper and with laser using 200 mJ of energy with aspect to the ones flattened with laser using 250 mJ of energy. It was observed that using 'Single Bond' bonding dentin system the marks were statistically superior at 5% of probability with reference to the use of the Prompt-L-Pop adhesive system. So, it was concluded that Er:YAG Laser with 200 mJ of energy produced similar dentin cavity prepare than sandpaper and Single Bond seemed the best bonding agent system between restorative material and dentin. (author)

  15. Possibility of Preparing Thematic Maps Through Developing of the Geographic Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Husnjak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available It is a well known fact that nowadays planning of sustainable development and land use requires a lot of reliable and good quality information, which serves as the basis for timely and adequate decision-making. One of the most important forms of information is presented in various maps. Until recently, preparing of such data was, no doubt, a rather complex and time-consuming task. However, at present, thanks to, first of all, the GIS technology it is possible to develop corresponding geographic information systems with databases which then allow comparatively simple and quick preparing of necessary thematic maps. The paper first presents the method of developing the Geographic and Land Information System (GLIS of the Karlovac County which, although developed for the purpose of agricultural development, may also be used in the development of forestry, environment protection, physical planning, water management and for soil conservation and regulation. Several examples illustrate the possibilities of preparing of specialised maps based on this GLIS. The basic data for developing of the geographic and land information system were the data of the Basic Soil Maps and topographic maps of the Republic of Croatia at the scale of 1:50 000 or 1:25 000, and the data from other studies made for the purpose of agricultural development in the area. These data, together with the results of processing and analysing of this data, by digitalisation, generalisation and interpolation, were incorporated into an integrated database of the geographic and land information system by using Microstation, AutoCad, ArcInfo, ArcWiew and Access software and the corresponding hardware. GLIS database consists of two parts. The first part includes the data referring to polygons - pedological contours, and the other part the data on pedological profiles. The base is organised in a way that enable the preparation of different thematic maps, but it can be also used in digital form

  16. Evaluation of Root Canal Preparation Using Rotary System and Hand Instruments Assessed by Micro-Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavileci, Miranda; Hoxha, Veton; Görduysus, Ömer; Tatar, Ilkan; Laperre, Kjell; Hostens, Jeroen; Küçükkaya, Selen; Muhaxheri, Edmond

    2015-06-20

    Complete mechanical preparation of the root canal system is rarely achieved. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the root canal shaping efficacy of ProTaper rotary files and standard stainless steel K-files using micro-computed tomography. Sixty extracted upper second premolars were selected and divided into 2 groups of 30 teeth each. Before preparation, all samples were scanned by micro-computed tomography. Thirty teeth were prepared with the ProTaper system and the other 30 with stainless steel files. After preparation, the untouched surface and root canal straightening were evaluated with micro-computed tomography. The percentage of untouched root canal surface was calculated in the coronal, middle, and apical parts of the canal. We also calculated straightening of the canal after root canal preparation. Results from the 2 groups were statistically compared using the Minitab statistical package. ProTaper rotary files left less untouched root canal surface compared with manual preparation in coronal, middle, and apical sector (p<0.001). Similarly, there was a statistically significant difference in root canal straightening after preparation between the techniques (p<0.001). Neither manual nor rotary techniques completely prepared the root canal, and both techniques caused slight straightening of the root canal.

  17. The dosimetric properties of phosphate glass systems prepared by different chemical nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhalim, Mohamed Anwar K; Al-Shamrani, Bandar Mora

    2016-12-01

    The synthesis and characterization of glass systems were carried out using prepared nanocrystals injected into a glass matrix as a thermoluminescence (TL) activator using the melt-quenching method. Sample 1 was prepared as [40P 2 O 5 50BaO:2.5MgO, 2.5Na 2 O, 5TiO 2 ], sample 2 as [37.5P 2 O 5 37.5CaO:25TiO 2 ] and sample 3 as [50P 2 O 5 -50Li 2 O]. Formation of the synthesized compound was confirmed by studying the X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. An annealing procedure was carried out for 1 h at 400 °C. The glow curve position and shape shifted dramatically and linearly to the higher temperature values on increasing the heating rate. A heating rate of 30 °C/s was the most suitable for obtaining a high TL response. Samples 2 and 3 have the highest TL response, which approached the effective atomic number (Z eff ) of natural bone. The observed TL sensitivity of the prepared samples 2 and 3 is less than that of commercially available 'TLD-200 chips' and LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) phosphor. Sample [37.5P 2 O 5 37.5CaO:25TiO 2 ] would be useful in personal and environmental dosimetry for measuring high doses of gamma radiation. Sample [50P 2 O 5 -50Li 2 O] is a good dosimeter, although it requires the addition of an appropriate transitional metal (activator) to overcome the problem of high fading. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Intelligent control and maintenance of management integrated system based on multi-agents for coal preparation plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, F.; Wang, Y. [China University of Mining and technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Information and Electrical Engineering

    2006-06-15

    This paper discusses the progress of computer integrated processing (CIPS) of coal preparation and then presents an intelligence controlled production process, device-maintenance and production-management system of coal preparation based on multi-agents (IICMMS-CP). The construction of the IICMMS-CP, the distributed network control system based on live intelligence control stations and the strategy of implementing a distributed intelligence control system are studied in order to overcome the disadvantages brought about by the wide use of the PLC system by coal preparation plants. The software frame, based on a Multi-Agent Intelligence Control and Maintenance Management integrated system, is studied and the implementation methods of IICMMS-CP are discussed. The characteristics of distributed architecture, cooperation and parallel computing meet the needs of integrated control of coal preparation plants with large-scale spatial production distribution, densely-related processes and complex systems. Its application further improves the reliability and precision of process control, accuracy of fault identification and intelligence of production adjustment, establishes a technical basis for system integration and flexible production. The main function of the system has been tested in a coal preparation plant to good effect in stabilizing product quality, improving efficiency and reducing consumption. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  19. A facile drug delivery system preparation through the interaction between drug and iron ion of transferrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Lin; Liu, Jihua; Wei, Shaohua; Ge, Xuefeng; Zhou, Jiahong; Yu, Boyang; Shen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Many anticancer drugs have the capability to form stable complex with metal ions. Based on such property, a simple method to combine these drugs with transferrin, through the interaction between drug and Fe ion of transferrin, to improve their anticancer activity, is proposed. To demonstrate this technique, the complex of photosensitive anticancer drug hypocrellin A and transferrin was prepared by such facile method. The results indicated that the complex of hypocrellin A and transferrin can stabilize in aqueous solution. In vitro studies have demonstrated the superior cancer cell uptake ability of hypocrellin A–transferrin complex to the free hypocrellin A. Significant damage to such drug-impregnated tumor cells was observed upon irradiation and the cancer cells killing ability of hypocrellin A–transferrin was stronger than the free hypocrellin A within a certain range of concentrations. The above results demonstrated the validity and potential of our proposed strategy to prepare the drug delivery system of this type of anti-cancer drugs and transferrin

  20. A facile drug delivery system preparation through the interaction between drug and iron ion of transferrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Lin [Nanjing Normal University, Jiangsu Key Laboratory Biofunctional Materials, Key Laboratory of Applied Photochemistry, Analysis and Testing Center, College of Chemistry and Materials Science (China); Liu, Jihua [China Pharmaceutical University, Department of Complex Prescription of TCM (China); Wei, Shaohua; Ge, Xuefeng; Zhou, Jiahong, E-mail: zhoujiahong@njnu.edu.cn [Nanjing Normal University, Jiangsu Key Laboratory Biofunctional Materials, Key Laboratory of Applied Photochemistry, Analysis and Testing Center, College of Chemistry and Materials Science (China); Yu, Boyang, E-mail: boyangyu59@163.com [China Pharmaceutical University, Department of Complex Prescription of TCM (China); Shen, Jian [Nanjing Normal University, Jiangsu Key Laboratory Biofunctional Materials, Key Laboratory of Applied Photochemistry, Analysis and Testing Center, College of Chemistry and Materials Science (China)

    2013-09-15

    Many anticancer drugs have the capability to form stable complex with metal ions. Based on such property, a simple method to combine these drugs with transferrin, through the interaction between drug and Fe ion of transferrin, to improve their anticancer activity, is proposed. To demonstrate this technique, the complex of photosensitive anticancer drug hypocrellin A and transferrin was prepared by such facile method. The results indicated that the complex of hypocrellin A and transferrin can stabilize in aqueous solution. In vitro studies have demonstrated the superior cancer cell uptake ability of hypocrellin A-transferrin complex to the free hypocrellin A. Significant damage to such drug-impregnated tumor cells was observed upon irradiation and the cancer cells killing ability of hypocrellin A-transferrin was stronger than the free hypocrellin A within a certain range of concentrations. The above results demonstrated the validity and potential of our proposed strategy to prepare the drug delivery system of this type of anti-cancer drugs and transferrin.

  1. Preparation and evaluation of nattokinase-loaded self-double-emulsifying drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaona Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we prepared nattokinase-loaded self-double-emulsifying drug delivery system (SDEDDS and investigated its preliminary pharmacodynamics. The type and concentration of oil phase, inner aqueous phase and emulsifier were screened to prepare optimum nattokinase-loaded SDEDDS. Next, the optimum formulations were characterized based on microstructure, volume-weighted mean droplet size, self-emulsifying rate, yield, storage stability, in vitro release and in vivo pharmacodynamics studies. The water/oil/water multiple emulsions exhibited typical multiple structure, with relatively small volume-weighted mean droplet size 6.0 ± 0.7 μm and high self-emulsifying ability (self-emulsifying time <2 min. Encapsulation of nattokinase was up to 86.8 ± 8.2%. The cumulative release of nattokinase within 8 h was about 30%, exhibiting a sustained release effect. The pharmacodynamics study indicated that nattokinase-loaded SDEDDS could significantly prolong the whole blood clotting time in mouse and effectively improve the carrageenan-induced tail thrombosis compared with nattokinase solution. Moreover, we showed that SDEDDS could successfully self-emulsify into water/oil/water multiple emulsions upon dilution in dispersion medium with gentle stirring and effectively protect nattokinase activity in gastric environment. Our findings suggested that SDEDDS could be a promising strategy for peptide and protein drugs by oral administration.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Styrene Bearing Diethanolamine Side Group, Styrene Copolymer Systems, and Their Metal Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslışah Açıkses

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The two copolymer systems of styrene bearing diethanol amine side group and styrene were prepared by free radical polymerization method at 60°C in presence of 1,4-dioxane as solvent and AIBN as initiator. Their metal complexes were prepared by reaction of the copolymer used as ligand P(DEAMSt-co-StL′′ and Ni(II and Co(II metal ions, which was carried out in presence of ethanol and NaOH at 65°C for 48 h in pH = 7.5. The structures of the copolymers used as ligand and metal complexes were identified by FT-IR, 1H-NMR spectra, and elemental analysis. The properties of the copolymers used as ligand and metal complexes were characterized by SEM-EDX, AAS, DSC, TGA, and DTA techniques. Then, the electrical properties of the copolymers and metal complexes were examined as a function of the temperature and frequency, and the activation energies (Ea were estimated with conductivity measurements.

  3. Kinetic Degradation and Controlled Drug Delivery System Studies for Sensitive Hydrogels Prepared by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, M.; El-Arnaouty, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Ternary mixtures of N-vinyle-2-pyrrolidone(NVP ), itaconic acid (IA) and gelatin (G) were gamma irradiated to prepared poly(NVP/IA/G) hydrogels. The equilibrium kinetic swelling, drug release behavior, Scan Electron Microscope (SEM) and the swelling-degradation kinetics were studied. Both the diffusion exponent and the diffusion coefficient increase with increasing content of (IA). Also, the swelling behavior of copolymer hydrogels in response to ph value of the external media was studied, it is noted that the highest swelling values at ph 4. The in vitro drug release behavior of these hydrogels was examined by quantification analysis with a UV/VIS spectrophotometers. Chlorpromazine hydrochloride was loaded into dried hydrogels to investigate the stimuli-sensitive property at the specific ph. The release studies show that the highest value of release was at ph 4 which can be used for drug delivery system

  4. Radioiodination of central nerves system dopamine D2 receptor imaging agent. IBZM preparation and preclinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yansong; Lin Xiangtong; Hu Mingyang; Pan Shangren; Wang Bocheng

    1996-01-01

    To study preparation of central nerves system dopamine D2 imaging agent 131 I-IBZM and its preclinical investigation, peracetic acid was used as the oxidant for preparing radioiodinated 125 I-IBZM and 131 I-IBZM, D2 binding properties of IBZM were examined by in vitro binding saturation analysis, rat whole body and regional brain biodistribution, rat brain autoradiography and rabbit SPECT static imaging, etc. The results are: 1. The radiolabelling yields of 125 I-IBZM and 131 I-IBZM were 84.18% +- 3.06% and 78.50% +- 3.47%. The radiochemical purity were over 95% after being isolated by HPLC; and were over 90% after being isolated by organic extraction. 2. Scatchard plot of D2 receptor saturation binding analysis showed: K d = 0.53 +- 0.06 nmol/L, B max = 466.45 +- 45.88 fmol/mg protein. 3. The rat brain autoradiography and analysis showed that there was high 125 I-IBZM uptake in striatal area 2 hr after injection, the striatal/cerebellum ratio was 6.22 +- 0.48; the high 125 -IBZM uptake can be blocked by haloperidol--a special dopamine D2 receptor antagonist. 4. 131 I-IBZM rat biodistribution and rabbit SPECT planar imaging showed good initial brain uptake and retention, the initial uptake of rat brain was 1.893 +- 0.147% ID/g at 2 min and 1.044 +- 0.135% ID/g at 60 min. The results showed that the radioiodinated IBZM had high affinity, saturation and specificity to rat's and rabbit's central nerves system dopamine D2 receptors

  5. Radioiodination of central nerves system dopamine D2 receptor imaging agent. IBZM preparation and preclinical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yansong, Lin; Xiangtong, Lin; Mingyang, Hu; Shangren, Pan; Bocheng, Wang [Huashan Hospital of Shanghai Medical Univ., Shanghai (China)

    1996-11-01

    To study preparation of central nerves system dopamine D2 imaging agent {sup 131}I-IBZM and its preclinical investigation, peracetic acid was used as the oxidant for preparing radioiodinated {sup 125}I-IBZM and {sup 131}I-IBZM, D2 binding properties of IBZM were examined by in vitro binding saturation analysis, rat whole body and regional brain biodistribution, rat brain autoradiography and rabbit SPECT static imaging, etc. The results are: 1. The radiolabelling yields of {sup 125}I-IBZM and {sup 131}I-IBZM were 84.18% +- 3.06% and 78.50% +- 3.47%. The radiochemical purity were over 95% after being isolated by HPLC; and were over 90% after being isolated by organic extraction. 2. Scatchard plot of D2 receptor saturation binding analysis showed: K{sub d} = 0.53 +- 0.06 nmol/L, B{sub max} = 466.45 +- 45.88 fmol/mg protein. 3. The rat brain autoradiography and analysis showed that there was high {sup 125}I-IBZM uptake in striatal area 2 hr after injection, the striatal/cerebellum ratio was 6.22 +- 0.48; the high {sup 125}-IBZM uptake can be blocked by haloperidol--a special dopamine D2 receptor antagonist. 4. {sup 131}I-IBZM rat biodistribution and rabbit SPECT planar imaging showed good initial brain uptake and retention, the initial uptake of rat brain was 1.893 +- 0.147% ID/g at 2 min and 1.044 +- 0.135% ID/g at 60 min. The results showed that the radioiodinated IBZM had high affinity, saturation and specificity to rat`s and rabbit`s central nerves system dopamine D2 receptors.

  6. Simplify and Accelerate Earth Science Data Preparation to Systemize Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, K. S.; Rilee, M. L.; Oloso, A.

    2017-12-01

    Data preparation is the most laborious and time-consuming part of machine learning. The effort required is usually more than linearly proportional to the varieties of data used. From a system science viewpoint, useful machine learning in Earth Science likely involves diverse datasets. Thus, simplifying data preparation to ease the systemization of machine learning in Earth Science is of immense value. The technologies we have developed and applied to an array database, SciDB, are explicitly designed for the purpose, including the innovative SpatioTemporal Adaptive-Resolution Encoding (STARE), a remapping tool suite, and an efficient implementation of connected component labeling (CCL). STARE serves as a universal Earth data representation that homogenizes data varieties and facilitates spatiotemporal data placement as well as alignment, to maximize query performance on massively parallel, distributed computing resources for a major class of analysis. Moreover, it converts spatiotemporal set operations into fast and efficient integer interval operations, supporting in turn moving-object analysis. Integrative analysis requires more than overlapping spatiotemporal sets. For example, meaningful comparison of temperature fields obtained with different means and resolutions requires their transformation to the same grid. Therefore, remapping has been implemented to enable integrative analysis. Finally, Earth Science investigations are generally studies of phenomena, e.g. tropical cyclone, atmospheric river, and blizzard, through their associated events, like hurricanes Katrina and Sandy. Unfortunately, except for a few high-impact phenomena, comprehensive episodic records are lacking. Consequently, we have implemented an efficient CCL tracking algorithm, enabling event-based investigations within climate data records beyond mere event presence. In summary, we have implemented the core unifying capabilities on a Big Data technology to enable systematic machine learning in

  7. Evaluation of Root Canal Preparation Using Rotary System and Hand Instruments Assessed by Micro-Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavileci, Miranda; Hoxha, Veton; Görduysus, Ömer; Tatar, Ilkan; Laperre, Kjell; Hostens, Jeroen; Küçükkaya, Selen; Muhaxheri, Edmond

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete mechanical preparation of the root canal system is rarely achieved. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the root canal shaping efficacy of ProTaper rotary files and standard stainless steel K-files using micro-computed tomography. Material/Methods Sixty extracted upper second premolars were selected and divided into 2 groups of 30 teeth each. Before preparation, all samples were scanned by micro-computed tomography. Thirty teeth were prepared with the ProTaper system and the other 30 with stainless steel files. After preparation, the untouched surface and root canal straightening were evaluated with micro-computed tomography. The percentage of untouched root canal surface was calculated in the coronal, middle, and apical parts of the canal. We also calculated straightening of the canal after root canal preparation. Results from the 2 groups were statistically compared using the Minitab statistical package. Results ProTaper rotary files left less untouched root canal surface compared with manual preparation in coronal, middle, and apical sector (protary techniques completely prepared the root canal, and both techniques caused slight straightening of the root canal. PMID:26092929

  8. Preparation, characterization and evaluation of drug-delivery systems: Pectin and mefenamic acid films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, R.B. [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Rodovia MT-100, Km 3,5, Barra do Garças, MT CEP 78600-000 (Brazil); Teixeira, J.A. [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, MT CEP 78060-900 (Brazil); Furuyama-Lima, A.M. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, IBILCE, São José do Rio Preto, SP CEP 15054-000 (Brazil); Souza, N.C. de [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Rodovia MT-100, Km 3,5, Barra do Garças, MT CEP 78600-000 (Brazil); Siqueira, A.B., E-mail: buzutti@cpd.ufmt.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Rodovia MT-100, Km 3,5, Barra do Garças, MT CEP 78600-000 (Brazil)

    2014-08-20

    Highlights: • The films were prepared and characterized by FTIR, TG–DSC/FTIR and AFM microscopy. • The results provided information on the composition, dehydration, thermal stability, thermal decomposition. • DSC results of CaHCl shows two overlapping endothermic peaks. • The AFM image shows great similarity for A5 and A6 films. • A5 and A6 films functioned well as a topical delivery system. - Abstract: Mefenamic acid (H-Mef) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Various adhesive dosage forms of NSAIDs have been developed, which include adhesive tablets, gels, ointments, patches and more recently, polymeric films. The objective of this study was the development of H-Mef adhesive films to be used as a drug-delivery system with different ratios of pectin and calcium chloride dihydrate by the casting technique. The materials were characterized by TG–DSC coupled FTIR, AFM (atomic force microscopy) and spectroscopic techniques. The results provided information about the dehydration, film roughness, surface morphology, thermal decomposition, as well as identification of gaseous products evolved during thermal decomposition. The characterizations indicated the A5 and A6 films functioned well, with 99% H-Mef released within 15 min at pH 5, suggesting these degradable films could be used as a topical delivery system.

  9. Optimising resolution for a preparative separation of Chinese herbal medicine using a surrogate model sample system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Haoyu; Ignatova, Svetlana; Peng, Aihua; Chen, Lijuan; Sutherland, Ian

    2009-06-26

    This paper builds on previous modelling research with short single layer columns to develop rapid methods for optimising high-performance counter-current chromatography at constant stationary phase retention. Benzyl alcohol and p-cresol are used as model compounds to rapidly optimise first flow and then rotational speed operating conditions at a preparative scale with long columns for a given phase system using a Dynamic Extractions Midi-DE centrifuge. The transfer to a high value extract such as the crude ethanol extract of Chinese herbal medicine Millettia pachycarpa Benth. is then demonstrated and validated using the same phase system. The results show that constant stationary phase modelling of flow and speed with long multilayer columns works well as a cheap, quick and effective method of optimising operating conditions for the chosen phase system-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:0.8:1:0.6, v/v). Optimum conditions for resolution were a flow of 20 ml/min and speed of 1200 rpm, but for throughput were 80 ml/min at the same speed. The results show that 80 ml/min gave the best throughputs for tephrosin (518 mg/h), pyranoisoflavone (47.2 mg/h) and dehydrodeguelin (10.4 mg/h), whereas for deguelin (100.5 mg/h), the best flow rate was 40 ml/min.

  10. Characteristics of canine platelet-rich plasma prepared with five commercially available systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Samuel P; Garner, Bridget C; Cook, James L

    2015-09-01

    To characterize platelet-rich plasma (PRP) products obtained from canine blood by use of a variety of commercially available devices. Blood samples from 15 dogs between 18 months and 9 years of age with no concurrent disease, except for osteoarthritis in some dogs. PRP products were produced from blood obtained from each of the 15 dogs by use of each of 5 commercially available PRP-concentrating systems. Complete blood counts were performed on each whole blood sample and PRP product. The degree of platelet, leukocyte, and erythrocyte concentration or reduction for PRP, compared with results for the whole blood sample, was quantified for each dog and summarized for each concentrating system. The various PRP-concentrating systems differed substantially in the amount of blood processed, method of PRP preparation, amount of PRP produced, and platelet, leukocyte, and erythrocyte concentrations or reductions for PRP relative to results for whole blood. The characteristics of PRP products differed considerably. Investigators evaluating the efficacy of PRPs need to specify the characteristics of the product they are assessing. Clinicians should be aware of the data (or lack of data) supporting use of a particular PRP for a specific medical condition.

  11. Preparation and Physicochemical Properties of Functionalized Silica/Octamethacryl-Silsesquioxane Hybrid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Szwarc-Rzepka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkoxysilane-grafted silica/polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane with methacryl substituents (SiO2/silane/POSS hybrid material was synthesized according to hydrolyzation and condensation reactions in the so-called “bifunctionalization process.” It is a new attractive system because of its physicochemical, especially thermal and structural, properties. This innovative method of preparation as well as specific physicochemical and useful properties determine the potential applications of such products in many industries. The structure and physicochemical parameters of obtained hybrid systems were characterized using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, 13C and 29Si solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (CP MAS NMR, and thermal analysis. The mechanism of bifunctionalization reaction was proposed. The chemical immobilization of silane coupling agent and Methacryl POSS onto silica support surface was noted during the study. Those changes caused a significant increase in the hydrophobic character of fillers obtained. Moreover, changes in thermal stability of SiO2/silane/POSS hybrid systems in comparison to pure POSS modifier were also observed.

  12. Automated 741 document preparation: Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Automated Safeguards Information System (OASIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, H.C.; Gray, L.M.

    1982-01-01

    OASIS has been providing for Oak Ridge National Laboratory's total safeguards needs since being place on line in April 1980. The system supports near real-time nuclear materials safeguards and accountability control. The original design of OASIS called for an automated facsimile of a 741 document to be prepared as a functional by-product of updating the inventory. An attempt was made to utilize, intact, DOE-Albuquerque's automated 741 system to generate the facsimile; however, the five page document produced proved too cumbersome. Albuquerque's programs were modified to print an original 741 document utilizing standard DOE/NRC 741 forms. It is felt that the best features of both the automated and manually generated 741 documents have been incorporated. Automation of the source data for 741 shipping documents produces greater efficiency while reducing possible errors. Through utilization of the standard DOE/NRC form, continuity within the NMMSS system is maintained, thus minimizing the confusion and redundancy associated with facsimiles. OASIS now fulfills the original concept of near real-time accountability by furnishing a viable 741 document as a function of updating the inventory

  13. Preparation of a data bank system for isotope correlation on spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Yoshinori; Umezawa, Hirokazu

    1981-11-01

    For the purposes of studying isotope correlation on spent nuclear fuels and its applicability to safeguards technology of nuclear material, a data bank system has been prepared on the basis of a FACOM M200 computer in JAERI. Spent fuels data of fabrication, irradiation history, reactor operator's burnup calculation, and reprocessing are stored in four kinds of data files: (1) Fuel assembly data file, (2) reprocessing batch data file, (3) plutonium product data file, and (4) uranium product data file. Corrections for decay and for mixing from adjoining batches are made and the corrected data are also kept in the files. A wide variety of variables may be derived from the isotopic and other data stored and subjected to optional statistical treatments such as regression analysis and paired comparison. Computer language used for the system was FORTRAN-IV. The system can be operated in a conversational mode with graphic indication, so that one may proceed such a statistical analysis immediately under various conditions of calculation. (author)

  14. Use of Take-set system for radiopharmaceutical labelling: example of indium-111 labeled pentetreotide (Octreoscan) preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Reguiga, M.; Sinegre, M.; Besse, H.; Stievenart, J.L.; Le Guludec, D.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of indium 111 radiolabelled pentetreotide preparation (Octreoscan, Covidien) depends on several factors among which the use of a special transfer needle (Sterican) especially conceived to avoid the metal impurities introduction into the reactional medium during labelling. This device, usually provided by the supplier, can exceptionally present defects (twisted needle, folded bevel...) preventing its use for the preparation. In order to manage this risk, we propose in the present technical note an alternative labelling method, based on an adaptation of the original one and using another transfer device, the Take-setSWAN system, which permits to obtain high quality Octreoscan preparations that meet the product approval specifications. (authors)

  15. Preparation and characterization of 6-mercaptopurine-coated magnetite nanoparticles as a drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorniani, Dena; Hussein, Mohd Zobir Bin; Kura, Aminu Umar; Fakurazi, Sharida; Shaari, Abdul Halim; Ahmad, Zalinah

    2013-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles are of considerable interest because of their use in magnetic recording tape, ferrofluid, magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery, and treatment of cancer. The specific morphology of nanoparticles confers an ability to load, carry, and release different types of drugs. We synthesized superparamagnetic nanoparticles containing pure iron oxide with a cubic inverse spinal structure. Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed that these Fe3O4 nanoparticles could be successfully coated with active drug, and thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analyses showed that the thermal stability of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with chitosan and 6-mercaptopurine (FCMP) was markedly enhanced. The synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles and the FCMP nanocomposite were generally spherical, with an average diameter of 9 nm and 19 nm, respectively. The release of 6-mercaptopurine from the FCMP nanocomposite was found to be sustained and governed by pseudo-second order kinetics. In order to improve drug loading and release behavior, we prepared a novel nanocomposite (FCMP-D), ie, Fe3O4 nanoparticles containing the same amounts of chitosan and 6-mercaptopurine but using a different solvent for the drug. The results for FCMP-D did not demonstrate "burst release" and the maximum percentage release of 6-mercaptopurine from the FCMP-D nanocomposite reached about 97.7% and 55.4% within approximately 2,500 and 6,300 minutes when exposed to pH 4.8 and pH 7.4 solutions, respectively. By MTT assay, the FCMP nanocomposite was shown not to be toxic to a normal mouse fibroblast cell line. Iron oxide coated with chitosan containing 6-mercaptopurine prepared using a coprecipitation method has the potential to be used as a controlled-release formulation. These nanoparticles may serve as an alternative drug delivery system for the treatment of cancer, with the added advantage of sparing healthy surrounding cells and tissue.

  16. A simple and automated sample preparation system for subsequent halogens determination: Combustion followed by pyrohydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, L S F; Pedrotti, M F; Vecchia, P Dalla; Pereira, J S F; Flores, E M M

    2018-06-20

    A simple and automated system based on combustion followed by a pyrohydrolysis reaction was proposed for further halogens determination. This system was applied for digestion of soils containing high (90%) and also low (10%) organic matter content for further halogens determination. The following parameters were evaluated: sample mass, use of microcrystalline cellulose and heating time. For analytes absorption, a diluted alkaline solution (6 mL of 25 mmol L -1  NH 4 OH) was used in all experiments. Up to 400 mg of soil with high organic matter content and 100 mg of soil with low organic matter content (mixed with 400 mg of cellulose) could be completely digested using the proposed system. Quantitative results for all halogens were obtained using less than 12 min of sample preparation step (about 1.8 min for sample combustion and 10 min for pyrohydrolysis). The accuracy was evaluated using a certified reference material of coal and spiked samples. No statistical difference was observed between the certified values and results obtained by the proposed method. Additionally, the recoveries obtained using spiked samples were in the range of 98-103% with relative standard deviation values lower than 5%. The limits of quantification obtained for F, Cl, Br and I for soil with high (400 mg of soil) and low (100 mg of soil) organic matter were in the range of 0.01-2 μg g -1 and 0.07-59 μg g -1 , respectively. The proposed system was considered as a simple and suitable alternative for soils digestion for further halogens determination by ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Diffusion coefficients of tracers in glassy polymer systems prepared by gamma radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonge, M.P.; Gilbert, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    Diffusion-controlled reactions are common in free radical polymerisation reactions, especially in glassy polymer matrices. Such reactions commonly have an important influence on the polymerisation process and final polymer properties. For example, the dominant growth-stopping event (bimolecular termination) is generally diffusion-controlled. In glassy polymer systems, where molecular mobility is very low, the chain growth mechanism (propagation) may become diffusion-controlled. At present, the mechanism for propagation in glassy polymers is poorly understood, but it is expected by the Smoluchowski expression applied to propagation to depend strongly on the diffusion coefficient of monomer. The objective of this study is to measure reliable diffusion coefficients of small tracer molecules in glassy polymers, and compare these with propagation rate coefficients in similar systems, by the prediction above. Samples were initially prepared in a sealed sampled cell containing monomer, inert diluent, and tracer dye. After irradiation for several days, complete conversion of monomer to polymer can be obtained. The diffusion coefficients for two tracer dyes have been measured as a function of weight fraction polymer glassy poly(methyl methacrylate) samples

  18. Controlled release system for ametryn using polymer microspheres: Preparation, characterization and release kinetics in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grillo, Renato; Pereira, Anderson do Espirito Santo; Ferreira Silva de Melo, Nathalie; Porto, Raquel Martins; Feitosa, Leandro Oliveira; Tonello, Paulo Sergio; Dias Filho, Newton L.; Rosa, Andre Henrique; Lima, Renata; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a modified release system for the herbicide ametryn by encapsulating the active substance in biodegradable polymer microparticles produced using the polymers poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) or poly(hydroxybutyrate-valerate) (PHBV), in order to both improve the herbicidal action and reduce environmental toxicity. PHB or PHBV microparticles containing ametryn were prepared and the efficiencies of herbicide association and loading were evaluated, presenting similar values of approximately 40%. The microparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which showed that the average sizes of the PHB and PHBV microparticles were 5.92 ± 0.74 μm and 5.63 ± 0.68 μm, respectively. The ametryn release profile was modified when it was encapsulated in the microparticles, with slower and more sustained release compared to the release profile of pure ametryn. When ametryn was associated with the PHB and PHBV microparticles, the amount of herbicide released in the same period of time was significantly reduced, declining to 75% and 87%, respectively. For both types of microparticle (PHB and PHBV) the release of ametryn was by diffusion processes due to anomalous transport (governed by diffusion and relaxation of the polymer chains), which did not follow Fick's laws of diffusion. The results presented in this paper are promising, in view of the successful encapsulation of ametryn in PHB or PHBV polymer microparticles, and indications that this system may help reduce the impacts caused by the herbicide, making it an environmentally safer alternative.

  19. Dynamic simulations for preparing the acceptance test of JT-60SA cryogenic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, R.; Hoa, C.; Michel, F.; Poncet, J. M.; Rousset, B.

    2016-12-01

    Power generation in the future could be provided by thermo-nuclear fusion reactors like tokamaks. There inside, the fusion reaction takes place thanks to the generation of plasmas at hundreds of millions of degrees that must be confined magnetically with superconductive coils, cooled down to around 4.5 K. Within this frame, an experimental tokamak device, JT-60SA is currently under construction in Naka (Japan). The plasma works cyclically and the coil system is subject to pulsed heat loads. In order to size the refrigerator close to the average power and hence optimizing investment and operational costs, measures have to be taken to smooth the heat load. Here we present a dynamic model of the JT-60SA's Auxiliary Cold box (ACB) for preparing the acceptance tests of the refrigeration system planned in 2016 in Naka. The aim of this study is to simulate the pulsed load scenarios using different process controls. All the simulations have been performed with EcosimPro® and the associated cryogenic library: CRYOLIB.

  20. TEACHERS’ PREPARATION TO THE INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES USAGE WITHIN POSTGRADUATE PEDAGOGICAL EDUCATION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Stepan P. Labudko

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays the question about teachers’ preparation to the information and communication technologies usage during the postgraduate period is actual. Some aspects of academic teachers’ preparation to the information and communication technologies usage during the postgraduate period in the teaching and educational activity are examined in the article, as well as some peculiarities of teachers’ preparation to the effective usage of modern tutorials and information and communication technologies ...

  1. Comparison of three different fat graft preparation methods: gravity separation, centrifugation, and simultaneous washing with filtration in a closed system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Cohen, Steven R; Hicok, Kevin C; Shanahan, Rob K; Strem, Brian M; Yu, Johnson C; Arm, Douglas M; Fraser, John K

    2013-04-01

    Successful long-term volume retention of an autologous fat graft is problematic. The presence of contaminating cells, tumescent fluid, and free lipid in the graft contributes to disparate outcomes. Better preparation methods for the fat graft before transplantation may significantly improve results. Subcutaneous fat from 22 donors was divided and processed using various graft preparation methods: (1) no manipulation control, (2) gravity separation, (3) Coleman centrifugation, and (4) simultaneous washing with filtration using a commercially available system (Puregraft; Cytori Therapeutics, Inc., San Diego, Calif.). Fat grafts from various preparation methods were examined for free lipid, aqueous liquid, viable tissue, and blood cell content. Adipose tissue viability was determined by measuring glycerol release after agonist induction of lipolysis. All test graft preparation methods exhibited significantly less aqueous fluid and blood cell content compared with the control. Grafts prepared by washing with filtration exhibited significantly reduced blood cell and free lipid content, with significantly greater adipose tissue viability than other methods. Washing with filtration within a closed system produces a fat graft with higher tissue viability and lower presence of contaminants compared with grafts prepared by alternate methods.

  2. Remediation of anionic dye from aqueous system using bio-adsorbent prepared by microwave activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arush; Sharma, Gaurav; Naushad, Mu; Ghfar, Ayman A; Pathania, Deepak

    2018-04-01

    The present study was attempted to ascertain the possible application of activated carbon as a cost-effective and eco-friendly adsorbent prepared via microwave-assisted chemical activation. The activated carbon was characterized using different techniques. The various adsorption parameters have been optimized to examine the viability of activated carbon as a plausible sorbent for the remediation of Congo red (CR) dye from the aquatic system. The equilibrium data adequately fitted to the Langmuir isotherm with better R 2 (0.994). The maximum adsorption capacity (q m ) of activated carbon was recorded to be 68.96 mg/g. Additionally, sorptional kinetic data were examined by reaction-based and diffusion-based models such as pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order equations, and Elovich, intra-particle diffusion, and Dumwald-Wagner models, respectively. The computed values of thermodynamic parameters such as free energy change (ΔG 0 ), enthalpy change (ΔH 0 ) and entropy change (ΔS 0 ) were recorded as -3.63, 42.47 and 152.07 J/mol K, respectively, at 30°C, which accounted for a favorable, spontaneous and endothermic process. The regeneration study emphasized that the percentage uptake declined from 90.35% to 83.45% after six cycles of testing. So, our findings implied that activated carbon produced from biomass must be cost-effectively used as an adsorbent for detoxifying the CR dye from industrial effluents.

  3. The preparation of Zr-deuteride and phase stability studies of the Zr-D system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimaitiyili, T.; Steuwer, A.; Bjerkén, C.; Blomqvist, J.; Hoelzel, M.; Ion, J. C.; Zanellato, O.

    2017-03-01

    Deuteride phases in the zirconium-deuterium system in the temperature range 25-286 °C have been studied in-situ by high resolution neutron diffraction. The study primarily focused on observations of δ→γ transformation at 180 °C, and the peritectoid reaction α + δ ↔ γ at 255 °C in commercial grade Zr powder that was deuterated to a deuterium/Zr ratio of one to one. A detailed description of the zirconium deuteride preparation route by high temperature gas loading is also described. The lattice parameters of α-Zr, δ-ZrDx and ε-ZrDx were determined by whole pattern crystal structure analysis, using Rietveld and Pawley refinements, and are in good agreement with values reported in the literature. The controversial γ-hydride phase was observed both in-situ and ex-situ in deuterated Zr powder after a heat treatment at 286 °C and slow cooling.

  4. Self-microemulsifying drug delivery system for improved oral bioavailability of dipyridamole: preparation and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Zhong, Haijun; He, Jing; Xie, Baogang; Liu, Fen; Xu, Helin; Liu, Minmin; Xu, Chunlian

    2011-07-01

    Dipyridamole shows poor and variable bioavailability after oral administration due to pHdependent solubility, low biomembrane permeability as well as being a substrate of P-glycoprotein. In order to improve the oral absorption of dipyridamole, a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) for dipyridamole was prepared and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The optimum formulation was 18% oleic acid, 12% Labrafac lipophile WL 1349, 42% Solutol HS 15 and 28% isopropyl alcohol. It was found that the performance of self-microemulsification with the combination of oleic acid and Labrafac lipophile WL 1349 increased compared with just one oil. The results obtained from an in vitro dissolution assay indicated that dipyridamole in SMEDDS dissolved rapidly and completely in pH 6.8 aqueous media, while the commercial drug tablet was less soluble. An oral bioavailability study in rats showed that dipyridamole in the SMEDDS formulation had a 2.06-fold increased absorption compared with the simple drug suspension. It was evident that SMEDDS may be an effective approach to improve the oral absorption for drugs having pH-dependent solubility.

  5. An Automated Inpatient Split-dose Bowel Preparation System Improves Colonoscopy Quality and Reduces Repeat Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadlapati, Rena; Johnston, Elyse R; Gluskin, Adam B; Gregory, Dyanna L; Cyrus, Rachel; Werth, Lindsay; Ciolino, Jody D; Grande, David P; Keswani, Rajesh N

    2017-07-19

    Inpatient colonoscopy preparations are often inadequate, compromising patient safety and procedure quality, while resulting in greater hospital costs. The aims of this study were to: (1) design and implement an electronic inpatient split-dose bowel preparation order set; (2) assess the intervention's impact upon preparation adequacy, repeated colonoscopies, hospital days, and costs. We conducted a single center prospective pragmatic quasiexperimental study of hospitalized adults undergoing colonoscopy. The experimental intervention was designed using DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, and control) methodology. Prospective data collected over 12 months were compared with data from a historical preintervention cohort. The primary outcome was bowel preparation quality and secondary outcomes included number of repeated procedures, hospital days, and costs. On the basis of a Delphi method and DMAIC process, we created an electronic inpatient bowel preparation order set inclusive of a split-dose bowel preparation algorithm, automated orders for rescue medications, and nursing bowel preparation checks. The analysis data set included 969 patients, 445 (46%) in the postintervention group. The adequacy of bowel preparation significantly increased following intervention (86% vs. 43%; P<0.01) and proportion of repeated procedures decreased (2.0% vs. 4.6%; P=0.03). Mean hospital days from bowel preparation initiation to discharge decreased from 8.0 to 6.9 days (P=0.02). The intervention resulted in an estimated 1-year cost-savings of $46,076 based on a reduction in excess hospital days associated with repeated and delayed procedures. Our interdisciplinary initiative targeting inpatient colonoscopy preparations significantly improved quality and reduced repeat procedures, and hospital days. Other institutions should consider utilizing this framework to improve inpatient colonoscopy value.

  6. Preparation of open porous polycaprolactone microspheres and their applications as effective cell carriers in hydrogel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qingchun [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Tan, Ke; Ye, Zhaoyang [State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, School of Bioengineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200237 China (China); Zhang, Yan, E-mail: zhang_yan@ecust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Tan, Wensong [State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, School of Bioengineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200237 China (China); Lang, Meidong, E-mail: mdlang@ecust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China)

    2012-12-01

    Common hydrogel, composed of synthetic polymers or natural polysaccharides could not support the adhesion of anchorage-dependent cells due to the lack of cell affinitive interface and high cell constraint. The use of porous polyester microspheres as cell-carriers and introduction of cell-loaded microspheres into the hydrogel system might overcome the problem. However, the preparation of the open porous microsphere especially using polycaprolactone (PCL) has been rarely reported. Here, the open porous PCL microspheres were fabricated via the combined emulsion/solvent evaporation and particle leaching method. The microspheres exhibited porous surface and inter-connective pore structure. Additionally, the pore structure could be easily controlled by adjusting the processing parameters. The surface pore size could be altered from 20 {mu}m to 80 {mu}m and the internal porosities were varied from 30% to 70%. The obtained microspheres were evaluated to delivery mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and showed the improved cell adhesion and growth when compared with the non-porous microspheres. Then, the MSCs loaded microspheres were introduced into agarose hydrogel. MSCs remained alive and sustained proliferation in microsphere/agarose composite in 5-day incubation while a decrement of MSCs viabilities was found in agarose hydrogel without microspheres. The results indicated that the microsphere/hydrogel composite had a great potential in cell therapy and injectable system for tissue regeneration. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The open porous polycaprolactone microspheres were fabricated using paraffin as a porogen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The microspheres exhibited porous surface and inter-connective pore structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface and internal pore size and porosity of microsphere could be controlled. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The porous microspheres exhibited an improved cell adhesion and proliferation. Black

  7. Preparation, characterization and drug delivery study of a novel nanobiopolymeric multidrug delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadkhah Tehrani, Abbas, E-mail: A_dadkhahtehrani@yahoo.com; Parsamanesh, Masoumeh

    2017-04-01

    New nanocarrier for codelivery of curcumin and doxorubicin as the anticancer drugs was synthesized using biocompatible and biodegradable materials. Firstly, an inclusion complex of amylose (Am) and curcumin (CUR) was formed through entrapment of curcumin into the amylose helices. Then the surface of amylose-curcumin (Am-CUR) complex was modified by polycaprolactone (PCL) via esterification reaction between hydroxyl functional groups of amylose and carbonyl groups of PCL. Finally, poly citric acid (PCA) reacted with terminal hydroxyl groups of PCL by esterification reaction. Then, doxorubicin (DOX) reacted with the surface carboxylic acid functional groups of Am-CUR-PCL-PCA through noncovalent interactions to form Am-CUR-PCL-PCA-DOX as a multidrug delivery system. These new synthesized nanomaterials were characterized by spectroscopic measurement methods such as IR spectroscopy, UV–vis spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. FE-SEM analyses and DLS measurements showed that the hydrodynamic dimensions of Am-Cur-PCL-PCA were about 50 nm. Due to the presence of ester bonds, the synthesized nanomaterials are pH sensitive. Furthermore, the resulting copolymer was completely water soluble because of the hydrophilic nature of poly citric acid part of copolymer and therefore successfully can be utilized in biomedical applications. - Highlights: • A drug delivery system based on amylose-graft-PCL-PCA developed for codelivery of curcumin and DOX. • The IR and NMR spectra confirmed successful preparation of the copolymer. • The drugs release were more favorable at acidic pH for both drugs. • DLS measurements showed that the hydrodynamic dimensions of Am-Cur-PCL-PCA was about 50 nm.

  8. Determination of atmospheric iodine species using a system of specifically prepared filters and IDMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaebler, H.E.; Heumann, K.G.

    1993-01-01

    A system was developed which allowed the determination of four different atmospheric iodine species by preparing glass microfibre filters, which were arranged in consecutive order, in a specific way. Particulate iodine was collected by a particle filter, HI and I 2 by a NaOH impregnated filter, HOI was adsorbed on a TBAH impregnated filter and organoiodine was adsorbed on a filter loaded with activated charcoal. These behaviours were checked by extensive model experiments. Two or more filters of the same type were used in series to show the degree of collection of one iodine species. Two European samples, one of continental and one of marine origin, and two Antarctic samples were analysed by this filter system using isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) for quantification. The distribution pattern for the different iodine species is similar for the two European samples. Organoiodine is found to be the most abundant species whereas in Antarctica the HI/I 2 fraction is up to nearly 50% of the total iodine. The particulate iodine fraction is higher in Europe than in Antarctica, which is due to the low particle concentration in the remote area of Antarctica. The higher HI/I 2 and HOI fractions found at the North Sea compared with the continental sample indicate that the ocean is a primary source of these species. Concentrations in the range of (0.3-3.1) ngI/m 3 were analysed for particulate iodine, (0.4-1.3) ng I/m 3 for HI/I 2 , (0.2-1.8) ng I/m 3 for HOI and (0.4-7.6) ng I/m 3 for organoiodine. The detection limits varied with the variances of the blank values of the different filters and lay between 0.02 ng I/m 3 and 0.24 ng I/m 3 using sample volumes of 70 m 3 air. (orig.)

  9. Resin-based preparation of HTGR fuels: operation of an engineering-scale uranium loading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.

    1977-10-01

    The fuel particles for recycle of 233 U to High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors are prepared from uranium-loaded carboxylic acid ion exchange resins which are subsequently carbonized, converted, and refabricated. The development and operation of individual items of equipment and of an integrated system are described for the resin-loading part of the process. This engineering-scale system was full scale with respect to a hot demonstration facility, but was operated with natural uranium. The feed uranium, which consisted of uranyl nitrate solution containing excess nitric acid, was loaded by exchange with resin in the hydrogen form. In order to obtain high loadings, the uranyl nitrate must be acid deficient; therefore, nitric acid was extracted by a liquid organic amine which was regenerated to discharge a NaNO 3 or NH 4 NO 3 solution waste. Water was removed from the uranyl nitrate solution by an evaporator that yielded condensate containing less than 0.5 ppM of uranium. The uranium-loaded resin was washed with condensate and dried to a controlled water content via microwave heating. The loading process was controlled via in-line measurements of the pH and density of the uranyl nitrate. The demonstrated capacity was 1 kg of uranium per hour for either batch loading contractors or a continuous column as the resin loading contractor. Fifty-four batch loading runs were made without a single failure of the process outlined in the chemical flowsheet or any evidence of inability to control the conditions dictated by the flowsheet

  10. Preparation and characterization of 6-mercaptopurine-coated magnetite nanoparticles as a drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorniani D

    2013-09-01

    . By MTT assay, the FCMP nanocomposite was shown not to be toxic to a normal mouse fibroblast cell line. Conclusion: Iron oxide coated with chitosan containing 6-mercaptopurine prepared using a coprecipitation method has the potential to be used as a controlled-release formulation. These nanoparticles may serve as an alternative drug delivery system for the treatment of cancer, with the added advantage of sparing healthy surrounding cells and tissue. Keywords: superparamagnetic nanoparticles, 6-mercaptopurine, controlled release, cytotoxicity, drug delivery

  11. Joint verification project on environmentally friendly coal utilization systems. Joint verification project on the water-saving coal preparation system; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kyodo jissho jigyo. Shosuigata sentan system kyodo jissho jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    In this verification project, clean technology which should be spread in China was verified and the base structure for its spread was prepared for the purpose of controlling emissions of environmental pollutants associated with the coal utilization in China and of contributing to secure energy acquisition of Japan. As joint verification projects, a general rehabilitation type coal preparation system was installed in the Wangfenggang coal preparation plant, and a central control coal preparation system was installed in the Qingtan coal preparation plant. In the former, a system is verified in which optimum operation, water-saving, high quality, and heightening of efficiency can be obtained by introducing two computing systems for operation control and quality control, various measuring instruments, and analyzers to coal preparation plants where analog operation is conducted helped by Russia and Porland and have problems about quality control. In the latter, a central control system achieving water saving is verified by introducing rapid ash meters, scales, desitometers and computers to coal preparation plants having zigzag or heavy-fluid cyclon and connecting various kinds of information through network. For fiscal 1994, investigation and study were conducted. 51 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Performance of Food Safety Management Systems in Poultry Meat Preparation Processing Plants in Relation to Campylobacter spp. Contamination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampers, I.; Jacxsens, L.; Luning, P.A.; Marcelis, W.J.; Dumoulin, F.H.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    A diagnostic instrument comprising a combined assessment of core control and assurance activities and a microbial assessment instrument were used to measure the performance of current food safety management systems (FSMSs) of two poultry meat preparation companies. The high risk status of the

  13. Capillary rheological studies of 17-4 PH MIM feedstocks prepared using a custom CSIR binder system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Machaka, Ronald

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an attempt to establish the rheological properties of 17-4 PH stainless steel MIM feedstocks prepared using a proprietary CSIR wax-based binder system. The influence of powder and feedstock characteristics on the rheological...

  14. Effect of Patency File on Transportation and Curve Straightening in Canal Preparation with ProTaper System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasheminia, Seyed Mohsen; Farhadi, Nastaran; Shokraneh, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the effect of using a patency file on apical transportation and curve straightening during canal instrumentation with the ProTaper rotary system. Seventy permanent mandibular first molars with mesiobuccal canals, measuring 18-23 mm in length and with a 25-40° curvature (according to the Schneider method), were selected. The working lengths were determined and the teeth were mounted and divided into two experimental groups: (A) prepared by the ProTaper system without using a patency file (n = 35) and (B) prepared by the ProTaper system using a patency file (n = 35). Radiographs taken before and after the preparation were imported into Photoshop software and the apical transportation, and curve straightening were measured. Data were analyzed using independent t-test. Partial correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between the initial curvature, transportation, and curve straightening (α = 0.05). Using a patency file during canal preparation significantly decreased both apical transportation and curve straightening (P system.

  15. Characteristics of the anti-dementia drug system of Zisu Fang preparations based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianye Quan

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Based on the PK and PD correlation analysis, baicalin, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, matrine, and tanshinone IIA are the main active ingredients of Zisu Fang preparations with regard to its anti-dementia effects, and represent the basic characteristics of drug system: natures, synergy, and affinity.

  16. A Biocatalytic One-Pot Approach for the Preparation of Lignin Oligomers Using an Oxidase/Peroxidase Cascade Enzyme System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, Mohamed H. M.; Deuss, Peter J.; Loncar, Nikola; Trajkovic, Milos; Fraaije, Marco W.

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic lignin was prepared biocatalytically in a one-pot, two-step reaction using an oxidase/peroxidase cascade enzyme system. Using eugenol in combination with eugenol oxidase and a peroxidase, lignin-like material was produced. The cascade reaction takes advantage of the ability of the oxidase

  17. SYSTEM OF CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT OF THE PROCESS OF THE MORTAR SLURRY PREPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Kukuj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The technological schema of automatic flow line allowing to prepare with minimum charges of manual labor the refined from solid additives mortar slurry with stable density is presented in the article.

  18. Optimizing Frozen Sample Preparation for Laser Microdissection: Assessment of CryoJane Tape-Transfer System®.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena G Golubeva

    Full Text Available Laser microdissection is an invaluable tool in medical research that facilitates collecting specific cell populations for molecular analysis. Diversity of research targets (e.g., cancerous and precancerous lesions in clinical and animal research, cell pellets, rodent embryos, etc. and varied scientific objectives, however, present challenges toward establishing standard laser microdissection protocols. Sample preparation is crucial for quality RNA, DNA and protein retrieval, where it often determines the feasibility of a laser microdissection project. The majority of microdissection studies in clinical and animal model research are conducted on frozen tissues containing native nucleic acids, unmodified by fixation. However, the variable morphological quality of frozen sections from tissues containing fat, collagen or delicate cell structures can limit or prevent successful harvest of the desired cell population via laser dissection. The CryoJane Tape-Transfer System®, a commercial device that improves cryosectioning outcomes on glass slides has been reported superior for slide preparation and isolation of high quality osteocyte RNA (frozen bone during laser dissection. Considering the reported advantages of CryoJane for laser dissection on glass slides, we asked whether the system could also work with the plastic membrane slides used by UV laser based microdissection instruments, as these are better suited for collection of larger target areas. In an attempt to optimize laser microdissection slide preparation for tissues of different RNA stability and cryosectioning difficulty, we evaluated the CryoJane system for use with both glass (laser capture microdissection and membrane (laser cutting microdissection slides. We have established a sample preparation protocol for glass and membrane slides including manual coating of membrane slides with CryoJane solutions, cryosectioning, slide staining and dissection procedure, lysis and RNA extraction

  19. Pediatric Exposures to Topical Benzocaine Preparations Reported to a Statewide Poison Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rais Vohra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Topical benzocaine is a local anesthetic commonly used to relieve pain caused by teething, periodontal irritation, burns, wounds, and insect bites. Oral preparations may contain benzocaine concentrations ranging from 7.5% to 20%. Pediatric exposure to such large concentrations may result in methemoglobinemia and secondarily cause anemia, cyanosis, and hypoxia. Methods: This is a retrospective study of exposures reported to a statewide poison control system. The electronic health records were queried for pediatric exposures to topical benzocaine treated at a healthcare facility from 2004 to 2014. Cases of benzocaine exposure were reviewed for demographic and clinical information, and descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Results: The query resulted in 157 cases; 58 were excluded due to co-ingestants, or miscoding of non-benzocaine exposures. Children four years of age and younger represented the majority of cases (93% with a median age of 1 year. There were 88 cases of accidental/ exploratory exposure, while 6 cases resulted from therapeutic application or error, 4 cases from adverse reactions, and 1 case from an unknown cause. Asymptomatic children accounted for 75.5% of cases, but major clinical effects were observed in 5 patients. Those with serious effects were exposed to a range of benzocaine concentrations (7.5–20%, with 4 cases reporting methemoglobin levels between 20.2%–55%. Methylene blue was administered in 4 of the cases exhibiting major effects. Conclusion: The majority of exposures were accidental ingestions by young children. Most exposures resulted in minor to no effects. However, some patients required treatment with methylene blue and admission to a critical care unit. Therapeutic application by parents or caregivers may lead to adverse effects from these commonly available products.

  20. The preparation of Zr-deuteride and phase stability studies of the Zr-D system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maimaitiyili, T., E-mail: tuerdi.maimaitiyili@mah.se [Materials Science and Applied Mathematics, Malmö University, Nordenskiöldsgatan 1, 20506 Malmö (Sweden); Steuwer, A. [Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Gardham Avenue, 6031 Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Bjerkén, C.; Blomqvist, J. [Materials Science and Applied Mathematics, Malmö University, Nordenskiöldsgatan 1, 20506 Malmö (Sweden); Hoelzel, M. [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz-Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), Technische Universität Muünchen, Lichtenbergstr. 1, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Ion, J.C. [Materials Science and Applied Mathematics, Malmö University, Nordenskiöldsgatan 1, 20506 Malmö (Sweden); Zanellato, O. [PIMM, Ensam - Cnam - CNRS, 151 Boulevard de l' Hôpital, 75013 Paris (France)

    2017-03-15

    Deuteride phases in the zirconium-deuterium system in the temperature range 25–286 °C have been studied in-situ by high resolution neutron diffraction. The study primarily focused on observations of δ→γ transformation at 180 °C, and the peritectoid reaction α + δ ↔ γ at 255 °C in commercial grade Zr powder that was deuterated to a deuterium/Zr ratio of one to one. A detailed description of the zirconium deuteride preparation route by high temperature gas loading is also described. The lattice parameters of α-Zr, δ-ZrD{sub x} and ε-ZrD{sub x} were determined by whole pattern crystal structure analysis, using Rietveld and Pawley refinements, and are in good agreement with values reported in the literature. The controversial γ-hydride phase was observed both in-situ and ex-situ in deuterated Zr powder after a heat treatment at 286 °C and slow cooling. - Highlights: • Controversial γ phase observed both in-situ and ex-situ after heat treatments. • γ-ZrD is observed at room temperature after 5 h of heat treatment at 286 °C. • Presence of α + δ ↔ γ at 255 °C was not observed. • It was observed that there is a δ → γ transformation present around 150 °C.

  1. Pediatric Exposures to Topical Benzocaine Preparations Reported to a Statewide Poison Control System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Rais; Huntington, Serena; Koike, Jennifer; Le, Kevin; Geller, Richard J

    2017-08-01

    Topical benzocaine is a local anesthetic commonly used to relieve pain caused by teething, periodontal irritation, burns, wounds, and insect bites. Oral preparations may contain benzocaine concentrations ranging from 7.5% to 20%. Pediatric exposure to such large concentrations may result in methemoglobinemia and secondarily cause anemia, cyanosis, and hypoxia. This is a retrospective study of exposures reported to a statewide poison control system. The electronic health records were queried for pediatric exposures to topical benzocaine treated at a healthcare facility from 2004 to 2014. Cases of benzocaine exposure were reviewed for demographic and clinical information, and descriptive statistical analysis was performed. The query resulted in 157 cases; 58 were excluded due to co-ingestants, or miscoding of non-benzocaine exposures. Children four years of age and younger represented the majority of cases (93%) with a median age of 1 year. There were 88 cases of accidental/ exploratory exposure, while 6 cases resulted from therapeutic application or error, 4 cases from adverse reactions, and 1 case from an unknown cause. Asymptomatic children accounted for 75.5% of cases, but major clinical effects were observed in 5 patients. Those with serious effects were exposed to a range of benzocaine concentrations (7.5-20%), with 4 cases reporting methemoglobin levels between 20.2%-55%. Methylene blue was administered in 4 of the cases exhibiting major effects. The majority of exposures were accidental ingestions by young children. Most exposures resulted in minor to no effects. However, some patients required treatment with methylene blue and admission to a critical care unit. Therapeutic application by parents or caregivers may lead to adverse effects from these commonly available products.

  2. Upgrading of Alum Preparation and Dosing Unit for Sharq Dijla Water Treatment Plant by Using Programmable Logic Controller System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aumar Al-Nakeeb

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the important units in Sharq Dijla Water Treatment Plant (WTP first and second extensions are the alum solution preparation and dosing unit. The existing operation of this unit accomplished manually starting from unloading the powder alum in the preparation basin and ending by controlling the alum dosage addition through the dosing pumps to the flash mix chambers. Because of the modern trend of monitoring and control the automatic operation of WTPs due to the great benefits that could be gain from optimum equipment operation, reducing the operating costs and human errors. This study deals with how to transform the conventional operation to an automatic monitoring and controlling system depending on a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC and online sensors for alum preparation and dosing unit in Sharq Dijla WTP. PLC system will receive, analyze transmitting data, compare them with preset points then automatically orders the operational equipment (such as pumps, valves, and mixers in a way that guarantees the safe and appropriate operation of the unit. As a result of Process and Instrumentation Diagrams (PID that were prepared in this study, these units can be fully operating and manage by using Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA system.

  3. [Quality process control system of Chinese medicine preparation based on "holistic view"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Qi; Jiao, Jiao-Jiao; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Zheng, Qin; Yang, Ming

    2018-01-01

    "High quality, safety and effectiveness" are the primary principles for the pharmaceutical research and development process in China. The quality of products relies not only on the inspection method, but also on the design and development, process control and standardized management. The quality depends on the process control level. In this paper, the history and current development of quality control of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparations are reviewed systematically. Based on the development model of international drug quality control and the misunderstanding of quality control of TCM preparations, the reasons for impacting the homogeneity of TCM preparations are analyzed and summarized. According to TCM characteristics, efforts were made to control the diversity of TCM, make "unstable" TCM into "stable" Chinese patent medicines, put forward the concepts of "holistic view" and "QbD (quality by design)", so as to create the "holistic, modular, data, standardized" model as the core of TCM preparation quality process control model. Scientific studies shall conform to the actual production of TCM preparations, and be conducive to supporting advanced equipment and technology upgrade, thoroughly applying the scientific research achievements in Chinese patent medicines, and promoting the cluster application and transformation application of TCM pharmaceutical technology, so as to improve the quality and effectiveness of the TCM industry and realize the green development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  4. Design and Preparation of RF System for the Lower Hybrid Fast Wave Heating and Current Drive Research on VEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Ho; Jeong, Seung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Woo; Lee, Byung Je [Kwang Woon University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Jong Gab; Lee, Hyun Young; Hwang, Yong Seok [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Continuous current drive is one of the key issues for tokamak to be a commercial fusion reactor. As a part of new and efficient current drive concept research by using a Lower Hybrid Fast Wave (LHFW), the experimental study is planned on Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST) and a RF system is being developed in collaboration with Kwang Woon University (KWU), Korea Accelerator Plasma Research Association (KAPRA) and Seoul National University (SNU). The LHFW RF system includes UHF band klystron, inter-digital antenna, RF diagnostics and power transmission sub components such as circulator, DC breaker, vacuum feed-thru. The design and preparation status of the RF system will be presented in the meeting in detail. A RF system has been designed and prepared for the experimental study of efficient current drive by using Lower Hybrid Fast Wave. Overall LHFW RF system including diagnostics is designed to deliver about 10 kW in UHF band. And the key hardware components including klystron and antenna are being prepared and designed through the collaboration with KWU, KAPRA and SNU.

  5. Cone-beam computed tomography analysis of the apical third of curved roots after mechanical preparation with different automated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Cesar Augusto Pereira; Pascoalato, Cristina; Meurer, Maria Ines; Silva, Silvio Rocha Correa

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) the apical canal transportation and centralizing ability of different automated systems after root canal preparation. The mesiobuccal canals of maxillary first molars (n=10 per group) were prepared with: GI - reciprocating system with K-Flexofile; GII - reciprocating system with NiTiFlex files; GIII - rotary system with K3 instruments; GIV - rotary system with RaCe instruments. CBCT scans were taken before and after biomechanical preparation up to a 40.02 diameter. Canal transportation was determined by measuring the smallest distance between the inner canal walls and the mesial and distal sides of the root. The centralization ability corresponded to the difference between the measurements from transportation evaluation, using the linear voxel to voxel method of analysis. The mean transportation was 0.06 ± 0.14 mm, with a tendency to deviate to the mesial side of the root (n=22), with no statistically significant difference among the groups (p=0.4153). The mean centralization index was 0.15 ± 0.65 also without statistically significant difference among the groups (p=0.0881). It may be concluded that apical canal transportation and centralization ability were not influenced by the type of mechanical movement and instruments used. (author)

  6. Cone-beam computed tomography analysis of the apical third of curved roots after mechanical preparation with different automated systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Cesar Augusto Pereira; Pascoalato, Cristina [University of Southern Santa Catarina (UNISUL), Tubarao, SC (Brazil); Meurer, Maria Ines [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, Silvio Rocha Correa, E-mail: silvio@foar.unesp.b [Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The present study evaluated by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) the apical canal transportation and centralizing ability of different automated systems after root canal preparation. The mesiobuccal canals of maxillary first molars (n=10 per group) were prepared with: GI - reciprocating system with K-Flexofile; GII - reciprocating system with NiTiFlex files; GIII - rotary system with K3 instruments; GIV - rotary system with RaCe instruments. CBCT scans were taken before and after biomechanical preparation up to a 40.02 diameter. Canal transportation was determined by measuring the smallest distance between the inner canal walls and the mesial and distal sides of the root. The centralization ability corresponded to the difference between the measurements from transportation evaluation, using the linear voxel to voxel method of analysis. The mean transportation was 0.06 +- 0.14 mm, with a tendency to deviate to the mesial side of the root (n=22), with no statistically significant difference among the groups (p=0.4153). The mean centralization index was 0.15 +- 0.65 also without statistically significant difference among the groups (p=0.0881). It may be concluded that apical canal transportation and centralization ability were not influenced by the type of mechanical movement and instruments used. (author)

  7. XPS analysis of supported catalysts prepared in water-in-oil microemulsion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Ambar Yarmo; Wong Hoi Jin; Tan Chew Khim; Anita Ramli; Shahidan Radiman

    2002-01-01

    Catalysts supported on γ-alumina prepared by water-in-oil microemulsion were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for comparison with catalysts prepared by wet impregnation. Comparable shifts to higher binding energies indicated a metal-support interaction where metal obtained via microemulsion is very small in size and highly dispersed. The positive binding energy shifts could be explained from a net unit positive charge remaining on the cluster in the photoemission final state in addition to the metallic screening from a redistribution of states within the bands. (Author)

  8. Dissipative preparation of entanglement in quantum optical and solid state systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiter, Florentin

    superconducting qubits in a circuit QED setup. Combining resonator photon loss, a dissipative process already present in the setup, with an effective two-photon microwave drive, we engineer an effective decay mechanism which prepares a maximally entangled state of two qubits. We find that high fidelities......” and “dissipative state engineering” suggests to use the interaction with the environment to perform quantum information tasks. Here, decay processes are no longer undesirable, but play an integral part in the dynamics. Following this approach, we consider the dissipative preparation of two-particle and multi...

  9. Preparation, properties, and application characteristics of metastable layers of the Ti-Si-C-N system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fella, R.

    1992-10-01

    In the Ti-Si-C and Ti-Si-C-N systems, metastable layers were precipitated by means of non-reactive magnetron sputtering of hot-pressed two-phase TiC/SiC and TiN/SiC targets with 20 mole% and 50 mole% SiC. The preparation parameters were varied as follows: ion bombardment during precipitation (bias sputtering), substrate temperature, and annealing times when annealing amorphous 50%:50% TiC/SiC and 50%:50% TiN/SiC layers. Sputtering of targets containing 20% SiC was found to result in monophase fcc layers (NaCl structure). This was documented on the basis of X-ray and electron diffraction patterns. Direct precipitation of targets with 50 mole% SiC resulted in amorphous layers. Increasing the ion bombardment during accretion, raising the substrate temperature, and annealing amorphous 50%:50% TiC/SiC and 50%:50% TiN/SiC (layers precipitated directly) resulted in the crystallization of TiC and TiN nanocrystallites, respectively, imbedded in an amorphous SiC matrix. These crystallites were detected both by X-ray and by electron diffractions and by XPS studies. The XPS measurements of crystalline TiC and amorphous SiC reference layers demonstrated the existence of new kinds of carbon interface phases ('pseudocarbide layers') around TiC and amorphous SiC regions, respectively, which have a positive impact on the mechanical properties of the layers. The hardness of the layers can be correlated with the degrees of crystallization and texture. Adhesion and toughness are worse in SiC-bearing layers than PVD TiC and TiN layers, respectively. The application characteristics of the layers were determined by model wear tests relative to 100Cr6 by means of a pin/disk tribometer. N-bearing layers were found to have clearly higher friction coefficients and greater wear than layers without N. (orig.)

  10. Preparing School Leaders to Interrupt Racism at Various Levels in Educational Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boske, Christa

    2015-01-01

    This narrative inquiry seeks to advance the field of educational leadership preparation by exploring ways to interrupt personal, interpersonal, and institutional racism through the senses--ways in which people perceive their experiences and relation to others. Findings suggest that participants engage in actions aligned with revelations from their…

  11. Minimizing human error in radiopharmaceutical preparation and administration via a bar code-enhanced nuclear pharmacy management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, John L; Hung, Joseph C; Mosman, Elton A

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this project was to ensure correct radiopharmaceutical administration through the use of a bar code system that links patient and drug profiles with on-site information management systems. This new combined system would minimize the amount of manual human manipulation, which has proven to be a primary source of error. The most common reason for dosing errors is improper patient identification when a dose is obtained from the nuclear pharmacy or when a dose is administered. A standardized electronic transfer of information from radiopharmaceutical preparation to injection will further reduce the risk of misadministration. Value stream maps showing the flow of the patient dose information, as well as potential points of human error, were developed. Next, a future-state map was created that included proposed corrections for the most common critical sites of error. Transitioning the current process to the future state will require solutions that address these sites. To optimize the future-state process, a bar code system that links the on-site radiology management system with the nuclear pharmacy management system was proposed. A bar-coded wristband connects the patient directly to the electronic information systems. The bar code-enhanced process linking the patient dose with the electronic information reduces the number of crucial points for human error and provides a framework to ensure that the prepared dose reaches the correct patient. Although the proposed flowchart is designed for a site with an in-house central nuclear pharmacy, much of the framework could be applied by nuclear medicine facilities using unit doses. An electronic connection between information management systems to allow the tracking of a radiopharmaceutical from preparation to administration can be a useful tool in preventing the mistakes that are an unfortunate reality for any facility.

  12. The Effect of Canal Preparation with Four Different Rotary Systems on Formation of Dentinal Cracks: An In Vitro Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshbin, Elham; Donyavi, Zakiyeh; Abbasi Atibeh, Erfan; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Amani, Faranak

    2018-01-01

    Endodontic rotary systems may result in dentinal cracks. They may propagate to vertical root fracture that compromises the outcome of endodontic treatment. This study aimed to compare Neolix and Reciproc (single-file systems), Mtwo and ProTaper (conventional rotary systems) in terms of dentinal crack formation in root canal walls. This in vitro study was conducted on 110 extracted human single-rooted teeth. The teeth were randomly divided into four experimental groups ( n =25) for root canal preparation with Neolix, Reciproc, Mtwo and ProTaper systems and two control groups ( n =5). The first control group underwent root canal instrumentation with hand files while the second control group received no preparation and was only irrigated. After instrumentation, root canals were horizontally sectioned at 3, 6 and 9 mm from the apex and inspected under a stereomicroscope under 12× magnification for detection of cracks. The data were analyzed using Chi-square, GEE test and Bonferroni tests ( P ProTaper, Reciproc, Mtwo and Neolix caused cracks in 92%, 80%, 68% and 48% of samples. ProTaper caused significantly more cracks than Neolix and Mtwo ( P 0.05). All rotary systems cause dentinal cracks and it is significantly different in apical, middle and coronal third of the root. Neolix appears to be a suitable alternative to other rotary systems since use of this single-file system saves time and cost and minimizes trauma to dentinal walls.

  13. A study on FlexMaster : a Ni-Ti rotary engine driven system for root canal preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M S; Bashar, A K; Begumr, J A; Kinoshita, J I

    2006-07-01

    In the present study, the effectiveness of recently introduced rotary Nickel Titanium FlexMaster engine driven system was evaluated for cleaning and shaping of root canals in extracted human teeth and compared with that done by the Nickel Titanium Flexofile hand instruments. A total of 40 root canals from 36 extracted mandibular and maxillary teeth with curvature ranging between 20 and 30 degree were divided into two groups, consisting 20 canals in each. FlexMaster instrumentation was done in 20 canals, using crown-down technique and manual filing with Flexofile was done in other 20 canals, using conventional and step-back techniques. 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution and 17% ethelene di-amine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) were used alternatively for irrigation after canal preparation by each instrument size. Time needed for canal preparation of individual canal was recorded. A procedural error such as instrument breakage was also noted. After preparation, all the roots were cut longitudinally by using diamond burs in turbine handpiece and examined under scanning electron microscope. Apical region was quantified for debris and smear layer based on a 5-score numerical evaluation scale. The data established for scoring the debris and smear layer and preparation time of individual canal were analyzed statistically using the Mann-Whitney U test. Completely cleaned root canals were not found with any of the two instruments and none of the instruments maintained the original canal uniformity and regular dentine surface. Because significantly less debris was found in the apical region using the manual filing technique (p< 0.05). Thus the flexmaster system was found to produce less cleaner root canal walls than manual technique. Only one FlexMaster finishing file sized 30 was separated in the apical region during preparation of 30 degree curved canal. The time taken by FlexMaster was significantly better (p< 0.01) than that of hand instruments.

  14. Three-Dimensional Implant Positioning with a Piezosurgery Implant Site Preparation Technique and an Intraoral Surgical Navigation System: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Gerardo; Taraschi, Valerio; Vercellotti, Tomaso; Ben-Nissan, Besim; Marchetti, Claudio

    This case report describes new implant site preparation techniques joining the benefits of using an intraoral navigation system to optimize three-dimensional implant site positioning in combination with an ultrasonic osteotomy. A report of five patients is presented, and the implant positions as planned in the navigation software with the postoperative scan image were compared. The preliminary results are useful, although further clinical studies with larger populations are needed to confirm these findings.

  15. FUNCTIONALIZATION OF 3D FIBROUS SCAFFOLDS PREPARED USING CENTRIFUGAL SPINNING WITH LIPOSOMES AS A SIMPLE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michala Rampichová

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available 3D materials supporting cell adhesion, infiltration and proliferation are crucial for bone tissue engineering. In the current study we combined PCL fibers prepared using centrifugal spinning with adhered liposomes filled with platelet lysate as a natural source of growth factors. The scaffold was seeded with MG-63 cells and tested in vitro as a potential drug delivery system for bone tissue engineering.

  16. Structural specifics of the condensate prepared by thermal evaporation of alloys of As2S3-Yb systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehfendiev, Eh.G.; Mamedov, A.I.; Il'yasov, T.M.; Rustamov, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    The problem aimed at preparation of the films of As 2 S 3 -Yb system, at studying their substructure depending on condensation conditions and defining noncrystallinity region of this system in the film state, is formulated. It is shown that in representative samples of As 2 S 3 -Yb system the vitrification region is extended up to 7 at.% Yb, in the films noncrystallinity region is extended up to 30 at.% Yb. With up to 30 at.% increase of ytterbium amount in initial alloys a tendency to crystallization in amorphous condensate structure is noticed. In evaporation of As 2 S 3 + 40 at.% Yb and As 2 S 3 + 50 at.% Yb, unknown in the film state YbAs 2 S 4 , Yb 3 As 4 S 9 and YbAs 4 S 7 phases are prepared, and the latter is formed in case of As 2 S 3 + 50 at.% Yb alloy at small evaporation rates (∼10 A/s). Substructure of As 2 S 3 + 50 at.% Yb alloy prepared condensate is more dependent on evaporation rate than in evaporation of As 2 S 3 + 40 at.% Yb alloy. In this case, evaporation rates being ∼ 100 A/s, the condensate has a polycrystal structure, and at small rates of ∼ 10 A/c, condensate structure is primarily blocked

  17. Improving of the water preparation systems in the industry thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choshnova Daniela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Some modern possibilities for modernization of the water preparation in the heat power plants of metallurgical enterprises are presented. It is focused on the ecological and technological advantages of the methods for obtaining of ultra-pure water. This work is not intended to justify the need of usage of particular technology in an object. This is a separate task requiring in-depth consideration.

  18. Preparation of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger Entangled States in the Atom-Cavity Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Nan

    2018-02-01

    We present a new simple scheme for the preparation of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger maximally entangled states of two two-level atoms. The distinct feature of the effective Hamiltonian is that there is no energy exchange between the atoms and the cavity.. Thus the scheme is insensitive to the effect of cavity field and the atom radiation.This protocol may be realizable in the realm of current physical experiment.

  19. Apical extrusion of debris during root canal preparation using a novel nickel-titanium file system: WaveOne gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincer, Asiye Nur; Guneser, Mehmet Burak; Arslan, Dilara

    2017-01-01

    This study was intended to evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris following root canal preparation with three different instrumentation systems. Sixty mandibular incisor teeth were selected and randomly divided into three groups ( n = 20/group) according to the instrumentation system used: the ProTaper Next (PTN; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), the Twisted File Adaptive (TFA; SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA), and the WaveOne Gold (WOG; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). All apically extruded debris was collected and dried in preweighed glass vials. The mean weight of the apically extruded debris was obtained using a microbalance. The time for root canal preparation was also recorded. The data were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance. The mean weights of apically extruded debris were 0.00035 ± 0.00014 g (PTN); 0.00023 ± 0.0001 g (TFA); and 0.00019 ± 0.0001 g (WOG) ( P system extruded more debris than the TFA and WOG systems. The TFA and WOG systems were faster than the PTN system.

  20. WWER440 few group data library preparation and its application in MOBY-DICK modular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krysl, V.; Mikolas, P.; Svarny, J.

    2002-01-01

    Paper provides summary of methodology of few-group library preparation with emphasis on new features of assemblies, like fuel assemblies with Gd burnable poison or Control Fuel Assembly with Hf plates. Special attention is devoted to the transient part (coupler) of Control Fuel Assembly from the point of view of boundary conditions preparation. Based of this methodology prepared library is implemented into macro code for different number of axial meshes for both coarse and fine mesh diffusion calculations. Problems with local power peaking calculations in WWER-440 cores are closely connected with the correct modeling of the power perturbations in the neighbourhood of Control Fuel Assembly coupler. The new version of MOBY-DICK provided with the new few group data library can assess most of effects induced by insertion of Control Fuel Assembly in the core including effects of newly designed Hf plates in the coupler of Control Fuel Assembly. Compatibility of transport and diffusion calculation was taken into account in the analysis of Control Fuel Assembly movement without/with Hf plates (Authors)

  1. Preparation, structure and properties of hafnium compounds in the system Hf-C-N-O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brundiers, G.D.

    1975-08-01

    Highly dense, homogenous and single phase hafnium carbonitride samples (with low oxygen content) were prepared in the whole concentration range of the ternary cubic carbonitrides. Stoichiometric hafnium oxicarbides were also prepared within the range of solubility. The procedure involved the hot pressing of powders of HfC, HfN, Hf, Hf-Oxide and carbon at temperatures of 3,000 0 C and pressures up to 550 kpf/cm 2 using a novel technique. Small single crystals of slightly substoichiometric HfN were also repared. The densification of the powders was studied as a function of the non-metal concentration. Carbonitrides with N/Hf ratio of 0.37 were prepared in a high temperature autoclave operating at medium pressures by the reaction of HfC with nitrogen. All the samples were characterized by density measurements, chemical, X-ray and metallographic analysis and in some cases with the aid of quantitative metallography and microprobe analysis. Typical properties investigated were lattice parameter, thermal expansion, microhardness and electrical resistivity as function of the non-metal content. For specific concentrations extreme values in the properties are attained. With the aid of the valence electron concentration (VEC) parameter, the properties can be correlated with the density of states of electrons at the Fermi level. (orig./HK) [de

  2. Dyeing Industry Effluent System as Lipid Production Medium of Neochloris sp. for Biodiesel Feedstock Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyadharani Gopalakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae lipid feedstock preparation cost was an important factor in increasing biodiesel fuel hikes. This study was conducted with the concept of implementing an effluent wastewater as lipid production medium for microalgae cultivation. In our study textile dyeing industry effluent was taken as a lipid production medium for Neochloris sp. cultivation. The changes in physicochemical analysis of effluent before and after Neochloris sp. treatment were recorded using standard procedures and AAS analysis. There was especially a reduction in heavy metal like lead (Pb concentration from 0.002 ppm to 0.001 ppm after Neochloris sp. treatment. Neochloris sp. cultivated in Bold Basal Medium (BBM (specific algal medium produced 41.93% total lipid and 36.69% lipid was produced in effluent based cultivation. Surprisingly Neochloris sp. cultivated in effluent was found with enhanced neutral lipid content, and it was confirmed by Nile red fluorescence assay. Further the particular enrichment in oleic acid content of the cells was confirmed with thin layer chromatography (TLC with oleic acid pure (98% control. The overall results suggested that textile dyeing industry effluent could serve as the best lipid productive medium for Neochloris sp. biodiesel feedstock preparation. This study was found to have a significant impact on reducing the biodiesel feedstock preparation cost with simultaneous lipid induction by heavy metal stress to microalgae.

  3. Modernization of the automation control system of technological processes at the preparation plant in the conditions of technical re-equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyakhovets, M. V.; Wenger, K. G.; Myshlyaev, L. P.; Shipunov, M. V.; Grachev, V. V.; Melkozerov, M. Yu; Fairoshin, Sh A.

    2018-05-01

    The experience of modernization of the automation control system of technological processes at the preparation plant under the conditions of technical re-equipment of the preparation plant “Barzasskoye Tovarischestvo” LLC (Berezovsky) is considered. The automated process control systems (APCS), the modernization goals and the ways to achieve them are indicated, the main subsystems of the integrated APCS are presented, the enlarged functional and technical structure of the upgraded system is given. The procedure for commissioning an upgraded system is described.

  4. Effect of preparation processes and structural insight into the supermolecular system: Bisacodyl and β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shanshan; Zhai, Yuanming; Yan, Jin; Wang, Lili; Xu, Kailin; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    In this study, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and bisacodyl were chosen as model host and guest molecule to explore the effect of preparation processes on the physicochemical properties of inclusion complexes (ICs) and to gain an insight into the structure of ICs. The influence of temperature and pH on complexation was studied by multiple temperature–pH phase solubility analysis. The most favorable conformation was predicted by molecular modeling using AutoDock. "1H nuclear magnetic resonance and rotating frame nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy further confirmed the structure. Moreover, bisacodyl·β-CD ICs in solid state were successfully prepared via three different procedures (co-crystallization, co-evaporation, and co-grinding) and fully characterized by several solid-state techniques, namely, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that acid solution and low temperature were unfavorable for formation of bisacodyl·β-CD. The pyridine moiety was suggested to be enclosed in the hydrophobic cavity of β-CD. The complexes prepared using co-crystallization showed properties similar to those prepared using co-evaporation. Moreover, ICs obtained by co-evaporation and co-grinding had higher loading efficiency, water solubility, and dissolution rate than ICs obtained by co-crystallization. - Highlights: • The structure of inclusion complex-bisacodyl·β-CD was determined. • Thermodynamic behaviors of complexation under different conditions were discussed. • Products from three different preparation methods were systemically compared. • Co-crystallization and co-evaporation produced similar complexes. • Co-evaporation and co-grinding had better effects than co-crystallization.

  5. Effect of preparation processes and structural insight into the supermolecular system: Bisacodyl and β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shanshan [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Zhai, Yuanming [Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Yan, Jin; Wang, Lili; Xu, Kailin [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Li, Hui, E-mail: lihuilab@sina.com [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2016-01-01

    In this study, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and bisacodyl were chosen as model host and guest molecule to explore the effect of preparation processes on the physicochemical properties of inclusion complexes (ICs) and to gain an insight into the structure of ICs. The influence of temperature and pH on complexation was studied by multiple temperature–pH phase solubility analysis. The most favorable conformation was predicted by molecular modeling using AutoDock. {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance and rotating frame nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy further confirmed the structure. Moreover, bisacodyl·β-CD ICs in solid state were successfully prepared via three different procedures (co-crystallization, co-evaporation, and co-grinding) and fully characterized by several solid-state techniques, namely, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that acid solution and low temperature were unfavorable for formation of bisacodyl·β-CD. The pyridine moiety was suggested to be enclosed in the hydrophobic cavity of β-CD. The complexes prepared using co-crystallization showed properties similar to those prepared using co-evaporation. Moreover, ICs obtained by co-evaporation and co-grinding had higher loading efficiency, water solubility, and dissolution rate than ICs obtained by co-crystallization. - Highlights: • The structure of inclusion complex-bisacodyl·β-CD was determined. • Thermodynamic behaviors of complexation under different conditions were discussed. • Products from three different preparation methods were systemically compared. • Co-crystallization and co-evaporation produced similar complexes. • Co-evaporation and co-grinding had better effects than co-crystallization.

  6. Development of a preparation system for the radiocarbon analysis of organic carbon in carbonaceous aerosols in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.L.; Liu, D.; Shen, C.D.; Ding, P.; Zhang, G.

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols comprising a large fraction of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) are considered to affect both global climate and human health. Radiocarbon measurements have been proved to be a useful isotopic tracer for distinguishing contemporary and fossil emissions. An optimized system of a two-step thermal preparation system for radiocarbon ( 14 C) measurement of OC/TC is firstly established in China. In this system, OC/TC are converted into carbon dioxide under a pure oxygen flow at 340 o C/650 o C and then reduced to graphite for AMS target using the method of zinc reduction. Afterwards, radiocarbon measurements of the targets performed by the NEC Compact AMS System at the Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University. The measured results for estimated reference martial including HOx I, HOx II and IAEA-C6 are consistent with internationally accepted values. The radiocarbon-based source appointment of carbonaceous aerosols in China would be much more convenient and faster with the preparation system developed in this work.

  7. Evaluation of the Marginal Fit of CAD/CAM Crowns Fabricated Using Two Different Chairside CAD/CAM Systems on Preparations of Varying Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renne, Walter; Wolf, Bethany; Kessler, Raymond; McPherson, Karen; Mennito, Anthony S

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the marginal gap of crowns fabricated using two new chairside computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing systems on preparations completed by clinicians with varying levels of expertise to identify whether common preparation errors affect marginal fit. The null hypothesis is that there is no difference in the mean marginal gaps of restorations of varying qualities and no difference in the mean marginal gap size between restorations fabricated using the PlanScan (D4D, Richardson, TX, USA) and the CEREC Omnicam (Sirona, Bensheim, Germany). The fit of 80 lithium disilicate crowns fabricated with the E4D PlanScan or CEREC Omnicam systems on preparations of varying quality were examined for marginal fit by using the replica technique. These same preparations were then visually examined against common criteria for anterior all-ceramic restorations and placed in one of four categories: excellent, good, fair, and poor. Linear mixed modeling was used to evaluate associations between marginal gap, tooth preparation rating, and fabrication machine. The fit was not significantly different between both systems across all qualities of preparation. The average fit was 104 μm for poor-quality preparations, 87.6 μm for fair preparations, 67.2 μm for good preparations, and 36.6 μm for excellent preparations. The null hypothesis is rejected. It can be concluded that preparation quality has a significant impact on marginal gap regardless of which system is used. However, no significant difference was found when comparing the systems to each other. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it can be concluded that crown preparation quality has a significant effect on marginal gap of the restoration when the clinician uses either CEREC Omnicam or E4D PlansScan. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Adapting a Computerized Medical Dictation System to Prepare Academic Papers in Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Yadiel; Prabhakar, Anand M; Uppot, Raul N

    2017-09-14

    Everyday radiologists use dictation software to compose clinical reports of imaging findings. The dictation software is tailored for medical use and to the speech pattern of each radiologist. Over the past 10 years we have used dictation software to compose academic manuscripts, correspondence letters, and texts of educational exhibits. The advantages of using voice dictation is faster composition of manuscripts. However, use of such software requires preparation. The purpose of this article is to review the steps of adapting a clinical dictation software for dictating academic manuscripts and detail the advantages and limitations of this technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Preparation of CdS microtrumpets from a solvent extraction system by a two-phase approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Aifang; Liu, Yubing; Liao, Wuping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → CdS microtrumpets were prepared from an extraction system by a two-phase approach. → Triethanolamine plays a crucial role in the formation of the trumpets. → Some micro-lotus seedpods can also be obtained with trihydroxymethyl aminomethane. -- Abstract: CdS microtrumpets with the length being of about 4 μm and the bell wall being of 100 nm have been prepared using a cadmium di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid chelate as the precursor by a two-phase thermal approach. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The effects of temperature, reaction time, and co-surfactant on the morphology were also examined. It was found that the co-surfactant triethanolamine plays a crucial role in the formation of the cubic phase trumpet-like CdS microstructures.

  10. Introduction of construction management system for preparation work of Shimane Nuclear Power Station Unit-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Yutaka; Tsumura, Isamu; Hayashi, Minoru; Nakamoto, Kenji

    2005-01-01

    The construction management system aims to have information on the construction management between the Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc. and each contractor, and to work efficiently. The system has been operating during about half year. The system manages the manufacturing process, safety and quality. The aims, development process, characteristics, network construction of the system are reported. As outline of the construction management system, functions and construction management of each process, safety and quality and ITV camera are explained. The system will be used at construction of Shimane nuclear power station unit-3. (S.Y.)

  11. Qubit-oscillator systems in the ultrastrong-coupling regime and their potential for preparing nonclassical states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nori, Franco; Ashhab, Sahel

    2011-03-01

    We consider a system composed of a two-level system (i.e. a qubit) and a harmonic oscillator in the ultrastrong-coupling regime, where the coupling strength is comparable to the qubit and oscillator energy scales. We explore the possibility of preparing nonclassical states in this system, especially in the ground state of the combined system. The nonclassical states that we consider include squeezed states, Schrodinger-cat states and entangled states. We also analyze the nature of the change in the ground state as the coupling strength is increased, going from a separable ground state in the absence of coupling to a highly entangled ground state in the case of very strong coupling. Reference: S. Ashhab and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. A 81, 042311 (2010). We thank support from DARPA, AFOSR, NSA, LPS, ARO, NSF, MEXT, JSPS, FIRST, and JST.

  12. Summary of the preparation of methodology for digital system reliability analysis for PSA purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hustak, S.; Babic, P.

    2001-12-01

    The report is structured as follows: Specific features of and requirements for the digital part of NPP Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems (Computer-controlled digital technologies and systems of the NPP I and C system; Specific types of digital technology failures and preventive provisions; Reliability requirements for the digital parts of I and C systems; Safety requirements for the digital parts of I and C systems; Defence-in-depth). Qualitative analyses of NPP I and C system reliability and safety (Introductory system analysis; Qualitative requirements for and proof of NPP I and C system reliability and safety). Quantitative reliability analyses of the digital parts of I and C systems (Selection of a suitable quantitative measure of digital system reliability; Selected qualitative and quantitative findings regarding digital system reliability; Use of relations among the occurrences of the various types of failure). Mathematical section in support of the calculation of the various types of indices (Boolean reliability models, Markovian reliability models). Example of digital system analysis (Description of a selected protective function and the relevant digital part of the I and C system; Functional chain examined, its components and fault tree). (P.A.)

  13. Preparation of starch nanoparticles in water in oil microemulsion system and their drug delivery properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinge; Chen, Haiming; Luo, Zhigang; Fu, Xiong

    2016-03-15

    In this research, 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide C16mimBr/butan-1-ol/cyclohexane/water ionic liquid microemulsion was prepared. The effects of n-alkyl alcohols, alkanes, water content and temperature on the properties of microemulsion were studied by dilution experiment. The microregion of microemulsion was identified by pseudo-ternary phase diagram and conductivity measurement. Then starch nanoparticles were prepared by water in oil (W/O) microemulsion-cross-linking methods with C16mimBr as surfactant. Starch nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 94.3nm and narrow size distribution (SD=3.3) were confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) data revealed that starch nanoparticles were spherical granules with the size about 60nm. Moreover the results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) demonstrated the formation of cross-linking bonds in starch molecules. Finally, the drug loading and releasing properties of starch nanoparticles were investigated with methylene blue (MB) as drug model. This work may provide an efficient pathway to synthesis starch nanoparticles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Structure and superconducting properties of Nb3Ge prepared in a UHV system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habermeier, H.U.; Stuttgart Univ.

    1981-01-01

    Nb 3 Ge films are prepared by coevaporation of Nb and Ge under well defined and controlled conditions. The formation of the A15 Nb 3 Ge phase is studied by varying the processing parameters - composition, deposition temperature, and impurity gas background - systematically. Single phase samples with Tsub(c) onsets as high as 21.5 K and lattice parameters of 0.5148 nm only be obtained in an environment with no added impurities and a Ge concentration of 23.8 at%. Oxygen as impurity gas enhances Tsub(c) slightly in samples of the optimal composition, whereas hydrogen as impurity gas does not affect the formation and the Tsub(c) of the A15 phase at all. The structure, (lattice parameters, grain sizes, and phases present) and the superconducting properties (Tsub(c), Hsub(c2)(0)) of the samples show a systematic correlation of the preparation parameters and the physical properties. The experimental results are explained qualitatively within the frame of the linear chain model of A15 superconductors combined with the introduction of anti-site defects. (author)

  15. Are universities preparing nurses to meet the challenges posed by the Australian mental health care system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynaden, D; Orb, A; McGowan, S; Downie, J

    2000-09-01

    The preparedness of comprehensive nurses to work with the mentally ill is of concern to many mental health professionals. Discussion as to whether current undergraduate nursing programs in Australia prepare a graduate to work as a beginning practitioner in the mental health area has been the centre of debate for most of the 1990s. This, along with the apparent lack of interest and motivation of these nurses to work in the mental health area following graduation, remains a major problem for mental health care providers. With one in five Australians now experiencing the burden of a major mental illness, the preparation of a nurse who is competent to work with the mentally ill would appear to be a priority. The purpose of the present study was to determine third year undergraduate nursing students' perceived level of preparedness to work with mentally ill clients. The results suggested significant differences in students' perceived level of confidence, knowledge and skills prior to and following theoretical and clinical exposure to the mental health area. Pre-testing of students before entering their third year indicated that the philosophy of comprehensive nursing: integration, although aspired to in principle, does not appear to occur in reality.

  16. IAEA preparations for the year 2000 compliance of safeguards information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    The year-2000 (Y2K) problem affects both information systems and equipment systems. This paper describes the work which has been done, and is currently underway, to make the information systems of the Department of Safeguards year-2000 compliant. (author)

  17. Kultuuripealinna vedajad püüavad mereni jõuda / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2009-01-01

    SA Tallinn 2011 juht Mikko Fritze ja programmijuht Jaanus Rohumaa tutvustavad Tallinna mereäärsete alade hetkeolukorda. Üks põhilisi Tallinna, Euroopa kultuuripealinna ideesid on Tallinn kui merelinn. Linna merele avamisest. Valmivast Rocca al Mare promenaadist

  18. Novel approach to the preparation of organic energetic film for microelectromechanical systems and microactuator applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Zhang, Wenchao; Wang, Lianwei; Shen, Ruiqi; Xu, Xing; Ye, Jiahai; Chao, Yimin

    2014-07-23

    An activated RDX-Fe2O3 xerogel in a Si-microchannel plate (MCP) has been successfully prepared by a novel propylene epoxide-mediated sol-gel method. A decrease of nearly 40 °C in decomposition temperature has been observed compared with the original cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX). The RDX-Fe2O3 xerogel can release gas and solid matter simultaneously, and the ratio of gas to solid can be tailored easily by changing the initial proportions of RDX and FeCl3·6H2O, which significantly enhances the explosive and propulsion effects and is of great benefit to the applications. The approach, which is simple, safe, and fully compatible with MEMS technology, opens a new route to the introduction of organic energetic materials to a silicon substrate.

  19. Quality assurance program preparation - review of requirements and plant systems - selection of program levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmuss, G.

    1980-01-01

    The establishment and implementation for a practicable quality assurance program for a nuclear power plant demands a detailed background in the field of engineering, manufacturing, organization and quality assurance. It will be demonstrated with examples to define and control the achievement of quality related activities during the phases of design, procurement, manufactoring, commissioning and operation. In general the quality assurance program applies to all items, processes and services important to safety of nuclear power plant. The classification for safety related and non-safety related items and services demonstrate the levels of quality assurance requirements. The lecture gives an introduction of QA Program preparation under the following topics: -Basic criteria and international requirements - Interaction of QA activities - Modular and product oriented QA programs - Structuring of organization for the QA program - Identification of the main quality assurance functions and required actions - Quality Assurance Program documentation - Documentation of planning of activities - Control of program documents - Definitions. (orig./RW)

  20. Effect of ultrasound streaming on the disinfection of flattened root canals prepared by rotary and reciprocating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Layla Reginna Silva Munhoz de; Midena, Raquel Zanin; Minotti, Paloma Gagliardi; Pereira, Thais Cristina; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Andrade, Flaviana Bombarda de

    2017-01-01

    New technical and scientific developments have been advocated to promote the success of the endodontic treatment. In addition to rotary and reciprocating systems, irrigating solution agitation has been suggested and passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) is the most used. To evaluate, in vitro, the effect of ultrasound streaming (US) in the disinfection of flattened root canal systems prepared by the ProTaper, BioRaCe and Reciproc systems, utilizing the microbiological culture. Extracted human mandibular incisors (n=84) were used. Suspensions of Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) were standardized and inserted along with the teeth immersed in brain-heart infusion (BHI) broth. The contamination was made following a protocol during 5 days. The teeth were randomly divided into six groups: G1, ProTaper Universal; G2, ProTaper Universal with US; G3, BioRaCe; G4, BioRaCe with US; G5, Reciproc; and G6, Reciproc with US. Irrigation was performed with saline solution. After biomechanical preparation, microbiological samples were performed with sterilized paper points, which were diluted and spread on BHI agar; after 48 h, the colony forming units (CFU/mL) were counted for each sample. Groups using ultrasonic agitation presented a greater antibacterial effect than the other ones, even using saline solution as irrigant. The ProTaper Universal system showed the best antibacterial activity of the tested systems (median of 0 CFU/mL with and without surfactant or ultrasonic activation [PUI]). Even with PUI, Reciproc (median of 2.5 CFU/mL with PUI and 5 without it) could not reduce as many colonies as ProTaper Universal without US. The BioRaCe system had greater bacterial reduction when using US (median of 0 CFU/mL with PUI and 30 without it). US promoted greater reduction in the number of bacteria in the flattened root canals prepared with nickel-titanium mechanized systems. Regarding the instruments used, the ProTaper Universal system was the most effective in reducing the

  1. Effect of ultrasound streaming on the disinfection of flattened root canals prepared by rotary and reciprocating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Reginna Silva Munhoz de Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available Abstract New technical and scientific developments have been advocated to promote the success of the endodontic treatment. In addition to rotary and reciprocating systems, irrigating solution agitation has been suggested and passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI is the most used. Objective: To evaluate, in vitro, the effect of ultrasound streaming (US in the disinfection of flattened root canal systems prepared by the ProTaper, BioRaCe and Reciproc systems, utilizing the microbiological culture. Methodology: Extracted human mandibular incisors (n=84 were used. Suspensions of Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212 were standardized and inserted along with the teeth immersed in brain-heart infusion (BHI broth. The contamination was made following a protocol during 5 days. The teeth were randomly divided into six groups: G1, ProTaper Universal; G2, ProTaper Universal with US; G3, BioRaCe; G4, BioRaCe with US; G5, Reciproc; and G6, Reciproc with US. Irrigation was performed with saline solution. After biomechanical preparation, microbiological samples were performed with sterilized paper points, which were diluted and spread on BHI agar; after 48 h, the colony forming units (CFU/mL were counted for each sample. Results: Groups using ultrasonic agitation presented a greater antibacterial effect than the other ones, even using saline solution as irrigant. The ProTaper Universal system showed the best antibacterial activity of the tested systems (median of 0 CFU/mL with and without surfactant or ultrasonic activation [PUI]. Even with PUI, Reciproc (median of 2.5 CFU/mL with PUI and 5 without it could not reduce as many colonies as ProTaper Universal without US. The BioRaCe system had greater bacterial reduction when using US (median of 0 CFU/mL with PUI and 30 without it. Conclusions: US promoted greater reduction in the number of bacteria in the flattened root canals prepared with nickel-titanium mechanized systems. Regarding the instruments used, the Pro

  2. Performance of food safety management systems in poultry meat preparation processing plants in relation to Campylobacter spp. contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampers, Imca; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Luning, Pieternel A; Marcelis, Willem J; Dumoulin, Ann; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2010-08-01

    A diagnostic instrument comprising a combined assessment of core control and assurance activities and a microbial assessment instrument were used to measure the performance of current food safety management systems (FSMSs) of two poultry meat preparation companies. The high risk status of the company's contextual factors, i.e., starting from raw materials (poultry carcasses) with possible high numbers and prevalence of pathogens such as Campylobacter spp., requires advanced core control and assurance activities in the FSMS to guarantee food safety. The level of the core FSMS activities differed between the companies, and this difference was reflected in overall microbial quality (mesophilic aerobic count), presence of hygiene indicators (Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli), and contamination with pathogens such as Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter spp. The food safety output expressed as a microbial safety profile was related to the variability in the prevalence and contamination levels of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat preparations found in a Belgian nationwide study. Although a poultry meat processing company could have an advanced FSMS in place and a good microbial profile (i.e., lower prevalence of pathogens, lower microbial numbers, and less variability in microbial contamination), these positive factors might not guarantee pathogen-free products. Contamination could be attributed to the inability to apply effective interventions to reduce or eliminate pathogens in the production chain of (raw) poultry meat preparations.

  3. Preparation of Emulsifying Wax/GMO Nanoparticles and Evaluation as a Delivery System for Repurposing Simvastatin in Bone Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskinazi-Budge, Aaron; Manickavasagam, Dharani; Czech, Tori; Novak, Kimberly; Kunzler, James; Oyewumi, Moses O

    2018-05-30

    Simvastatin (Sim) is a widely known drug in the treatment of hyperlipidemia that has attracted so much attention in bone regeneration based on its potential osteoanabolic effect. However, repurposing of Sim in bone regeneration will require suitable delivery systems that can negate undesirable off-target/side effects. In this study, we have investigated a new lipid nanoparticle (NP) platform that was fabricated using a binary blend of emulsifying wax (Ewax) and glyceryl monooleate (GMO). Using the binary matrix materials, NPs loaded with Sim (0-500 µg/mL) were prepared and showed an average particle size of about 150 nm. NP size stability was dependent on Sim concentration loaded in NPs. The suitability of NPs prepared with the binary matrix materials in Sim delivery for potential application in bone regeneration was supported by biocompatibility in pre-osteoclastic and pre-osteoblastic cells. Additional data demonstrated that biofunctional Sim was released from NPs that facilitated differentiation of osteoblasts (cells that form bones) while inhibiting differentiation of osteoclasts (cells that resorb bones). The overall work demonstrated the preparation of NPs from Ewax/GMO blends and characterization to ascertain potential suitability in Sim delivery for bone regeneration. Additional studies on osteoblast and osteoclast functions are warranted to fully evaluate the efficacy simvastatin-loaded Ewax/GMO NPs using in-vitro and in-vivo approaches.

  4. [Pharmaceutical preparations in the hospital. Analysis and in-house development of an automated system of management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberini, Cinzia; Lavezzini, Enrica; Zoboli, Daniela; Busani, Corrado

    2018-02-01

    In the past couple of years, the demand of galenic compounds has risen sharply. In order to plan the activity, our team designed and set up a database which stores all the necessary information related to drugs and ingredients. This allows our internal Galenic Laboratory to better manage the pharmaceutical prescriptions for the hospital and the outpatients, optimizing the use of raw materials. The application is based on the interconnection of prescription-related aspects (patients' and prescriber's details and prescription information). The prescription name is linked to the list of substances, which allows to monitor the stock levels. Inserting the daily dosage into the system, our personnel can calculate the monthly supply of the medicine. Each prescription contains specific warnings on printable labels. A printed sheet, inclusive of label and checks on the final preparation, is produced for each prescription. After a testing phase, the application gradually replaced our traditional process of pharmaceutical activity management, allowing for a more accurate scheduling of the medicine requests. The worksheet and its specific label are automatically generated. Then a prediction scheme is generated for the ordinary programmable galenic activity. The project successfully achieved the following goals: 1) automate the information flow related to preparations; 2) improve the response time in terms of drug preparation and delivery; 3) minimize the number of emergencies.

  5. The design preparation for radiation monitoring system in the frame of completion NPP Mochovce Units 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevecka, S.; Slavik, O.; Kapisovsky, V.

    2009-01-01

    In 1985 a Basic Design of Radiation Monitoring System (RMS) has been elaborated for Mochovce NPP unit 3 and 4 construction. Due to construction interruption in the following years this design solution became obsolete. A new solution of RMS have been developed with conception following that of original Basic Design accommodating also safety measures implemented in RMS of NPP EMO units 1 and 2, and based on modem instrumentation and computer technique. Following the updating of Basic Design documentation the preparation of elaboration of RMS detailed design was carried on. In the frame of this preparation a review of possible suppliers of instrumentation satisfying the conception of radiation monitoring system and the extension of required deliveries has been made. Also criteria on RMS suppliers selection have been determined. The types of monitoring systems and equipment, as well as their quantities, have been specified based on updated Basic Design requirements and production profiles and possibilities of potential suppliers. The required parameters of measurements (including measurement geometry) have been evaluated, as well as requirements of legislation and requirements of proposed RMS architecture. (authors)

  6. Use of the radiometric method at creation cell test-systems for pre-screening of anticancer preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsova, N.N.; Khashimova, Z.S.; Sadikov, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Development of cancer chemotherapy is tightly bound with investigation of biological activity of different compounds on in vitro test systems. Our research has been directed on definition of sensitivity of the cell line KML removed by us from passed of mice melanoma B-16. We had been investigated action of 18 clinical antineoplastic preparations of different classes: alkylating - sarcolysinum, thiophosphamide, dopan, fhthordopan; antimetabolites - cytararibinum, methotrexatum, 6-mercaptopurinum, 5-fhthorouracilum, fhthorafur; antineoplastic antibiotics- adriamycinum, neomycinum, rubomycinum, bruneomycinum, carminomycinum, olivomycinum; plant substances - vinblastinum, colchaminum (component of ointment which used at treatment of skin cancer) and other - carboplatin. Cytotoxic effect of preparations estimated two methods - radiometric on inclusion of 3H - timidine in cells and spectrophotometric by definition of total amount nucleic acids and protein. For this purpose KML cells passed in quantity of 120 thousand in 3 ml of nutrient medium RPMI 1640, 10 % calf embryo serum in bottles and after 24 hours entered substances in dozes from 0,01 up to 100 μg/ml. Contact of substances to cells was 24 hours, then 10 μ Ci 3 H - timidine was injected on bottles at 1 hour. Cells transferred on GFC-filters, washed from not connected label. Filters transferred in scintillation liquid and a level of a radio-activity determined on β-counter. All tested clinical preparations appeared active within the criteria of activity, thus the radiometric method was more sensitive, than spectrophotometric. Thus, testing results of model have shown that stable cell line KML was sensitive to action of 18 clinical preparations with various mechanisms of action by different estimations of damaging action. This model can be used for biological activity of new potential cancerolytics pre-screening. This work was supported by the Center of Science and Technology of the Republic of

  7. Software and Hardware System for Fast Processes Study When Preparing Foundation Beds of Oil and Gas Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzin, A. V.; Gruzin, V. V.; Shalay, V. V.

    2018-04-01

    Analysis of existing technologies for preparing foundation beds of oil and gas buildings and structures has revealed the lack of reasoned recommendations on the selection of rational technical and technological parameters of compaction. To study the nature of the dynamics of fast processes during compaction of foundation beds of oil and gas facilities, a specialized software and hardware system was developed. The method of calculating the basic technical parameters of the equipment for recording fast processes is presented, as well as the algorithm for processing the experimental data. The performed preliminary studies confirmed the accuracy of the decisions made and the calculations performed.

  8. Algorithm for preparation of multilayer systems with high critical angle of total reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carron, I.; Ignatovich, V.

    2002-01-01

    The new development of theory of multilayer systems is presented. It shows precisely how to calculate thickness and number of layers to get reflectivity close to unity for a given, in principle, arbitrary critical angle. Application of the new approach to real systems is demonstrated

  9. Preparation of meteorological data (METPV) which is useful to simulate output from PV systems; Taiyoko hatsuden system no simulation yo data METPV no seibi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itagaki, A; Iida, H [Japan Weather Association, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Studies are under way for the nation-wide buildup of a network of METPV data, new standard meteorological data resembling the HASP data, for the time-based simulation of the output of photovoltaic power generation systems. There is a method of preparing hourly data covering a long period of time for computer processing for the determination of the average hourly power generation level, which, however, will be unrealistic because of the enormity of calculation work involved. Hence: the concept of standardized meteorological data, which involves the specification of typical years after examining the data covering a long period and the preparation of the data of the years for computer processing. In the METPV setup, three types of data are prepared: data for the year of the average insolation, data for the year of insufficient insolation, and data for the year of excess insolation. Next, for each of the twelve months, the year of the average insolation is found. When the twelve pieces of data for the twelve months (of different years) are combined, an artificially constructed year results, with each of the twelve months having the average insolation. A technique has been developed for smoothing the discontinuity between the months. Forty observation spots were built in fiscal 1995, and 150 spots will have been prepared across the country by the end of fiscal 1996. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  10. An automated system for the preparation of Large Size Dried (LSD) Spikes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbruggen, A.; Bauwens, J.; Jakobsson, U.; Eykens, R.; Wellum, R.; Aregbe, Y. [European Commission - Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 211, B2440 Geel (Belgium); Van De Steene, N. [Nucomat, Mercatorstraat 206, B9100 Sint Niklaas (Belgium)

    2008-07-01

    Large size dried (LSD) spikes have been produced to fulfill the existing requirement for reliable and traceable isotopic reference materials for nuclear safeguards. A system to produce certified nuclear isotopic reference material as a U/Pu mixture in the form of large size dried spikes, comparable to those produced using traditional methods has been installed in collaboration with Nucomat, a company with a recognized reputation in design and development of integrated automated systems. The major components of the system are a robot, two balances, a dispenser and a drying unit fitted into a glove box. The robot is software driven and designed to control all movements inside the glove-box, to identify unambiguously the penicillin vials with a bar-code reader, to dispense the LSD batch solution into the vials and to weigh the amount dispensed. The system functionality has been evaluated and the performance validated by comparing the results from a series of samples dispensed and weighed by the automated system with the results by manual substitution weighing. After applying the proper correction factors to the data from the automated system balance no significant difference was observed between the two. However, an additional component of uncertainty of 3*10{sup -4} is introduced in the uncertainty budget for the certified weights provided by the automatic system. (authors)

  11. An automated system for the preparation of Large Size Dried (LSD) Spikes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, A.; Bauwens, J.; Jakobsson, U.; Eykens, R.; Wellum, R.; Aregbe, Y.; Van De Steene, N.

    2008-01-01

    Large size dried (LSD) spikes have been produced to fulfill the existing requirement for reliable and traceable isotopic reference materials for nuclear safeguards. A system to produce certified nuclear isotopic reference material as a U/Pu mixture in the form of large size dried spikes, comparable to those produced using traditional methods has been installed in collaboration with Nucomat, a company with a recognized reputation in design and development of integrated automated systems. The major components of the system are a robot, two balances, a dispenser and a drying unit fitted into a glove box. The robot is software driven and designed to control all movements inside the glove-box, to identify unambiguously the penicillin vials with a bar-code reader, to dispense the LSD batch solution into the vials and to weigh the amount dispensed. The system functionality has been evaluated and the performance validated by comparing the results from a series of samples dispensed and weighed by the automated system with the results by manual substitution weighing. After applying the proper correction factors to the data from the automated system balance no significant difference was observed between the two. However, an additional component of uncertainty of 3*10 -4 is introduced in the uncertainty budget for the certified weights provided by the automatic system. (authors)

  12. [The five commandments for preparing the Israeli healthcare system for emergencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adini, Bruria; Laor, Danny; Cohen, Robert; Lev, Boaz; Israeli, Avi

    2010-07-01

    In the last decade, the Israeli healthcare system dealt with many casualties that resulted from terrorist actions and at the same time maintained preparedness for other potential hazards such as natural disasters, toxicological, chemical, radiological and biological events. There are various models for emergency preparedness that are utilized in different countries. The aim of the article is to present the structure and the methodology of the Israeli healthcare system for emergencies. Assuring emergency preparedness for the different scenarios is based on 5 major components that include: comprehensive contingency planning; control and command of operations; central control of readiness; capacity building; coordination and collaboration among the numerous emergency agencies. CLose working relationships between the military and civilian systems characterize the operations of the emergency system. There is a mutual sharing of information, coordinated operations to achieve risk assessment and determine priorities, and consensual allocation of resources. The ability of the medical system to operate in optimal coordination with interface bodies, including the Israel Defense Forces, is derived from three main elements: the shortage of resources necessitate that all agencies work together to develop an effective response to emergencies; the Israeli society is characterized by transition of personnel from the military to the civilian system which promotes joint operations, whereas in most other countries these systems are completely separated; and also developing mechanisms for continuous and coordinated operation in routine and emergency times, such as the Supreme Health Authority. The Israeli healthcare system was put to the test several times in the Last decade, during the terror wave that occurred between 2001-2006, the 2nd Lebanon War and in operation "Cast Lead". An extensive process of learning lessons, conducted during and following each of these periods, and the

  13. Myricetin solid lipid nanoparticles: Stability assurance from system preparation to site of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Dina M; Nafee, Noha; Abdallah, Osama Y

    2017-11-15

    Myricetin - a natural flavonoid - has attracted a great interest due to its antioxidant and free-radical scavenging potential. However, its physicochemical instability critically impairs its dosage form design, evaluation and administration. In an attempt to protect from degradation, MYR was encapsulated into Gelucire-based solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs). The impact of medium pH, processing temperature and different additives on the drug degradation either in free or nanoencapsulated form was assessed. MYR stability was further monitored in essential biorelevant fluids. Investigations have led to the recommendation that the presence of fat-soluble antioxidant is necessary during SLN preparation to protect the drug at high temperature. Meanwhile, physiological buffers as well as simulated fluids should be supplemented with stabilizers as tween 80 and Poloxamer 407, in addition to water-soluble antioxidant such as sodium sulfite. Interestingly, mucin-containing fluids are suggested to provide better protection to MYR, in contrast, cell culture media do not guarantee MYR stability. The degradation kinetics changed from 1st to 2nd order mechanism after MYR nanoencapsulation. In presence of the aforementioned additives, MYR-SLNs significantly reduced the drug degradation rate constant up to 300-folds and prolonged the half-life time up to 4500-folds compared to free MYR in physiological buffers (One-way ANOVA, p8h with no signs of degradation. The study emphasizes virtuous guidance regarding appropriate nanoencapsulation conditions and evaluation attributes ensuing MYR physicochemical stability. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Preparation, characterization and permeation studies of a nanovesicular system containing diclofenac for transdermal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Praveen Kumar; Purohit, Suresh; Kumar, Yatendra; Mishra, Shikha; Bhandari, Anil

    2014-02-01

    Transdermal formulations contain permeation enhancer which causes skin damage. Ceramide 2 is natural lipid found in stratum corneum (SC). Drug-loaded nanovesicles of ceramide-2, cholesterol, palmitic acid, cholesteryl sulfate were formulated and analyzed for physical and biological properties. Diclofenac was used as a model drug. The vesicles were prepared using the film hydration method and characterized for physical parameters, in vitro drug release, accelerated stability studies and formulated into gel. Respective gels were compared with a commercial formulation (CEG) and plain carbopol gel (CG) containing drug for ex vivo, in vivo drug permeation and anti-inflammatory activity. The vesicles were stable with optimum physical parameters. DCG-1 showed 92.89% in vitro drug release. Ceramide vesicles showed drug release between 18 and 25 μg/cm(2) whereas CG and CEG released 0.33 and 1.35 μg/cm(2) drug, respectively. DCG-1 and CEG showed corresponding Cmax at 6 and 4 h, respectively. DCG-1 showed six times AUC than CEG. DCG-1 inhibited edema by 86.37% by 4th hour of application. The presence of ceramide 2 specifically promotes the drug permeation through SC and dermis and also contribute towards stability and non-irritancy. The composition of the nanovesicle played an important role in physical properties and drug permeation.

  15. Regression Test on the Rotational Speed between Two Loads as the Preparation for Braking System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purwanti, B S R; Yusivar, F; Garniwa M K, I

    2013-01-01

    This paper is preparing the mathematic model of braking control, continuously of determination the error (e), delta error (de) of speed reduction [9]. Load-1 and Load-2 are driven by an electric motor located on the same shaft. Both loads are driven clock wise (CW), counter clock wise (CCW) by an asynchronous three-phase motor (M3). The mass of each load is also differentiated to simulate slip phenomena. Rotational speed of M3 is equal to Load-1, detected by Sensor-1, while speed rotation of Load-2 is detected by Sensor-2. The rotation for Load-1 and Load-2 can be adjusted on several position H j (j = 1, 2, 3). Once Load-1 and Load-2 reach a constant speed, current source will be disconnected. Speed reduction from (ω±1475 rpm) to stagnant (ω=0 rpm) on Load-1 and Load-2 is considered time function. Data collected from both load (ω (t)) known as e, de; on each position of H j . It uses covariance analysis to make sure that both loads are concurrent with each other against time difference. The objective of this research is to determine slip phenomena of speed reduction of each load. The expectations are to generate smoother braking and minimize the time needed when implemented with ANFIS.

  16. Preparation of Ag/Cu/Ti Nanofluids by Spark Discharge System and Its Control Parameters Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsiung Tseng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study selected silver, copper, and titanium as the research objects to explore the relationship between nanofluids properties and electrical discharge machining (EDM processes. Regarding the products, UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis was applied to measure the concentration distribution of nanofluids; zeta-size analysis is applied for measuring nanometal particles’ Zeta-Potential and the size distribution of metallic particles in the fluid. Finally, various instruments, including scanning electron microscope (SEM, were applied to observe the shape, size, and composition ratio of metal particles after processing. According to the experimental results, the control of the discharge pulse time, in addition to affecting the concentration of metallic liquid and temperature in the process, affects the size of the metal particles after the process. As the resistivity of silver and copper is very low, at about 15×10-9 Ω·m, if TON is set to between 10~50 μs, good preparation efficiency can be obtained. The resistivity of titanium is 420×10-9 Ω·m, which is much larger than that of silver or copper. Hence, TON should be set to approximately 100 μs to achieve a good discharge success rate.

  17. Erosion/corrosion concerns in feed preparation systems at the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, J.T.; Chandler, C.T.; Daugherty, W.L.; Imrich, K.J.; Jenkins, C.F.

    1997-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been operating a nuclear fuel cycle since the 1950's to produce nuclear materials in support of the national defense effort. The Department of Energy authorized the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to immobilize the high level radioactive waste resulting from these processes as a durable borosilicate glass. The DWPF, after having undergone extensive testing, has been approved for operations and is currently immobilizing radioactive waste. To ensure reliability of the DWPF remote canyon processing equipment, a materials evaluation program was performed prior to radioactive operations to determine to what extent erosion/corrosion would impact design life of equipment. The program consisted of performing pre-service baseline inspections on critical equipment and follow-up inspections after completion of DWPF cold chemical demonstration runs. Non-destructive examination (NDE) techniques were used to assess erosion/corrosion as well as evaluation of corrosion coupon racks. These results were used to arrive at predicted equipment life for selected feed preparation equipment. It was concluded with the exception of the coil and agitator for the slurry mix evaporator (SME), which are exposed to erosive glass frit particles, all of the equipment should meet its design life

  18. Preparation of a Bis-GMA-Free Dental Resin System with Synthesized Fluorinated Dimethacrylate Monomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzhen Luo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of reducing human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA derivatives in dentistry, a fluorinated dimethacrylate monomer was synthesized to replace 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloy-loxypropyl-phenyl]propane (Bis-GMA as the base monomer of dental resin. After mixing with reactive diluent triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA, fluorinated dimethacrylate (FDMA/TEGDMA was prepared and compared with Bis-GMA/TEGDMA in physicochemical properties, such as double bond conversion (DC, volumetric shrinkage (VS, water sorption (WS and solubility (WSL, flexural strength (FS and modulus (FM. The results showed that, when compared with Bis-GMA based resin, FDMA-based resin had several advantages, such as higher DC, lower VS, lower WS, and higher FS after water immersion. All of these revealed that FDMA had potential to be used as a substitute for Bis-GMA. Of course, many more studies, such as biocompatibility testing, should be undertaken to prove whether FDMA could be applied in clinic.

  19. CDC 7600 LTSS programming stratagens: preparing your first production code for the Livermore Timesharing System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, K.W.

    1977-01-01

    This report deals with some techniques in applied programming using the Livermore Timesharing System (LTSS) on the CDC 7600 computers at the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center (NMFECC) and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Computer Center (LLLCC or Octopus network). This report is based on a document originally written specifically about the system as it is implemented at NMFECC but has been revised to accommodate differences between LLLCC and NMFECC implementations. Topics include: maintaining programs, debugging, recovering from system crashes, and using the central processing unit, memory, and input/output devices efficiently and economically. Routines that aid in these procedures are mentioned. The companion report, UCID-17556, An LTSS Compendium, discusses the hardware and operating system and should be read before reading this report

  20. Information flow a data bank preparation in nuclear power plant reliability information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesa, K.; Vejvodova, I.

    1983-01-01

    In the year 1981 the reliability information system for nuclear power plants (ISS-JE) was established. The objective of the system is to make a statistical evaluation of the operation of nuclear power plants and to obtain information on the reliability of the equipment of nuclear power plants and the transmission of this information to manufacturers with the aim of inducing them to take corrective measures. The HP 1000 computer with the data base system IMAGE 100 is used which allows to process single queries and periodical outputs. The content of periodical outputs designed for various groups of subcontractors is briefly described and trends of the further development of the system indicated. (Ha)

  1. An automated multidimensional preparative gas chromatographic system for isolation and enrichment of trace amounts of xenon from ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Tuula; Östman, Conny; Colmsjö, Anders

    2011-04-01

    The monitoring of radioactive xenon isotopes is one of the principal methods for the detection of nuclear explosions in order to identify clandestine nuclear testing. In this work, a miniaturized, multiple-oven, six-column, preparative gas chromatograph was constructed in order to isolate trace quantities of radioactive xenon isotopes from ambient air, utilizing nitrogen as the carrier gas. The multidimensional chromatograph comprised preparative stainless steel columns packed with molecular sieves, activated carbon, and synthetic carbon adsorbents (e.g., Anasorb®-747 and Carbosphere®). A combination of purification techniques--ambient adsorption, thermal desorption, back-flushing, thermal focusing, and heart cutting--was selectively optimized to produce a well-defined xenon peak that facilitated reproducible heart cutting and accurate quantification. The chromatographic purification of a sample requires approximately 4 h and provides complete separation of xenon from potentially interfering components (such as water vapor, methane, carbon dioxide, and radon) with recovery and accuracy close to 100%. The preparative enrichment process isolates and concentrates a highly purified xenon gas fraction that is suitable for subsequent ultra-low-level γ-, ß/γ-spectroscopic or high-resolution mass spectrometric measurement (e.g., to monitor the gaseous fission products of nuclear explosions at remote locations). The Xenon Processing Unit is a free-standing, relatively lightweight, and transportable system that can be interfaced to a variety of sampling and detection systems. It has a relatively inexpensive, rugged, and compact modular (19-inch rack) design that provides easy access to all parts for maintenance and has a low power requirement.

  2. Engineering activities for the preparation of systems and facilities in the dismantling of Jose Cabrera NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Rodriguez, C. A.; Martin Palomo, N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the previous work of analysis of management systems and facilities, modifications to systems plans and the final implementation carried out on the site. The final result of the development of these plans, obtained after two years of intense work and in particular the result of the evolution of the turbine (now EAD) building, converted into the central infrastructure for the dismantling of the rest of the installation plans will be presented.

  3. Commissioning of the LHC Cryogenic System Subsystems Cold Commissioning in Preparation of Full Sector Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Serio, L; Ferlin, G; Gilbert, N; Gruehagen, Henning; Knoops, S; Parente, C; Sanmartí, M

    2006-01-01

    The cryogenic system for the Large Hadron Collider accelerator is presently in its final phase of installation and commissioning at nominal operating temperatures. The refrigeration capacity for the LHC will be produced using eight large cryogenic plants installed on five technical sites and distributed around the 26.7-km circumference ring located in a deep underground tunnel. The status of the cryogenic system commissioning is presented together with the experience gained in operating and commissioning it.

  4. Infrared surface analysis using a newly developed thin-sample preparation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Naoto; Nishiyama, Itsuo; Kishima, Yoshio; Iida, Katsuhiko; Mori, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    We developed a new sampling system, the Nano Catcher, for measuring the surface chemical structure of polymers or industrial products and we evaluated the performance of the system. The system can directly pick up surface species whose depth is on the order of approximately 100 nm and can easily provide a sample for a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) system without the necessity of passing it over to a measurement plate. The FT-IR reflection data obtained from the Nano Catcher were compared with those obtained using the attenuated total reflection (ATR) method and sampling by hand. Chemical structural analysis of a depth region from a few tens of nanometers to a few hundred nanometers can be directly performed using this system. Such depths are beyond the scope of conventional X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ATR methods. We can expect the use of the Nano Catcher system to lead to a great improvement in the detection of signals of surface species in these depth regions.

  5. Fiscal 1995 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system joint demonstration project. Water-saving coal preparation system joint demonstration project; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kyodo jissho jigyo. Shosuigata sentan system kyodo jissho jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This project makes demonstration of clean coal technology (CCT) in China and preparation for the base of its spread, controlled environmental pollution due to the coal use by the countries concerned, and contributes to stably secure energy of Japan. The paper made analog operation in the 1960s-1970s, supported by Russia and Poland, introduced two computer systems for operational control and quality control, densimeter, level meter, flow meter and analyzer to coal preparation plants having problems on productivity and quality control, made the optimum operational diagnosis for the plants, and at the same time, demonstrated the comprehensive rehabilitation type system by which water saving, high quality and high effectiveness are obtained. Various types of sensors such as rapid ash meter, scale and densitometer and computers are introduced to coal preparation plants which were recently constructed in China, have jig or heavy liquid cyclone as main preparation equipment and conducts operational control. There, the central control system was demonstrated in which various information collected in the central operation room and in-site equipment is combined by network for high-grade data processing and water saving is achieved. 50 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Preparing a neuropediatric upper limb exergame rehabilitation system for home-use: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Corinna N; Kunz, Bettina; van Hedel, Hubertus J A

    2016-03-23

    Home-based, computer-enhanced therapy of hand and arm function can complement conventional interventions and increase the amount and intensity of training, without interfering too much with family routines. The objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility and usability of the new portable version of the YouGrabber® system (YouRehab AG, Zurich, Switzerland) in the home setting. Fifteen families of children (7 girls, mean age: 11.3y) with neuromotor disorders and affected upper limbs participated. They received instructions and took the system home to train for 2 weeks. After returning it, they answered questions about usability, motivation, and their general opinion of the system (Visual Analogue Scale; 0 indicating worst score, 100 indicating best score; ≤30 not satisfied, 31-69 average, ≥70 satisfied). Furthermore, total pure playtime and number of training sessions were quantified. To prove the usability of the system, number and sort of support requests were logged. The usability of the system was considered average to satisfying (mean 60.1-93.1). The lowest score was given for the occurrence of technical errors. Parents had to motivate their children to start (mean 66.5) and continue (mean 68.5) with the training. But in general, parents estimated the therapeutic benefit as high (mean 73.1) and the whole system as very good (mean 87.4). Children played on average 7 times during the 2 weeks; total pure playtime was 185 ± 45 min. Especially at the beginning of the trial, systems were very error-prone. Fortunately, we, or the company, solved most problems before the patients took the systems home. Nevertheless, 10 of 15 families contacted us at least once because of technical problems. Despite that the YouGrabber® is a promising and highly accepted training tool for home-use, currently, it is still error-prone, and the requested support exceeds the support that can be provided by clinical therapists. A technically more robust

  7. A dedicated on-line system for the preparation and validation of standard beads in XRF analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yasuyuki; Ogasawara, Noriko; Nakata, Akio; Shoji, Shizuko.

    1995-01-01

    A dedicated on-line system in X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis with glass-bead method was developed in which preparation of standard beads was automated including proper choice of reagents, assignment of bead compositions and validation of the prepared beads. This system features: a. Fundamental Parameter (FP) Method for validation of standard beads. b. An original database of high purity reagents for standards. c. Automatic calculation of suitable composition for each standard bead, by giving a range for each element and the number of standard beads. 1) The calculation is based on random numbers, and makes a random assignment of composition for each bead. 2) The calculation results are automatically stored in a computer as a condition file for quantitative analysis. 3) An amount of a material for a standard mixture is corrected if a valence or a chemical compound for an analysis element is different from that of the standard material in the database. In order to realize these features, many high purity reagents were examined for their purities and other characteristics to test a suitability to use for a standard material, and a software for on-line processings was originally developed. (author)

  8. Preparation and in Vivo Evaluation of a Dutasteride-Loaded Solid-Supersaturatable Self-Microemulsifying Drug Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Soo Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to prepare a dutasteride-loaded solid-supersaturatable self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS using hydrophilic additives with high oral bioavailability, and to determine if there was a correlation between the in vitro dissolution data and the in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters of this delivery system in rats. A dutasteride-loaded solid-supersaturatable SMEDDS was generated by adsorption of liquid SMEDDS onto Aerosil 200 colloidal silica using a spray drying process. The dissolution and oral absorption of dutasteride from solid SMEDDS significantly increased after the addition of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC or Soluplus. Solid SMEDDS/Aerosil 200/Soluplus microparticles had higher oral bioavailability with 6.8- and 5.0-fold higher peak plasma concentration (Cmax and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC values, respectively, than that of the equivalent physical mixture. A linear correlation between in vitro dissolution efficiency and in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters was demonstrated for both AUC and Cmax values. Therefore, the preparation of a solid-supersaturatable SMEDDS with HPMC or Soluplus could be a promising formulation strategy to develop novel solid dosage forms of dutasteride.

  9. Preparation of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins using an insect cell-free protein synthesis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Ezure, Toru; Ando, Eiji; Nishimura, Osamu; Utsumi, Toshihiko; Tsunasawa, Susumu

    2010-01-01

    Ubiquitination is one of the most significant posttranslational modifications (PTMs). To evaluate the ability of an insect cell-free protein synthesis system to carry out ubiquitin (Ub) conjugation to in vitro translated proteins, poly-Ub chain formation was studied in an insect cell-free protein synthesis system. Poly-Ub was generated in the presence of Ub aldehyde (UA), a de-ubiquitinating enzyme inhibitor. In vitro ubiquitination of the p53 tumor suppressor protein was also analyzed, and p53 was poly-ubiquitinated when Ub, UA, and Mdm2, an E3 Ub ligase (E3) for p53, were added to the in vitro reaction mixture. These results suggest that the insect cell-free protein synthesis system contains enzymatic activities capable of carrying out ubiquitination. CBB-detectable ubiquitinated p53 was easily purified from the insect cell-free protein synthesis system, allowing analysis of the Ub-conjugated proteins by mass spectrometry (MS). Lys 305 of p53 was identified as one of the Ub acceptor sites using this strategy. Thus, we conclude that the insect cell-free protein synthesis system is a powerful tool for studying various PTMs of eukaryotic proteins including ubiqutination presented here.

  10. Monitoring soil carbon will prepare growers for a carbon trading system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C. Suddick

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available California growers could reap financial benefits from the low-carbon economy and cap-and-trade system envisioned by the state's AB 32 law, which seeks to lower greenhouse gas emissions statewide. Growers could gain carbon credits by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and sequestering carbon through reduced tillage and increased biomass residue incorporation. First, however, baseline stocks of soil carbon need to be assessed for various cropping systems and management practices. We designed and set up a pilot soil carbon and land-use monitoring network at several perennial cropping systems in Northern California. We compared soil carbon content in two vineyards and two orchards (walnut and almond, looking at conventional and conservation management practices, as well as in native grassland and oak woodland. We then calculated baseline estimates of the total carbon in almond, wine grape and walnut acreages statewide. The organic walnut orchard had the highest total soil carbon, and no-till vineyards had 27% more carbon in the surface soil than tilled vineyards. We estimated wine grape vineyards are storing significantly more soil carbon per acre than almond and walnut orchards. The data can be used to provide accurate information about soil carbon stocks in perennial cropping systems for a future carbon trading system.

  11. Using grey literature to prepare pharmacy students for an evolving healthcare delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happe, Laura E; Walker, Desiree'

    2013-05-13

    To assess the impact of using "grey literature" (information internally produced in print or electronic format by agencies such as hospitals, government, businesses, etc) rather than a textbook in a course on healthcare delivery systems on students' perception of the relevance of healthcare delivery system topics and their ability to identify credible sources of this information. A reading from the grey literature was identified and assigned to the students for each topic in the course. Pre- and post-course survey instruments were used for the assessment. Students reported healthcare delivery systems topics to be moderately relevant to the profession of pharmacy on both the pre- and post-course survey instruments. Students' knowledge of current and credible sources of information on healthcare delivery system topics significantly improved based on self-reports and scores on objective assessments (pgrey literature in a course on healthcare delivery systems can be used to ensure that information in the pharmacy school curriculum is the most current and credible information available.

  12. The preparation and characterization of gold-conjugated polyphenol nanoparticles as a novel delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh DS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dar-Shih Hsieh1,2, Hsiu-Chin Lu5, Cheng-Cheung Chen1,3, Chang-Jer Wu1,*, Ming-Kung Yeh4,* 1Department of Food Science, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan; 2Division of Urology, 3Department of Pathology, Tri-Service General Hospital, 4Institute of Preventive Medicine, National Defence Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Department of Laboratory Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Nanogold particles are commonly used in nanomedicine. We generated physical nanogold (pNG conjugated with different ratios of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG and evaluated its physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, and cytotoxicity in vitro as well as anticancer activity in vivo. Results showed that the EGCG-pNG conjugates were successfully prepared at ratios between 23:1 and 23:5, with the percentage of EGCG content increasing with the EGCG:pNG ratio from 23:1 (2.0% ± 0.02% to 23:5 (28% ± 0.3%. EGCG-pNG particles at ratios of 23:1 and 23:5 demonstrated significantly decreased size from 500 to 20 nm and decreasing zeta potentials of 21 mV to –22 mV, respectively. At a ratio of 23:2.5, the EGCG-pNG particles (27% EGCG, 50 nm in size, zeta potential of –8 mV showed longer EGCG activity half-life (110 days vs 5 hours, controlled release (2 hours vs 30 minutes, and higher antioxidant activity (four times, as well as inhibition of tumor cell growth, than controls. The present study indicated that EGCG-pNG possesses promising therapeutic potential, based on its strong free-radical scavenging and anticancer activities.Keywords: EGCG, nanoparticles, antioxidant, antitumor activity, nanogold

  13. Preparing and probing many-body correlated systems in a Quantum Gas Microscope by engineering arbitrary landscape potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispoli, Matthew; Lukin, Alexander; Ma, Ruichao; Preiss, Philipp; Tai, M. Eric; Islam, Rajibul; Greiner, Markus

    2015-05-01

    Ultracold atoms in optical lattices provide a versatile tool box for observing the emergence of strongly correlated physics in quantum systems. Dynamic control of optical potentials on the single-site level allows us to prepare and probe many-body quantum states through local Hamiltonian engineering. We achieve these high precision levels of optical control through spatial light modulation with a DMD (digital micro-mirror device). This allows for both arbitrary beam shaping and aberration compensation in our imaging system to produce high fidelity optical potentials. We use these techniques to control state initialization, Hamiltonian dynamics, and measurement in experiments investigating low-dimensional many-body physics - from one-dimensional correlated quantum walks to characterizing entanglement.

  14. Preparation of acceptance tests and criteria for the Test Blanket Systems to be operated in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laan, J.G. van der, E-mail: JaapG.vanderLaan@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Cuquel, B. [AIRBUS Defence and Space S.A.S., 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Demange, D.; Ghidersa, B.-E. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Giancarli, L.M.; Iseli, M.; Jourdan, T. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Nevière, J.-C. [Comex-Nucleaire, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Pascal, R.; Ring, W. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Initial guideline for acceptance testing and acceptance criteria for Test Blanket Systems in ITER. • These tests complement those required by the applicable codes and standards, and regulations. • Completion of TBS manufacture will be followed by Factory Acceptance Testing, prior to shipment. • Next steps are “Reception Inspection Tests”, and on-site pre-installation and components tests. • This guideline allows the detailing of the TBS specific test plans and their scheduling. - Abstract: This paper describes the main acceptance criteria and required acceptance tests for the components of the six Test Blanket Systems to be installed and operated in ITER. It summarizes the guide-line toward the establishment of detailed test plans for the TBS, starting from the end-product at the ITER Members factories, and to generally define the type of tests that have to be performed on the ITER site after shipment, and/or prior to the systems final commissioning phase.

  15. Preparing and Conducting Review Missions of Instrumentation and Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    The mission for Independent Engineering Review of Instrumentation and Control (I and C) Systems (IERICS) in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) has been established with the aim of conducting peer reviews of I and C design documents, implementation processes, prototype I and C systems, and actual systems already deployed in operating NPPs. Organizations in IAEA Member States, such as nuclear utilities, regulators, and technical support organizations can benefit from I and C technical reviews through requesting IERICS missions that provide a detailed technical assessment on I and C systems, as well as recommendations for improvement. The IERICS mission is conducted by a team of international subject matter experts from various complementing technical areas. The review is based on appropriate IAEA documents, such as Safety Guides and Nuclear Energy Series, and the mission's findings are summarized in a mission report, including a list of recommendations, suggestions, and identified good practices. The review is not intended to be a regulatory inspection or an audit against international codes and standards. Rather, it is a peer review aimed at improving design and implementation procedures through an exchange of technical experiences and practices at the working level. The IERICS mission is applicable at any stages of the life cycle of I and C systems in NPPs and it is initiated based on a formal request through official IAEA channels from an organization of a Member State. The formation of the IERICS mission is based on the recommendation of the IAEA Technical Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control (TWG-NPPIC). The recommendation came from the recognition that the IAEA can play an important role in the independent assessment and review of NPP I and C systems in terms of their compliance with IAEA safety guides and technical documents.

  16. Preparation of a program for the independent verification of the brachytherapy planning systems calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V Carmona, V.; Perez-Calatayud, J.; Lliso, F.; Richart Sancho, J.; Ballester, F.; Pujades-Claumarchirant, M.C.; Munoz, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this work a program is presented that independently checks for each patient the treatment planning system calculations in low dose rate, high dose rate and pulsed dose rate brachytherapy. The treatment planning system output text files are automatically loaded in this program in order to get the source coordinates, the desired calculation point coordinates and the dwell times when it is the case. The source strength and the reference dates are introduced by the user. The program allows implementing the recommendations about independent verification of the clinical brachytherapy dosimetry in a simple and accurate way, in few minutes. (Author).

  17. Beam preparation system and beam emittance, the essential for high-resolution magnetique spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, P.

    1984-01-01

    Using first order calculations derived for an achromatic system A) (delta xsub(F)/delta Esub(i) = 0) or an optimised system 0) (xsub(F) minima), it is shown that the final resolution measured in the focal plane (possibly kinematically displaced) of the spectrometer, depends only on the emittance of the accelerator and of the efficient area of the analyser, exclusive of the properties of the spectrometer. The use of this result is only limited by higher order terms in the calculation, or by considerations out of the scope of this article, like target effects etc.. [fr

  18. Preparation of safety regulatory requirements for new technology like digital system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The current regulatory requirements on digital instrumentation and control system have been reviewed by JNES, considering international trend discussed in DICWG of MDEP. MDEP DICWG held in OECD/NEA gives the opportunity to identify the convergence of applicable standards. The working group's activities include: identifying and prioritising the member countries' challenges, practices, and needs regarding standards and regulatory guidance on digital instrumentation and control; identifying areas of importance and needs for convergence of existing standards and guidance or development of new standards; sharing of information; and identifying common positions among the member countries for areas of particular importance and need. The DICWG drafted common positions on specific issues which are based on the existing standards, national regulatory guidance, best practices, and group inputs using an agreed process and framework. The following four general common positions have been discussed in this fiscal year. The Treatment of Common Cause Failure Resulting from Software within Digital Safety Systems, The Treatment of Hardware Description Language(HDL) Programmed Devices for Use in Nuclear Safety System, Factory Acceptance Test and Site Acceptance Test, The Use of Automatic Tests to Perform Surveilance for Digital Systems. (author)

  19. Preparing Information Systems (IS) Graduates to Meet the Challenges of Global IT Security: Some Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauls, Jeff; Gudigantala, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Managing IT security and assurance is a top priority for organizations. Aware of the costs associated with a security or privacy breach, organizations are constantly vigilant about protecting their data and IT systems. In addition, organizations are investing heavily in IT resources to keep up with the challenges of managing their IT security and…

  20. Going from Data to Decisions: Preparing Students to Use Enterprise Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreie, Jennifer; Mora-Monge, Carlo A.; Shannon, James

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade one of the largest IT investments has unarguably been Enterprise Systems (ES). Evidence suggests that this trend will likely continue. In 2006 for example, the ES market had a revenue growth of over 14%--more than $28 billion. Despite the continued interest from organizations with regards to ES, many are still reluctant to adopt…

  1. Classroom Quality Rating Systems: How Do Teachers Prepare and What Do They Think about the Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Little, Catherine; Brown, E. Glyn; Hooks, Laura McDonald; Marshall, Betty Jo

    2008-01-01

    Working with the South Carolina Department of Education, the authors surveyed prekindergarten and kindergarten teachers whose schools participated in a quality rating system to see what they did to get ready for the observation and what they thought of the evaluation process. The authors also asked them what they thought about the quality of their…

  2. Using the Family Autobiography in School Counselor Preparation: An Introduction to a Systemic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    School counseling professionals are recognizing the need to address family issues as an intervention strategy with children. Counselor educators can assist school counselor trainees in understanding the family systems' perspective by using the family autobiography as a course requirement. This article presents a description of the family…

  3. Preparing Information Systems Graduates for a Complex Society: Aligning IS Curricula with Liberal Education Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Jean A.; Keys, Anthony; Wirkus, Tyrrell

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to encourage Information Systems (IS) faculty to intentionally revise their curriculum to address (and assess) higher-order learning skills which are demanded by industry and society and are representative of a liberal arts based education. We substantiated the need for this proposed curriculum revision by first…

  4. PREPARING A DRAFT STRATEGY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PRISON SYSTEM IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PACESILA MIHAELA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This project propose a strategy focused on the realization of some measurable, well definited objectives, and on a series of strategically options, supported by actions with clear dead-lines and with direct implications on the entire system of Romanian pe

  5. Nodalization Preparation for the Transient Simulation of Cooling System for One Line Mode of RSG-GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukmanto Dibyo; Susyadi; Tagor MS; Darwis Isnaeni

    2004-01-01

    Cooling system is important component in RSG-GAS. To carry out the transient simulation of one line-cooling mode, the model of RSG-GAS has been prepared. To illustrate the transient condition, the RELAP5.MOD3 computer code the existing input files were used. This Input consist of kinetic, thermal, hydraulic and geometries data. Modification and decrement of number of nodalization has been done to simplification as well as running time. The reasonable result of model is arranged to determine the initial condition of input data therefore steady state condition have agreement to the analysis result of one line cooling mode of RSG-GAS. Parameter investigated are transient temperatures of cooling system after decreasing of secondary cooling system occur as function of time. These parameters can be requested using input of Minor Edit Request Simulation is conducted at the reactor power of 15 MW steady-state for one-line cooling mode in which the primary and secondary cooling of 430 kg/sec and 550 kg/sec respectively. Decreasing of secondary cooling flow is caused by pump trip. As a consequence, the control rod drop due to reactor protection system. The negative reactivity of control rod causes decreasing of reactor power. Change of pattern for the primary and secondary cooling system can be known. After that simulation depicts that increasing of temperatures occur at the certain moment since initiation temperature conditions, due to reactor shut down, curve inclined move going down. (author)

  6. Some guidance on preparing validation plans for the DART Full System Models.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Genetha Anne; Hough, Patricia Diane; Hills, Richard Guy (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-03-01

    Planning is an important part of computational model verification and validation (V&V) and the requisite planning document is vital for effectively executing the plan. The document provides a means of communicating intent to the typically large group of people, from program management to analysts to test engineers, who must work together to complete the validation activities. This report provides guidelines for writing a validation plan. It describes the components of such a plan and includes important references and resources. While the initial target audience is the DART Full System Model teams in the nuclear weapons program, the guidelines are generally applicable to other modeling efforts. Our goal in writing this document is to provide a framework for consistency in validation plans across weapon systems, different types of models, and different scenarios. Specific details contained in any given validation plan will vary according to application requirements and available resources.

  7. Design of PLGA-based depot delivery systems for biopharmaceuticals prepared by spray drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Feng; Yang, Mingshi

    2016-01-01

    Currently, most of the approved protein and peptide-based medicines are delivered via conventional parenteral injection (intramuscular, subcutaneous or intravenous). A frequent dosing regimen is often necessary because of their short plasma half-lives, causing poor patient compliance (e.g. pain......, abscess, etc.), side effects owing to typical peak-valley plasma concentration time profiles, and increased costs. Among many sustained-release formulations poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-based depot microparticle systems may represent one of the most promising approaches to provide protein...... and peptide drugs with a steady pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile maintained for a long period. However, the development of PLGA-based microparticle systems is still impeded by lack of easy, fast, effective manufacturing technologies. The aim of this paper is to review recent advances in spray drying...

  8. Transdermal glimepiride delivery system based on optimized ethosomal nano-vesicles: Preparation, characterization, in vitro, ex vivo and clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tarek A; El-Say, Khalid M; Aljaeid, Bader M; Fahmy, Usama A; Abd-Allah, Fathy I

    2016-03-16

    This work aimed to develop an optimized ethosomal formulation of glimepiride then loading into transdermal films to offer lower drug side effect, extended release behavior and avoid first pass effect. Four formulation factors were optimized for their effects on vesicle size (Y1), entrapment efficiency (Y2) and vesicle flexibility (Y3). Optimum desirability was identified and, an optimized formulation was prepared, characterized and loaded into transdermal films. Ex-vivo permeation study for the prepared films was conducted and, the permeation parameters and drug permeation mechanism were identified. Penetration through rat skin was studied using confocal laser microscope. In-vivo study was performed following transdermal application on human volunteers. The percent of alcohol was significantly affecting all the studied responses while the other factors and their interaction effects were varied on their effects on each response. The optimized ethosomal formulation showed observed values for Y1, Y2 and Y3 of 61 nm, 97.12% and 54.03, respectively. Ex-vivo permeation of films loaded with optimized ethosomal formulation was superior to that of the corresponding pure drug transdermal films and this finding was also confirmed after confocal laser microscope study. Permeation of glimepiride from the prepared films was in favor of Higushi-diffusion model and exhibited non-Fickian or anomalous release mechanism. In-vivo study revealed extended drug release behavior and lower maximum drug plasma level from transdermal films loaded with drug ethosomal formulation. So, the ethosomal formulation could be considered a suitable drug delivery system especially when loaded into transdermal vehicle with possible reduction in side effects and controlling the drug release. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of humic-plant feed preparations on biochemical blood parameters of laying hens in deep litter housing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubel, F; Dobrzański, Z; Gaweł, A; Pogoda-Sewerniak, K; Grela, E R

    2015-01-01

    An influence of various humic-plant feed additives based on some herbs (nettle, chamomile, yarrow, perforatum), lucerne and humic materials on biochemical indices of Lohmann Brown (LB) layers blood plasma was estimated. Hens were housed in deep litter system, 20 birds in a group. Four groups were formed: control (C - standard feeding), and experimental, supplemented with prepara- tions: E-1 herbal-humic, E-2 humic-herbal and E-3--humic-lucerne. Hens were placed in the pens on the 16th week of life, addition of preparations with standard food mixture started at the 22nd wk and lasted until 66th wk of life. Blood for analyses was collected four times in the following periods: 27, 37, 54 and 65th wk of life. The applied humic-plant preparations to a limited degree affected the values of examined biochemical parameters in serum: total protein (TP), albumins (Albs), glucose (Glu), urea, triacylglycerols (TAG), total cholesterol (TCh), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminot- ransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). It is difficult to determine based on these study, which preparation is one the most active biologically, however is seems that humic-lucerne prepara- tion affected the examined blood parameters to the highest degree. The reference values ranges in hens blood serum LB hens were proposed for: TP (43-65 g/l), Albs (15-22 g/l), urea (0.5-1.2 mmol/l), Glu 10-15 mmol/l), TCh (2.2-4.5 mmol/l), TAG (10-24 mmol/l), AST (4-12 U/l), ALT (150-280 mmol/l) and ALP (190-350 U/l).

  10. GLOBE and the Earth SySTEM Model in Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabot, M.; Moore, J.; Dorofy, P.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation will share the growing body of work linking ArcMap and GLOBE and the Earth SySTEM approach in the development of preservice teachers. Our work is linking the power of ArcMap with the vast database of GLOBE in a unique way that links the power of geospatial technologies in shaping the planning for and delivery of science instruction in the P-5 classroom.

  11. Preparation for commissioning of structural sensors of Wendelstein 7-X magnet system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellinger, Joris, E-mail: joris.fellinger@ipp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Wendelsteinstr. 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Egorov, Konstantin [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St. Paul lez Durance (France); Bykov, Victor; Schauer, Felix [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Wendelsteinstr. 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Graphical user interface for fast comparison between loads, parameter settings and models of potentially critical components of magnet system. • Fast definition of magnetic field strength limits for any electromagnetic configuration. • Definition of operational warning limits for measured signals to prevent overloading due to unexpected mechanical response of the magnet system. - Abstract: The modular stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) in Greifswald, Germany is currently under commissioning. The magnet system (MS) consists of five symmetric modules, each one containing two flip-symmetric half modules of five non-planar and two planar superconducting coils operated in the cryostat system (CS) at 4 K. In order to validate the FE models that formed the basis of the design and the operational limits, the MS and CS were instrumented with more than 3000 sensors. The paper gives an overview of the numerical tools developed to enable safe operation of the MS based on comparisons between measured sensor signals and their FE model predictions. Output extraction from the FE models was standardized for all potentially critical components and all sensor locations. A graphical user interface (GUI) was programmed to compare critical results of different simulations and models. The GUI shows the design limit for each component. With local models, the safe design of each component was demonstrated against these design limits. The GUI also gives the degree of utilization of each component as the ratio between the calculated loads relative to the design limit. The highest degree of utilization over all components was used to define safe modes of operation and to set limits on allowed deviations of the measured signals relative to the projection before operation has to be interrupted.

  12. Preparation of safety regulatory requirements for new technology like digital system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Juichiro; Takita, Masami

    2011-01-01

    The current regulatory requirements on digital instrumentation and control system have been reviewed by JNES, considering international trend discussed in DICWG (Digital Instrumentation and Control Working Group) of MDEP (Multinational Design Evaluation Program). MDEP DICWG held in OECD/NEA (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency) gives the opportunity to identify the convergence of applicable standards. The working group's activities include: identifying and prioritising the member countries' challenges, practices, and needs regarding standards and regulatory guidance regarding digital instrumentation and control; identifying areas of importance and needs for convergence of existing standards and guidance or development of new standards; sharing of information; and identifying common positions among the member countries for areas of particular importance and need. The DICWG drafted common positions on specific issues which are based on the existing standards, national regulatory guidance, best practices, and group inputs using an agreed upon process and framework. Five general common positions are under discussion in this fiscal year. Simplicity in Design, Software Common Cause Failures, Software Tools, Data communication, Verification and Validation throughout the life cycle of safety systems using digital computers. In addition, the technical evaluation of standards of the Japan Electric Association about digital system for safety was made to support NISA (Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency). (author)

  13. Preparation of safety regulatory requirements for new technology like digital system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The current regulatory requirements on digital instrumentation and control system have been reviewed by JNES, considering international trend discussed in DICWG of MDEP. MDEP DICWG held in OECD/NEA gives the opportunity to identify the convergence of applicable standards. The working group's activities include: identifying and prioritising the member countries' challenges, practices, and needs regarding standards and regulatory guidance on digital instrumentation and control; identifying areas of importance and needs for convergence of existing standards and guidance or development of new standards; sharing of information; and identifying common positions among the member countries for areas of particular importance and need. The DICWG drafted common positions on specific issues which are based on the existing standards, national regulatory guidance, best practices, and group inputs using an agreed process and framework. The following two general common positions are discussed and to be issued in this fiscal year. Verification and Validation throughout the life cycle of safety systems using digital computers. The Impact of Cyber Security Features on Digital I and C Safety Systems. (author)

  14. Preparation and the in vitro evaluation of nanoemulsion system for the transdermal delivery of granisetron hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wen-wu; Zhao, Ling; Wei, Yu-meng; Ye, Yun; Xiao, Shun-han

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate nanoemulsion system for transdermal delivery of granisetron hydrochloride. Pseudo-ternary phase diagram was constructed to ascertain the concentration range of components of nanoemulsion composed of isopropyl myristate (IPM) as an oil phase, tween 85 as surfactant, ethanol as cosurfactant, water as aqueous phase. The effects of the content of IPM as an oil phase and n-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) as transdermal enhancer on rat skin permeation of granisetron hydrochloride nanoemulsion were studied in vitro. The results showed that the mean particle size of nanoemulsion ranged from 50.4+/-1.5 to 82.4+/-0.9 nm with homogeneous size distribution. The resulted optimum formulation composed of 2.5% granisetron hydrochloride, 4% IPM, 40% tween 85/ethanol (1 : 1) and 10% NMP showed that the skin permeation rate was the highest (85.39+/-2.90 microg/cm(2)/h) and enhancement of drug permeability was 4.1-fold for transdermal delivery of granisetron hydrochloridein comparison with the control group (20% of tween 85 and 20% of ethanol micelle solution containing 2.5% of granisetron hydrochloride without IPM), and cumulative permeation amount was the highest (891.8+/-2.86 microg/cm(2)) with the shortest lag time (0.11+/-0.02 h) and was stable for at least 12 months. Therefore, the nanoemulsion system developed in this study offers a promising vehicle for the transdermal delivery system of granisetron hydrochloride, which may be as effective as oral or intravenous dosage forms and avoid some difficulties associated with these dosage forms.

  15. The Type of Forage Substrate Preparation Included as Substrate in a RUSITEC System Affects the Ruminal Microbiota and Fermentation Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre V. Chaves

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In vitro fermentation systems such as the rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC are frequently used to assess dietary manipulations in livestock, thereby limiting the use of live animals. Despite being in use for nearly 40 years, improvements are continually sought in these systems to better reflect and mimic natural processes in ruminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of forage preparation, i.e., frozen minced (FM and freeze-dried and ground (FDG, on the ruminal microbiota and on fermentation characteristics when included as a substrate in a RUSITEC system. A completely randomized design experiment was performed over a 15-day period, with 7 days of adaptation and an 8-day experimental period. Fermentation parameters (total gas, CH4, and volatile fatty acid production were analyzed on a daily basis over the experimental period and the archaeal and bacterial microbiota (liquid-associated microbes [LAM] and solid-associated microbes [SAM] was assessed at 0, 5, 10, and 15 days using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Results from this study suggested a tendency (P = 0.09 of FM treatment to increase daily CH4 (mg/d production by 16.7% when compared with FDG treatment. Of the major volatile fatty acids (acetate, propionate, and butyrate, only butyrate production was greater (P = 0.01 with FM treatment compared with FDG substrate. The archaeal and bacterial diversity and richness did not differ between the forage preparations, although feed particle size of the forage had a significant effect on microbial community structure in the SAM and LAM samples. The Bacteroidetes phylum was more relatively abundant in the FM substrate treatment, while Proteobacteria was enriched in the FDG treatment. At the genus-level, Butyrivibrio, Prevotella, and Roseburia were enriched in the FM substrate treatment and Campylobacter and Lactobacillus in the FDG substrate treatment. Evidence from this study suggests that forage preparation

  16. Preparation, spectrometric analysis and determination of the electrochemical transport characteristics of uranium (IV) in aqueous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzer, W.G.

    1985-01-01

    A process for the quantitative development of uranium-(IV) solutions in nitric and perchloric acid media was developed. After appropriate concentration setting of the solutions, the conductivity of the uranium (IV) in the dependence on concentration were analysed. The conversion of the measuring results on the standard system water was done by means of a conductivity theory; this allows a comparison with the conductivity data of other ions. The conductivity calculated, at an ion strength I tending to zero, provided the suitable data for the ion mobility and the transference number. (orig./PW) [de

  17. Lupus erythematosus cell preparation, antinuclear factor and antideoxyribonucleic acid antibody incongruity in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Y C

    1983-01-01

    'Total antinuclear antibody' (ANF) is detected by the fluorescent antinuclear antibody technique which is a screening test, positive in 99% of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) sera. The LE factor (positive in 75% of SLE sera), like the anti-DNA antibody, is an antinuclear antibody but directed against DNA-histone. ANF-negative SLE is a clinical entity with absence of these antibodies. A false negative ANF, in the presence of high titre anti-DNA antibody and/or LE cells, is illustrated in two cases of SLE. Postulated mechanisms for this phenomenon are interference in ANF detection by rheumatoid factor, and the prozone effect on the immunofluorescent tests.

  18. Multichannel microscale system for high throughput preparative separation with comprehensive collection and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karger, Barry L.; Kotler, Lev; Foret, Frantisek; Minarik, Marek; Kleparnik, Karel

    2003-12-09

    A modular multiple lane or capillary electrophoresis (chromatography) system that permits automated parallel separation and comprehensive collection of all fractions from samples in all lanes or columns, with the option of further on-line automated sample fraction analysis, is disclosed. Preferably, fractions are collected in a multi-well fraction collection unit, or plate (40). The multi-well collection plate (40) is preferably made of a solvent permeable gel, most preferably a hydrophilic, polymeric gel such as agarose or cross-linked polyacrylamide.

  19. Preparation and testing of a tetra-amine copper(II) chitosan bead system for enhanced phosphate remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ilango Aswin; Viswanathan, Natrayasamy

    2018-03-01

    A tetra-amine copper(II) chitosan bead system (TAC@CS composite beads) was developed by grafting tetra-amine copper(II) (TAC) with chitosan (CS) and utilized for phosphate removal. The prepared TAC@CS composite beads possess enhanced phosphate sorption capacity (SC) of 41.42 ± 0.071 mg/g than copper grafted chitosan (Cu@CS) composite, TAC and chitosan which were found to be 37.01 ± 0.803, 33.20 ± 0.650 and 7.24 ± 0.059 mg/g respectively. In batch mode, various adsorption influencing parameters like contact time, initial phosphate concentration, solution pH, co-anions and temperature were optimized for maximum phosphate sorption. The prepared adsorbents were characterized by FTIR, XRD, UV-Visible, SEM and EDAX analysis. The adsorption isotherms and thermodynamic parameters of the adsorbent were studied. The feasible phosphate uptake mechanism of TAC@CS biocomposite beads was reported. The reusability studies of TAC@CS composite beads were carried out using NaOH as elutant. The suitability of TAC@CS composite beads at field conditions was tested with phosphate contaminated field water samples collected from nearby areas of Dindigul district. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. preparation and distribution of microfiche in International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiro, Tadashi; Habara, Tadashi

    1981-01-01

    INIS started the activity in 1970 aiming at the unified treatment of atomic energy literatures in the world. At present, 66 countries and 13 international organs participate in it, and the INIS Section in IAEA supervises the system. The participants treat the atomic energy literatures published in respective countries and send to the INIS Section in the form of magnetic tapes and others. These informations are returned to respective countries through the publication of ''INIS Atomindex'' and the distribution of the magnetic tapes for mechanized retrieval. Recently, the number of abstracted papers reached about 80000/year. One of the features of this system is to utilize microfiche as the medium of literature distribution, and the literatures which cannot be bought through bookstores are available in the form of microfiche from the INIS Clearing House. The microfiche before the establishment of INIS, the troubles concerning the equipment and the problems of the originals to make microfiche, the change of duplicating films and the conversion of frame number, the adoption of the standard for microfiche production and quality inspection, the second change of duplicating films, the recent improvement of microfiche, and the present state of the production and distribution of microfiche in the INIS Section are described. (Kako, I.)

  1. Upgrades of the CMS muon system in preparation of HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Teyssier, Daniel Francois

    2017-01-01

    The present CMS muon system operates three different detector types in the barrel drift tubes (DT) and resistive plate chambers (RPC), along with cathode strip chambers (CSC) and another set of RPCs in the forward regions. In order to cope with increasingly challenging conditions various upgrades are planned to the trigger and muon systems. New detectors will be added to improve the performance in the critical forward region large-area triple-foil gas electron multiplier (GEM) detectors will already be installed in LS2 in the pseudo-rapidity region $1.6 < \\eta < 2.4$, aiming at suppressing the rate of background triggers while maintaining high trigger efficiency for low transverse momentum muons. For the High Luminosity (HL)-LHC operations, the muon forward region should be enhanced with another large area GEM based station, called GE2/1, and with two new generation RPC stations, called RE3/1 and RE4/1, having low resistivity electrodes. These detectors will combine tracking and triggering capabil...

  2. Comparative evaluation of apically extruded debris during root canal preparation using ProTaper™, Hyflex™ and Waveone™ rotary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surakanti, Jayaprada Reddy; Venkata, Ravi Chandra Polavarapu; Vemisetty, Hari Kumar; Dandolu, Ram Kiran; Jaya, Nagendra Krishna Muppalla; Thota, Shirisha

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Extrusion of any debris during endodontic treatment may potentially cause post-operative complications such as flare-ups. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the amount of apically extruded debris during the root canal preparation using rotary and reciprocating nickel-titanium instrumentation systems. Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 human mandibular first premolars were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 20 teeth/group). The root canals were instrumented according to the manufacturers’ instructions using the Reciprocating single-file system WaveOne™ (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and full-sequence rotary Hyflex CM™ (Coltene Whaledent, Allstetten, Switzerland) and ProTaper™ (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) instruments. The canals were then irrigated using bidistilled water. The debris that was extruded apically was collected in preweighed eppendorf tubes and assessed with an electronic balance and compared. Statistical Analysis Used: The debris extrusion was compared and statistically analyzed using analysis of variance and the post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test. Results: The WaveOne™ and ProTaper™ rotary instruments produced significantly more debris compared with Hyflex CM™ rotary instruments (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Under the conditions of this study, all systems that were used resulted in extrusion of apical debris. Full-sequence rotary instrumentation was associated with less debris extrusion compared with the use of reciprocating single-file systems. PMID:24778507

  3. Preparation of the FY 1998 photovoltaic power system related technology information; 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system kanren gijutsu joho no seibi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The paper outlined the FY 1998 data preparation project on the photovoltaic power generation. In the field of solar cells and photovoltaic power system, a part of the 13th EUPVSEC data and the 25th IEEEPVSEC data are made database. As to the NEDO related papers, the papers made public in FY 1998 are made database. The number of the object papers totaled 982 including 943 in international conference relation and 39 in NEDO relation. The number of the papers included in 'photovoltaic power generation database (literature)' totaled 4010. Steps of database preparation are collection of the research papers/various reports made public in Japan and overseas, abstract making, preparation of the result data/experimental data, keyword supply, classification/adjustment, and description items. The FY 1998 is the fifth year from the start of this database, and the collected/adjusted technical information on solar cells is classified for analysis according to international conference, research institute, used material, research field, etc. (NEDO)

  4. Preparation of the FY 1998 photovoltaic power system related technology information; 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system kanren gijutsu joho no seibi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The paper outlined the FY 1998 data preparation project on the photovoltaic power generation. In the field of solar cells and photovoltaic power system, a part of the 13th EUPVSEC data and the 25th IEEEPVSEC data are made database. As to the NEDO related papers, the papers made public in FY 1998 are made database. The number of the object papers totaled 982 including 943 in international conference relation and 39 in NEDO relation. The number of the papers included in 'photovoltaic power generation database (literature)' totaled 4010. Steps of database preparation are collection of the research papers/various reports made public in Japan and overseas, abstract making, preparation of the result data/experimental data, keyword supply, classification/adjustment, and description items. The FY 1998 is the fifth year from the start of this database, and the collected/adjusted technical information on solar cells is classified for analysis according to international conference, research institute, used material, research field, etc. (NEDO)

  5. Evaluation of a new preparative supercritical fluid chromatography system for compound library purification: the TharSFC SFC-MS Prep-100 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebinger, Katalin; Weller, Harold N; Kiplinger, Jeffrey; Lefebvre, Paul

    2011-06-01

    Preparative HPLC-MS is often the method of choice for purification of small amounts (libraries for drug discovery. The method is robust, well proven, and widely applicable. In contrast, preparative supercritical fluid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (SFC-MS) has seen only slow acceptance for the same application--despite some potential scientific and economic advantages. One of the reasons for slow adoption of SFC-MS is the lack of well-proven, robust, and commercially available instrumentation. In early 2009, TharSFC (a Waters Company, Pittsburgh, PA) introduced a new fully integrated system for preparative SFC-MS: The SFC-MS Prep-100. We report herein an objective evaluation of the SFC-MS Prep-100, including tests for pump and autosampler performance, sample recovery, sample carryover, fraction triggering, detector/fraction collector synchronization, and overall robustness. Our results suggest that the SFC-MS Prep-100 represents a significant advance over previous generation instrumentation. Copyright © 2011 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Neutron interrogation systems using pyroelectric crystals and methods of preparation thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Vincent; Meyer, Glenn A.; Falabella, Steven; Guethlein, Gary; Rusnak, Brian; Sampayan, Stephen; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Wang, Li-Fang; Harris, John; Morse, Jeff

    2017-08-01

    According to one embodiment, an apparatus includes a pyroelectric crystal, a deuterated or tritiated target, an ion source, and a common support coupled to the pyroelectric crystal, the deuterated or tritiated target, and the ion source. In another embodiment, a method includes producing a voltage of negative polarity on a surface of a deuterated or tritiated target in response to a temperature change of a pyroelectric crystal, pulsing a deuterium ion source to produce a deuterium ion beam, accelerating the deuterium ion beam to the deuterated or tritiated target to produce a neutron beam, and directing the ion beam onto the deuterated or tritiated target to make neutrons using a voltage of the pyroelectric crystal and/or an HGI surrounding the pyroelectric crystal. The directionality of the neutron beam is controlled by changing the accelerating voltage of the system. Other apparatuses and methods are presented as well.

  7. Preparation of low viscosity epoxy acrylic acid photopolymer prepolymer in light curing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P.; Huang, J. Y.; Liu, G. Z.

    2018-01-01

    With the integration and development of materials engineering, applied mechanics, automatic control and bionics, light cured composite has become one of the most favourite research topics in the field of materials and engineering at home and abroad. In the UV curing system, the prepolymer and the reactive diluent form the backbone of the cured material together. And they account for more than 90% of the total mass. The basic properties of the cured product are mainly determined by the prepolymer. A low viscosity epoxy acrylate photosensitive prepolymer with a viscosity of 6800 mPa • s (25 °C ) was obtained by esterification of 5 hours with bisphenol A epoxy resin with high epoxy value and low viscosity.

  8. LHCb : First years of running for the LHCb calorimeter system and preparation for run 2

    CERN Multimedia

    Chefdeville, Maximilien

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is dedicated to precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of B hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva). It comprises a calorimeter system composed of four subdetectors: a Scintillating Pad Detector (SPD) and a Pre-Shower detector (PS) in front of an electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) which is followed by a hadron calorimeter (HCAL). They are used to select transverse energy hadron, electron and photon candidates for the first trigger level and they provides the identification of electrons, photons and hadrons as well as the measurement of their energies and positions. The calorimeter has been pre-calibrated before its installation in the pit. The calibration techniques have been tested with data taken in 2010 and used regularly during run 1. For run 2, new calibration methods have been devised to follow and correct online the calorimeter detector response. The design and construction characteristics of the LHCb calorimeter will be recalled. Strategies for...

  9. Characterization of barium strontium titanate thin films on sapphire substrate prepared via RF magnetron sputtering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaluddin, F. W.; Khalid, M. F. Abdul; Mamat, M. H.; Zoolfakar, A. S.; Zulkefle, M. A.; Rusop, M.; Awang, Z.

    2018-05-01

    Barium Strontium Titanate (Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3) is known to have a high dielectric constant and low loss at microwave frequencies. These unique features are useful for many electronic applications. This paper focuses on material characterization of BST thin films deposited on sapphire substrate by RF magnetron sputtering system. The sample was then annealed at 900 °C for two hours. Several methods were used to characterize the structural properties of the material such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was used to analyze the surface morphology of the thin film. From the results obtained, it can be shown that the annealed sample had a rougher surface and better crystallinity as compared to as-deposited sample.

  10. Pakistan: the new target of terrorism. Are Karachi's emergency medical response systems adequately prepared?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Muhammad Ahmed; Jawad, Ahmed; Minhas, Saeed; Ansari, Asma; Siddiqui, Afrah; Mehtab, Sana

    2009-07-01

    To assess the efficacy and preparedness of the pre-hospital and hospital emergency medical systems and post graduate trainees in the city to deal with a massive terrorist strike. A cross-sectional survey of postgraduate trainees was conducted at Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center and Civil Hospital Karachi from 21st July 2007 to 24th July 2007, to evaluate the preparedness and self identified deficiencies of doctors involved in massive trauma casualty management. To assess the pre-hospital care in Karachi, structured telephonic interviews were conducted of administrators of two private run charity based ambulance services. Out of the 90 respondents questioned regarding a self assessment of their training, only 3 (3.3%) of them were confident about their management of bomb blast victims. Eighty-seven (96.6%) of the respondents felt they required some further training (44.4%) or comprehensive training (52.2%). No simulated drills or courses had been conducted for disaster management in the emergency department of the surveyed Hospitals. Most of the ambulance drivers had no paramedic training. Ambulances are equipped with a stretcher and an oxygen cylinder only. No resuscitation measures are available in the ambulances. With an increasing number of terrorist attacks in the country, massive influx of casualties in a relatively short time span has become a regular feature of the Pakistani hospital system. Lack of adequate training at pre-hospital and in hospital levels may translate into increasing morbidities and mortalities. It is imperative that training of junior doctors and paramedical staff be conducted regularly and an effective regional communication base established for efficient interdepartmental coordination.

  11. Spent Fuel Drying System Test Results (Dry-Run in Preparation for Run 8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, B.M.; Klinger, G.S.; Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks in the basin have been detected and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuel elements in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site (WHC 1995). Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 7.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a)on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of a test ''dry-run'' conducted prior to the eighth and last of those tests, which was conducted on an N-Reactor outer fuel element removed from K-West canister6513U. The system used for the dry-run test was the Whole Element Furnace Testing System, described in Section 2.0, located in the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL, 327 Building). The test conditions and methodologies are given in Section 3.0. The experimental results are provided in Section 4.0 and discussed Section 5.0

  12. Preparation of meloxicam-β-cyclodextrin-polyethylene glycol 6000 ternary system: characterization, in vitro and in vivo bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radia, Ourezki; Rogalska, Ewa; Moulay-Hassane, Guermouche

    2012-01-01

    Ternary complexes of meloxicam (ML), a poorly water-soluble anti-inflammatory drug, with β-cyclodextrin (βCD) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 were prepared from an equimolar (ML-βCD) and 10% of PEG. Characterization of the ternary complex was carried out by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry. The solubility of ML increased as a function of increasing the concentration of βCD and PEG 6000. Ternary system increased significantly ML solubility in water. Ternary complexes improved drug release compared with ML and ML-βCD. The oral bioavailability of ML-βCD-PEG was investigated by administration to rat and compared with ML and ML-βCD. The results confirmed that the oral bioavailability of ML was significantly improved by complexation with βCD in the presence of PEG.

  13. MODEL SYSTEM EVALUATIONS OF MEAT EMULSIONS PREPARED WITH DIFFERENT EDIBLE BEEF BY PRODUCTS AND FATS AND OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KARAKAYA

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Emulsion parameters of different meat by-products (beef head-meat, beef heart and liver and animal fats and oil (beef fat, mutton fat, sheep tail-fat and corn oil were studied in a model system. The results of the study showed that the highest emulsion capacity (EC was with the heart meat and beef fat emulsion while the lowest EC was measured in the beef head-meat and sheep tail-fat combination. Corn oil gave the best emulsification with beef head-meat and liver, and beef fat resulted the second best results. Beef head-meat gave the most stable emulsion with all fats, but the emulsions prepared with heart and liver were generally unstable.

  14. Competition preparation guideline in undergraduate program of information system school of Industrial Engineering Telkom University based on knowledge conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawan, F. R.; Soesanto, R. P.; Kurniawati, A.; Kurniawan, M. T.

    2017-12-01

    The role of higher education in the development of science and technology is not only from the contribution of the high-quality alumni but also from the research and relevant competition with the needs of development in such a country. In a competition, the student can improve their soft skill and academic skill such as analytical and critical thinking, communication skills and mental. The number of relevant competition by students is also included in accreditation clause, therefore student involvement in competition is seen as important for the undergraduate program in University. The most problem in university is the high turnover from the student. Bachelor program in Indonesia usually takes 4 years to complete, and the high turnover causes the student come and go as they are a graduate from the institution without preserving the knowledge and experience from the competition to other students. This research aims to develop a guidance for competition preparation in the university by using knowledge conversion. The object of this research is an information system undergraduate program in the school of industrial engineering Telkom University. The best practice selection is done by using factor rating method. Delphi method is used to identify the criteria, and AHP method is used to calculate the weight of each criterion. From the factor rating result it is known that from 3 respondent, best practice from respondent A (7.321) is used for preparing the programming competition in an undergraduate program of information system in the school of industrial engineering Telkom University. FGD is done to disseminate the selected best practice into the process stakeholder which is head of the student affair of the school of industrial engineering, students, and laboratory assistants. Future research can be done to create more comprehensive criteria for selecting the best practice.

  15. Preparation of 166 Dy/166 Ho-Macro aggregates as an In vivo generator system for the treatment of arthrophaties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldama A, T.K.

    2003-01-01

    The present work reports the obtention of macro aggregates of hydroxides of Dysprosium-166/Holmium-166 ( 166 Dy/ 166 Ho-MH), as a generator system in vivo to be used in the treatment of arthritis rheumatoid. The 166 Dy was obtained by neutron irradiation of 166 DyO 3 (enriched to 98.45%) by 20 h in the TRIGA Mark III Reactor and 50 h of decay, to the oxide of 166 Dy/ 166 Ho formed, it was added HCl 0.12 N to obtain a final volume of 3.5 ml of solution of 166 Dy/ 166 Ho chloride. The solution of 166D yCl 3 solution was obtained with an activity of 3.502 mCi (129 MBq), appropriate for the preparation of the radiopharmaceutical 166 Dy/ 166 Ho-MH. The separation of the 166 Dy from the 166 Ho, was carried out by chromatography in an cation exchange column, gaining an appropriate separation, obtaining a 166 Dy with a radionuclide purity greater than 90%. The 166 Dy/ 166 Ho-MH were prepared by addition to the solution of 166 DyCI 3 NaOH 0.5 N low ultrasonic bath with later centrifugation, decanted and resuspension in saline solution, obtaining a radiopharmaceutical with a generator system 166 Dy/ 166 Ho with particles of size average of 3 μm, in form of 166 Dy / 166 Ho-MH. Under these conditions, it was obtained a radiochemical yield greater than 99%. The microscopic analysis and of filtration showed that the formulation doesn't present particles smaller than to 1 μm, neither greater to 50 μm, which will allow, the quick phagocytosis for the synoviocytes of the synovial membrane, and by consequence, an homogeneous distribution of the radiation dose could exist. The sedimentation velocity for the formulated suspension is of 0.04 cm/min that it will allow the administration of homogeneous activities of the radiopharmaceutical, to the no deposit in the injection devices. The studies of stability in vitro indicate us that inside the articulation, the particles won't probably reduce its size neither their radiochemical purity, for that the flight extra articular will be

  16. Thickness characteristics of YBaCuO system thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuhashi, Hideo; Jinno, Makoto; Takashima, Osamu; Uchida, Yoshiyuki; Maeda, Akinori; Kojima, Kenzo; Ochiai, Shizuyasu; Ohashi, Asao

    1994-01-01

    The practical use of oxide high temperature superconductors for electronics field has been advanced. The oxide high temperature superconductor thin films is very sensitive to the production conditions, and their making with good reproducibility is difficult. In this study, the method of producing the thin films having good quality with good reproducibility by RF magnetron sputtering, and the relation of the film thickness with the superconductivity characteristics of YBaCuO system thin films in the different methods of substrate washing were examined. The sputtering conditions are shown. For the purpose of preventing the worsening of the film quality due to the reverse sputtering of oxygen negative ions to the thin film surface, sputtering gas pressure was set up high at 30 Pa. The film thickness and the temperature-resistance characteristics were measured. The experimental method and the experimental results are reported. By keeping the temperature on substrate surfaces constant, the reproducibility in the production of the thin films was improved remarkably. The effect of substrate washing was large. (K.I.)

  17. Preparation of high - superconductor BSCCO in system with added Pb using method of synthesis Pechini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, Felipe Magalhaes de; Rodrigues, Vivian Delmute; Paula, Fernando Rogerio de

    2014-01-01

    This paper studied compound of the ceramic superconductor Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (BSCCO). The predominant BSCCO system has four phases: Bi_2Sr_2CuO6 (Bi-2201), Bi_2Sr_2Ca_1Cu_2O_8 (Bi-2212), Bi_2Sr_2Ca_2Cu_3O_1_0 (Bi-2223) e Bi_2Sr_2Ca_3Cu_4O_1_2 (Bi-2234). Of these, the most studied is the Bi-2223 and this is due to present the highest critical temperature (Tc) (125K). However, this phase is more unstable and, therefore in this work we study the stabilization of Bi-2223 phase using the substitution method, in which Bi is replaced with the Pb. The samples were obtained by method of synthesis Pechini, the stoichiometry Bi_2_-_xPb_xSr_2Ca_2Cu_3O_y. The samples obtained were characterized by diffraction ray - X, electric measurement (RxT), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Energy dispersive ray-x spectroscopy (EDX). The results showed that the best concentration of lead in phase and stabilizing Bi-2223 was the 0,40 mols obtaining the stoichiometry Bi_1_,_7_6Pb_0_,_2_0Sr_1_,_9_6Ca_2_,_1_8Cu_2_,_9_0O_y, which showed a T_c of 124 K. (author)

  18. [In vitro comparison of root canal preparation with step-back technique and GT rotary file--a nickel-titanium engine driven rotary instrument system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajczár, Károly; Tóth, Vilmos; Nyárády, Zoltán; Szabó, Gyula

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the authors' study was to compare the remaining root canal wall thickness and the preparation time of root canals, prepared either with step-back technique, or with GT Rotary File, an engine driven nickel-titanium rotary instrument system. Twenty extracted molars were decoronated. Teeth were divided in two groups. In Group 1 root canals were prepared with step-back technique. In Group 2 GT Rotary File System was utilized. Preoperative vestibulo-oral X-ray pictures were taken from all teeth with radiovisiograph (RVG). The final preparations at the mesiobuccal canals (MB) were performed with size #30 and palatinal/distal canals with size #40 instruments. Postoperative RVG pictures were taken ensuring the preoperative positioning. The working time was measured in seconds during each preparation. The authors also assessed the remaining root canal wall thickness at 3, 6 and 9 mm from the radiological apex, comparing the width of the canal walls of the vestibulo-oral projections on pre- and postoperative RVG pictures both mesially and buccally. The ratios of the residual and preoperative root canal wall thickness were calculated and compared. The largest difference was found at the MB canals of the coronal and middle third level of the root, measured on the distal canal wall. The ratio of the remaining dentin wall thickness at the coronal and the middle level in the case of step-back preparation was 0.605 and 0.754, and 0.824 and 0.895 in the cases of GT files respectively. The preparation time needed for GT Rotary File System was altogether 68.7% (MB) and 52.5% (D/P canals) of corresponding step-back preparation times. The use of GT Rotary File with comparison of standard step-back method resulted in a shortened preparation time and excessive damage of the coronal part of the root canal could be avoided.

  19. Preparation and characterization of metoprolol tartrate containing matrix type transdermal drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malipeddi, Venkata Ramana; Awasthi, Rajendra; Ghisleni, Daniela Dal Molim; de Souza Braga, Marina; Kikuchi, Irene Satiko; de Jesus Andreoli Pinto, Terezinha; Dua, Kamal

    2017-02-01

    The present study aimed to develop matrix-type transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) of metoprolol tartrate using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The transdermal films were evaluated for physical parameters, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), in vitro drug release, in vitro skin permeability, skin irritation test and stability studies. The films were found to be tough, non-sticky, easily moldable and possess good tensile strength. As the concentration of PVA was increased, the tensile strength of the films was also increased. Results of FTIR spectroscopy and DSC revealed the absence of any drug-polymer interactions. In vitro release of metoprolol followed zero-order kinetics and the mechanism of release was found to be diffusion rate controlled. In vitro release studies of metoprolol using Keshary-Chein (vertical diffusion cell) indicated 65.5 % drug was released in 24 h. In vitro skin permeation of metoprolol transdermal films showed 58.13 % of the drug was released after 24 h. In vitro skin permeation of metoprolol followed zero-order kinetics in selected formulations. The mechanism of release was found to be diffusion rate controlled. In a 22-day skin irritation test, tested formulation of transdermal films did not exhibit any allergic reactions, inflammation, or contact dermatitis. The transdermal films showed good stability in the 180-day stability study. It can be concluded that the TDDS of MPT can help in bypassing the first-pass effect and will provide patient improved compliance, without sacrificing the therapeutic advantages of the drugs.

  20. [Conceptual assumptions to create a system for preparation of healthcare human resources in Ukraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Грузєва, Тетяна С; Пельо, Ігор М; Сміянов, Владислав А; Галієнко, Людмила І

    in modern conditions of social development become very important the issues of reorganization of public health services and their staffing. This is due to the significant spread of numerous challenges and threats to health of the population and the leading rule of public health service in preventing many diseases, reducing their negative impact and promotion the health of the population. One of the operational functions of public healthis providing the public health service with professional personnel,sufficientin numbers and of good quality. Itsrealization shouldinclude a thoroughunderstanding and evaluation of needs inex perts of public heal thinaccording to the national context, the wording of there quirements totheirknowledge and practicals kills, professional competences, supporting of educational training programs and the irimplementation to higher education system. to justify the approaches to formation of educational programs for training specialists in public health sphere into account of contemporary needs, international experience and WHO recommendations. the research was founded on the analysis of the integral indicators of the population health of Ukraine, existing problems in fieldof public health, the study of educational programs for training of public health specialists of leading world and European universities, domestic and international experience on an investigated problem. There were used biblio-semantic and medical-statistical methods. The information base are: statistical data from database "HFA" for 2000-2014, Center for health statistics of the MOH of Ukraine for 2000-2015, electronic resources of universities, strategic and policy documents of the WHO, WHO Regional Office for Europe Results: for Ukraine as for other countries it is extremely important the provision of public health service with a sufficient number of specialists of adequate quality. The need to create such a service and its staffing was caused by low health indicators

  1. A novel approach to TEM preparation with a (7-axis stage) triple-beam FIB-SEM system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jamil J.

    2015-10-01

    Preparation of lamellae from bulk to grid for Cs-corrected Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) observation has mostly become routine work on the latest FIB-SEM systems, with standardized techniques that often are left to automation for the initial steps. The finalization of lamellae however, has mostly become, non-routine, non-repeatable and often driven by user experience level in most cases to produce high quality damage-less cross section. Materials processing of the latest technologies, with ever-shrinking Nano-sized structures pose challenges to modern FIB-SEM systems. This can often lead to specialized techniques and hyper-specific functions for producing ultra-thin high quality lamellae that often are lab specific, preventing practical use of such techniques across multiple materials and applications. Several factors that should be incorporated in processing fine structured materials successfully include how the use of electron and ion scan conditions can affect a thin section during ion milling, the type of ion species applied for material processing during the finalization of lamellae with gallium ions or of a smaller ion species type such as Ar/Xe, sample orientation of the lamella during the thinning process which is linked to ion beam incident angle as a direct relationship in the creation of waterfall effects or curtain effects, and how software can be employed to aid in the reduction of these artifacts with reproducible results regardless of FIB-SEM experience for site-specific lift outs. A traditional TEM preparation was performed of a fine structure specimen in pursuit of a process technique to produce a high quality TEM lamella which would address all of the factors mentioned. These new capabilities have been refined and improved upon during the FIB-SEM design and development stages with an end result of a new approach that yields an improvement in quality by the reduction of common ion milling artifacts such as curtain effects, amorphous

  2. A high-throughput robotic sample preparation system and HPLC-MS/MS for measuring urinary anatabine, anabasine, nicotine and major nicotine metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Binnian; Feng, June; Rehmani, Imran J; Miller, Sharyn; McGuffey, James E; Blount, Benjamin C; Wang, Lanqing

    2014-09-25

    Most sample preparation methods characteristically involve intensive and repetitive labor, which is inefficient when preparing large numbers of samples from population-scale studies. This study presents a robotic system designed to meet the sampling requirements for large population-scale studies. Using this robotic system, we developed and validated a method to simultaneously measure urinary anatabine, anabasine, nicotine and seven major nicotine metabolites: 4-Hydroxy-4-(3-pyridyl)butanoic acid, cotinine-N-oxide, nicotine-N-oxide, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, norcotinine, cotinine and nornicotine. We analyzed robotically prepared samples using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in positive electrospray ionization mode using scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (sMRM) with a total runtime of 8.5 min. The optimized procedure was able to deliver linear analyte responses over a broad range of concentrations. Responses of urine-based calibrators delivered coefficients of determination (R(2)) of >0.995. Sample preparation recovery was generally higher than 80%. The robotic system was able to prepare four 96-well plate (384 urine samples) per day, and the overall method afforded an accuracy range of 92-115%, and an imprecision of labor-saving for sample preparation, making it efficient and practical for routine measurements in large population-scale studies such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) study. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Validation of shortened 2-day sterility testing of mesenchymal stem cell-based therapeutic preparation on an automated culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysák, Daniel; Holubová, Monika; Bergerová, Tamara; Vávrová, Monika; Cangemi, Giuseppina Cristina; Ciccocioppo, Rachele; Kruzliak, Peter; Jindra, Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Cell therapy products represent a new trend of treatment in the field of immunotherapy and regenerative medicine. Their biological nature and multistep preparation procedure require the application of complex release criteria and quality control. Microbial contamination of cell therapy products is a potential source of morbidity in recipients. The automated blood culture systems are widely used for the detection of microorganisms in cell therapy products. However the standard 2-week cultivation period is too long for some cell-based treatments and alternative methods have to be devised. We tried to verify whether a shortened cultivation of the supernatant from the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) culture obtained 2 days before the cell harvest could sufficiently detect microbial growth and allow the release of MSC for clinical application. We compared the standard Ph. Eur. cultivation method and the automated blood culture system BACTEC (Becton Dickinson). The time to detection (TTD) and the detection limit were analyzed for three bacterial and two fungal strains. The Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were recognized within 24 h with both methods (detection limit ~10 CFU). The time required for the detection of Bacillus subtilis was shorter with the automated method (TTD 10.3 vs. 60 h for 10-100 CFU). The BACTEC system reached significantly shorter times to the detection of Candida albicans and Aspergillus brasiliensis growth compared to the classical method (15.5 vs. 48 and 31.5 vs. 48 h, respectively; 10-100 CFU). The positivity was demonstrated within 48 h in all bottles, regardless of the size of the inoculum. This study validated the automated cultivation system as a method able to detect all tested microorganisms within a 48-h period with a detection limit of ~10 CFU. Only in case of B. subtilis, the lowest inoculum (~10 CFU) was not recognized. The 2-day cultivation technique is then capable of confirming the microbiological safety of MSC and

  4. Performance updates of HAWK-I and preparation for the commissioning of the system GRAAL+HAWK-I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibon, Pascale; Paufique, Jerome; Kuntschner, Harald; Dobrzycka, Danuta; Le Louarn, Miska; Valenti, Elena; Neeser, Mark; Pompei, Emanuela; Arsenault, Robin; Siebenmorgen, Ralf; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Petr-Gotzens, Monika; La Fuente, Carlos; Urrutia, Josefina; Valenzuela, Javier; Castillo, Roberto; Baksai, Pedro; Garcia Dabo, Cesar Enrique; Jost, Andreas; Argomedo, Javier; Kolb, Johann; Kiekebusch, Mario; Hubin, Norbert; Duhoux, Philippe; Conzelmann, Ralf Dieter; Donaldson, Robert; Tordo, Sebastien; Huber, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    The High Acuity Wide field K-band Imager (HAWK-I) instrument is a cryogenic wide field imager operating in the wavelength range 0.9 to 2.5 microns. It has been in operations since 2007 on the UT4 at the Very Large Telescope Observatory in seeing-limited mode. In 2017-2018, GRound Layer Adaptive optics Assisted by Lasers module (GRAAL) will be in operation and the system GRAAL+HAWK-I will be commissioned. It will allow: deeper exposures for nearly point-source objects, or shorter exposure times for reaching the same magnitude, and/or deeper detection limiting magnitude. With GRAAL, HAWK-I will operate more than 80% of the time with an equivalent K-band seeing of 0.55" (instead of 0.7" without GRAAL). GRAAL is already installed and the operations without adaptive optics were commissioned in 2015. We discuss here the latest updates on performance from HAWK-I without Adaptive Optics (AO) and the preparation for the commissioning of the system GRAAL+HAWK-I.

  5. Al-Si/Al2O3 in situ composite prepared by displacement reaction of CuO/Al system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jing

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Al2O3 particle-reinforced ZL109 composite was prepared by in situ reaction between CuO and Al. The microstructure was observed by means of OM, SEM and TEM. The Al2O3 particles in sub-micron sizes distribute uniformly in the matrix, and the Cu displaced from the in situ reaction forms net-like alloy phases with other alloy elements. The hardness and the tensile strength of the composites at room temperature have a slight increase as compared to that of the matrix. However, the tensile strength at 350 ℃ has reached 90.23 MPa, or 16.92 MPa higher than that of the matrix. The mechanism of the reaction in the CuO/Al system was studied by using of differential scanning calorimetry(DSC and thermodynamic calculation. The reaction between CuO and Al involves two steps. First, CuO reacts with Al to form Cu2O and Al2O3 at the melting temperature of the matrix alloy, and second, Cu2O reacts with Al to form Cu and Al2O3 at a higher temperature. At ZL109 casting temperature of 750–780 ℃, the second step can also take place because of the effect of exothermic reaction of the first step.

  6. The preparation of highly absorbing cellulosic copolymers -the cellulose acetate/propionate-g.co-acrylic acid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilgin, V.; Guthrie, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    A series of copolymers based on the cellulose acetate/propionate-g.co-acrylic acid system has been prepared under radiation-induced control. These copolymers have been assessed for their water-retention capacity both in an unmodified state and after ''decrystallization'' or ''neutralization'' treatments. The grafting of acrylic acid onto the cellulose acetate/propionate had little effect on the water retention power of the cellulose acetate/propionate. However, improvements to the water retentivity was obtained after ''decrystallization'' procedures had been carried out on the copolymers using selected alkali metal salts with methanol as the continuous medium. The water-retentivity of the copolymers increased with increase in the extent of grafting, though the effect is less pronounced at high graft levels. Neutralization of the functional groups of the grafted branches provided a route to obtaining a marked increase in the level of water retentivity. Excessive salt concentrations gave reduced levels of water retentivity. Cesium carbonate and sodium carbonate have been shown to be effective in providing marked improvements in the water-retaining capacity of the copolymers. Maxima in performance are shown with respect to the treatment conditions. (author)

  7. The optical properties and applications of AlN thin films prepared by a helicon sputtering system

    CERN Document Server

    Chiu, W Y; Kao, H L; Jeng, E S; Chen, J S; Jaing, C C

    2002-01-01

    AlN thin films were grown on SiO sub 2 /Si and quartz substrates using a helicon sputtering system. The dependence of film quality on growth parameters, such as total sputtering pressure, substrate temperature, and nitrogen concentration has been studied. There is a good correlation of thin film crystallinity addressed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and spectroscopic ellipsometer. The optimized films exhibit highly oriented, with only (002) peak shown in a theta-2 theta scan XRD pattern, and extremely smooth surface with rms roughness of 2 Aa. The extinction coefficient of the film was 4x10 sup - sup 4 , which is lower than that of AlN films grown by conventional sputtering. Double-layer antireflection (DLAR) coating using AlN and Al sub 3 O sub 3 grown on quartz has been demonstrated. The transmittance of DLAR was high as 96% compared to 93% of bare substrates with the measurement error less than 0.2%. AlN films prepared by Helicon sputtering thus are potential for optical application.

  8. Evaluation of canal transportation after preparation with Reciproc single-file systems with or without glide path files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ugur; Karataslioglu, Emrah

    2017-01-01

    Canal transportation is a common sequel caused by rotary instruments. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the degree of transportation after the use of Reciproc single-file instruments with or without glide path files. Thirty resin blocks with L-shaped canals were divided into three groups ( n = 10). Group 1 - canals were prepared with Reciproc-25 file. Group 2 - glide path file-G1 was used before Reciproc. Group 3 - glide path files-G1 and G2 were used before Reciproc. Pre- and post-instrumentation images were superimposed under microscope, and resin removed from the inner and outer surfaces of the root canal was calculated throughout 10 points. Statistical analysis was performed with Kruskal-Wallis test and post hoc Dunn test. For coronal and middle one-thirds, there was no significant difference among groups ( P > 0.05). For apical section, transportation of Group 1 was significantly higher than other groups ( P files before Reciproc single-file system reduced the degree of apical canal transportation.

  9. Ceramic matrix micro-composites prepared by P-Rcvd within the (Ti-Si-B-C) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Nano-scale carbide multilayered inter-phases were deposited within the (Ti-Si-B-C) system by pressure-Pulsed Reactive Chemical Vapor Deposition (P-RCVD) on single filament Hi-Nicalon fibers and embedded in a SiC matrix sheath. The Reactive method, in which the titanium-containing layer growth involves the consumption of the pre-deposited Si-B-C sublayer, allowed TiC- and TiB 2 -based films to be obtained with a porous multilayer microstructure as a result of the Kirkendall effect. A first difficulty relied on the protection of the fiber surface which was very sensitive to chemical attack by P-RCVD. This difficulty could be circumvented through a first deposited SiC sub-layer thick enough to protect the surface of the fiber. But, because the porosity volume fraction was still not high enough, the role of mechanical fuse of these pyrocarbon-free inter-phases could not be evidenced from the micro-composite tensile curves, which remained fully linear up to the failure. Finally, the P-RCVD method was applied to the matrix processing itself. Micro-composites, this time with a pyrocarbon interphase but also with new matrix materials such as Ti 3 SiC 2 , were prepared and characterized. (author)

  10. Preparation, characterisation and critical flux determination of graphene oxide blended polysulfone (PSf) membranes in an MBR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravishankar, Harish; Roddick, Felicity; Navaratna, Dimuth; Jegatheesan, Veeriah

    2018-05-01

    Microfiltration membranes having different blends of graphene-oxide (GO) (0-1 wt%) and Polysulfone (PSf) (15-20 wt%) were prepared using the classical non-solvent induced phase inversion process. The prepared membranes were characterised for their structural morphology, surface properties, mechanical strength, porosity and pure water flux. Based on the initial characterisation results, four membranes (15 wt% PSf, 15 wt% PSf + 0.25 wt% GO, 15 wt% PSf + 1 wt% GO and 20 wt% PSf + 1 wt% GO) were chosen for critical flux study, that was conducted using flux-step method in a lab scale MBR system. In order to study the application potential of GO blended membranes, the critical flux of each membrane was evaluated in two operational modes i.e., continuous and intermittent modes with backwash. The membranes with maximal GO concentration (15 wt% PSf + 1 wt% GO and 20 wt% PSf + 1 wt% GO) showed higher critical flux (16.5, 12.8 L/m 2 h and 19, 15 L/m 2 h for continuous and intermittent mode, respectively). It was observed that the operational modes did not have a significant effect on the critical flux of the membranes with low GO concentration (15 wt% PSf and 15 wt% PSf + 0.25 wt% GO), indicating a minimal of 1 wt% GO was required for an observable effect that favoured intermittent mode of operation. Through these results, ideal operating condition was arrived (i.e., flux maintained at 6.4 L/m 2 h operated under intermittent mode) and the membranes 15 wt% PSf and 15 wt% PSf + 1 wt% GO were studied for their long-term operation. The positive effect of GO on filtration time, cleaning frequency and against fouling was demonstrated through long term TMP profile of the membranes, indicating the suitability of GO blended membrane for real time wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigation of CPD and HMDS Sample Preparation Techniques for Cervical Cells in Developing Computer-Aided Screening System Based on FE-SEM/EDX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Siew Cheok; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigated the effects of critical-point drying (CPD) and hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) sample preparation techniques for cervical cells on field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray (FE-SEM/EDX). We investigated the visualization of cervical cell image and elemental distribution on the cervical cell for two techniques of sample preparation. Using FE-SEM/EDX, the cervical cell images are captured and the cell element compositions are extracted for both sample preparation techniques. Cervical cell image quality, elemental composition, and processing time are considered for comparison of performances. Qualitatively, FE-SEM image based on HMDS preparation technique has better image quality than CPD technique in terms of degree of spread cell on the specimen and morphologic signs of cell deteriorations (i.e., existence of plate and pellet drying artifacts and membrane blebs). Quantitatively, with mapping and line scanning EDX analysis, carbon and oxygen element compositions in HMDS technique were higher than the CPD technique in terms of weight percentages. The HMDS technique has shorter processing time than the CPD technique. The results indicate that FE-SEM imaging, elemental composition, and processing time for sample preparation with the HMDS technique were better than CPD technique for cervical cell preparation technique for developing computer-aided screening system. PMID:25610902

  12. Literature review and desk scan : task 2 of preparing a possible Oregon road map for connected vehicle/cooperative systems deployment scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this project was to lay the groundwork for Oregon to be prepared to lead in the : implementation of a connected vehicle/cooperative systems transportation portfolio, and/or to avoid being caught by : surprise as developments in this area ...

  13. A micro-computed tomographic evaluation of dentinal microcrack alterations during root canal preparation using single-file Ni-Ti systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei-Lin; Liao, Wei-Li; Cai, Hua-Xiong

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the length of dentinal microcracks observed prior to and following root canal preparation with different single-file nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) systems using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis. A total of 80 mesial roots of mandibular first molars presenting with type II Vertucci canal configurations were scanned at an isotropic resolution of 7.4 µm. The samples were randomly assigned into four groups (n=20 per group) according to the system used for root canal preparation, including the WaveOne (WO), OneShape (OS), Reciproc (RE) and control groups. A second micro-CT scan was conducted after the root canals were prepared with size 25 instruments. Pre- and postoperative cross-section images of the roots (n=237,760) were then screened to identify the lengths of the microcracks. The results indicated that the microcrack lengths were notably increased following root canal preparation (Pfiles. Among the single-file Ni-Ti systems, WO and RE were not observed to cause notable microcracks, while the OS system resulted in evident microcracks.

  14. Could Practicum Placements in Contrasting Contexts Support the Preparation of Pre-Service Teachers for an Envisaged Inclusive Education System? A South African Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusznyak, Lee; Walton, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    In contexts where inclusive education is nascent, teacher educators face the challenge of preparing pre-service teachers for a system that does not yet exist. While this might be possible through university-based coursework, difficulties arise when so few sites that model inclusive pedagogies are available for practicum placements. This article…

  15. Creating an Effective System of Education to Prepare Future Human Resources within the Context Provided by the Global Shift toward a "Green Economy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudin, Mikhail Nikolaevich; Frolova, Evgenia Evgenevna; Kucherenko, Petr Aleksandrovich; Samusenko, Tatyana Mikhailovna; Voikova, Natalya Andreevna

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the major aspects of putting together effective national systems of education oriented toward providing academic instruction to the population and preparing future human resources for work within the economy in specific alignment with the concept of environmental responsibility (or that of "green economy"). The…

  16. The automated sample preparation system MixMaster for investigation of volatile organic compounds with mid-infrared evanescent wave spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, F; Karlowatz, M; Jakusch, M; Mizaikoff, B

    2003-04-01

    For efficient development assessment, and calibration of new chemical analyzers a large number of independently prepared samples of target analytes is necessary. Whereas mixing units for gas analysis are readily available, there is a lack of instrumentation for accurate preparation of liquid samples containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Manual preparation of liquid samples containing VOCs at trace concentration levels is a particularly challenging and time consuming task. Furthermore, regularly scheduled calibration of sensors and analyzer systems demands for computer controlled automated sample preparation systems. In this paper we present a novel liquid mixing device enabling extensive measurement series with focus on volatile organic compounds, facilitating analysis of water polluted by traces of volatile hydrocarbons. After discussing the mixing system and control software, first results obtained by coupling with an FT-IR spectrometer are reported. Properties of the mixing system are assessed by mid-infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy of methanol-acetone mixtures and by investigation of multicomponent samples containing volatile hydrocarbons such as 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene and tetrachloroethylene. Obtained ATR spectra are evaluated by principal component regression (PCR) algorithms. It is demonstrated that the presented sample mixing device provides reliable multicomponent mixtures with sufficient accuracy and reproducibility at trace concentration levels.

  17. Development and characterization of dilutable self-microemulsifying premicroemulsion systems (SMEPMS as templates for preparation of nanosized particulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin SF

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Shen-Fu Lin,1 Ying-Chen Chen,2 Hsiu-O Ho,2 Wei-Yu Huang,2 Ming-Thau Sheu,2,3 Der-Zen Liu1,4 1Graduate Institute of Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, College of Oral Medicine, 2School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Clinical Research Center and Traditional Herbal Medicine Research Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 4Center for General Education, Hsuan Chuang University, Hsinchu, Taiwan Abstract: The utilization of self-microemulsifying premicroemulsion systems (SMEPMS as templates for preparing poorly water-soluble compounds in the nanosized range represents a promising strategy. Fenofibrate was formulated with n-butyl L-lactate, Tween 80, and a number of cosurfactants (ethanol, 1-propanol, and PEG 600, diluted with the water phase (either water or saccharide solution and then subjected to a freeze-drying (FD process to obtain SMEPMS nanosized particulates. Results demonstrated that the particle size after resuspension of these FD SMEPMS nanosized particulates in water was too large, so the addition of saccharide solutions (lactose, mannitol, glucose, sucrose, and trehalose as the solid carrier to prevent particles from aggregating seemed to be necessary and workable due to steric hindrance and repulsion. However, instability of these resuspended FD nanosized particulates after 30–90 minutes still occurred, and the addition of 0.5% sodium lauryl sulfate in the resuspending medium was able to retard the aggregation and maintain the particle size within the nano-range. Evaluation by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction also confirmed the results. It was concluded that using an SMEPMS formulation with PEG 600 as the cosurfactant, and in the presence of a suitable saccharide as an anticaking agent and FD process were able to produce fenofibrate nanoparticles. Keywords: fenofibrate, saccharides, freeze-drying, nanoparticles

  18. Preparation of silver chloride nanoparticles by a mechanical treatment of the system NH4Cl−AgNO3−NH4NO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farit Urakaev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Silver chloride nanoparticles dispersed within ammonium nitrate matrix have been prepared though displacement mechanochemical reaction NH4Cl + AgNO3 + z NH4NO3 = (z+1 NH4 NO3 + AgCl at various z coefficients z1 = 7.22 and z2 = 3.64. The intermediate compound of NH4Ag(NO32 were recorded after mechanochemical processing of studied system. By using simultaneous TG and DSC measurements possibilities to prepare silver chloride in its free form have been discussed by using thermal treatment.

  19. [Rapid expression and preparation of the recombinant fusion protein sTNFRII-gAD by adenovirus vector system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yue; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Xiaoren; Liu, Xuerong; Shen, Wei; Zheng, Gang; Liu, Yunfan; Dong, Xiaoyan; Wu, Xiaobing; Gao, Jimin

    2011-08-01

    We expressed and prepared the recombinant fusion protein sTNFRII-gAD consisted of soluble TNF receptor II and the globular domain of adiponectin by Adenovirus Vector System in mammalian BHK21c022 cells. First we used the adenovirus vector containing EGFP gene (rAd5-EGFP) to infect BHK21c022 cells at different MOI (from 0 to 1 000), and then evaluated their transduction efficiency and cytotoxicity. Similarly, we constructed the replication-deficient adenovirus type 5-sTNFRII-gAD (rAd5-sTNFRII-gAD). We collected the supernatants for Western blotting to determine the optimal MOI by comparing the expression levels of sTNFRII-gAD fusion protein, 48 h after the BHK21c022 cells were infected by rAd5-sTNFRII-gAD at different MOIs (from 0 to 1 000). Then, we chose rAd5-sTNFRII-gAD at MOI 100 to infect five bottles of BHK21c022 cells in 100 mL of serum-free chemically defined media 100 mL, harvested the supernatant every 48 h for 6 times, and condense and purify sTNFRII-gAD fusion protein by ammonium sulfate salt-out and size-exclusion chromatography, respectively. Finally, we analyzed anti-TNFalpha activity of sTNFRII-gAD fusion protein on L929 cells in vitro. The results showed that the number of BHK21c022 cells expressing EGFP protein was increased significantly with the increase of MOI. However, some cells died at MOI of 1 000 while there was no significant cytotoxicity at MOI from 0 to 100. Western blotting analysis showed that the more adenoviruses, the higher expression of sTNFRII-gAD fusion protein in the supernatant with the highest expression at MOI 1 000. We successfully obtained about 11 mg bioactive and purified sTNFRII-gAD fusion protein at last. The in vitro assay demonstrated that the sTNFRII-gAD fusion protein was potent to antagonize TNFalpha's cytotoxicity to L929 cells. Put together, we established a recombinant adenovirus vector/BHK21 cell expression system, characteristic of the efficient serum-free culture and easy scaling-up.

  20. Preparation and evaluation of a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system loaded with Akebia saponin D–phospholipid complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jinyang; Bi, Jianping; Tian, Hongli; Jin, Ye; Wang, Yuan; Yang, Xiaolin; Yang, Zhonglin; Kou, Junping; Li, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Background Akebia saponin D (ASD) exerts various pharmacological activities but with poor oral bioavailability. In this study, a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) based on the drug–phospholipid complex technique was developed to improve the oral absorption of ASD. Methods ASD–phospholipid complex (APC) was prepared using a solvent-evaporation method and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, morphology observation, and solubility test. Oil and cosurfactant were selected according to their ability to dissolve APC, while surfactant was chosen based on its emulsification efficiency in SNEDDS. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed to determine the optimized APC-SNEDDS formulation, which was characterized by droplet size determination, zeta potential determination, and morphology observation. Robustness to dilution and thermodynamic stability of optimized formulation were also evaluated. Subsequently, pharmacokinetic parameters and oral bioavailability of ASD, APC, and APC-SNEDDS were investigated in rats. Results The liposolubility significantly increased 11.4-fold after formation of APC, which was verified by the solubility test in n-octanol. Peceol (Glyceryl monooleate [type 40]), Cremophor® EL (Polyoxyl 35 castor oil), and Transcutol HP (Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether) were selected as oil, surfactant, and cosurfactant, respectively. The optimal formulation was composed of Glyceryl monooleate (type 40), Polyoxyl 35 castor oil, Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether, and APC (1:4.5:4.5:1.74, w/w/w/w), which showed a particle size of 148.0±2.7 nm and a zeta potential of −13.7±0.92 mV after dilution with distilled water at a ratio of 1:100 (w/w) and good colloidal stability. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that APC-SNEDDS exhibited a significantly greater Cmax1 (733.4±203.8 ng/mL) than ASD (437.2±174.2 ng/mL), and a greater Cmax2 (985.8±366.6 ng/mL) than ASD (180.5±75.1 ng/mL) and APC (549.7±113

  1. Use of Take-set system for radiopharmaceutical labelling: example of indium-111 labeled pentetreotide (Octreoscan) preparation; Utilisation du systeme Take-set pour le radiomarquage des medicaments radiopharmaceutiques: exemple de la preparation du pentetreotide marque a l'indium 111 (Octreoscan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Reguiga, M.; Sinegre, M. [Hopital Beaujon, Unite de Radiopharmacie, Service de Pharmacie-toxicologie, 92 - Clichy (France); Besse, H.; Stievenart, J.L.; Le Guludec, D. [Hopital Beaujon, Service de Medecine Nucleaire92 - Clichy (France)

    2009-09-15

    The quality of indium 111 radiolabelled pentetreotide preparation (Octreoscan, Covidien) depends on several factors among which the use of a special transfer needle (Sterican) especially conceived to avoid the metal impurities introduction into the reactional medium during labelling. This device, usually provided by the supplier, can exceptionally present defects (twisted needle, folded bevel...) preventing its use for the preparation. In order to manage this risk, we propose in the present technical note an alternative labelling method, based on an adaptation of the original one and using another transfer device, the Take-setSWAN system, which permits to obtain high quality Octreoscan preparations that meet the product approval specifications. (authors)

  2. Personnel Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, George, Ed.; Stodden, Robert, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Three articles comprise a section on personnel preparation in vocational education. Articles deal with two inservice programs in career/vocational education for the handicapped and a project to train paraprofessionals to assist special educators in vocational education. (CL)

  3. The effect of different levels of sunflower head pith addition on the properties of model system emulsions prepared from fresh and frozen beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariçoban, Cemalettin; Yilmaz, Mustafa Tahsin; Karakaya, Mustafa; Tiske, Sümeyra Sultan

    2010-01-01

    The effect of sunflower head pith on the functional properties of emulsions was studied by using a model system. Oil/water (O/W) model emulsion systems were prepared from fresh and frozen beef by the addition of the pith at five concentrations. Emulsion capacity (EC), stability (ES), viscosity (EV), colour and flow properties of the prepared model system emulsions were analyzed. The pith addition increased the EC and ES and the highest EC and ES values were reached when 5% of pith added; however, further increase in the pith concentration caused an inverse trend in these values. Fresh beef emulsions had higher EC and ES values than did frozen beef emulsions. One percent pith concentration was the critic level for the EV values of fresh beef emulsions. EV values of the emulsions reached a maximum level at 5% pith level, followed by a decrease at 7% pit level.

  4. Solution preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results

  5. Preparation and evaluation of a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system loaded with Akebia saponin D–phospholipid complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Jinyang Shen,1 Jianping Bi,2 Hongli Tian,1 Ye Jin,1 Yuan Wang,3 Xiaolin Yang,4 Zhonglin Yang,1 Junping Kou,5 Fei Li1 1State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 2Shandong Provincial Traditional Chinese Medical Hospital & Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, 3Traditional Chinese Medical Hospital of Pukou District, 4Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical and Biological Marine Resources Research and Development of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, 5Jiangsu Key Laboratory of TCM Evaluation and Translational Research, Department of Complex Prescription of TCM, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Background: Akebia saponin D (ASD exerts various pharmacological activities but with poor oral bioavailability. In this study, a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS based on the drug–phospholipid complex technique was developed to improve the oral absorption of ASD.Methods: ASD–phospholipid complex (APC was prepared using a solvent-evaporation method and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, morphology observation, and solubility test. Oil and cosurfactant were selected according to their ability to dissolve APC, while surfactant was chosen based on its emulsification efficiency in SNEDDS. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed to determine the optimized APC-SNEDDS formulation, which was characterized by droplet size determination, zeta potential determination, and morphology observation. Robustness to dilution and thermodynamic stability of optimized formulation were also evaluated. Subsequently, pharmacokinetic parameters and oral bioavailability of ASD, APC, and APC-SNEDDS were investigated in rats.Results: The liposolubility significantly increased 11.4-fold after formation of APC, which was verified by the solubility test in n-octanol. Peceol (Glyceryl

  6. Preparation and characterization of carbons for the retention of halogens in the condenser vacuum system of a thermonuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, S.; Gonzalez, J.F.; Ganan, J.; Sabio, E.; Gonzalez-Garcia, C.M.; Ramiro, A.; Mangut, V.

    2006-01-01

    Activated carbons were prepared by air and carbon dioxide activation, from almond tree pruning, with the aim of obtaining carbons that reproduce the textural and mechanical properties of the carbons currently used in the filtering system of the condenser vacuum installation of a Thermonuclear Plant (CNA; Central Nuclear de Almaraz in Caceres, Spain), produced from coconut shell. The variables studied in non-catalytic gasification series with air were the temperature (215-270 deg. C) and the time (1-16 h) and the influence of the addition of one catalyst (Co) and the time (1-2 h) in catalytic gasification. In the case of activation with CO 2 , the influence of the temperature (700-950 deg. C) and the time (1-8 h) was studied. The resulting carbons were characterized in terms of their BET surface, porosity, and pore size distribution. The N 2 adsorption isotherms at 77 K for both series showed a type I behaviour, typical of microporous materials. The isotherms showed that with both gasificant agents the temperature rise produced an increase in the carbon porosity. With regards to the activation time, a positive effect on the N 2 adsorbed volume on the carbons was observed. The best carbons of each series, as well as the CNA (carbon currently used in the CNA), were characterized by mercury porosimetry and iodine solution adsorption isotherms. The results obtained allowed to state that several of the carbons produced had characteristics similar to the carbon that is target of reproduction (which has S BET of 741 m 2 g -1 , V mi of 0.39 cm 3 g -1 and a iodine retention capacity of 429.3 mg g -1 ): carbon C (gasification with CO 2 at 850 deg. Cduring 1 h), with S BET of 523 m 2 g -1 , V mi of 0.33 cm 3 g -1 and a iodine retention capacity of 402.5 mg g -1 , and carbon D (gasification with CO 2 at 900 deg. Cduring 1 h), whose S BET is 672 m 2 g -1 , V mi is 0.28 cm 3 g -1 and has a iodine retention capacity of 345.2 mg g -1

  7. End-preparation assessments and tests for compounded sterile preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhiney, Linda F

    2013-01-01

    Outsourcing has become a necessity to obtain sterile products that are currently on backorder. Because of the expense of outsourcing sterile compounding, pharmacy leadership in health systems are now considering the option of insourcing and batch preparing compounded sterile preparations, which can be a viable option for a health system. It can significantly decrease drug-spending costs, and the pharmacy has a complete record of the compounding process. The key to preparing high-quality, safe, sterile preparations and meeting United States Pharmacopeia standards is end-preparation assessments and tests.

  8. A Strategic Plan of Academic Management System as Preparation for EAC Accreditation Visit--From UKM Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab-Rahman, Mohammad Syuhaimi; Yusoff, Abdul Rahman Mohd; Abdul, Nasrul Amir; Hipni, Afiq

    2015-01-01

    Development of a robust platform is important to ensure that the engineering accreditation process can run smoothly, completely and the most important is to fulfill the criteria requirements. In case of Malaysia, the preparation for EAC (Engineering Accreditation Committee) assessment required a good strategic plan of academic management system…

  9. Preparation and Optimization of Labeled Chitosan Nanoparticles and Evaluation of their Release from Transdermal Drug Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Sadeghi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Biocompatible nanoparticles are widely used in biomedical engineering. In this study, chitosan nanoparticles were prepared using ionic gelation method in view of two determining factors namely method of adding chitosan into the tripolyphosphate (TPP solution and thermal shock application. With regard to the concentration of chitosan and TPP solutions as two variables, the mean particle size of chitosan nanoparticles and their preparation yield were optimized using response surface method. According to previous studies and some preliminary experiments, the chitosan and TPP solution concentration ranges were determined to be 0.5-2.5 mg/mL and 0.25-1.25 mg/mL, respectively. The optimum values of 1.25 mg/mL and 0.6 mg/mL were obtained for chitosan and TPP solution concentrations in the order given. The optimized response value for the chitosan nanoparticles size was found to be 54 nm and preparation yield was 62%. The Zeta potential of resulting spherical nanoparticles was around 31 mV. Chitosan-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC polymer was prepared based on the reaction between isothiocyanate functional group of FITC and primary amine functional group of chitosan. FTIR analysis was performed to demonstrate the presence of new bond formation. Labeled chitosan nanoparticles were prepared in the optimized condition using chitosan-FITC polymer. The release behavior of the labeled chitosan nanoparticles from transdermal patches was evaluated. The mean size of chitosan-FITC nanoparticles was determined to be 70 nm. Finally, it was shown that the chitosan nanoparticles were not able to release from acrylic adhesive film without using a method to speed up their diffusion.

  10. Two-step preparation of nano-scaled magnetic chitosan particles using Triton X-100 reversed-phase water-in-oil microemulsion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhengkun; Jiang, Feihong [College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Lee, Tung-Ching, E-mail: lee@aesop.rutgers.edu [Department of Food Science, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 65 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Yue, Tianli, E-mail: yuetl305@nwsuaf.edu.cn [College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China)

    2013-12-25

    Highlights: •A new two-step route for nano-scaled magnetic chitosan particles preparation. •Triton X-100 reversed-phase microemulsion system was used for chitosan coating. •Narrow size distribution of magnetic chitosan nanoparticles was achieved. •Quantitative evaluation of recoverability for the magnetic chitosan nanoparticles. -- Abstract: A new two-step route for the preparation of nano-scaled magnetic chitosan particles has been developed, different from reported one-step in situ preparation and two-step preparation method of reversed-phase suspension, Triton X-100 reversed-phase water-in-oil microemulsion encapsulation method was employed in coating the pre-prepared Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with chitosan. The resultant magnetic chitosan particles owned a narrow size distribution ranging from 50 to 92 nm. X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) indicated that the chitosan coating procedure did not change the spinal structure of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles. The results of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) demonstrated that the chitosan was coated on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and its average mass content was ∼50%. The saturated magnetization of the magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/chitosan nanoparticles reached 18.62 emu/g, meanwhile, the nanoparticles showed the characteristics of superparamagnetism. The magnetic chitosan nanoparticles showed a high recoverability of 99.99% in 10 min when pH exceeded 4. The results suggested that the as-prepared magnetic chitosan particles were nano-scaled with a narrow size distribution and a high recoverability.

  11. Two-step preparation of nano-scaled magnetic chitosan particles using Triton X-100 reversed-phase water-in-oil microemulsion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Zhengkun; Jiang, Feihong; Lee, Tung-Ching; Yue, Tianli

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •A new two-step route for nano-scaled magnetic chitosan particles preparation. •Triton X-100 reversed-phase microemulsion system was used for chitosan coating. •Narrow size distribution of magnetic chitosan nanoparticles was achieved. •Quantitative evaluation of recoverability for the magnetic chitosan nanoparticles. -- Abstract: A new two-step route for the preparation of nano-scaled magnetic chitosan particles has been developed, different from reported one-step in situ preparation and two-step preparation method of reversed-phase suspension, Triton X-100 reversed-phase water-in-oil microemulsion encapsulation method was employed in coating the pre-prepared Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles with chitosan. The resultant magnetic chitosan particles owned a narrow size distribution ranging from 50 to 92 nm. X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) indicated that the chitosan coating procedure did not change the spinal structure of Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles. The results of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) demonstrated that the chitosan was coated on Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles and its average mass content was ∼50%. The saturated magnetization of the magnetic Fe 3 O 4 /chitosan nanoparticles reached 18.62 emu/g, meanwhile, the nanoparticles showed the characteristics of superparamagnetism. The magnetic chitosan nanoparticles showed a high recoverability of 99.99% in 10 min when pH exceeded 4. The results suggested that the as-prepared magnetic chitosan particles were nano-scaled with a narrow size distribution and a high recoverability

  12. Analysis and comparison of methods for the preparation of domestic hot water from district heating system, selected renewable and non-renewable sources in low-energy buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knapik Maciej

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an economic analysis and comparison of selected (district heating, natural gas, heat pump with renewable energy sources methods for the preparation of domestic hot water in a building with low energy demand. In buildings of this type increased demand of energy for domestic hot water preparation in relation to the total energy demand can be observed. As a result, the proposed solutions allow to further lower energy demand by using the renewable energy sources. This article presents the results of numerical analysis and calculations performed mainly in MATLAB software, based on typical meteorological years. The results showed that system with heat pump and renewable energy sources Is comparable with district heating system.

  13. Simple and environmentally friendly preparation and size control of silver nanoparticles using an inhomogeneous system with silver-containing glass powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Yasutaka; Tagawa, Toshio; Fujita, Masanori; Kuno, Toyohiko; Suzuki, Satoshi; Matsui, Takemi; Ishihara, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    A simple, environmentally friendly method for preparing highly size-controlled spherical silver nanoparticles was developed that involved heating a mixture of silver-containing glass powder and an aqueous solution of glucose. The stabilizing agent for silver nanoparticles was found to be caramel, which was generated from glucose when preparing the nanoparticles. The particle size was independent of the reaction time, but it increased proportionally with the square root of the glucose concentration in the range 0.25–8.0 wt% (corresponding to particle sizes of 3.48 ± 1.83 to 20.0 ± 2.76 nm). Difference of the generation mechanism of silver nanoparticles between this inhomogeneous system and a system in which Ag + was homogeneously dispersed was discussed.

  14. Analysis and comparison of methods for the preparation of domestic hot water from district heating system, selected renewable and non-renewable sources in low-energy buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Maciej

    2018-02-01

    The article presents an economic analysis and comparison of selected (district heating, natural gas, heat pump with renewable energy sources) methods for the preparation of domestic hot water in a building with low energy demand. In buildings of this type increased demand of energy for domestic hot water preparation in relation to the total energy demand can be observed. As a result, the proposed solutions allow to further lower energy demand by using the renewable energy sources. This article presents the results of numerical analysis and calculations performed mainly in MATLAB software, based on typical meteorological years. The results showed that system with heat pump and renewable energy sources Is comparable with district heating system.

  15. Preparing Canada`s power systems for transition to the Year 2000: Y2K readiness assessment results for Canadian electric utility companies: second quarter 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-25

    The report describes the state of readiness of Canadian electric utility companies with respect to the Year 2000 computer challenge. It complements the North American Electric Reliability Council Report entitled `Preparing the Electric Power Systems of North America for Transition to the Year 2000: A Status and Work Plan.` Two surveys were employed to gather information for this report. The first, a detailed survey prepared by NERC, was forwarded to all major electric utilities that comprise the Bulk Electricity System in North America. CEA has removed the Canadian findings from the overall North American results, and has presented those findings in this report. The second was a shorter, more simplified study, conducted by CEA and Natural Resources Canada. Whereas small companies involved only in the distribution aspect of the electricity business were not asked to complete the NERC assessment, all Canadian electric utility companies were part of the shorter survey. Chapter 2 covers specifically the readiness status and project management for non-nuclear generation, nuclear generation, energy management systems, telecommunications systems, substation controls, system protection and distribution systems, business information systems, and small distribution companies.

  16. Protective effects of a preparation(hemoHIM) of herb mixture on self-renewal tissues and immune system in whole body irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hae-Ran; Oh, Heon; Jo, Sung-Kee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Ho [Chonnam National Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yee, Sung-Tae [Sunchon National Univ., Sunchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    A preparation (HemoHIM) of herb mixture was designed to protect the gastrointestine and hematopoietic organs and to promote recovery of the immune system against radiation damage. The mixture of 3 edible medicinal herbs (Angelica gagantis Radix, etc.) was decocted with hot water and the extract was fractionated with ethanol. The preparation HemoHIM was made up with addition of ethanol- insoluble fraction yielded from one half of the total water extract to the other half of the total water extract. In vitro, lymphocytes were protected by HemoHIM, its polysaccharide and ethanol fractions against radiation. The proliferation of lymphocytes and bone marrow cells by HemoHIM was due to its polysaccharide fraction. In mice administered with the preparation (HemoHIM) before gamma- irradiation, the jejunal crypt survival was increased and the apoptosis of crypt cells was decreased. HemoHIM administration increased the survival of bone marrow stem cells and promoted the repopulation of blood cells following irradiation. In the analysis of the repopulated lymphocyte subsets, B cells were firstly regenerated and then T cells were recovered in mice administrated with HemoHIM. The antibody production against T-dependent antigen DNP-KLH was augmented by HemoHIM in irradiated mice. These results indicated that HemoHIM, a preparation of the herb mixture, protected the stem cells of self-renewal tissues and hematopoietic organs and promoted recovery of the immune system against radiation damage. Since the preparation of herb mixture is a relatively nontoxic natural product, it might be a useful modifier for prevention and control of radiation damages.

  17. Radioprotective effects of a preparation (HemoHIM) of herb mixture on self-renewal tissues and immune system in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Park, Hae Ran; Jung, Uhee; Oh, Heon [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam National Univ. Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yee, Sung Tae [Sunchon National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    A preparation (HemoHIM) of herb mixture was designed to protect the gastrointestine and hematopoietic organs and to promote recovery of the immune system against radiation damage. The mixture of 3 edible medicinal herbs was decocted with hot water and the extract was fractionated with ethanol. The preparation HemoHIM was made up with addition of ethanol-insoluble fraction to the total water extract. In vitro, HemoHIM, its polysaccharide and ethanol fractions protected lymphocytes against radiation and scavenged hydroxyl radicals. The proliferation of lymphocytes and bone marrow cells by HemoHIM was due to its polysaccharide fraction. In mice administered with the preparation (HemoHIM) before gamma-irradiation the jejunal crypt survival was increased and the apoptosis of crypt cells was decreased. HemoHIM administration increased the survival of bone marrow stem cells and promoted the repopulation of blood cells following irradiation. In the analysis of the repopulated lymphocyte subsets, B cells were firstly regenerated and then T cells were recovered in mice administrated with HemoHIM. The antibody production against T-dependent antigen DNP-KLH was augmented by HemoHIM in irradiated mice. Finally, oral or intraperitoneal administration of HemoHIM augmented the 30 day survival rate after irradiation. These results indicated that HemoHIM, a preparation of the herb mixture, protected the stem cells of self-renewal tissues and hematopoietic organs and promoted recovery of the immune system against radiation damage, thus increasing the survival following lethal irradiation. Since the preparation of herb mixture is a relatively nontoxic natural product, it might be a useful modifier for prevention and control of radiation damages.

  18. Detection of cytomegalovirus in blood donors by PCR using the digene SHARP signal system assay: effects of sample preparation and detection methodology.

    OpenAIRE

    Krajden, M; Shankaran, P; Bourke, C; Lau, W

    1996-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important cause of transfusion-associated morbidity and mortality; however, only 0.4 to 12% of the blood products obtained from seropositive blood donors transmit infection. The effects of three commercially available whole-blood sample preparation kits on the detection of CMV PCR products by a semiquantitative adaptation of the Digene SHARP Signal System Assay (DSSSA) in samples from volunteer blood donors was assessed. Of 101 samples from seropositive blood donor...

  19. Preparation and catalytic effect of porous Co3O4 on the hydrogen storage properties of a Li-B-N-H system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A porous Co3O4 with a particle size of 1–3 µm was successfully prepared by heating Co-based metal organic frameworks MOF-74(Co up to 500 °C in air atmospheric conditions. The as-prepared porous Co3O4 significantly reduced the dehydrogenation temperatures of the LiBH4-2LiNH2 system and improved the purity of the released hydrogen. The LiBH4-2LiNH2-0.05/3Co3O4 sample started to release hydrogen at 140 °C and released hydrogen levels of approximately 9.7 wt% at 225 °C. The end temperature for hydrogen release was lowered by 125 °C relative to that of the pristine sample. Structural analyses revealed that the as-prepared porous Co3O4 is in-situ reduced to metallic Co, which functions as an active catalyst, reducing the kinetic barriers and lowering the dehydrogenation temperatures of the LiBH4-2LiNH2 system. More importantly, the porous Co3O4-containing sample exhibited partially improved reversibility for hydrogen storage in the LiBH4-2LiNH2 system.

  20. Preparation of starch nanoparticles in a water-in-ionic liquid microemulsion system and their drug loading and releasing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Luo, Zhigang; Fu, Xiong

    2014-08-13

    An ionic liquid microemulsion consisting of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([Bmim]PF₆), surfactant TX-100, 1-butanol, and water was prepared. The water-in-[Bmim]PF₆ (W/IL), bicontinuous, and [Bmim]PF₆-in-water (IL/W) microregions of the microemulsion were identified by conductivity measurements. Starch nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 91.4 nm were synthesized with epichlorohydrin as cross-linker through W/IL microemulsion cross-linking reaction at 50 °C for 4 h. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) data demonstrated the formation of cross-linking bonds in starch molecules. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that starch nanoparticles were spherical and that some particles showed aggregation formation. Furthermore, drug loading and releasing properties of starch nanoparticles were investigated with mitoxantrone hydrochloride as a drug model. This work provides an efficient and environmentally friendly approach for the preparation of starch nanoparticles, which is beneficial to their further application.

  1. Sample preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Sample preparation prior to HPLC analysis is certainly one of the most important steps to consider in trace or ultratrace analysis. For many years scientists have tried to simplify the sample preparation process. It is rarely possible to inject a neat liquid sample or a sample where preparation may not be any more complex than dissolution of the sample in a given solvent. The last process alone can remove insoluble materials, which is especially helpful with the samples in complex matrices if other interactions do not affect extraction. Here, it is very likely a large number of components will not dissolve and are, therefore, eliminated by a simple filtration process. In most cases, the process of sample preparation is not as simple as dissolution of the component interest. At times, enrichment is necessary, that is, the component of interest is present in very large volume or mass of material. It needs to be concentrated in some manner so a small volume of the concentrated or enriched sample can be injected into HPLC. 88 refs

  2. [Research of preparation craft of Danshen phenolic acid fast release unit in multi-drug delivery system of Tongmai micro-pellets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Xiao, Wei; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Huang, Yang

    2012-07-01

    To prepare Danshen phenolic acid fast release micro-pellets and study its preparation craft. The factors which could impact yield, extrude shaping, dissolution of Danshen phenolic acid micro-pellets such as wetting agent, drug loading dose, adjuvant, lactose dose, disintegrant, CMS-Na dose and wetting agent dose was investigated. The optimum preparation craft of Danshen phenolic acid fast release micro-pellets was screened out by orhogonal design. Formula of Danshen phenolic acid fast release micro-pellets was calculated as volume dose 50 g. The formula was as follows: principal agent 22.5 g, lactose 5 g, CMS-Na 2 g, MCC 20.5 g, 27 mL 30% ethanol as wetting agent. Extrusion-spheronization was applied. The optimum conditions were screened out as follows: extrusion frequency (25 Hz), spheronization machine frequency (50 Hz), spheronization time (4 min). The process was scientific and rational. The preparation is stable settles basis for multi-drug delivery system of Tongmai micro-pellets.

  3. Preparation of a ceramic superconductor from ultrafine particles by freeze-dry process in Ba-Y-Cu-O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zuyao; Qian Yitai; Wan Yanjian; Rong Jingfang; Zhang Han; Pan Guoqiang; Zhao Yong; Zhang Qirui

    1989-01-01

    Freeze-dry technique is first reported for preparing ceramic ultrafines. The single-phase complex oxide Ba 2 YCu 3 O/sub 9-δ/, a poly-crystallized compound, and ceramic superconductor have been synthesized successfully. The experimental results show that not only is the ceramic superconductor obtained uniform with fine particles and excellent superconductivity, but the conditions for solid reactions are relatively limited

  4. Self-improving Inference System to Support the Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield: Requirements, State of the Art, and Prototypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2014 Abstract …….. This report presents the results of...documents coming from the international military community (doctrine, manuals) as well as from the academia (scientific papers). From this analysis, a...References ..... [1] US Military, “US Joint Intelligence Preparation of the Operational Environment”, Joint Publication 2-01.3, 16 June

  5. Comparative study of 6 rotary nickel-titanium systems and hand instrumentation for root canal preparation in severely curved root canals of extracted teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Davut; Taşdemir, Tamer; Er, Kürşat

    2013-02-01

    Some improvements have been developed with new generations of nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments that led to their successful and extensive application in clinical practice. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the root canal preparations performed by using GT Series X and Twisted File systems produced by innovative manufacturing process with Revo-S, RaCe, Mtwo, and ProTaper Universal systems manufactured directly from conventional nitinol and with stainless steel K-Flexofile instruments. The mesiobuccal root canals of 140 maxillary first permanent molars that had between 30°-40° curvature angle and 4- to 9-mm curvature radius of the root canal were used. After root canal preparations made by using GT Series X, Twisted File, Revo-S, RaCe, Mtwo, and ProTaper Universal NiTi rotary systems and stainless steel K-Flexofile instruments, transportation occurred in the root canal, and alteration of working length (WL) was assessed by using a modified double-digital radiographic technique. The data were compared by the post hoc Tukey honestly significant difference test. NiTi rotary systems caused less canal transportation and alteration of WL than K-Flexofile instruments (P .05) except 2.5 mm from the WL. At this level ProTaper Universal system caused significant canal transportation (P ProTaper Universal rotary systems manufactured by traditional methods. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The preparation of landslide map by Landslide Numerical Risk Factor (LNRF model and Geographic Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammadi Torkashvand

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the risks to threaten mountainous areas is that hillslope instability caused damage to lands. One of the most dangerous instabilities is mass movement and much movement occurs due to slip. The aim of this study is zonation of landslide hazards in a basin of the Ardebil province, the eastern slopes of Sabalan, Iran. Geological and geomorphologic conditions, climate and type of land use have caused susceptibility of this watershed to landslides. Firstly, maps of the main factors affecting landslide occurrence including slope, distance from faults, lithology, elevation and precipitation were prepared and digitized. Then, by using interpretation of aerial photos and satellite images and field views, the ground truth map of landslides was prepared. Each basic layer (factor and landslide map were integrated to compute the numeric value of each factor with the help of a Landslide Numerical Risk Factor (LNRF model and landslide occurrence percent obtained in different units from each of the maps. Finally, with overlapping different data layers, a landslide hazard zonation map was prepared. Results showed that 67.85% of the basin has high instability, 7.76% moderate instability and 24.39% low instability.

  7. Design Support System for Coloring Illustrations by Using the Colors Preferred by a User as Determined from the Hue Patterns of Illustrations Prepared by that User

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukai, Hironobu; Mitsukura, Yasue

    We propose a new design support system that can color illustrations according to a person's color preferences that are determined on the basis of the color patterns of illustrations prepared by that person. Recently, many design tools for promoting free design have been developed. However, preferences for various colors differ depending on individual personality. Therefore, a system that can automatically color various designs on the basis of human preference is required. In this study, we propose an automatic modeling system that can be used to model illustrations. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed system, we simulate a coloring design experiment to determine the color patterns preferred by some subjects by using various design data. By using the design data, we determine each subjects preferred color pattern, and send feedback on these individual color patterns to the proposed system.

  8. Apical extrusion of debris during the preparation of oval root canals: a comparative study between a full-sequence SAF system and a rotary file system supplemented by XP-endo finisher file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfir, Anda; Moza-Levi, Rotem; Herteanu, Moran; Weissman, Amir; Wigler, Ronald

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the amount of apically extruded debris during the preparation of oval canals with either a rotary file system supplemented by the XP-endo Finisher file or a full-sequence self-adjusting file (SAF) system. Sixty mandibular incisors were randomly assigned to two groups: group A: stage 1-glide path preparation with Pre-SAF instruments. Stage 2-cleaning and shaping with SAF. Group B: stage 1-glide path preparation with ProGlider file. Stage 2-cleaning and shaping with ProTaper Next system. Stage 3-Final cleaning with XP-endo Finisher file. The debris extruded during each of the stages was collected, and the debris weights were compared between the groups and between the stages within the groups using t tests with a significance level set at P file followed by XP-endo Finisher file extruded significantly more debris than a full-sequence SAF system. Each stage, in either procedure, had its own contribution to the extrusion of debris. Final preparation with XP-endo Finisher file contributes to the total amount of extruded debris, but the clinical relevance of the relative difference in the amount of apically extruded debris remains unclear.

  9. On a novel method to synthesize POSS-based hybrids: An example of the preparation of TPU based system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Monticelli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel method to prepare polymer/polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS hybrids by melt reactive blending is proposed in this paper, by the controlled polymer chain scission and reaction of chain ends with functional silsesquioxanes. Application to thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU is addressed, taking advantage of the polyurethane chain scission equilibrium reaction, leading to the formation of highly reactive isocyanate and hydroxyl chain ends. Despite the isocyanate chemistry has been widely studied for the preparation of polymer/POSS hybrids by in situ copolymerisation, the exploitation of similar chemical processes in an industrially viable and environmental friendly melt blending process is currently an open research field. In this work, the reaction in the molten state of dihydroxyl-functionalised POSS with the polyurethane chain is demonstrated to produce a TPU/POSS hybrids. The effect of POSS concentration on nanomorphology, thermal properties and surface properties is studied, showing significant changes compared to pristine TPU. In particular, an increase of glass transition temperature is observed in the presence of reactive POSS (ΔT up to about 10°C in the presence of 10 wt% loading. Furthermore, an increase of surface water wettability, evidenced by the decrease of water contact angle from 95° for pristine TPU to 70° in TPU containing 10"wt% of reactive POSS, is found.

  10. Partially Hydrolyzed Poly(n-propyl-2-oxazoline): Synthesis, Aqueous Solution Properties, and Preparation of Gene Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mees, Maarten; Haladjova, Emi; Momekova, Denitsa; Momekov, Georgi; Shestakova, Pavletta S; Tsvetanov, Christo B; Hoogenboom, Richard; Rangelov, Stanislav

    2016-11-14

    Random copolymers of n-propyl-2-oxazoline and ethylenimine (PPrOx-PEI) were prepared by partial acidic hydrolysis of poly(n-propyl-2-oxazoline) (PPrOx). Dynamic and electrophoretic light scattering and diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy were utilized to investigate aqueous solution properties of the copolymers. Above a specific cloud point temperature, well-defined nanoparticles were formed. The latter consisted of a core composed predominantly of PPrOx and a thin positively charged shell from PEI moieties that mediated formation of polyplexes with DNA. The polyplexes were prepared at 65 °C at varying N/P (amine-to-phosphate groups) ratios. They underwent structural changes upon temperature variations 65-25-37 °C depending on N/P. At N/P < 2, the polyplex particles underwent minor changes because of formation of a surface layer of DNA that acted as a barrier and prevented swelling and disintegration of the initial particles. Dramatic rearrangements at N/P ≥ 2 resulting in large swollen microgel particles were overcome by coating of the polyplex particles with a cross-linked polymeric shell. The shell retained the colloidal stability and preserved the physicochemical parameters of the initial polyplex particles while it reduced the high surface potential values. Progressive loss of cytotoxicity upon complexation with DNA and coating of polyplex particles was displayed.

  11. Growth and characterization of nanodiamond layers prepared using the plasma-enhanced linear antennas microwave CVD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendrych, Frantisek; Taylor, Andrew; Peksa, Ladislav; Kratochvilova, Irena; Kluiber, Zdenek; Fekete, Ladislav [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, CZ-18221 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Vlcek, Jan [Department of Physics and Measurement, Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technicka 5, CZ-16628 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Rezacova, Vladimira; Petrak, Vaclav [Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Czech Technical University, Sitna 3105, CZ-27201 Kladno 2 (Czech Republic); Liehr, Michael [Leybold Optics Dresden GmbH, Zur Wetterwarte 50, D-01109 Dresden (Germany); Nesladek, Milos, E-mail: fendrych@fzu.c [IMOMEC division, IMEC, Institute for Materials Research, University Hasselt, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2010-09-22

    Industrial applications of plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond grown on large area substrates, 3D shapes, at low substrate temperatures and on standard engineering substrate materials require novel plasma concepts. Based on the pioneering work of the group at AIST in Japan, the high-density coaxial delivery type of plasmas has been explored (Tsugawa et al 2006 New Diamond Front. Carbon Technol. 16 337-46). However, an important challenge is to obtain commercially interesting growth rates at very low substrate temperatures. In this work we introduce the concept of novel linear antenna sources, designed at Leybold Optics Dresden, using high-frequency pulsed MW discharge with a high plasma density. This type of pulse discharges leads to the preparation of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin films, compared with ultra-NCD thin films prepared in (Tsugawa et al 2006 New Diamond Front. Carbon Technol. 16 337-46). We present optical emission spectroscopy data for the CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2} gas chemistry and we discuss the basic properties of the NCD films grown.

  12. Preparation of methodology for reliability analysis of selected digital segments of the instrumentation and control systems of NPPs. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hustak, S.; Patrik, M.; Babic, P.

    2000-12-01

    The report is structured as follows: (i) Introduction; (ii) Important notions relating to the safety and dependability of software systems for nuclear power plants (selected notions from IAEA Technical Report No. 397; safety aspects of software application; reliability/dependability aspects of digital systems); (iii) Peculiarities of digital systems and ways to a dependable performance of the required function (failures in the system and principles of defence against them; ensuring resistance of digital systems against failures at various hardware and software levels); (iv) The issue of analytical procedures to assess the safety and reliability of safety-related digital systems (safety and reliability assessment at an early stage of the project; general framework of reliability analysis of complex systems; choice of an appropriate quantitative measure of software reliability); (v) Selected qualitative and quantitative information about the reliability of digital systems; the use of relations between the incidence of various types of faults); and (vi) Conclusions and recommendations. (P.A.)

  13. Sections prepared for inclusion in an IAEA technical document handbook on Designing and Implementing a Physical Protection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snell, Mark K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Two major sections were drafted (each with several subsections) for the IAEA dealing with designing and implementing a Physical Protection System (PPS). Areas addressed were Search Systems and the evaluation of PPS effectiveness.

  14. Assessment Using AutoCAD Software of the Preparation of Dentin Walls in Root Canals Produced by 4 Different Endodontic Instrument Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cabanillas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare the effectiveness of four instrument systems for preparing oval root canals: manual instrumentation (Step-Back technique, ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and Wave One. Material and Methods. For the purpose of this assessment, 60 teeth extracted for orthodontic or periodontal reasons, specifically canines and premolars with full coronal and root anatomy, were used and 15 samples were assigned to each group. The section of the canals was compared before and after instrumenting and the section of untouched canal wall was measured using AutoCAD software. The data was analysed by means of Shapiro-Wilk, ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results. In the apical third, 100% of the canals were prepared with all the systems. In the middle third, a p value of 0.5989 in the Kruskal-Wallis test was obtained, which indicates no significant difference between the groups. At the coronal third level, the results obtained revealed that Wave One had a significantly lower mean average than the rest (p<0.05. Conclusions. There are no differences between the various root canal instrument systems in the apical and middle thirds. At the coronal third level, Wave One system showed performance significantly worse than the rest, among which there were no differences.

  15. Assessment Using AutoCAD Software of the Preparation of Dentin Walls in Root Canals Produced by 4 Different Endodontic Instrument Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanillas, Cristina; Monterde, Manuel; Pallarés, Antonio; Aranda, Susana; Montes, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the effectiveness of four instrument systems for preparing oval root canals: manual instrumentation (Step-Back technique), ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and Wave One. Material and Methods. For the purpose of this assessment, 60 teeth extracted for orthodontic or periodontal reasons, specifically canines and premolars with full coronal and root anatomy, were used and 15 samples were assigned to each group. The section of the canals was compared before and after instrumenting and the section of untouched canal wall was measured using AutoCAD software. The data was analysed by means of Shapiro-Wilk, ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results. In the apical third, 100% of the canals were prepared with all the systems. In the middle third, a p value of 0.5989 in the Kruskal-Wallis test was obtained, which indicates no significant difference between the groups. At the coronal third level, the results obtained revealed that Wave One had a significantly lower mean average than the rest (p < 0.05). Conclusions. There are no differences between the various root canal instrument systems in the apical and middle thirds. At the coronal third level, Wave One system showed performance significantly worse than the rest, among which there were no differences.

  16. Morphology of resin-dentin interfaces after Er,Cr:YSGG laser and acid etching preparation and application of different bonding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Franziska; Buchmair, Alfred; Körpert, Wolfram; Marvastian, Leila; Wernisch, Johann; Moritz, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    The goal of this study was to show the modifications in the ultrastructure of the dentin surface morphology following different surface treatments. The stability of the adhesive compound with dentin after laser preparation compared with conventional preparation using different bonding agents was evaluated. An Er,Cr:YSGG laser and 36% phosphoric acid in combination with various bonding systems were used. A total of 100 caries-free human third molars were used in this study. Immediately after surgical removal teeth were cut using a band saw and 1-mm thick dentin slices were created starting at a distance of 4 mm from the cusp plane to ensure complete removal of the enamel. The discs were polished with silicon carbide paper into rectangular shapes to a size of 6 × 4 mm (±0,2 mm).The discs as well as the remaining teeth stumps were stored in 0.9% NaCl at room temperature. The specimens were divided into three main groups (group I laser group, group II etch group, group III laser and etch group) and each group was subdivided into three subgroups which were allocated to the different bonding systems (subgroup A Excite, subgroup B Scotchbond, subgroup C Syntac). Each disc and the corresponding tooth stump were treated in the same way. After preparation the bonding composite material was applied according to the manufacturers' guidelines in a hollow tube of 2 mm diameter to the disc as well as to the corresponding tooth stump. Shear bond strength testing and environmental scanning electron microscopy were used to assess the morphology and stability of the resin-dentin interface. The self-etching bonding system showed the highest and the most constant shear values in all three main groups, thus enabling etching with phosphoric acid after laser preparation to be avoided. Thus we conclude that laser preparation creates a surface texture that allows prediction of the quality of the restoration without the risk of negative influences during the following treatment steps. This

  17. Radioprotective preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanova, D.; Frattadochi, A.; Gattavecchia, E.; Ferri, E.; Tonnelli, D.

    1988-01-01

    The invention is intended for radiation injuries prophylaxis in mammals. It has an well expressed radioprotective effect against acute gamma irradiation on cellular level as well as a prolonged action when applied up to 48 hours before the acute irradiation. The preparation is a coprecipitate of the natural tripeptide glutathione (reduced form) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (pvp) in ratio 30-60/70-40. It is obtained by incubation method with subsequent lyophilization from water solution of the initial components. The molecular mass of the pvp is 20 till 360.10 3 . 2 claims

  18. Target preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinn, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    A few of the more interesting of the 210 targets prepared in the Laboratory last year are listed. In addition the author continues to use powdered silver mixed with /sup 9,10/BeO to produce sources for accelerator radio dating of Alaskan and South Polar snow. Currently, he is trying to increase production by multiple sample processing. Also the author routinely makes 3 μg/cm 2 cracked slacked carbon stripper foils and is continuing research with some degree of success in making enriched 28 Si targets starting with the oxide

  19. Tetragonal zirconia ceramics in Zr O2-Ce O2 system (Ce-TZP): preparation, characterization and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Nono, M.C. de.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses the results achieved in a study about Ce-TZP ceramics prepared from conventional powder mixtures of Zr O 2 and Ce O 2 (with composition in the range of 8 to 16 mol% Ce O 2 ). Physical and chemical characteristics were related with the powder compaction behavior and with the sintering state. The sintered ceramics showed a level of high porosity (≅ 4%), mainly due to the fairly adequate powder characteristics and compaction. The crystalline phases were analysed from X-rays diffraction data and showed that these ceramics can present tetragonal-to-monoclinic stress induced transformation. The bending strength, fracture toughness and Vickers hardness results were influenced by Ce O 2 content microstructure and sintering temperature. These Ce-TZP ceramics showed mechanical strength results comparable to those published in the international literature. (author)

  20. Evaluation and characterization of β -tricalcium phosphate powder prepared by CaCO3/H3PO4 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah Rizal Kasim; Yeong Meng Yee; Hazizan Md Akil; Zainal Arifin Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    Many attempts have been focused in the past on preparing of synthetic β-tricalcium (β-TCP), which being employed as bone substitute due to its biocompatibility and resorbability. Low temperature synthesize such as sol-gel method become popular due to the high product purity and homogenous composition. Sol-gel method is less economical towards commercialization because the cost of raw materials and the yield of the product that can be achieved. This paper describes the synthesis of β-TCP via mixing of CaCO 3 and H 3 PO 4 followed by calcinations process at 750 degree C - 1050 degree C. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), fourier transformation infra-red (FTIR) were used for characterization and evaluation of the phase composition, morphology, particle size and thermal behavior of the product. β-TCP phase start to occur after calcinations at 750 degree C. (Author)

  1. Portable sample preparation and analysis system for micron and sub-micron particle characterization using light scattering and absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Peter C [Los Alamos, NM; Zurek, Eduardo [Barranquilla, CO; Wheat, Jeffrey V [Fort Walton Beach, FL; Dunbar, John M [Santa Fe, NM; Olivares, Jose A [Los Alamos, NM; Garcia-Rubio, Luis H [Temple Terrace, FL; Ward, Michael D [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-07-26

    There is provided a method and device for remote sampling, preparation and optical interrogation of a sample using light scattering and light absorption methods. The portable device is a filtration-based device that removes interfering background particle material from the sample matrix by segregating or filtering the chosen analyte from the sample solution or matrix while allowing the interfering background particles to be pumped out of the device. The segregated analyte is then suspended in a diluent for analysis. The device is capable of calculating an initial concentration of the analyte, as well as diluting the analyte such that reliable optical measurements can be made. Suitable analytes include cells, microorganisms, bioparticles, pathogens and diseases. Sample matrixes include biological fluids such as blood and urine, as well as environmental samples including waste water.

  2. Soluplus®/TPGS-based solid dispersions prepared by hot-melt extrusion equipped with twin-screw systems for enhancing oral bioavailability of valsartan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Young; Kang, Wie-Soo; Piao, Jingpei; Yoon, In-Soo; Kim, Dae-Duk; Cho, Hyun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Soluplus(®) (SP) and D-alpha-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS)-based solid dispersion (SD) formulations were developed by hot-melt extrusion (HME) to improve oral bioavailability of valsartan (VST). HME process with twin-screw configuration for generating a high shear stress was used to prepare VST SD formulations. The thermodynamic state of the drug and its dispersion in the polymers were evaluated by solid-state studies, including Fourier-transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry. Drug release from the SD formulations was assessed at pH values of 1.2, 4.0, and 6.8. Pharmacokinetic study was performed in rats to estimate the oral absorption of VST. HME with a high shear rate produced by the twin-screw system was successfully applied to prepare VST-loaded SD formulations. Drug amorphization and its molecular dispersion in the polymer matrix were verified by several solid-state studies. Drug release from SD formulations was improved, compared to the pure drug, particularly at pH 6.8. Oral absorption of drug in rats was also enhanced in SP and TPGS-based SD groups compared to that in the pure drug group. SP and TPGS-based SDs, prepared by the HME process, could be used to improve aqueous solubility, dissolution, and oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs.

  3. Preparation of liposomes containing zedoary turmeric oil using freeze-drying of liposomes via TBA/water cosolvent systems and evaluation of the bioavailability of the oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiwen; Yu, Songlin; Fu, Dahua

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to enhance the absorption of zedoary turmeric oil (ZTO) in vivo and develop new formulations of a water-insoluble oily drug. This study described a method for preparing ZTO liposomes, which involved freeze-drying (FD) of liposomes with TBA/water cosolvent systems. The TBA/water cosolvent systems were used to investigate a feasible method of liposomes manufacture; the two factors, sugar/lipid mass ratio and TBA content (concentration), of the preparation process were evaluated in this study. The results showed that the addition of TBA content could significantly enhance the sublimation of ice resulting in short FD cycles time, and reduce the entrapment efficiency of liposomes. In addition, the residual TBA solvents levels were determined to be less than 0.37% under all optimum formulations and processing conditions. Several physical properties of liposomes were examined by H-600 transmission electron microscope (TEM) and zetamaster analyser system. The results revealed that the liposomes were smooth and spherical with an average particle size of 457 +/- 7.8 nm and the zeta potential was more than 3.65 Mv. The bioavailability of the liposomes was evaluated in rabbits, compared with the conventional self-emulsifying formulation for oral administration. Compared with the conventional self-emulsifying formulation, the plasma concentration-time profiles with improved sustained-release characteristics were achieved after oral administration of the liposomes with a bioavailability of 257.7% (a good strategy for improving the bioavailability of an oily drug). In conclusion, the present experimental findings clearly demonstrated the usefulness of ZTO liposome vesicles in improving therapeutic efficacy by enhancing oral bioavailability. Our study offered an alternative method for designing sustained-release preparations of oily drugs.

  4. Influence of a glide path on apical extrusion of debris during canal preparation using single-file systems in curved canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçuoğlu, H S; Düzgün, S; Akpek, F; Topçuoğlu, G; Aktı, A

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of a glide path on the amount of apically extruded debris during canal preparation using single-file systems in curved canals. Ninety extracted mandibular molar teeth were randomly assigned to six groups (n = 15 for each group) for canal instrumentation. Endodontic access cavities were prepared in each tooth. In three of the six groups, a glide path was not created whereas a glide path was created using PathFile instruments on the mesial canals of all teeth in the remaining three groups. The mesial canals of the teeth were then instrumented with the following single-file instrument systems: WaveOne, Reciproc and OneShape. Debris extruded apically during instrumentation was collected into pre-weighed Eppendorf tubes. The tubes were then stored in an incubator at 70 °C for 5 days. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by subtracting the pre-instrumentation and post-instrumentation weight of the Eppendorf tubes for each group. The data obtained were analysed using one-way analysis of variance (anova) and Tukey's post hoc tests. The OneShape file was associated with less debris extrusion than the Reciproc and WaveOne files when canal instrumentation was performed without a glide path (P files (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference amongst the OneShape, Reciproc and WaveOne files when a glide path was created before canal preparation in curved root canals (P > 0.05). All systems extruded significantly less debris in groups with a glide path than in groups without a glide path (P < 0.05). All instruments were associated with apical extrusion of debris. Creating a glide path prior to canal instrumentation reduced the amount of apically extruded debris in curved canals. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Method of preparing and utilizing a catalyst system for an oxidation process on a gaseous hydrocarbon stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, David A; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Smith, Mark; Haynes, Daniel

    2013-07-16

    The disclosure relates to a method of utilizing a catalyst system for an oxidation process on a gaseous hydrocarbon stream with a mitigation of carbon accumulation. The system is comprised of a catalytically active phase deposited onto an oxygen conducting phase, with or without supplemental support. The catalytically active phase has a specified crystal structure where at least one catalytically active metal is a cation within the crystal structure and coordinated with oxygen atoms within the crystal structure. The catalyst system employs an optimum coverage ratio for a given set of oxidation conditions, based on a specified hydrocarbon conversion and a carbon deposition limit. Specific embodiments of the catalyst system are disclosed.

  6. A lab-on-a-chip system with integrated sample preparation and loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid and quantitative detection of Salmonella spp. in food samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yi; Than Linh, Quyen; Hung, Tran Quang

    2015-01-01

    was capable to detect Salmonella at concentration of 50 cells per test within 40 min. The simple design, together with high level of integration, isothermal amplification, and quantitative analysis of multiple samples in short time will greatly enhance the practical applicability of the LOC system for rapid...... amplification (LAMP) for rapid and quantitative detection of Salmonella spp. in food samples. The whole diagnostic procedures including DNA isolation, isothermal amplification, and real-time detection were accomplished in a single chamber. Up to eight samples could be handled simultaneously and the system...... and usually take a few hours to days to complete. In response to the demand for rapid on line or at site detection of pathogens, in this study, we describe for the first time an eight-chamber lab-on-a-chip (LOC) system with integrated magnetic beads-based sample preparation and loop-mediated isothermal...

  7. Preparation and characterization of new glasses from the TeO2-CdO-Al2O3-SiO2 system

    OpenAIRE

    Zayas, Mª. E.; Espinoza-Beltrán, F. J.; Romero, Maximina; Rincón López, Jesús María

    1998-01-01

    A new family of glasses from the TeO2-CdO-Al2O3-SiO2 system obtained from CdS-TeO2 mixtures melted in fireclay crucibles have been prepared and characterized. The density values of these glasses are in the 3.30-3.46 gcm-3 range. The viscosity-temperature variation shows that glasses with high TeO2 content depict the typical variation of `short glasses' for a molding operation. Microstructural observations by TEM (replica method) and SEM microscopies have shown that these glasses contain very ...

  8. Concept of a Cloud Service for Data Preparation and Computational Control on Custom HPC Systems in Application to Molecular Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzyrkov, Dmitry; Polyakov, Sergey; Podryga, Viktoriia; Markizov, Sergey

    2018-02-01

    At the present stage of computer technology development it is possible to study the properties and processes in complex systems at molecular and even atomic levels, for example, by means of molecular dynamics methods. The most interesting are problems related with the study of complex processes under real physical conditions. Solving such problems requires the use of high performance computing systems of various types, for example, GRID systems and HPC clusters. Considering the time consuming computational tasks, the need arises of software for automatic and unified monitoring of such computations. A complex computational task can be performed over different HPC systems. It requires output data synchronization between the storage chosen by a scientist and the HPC system used for computations. The design of the computational domain is also quite a problem. It requires complex software tools and algorithms for proper atomistic data generation on HPC systems. The paper describes the prototype of a cloud service, intended for design of atomistic systems of large volume for further detailed molecular dynamic calculations and computational management for this calculations, and presents the part of its concept aimed at initial data generation on the HPC systems.

  9. Concept of a Cloud Service for Data Preparation and Computational Control on Custom HPC Systems in Application to Molecular Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puzyrkov Dmitry

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present stage of computer technology development it is possible to study the properties and processes in complex systems at molecular and even atomic levels, for example, by means of molecular dynamics methods. The most interesting are problems related with the study of complex processes under real physical conditions. Solving such problems requires the use of high performance computing systems of various types, for example, GRID systems and HPC clusters. Considering the time consuming computational tasks, the need arises of software for automatic and unified monitoring of such computations. A complex computational task can be performed over different HPC systems. It requires output data synchronization between the storage chosen by a scientist and the HPC system used for computations. The design of the computational domain is also quite a problem. It requires complex software tools and algorithms for proper atomistic data generation on HPC systems. The paper describes the prototype of a cloud service, intended for design of atomistic systems of large volume for further detailed molecular dynamic calculations and computational management for this calculations, and presents the part of its concept aimed at initial data generation on the HPC systems.

  10. Contrast-enhanced MR venography of the head using magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo imaging. Comparison between head and body radiofrequency transmitter coil systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunobu, Satosi; Amanuma, Makoto; Tsukuda, Shunji

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the image quality and vascular selectivity of MR venography of the head using an magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo (MP-RAGE) technique when obtained with a body radiofrequency transmitter coil system. A total of 24 patients were imaged with a head or body radiofrequency (RF) transmission system. Subtraction MR angiography (MRA) was processed with 0.1 mmol Gd-DTPA administration, and signal-to-noise ratios of the vascular system were measured. Venous demonstration and selectivity were also assessed. MP-RAGE MR venography with a body transmission system showed almost the same signal intensity for the venous and arterial systems, resulting in nonspecific vascular demonstration, while the head transmission system showed semi-selective venograms owing to inflow-induced high signal on precontrast images. However, MRA with a body transmission system provided a 1.5- to 2.5-fold higher signal-to-noise ratios based on higher gradient performance and excellent demonstration of the head veins, especially those below the skull base. Although selective venography was difficult, MRA with a body transmission coil provided excellent vascular images of the brain. (author)

  11. Evaluation of three electronic report processing systems for preparing hydrologic reports of the U.S Geological Survey, Water Resources Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiltner, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    In 1987, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey undertook three pilot projects to evaluate electronic report processing systems as a means to improve the quality and timeliness of reports pertaining to water resources investigations. The three projects selected for study included the use of the following configuration of software and hardware: Ventura Publisher software on an IBM model AT personal computer, PageMaker software on a Macintosh computer, and FrameMaker software on a Sun Microsystems workstation. The following assessment criteria were to be addressed in the pilot studies: The combined use of text, tables, and graphics; analysis of time; ease of learning; compatibility with the existing minicomputer system; and technical limitations. It was considered essential that the camera-ready copy produced be in a format suitable for publication. Visual improvement alone was not a consideration. This report consolidates and summarizes the findings of the electronic report processing pilot projects. Text and table files originating on the existing minicomputer system were successfully transformed to the electronic report processing systems in American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format. Graphics prepared using a proprietary graphics software package were transferred to all the electronic report processing software through the use of Computer Graphic Metafiles. Graphics from other sources were entered into the systems by scanning paper images. Comparative analysis of time needed to process text and tables by the electronic report processing systems and by conventional methods indicated that, although more time is invested in creating the original page composition for an electronically processed report , substantial time is saved in producing subsequent reports because the format can be stored and re-used by electronic means as a template. Because of the more compact page layouts, costs of printing the reports were 15% to 25

  12. In-situ measurement of the dissolved S2- in seafloor diffuse flow system: sensor preparation and calibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying YE; Xia HUANG; Yi-wen PAN; Chen-hua HAN; Wei ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    The preparation approach and calibration result of an improved type of ion selective electrode (ISE), which is used to measure the total dissolved S2-, are introduced in this paper. The improved Ag/Ag2S electrode uses silver wire as the substrate, which is surrounded by electric polymer containing superfine silver powder. After the stabilization of the epoxy-resin, Ag2ES layer was formed by chemical reaction with 0.2 mol/L (NH4)2S solution for 5 min. With Ag/AgCl as reference electrode, the Ag/Ag2S electrode can be used to measure dissolved S2-. The correlation between the measured potentials and the logarithm of dissolved S2- is found to be linear, within range of the concentration of dissolved S2- from 10-2~10-7 mol/L. The slope of the regression line between measured potential and logarithm of dissolved S2- is about -27.7, which agrees well with the theoretical Nernst value -29.6. Furthermore, the performance of the improved Ag/Ag2S electrode, such as the response time, sensitivity and stability, greatly outweighs the conventional Ag/Ag2S electrode.

  13. Magnetic and structural properties of the Nd2(Fe100-xNbx)14B system prepared by arc melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyola Lozano, D.; Zamora, L. E.; Perez Alcazar, G. A.; Rojas, Y. A.; Bustos, H.; Greneche, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    In this work the magnetic and structural properties are investigated by Moessbauer spectrometry, Vibrating Sample Magnetometry and X-ray diffraction of Nd 2 (Fe 100-x Nb x ) 14 B powdered alloys with x = 0, 2 and 4 prepared by arc melting. The Moessbauer spectra of the samples were fitted with several contributions from: Nd 2 Fe 14 B, α-Fe and a paramagnetic phase associated with Nd 1.1 Fe 4 B 4 for x = 0 and additionally from NbFeB and Nd 2 Fe 17 for x = 2 and x = 4. The relative fractions of α-Fe and Nd 2 Fe 14 B are smaller for x = 4 than for x = 0, indicating that the amount of these two phases is reduced with increasing Nb content, while the relative fraction of Nd 2 Fe 17 increases. The α-Fe grain size slightly decreases while that of the Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase is increasing, when the Nb content increases. The hysteresis loops indicate that these samples behave as hard ferromagnets, with a coercive field which decreases when the Nb content increases, but with rather low remanent magnetization.

  14. Preparation and in vitro characterization of SN-38-loaded, self-forming polymeric depots as an injectable drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaspon, Chawan; Hongeng, Suradej; Boongird, Atthaporn; Nasongkla, Norased

    2012-10-01

    This work describes the preparation and characterization of anticancer-loaded injectable polymeric depots that consisted of D,L-lactide (LA), ε-caprolactone (CL), and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) or [poly(ε-caprolactone)-random-poly(D,L-lactide)]-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-[poly(ε-caprolactone)-random-poly(D,L-lactide)] (PLEC) copolymers for malignant gliomas treatment. PLECs were polymerized with different percentages of LA to deliver 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38), a highly potent anticancer drug. SN-38-loaded depots could form directly in phosphate buffer saline with more than 98% encapsulation efficiency. The release rate of SN-38 from depots was found to depend on the amount of LA in PLECs, loading content of SN-38 in the depots, and depot weight. Encapsulation of SN-38 inside depots could enhance the stability of SN-38 where all of SN-38 released after 60 days was in an active form. Depots without SN-38 were evaluated as noncytotoxic against U-87MG, whereas SN-38-loaded depots showed cytotoxic effect as a function of concentration. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Pharmacodynamic Study of Interaction of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Psidium Guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) with Receptor Systems Using Isolated Tissue Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaseth, R K; Kumar, S; Dutta, Shagun; Sehgal, Ratika; Rajora, Preety; Mathur, Rajani

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the interaction of aqueous leaf extract of Psidium guajava with muscarinic, serotonergic and adrenergic receptor system using isolated rat ileum, gastric fundus and trachea, respectively. The concentration-dependent contractile response of aqueous leaf extract of Psidium guajava was parallel and rightward of standard agonists, ACh and 5-HT indicating agonistic activity on muscarinic and serotonergic receptor systems. The inhibition of aqueous leaf extract of Psidium guajava mediated contractions in presence of atropine (10(-7) M) and ketanserin (10(-6) M) confirmed the activity. Relaxant effect of PG (0.2 mg/ml) on carbachol induced pre-contracted rat tracheal chain indicated its agonistic action on adrenergic receptor system. Inhibition (P<0.05) of the action in the presence of propranolol (1 ng/ml) confirmed the activity. It may be concluded that PG possesses agonistic action on muscarinic, serotonergic and adrenergic receptor systems.

  16. Fabrication of SO/sub 2/preparation system and calibration of PINSTECH sulfur standard for /sup 34/S/sup 32/S mass spectrometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajjad, M.I.; Latif, Z.; Ali, M.; Qureshi, R.M.; Tasneem, M.A.; Khan, I.H.; Ahmed, M.; Ahmed, I.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes the fabrication and standardization of operation procedures of a SO/sub 2/ preparation system used for the extraction of sulfur dioxide gas from sulfur minerals (aqueous sulfate, elemental sulfur, and sulfides) for sulfur isotope ratio measurements on a gas source mass spectrometer for hydrological, geological and environmental applications. SO/sub 2/ preparation procedure as described by Fumitaka Yanagisawa and Hitoshi Sakai (1983) is adopted with some modifications. A chemically pure BaSO/sub 4/ powder is chosen as PINSTECH Sulfur Standard PSS-I for routine laboratory /sup 34/S analysis. PSS-1 is calibrated against the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standard Cannon Diablo Troilite (CDT) using the NBS-127 sulfur standard Sigma /sup 34/S values of PSS-1 as analyzed at PINSTECH and Institute fur Hydorlogie, Munich are found to be 14.58 +-0.07 % CDT (n=6) and 14.59+-0.15% CDT (n=2) respectively. NBS-127 is BaSO/sub 4/ powder from the National Bureau of Standards, USA and has been calibrated against CDT. Interlaboratory comparison of various standards is also documented. Using this system, the reproducibility of sulfur isotope ratio measurements is better than +-0.2 % (n=10). (author)

  17. Incidence of dentinal defects after preparation of severely curved root canals using the Reciproc single-file system with and without prior creation of a glide path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, S E D M; Schäfer, E

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the incidence of dentinal defects after preparation of severely curved root canals using the Reciproc single-file system with and without prior creation of a glide path. Mesial roots from extracted mandibular first molars were collected and scanned with CBCT to assess the morphology of the root canal systems. Three groups of 20 anatomically comparable specimens were generated. The control group was left unprepared, whilst the experimental groups were prepared with Reciproc R25 with and without a glide path (groups RG and R, respectively). Roots were then sectioned perpendicular to the long axis at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mm from the apex, and coloured photographs of the sections at 40× were obtained. Two blinded examiners registered the presence of dentinal defects twice at 2-week interval. Data were statistically analysed using the Fisher exact and Cochran's Q tests. No defects were observed in the control group. The overall incidence of dentinal defects was 26% in group R and 24% in group RG, with no significant differences between them (P > 0.05). Dentinal defects occurred significantly more often in the middle and coronal thirds compared to the apical third of the canals (P files. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Fabrication of SO/sub 2/preparation system and calibration of PINSTECH sulfur standard for /sup 34/S/sup 32/S mass spectrometric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajjad, M I; Latif, Z; Ali, M; Qureshi, R M; Tasneem, M A; Khan, I H; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, I

    1994-05-01

    This report describes the fabrication and standardization of operation procedures of a SO/sub 2/ preparation system used for the extraction of sulfur dioxide gas from sulfur minerals (aqueous sulfate, elemental sulfur, and sulfides) for sulfur isotope ratio measurements on a gas source mass spectrometer for hydrological, geological and environmental applications. SO/sub 2/ preparation procedure as described by Fumitaka Yanagisawa and Hitoshi Sakai (1983) is adopted with some modifications. A chemically pure BaSO/sub 4/ powder is chosen as PINSTECH Sulfur Standard PSS-I for routine laboratory /sup 34/S analysis. PSS-1 is calibrated against the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standard Cannon Diablo Troilite (CDT) using the NBS-127 sulfur standard Sigma /sup 34/S values of PSS-1 as analyzed at PINSTECH and Institute fur Hydorlogie, Munich are found to be 14.58 +-0.07 % CDT (n=6) and 14.59+-0.15% CDT (n=2) respectively. NBS-127 is BaSO/sub 4/ powder from the National Bureau of Standards, USA and has been calibrated against CDT. Interlaboratory comparison of various standards is also documented. Using this system, the reproducibility of sulfur isotope ratio measurements is better than +-0.2 % (n=10). (author).

  19. Study of different adsorbent materials for the preparation of generator systems of 99Mo - 99mTc and 188W-188Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Paula Regina Corain

    2009-01-01

    Amongst some existing radioisotopes, 99m Tc and 188 Re present adequate physical chemical properties for use in Nuclear Medicine in the areas of diagnosis and therapy, respectively. Moreover, these radioisotopes can be distributed to medical centers in the form of generator systems of 99 Mo- 99m Tc and 188 W- 188 Re, allowing autonomy and practicity in use. The objective of this work consists of determining the capacity of some adsorbent materials for retention of molibdenium and tungsten, aiming the optimization of generator systems of 99 Mo- 99 mTc and 188 W- 188 Re with suitable characteristics for application in Nuclear Medicine. Known amounts, in mass, of molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) were added to the loading solutions previously prepared, with values of pH adjusted between 1 and 7, and these were then percolated through different devices containing in its interior alumina, resin or poly-zirconium compound also known as PZC. The elutions were carried out within an interval of time of approximately 24 hours for the generator systems of 99 Mo - 99 mTc and 48 hours for the generator systems of 188 W- 188 Re due to the difference between the half-lives of radionuclides involved in the reactions. The eluted samples from both generator systems containing 99m Tc or 188 Re were submitted to quality control tests aiming to evaluate the radionuclidic, radiochemical and chemical purity, but no significant contamination for 99 Mo, 188 W, technetium or rhenium in the colloidal states and zirconium were detected in the eluted solutions and in the solutions extracted with saline solution for any value of pH studied. The commercial alumina cartridges known as Acid Sep Pak were more efficient in retaining the molybdenum in the loading solutions when compared with the others commercial retention devices employed. However, when this comparison extends to the chromatographic alumina columns, the use of acid alumina as adsorbent is more efficient when compared to the Acid Sep

  20. Progress in the design, R and D and procurement preparation of the ITER Divertor Remote Handling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esqué, Salvador, E-mail: Salvador.Esque@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Josep Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Hille, Carine van; Ranz, Roberto; Damiani, Carlo [Fusion for Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Josep Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Palmer, Jim; Hamilton, David [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •The ITER Divertor Remote Handling System (DRHS) reference design is presented. •Different R and D activities that have contributed to the development and validation of the current reference design are reported. •The DRHS turns to be a unique system in terms of complexity due to size of the to-be-handled components, the novelty of the remote operations and the operational conditions. -- Abstract: The ITER Divertor Remote Handling System (DRHS) consists of a number of dedicated remote handling equipment and tooling that will provide the means to perform the exchange of the divertor system in a full-remote way. In order to achieve this objective the DRHS will need to perform a number of novel and complex remote operations in a contaminated and space-constrained environment, in rather poor lightening conditions. Fusion for Energy has recently launched the tendering phase for the in-kind procurement of the DRHS. The procurement is based on a set of system requirements and functional specifications supported by a reference design which are presented and discussed in this paper along with the main outcomes of the different R and D activities that have contributed to the development and validation of the current reference design.

  1. Hydrogen storage properties in the Mg_0_._7_5Ta_0_._2_5 system prepared by mechanical milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez G, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium and most of its mixtures have slow sorption-desorption kinetics of hydrogen, which limits their technological application and their viability from the economic view point. Recently, has been observed that by the synthesis of advanced materials, using the mechanical milling technique, positive changes in the kinetics are introduced. In order to improve the sorption-desorption hydrogen properties, in the present work a mixture consisting of Mg_0_._7_5Ta_0_._2_5 was prepared using methanol as process control agent. To this end, the first methodological step was to carry out, by means of the mechanical milling technique, the synthesis of the mixture Mg_0_._7_5Ta_0_._2_5 in a Spex type vibratory mill at times of 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. Subsequently, the material was characterized by different analytical techniques such as scanning electron microscopy with elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction and N_2 physisorption analysis. Subsequently, hydrogen sorption experiments were carried out in a Parr reactor to evaluate the hydrogen storage capacity of the mixture, varying temperature parameters, pressure and time, in order to determine the optimal parameters of hydrogen sorption. The characterization of the hydrogen storage capacity was analyzed by the thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry technique coupled to a mass spectrometer. X ray diffraction analysis reveals that there is a mixture between the starting compounds, with an important refinement of the microstructure as a consequence of the mechanical milling process. The results of the hydrogen sorption tests at 1, 5 and 10 cycles showed that the storage of hydrogen in the Mg_0_._7_5Ta_0_._2_5 mixture can be carried out at a temperature of 25 degrees Celsius with a pressure of 2 atm and a contact time of 1 h. (Author)

  2. Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labelled with bromine positron emitting isotopes for the study of dopaminergic receptors of the central nervous system using positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loc'h, C.

    1988-04-01

    The in vivo study of dopaminergic receptors of the central nervous system using positron emission tomography requires the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labelled with β + emitting isotopes. The chemical and pharmacological properties of these ligands are evaluated. Cyclotron produced 75 and 76 bromine β + emitting isotopes are incorporated into dopaminergic ligands by electrophilic substitution using peracetic acid in a no-carrier added form. Purity, lipophilicity and specific activity are analyzed. Pharmacological criteria (specificity, saturability, displacement, localization) required for ligand-receptor binding studies are evaluated in vitro on striatal membranes and in vivo in the rat. Positron emission tomographic studies show that the study of dopaminergic D2 receptors is possible using 75 and 76 bromine labelled bromospiperone and bromolisuride. These ligands are used in physiological and pharmacological studies of the central nervous system [fr

  3. Completion of the experimental equipment systems and preparation of practical tutorials on the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor for nuclear science and technology education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Vinh Vinh; Huynh Ton Nghiem; Luong Ba Vien; Nguyen Minh Tuan; Nguyen Kien Cuong; Pham Quang Huy; Tran Tri Vien

    2015-01-01

    The project Completion of the experimental equipment systems and preparation of practical tutorials on the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor for nuclear science and technology education performed by Dalat Nuclear Research Institute and financed by Ministry of Science and Technology aimed at strengthening the training capability of nuclear human resources. The content of this work includes: i) Improvement of experimental equipment; ii) Compilation of training material for experiments with the improved equipment systems on the reactor; iii) Compilation of training material for reactor calculations includes the following areas: neutronics, hydrothermal, safety analysis and accident consequence analysis. Results of the project provide important conditions to support practical educational and training curriculums in nuclear science and technology. (author)

  4. CNEA's (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica) experience in the preparation of a national system for laboratory accreditation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piacquadio, N.H.; Palacios, T.A.; Casa, V.A.; Koll, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    Within the regional markets, as it is the case of MERCOSUR , the laboratories which are suppliers of test and calibration results, are mutually recognized through the National Accreditation Systems. In Argentina there is a project to create a Center for the Accreditation of Test Laboratories. CNEA, which is involved in the execution of large projects and has adopted quality assurance criteria for a long time, requires for internal and external laboratories to be qualified. At the beginning of this year, a Committee for the Qualification of Laboratories was created in the Research and Development and Fuel Cycle Areas. Its objective was planning, management of documents, coordination, evaluation and quantification of laboratories, according to national IRAM and international ISO standards. This paper analyzes the organization of the system and the methods to evaluate and qualify laboratories as a process of growing up leading to the future National Accreditation System. (author). 3 figs

  5. Under the Background of “New Normal”, Research on Constructing the Productive and Technical Preparation System Based on Lean Thinking for Locomotives -Take M Company as an Example

    OpenAIRE

    Ma Ming; Lu Tao

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces the lean production theory and the application of lean production technology preparation system in related enterprises, put forward own views on a series of problems existing in the preparation of M company's production technology. Aiming at these problems, this paper combined with the practical application of lean thinking to the traditional production technology for system innovation and optimization, builds a clear M simulated production line concept, principles and f...

  6. Comparison of the Effect of Canal Preparation by Step Back Technique Using Hand Instruments and Gates Glidden Drills with ProTaper Universal Rotary System on the Root Resistance to Vertical Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    A Abbaszadegan; Z Sadat Aleyasin; M Sedigh Shamsi; Sh Shahriari

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Cleaning and shaping of the root canal system with an efficient and safe technique are the major goals of root canal treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the conventional root canal preparation technique by hand instruments and Gates Glidden drills with ProTaper Universal Rotary system on the root susceptibility to vertical fracture. Methods: Thirty extracted human mandibular premolars were randomly assigned to two groups. In group I, apical preparation was performed ...

  7. Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation of Residual Smear Layer Following Preparation of Curved Root Canals Using Hand Instrumentation or Two Engine-Driven Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademi, Abbasali; Saatchi, Masoud; Shokouhi, Mohammad Mehdi; Baghaei, Badri

    2015-01-01

    In this experimental study, the amount of smear layer (SL) remnants in curved root canals after chemomechanical instrumentation with two engine-driven systems or hand instrumentation was evaluated. Forty-eight mesiobuccal roots of mandibular first molars with curvatures ranging between 25 and 35 degrees (according to Schneider's method) were divided into three groups (n=16) which were prepared by either the ProTaper Universal file series, Reciproc single file system or hand instrumentation. The canals were intermittently irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl and 17% (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) EDTA, followed by distilled water as the final rinse. The roots were split longitudinally and the apical third of the specimens were evaluated under 2500× magnification with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The mean scores of the SL were calculated and analyzed using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. The mean scores of the SL were 2.00±0.73, 1.94±0.68 and 1.44±0.63 µm for the ProTaper Universal, Reciproc and hand instrumentation, respectively. Mean score of SL was significantly less in the hand instrumentation group than the ProTaper (P=0.027) and Reciproc (P=0.035) groups. The difference between the two engine-driven systems, however, was not significant (P=0.803). The amount of smear layer in the apical third of curved root canals prepared with both engine-driven systems was similar and greater than the hand instrumentation technique. Complete cleanliness was not attained.

  8. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 323 - Instructions for Preparation of Reports to New or Altered Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... established to ensure the accuracy, currency, relevance, and completeness of the information used for these... for maintaining it. 7. Measures to ensure information accuracy. If the system is to be used to make....” List in numerical sequence only those enclosures that are actually furnished. The following are typical...

  9. Preparation of ethylene/1-hexene copolymers from ethylene using a fully silica-supported tandem catalyst system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karbach, Fabian F.; Macko, Tibor; Duchateau, Robbert

    2016-01-01

    A silica-supported tandem catalyst system, capable of producing ethylene/1-hexene copolymers from ethylene being the single monomer, has been investigated. As tandem couple a phenoxyimine titanium catalyst for ethylene trimerization was combined with a metallocene catalyst for α-olefin

  10. A CMOS IC–based multisite measuring system for stimulation and recording in neural preparations in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eTateno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we describe the system integration of a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS integrated circuit (IC chip, capable of both stimulation and recording of neurons or neural tissues, to investigate electrical signal propagation within cellular networks in vitro. The overall system consisted of three major subunits: a 5.0 mm × 5.0 mm CMOS IC chip, a reconfigurable logic device (field-programmable gate array, FPGA, and a PC. To test the system, microelectrode arrays (MEAs were used to extracellularly measure the activity of cultured rat cortical neurons and mouse cortical slices. The MEA had 64 bidirectional (stimulation and recording electrodes. In addition, the CMOS IC chip was equipped with dedicated analog filters, amplification stages, and a stimulation buffer. Signals from the electrodes were sampled at 15.6 kHz with 16-bit resolution. The measured input-referred circuitry noise was 10.1 μV root mean square (10 Hz to 100 kHz, which allowed reliable detection of neural signals ranging from several millivolts down to approximately 33 μVpp. Experiments were performed involving the stimulation of neurons with several spatiotemporal patterns and the recording of the triggered activity. An advantage over current MEAs, as demonstrated by our experiments, includes the ability to stimulate (voltage stimulation, 5-bit resolution spatiotemporal patterns in arbitrary subsets of electrodes. Furthermore, the fast stimulation reset mechanism allowed us to record neuronal signals from a stimulating electrode around 3 ms after stimulation. We demonstrate that the system can be directly applied to, for example, auditory neural prostheses in conjunction with an acoustic sensor and a sound processing system.

  11. Preparing for Operational Use of High Priority Products from the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) in Numerical Weather Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S.; Layns, A. L.; Goldberg, M.; Gambacorta, A.; Ling, Y.; Collard, A.; Grumbine, R. W.; Sapper, J.; Ignatov, A.; Yoe, J. G.

    2017-12-01

    This work describes end to end operational implementation of high priority products from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) operational polar-orbiting satellite constellation, to include Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) and the Joint Polar Satellite System series initial satellite (JPSS-1), into numerical weather prediction and earth systems models. Development and evaluation needed for the initial implementations of VIIRS Environmental Data Records (EDR) for Sea Surface Temperature ingestion in the Real-Time Global Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (RTG) and Polar Winds assimilated in the National Weather Service (NWS) Global Forecast System (GFS) is presented. These implementations ensure continuity of data in these models in the event of loss of legacy sensor data. Also discussed is accelerated operational implementation of Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) Temperature Data Records (TDR) and Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) Sensor Data Records, identified as Key Performance Parameters by the National Weather Service. Operational use of SNPP after 28 October, 2011 launch took more than one year due to the learning curve and development needed for full exploitation of new remote sensing capabilities. Today, ATMS and CrIS data positively impact weather forecast accuracy. For NOAA's JPSS initial satellite (JPSS-1), scheduled for launch in late 2017, we identify scope and timelines for pre-launch and post-launch activities needed to efficiently transition these capabilities into operations. As part of these alignment efforts, operational readiness for KPPs will be possible as soon as 90 days after launch. The schedule acceleration is possible because of the experience with S-NPP. NOAA operational polar-orbiting satellite constellation provides continuity and enhancement of earth systems observations out to 2036. Program best practices and lessons learned will inform future implementation for follow-on JPSS-3 and -4

  12. Ferroelectrics onto silicon prepared by chemical solution deposition methods: from the thin film to the self-assembled systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calzada, M. L.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The work of the authors during the last years on ferroelectric thin and ultra-thin films deposited by Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD onto silicon based substrates is reviewed in this paper. Ferroelectric layers integrated with silicon substrates have potential use in the new micro/nanoelectronic devices. Two hot issues are here considered: 1 the use of low processing temperatures of the ferroelectric film, with the objective of not producing any damage on the different elements of the device heterostructure, and 2 the downscaling of the ferroelectric material with the aim of achieving the high densities of integration required in the next generation of nanoelectronic devices. The UV-assisted Rapid Thermal Processing has successfully been used in our laboratory for the fabrication of ferroelectric films at low temperatures. Preliminary results on the CSD preparation of nanosized ferroelectric structures are shown.

    Este artículo revisa el trabajo realizado por los autores durante los últimos años sobre lámina delgada y ultra-delgada ferroeléctrica preparada mediante el depósito químico de disoluciones (CSD sobre substratos de silicio. Las películas ferroeléctricas integradas con silicio tienen potenciales usos en los nuevos dispositivos micro/nanoelectrónicos. Dos aspectos claves son aquí considerados: 1 el uso de bajas temperaturas de procesado de la lámina ferroeléctrica, con el fin de no dañar los diferentes elementos que forman la heteroestructura del dispositivo y 2 la disminución de tamaño del material ferroeléctrico con el fin de conseguir las altas densidades de integración requeridas en la próxima generación de dispositivos nanoelectróncos. Los procesos térmicos rápidos asistidos con irradiación UV se están usando en nuestro laboratorio para conseguir la fabricación del material ferroeléctrico a temperaturas bajas compatibles con la tecnología del silicio. Se muestran resultados preliminares sobre

  13. Preparation of Single-cohort Colonies and Hormone Treatment of Worker Honeybees to Analyze Physiology Associated with Role and/or Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Takayuki; Kawasaki, Kiyoshi; Kubo, Takeo

    2016-09-06

    Honeybee workers are engaged in various tasks related to maintaining colony activity. The tasks of the workers change according to their age (age-related division of labor). Young workers are engaged in nursing the brood (nurse bees), while older workers are engaged in foraging for nectar and pollen (foragers). The physiology of the workers changes in association with this role shift. For example, the main function of the hypopharyngeal glands (HPGs) changes from the secretion of major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs) to the secretion of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes. Because worker tasks change as the workers age in typical colonies, it is difficult to discriminate the physiological changes that occur with aging from those that occur with the role shift. To study the physiological changes in worker tissues, including the HPGs, in association with the role shift, it would be useful to manipulate the honeybee colony population by preparing single-cohort colonies in which workers of almost the same age perform different tasks. Here we describe a detailed protocol for preparing single-cohort colonies for this analysis. Six to eight days after single-cohort colony preparation, precocious foragers that perform foraging tasks earlier than usual appear in the colony. Representative results indicated role-associated changes in HPG gene expression, suggesting role-associated HPG function. In addition to manipulating the colony population, analysis of the endocrine system is important for investigating role-associated physiology. Here, we also describe a detailed protocol for treating workers with 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), an active form of ecdysone, and methoprene, a juvenile hormone analogue. The survival rate of treated bees was sufficient to examine gene expression in the HPGs. Gene expression changes were observed in response to 20E- and/or methoprene-treatment, suggesting that hormone treatments induce physiological changes of the HPGs. The protocol for hormone

  14. Preparation of a technology development roadmap for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) System : report of the ATW separations technologies and waste forms technical working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.; Duguid, J.; Henry, R.; Karell, E.J.; Laidler, J.J.; McDeavitt, S.M.; Thompson, M.; Toth, L.M.; Williamson, M.; Willit, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    In response to a Congressional mandate to prepare a roadmap for the development of Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) technology, a Technical Working Group comprised of members from various DOE laboratories was convened in March 1999 for the purpose of preparing that part of the technology development roadmap dealing with the separation of certain radionuclides for transmutation and the disposal of residual radioactive wastes from these partitioning operations. The Technical Working Group for ATW Separations Technologies and Waste Forms completed its work in June 1999, having carefully considered the technology options available. A baseline process flowsheet and backup process were identified for initial emphasis in a future research, development and demonstration program. The baseline process combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to permit the efficient separation of the uranium, technetium, iodine and transuranic elements from the light water reactor (LWR) fuel in the head-end step. The backup process is an all- pyrochemical system. In conjunction with the aqueous process, the baseline flowsheet includes a pyrochemical process to prepare the transuranic material for fabrication of the ATW fuel assemblies. For the internal ATW fuel cycle the baseline process specifies another pyrochemical process to extract the transuranic elements, Tc and 1 from the ATW fuel. Fission products not separated for transmutation and trace amounts of actinide elements would be directed to two high-level waste forms, one a zirconium-based alloy and the other a glass/sodalite composite. Baseline cost and schedule estimates are provided for a RD and D program that would provide a full-scale demonstration of the complete separations and waste production flowsheet within 20 years

  15. Preparation of a technology development roadmap for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) System : report of the ATW separations technologies and waste forms technical working group.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, E.; Duguid, J.; Henry, R.; Karell, E.; Laidler, J.; McDeavitt, S.; Thompson, M.; Toth, M.; Williamson, M.; Willit, J.

    1999-08-12

    In response to a Congressional mandate to prepare a roadmap for the development of Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) technology, a Technical Working Group comprised of members from various DOE laboratories was convened in March 1999 for the purpose of preparing that part of the technology development roadmap dealing with the separation of certain radionuclides for transmutation and the disposal of residual radioactive wastes from these partitioning operations. The Technical Working Group for ATW Separations Technologies and Waste Forms completed its work in June 1999, having carefully considered the technology options available. A baseline process flowsheet and backup process were identified for initial emphasis in a future research, development and demonstration program. The baseline process combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to permit the efficient separation of the uranium, technetium, iodine and transuranic elements from the light water reactor (LWR) fuel in the head-end step. The backup process is an all- pyrochemical system. In conjunction with the aqueous process, the baseline flowsheet includes a pyrochemical process to prepare the transuranic material for fabrication of the ATW fuel assemblies. For the internal ATW fuel cycle the baseline process specifies another pyrochemical process to extract the transuranic elements, Tc and 1 from the ATW fuel. Fission products not separated for transmutation and trace amounts of actinide elements would be directed to two high-level waste forms, one a zirconium-based alloy and the other a glass/sodalite composite. Baseline cost and schedule estimates are provided for a RD&D program that would provide a full-scale demonstration of the complete separations and waste production flowsheet within 20 years.

  16. UV-laser microdissection system - A novel approach for the preparation of high-resolution stable isotope records (δ13C/δ18O) from tree rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schollaen, Karina; Helle, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    Intra-annual stable isotope (δ13C and δ18O) studies of tree rings at various incremental resolutions have been attempting to extract valuable seasonal climatic and environmental information or assessing plant ecophysiological processes. For preparing high-resolution isotope samples normally wood segments or cores are mechanically divided in radial direction or cut in tangential direction. After mechanical dissection, wood samples are ground to a fine powder and either cellulose is extracted or bulk wood samples are analyzed. Here, we present a novel approach for the preparation of high-resolution stable isotope records from tree rings using an UV-laser microdissection system. Firstly, tree-ring cellulose is directly extracted from wholewood cross-sections largely leaving the wood anatomical structure intact and saving time as compared to the classical procedure. Secondly, micro-samples from cellulose cross-sections are dissected with an UV-Laser dissection microscope. Tissues of interest from cellulose cross-sections are identified and marked precisely with a screen-pen and dissected via an UV-laser beam. Dissected cellulose segments were automatically collected in capsules and are prepared for stable isotope (δ13C and δ18O) analysis. The new techniques facilitate inter- and intra-annual isotope analysis on tree-ring and open various possibilities for comparisons with wood anatomy in plant eco-physiological studies. We describe the design and the handling of this novel methodology and discuss advantages and constraints given by the example of intra-annual oxygen isotope analysis on tropical trees.

  17. Preparation of dry ports for a competitive environment in the container seaport system: A process benchmarking approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jeevan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The significant exodus of containers inland due to the container revolution has increased the salience of inland terminals for efficient freight distribution. Further, the migration of containers gradually inland has forced seaports to depend on these inland terminals to determine their competitiveness and offer a mechanism for competitive freight price to the consumer. The performance of dry ports need to be improved along with the dynamic nature of maritime business, to efficiently fulfil the demand all the key players in the container seaport system, provide economies of scale and scope to their respective clients and enhances the importance of inland networks to improve and consistently elongate the competitiveness of container seaports. Predicated to these importance, this paper aims to enhance dry port performance by adapting a process benchmarking strategy among the Malaysian dry ports. Prior to the adaptation of the process benchmarking approach, a grounded theory had been conducted as a method of analysis among the key players of the Malaysian container seaport system in order to provide essential inputs for the benchmarking. Through this paper, the outcome shows all four Malaysian dry ports need to improve their transportation infrastructure and operation facilities, container planning strategy, competition, location and externalities in order to assist all the key players in the container seaport system efficiently and effectively.

  18. Preparing for the Future Nankai Trough Tsunami: A Data Assimilation and Inversion Analysis From Various Observational Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulia, Iyan E.; Inazu, Daisuke; Waseda, Takuji; Gusman, Aditya Riadi

    2017-10-01

    The future Nankai Trough tsunami is one of the imminent threats to the Japanese coastal communities that could potentially cause a catastrophic event. As a part of the countermeasure efforts for such an occurrence, this study analyzes the efficacy of combining tsunami data assimilation (DA) and waveform inversion (WI). The DA is used to continuously refine a wavefield model whereas the WI is used to estimate the tsunami source. We consider a future scenario of the Nankai Trough tsunami recorded at various observational systems, including ocean bottom pressure (OBP) gauges, global positioning system (GPS) buoys, and ship height positioning data. Since most of the OBP gauges are located inside the source region, the recorded tsunami signals exhibit significant offsets from surface measurements due to coseismic seafloor deformation effects. Such biased data are not applicable to the standard DA, but can be taken into account in the WI. On the other hand, the use of WI for the ship data may not be practical because a considerably large precomputed tsunami database is needed to cope with the spontaneous ship locations. The DA is more suitable for such an observational system as it can be executed sequentially in time and does not require precomputed scenarios. Therefore, the combined approach of DA and WI allows us to concurrently make use of all observational resources. Additionally, we introduce a bias correction scheme for the OBP data to improve the accuracy, and an adaptive thinning of observations to determine the efficient number of observations.

  19. Preparation and Evaluation of Enteric-Coated Chitosan Derivative-Based Microparticles Loaded with Salmon Calcitonin as an Oral Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Onishi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The production of protein drugs has recently increased due to advances in biotechnology, but their clinical use is generally limited to parenteral administration due to low absorption in non-parenteral administration. Therefore, non-parenteral delivery systems allowing sufficient absorption draw much attention. Methods: Microparticles (MP were prepared using chitosan-4-thio-butylamidine conjugate (Ch-TBA, trimethyl-chitosan (TMC, and chitosan (Ch. Using salmon calcitonin (sCT as a model protein drug, Ch-TBA-, Ch-TBA/TMC (4/1-, and Ch-based MP were produced, and their Eudragit L100 (Eud-coated MP, named Ch-TBA-MP/Eud, Ch-TBA/TMC-MP/Eud, and Ch-MP/Eud, respectively, were prepared as oral delivery systems. These enteric-coated microparticles were examined in vitro and in vivo. Results: All microparticles before and after enteric coating had a submicron size (600–800 nm and micrometer size (1300–1500 nm, respectively. In vitro release patterns were similar among all microparticles; release occurred gradually, and the release rate was slower at pH 1.2 than at pH 6.8. In oral ingestion, Ch-TBA-MP/Eud suppressed plasma Ca levels most effectively among the microparticles tested. The relative effectiveness of Ch-TBA-MP/Eud to the intramuscular injection was 8.6%, while the sCT solution showed no effectiveness. Conclusion: The results suggest that Eud-coated Ch-TBA-based microparticles should have potential as an oral delivery system of protein drugs.

  20. Advancing Earth System Science Literacy and Preparing the Future Geoscience Workforce Through Strategic Investments at the National Science Foundation (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, J. L.; Patino, L. C.; Rom, E. L.; Weiler, C. S.

    2010-12-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent federal agency created 60 years ago by the U.S. Congress "to promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; to secure the national defense…" NSF is the primary funding agency in the U.S. to support basic, frontier research across all fields in science, engineering, and education, except for medical sciences. With a FY 2011 budget request of more than $955 million, the NSF Directorate for Geosciences (GEO) is the principle source of federal funding for university-based fundamental research in the geosciences and preparation of the next generation of geoscientists. Since its inception, GEO has supported the education and training of a diverse and talented pool of future scientists, engineers, and technicians in the Earth, Ocean, Atmospheric and Geospatial Sciences sub-fields, through support of graduate research assistants, post-doctoral fellows, and undergraduate research experiences. In the late 1990’s and early 2000’s, GEO initiated several programs that expanded these investments to also support improvements in pre-college and undergraduate geoscience education through a variety of mechanisms (e.g., professional development support for K-12 teachers, development of innovative undergraduate curricula, and scientist-mentored research experiences for elementary and secondary students). In addition to GEO’s Geoscience Education (GeoEd), Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences (OEDG), Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE), and Geoscience Teacher Training (GEO-Teach) programs, GEO participates in a number of cross-Foundation programs, including the Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU), Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (IGERT), Ethics Education in Science and Engineering (EESE), NSF Graduate STEM Fellows in K-12 Education (GK-12), and Partnerships for International Research and Education

  1. Preparing systems engineering and computing science students in disciplined methods, quantitative, and advanced statistical techniques to improve process performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCray, Wilmon Wil L., Jr.

    The research was prompted by a need to conduct a study that assesses process improvement, quality management and analytical techniques taught to students in U.S. colleges and universities undergraduate and graduate systems engineering and the computing science discipline (e.g., software engineering, computer science, and information technology) degree programs during their academic training that can be applied to quantitatively manage processes for performance. Everyone involved in executing repeatable processes in the software and systems development lifecycle processes needs to become familiar with the concepts of quantitative management, statistical thinking, process improvement methods and how they relate to process-performance. Organizations are starting to embrace the de facto Software Engineering Institute (SEI) Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI RTM) Models as process improvement frameworks to improve business processes performance. High maturity process areas in the CMMI model imply the use of analytical, statistical, quantitative management techniques, and process performance modeling to identify and eliminate sources of variation, continually improve process-performance; reduce cost and predict future outcomes. The research study identifies and provides a detail discussion of the gap analysis findings of process improvement and quantitative analysis techniques taught in U.S. universities systems engineering and computing science degree programs, gaps that exist in the literature, and a comparison analysis which identifies the gaps that exist between the SEI's "healthy ingredients " of a process performance model and courses taught in U.S. universities degree program. The research also heightens awareness that academicians have conducted little research on applicable statistics and quantitative techniques that can be used to demonstrate high maturity as implied in the CMMI models. The research also includes a Monte Carlo simulation optimization

  2. Preparation and tumor cell model based biobehavioral evaluation of the nanocarrier system using partially reduced graphene oxide functionalized by surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Yimin Wang,1 Kunping Liu,1,2 Zewei Luo,1 Yixiang Duan1 1Research Center of Analytical Instrumentation, Key Laboratory of Bio-resource and Eco-environment, Ministry of Education, College of Life Science, Sichuan University, 2Faculty of Biotechnology Industry, Chengdu University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China Background: Currently, surfactant-functionalized nanomaterials are tending toward development of novel tumor-targeted drug carriers to overcome multidrug resistance in cancer therapy. Now, investigating the biocompatibility and uptake mechanism of specific drug delivery systems is a growing trend, but usually a troublesome issue, in simple pharmaceutical research.Methods: We first reported the partially reduced graphene oxide modified with poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate (PSS as a nanocarrier system. Then, the nanocarrier was characterized by atomic force microscope, scanning electron microscope, high-resolution transmission electron microscope, ultraviolet–visible (UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-Ray powder diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. Epirubicin (EPI was attached to PSSG via π–π stacking, hydrogen bonding, and physical absorption to form conjugates of PSSG–EPI. The adsorption and desorption profiles, cytotoxicity coupled with drug accumulation, and uptake of PSSG and PSSG–EPI were evaluated. Finally, the subcellular behaviors, distribution, and biological fate of the drug delivery system were explored by confocal laser scanning microscope using direct fluorescence colocalization imaging and transmission electron microscopy.Results: The partially reduced graphene oxide sheets functionalized by surfactant exhibit good dispersibility. Moreover, due to much less carboxyl groups retained on the edge of PSSG sheets, the nanocarriers exhibit biocompatibility in vitro. The obtained PSSG shows a high drug-loading capacity of 2.22 mg/mg. The complexes of PSSG–EPI can be transferred to

  3. Preparation of Low Molecular Weight Gelatin Using Microwave Discharge Electrodeless Lamp/TiO2 Photocatalyst Hybrid System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Do-Jin; Kim, Hangun; Park, Young-Kwon; Kim, Byung Hoon; Lee, Heon; Jungf, Sana-Chul

    2016-02-01

    In this study, an MDEL/TiO2 photocatalyst hybrid system was applied to the production of low molecular weight gelatin. The molecular weight of produed gelatin decreased with increasing microwave intensity and increasing treatment time. The abscission of the chemical bonds between the con- stituents of gelatin by photocatalytic reaction did not alter the characteristics of gelatin. Formation of any by-products due to side reaction was not observed. It is suggested that gelatin was depolymerized by hydroxyl radicals produced during the MDEL/TiO2 photochemical reaction.

  4. The Administrative Consensuality and the Preparation of Clinical Protocols and Therapeutic Guidelines Within the Framework of The Public Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Sampaio Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the need for the Public Administration rescue his decision spaces in relation to the realization of the right to health, as opposed to excessive judicialization. Based on doctrinal and legislative research seeks to demonstrate that the consensuality, new aspects of administrative action, has importance for the development, under the Public Health System, scientific medical consensus, which recommended observance in statements of the National Justice Council . The increase of social participation in the adoption of those guidelines and the opening of institutional dialogue to discuss certain cases can reduce recourse to the courts.

  5. How Should Disaster Base Hospitals Prepare for Dialysis Therapy after Earthquakes? Introduction of Double Water Piping Circuits Provided by Well Water System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegaya, Naoki; Seki, George; Ohta, Nobutaka

    2016-01-01

    After earthquakes, continuing dialysis for patients with ESRD and patients suffering from crush syndrome is the serious problem. In this paper, we analyzed the failure of the provision of dialysis services observed in recent disasters and discussed how to prepare for disasters to continue dialysis therapy. Japan has frequently experienced devastating earthquakes. A lot of dialysis centers could not continue dialysis treatment owing to damage caused by these earthquakes. The survey by Japanese Society for Dialysis Treatment (JSDT) after the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 showed that failure of lifelines such as electric power and water supply was the leading cause of the malfunction of dialysis treatment. Our hospital is located in Shizuoka Prefecture, where one of the biggest earthquakes is predicted to occur in the near future. In addition to reconstructing earthquake-resistant buildings and facilities, we therefore have adopted double electric and water lifelines by introducing emergency generators and well water supply systems. It is very important to inform politicians, bureaucrats, and local water departments that dialysis treatment, a life sustaining therapy for patients with end stage renal diseases, requires a large amount of water. We cannot prevent an earthquake but can curb the extent of a disaster by preparing for earthquakes.

  6. Perspectives of the use of experience of preparation of reserve in cyclic disciplines in the system of the long-term training in team games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimenko I.G.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of work to define approaches to the construction of long-term preparation of reserve in cyclic disciplines. Also to ground perspective directions of their use in a training process in the playing types of sport. Questioning, conversations and questionnaires of leading specialists (17 trainers and sportsmen is conducted (80 athletes. It is marked that one of lacks of the traditional system of preparation of sportsmen is the insufficient providing of training process information technologies. It is set that in the cyclic types of sport the sharp is enough there is a problem of planning of loadings in macrocycle of training of young sportsmen. It is rotined that to the features of construction of training process in cyclic kinds it is necessary to take application of individual approach. The possible ways of decision of problem of optimization of long-term training of reserve are presented in sporting games. Attention is accented on the necessity of realization in practice of theoretical positions which are related to all of the stages of the long-term training.

  7. The Successful Diagnosis and Typing of Systemic Amyloidosis Using A Microwave-Assisted Filter-Aided Fast Sample Preparation Method and LC/MS/MS Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyi Sun

    Full Text Available Laser microdissection followed by mass spectrometry has been successfully used for amyloid typing. However, sample contamination can interfere with proteomic analysis, and overnight digestion limits the analytical throughput. Moreover, current quantitative analysis methods are based on the spectrum count, which ignores differences in protein length and may lead to misdiagnoses. Here, we developed a microwave-assisted filter-aided sample preparation (maFASP method that can efficiently remove contaminants with a 10-kDa cutoff ultrafiltration unit and can accelerate the digestion process with the assistance of a microwave. Additionally, two parameters (P- and D-scores based on the exponentially modified protein abundance index were developed to define the existence of amyloid deposits and those causative proteins with the greatest abundance. Using our protocol, twenty cases of systemic amyloidosis that were well-typed according to clinical diagnostic standards (training group and another twenty-four cases without subtype diagnoses (validation group were analyzed. Using this approach, sample preparation could be completed within four hours. We successfully subtyped 100% of the cases in the training group, and the diagnostic success rate in the validation group was 91.7%. This maFASP-aided proteomic protocol represents an efficient approach for amyloid diagnosis and subtyping, particularly for serum-contaminated samples.

  8. The Successful Diagnosis and Typing of Systemic Amyloidosis Using A Microwave-Assisted Filter-Aided Fast Sample Preparation Method and LC/MS/MS Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weiyi; Sun, Jian; Zou, Lili; Shen, Kaini; Zhong, Dingrong; Zhou, Daobin; Sun, Wei; Li, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Laser microdissection followed by mass spectrometry has been successfully used for amyloid typing. However, sample contamination can interfere with proteomic analysis, and overnight digestion limits the analytical throughput. Moreover, current quantitative analysis methods are based on the spectrum count, which ignores differences in protein length and may lead to misdiagnoses. Here, we developed a microwave-assisted filter-aided sample preparation (maFASP) method that can efficiently remove contaminants with a 10-kDa cutoff ultrafiltration unit and can accelerate the digestion process with the assistance of a microwave. Additionally, two parameters (P- and D-scores) based on the exponentially modified protein abundance index were developed to define the existence of amyloid deposits and those causative proteins with the greatest abundance. Using our protocol, twenty cases of systemic amyloidosis that were well-typed according to clinical diagnostic standards (training group) and another twenty-four cases without subtype diagnoses (validation group) were analyzed. Using this approach, sample preparation could be completed within four hours. We successfully subtyped 100% of the cases in the training group, and the diagnostic success rate in the validation group was 91.7%. This maFASP-aided proteomic protocol represents an efficient approach for amyloid diagnosis and subtyping, particularly for serum-contaminated samples.

  9. Validation of 31 of the most commonly used immunohistochemical antibodies in cytology prepared using the Cellient(®) automated cell block system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Eric; Gao, Chen; de Luca, Julie; Bower, Jessie; Attwood, Kristropher; Ylagan, Lourdes

    2014-12-01

    The Cellient(®) cell block system has become available as an alternative, partially automated method to create cell blocks in cytology. We sought to show a validation method for immunohistochemical (IHC) staining on the Cellient cell block system (CCB) in comparison with the formalin fixed paraffin embedded traditional cell block (TCB). Immunohistochemical staining was performed using 31 antibodies on 38 patient samples for a total of 326 slides. Split samples were processed using both methods by following the Cellient(®) manufacturer's recommendations for the Cellient cell block (CCB) and the Histogel method for preparing the traditional cell block (TCB). Interpretation was performed by three pathologists and two cytotechnologists. Immunohistochemical stains were scored as: 0/1+ (negative) and 2/3+ (positive). Inter-rater agreement for each antibody was evaluated for CCB and TCB, as well as the intra-rater agreement between TCB and CCB between observers. Interobserver staining concordance for the TCB was obtained with statistical significance (P Cellient system are reliable and concordant with stains performed on the same split samples processed via a formalin fixed-paraffin embedded (FFPE) block. The Cellient system is a welcome adjunct to cytology work-flow by producing cell block material of sufficient quality to allow the use of routine IHC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Assessment of resident operative performance using a real-time mobile Web system: preparing for the milestone age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Justin P; Chen, David C; Donahue, Timothy R; Quach, Chi; Hines, O Joe; Hiatt, Jonathan R; Tillou, Areti

    2014-01-01

    To satisfy trainees' operative competency requirements while improving feedback validity and timeliness using a mobile Web-based platform. The Southern Illinois University Operative Performance Rating Scale (OPRS) was embedded into a website formatted for mobile devices. From March 2013 to February 2014, faculty members were instructed to complete the OPRS form while providing verbal feedback to the operating resident at the conclusion of each procedure. Submitted data were compiled automatically within a secure Web-based spreadsheet. Conventional end-of-rotation performance (CERP) evaluations filed 2006 to 2013 and OPRS performance scores were compared by year of training using serial and independent-samples t tests. The mean CERP scores and OPRS overall resident operative performance scores were directly compared using a linear regression model. OPRS mobile site analytics were reviewed using a Web-based reporting program. Large university-based general surgery residency program. General Surgery faculty used the mobile Web OPRS system to rate resident performance. Residents and the program director reviewed evaluations semiannually. Over the study period, 18 faculty members and 37 residents logged 176 operations using the mobile OPRS system. There were 334 total OPRS website visits. Median time to complete an evaluation was 45 minutes from the end of the operation, and faculty spent an average of 134 seconds on the site to enter 1 assessment. In the 38,506 CERP evaluations reviewed, mean performance scores showed a positive linear trend of 2% change per year of training (p = 0.001). OPRS overall resident operative performance scores showed a significant linear (p = 0.001), quadratic (p = 0.001), and cubic (p = 0.003) trend of change per year of clinical training, reflecting the resident operative experience in our training program. Differences between postgraduate year-1 and postgraduate year-5 overall performance scores were greater with the OPRS (mean = 0.96, CI

  11. Drug delivery system prepared by ionizing radiation of the N,N-dimethyl acrylamide with acryloyloxy-acetanilide copolymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martellini, Flavia; Higa, Olga Z.; Queiroz, Alvaro A.A. de; Rodighiero, Paolo

    1995-01-01

    Radiation induced polymerization has been used in biomaterials used in systems which such as drug delivery (DDS). This work describes the copolymerization of the monomers by gamma rays N,N-dimethyl acrylamide (DMAA) and acryloyloxy-acetanilide (AOA) for the immobilization of paracetamol, an analgesic and anti thermic drug. Dimethylformamide solutions were used in two concentrations of DMAA and AOA (F DMAA/AOA = 0,85/015 and 0,70/0,30, where F = molar fraction in the monomer feed). The samples were irradiated in the dose range of 30-800 Gy. The copolymer poly(DMAA-co-AOA) characterization was carried out by FTIR and 1 HRMN. The hydrolysis was studied considering the formation of sodium salts of 4-hydroxy acetanilide at different times of treatment using colorimetric assay. (author). 6 refs., 5 figs

  12. Releasing intracellular product to prepare whole cell biocatalyst for biosynthesis of Monascus pigments in water-edible oil two-phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Minglue; Zhang, Xuehong; Wang, Zhilong

    2016-11-01

    Selective releasing intracellular product in Triton X-100 micelle aqueous solution to prepare whole cell biocatalyst is a novel strategy for biosynthesis of Monascus pigments, in which cell suspension culture exhibits some advantages comparing with the corresponding growing cell submerged culture. In the present work, the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 was successfully replaced by edible plant oils for releasing intracellular Monascus pigments. High concentration of Monascus pigments (with absorbance nearly 710 AU at 470 nm in the oil phase, normalized to the aqueous phase volume approximately 142 AU) was achieved by cell suspension culture in peanut oil-water two-phase system. Furthermore, the utilization of edible oil as extractant also fulfills the demand for application of Monascus pigments as natural food colorant.

  13. Preparation of beryllium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, C.R.; Baker, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    Beryllium hydride of high bulk density, suitable for use as a component of high-energy fuels, is prepared by the pyrolysis, in solution in an inert solvent, of a ditertiary-alkyl beryllium. An agitator introduces mechanical energy into the reaction system, during the pyrolysis, at the rate of 0.002 to 0.30 horsepower per gallon of reaction mixture. (U.S.)

  14. Should We Extend Teacher Preparation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Willis D.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the implications of five-year teacher preparation programs. Argues that different strategies and curricula should be tested and evaluated before mandating major system-wide changes in teacher certification requirements. (FMW)

  15. Issues associated with the use of the Tungsten-188/Rhenium188 generator and concentrator system and preparation of Re-188 HDD: A report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F.Jr.; Turner, J.H.; Jeong, J.-M.; Padhy, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    The ready availability of no-carrier-added Rhenium-188 from the Tungsten-188/Rhenium-188 generator represents an important source of a therapeutic radioisotope for a broad range of therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine, oncology, rheumatology and interventional cardiology. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is coordinating a clinical trial involving the use of Rhenium188-Lipiodol for therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. This report summarizes the experience of investigators at ten participating centres associated with the use and performance of the Tungsten-188/Rhenium-188 generators and the preparation and handling of the Re-188 HDD agent. This evaluation has demonstrated the cost effective provision of on-site therapeutic activities of Rhenium-188 and recommendations are made for further development of the next generator prototype in light of this international experience. The high bolus volumes (20-40 ml) of the ORNL generator requires post elution concentration of the Re-188 bolus by passage through the tandem silver cation/anion column system. The high back pressure often encountered during generator elution through the silver cation/anion concentrator system has been identified as a potential problem. The details of a method involving in house preparation of the silver cation columns were provided and implementation of this method for Re-188 bolus concentration is recommended. It is also recommended that ORNL investigators reassess the possibility of increasing Tungsten generator loading capacity and the use of higher specific activity Tungsten-188, with a view to reducing the generator bolus volume. The Re-188 HDD/Lipiodol conjugate?;ate is used in this IAEA trial for radioembolytic therapy of primary liver cancer, and methods for preparation of Re-188 HDD and its extraction into Lipiodol are discussed. Since Re-188 HDD binds to glass surfaces, the recovery yields are variable and can be as low as 40-45%. In an effort to maximize the

  16. Enhanced Dissolution of a Porous Carrier-Containing Ternary Amorphous Solid Dispersion System Prepared by a Hot Melt Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Masataka; Jermain, Scott V; Williams, Robert O

    2018-01-01

    The focus of our study was to employ a solvent-free, thermal process to evaluate the use of a porous carrier in a drug-polymer-porous carrier ternary formulation containing a high drug load (e.g., ≥50% w/w). The purpose of the study was to improve the dissolution properties of the biopharmaceutical classification system class II drug, indomethacin, in the ternary formulation. The effect that the selected polymer has on properties of the formulation was studied, and the formulation characteristics of hypromellose (AF15), copovidone (VA64), and polyvinyl alcohol-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer was evaluated to understand differences in dissolution rates and drug adsorption onto the porous carrier. The ternary formulations were manufactured using a thermal technique that relied on heating and mixing, without the necessity of mechanical shear. All thermally processed granules that employed the porous carrier exhibited immediate release compared with crystalline indomethacin and physical mixtures. In addition, the ternary formulations maintained supersaturation compared with the binary formulations without polymer. The results of this study indicated that the thermally processed ternary formulations containing a porous carrier demonstrated a much improved dissolution profile in nonsink conditions. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Preparation of drinking water used in water supply systems of the towns Zrenjanin and Temerin by electrochemical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orescanin, Visnja; Kollar, Robert; Nad, Karlo; Mikulic, Nenad

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was the development and application of the pilot plant with the capacity of 1000 L/day for the purification of groundwater used for human consumption characterized with high concentration of arsenic and increased values of organic pollutants, ammonia, nitrites, color and turbidity. For that purpose, groundwater from the production wells supplying the towns Zrenjanin and Temerin (Vojvodina, Serbia) was used. Due to its complex composition, the purification system required the combination of the electroreduction/electrocoagulation, using iron and aluminum electrode plates with/without ozonation, followed by the electromagnetic treatment and the finally by the simultaneous ozonation/UV treatment. The electroreduction was used for the removal of nitrates, nitrites, and Cr(VI), while the removal of arsenic, heavy metals, suspended solids, color and turbidity required the application of the electrocoagulation with simultaneous ozonation. Organic contaminants and ammonia were removed completely in the last treatment step by applying the simultaneous ozonation/UV treatment. All measured parameters in the purified water were significantly lower compared to the regulated values. Under the optimum treatment conditions, the removal efficiencies for color, turbidity, suspended solids, total arsenic, total chromium, Ni(II), total copper, sulfates, fluorides, chemical oxygen demand, ammonia, nitrates, and nitrites were 100%. The removal efficiencies of the total manganese and iron were 85.19% and 97.44%, respectively, whilst the final concentrations were 4 and 7 μg/L, respectively.

  18. Microencapsulation of citronella oil by complex coacervation using chitosan-gelatin (b system: operating design, preparation and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Aziz Fitrah Rabani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Citronella oil (CO can be an effective mosquito repellent, but due to its nature which having high volatility, oils rapidly evaporates causing loss of efficacy and shorten the repellent effect. Therefore, microencapsulation technology was implemented to ensure the encapsulated material being protected from immediate contact with environment and offers controlled release. In this study, microencapsulation of CO was done by employing complex coacervation using chitosan-gelatin (B system and utilized proanthocyanidins as the crosslinker. Remarkably, nearly all material involved in this study are from natural sources which are safe to human and environment. In designing operating process condition for CO encapsulation process, we found that wall ratio of 1:35 and pH 5 was the best operating condition based on zeta potential and turbidity analysis. FT-IR analysis found that gelatin-B had coated the CO droplet during emulsification stage, chitosan started to interact with gelatin-B to form a polyelectrolyte complex in adjust pH stage, CO capsules solidified at cooling process and were hardened during crosslinking process. Final product of CO capsules after settling process was identified at the top layer. Surface morphology of CO capsules obtained in this study were described having diameter varies from 81.63 µm to 156.74 µm with almost spherical in shape.

  19. High throughput detection of Coxiella burnetii by real-time PCR with internal control system and automated DNA preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramme Stefanie

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q-fever, a widespread zoonosis. Due to its high environmental stability and infectivity it is regarded as a category B biological weapon agent. In domestic animals infection remains either asymptomatic or presents as infertility or abortion. Clinical presentation in humans can range from mild flu-like illness to acute pneumonia and hepatitis. Endocarditis represents the most common form of chronic Q-fever. In humans serology is the gold standard for diagnosis but is inadequate for early case detection. In order to serve as a diagnostic tool in an eventual biological weapon attack or in local epidemics we developed a real-time 5'nuclease based PCR assay with an internal control system. To facilitate high-throughput an automated extraction procedure was evaluated. Results To determine the minimum number of copies that are detectable at 95% chance probit analysis was used. Limit of detection in blood was 2,881 copies/ml [95%CI, 2,188–4,745 copies/ml] with a manual extraction procedure and 4,235 copies/ml [95%CI, 3,143–7,428 copies/ml] with a fully automated extraction procedure, respectively. To demonstrate clinical application a total of 72 specimens of animal origin were compared with respect to manual and automated extraction. A strong correlation between both methods was observed rendering both methods suitable. Testing of 247 follow up specimens of animal origin from a local Q-fever epidemic rendered real-time PCR more sensitive than conventional PCR. Conclusion A sensitive and thoroughly evaluated real-time PCR was established. Its high-throughput mode may show a useful approach to rapidly screen samples in local outbreaks for other organisms relevant for humans or animals. Compared to a conventional PCR assay sensitivity of real-time PCR was higher after testing samples from a local Q-fever outbreak.

  20. Preparation of 166 Dy/166 Ho DTPA-bis biotin as a system of In vivo generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez V, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this work was to synthesize the complex 166 Dy/ 166 Ho - diethylen triamine pentaacetic-bis Biotin ( 166 Dy/ 166 Ho DTPA-bis Biotin) to evaluate its potential as a new radiopharmaceutical in directed radiotherapy. The Dysprosium-166 was obtained for neutron irradiation of 164 Dy 2 0 3 in the TRIGA Mark III reactor. The labelled was carried out in aqueous solution to p H 8.0 for addition of 166 Dy Cl 3 to the diethylen triamine pentaacetic-α, ω-bis Biotin (DTPA-bis Biotin). The radiochemical purity was determined for HPLC and ITLC. The biological integrity of the marked biotin is evaluated by the biological recognition of the avidin for HPLC - molecular exclusion with and without avidin addition. The studies of stability in vitro were made in dilutions of saline solution to 0.9% and with human serum at 37 C incubated 1 and 24 hours. The complex 166 Dy/ 166 Ho DTPA-bis Biotin was obtained with a radiochemical purity of 99.1 ± 0.6%. The biological recognition of the complex 166 Dy/ 166 Ho DTPA-bis Biotin for the avidin it doesn't affect the labelling procedure. The studies in vitro demonstrated that the 166 Dy/ 166 Ho DTPA-bis Biotin is stable after the dilution in saline solution and in human serum that there is not translocation of the one radionuclide subsequent son to the beta decay of the 166 Dy that could produce the 166 Ho 3+ liberation. The studies of Biodistribution in healthy mice demonstrated that the one complex 166 Dy/ 166 Ho DTPA-bis Biotin have a high renal distribution. In conclusion the radiolabelled biotin in this investigation has the appropriate properties to be used as an In vivo generator system stable for directed radiotherapy. (Author)

  1. Evaluation of apically extruded debris during root canal preparation in primary molar teeth using three different rotary systems and hand files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçuoğlu, Gamze; Topçuoğlu, Hüseyin Sinan; Akpek, Firdevs

    2016-09-01

    To assess the amount of debris extruded apically during root canal preparation using various nickel titanium instrumentation systems and hand files in primary molar teeth. Sixty extracted primary first mandibular molar human teeth were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 15 teeth for each group). The canals were then instrumented with the following instrument systems: Revo-S, Mtwo, ProTaper Next, and hand files. Apically extruded debris during instrumentation was collected into pre-weighed Eppendorf tubes. The Eppendorf tubes were then stored in an incubator at 70°C for 5 days. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by subtracting the pre-instrumentation and post-instrumentation weight of the Eppendorf tubes for each group. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (anova) and Tukey's post hoc tests. ProTaper Next files were associated with less apically extruded debris than the Mtwo, Revo-S, and hand files (P Hand files extruded more debris than Mtwo and Revo-S instruments (P 0.05). All instruments were associated with apical extrusion of debris. ProTaper Next files caused less debris extrusion compared to the other systems used. © 2015 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Knowledge, workflow and electronic document management in the system of the State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine. Preparing the platform development and implementation of the Knowledge Portal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozhko, S.G.; Shevchenko, Yi.A.; Pecheritsya, O.V.; Singayivs'kij, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The previous paper considered the creation of the system for management of nuclear knowledge, workflow and electronic documents (hereinafter called the Knowledge Portal) in the field of safe nuclear energy use. It presented initial steps needed to make an informed decision on the feasibility of implementing the Knowledge Portal and proposed methodological approaches based on practical experience of the State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine and the SSTC NRS. Further pre - project activities of the state body, local authorities, enterprises, institutions and organizations irrespective of ownership (hereinafter called the Institution) involve the development and drawing attention to the package of analytical, technical and feasibility documents. In particular, it is recommended to take into account the results of analyzing world trends in the development of information technology, audit status information and telecommunication systems (hereinafter - ITS) of the Institution, detailed strategy for the development of ITS Institution (hereinafter - the Strategy), the concept of the Knowledge Portal (hereinafter - the Concept) and preliminary technical solution The results of review and approval of the Concept and architecture solution by scientific and technical council of the Institution is the basis for the preparation of Ter ms of Reference (hereinafter - TOR) on the development of the Knowledge Portal, forming schedules for the procurement of hardware and software, works on the development and implementation of portal solutions and information security systems

  3. Nanostructured delivery system for zinc phthalocyanine: preparation, characterization, and phototoxicity study against human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana da Volta Soares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mariana da Volta Soares1, Mainara Rangel Oliveira1, Elisabete Pereira dos Santos1, Lycia de Brito Gitirana2, Gleyce Moreno Barbosa3, Carla Holandino Quaresma3, Eduardo Ricci-Júnior11Department of Medicines, Laboratório de Desenvolvimento Galênico (LADEG, Faculty of Pharmacy, 2Laboratory of Animal and Comparative Histology, Glycobiology Research Program, Institute of Biomedical Science, 3Department of Medicines, Laboratório Multidisciplinar de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilAbstract: In this study, zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc was loaded onto poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL nanoparticles (NPs using a solvent emulsification–evaporation method. The process yield and encapsulation efficiency were 74.2% ± 1.2% and 67.1% ± 0.9%, respectively. The NPs had a mean diameter of 187.4 ± 2.1 nm, narrow distribution size with a polydispersity index of 0.096 ± 0.004, zeta potential of -4.85 ± 0.21 mV, and spherical shape. ZnPc has sustained release, following Higuchi’s kinetics. The photobiological activity of the ZnPc-loaded NPs was evaluated on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Cells were incubated with free ZnPc or ZnPc-loaded NPs for 4 h and then washed with phosphate-buffered saline. Culture medium was added to the wells containing the cells. Finally, the cells were exposed to red light (660 nm with a light dose of 100 J/cm2. The cellular viability was determined after 24 h of incubation. ZnPc-loaded NPs and free photosensitizer eliminated about 95.9% ± 1.8% and 28.7% ± 2.2% of A549 cells, respectively. The phototoxicity was time dependent up to 4 h and concentration dependent at 0–5 µg ZnPc. The cells viability decreased with the increase of the light dose in the range of 10–100 J/cm2. Intense lysis was observed in the cells incubated with the ZnPc-loaded NPs and irradiated with red light. ZnPc-loaded PCL NPs are the release systems that promise photodynamic

  4. Study of different absorbent materials for the preparation of generator systems of 99Mo - 99mTc and 188W-188Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Paula Regina Corain; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Amongst some currently radioisotopes, 99m Tc and 188 Re present adequate decay properties for use in Nuclear Medicine. In the current times the most diagnosis examinations are performed with 99m Tc and 188 Re is one radioisotope of potential use in therapy techniques. The objective of this work consists of determining the capacity of some adsorbent materials for retention of molybdenum and tungsten, aiming the optimization of generator systems of 99 Mo- 99m Tc and 188 W- 188 Re with suitable characteristics for application in Nuclear Medicine. Known amounts, in mass, of molybdenum and tungsten were percolated through different chromatographic columns containing different commercial adsorbent materials such as: PZC (poly-zirconium compound), acid alumina and calcinated alumina used in the routine preparation of 99 Mo- 99m Tc generators at IPEN. The tungsten ( 188 W), as well the PZC used in this project, supplied by Russia and Japan, respectively, through the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and used without any previous preparation. Also trace amounts of 99 Mo and 188 W were added to the initial solutions and the generators were assembled. The 99 Mo- 99m Tc generators were then eluted with known volumes of 0.9% NaCl solution every 24 hours whereas the 188 W- 188 Re generators were eluted every 48 hours. The eluted samples were analyzed by Gamma Spectroscopy and later submitted to quality control evaluation. The results showed that the PZC presents superior retention capacity for Mo of 97.50mg Mo/gPZC, higher than in acid and calcinated alumina, however the elution efficiency at lower pHs is not so high. With regards to the experiments carried out with 188 W and alumina, it was verified that the elution efficiency of 188 Re was not reproducible and the retention capacity of W was 90.23mgW/gAl 2 O 3 at pH 7. (author)

  5. FY 1999 report on the results of the development of the preparation system technology for recycling of mixed waste plastics; 1999 nendo seika hokokusho. Kongo haipura saishohinka no tameno chukan shori system gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    By operating the demonstrative plant for the preparation system to recycle mixed waste plastics and process them into such a shape that the transportation can be easier, conducted were the development of element technology necessary for the preparation and the evaluation study of process cost, economical efficiency, environmental effects, etc. The FY 1999 results were summed up. As to the operation of the demonstrative plant for the preparation completed in September 1999, the target waste plastic processing capacity of 3,000 t/y was expected to be achieved. Further, conditions were obtained for effectively separating/removing metal foreign matters such as iron and aluminum and heavy materials such as glass and plaster and for separating/removing chlorine resins such as PVC and reducing the chlorine concentration of the agglomerate to 2% or below. Concerning the development of the agglomeration technology by frictional heat, the target processing capacity of about 350 kg/h was expected to be achieved. In the plant assumed of the actual machine of process capacity of 6,000 t/y, the waste plastic processing cost was estimated to be about 70,000 yen/t. Moreover, the CO2 emission reduction amount of the agglomerate by coke substitution was quantitatively evaluated. (NEDO)

  6. Preparation of high bioactivity multilayered bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cell sheets for myocardial infarction using a 3D-dynamic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingwei; Zhang, Jianhua; Qin, Zixi; Fan, Zepei; Lu, Cheng; Chen, Baoxin; Zhao, Jupeng; Li, Xiaojuan; Xiao, Fei; Lin, Xi; Wu, Zheng

    2018-05-01

    Cell sheet techniques offer a promising future for myocardial infarction (MI) therapy; however, insufficient nutrition supply remains the major limitation in maintaining stem cell bioactivity in vitro. In order to enhance cell sheet mechanical strength and bioactivity, a decellularized porcine pericardium (DPP) scaffold was prepared by the phospholipase A2 method, and aspartic acid was used as a spacer arm to improve the vascular endothelial growth factor crosslink efficiency on the DPP scaffold. Based on this scaffold, multilayered bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell sheets were rapidly constructed, using RAD16-I peptide hydrogel as a temporary 3D scaffold, and cell sheets were cultured in either the 3D-dynamic system (DCcs) or the traditional static condition (SCcs). The multilayered structure, stem cell bioactivity, and ultrastructure of DCcs and SCcs were assessed. The DCcs exhibited lower apoptosis, lower differentiation, and an improved paracrine effect after a 48 h culture in vitro compared to the SCcs. Four groups were set to evaluate the cell sheet effect in rat MI model: sham group, MI control group, DCcs group, and SCcs group. The DCcs group improved cardiac function and decreased the infarcted area compared to the MI control group, while no significant improvements were observed in the SCcs group. Improved cell survival, angiogenesis, and Sca-1 + cell and c-kit + cell amounts were observed in the DCcs group. In conclusion, the DCcs maintained higher stem cell bioactivity by using the 3D-dynamic system to provide sufficient nutrition, and transplanting DCcs significantly improved the cardiac function and angiogenesis. This study provides an efficient method to prepare vascular endothelial growth factor covalent decellularized pericardium scaffold with aspartic acid, and a multilayered bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) sheet is constructed on it using a 3D-dynamic system. The dynamic nutrition supply showed a significant benefit on BMSC bioactivity

  7. Preparation of tungsten coatings on graphite by electro-deposition via Na2WO4–WO3 molten salt system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ning-bo; Zhang, Ying-chun; Jiang, Fan; Lang, Shao-ting; Xia, Min

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Tungsten coatings on graphite were firstly obtained by electro-deposition method via Na 2 WO 4 –WO 3 molten salt system. • Uniform and dense tungsten coatings could be easily prepared in each face of the sample, especially the complex components. • The obtained tungsten coatings are with high purity, ultra-low oxygen content (about 0.022 wt%). • Modulate pulse parameters can get tungsten coatings with different thickness and hardness. - Abstract: Tungsten coating on graphite substrate is one of the most promising candidate materials as the ITER plasma facing components. In this paper, tungsten coatings on graphite substrates were fabricated by electro-deposition from Na 2 WO 4 –WO 3 molten salt system at 1173 K in atmosphere. Tungsten coatings with no impurities were successfully deposited on graphite substrates under various pulsed current densities in an hour. By increasing the current density from 60 mA cm −2 to 120 mA cm −2 an increase of the average size of tungsten grains, the thickness and the hardness of tungsten coatings occurs. The average size of tungsten grains can reach 7.13 μm, the thickness of tungsten coating was in the range of 28.8–51 μm, and the hardness of coating was higher than 400 HV. No cracks or voids were observed between tungsten coating and graphite substrate. The oxygen content of tungsten coating is about 0.022 wt%

  8. Preparation, in-vitro and in-vivo evaluation of spray-dried ternary solid dispersion of biopharmaceutics classification system class II model drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paidi, Sharan K; Jena, Sunil K; Ahuja, Bhupesh K; Devasari, Naresh; Suresh, Sarasija

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of a novel spray-dried ternary solid dispersion (TSD) on the dissolution rate and bioavailability of a biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) class II model drug, atorvastatin calcium trihydrate (ATC), and evaluate its in-vitro and in-vivo performance. TSD of ATC was prepared by spray-drying method employing ethanol/water solvent systems. The TSD formulations, composed of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC E5) and nicotinamide, were optimized by rotatable central composite design. Physicochemical characterization along with dissolution, stability and pharmacokinetic study of optimized TSD was evaluated. The optimized TSD was found to be amorphous with spherical shape morphology. It exhibited a fourfold increase in dissolution rate in comparison to ATC, with a considerable enhancement in oral bioavailability (relative bioavailability of 134.11%). Physicochemical characterization and dissolution study of optimized TSD at the end of stability studies clearly indicated that the stability of optimized TSD was due to hydrogen bonding between drug and HPMC E5 and nicotinamide. This bonding remained unaffected even under stressful conditions of high temperature and humidity. The TSD exhibits a significant increase in dissolution rate, and for this reason should be useful as an efficacious tool to enhance the bioavailability of BCS class II drug molecule, ATC. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. Preparing Canada's power systems for transition to the year 2000 : Y2K readiness assessment results for Canadian electric utility companies : first quarter 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The effort made by Canadian electric utilities to minimize any power disruptions during the year 2000 (Y2K) transition is discussed and the state of readiness of the electric power industry with respect to the Y2K computer challenge is outlined. Canadian utilities started addressing Y2K issues several years ago, and today, reports show that every major electric utility in Canada is either on, or ahead of schedule to meet the industry established milestones for Y2K readiness. This report includes the assessment of all of Canada's large electric utilities, plus about 95 per cent of Canada's small distribution utilities. On average, the bulk electric utilities in Canada expect to be Y2K ready by mid-June 1999. This means that equipment and systems will operate properly for all dates including Y2K, or that there will be an operating strategy in place to mitigate the effects of any improper operations of equipment or systems. In terms of overall preparations for Y2K, Canada is ahead of the North American averages. Bulk electric utilities for non-nuclear generation are now 100 per cent complete in the inventory phase, 99 per cent complete in the assessment phase, and 91 per cent complete in the remediation/testing phase. For nuclear generation, completion rates are the same except for the remediation/testing phase which is 97 per cent complete. 1 tab., 21 figs

  10. Preparation and characterization of novel nano-mineral for the removal of several heavy metals from aqueous solution: Batch and continuous systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumars Seifpanahi Shabani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Results of studies of the sorption activity of diatomite nanoparticles, diatomite–perlite composite nanoparticles and perlite nanoparticles that was provided from internal resource at Iran, with respect to Fe(II, Cu(II, Mn(II and Cr(III ions are presented. Thus, diatomite nanoparticles, diatomite–perlite composite nanoparticles and perlite nanoparticles were modified and prepared via particle size decreasing and characterized by XRD, XRF, BET, SEM, TEM and FT-IR. In the batch system the influence of pH, adsorbent dosage, temperature and ions initial concentration was investigated. The results of isotherm and kinetics studies show that the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetic showed better correlation with the experimental data. Calculations of thermodynamic parameters show the negative ΔG° values or spontaneous reaction, the enthalpy (ΔH° change shows the endothermic process and values of ΔS° indicate low randomness at the solid/solution interface during the uptake of ions. Finally, three adsorbents were packed inside a glass column as a continuous system and the breakthrough curves were obtained. All results show that the ion affinity to adsorption onto adsorbents is as follows: Cu(II > Fe(II > Mn(II > Cr(III. So, these abundant, locally available cheap minerals showed a greater efficiency for the removal of metal ions from the aqueous solution, also can be utilized for other water pollutants.

  11. Communication Games Reveal Preparation Contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameedi, Alley; Tavakoli, Armin; Marques, Breno; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    A communication game consists of distributed parties attempting to jointly complete a task with restricted communication. Such games are useful tools for studying limitations of physical theories. A theory exhibits preparation contextuality whenever its predictions cannot be explained by a preparation noncontextual model. Here, we show that communication games performed in operational theories reveal the preparation contextuality of that theory. For statistics obtained in a particular family of communication games, we show a direct correspondence with correlations in spacelike separated events obeying the no-signaling principle. Using this, we prove that all mixed quantum states of any finite dimension are preparation contextual. We report on an experimental realization of a communication game involving three-level quantum systems from which we observe a strong violation of the constraints of preparation noncontextuality.

  12. Preparing Graduate Students for Solar System Science and Exploration Careers: Internships and Field Training Courses led by the Lunar and Planetary Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, A. J.; Kring, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    To be competitive in 21st century science and exploration careers, graduate students in planetary science and related disciplines need mentorship and need to develop skills not always available at their home university, including fieldwork, mission planning, and communicating with others in the scientific and engineering communities in the U.S. and internationally. Programs offered by the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) address these needs through summer internships and field training programs. From 2008-2012, LPI hosted the Lunar Exploration Summer Intern Program. This special summer intern program evaluated possible landing sites for robotic and human exploration missions to the lunar surface. By the end of the 2012 program, a series of scientifically-rich landing sites emerged, some of which had never been considered before. Beginning in 2015 and building on the success of the lunar exploration program, a new Exploration Science Summer Intern Program is being implemented with a broader scope that includes both the Moon and near-Earth asteroids. Like its predecessor, the Exploration Science Summer Intern Program offers graduate students a unique opportunity to integrate scientific input with exploration activities in a way that mission architects and spacecraft engineers can use. The program's activities may involve assessments and traverse plans for a particular destination or a more general assessment of a class of possible exploration targets. Details of the results of these programs will be discussed. Since 2010 graduate students have participated in field training and research programs at Barringer (Meteor) Crater and the Sudbury Impact Structure. Skills developed during these programs prepare students for their own thesis studies in impact-cratered terrains, whether they are on the Earth, the Moon, Mars, or other solar system planetary surface. Future field excursions will take place at these sites as well as the Zuni-Bandera Volcanic Field. Skills

  13. Preparation and mass spectrometrical high temperature investigations on compounds of the quasi-ternary system Cs2O-Al2O3-SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odoj, R.; Hilpert, K.; Nuernberg, H.W.

    1977-09-01

    Additions of aluminium oxide and silicen oxide to ceramic fuel for pyrocarbon-coated nuclear fuel paticles counteract a release of fission-cesium by compound formation. The vapourization tests carried out here using samples from the quasi-ternary system cesium-oxide-aluminium-oxide-silicon-oxide by means of high-temperature mass spectroscopy using a Knudsen cell served the optimization of this retention effect. The aim of the apparative changes on the knudsen cell were to shield heat radiation on the temperature measuring borehole through the tungsten wire cathode in order to be able to perform exact temperature measurements even below 1,000 0 C. A new method of preparation was developed to obtain defined cesium aluminium silicates whose composition was determined by Guinier and goniometer pictures as well as by microscopic investigations. According to the latter, 3 ternary compounds are present in the system investigated: CsAlSiO 4 , CsAlSi 2 O 6 and CsAlSi 5 O 12 . Their lattice constants were determined from goniometric measurements; the vapour pressure equection were set up from the measured cesium vapour pressure values over each sample and the enthalpies of the vapourization reactions were found to be 84 kcal for CsAlSiO 4 at 1,400 0 K, 100 kcal for CsAlSi 2 O 6 at 1,550 0 K and 122 kcal for CsAlSi 5 O 12 at 1,650 0 K. The cesium vapour pressures of the glas phases investigated of the system are above the Cs partial pressures of the solid crystalline phases of the same composition. The results of the work explain the causes of the reduction of the Cs release and show that the vapour pressure can be lowered by more than 10 orders of magnitude at reactor relevant temperatures by compound formation. (RB) [de

  14. Preparing for Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preparing for Surgery Home For Patients Search FAQs Preparing for Surgery ... Surgery FAQ080, August 2011 PDF Format Preparing for Surgery Gynecologic Problems What is the difference between outpatient ...

  15. Preparation of pH-sensitive poly(ethylene oxide) hydrogels grafted by γ-ray irradiation and their applications for drug delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nho, Y.-C.; Kang, P.-H.; Lim, Y.-M.; Kuk, I.-H.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogels are three-dimensional networks of hydrophilic polymers held together by crosslinks of covalent bonds or ionic bonds and secondary forces in the form of hydrogen bonds or hydrophobic interactions. Environmentally sensitive hydrogels have an enormous potential for various applications. Either pH-sensitive and/or temperature- sensitive hydrogels can be used for a site-specific controlled drug delivery. Especially, pH-sensitive hydrogels have been most frequently used to develop controlled release formulations for oral administration. All the pH-sensitive hydrogels contain pendent acidic, for example carboxylic and sulfonic acids, or basic, for example ammonium salts, groups that either accept or release protons in response to changes in environmental pH[3-5]. These ionic hydrogels are the swollen polymer networks which show sudden or gradual changes in their dynamic and equilibrium swelling behavior as a result of changing the external pH. In these gels, ionization occurs when the pH of the environment is above the pKa of the ionizable group . As the degree of ionization increases (pH increase in the system), the number of fixed charges increases, resulting in increased electrostatic repulsions between the chains. Irradiation, especially if combined with simultaneous sterilization of the product, is a very convenient tool for the synthesis of hydrogels. Radiation processing has many advantages over other conventional methods. For initiation processes, radiation differs from chemical initiation. In radiation processing, no catalysts or additives are needed to initiate the reaction. The advantages of the radiation methods are that they are relatively simple, and moreover, the degree of crosslinking, which strongly determines the extent of swelling in hydrogels, can be controlled easily by varying the absorbed dose. Therefore, these methods are found to be very useful in preparing hydrogels for medical applications, where even a small contamination is

  16. [Pediatric preparations of blood products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulat, C

    2017-09-01

    The transfusion in pediatrics may require specific preparations to adapt to the various characteristics from preterm neonates to big child: weight, immaturity, immune system, blood volume, long and short-term prognosis, and to meet the needs of pathologies related to the perinatal period. The knowledge of the process for preparation, conservation and administration of these particular products shall permit a transfusion in safe conditions by supporting the prescribers in a personalized blood management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Prepared to react? Assessing the functional capacity of the primary health care system in rural Orissa, India to respond to the devastating flood of September 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Marx

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early detection of an impending flood and the availability of countermeasures to deal with it can significantly reduce its health impacts. In developing countries like India, public primary health care facilities are frontline organizations that deal with disasters particularly in rural settings. For developing robust counter reacting systems evaluating preparedness capacities within existing systems becomes necessary. Objective: The objective of the study is to assess the functional capacity of the primary health care system in Jagatsinghpur district of rural Orissa in India to respond to the devastating flood of September 2008. Methods: An onsite survey was conducted in all 29 primary and secondary facilities in five rural blocks (administrative units of Jagatsinghpur district in Orissa state. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was administered face to face in the facilities. The data was entered, processed and analyzed using STATA® 10. Results: Data from our primary survey clearly shows that the healthcare facilities are ill prepared to handle the flood despite being faced by them annually. Basic utilities like electricity backup and essential medical supplies are lacking during floods. Lack of human resources along with missing standard operating procedures; pre-identified communication and incident command systems; effective leadership; and weak financial structures are the main hindering factors in mounting an adequate response to the floods. Conclusion: The 2008 flood challenged the primary curative and preventive health care services in Jagatsinghpur. Simple steps like developing facility specific preparedness plans which detail out standard operating procedures during floods and identify clear lines of command will go a long way in strengthening the response to future floods. Performance critiques provided by the grass roots workers, like this one, should be used for institutional learning and effective preparedness

  18. PATH OF PREPARATION OF EDUCATIONAL PROPOSAL FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION IN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN VIEW OF BAURU THEORY PEDAGOGY OF HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL THEORY AND HISTORICAL-CULTURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta de Castro Alves Corrêa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present the trajectory deployment of historical-critical pedagogy and cultural-historical theory in the Early Childhood Education from Municipal System of Education of Bauru and emphasize the process of formulating a new Pedagogical proposal anchored in the Marxist perspective, discussing the progress and difficulties encountered in the preparation of this document to ensure the principles of this concept in the theoretical and practical education of the collective. Therefore, it was necessary to recover the memory of the work at this stage of education since its implementation in the city, because it is understood that to investigate the educational past is possible to understand the theoretical position adopted for the realization of the formal character of the school children assumes within this pedagogy. For the organization of the study , we chose an experience report , for better suit the purposes of this paper and allow to know the variables that contributed to the choice of the historical-critical pedagogy and cultural-historical theory as a theoretical unit privileged to teach the child zero to five years.

  19. Realisation of a ultra-high vacuum system and technique development of microscopical emitters preparation in silicium. First measurements of field emission current and field photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Manouni, A.

    1990-12-01

    The development of research in the domain of photocathode (electron sources) illuminated by laser light to produce intense multiple bunches of electrons in short time is needed by many applications as linear collider e + e - , free electron laser, lasertron, etc... In this way, after a study of field emission, of photoemission and of photofield emission, we prepared microscopical emitters in silicium heavy and weakly doped a boron using a technique of microlithography. Then, we realized a system of ultra-high vacuum of studying property of emission from photocathodes realized. The experiment results obtained in field emission and photofield emission have shown that a behaviour unexpected for P-silicium tips array compared to P + -silicon tips array. With P-type silicon, a quantum yield of 21 percent has been measured for laser power of 140 mW and for applied field of 1.125 x 10 7 V/m and an instantaneous response to laser light beam has been observed. It has been noted that presence of oxyde at the surface of photocathode limits extensively the emission current. The fluctuations of emission current are due to quality of vacuum [fr

  20. Equilibrium diagram of KPO{sub 3}-Y(PO{sub 3}){sub 3} system, chemical preparation and characterization of KY(PO{sub 3}){sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouini, Anis; Ferid, Mokhtar; Trabelsi-Ayadi, Malika

    2003-04-17

    Microdifferential thermal analysis ({mu}-DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy were used for the first time to investigate the liquidus and solidus relations in the KPO{sub 3}-Y(PO{sub 3}){sub 3} system. The only compound observed within the system was KY(PO{sub 3}){sub 4} melting incongruently at 1033 K. An eutectic appears at 13.5 mol% Y(PO{sub 3}){sub 3} at 935 K, the peritectic occurs at 1033 K and the phase transition for potassium polyphosphate KPO{sub 3} was observed at 725 K. Three monoclinic allotropic phases of the single crystals were obtained. KY(PO{sub 3}){sub 4} polyphosphate has the P2{sub 1} space group with lattice parameters: a=7.183(4) A, b=8.351(6) A, c=7.983(3) A, {beta}=91.75(3) deg. and Z=2 is isostructural with KNd(PO{sub 3}){sub 4}. The second allotropic form of KY(PO{sub 3}){sub 4} belongs to the P2{sub 1}/n space group with lattice parameters: a=10.835(3) A, b=9.003(2) A, c=10.314(1) A, {beta}=106.09(7) deg. and Z=4 and is isostructural with TlNd(PO{sub 3}){sub 4}. The IR absorption spectra of the two forms show a chain polyphosphates structure. The last modification of KYP{sub 4}O{sub 12} crystallizes in the C2/c space group with lattice parameters: a=7.825(3) A, b=12.537(4) A, c=10.584(2) A, {beta}=110.22(7) deg. and Z=4 is isostructural with RbNdP{sub 4}O{sub 12} and contains cyclic anions. The methods of chemical preparations, the determination of crystallographic data and IR spectra for these compounds are reported.

  1. Preparation of tungsten coatings on graphite by electro-deposition via Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}–WO{sub 3} molten salt system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Ning-bo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Ying-chun, E-mail: zycustb@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Jiang, Fan; Lang, Shao-ting [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Xia, Min [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Institute of Powder Metallurgy and Advanced Ceramics, Southwest Jiaotong University, 111, 1st Section, Northern 2nd Ring Road, Chengdu (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Tungsten coatings on graphite were firstly obtained by electro-deposition method via Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}–WO{sub 3} molten salt system. • Uniform and dense tungsten coatings could be easily prepared in each face of the sample, especially the complex components. • The obtained tungsten coatings are with high purity, ultra-low oxygen content (about 0.022 wt%). • Modulate pulse parameters can get tungsten coatings with different thickness and hardness. - Abstract: Tungsten coating on graphite substrate is one of the most promising candidate materials as the ITER plasma facing components. In this paper, tungsten coatings on graphite substrates were fabricated by electro-deposition from Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}–WO{sub 3} molten salt system at 1173 K in atmosphere. Tungsten coatings with no impurities were successfully deposited on graphite substrates under various pulsed current densities in an hour. By increasing the current density from 60 mA cm{sup −2} to 120 mA cm{sup −2} an increase of the average size of tungsten grains, the thickness and the hardness of tungsten coatings occurs. The average size of tungsten grains can reach 7.13 μm, the thickness of tungsten coating was in the range of 28.8–51 μm, and the hardness of coating was higher than 400 HV. No cracks or voids were observed between tungsten coating and graphite substrate. The oxygen content of tungsten coating is about 0.022 wt%.

  2. Preparation and evaluation of valsartan by a novel semi-solid self-microemulsifying delivery system using Gelucire 44/14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kun; Yuan, Yue; Wang, Hui; Li, Panpan; Bao, Zhihong; Li, Yue

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a novel semi-solid self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) using Gelucire(®) 44/14 as oil with strong solid character to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly soluble drug valsartan. The solubility of valsartan in various excipients was determined, the pseudo-ternary phase diagram was constructed in order to screen the optimal excipients, and DSC analysis was performed to evaluate the melting point of SMEDDS. The optimal drug-loaded SMEDDS formulation was consisted of 30% Gelucire(®) 44/14 (oil), 40% Solutol(®) HS 15 (surfactant), and 30% Transcutol(®) P (cosurfactant) (w/w) with 80 mg valsartan/g excipients. The average droplet sizes of the optimized blank and drug-loaded SMEDDS formulations were 26.20 ± 1.43 and 33.34 ± 2.15 nm, and the melting points of them were 35.6 and 36.8 °C, respectively. The in vitro dissolution rate of optimal semi-solid SMEDDS was increased compared with commercial capsules, resulting in the 2.72-fold and 2.97-fold enhancement of Cmax and AUC0-t after oral administration in rats, respectively. These results indicated that the novel semi-solid SMEDDS formulation could potentially improve the oral bioavailability of valsartan, and the semi-solid SMEDDS was a desirable system than the traditional liquid SMEDDS because it was convenient for preparation, storage and transportation due to semi-solid state at room temperature and melted state at body temperature.

  3. Equilibrium diagram of KPO3-Y(PO3)3 system, chemical preparation and characterization of KY(PO3)4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouini, Anis; Ferid, Mokhtar; Trabelsi-Ayadi, Malika

    2003-01-01

    Microdifferential thermal analysis (μ-DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy were used for the first time to investigate the liquidus and solidus relations in the KPO 3 -Y(PO 3 ) 3 system. The only compound observed within the system was KY(PO 3 ) 4 melting incongruently at 1033 K. An eutectic appears at 13.5 mol% Y(PO 3 ) 3 at 935 K, the peritectic occurs at 1033 K and the phase transition for potassium polyphosphate KPO 3 was observed at 725 K. Three monoclinic allotropic phases of the single crystals were obtained. KY(PO 3 ) 4 polyphosphate has the P2 1 space group with lattice parameters: a=7.183(4) A, b=8.351(6) A, c=7.983(3) A, β=91.75(3) deg. and Z=2 is isostructural with KNd(PO 3 ) 4 . The second allotropic form of KY(PO 3 ) 4 belongs to the P2 1 /n space group with lattice parameters: a=10.835(3) A, b=9.003(2) A, c=10.314(1) A, β=106.09(7) deg. and Z=4 and is isostructural with TlNd(PO 3 ) 4 . The IR absorption spectra of the two forms show a chain polyphosphates structure. The last modification of KYP 4 O 12 crystallizes in the C2/c space group with lattice parameters: a=7.825(3) A, b=12.537(4) A, c=10.584(2) A, β=110.22(7) deg. and Z=4 is isostructural with RbNdP 4 O 12 and contains cyclic anions. The methods of chemical preparations, the determination of crystallographic data and IR spectra for these compounds are reported

  4. Study of different absorbent materials for the preparation of generator systems of {sup 99}Mo - {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Paula Regina Corain; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto, E-mail: paulinhacorain@usp.b, E-mail: jaosso@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Amongst some currently radioisotopes, {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}Re present adequate decay properties for use in Nuclear Medicine. In the current times the most diagnosis examinations are performed with {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}Re is one radioisotope of potential use in therapy techniques. The objective of this work consists of determining the capacity of some adsorbent materials for retention of molybdenum and tungsten, aiming the optimization of generator systems of {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re with suitable characteristics for application in Nuclear Medicine. Known amounts, in mass, of molybdenum and tungsten were percolated through different chromatographic columns containing different commercial adsorbent materials such as: PZC (poly-zirconium compound), acid alumina and calcinated alumina used in the routine preparation of {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generators at IPEN. The tungsten ({sup 188}W), as well the PZC used in this project, supplied by Russia and Japan, respectively, through the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and used without any previous preparation. Also trace amounts of {sup 99}Mo and {sup 188}W were added to the initial solutions and the generators were assembled. The {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generators were then eluted with known volumes of 0.9% NaCl solution every 24 hours whereas the {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re generators were eluted every 48 hours. The eluted samples were analyzed by Gamma Spectroscopy and later submitted to quality control evaluation. The results showed that the PZC presents superior retention capacity for Mo of 97.50mg Mo/gPZC, higher than in acid and calcinated alumina, however the elution efficiency at lower pHs is not so high. With regards to the experiments carried out with {sup 188}W and alumina, it was verified that the elution efficiency of {sup 188}Re was not reproducible and the retention capacity of W was 90.23mgW/gAl{sub 2}O{sub 3} at pH 7. (author)

  5. Comparison of the Effect of Canal Preparation by Step Back Technique Using Hand Instruments and Gates Glidden Drills with ProTaper Universal Rotary System on the Root Resistance to Vertical Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abbaszadegan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cleaning and shaping of the root canal system with an efficient and safe technique are the major goals of root canal treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the conventional root canal preparation technique by hand instruments and Gates Glidden drills with ProTaper Universal Rotary system on the root susceptibility to vertical fracture. Methods: Thirty extracted human mandibular premolars were randomly assigned to two groups. In group I, apical preparation was performed with k-files up to #40 utilizing step back technique and coronal flaring was done with Gates Glidden drills. In group II, ProTaper Universal Rotary instruments were used up to the file F4. All teeth were obturated with lateral compaction technique using gutta-percha and AH26 sealer. A simulated periodontal ligament was fabricated, and the teeth were mounted. A stainless steel finger spreader #35 was mounted in an Instron testing machine and the necessary load to cause a root fracture was inserted and recorded. The obtained data were analyzed statistically using T-test. Results: The force required to fracture was significantly lower for the roots prepared by ProTaper instruments in comparison with the specimens prepared by hand instruments and Gates Glidden drills (P< 0.001. Conclusion: Canal preparation with ProTaper rotary instruments can make the roots more susceptible to vertical fracture than traditional instrumentation with k-files and Gates Glidden drills.

  6. Internal ODOT survey on attitudes and readiness for connected and autonomous vehicles as part of preparing a possible Oregon road map for connected vehicle/cooperative systems deployment scenarios : task 1 report : SPR 764.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this project was to lay the groundwork for Oregon to be prepared to lead in the : implementation of a connected vehicle/cooperative systems transportation portfolio, and/or to avoid being caught : by surprise as developments in this area ...

  7. Platelet concentrates stored in plasma for 72 hours at 22 degrees C prepared from buffycoats of citrate-phosphate-dextrose blood collected in a quadruple-bag saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietersz, R. N.; Loos, J. A.; Reesink, H. W.

    1985-01-01

    A method is described to prepare platelet concentrates from the buffycoat of citrate-phosphate-dextrose (CPD) blood in a closed four-bag system and to store the platelets in autologous plasma under sterile conditions. After separation of the blood into plasma, buffycoat and leukocyte- and

  8. Integrated coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, D.J.; Jones, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    Perceptions of quality have changed over the years. The attributes of a certain coal (its rank, slagging propensity, ash content etc) are traditionally referred to as its quality. However, the subject of this paper is quality in a much wider sense: quality as fitness for purpose: and all that such a wide definition entails. British Standard BS 5750 (ISO 9000) Quality Systems defines a systems approach to quality, and includes both the supplier of raw materials and the final customer within this boundary. Coal preparation starts at the production face. The greater the proportion of dirt in run-of-mine product the greater the challenge in satisfying the customer's needs. Significant advances have been made in minimizing mined dirt. For example, the sue of vertical steering on longwall faces improves productivity and quality. Unfortunately modern mining methods produce large quantities of fines, despite efforts to reduce them at the point of production and during transportation to the surface. Coal preparation also produces further fines. It has been estimated that fine coal costs 2.5 times as much to clean as large coal, and the costs of handing wet fine coal product will inflate this estimate. Handling considerations rightly concern our customers and are part of the wider meaning of quality. In this paper the authors address some novel solutions to the challenge posed by fines

  9. Preparing for faster filling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Following the programmed technical stop last week, operators focussed on preparing the machine for faster filling, which includes multibunch injection and a faster pre-cycle phase.   The LHC1 screen shot during the first multibunch injection operation. The LHC operational schedule incorporates a technical stop for preventive maintenance roughly every six weeks of stable operation, during which several interventions on the various machines are carried out. Last week these included the replacement of a faulty magnet in the SPS pre-accelerator, which required the subsequent re-setting of the system of particle extraction and transfer to the LHC. At the end of last week, all the machines were handed back for operation and work could start on accommodating all the changes made into the complex systems in order for normal operation to be resumed. These ‘recovery’ operations continued through the weekend and into this week. At the beginning of this week, operators succeeded in pro...

  10. Effect of adhesive system application for cavities prepared with erbium, chromium: yttrium scandium gallium garnet laser on rat dental pulp tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Mayo; Suzuki, Masaya; Haga-Tsujimura, Maiko; Shinkai, Koichi

    2017-07-01

    We examined the effects of adhesive systems under study applied for a laser-cut cavity using an Er,Cr:YSGG laser on rat dental pulp at 24 h and 14 days postoperatively. Group 1, laser-cut cavities were treated with a self-etching-primer and bonding agent; group 2, pretreated with a phosphoric-acid, and then treated with a self-etching-primer and bonding agent; group 3, pretreated with a phosphoric-acid and sodium-hypochlorite, and then treated with a self-etching-primer and bonding agent; and group 4, treated with an all-in-one adhesive. A flowable resin composite was used as filling material for each cavity treated with each group. A glass-ionomer-cement was used as a control. The following items were evaluated: pulp-tissue-disorganization (PTD), inflammatory-cell-infiltration (ICI), tertiary-dentin-formation (TDF), and bacterial-penetration (BP). The results were statistically analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test. No significant differences were observed among the experimental groups for all parameters after 24 h and 14 days (P > 0.05). The majority of the specimens showed PTD with edema formation after 24 h; however, all the specimens demonstrated pulpal healing with TDF after 14 days. On the parameter of TDF, all groups showed significant differences between the two postoperative periods (P < 0.01). On the parameter of ICI, a significant difference was found between the two postoperative periods in group 4 (P < 0.05). No specimens showed BP. The pretreatment on the cavity prepared with the laser using phosphoric-acid or sodium-hypochlorite did not affect the dental pulp healing of rat tooth.

  11. Storage of Buffy-coat-derived platelets in additive solutions: in vitro effects on platelets prepared by the novel TACSI system and stored in plastic containers with different gas permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandgren, P; Hild, M; Sjödin, A; Gulliksson, H

    2010-11-01

    The novel TACSI system is designed for automated preparation of platelets (PLTs) from pooled buffy coats (BCs). One TACSI device will handle 6 units at the same time. The aim of our in vitro study is to investigate the effects of using this automated equipment with subsequent storage in two different plastic containers and to compare these results with PLTs prepared by the OrbiSac system. Buffy-coat-derived PLTs (n=8) were prepared by using the TACSI system, including storage in polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-based plastic containers with di, n-decyl phthalate (DnDP) (TACSI R) and BTHC (TACSI T)-based plasticizers. As a reference, the OrbiSac System was used to prepare PLTs (n=8) with subsequent storage in a PVC plastic container with a citrate-based plasticizer (BTHC). In total, 16 TACSI and eight reference units, supplied by approximately 30% plasma and 70% SSP+, were analysed for various in vitro variables during the 7-day storage period. No significant difference in PLT counts, LDH, mean platelet volume (MPV) and adenosine triphosphate between the groups was detected. Glucose was lower (P6·8 (day 7) and swirling remained at the highest level (score=2) for all units throughout storage. Platelets prepared by the TACSI system with subsequent storage in two different PVC-based plastic containers were equivalent to reference PLTs with regard to in vitro characteristics during 7 days of storage. © 2010 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2010 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  12. Preparing Canada's power systems for transition to the year 2000: the Y2K programs of Canada's electric utility companies: province-by-province report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-09-01

    The province-by-province report covers BC Hydro; TransAlta, ATCO Ltd., EPCOR, and Enmax, SaskPower, Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg Hydro, Ontario Power Generation, Ontario Hydro Services Company, Toronto Hydro, Hydro-Quebec and Energie Maclaren, Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro, Newfoundland Power, Nova Scotia Power, Maritime Electric,Yukon and Northwest Territories,Yukon Electrical Company Ltd., Northland Utilities (Yellowknife) Ltd. and Northland Utilities (NWT) Ltd. A report typically deals with inventory, testing and remediation of business systems, inventory, testing and remediation of operational control devices, business partner reviews, and preparation and exercising of contingency plans, as well as Y2K status and readiness reports, and dateline preparations.

  13. Preparing for Emergency Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asproth, Viveca; Amcoff Nyström, Christina

    2010-11-01

    Disaster relief can be seen as a dynamic multi actor process with actors both joining and leaving the relief work during the help and rescue phase after the disaster has occurred. Actors may be governmental agencies, non profit voluntary organisations or spontaneous helpers comprised of individual citizens or temporal groups of citizens. Hence, they will vary widely in agility, competence, resources, and endurance. To prepare for for disasters a net based Agora with simulation of emergency situations for mutual preparation, training, and organisational learning is suggested. Such an Agora will ensure future security by: -Rising awareness and preparedness of potential disaster responders by help of the components and resources in the netAgora environment; -Improving cooperation and coordination between responders; -Improving competence and performance of organisations involved in security issues; -Bridging cultural differences between responders from different organizations and different backgrounds. The developed models are intended to reflect intelligent anticipatory systems for human operator anticipation of future consequences. As a way to catch what should be included in this netbased Agora and to join the split pictures that is present, Team Syntegrity could be a helpful tool. The purpose of Team Syntegrity is to stimulate collaboration and incite cross fertilization and creativity. The difference between syntegration and other group work is that the participants are evenly and uniquely distributed and will collectively have the means, the knowledge, the experience, the perspectives, and the expertise, to deal with the topic. In this paper the possibilities with using Team Syntegrity in preparation for the development of a netbased Agora is discussed. We have identified that Team Syntegrity could be useful in the steps User Integration, Designing the netAgora environment, developing Test Scenarios, and assessment of netAgora environment.

  14. Report on achievements of research and development of an automatic sewing system in fiscal 1986. Sewing preparation and processing technology; 1986 nendo jido hosei system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Hosei junbi kako gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-03-01

    This paper describes the sewing preparation and processing technology from the achievement report for fiscal 1986 on developing an automatic sewing system. For the cloth property evaluation technology, such devices were used to measure different kinds of cloths and evaluate cloth properties related to sewing performance, as the KES testing machine, the measuring device for composite transformation, large transformation and bending, and composite surface properties, the cloth air permeability testing machine, and the thermal property measuring device. The system was verified with regard to data banking to confirm feasibility of the system to practical application. Among the cloth stabilizing technologies, discussions were given on age-based stability of cloth properties, repetitive transformation resistance, temperature, hardener deposition amount, and bending rigidity in cloths treated with temporary hardening agents. Discoloration, robustness and device damaging effect of cloths were also investigated. A partial and temporary hardening device was fabricated to make partial hardening possible. A continuous deflocculating device was also fabricated making deflocculation of temporarily hardened cloth possible. The deflocculation was discussed on the sewing process in relation with workability, and it was revealed that low-level hardening treatment is effective. It was verified that the handling is facilitated particularly in cloths that tend to curl. (NEDO)

  15. Sol-gel process for preparation of YBa2Cu4O8 from acidic acetates/ammonia/ascorbic acid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deptula, A.; Lada, W.; Olczak, T.; Goretta, K.C.

    1997-01-01

    YBa 2 Cu 4 O x sols were prepared by addition of ammonia to acidic acetate solutions of Y 3+ , Ba 2+ , and Cu 2+ . Ascorbic acid was added to part of the sol. The resultant sols were gelled to a shard or a coating by evaporation at 60 C. Addition of ethanol to the sols facilitated formation of gel coatings, fabricated by a dipping technique, on Ag or glass or substrates. At 100 C, gels formed in the presence of ascorbic acid were perfectly amorphous, in contrast to crystalline acetate gels. The quality of coatings prepared from ascorbate gels was superior to that of acetate gel coatings

  16. [Principle directions for the creation and organization of the system of sanitary-epidemiological safety during the preparations for the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games 2014 in Sochi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G; Bragina, I V; Ezhlova, E B; Demina, V P; Gorskiĭ, A A; Gus'kov, A S; Aksenova, O I; Ivanov, G E; Klindukhov, V P; Nikolaevich, P N; Grechanaia, T B; Kulichenko, A N; Maletskaia, O V; Manin, E A; Parkhomenko, V V; Kulichenko, O A

    2015-01-01

    The paper generalizes the experience of formation of protection system against biological threats and ensuring sanitary and epidemiological welfare during preparation for the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi. The basic steps for creating this system, since 2007, participation and role of Rospotrebnadzor in this process are shown. The paper deals with such questions as the governmental and administrative structures with federal agencies interaction, development of a regulatory framework governing the safety system of the Olympic Games, development of algorithms of information exchange and management decisions, biological safety in developing infrastructure in Sochi.

  17. Report on achievements of research and development of an automatic sewing system in fiscal 1985. Sewing preparation and processing technology; 1985 nendo jido hosei system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Hosei junbi kako gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-03-01

    This paper describes the sewing preparation and processing technology, extracted from the achievement report for fiscal 1985 on developing an automatic sewing system. The cloth property evaluation technology was discussed by using the KES testing machine, and the composite transformation, large bending and composite surface property measuring device. Multiple regression analysis was made on cloth properties required for operation of each sewing process, and the summary of cloth properties required for the sewing devices was identified. A case study was performed on the data banking system on the sewing machine operating process as the object. For the cloth stabilization technology, seven kinds of temporary hardening agents were selected, and given the performance test. Literatures were investigated on tolerance for human body exposure to working environment pollution. Fabrication of the continuously operating temporary hardener processing device achieved the performance as designed. Discussions were given on temporary hardener flow rate and supply pressure, particle diameters and rotation speed of the rotating disk, particle properties and hardening performance, and work uniformity, where the performance of the continuous temporary hardening treatment was verified. High level correlation was derived between the relative handling difficulty and the cloth properties. With regard to the hardening standard, discussions are required also on the correlation with sewability. (NEDO)

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Man

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The homogeneous-dispersed graphene oxide was prepared by the improved Hummers method, which would be reduced to graphene with the reducing agent called hydrazine hydrate. The X-ray diffraction, Infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectra and Transmission electron microscopy were used to analysis the phase, morphology and structure of the graphene and graphene oxide. The results show that the graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide prepared via this method, whose degree of oxidation and reduction are high; Also obtained a higher well-disperses and less structural imperfection of the graphene that was manufactured in the reducing system that added ammonia reduction

  19. 48 CFR 252.237-7011 - Preparation history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preparation history. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.237-7011 Preparation history. As prescribed in 237.7003(b), use the following clause: Preparation History (DEC 1991) For each body prepared, or for each casket handled in a group...

  20. Design and fabrication of a mechanical alloying system for preparing intermetallic, nanocrystalline, amorphous and quasicrystalline compounds; Diseno y fabricacion de un sistema de aleado mecanico para preparar compuestos intermetalicos, nanocristalinos, amorfos y cuasicristalinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonifacio M, J.; Iturbe G, J.L.; Castaneda J, G. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    In this work a grinding system was designed and fabricated which allowed to improve the operation conditions in time, frequency, temperature and selection of the grinding media and that allow the contamination decrease of the compounds. By means of this method of mechanical alloying new metallic compounds can be produced, starting from elemental powders, with fine and controlled microstructures. These compounds prepared by this method are going to be used as materials for the hydrogen storage. (Author)

  1. Sol-gel process for preparing YBa2Cu4O8 precursors from Y, Ba, and Cu acidic acetates/ammonia/ascorbic acid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deptula, A.; Lada, W.; Olczak, T.; Goretta, K.C.

    1995-08-01

    Sols were prepared by addition of ammonia to acidic acetate solutions of Y 3+ , Ba 2+ , and Cu 2+ . Ascorbic acid was added to a part of the sol. The resultant sols were gelled to a shard, a film, or microspheres by evaporation at 60 C or by extraction of water from drops of emulsion suspended in 2-ethylhexanol-1. Addition of ethanol to the sols facilitated the formation of gel films, fabricated by a dipping technique, on glass or silver substrates. At 100 C, gels that were formed in the presence of ascorbic acid were perfectly amorphous, in contrast to the crystalline acetate gels. Conversion of the amorphous ascorbate gels to final products was easier than for the acetate gels. The quality of coatings prepared from ascorbate gels was superior to that of acetate gel coatings

  2. Synthesis of enantioenriched γ-quaternary cycloheptenones using a combined allylic alkylation/Stork–Danheiser approach: preparation of mono-, bi-, and tricyclic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bennett, Nathan B.; Hong, Allen Y.; Harned, Andrew M.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2012-01-01

    A general method for the synthesis of β-substituted and unsubstituted cycloheptenones bearing enantioenriched all-carbon γ-quaternary stereocenters is reported. Hydride or organometallic addition to a seven-membered ring vinylogous ester followed by finely tuned quenching parameters achieves elimination to the corresponding cycloheptenone. The resulting enones are elaborated to bi- and tricyclic compounds with potential for the preparation of non-natural analogs and whose structures are embedded in a number of cycloheptanoid natural products.

  3. Structural evolution of the SiO2-Ag system prepared by the Sol-gel process with incorporation of Ag particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, L.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Structural evolution of Sol-Gel glasses in powder form and coatings with incorporation of Ag particles at the starting solution showed an evolution from SiO2 amorphous matrix to the cristobalite phase with the annealing treatment at around 800 ºC for one hour. This structural evolution was obtained at lower Ag concentration up 0.7 %vol. Two series of samples were studied, A series using HNO3 and B series using HCl as catalytic agent; in both series grenetine was used as a dispersing agent to avoid the precipitation of Ag particles. We found the incorporation of silver in the xerogeles matrix promotes the devitrification process at relatively low temperatures with the presence of partial crystallization in form of cistobalite. This structure was produced by controlling the catalytic agent quoted in the preparation process. The EPR and UV-Vis absorption spectra show the presence of Fe3+ ions as a contaminant in the source of the Ag particles, due to the process to obtain these particles. By means the IR spectra a high (OH- concentration at higher temperatures was observed in this system, until 600 ºC at difference of the sol-gel glasses made with incorporation of Ag particles by nitrates. The color evolution of the coating samples with the annealing temperature varies from a light brown at 100 ºC to yellow at 500 ºC.La evolución estructural de vidrios de Sol-Gel en forma de polvos y recubrimientos preparados con la incorporación de partículas de Ag a partir de la solución precursora muestra la evolución de la matriz amorfa de SiO2 a la fase cristobalita utilizando tratamientos térmicos alrededor de 800 °C por un tiempo de una hora. Dicha evolución estructural fue obtenida en concentraciones bajas a partir de 0.7% de Ag. Dos series de muestras fueron estudiadas, la serie A usando HNO3 y la serie B usando HCl como agente catalítico; en ambas series se uso grenetina como agente dispersante para evitar la precipitación de las part

  4. Investigation of physical properties and stability of indomethacin-cimetidine and naproxen-cimetidine co-amorphous systems prepared by quench cooling, coprecipitation and ball milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Ai Wei; Löbmann, Korbinian; Grohganz, Holger

    2016-01-01

    the samples. Structural relaxation (i.e. molecular mobility) behaviour was obtained from the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) relationship. KEY FINDINGS: A glass transition temperature (Tg ), on average 20 °C higher than the predicted Tg (calculated from the Fox equation), was observed in all samples....... The structural relaxation was dependent on the preparative methods. At a storage temperature of 40 °C, a comparatively higher molecular mobility was observed in indomethacin-cimetidine samples prepared by ball milling (ln τ(β) = 0.8), while similar molecular mobility was found for the same sample prepared...... by quench cooling (ln τ(β) = 2.4) and co-evaporation (ln τ(β) = 2.5). In contrast, molecular mobility of the naproxen-cimetidine samples followed the order co-evaporation (ln τ(β) = 0.8), quench cooling (ln τ(β) = 1.6) and ball milling (ln τ(β) = 1.8). CONCLUSION: The estimated relaxation times by the DSC...

  5. Preparation of orthophosphate glasses in the MgO-CaO-SiO2-Nb2O5-P2O5 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungho; Ueda, Kyosuke; Narushima, Takayuki; Nakano, Takayoshi; Kasuga, Toshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Niobia/magnesia-containing orthophosphate invert glasses were successfully prepared in our earlier work. Orthophosphate groups in the glasses were cross-linked by tetrahedral niobia (NbO4) and magnesia. The aim of this work is to prepare calcium orthophosphate invert glasses containing magnesia and niobia, incorporating silica, and to evaluate their structures and releasing behaviors. The glasses were prepared by melt-quenching, and their structures and ion-releasing behaviors were evaluated. 31P solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Raman spectroscopies showed the glasses consist of orthophosphate (PO4), orthosilicate (SiO4), and NbO4 tetrahedra. NbO4 and MgO in the glasses act as network formers. By incorporating SiO2 into the glasses, the chemical durability of the glasses was slightly improved. The glasses reheated at 800°C formed the orthophosphate crystalline phases, such as β-Ca3(PO4)2, Mg3(PO4)2 and Mg3Ca3(PO4)4 in the glasses. The chemical durability of the crystallized glasses was slightly improved. Orthosilicate groups and NbO4 in the glasses coordinated with each other to form Si-O-Nb bonds. The chemical durability of the glasses was slightly improved by addition of SiO2, since the field strength of Si is larger than that of Ca or Mg.

  6. Application of artificial intelligence in coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, Y.; Deng, J.; Liu, H. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2001-11-01

    The general situation of using AI (Artificial intelligence) technology in coal preparation was introduced. The expert systems of coal preparation plant design, the expert management system of coal preparation plant, and the intelligent data-drawing bank were discussed. Some opinions about their foundation and method of knowledge expressing, inference, knowledge discovery of databases were presented. It is pointed out that an industrial system such as coal preparation is big and complex, so it is necessary and also difficult to use AI technology in these systems. Because the types of knowledge are different, there are various knowledge expressions and model of knowledge inference, hence only comprehensive methods suitable for the characters of the system may be used. 14 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Materials Preparation Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — MPC is recognized throughout the worldwide research community for its unique capabilities in purification, preparation, and characterization of: rare earth metals,...

  8. Study on the technical parameters of two different systems of RIA performed with solid-phase antibody test tubes prepared with magnetic microparticle covalence conjagation or conventional physical absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhiqiang; Wang Chengmin; Tang Baojun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate a new method of preparation of solid-phase antibody with flurorescein isothioeynate (FITC)-anti FITC magnetic nanoparticles system (for FT 3 and TSH). Methods: FT 3 and TSH monoclonal antibody IgC was la- belied with FITC. Anti-FITC magnetic mieroparticles was prepared and conjugated with the FITC labelled antibody to form the solid - phase coated test tube for RIA. Solid-phase test tube prepared with the conventional physical absorption method was also used for RIA and the technical parameters of the two systems were compared. Results: For FT 3 , the sensitivity was 0.18pmol/L with the new method and 0.43pmol/L with the conventional method. Other parameters were; intra-CV, 8.96% vs 16.26%; inter-CV, 15.25% vs 18.83%, correlation with PR method r=0.9825 vs r=0.9102. For TSH, sensitivity was 0.061 μIU/ml vs 0.04 μ IU/ml, intra- CV, 7.6% vs 6.92%, inter-CV, 8.55% vs 14.23%, correlation between the new and conventional method, r=0. 9987. TSH RIA was especially rapid with the new technic: 79 min vs 190 min. Conclusion: For FT 3 and TSH RIA, the new method takes much less time with increased homogeniety. (authors)

  9. Evaluation of surface preparation and maintenance of canal curvature following instrumentation with hand 'K' file and three different Ni-Ti rotary systems: A radiographic and SEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Namrata; Sroa, Renu; Sikri, Vimal K

    2010-04-01

    To determine the shaping ability and cleaning efficiency of hand K-flexofiles, ProTaper, LightSpeed and Mtwo instruments during the preparation of curved root canals in extracted human teeth. A total of 120 root canals of mandibular and maxillary molars with curvature more than 20° were divided into four groups of 30 each. In group A, canals were prepared using hand K-flexofiles following the crown down technique. In group B LightSpeed, in group C ProTaper, and in group D Mtwo rotary instruments were used to prepare the root canals. Using pre- and post-instrumentation radiographs, straightening of the canal curvature was determined with Corel Draw 9.0 software tools. The amount of debris and smear layer were quantified at three different areas (coronal, middle, and apical thirds) of root canal using SEM. The collected data were analyzed statistically using Student's paired 't' test. The mean change in curvature for hand K-files was 7.71°, for ProTaper files 6.03°, for Mtwo 5.43°, and for LightSpeed instruments were found to be 4.57°. The percentage change in the curvature for all the four groups was statistically highly significant (PProTaper (65.48%) followed by Mtwo (66.22%), LightSpeed (71.67%) and the maximum with hand K-files (74.16%). However, the difference in mean leftover debris between ProTaper and Mtwo was not significant. ProTaper and Mtwo resulted in good cleaning, and LightSpeed maintained the original canal curvature better than the ProTaper, Mtwo, or Hand K-files.

  10. Preparation of collagen peptide functionalized chitosan nanoparticles by ionic gelation method: An effective carrier system for encapsulation and release of doxorubicin for cancer drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anandhakumar, S., E-mail: rsanandhakumar@gmail.com [SRM Research Institute, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Chennai 603203 (India); Krishnamoorthy, G.; Ramkumar, K.M. [SRM Research Institute, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Chennai 603203 (India); Raichur, A.M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, nanoparticles (NPs) based on biopolymers or peptides are gaining popularity for the encapsulation and release of drug molecules, especially for cancer therapy, due to their ability for targeted and controlled release. The use of collagen peptide (CP) for the preparation of chitosan (CN) NPs is especially interesting as it results in NPs that are stable under physiological conditions. In this work, mono-dispersed pH responsive CPCN NPs of about 100 nm were prepared via ionic gelation method by simple and mild co-precipitation of CN and CP. Investigation of NPs with Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements reveals that hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions are believed to be major driving forces for NP formation and drug encapsulation, respectively. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) investigations show that hard and fine CPCN NPs transform to soft and bigger gel like particles as a function of collagen concentration. The unique “polymeric gel” structure of NPs showed high encapsulation efficiency towards doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) as well as pH controlled release. Anti-proliferative and cell viability analysis revealed that DOX loaded NPs showed excellent anti-proliferative characteristics against HeLa cells with favorable biocompatibility against normal cells. Such NPs have high potential for use as smart drug delivery carriers in advanced cancer therapy. - Highlights: • Preparation of collagen peptide functionalized chitosan nanoparticles • Hydrogen bonding plays a key role in particle formation. • Electrostatic interaction plays a key role in drug encapsulation. • Functionalized chitosan particles are more stable than chitosan NPs.

  11. Documents preparation and review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Ignalina Safety Analysis Group takes active role in assisting regulatory body VATESI to prepare various regulatory documents and reviewing safety reports and other documentation presented by Ignalina NPP in the process of licensing of unit 1. The list of main documents prepared and reviewed is presented

  12. Automated radioanalytical system incorporating microwave-assisted sample preparation, chemical separation, and online radiometric detection for the monitoring of total 99Tc in nuclear waste processing streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, Oleg B; O'Hara, Matthew J; Grate, Jay W

    2012-04-03

    An automated fluidic instrument is described that rapidly determines the total (99)Tc content of aged nuclear waste samples, where the matrix is chemically and radiologically complex and the existing speciation of the (99)Tc is variable. The monitor links microwave-assisted sample preparation with an automated anion exchange column separation and detection using a flow-through solid scintillator detector. The sample preparation steps acidify the sample, decompose organics, and convert all Tc species to the pertechnetate anion. The column-based anion exchange procedure separates the pertechnetate from the complex sample matrix, so that radiometric detection can provide accurate measurement of (99)Tc. We developed a preprogrammed spike addition procedure to automatically determine matrix-matched calibration. The overall measurement efficiency that is determined simultaneously provides a self-diagnostic parameter for the radiochemical separation and overall instrument function. Continuous, automated operation was demonstrated over the course of 54 h, which resulted in the analysis of 215 samples plus 54 hly spike-addition samples, with consistent overall measurement efficiency for the operation of the monitor. A sample can be processed and measured automatically in just 12.5 min with a detection limit of 23.5 Bq/mL of (99)Tc in low activity waste (0.495 mL sample volume), with better than 10% RSD precision at concentrations above the quantification limit. This rapid automated analysis method was developed to support nuclear waste processing operations planned for the Hanford nuclear site.

  13. A solid-phase technique for preparation of no-carrier-added technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals: application to the streptavidin/biotin system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn-Dufault, Robert; Pollak, Alfred; Fitzgerald, Jane; Thornback, John R.; Ballinger, James R.

    2000-01-01

    A high effective specific activity (HESA) formulation of a biotin-containing 99m Tc ligand [RP488: dimethyl-Gly-Ser-Cys(Acm)-Lys(Biotin)-Gly] conveniently prepared from solid phase was compared to a typical low effective specific activity (LESA) solution formulation to demonstrate improved targeting to streptavidin in an in vitro assay and in an in vivo rat model. RP488 was coupled to a maleimide-functionalized polyethylene glycol resin via a thiol ether linkage and labeled with 99m Tc-gluconate at room temperature, followed by elution of the HESA 99m Tc-RP488 in saline (minimum specific activity ∼ 1000 TBq/mmol by amino acid analysis). Both HESA and LESA 99m Tc-RP488 labeled at > 90% purity. In vitro, HESA 99m Tc-RP488 incubated with streptavidin-agarose was bound quantitatively, but there was competition from addition of increasing amounts of cold RP488. In rats, radiotracer uptake was evident at the site of implantation of streptavidin-agarose beads for the HESA dose, less uptake of low effective specific activity (LESA) material, and no appreciable uptake in the control rats of the LESA or HESA dose. The target-to-background ratio for HESA 99m Tc-RP488 was 5.4 times that of the control. The solid-phase technology offers a convenient way to prepare high specific activity receptor-targeting 99m Tc radiopharmaceuticals

  14. Temperature and magnetism bi-responsive molecularly imprinted polymers: Preparation, adsorption mechanism and properties as drug delivery system for sustained release of 5-fluorouracil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Longfei; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Huan; Yang, Yongzhen; Liu, Xuguang; Chen, Yongkang

    2016-04-01

    Temperature and magnetism bi-responsive molecularly imprinted polymers (TMMIPs) based on Fe3O4-encapsulating carbon nanospheres were prepared by free radical polymerization, and applied to selective adsorption and controlled release of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) from an aqueous solution. Characterization results show that the as-synthesized TMMIPs have an average diameter of about 150 nm with a typical core-shell structure, and the thickness of the coating layer is approximately 50 nm. TMMIPs also displayed obvious magnetic properties and thermo-sensitivity. The adsorption results show that the prepared TMMIPs exhibit good adsorption capacity (up to 96.53 mg/g at 25 °C) and recognition towards 5-FU. The studies on 5-FU loading and release in vitro suggest that the release rate increases with increasing temperature. Meanwhile, adsorption mechanisms were explored by using a computational analysis to simulate the imprinted site towards 5-FU. The interaction energy between the imprinted site and 5-FU is -112.24 kJ/mol, originating from a hydrogen bond, Van der Waals forces and a hydrophobic interaction between functional groups located on 5-FU and a NIPAM monomer. The electrostatic potential charges and population analysis results suggest that the imprinted site of 5-FU can be introduced on the surface of TMMIPs, confirming their selective adsorption behavior for 5-FU. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Design and preparation of controlled floating gastroretentive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gastroretentive delivery systems for enhanced fexofenadine ... Abstract. Purpose: To design and prepare effervescent floating gastroretentive tablets for controlled fexofenadine ..... Complex of Carbopol with Polyvinylpyrrolidone as a. Matrix for ...

  16. PREPARATIVE SKIN PREPARATION AND SURGICAL WOUND INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjanappa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: It is an established fact now that the normal skin of healthy human beings harbours a rich bacterial fl ora. Normally considered non - pathogenic , these organisms way be a potential source of infection of the surgical wound. Approximately 20% of the resident flora is beyond the reach of surgical scrubs and antiseptics. The goal of surgical preparation of the skin with antiseptics is to remove transient and pathogenic microorganisms on the skin surface and to reduce the resident flora to a low level. Povidone iodine (I odophors and chlorhexidine are most often used antiseptics for pre - operative skin preparation. OBJECTIVES : To evaluate the efficacy of povidone iodine alone and in combination with antiseptic agent containing alcoholic chlorhexidine in preoperative skin p reparation by taking swab culture. (2 To compare the rate of postoperative wound infection in both the groups. METHODS: One hundred patients (fifty in each group undergoing clean elective surgery with no focus of infection on the body were included in th e study. The pre - operative skin preparation in each group is done with the respective antiseptic regimen. In both the groups after application of antiseptics , sterile saline swab culture was taken immediately from site of incision. In cases which showed gr owth of organisms , the bacteria isolated were identified by their morphological and cultural characteristics. Grams staining , coagulase test and antibiotic sensitivity test were done wherever necessary and difference in colonization rates was determined as a measure of efficacy of antiseptic regimen. RESULTS: The results of the study showed that when compared to povidone iodine alone , using a combination of povidone iodine and alcoholic solution of chlorhexidine , the colonization rates of the site of incisi on were reduced significantly. As for the rate of post - operative wound infection , it is also proven that wound infections are also

  17. On the Effect of Preparation Methods of PdCe-MOR Catalysts as NOx CH4-SCR System for Natural Gas Vehicles Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acácio Nobre Mendes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the effect of several parameters involved in the preparation of PdCe-HMOR catalysts active for NOx selective catalytic reduction with methane (NOx CH4-SCR was studied. Results show that the catalytic performance of Pd-HMOR is better when palladium is introduced by ion-exchange, namely at room temperature. It was also shown that Pd loading does not influence the formation of cerium species, namely surface Ce4+ (CeO2 species and CeO2 species in interaction with Pd. However, when Ce is introduced before Pd, more surface CeO2 species are stabilized in the support and less CeO2 become in interaction with Pd, which results in a worse NOx CH4-SCR catalytic performance.

  18. Preparation of Radio-pharmaceuticals-III: An evaluation of the eluate from a {sup 113}Sn-{sup 113m}In cow system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, You Sun; Kim, Tae Young [Korea Atomic Research Institue, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1969-03-15

    In 1968 total 94,660 mc of radioactive iodocompound were prepared and distributed to the urers. In order to obtain an effective liver scanning {sup 113m}Incolloidal of even partical size from a {sup 113}Sn-{sup 113m}In cow, the eluate(pH; 1.5) was examined by a radio paper partition chromatography. It was found that the eluate was composed of two components, ionic from and colloidal form. The ionid from could be eliminated by cation exchange resine and the eluate from the ion exchange resine was of even particle size to give an excellent liver scanning results. Labelling of {sup 113m}In to human serum albumine was attempted.

  19. Revitorgan preparations from fetal thymus (Neythymun) and placenta and their effects in the treatment of radiation injuries of the immunologic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buschmann, H.

    1983-01-01

    Four female swine were subjected to whole-body gamma irradiation. The animals were treated with Revitorgan preparations two hours before and two hours after the irradiation. To determine the immunologic status, the following parameters were investigated: total leucocyte count and differential blood count, percentage of B and T lymphocytes in blood, capacity of blood leucocytes for phagocytosis, reactivity of the cellular for antibody formation. Most dramatc was the sharp decrease in lymphocytes as early as 24 h after the irradiation. Out of the four animals only one survived, and it was the one exhibiting the sharpert drop in lymphocytes. The experiment once more demonstrated the importance of fighting late manifestations, which can be the sequels of infections in dealing with irradiation damage. (MG) [de

  20. Report on system operation - A background report prepared by the Nordel Operation Committee/OPG in the Nordel project on enhancing efficient functioning of the Nordic electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    This report contains the operation procedures in extreme situations and lessons learned from blackouts, based on a mandate given by the Operations Committee. Nordic TSOs have had common rules and principles for system operation i.e. System Operation Agreement since the late 1990s. The rules have been revised according to the system security and market changes and needs. The collaboration between system operators is regular and fruitful. The knowledge and capability to manage extreme situations of the Nordic power system has continuously increased and the recent blackouts did not show major deficiencies in operation practices. Regardless of the existing good collaboration it is important to continue development in the future in order to ensure high system security. Important development areas are security of reserve supervision and coordination of calculation procedures for transmission limits, enhancement of data exchange routines between control centres in order to improve the overview of the system security within the Nordic power system. More extensive coordination of outage planning processes will further improve the system security. Continuously training of operational staff is important to be able to manage different situations and disturbances efficiently. (BA)

  1. Preparation of bromine fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domange, Pr; Duflo, J.

    1958-05-01

    This note addresses the preparation of bromine fluoride. It indicates the implemented process for the reaction, used products (fluorine and bromine), and column characteristics. It describes the operating mode. Apparatus drawing is provided

  2. Dukovany ASSET mission preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouklik, I [NPP Dukovany (Czech Republic)

    1997-12-31

    We are in the final stages of the Dukovany ASSET mission 1996 preparation. I would like to present some of our recent experiences. Maybe they would be helpful to other plants, that host ASSET missions in future.

  3. Sperm preparation for fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Description This book contains 19 chapters that discuss theoretical and applied andrology for domestic, zoo and wild animals. Topics include semen and its constituents; sperm production and harvest; determinants of sperm morphology; sperm preparation for fertilization; practical aspects of semen

  4. Dukovany ASSET mission preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouklik, I.

    1996-01-01

    We are in the final stages of the Dukovany ASSET mission 1996 preparation. I would like to present some of our recent experiences. Maybe they would be helpful to other plants, that host ASSET missions in future

  5. FERMILAB: Preparing to collide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Against the background of stringent Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) regulations mandated by the US Department of Energy for all national Labs, Fermilab prepared to mount the next major Tevatron proton-antiproton collider run

  6. Synchrotron/crystal sample preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. Barry

    1993-01-01

    The Center for Applied Optics (CAO) of the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) prepared this final report entitled 'Synchrotron/Crystal Sample Preparation' in completion of contract NAS8-38609, Delivery Order No. 53. Hughes Danbury Optical Systems (HDOS) is manufacturing the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) mirrors. These thin-walled, grazing incidence, Wolter Type-1 mirrors, varying in diameter from 1.2 to 0.68 meters, must be ground and polished using state-of-the-art techniques in order to prevent undue stress due to damage or the presence of crystals and inclusions. The effect of crystals on the polishing and grinding process must also be understood. This involves coating special samples of Zerodur and measuring the reflectivity of the coatings in a synchrotron system. In order to gain the understanding needed on the effect of the Zerodur crystals by the grinding and polishing process, UAH prepared glass samples by cutting, grinding, etching, and polishing as required to meet specifications for witness bars for synchrotron measurements and for investigations of crystals embedded in Zerodur. UAH then characterized these samples for subsurface damage and surface roughness and figure.

  7. Nanodiamond applications in skin preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdar, Roshanak; Nafisi, Shohreh

    2018-04-13

    The biocompatibility and nontoxicity of nanodiamonds (NDs) in combination with their excellent physical performance have rendered them attractive candidates for biomedical applications. NDs have great potential in drug nanoformulations because of their small size compared with other carbon nanomaterials. They are nontoxic with excellent adsorption properties and can be formulated into skin care products. Even though NDs have shown encouraging potential in skin preparations, only a few studies have reviewed their application in topical drug delivery systems. Therefore, here we focus on the application of NDs in skin care preparations, skin cancer medication, and wound healing. We also highlight the development of topical drug delivery by NDs and their cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fully automated radiochemical preparation system for gamma-spectroscopy on fission products and the study of the intruder and vibrational levels in 83Se

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lien, O.G. III.

    1983-10-01

    AUTOBATCH was developed to provide a usable source of short-lived neutron-rich nuclides through chemical preparation of the sample from fission products for detailed gamma-ray spectroscopy, which would complement the output of on-line isotope separators. With AUTOBATCH the gamma rays following the β - decay of 83 As were studied to determine the ground state spin and parity of 83 As to be 5/2 - ; the absolute intensity of the β - branch from 83 As to 83 Se/sup m/ to be 0.3%; the absolute intensity of the ground state β - branch from 83 Se/sup m/ to 83 Br to be 39%; the halflife of the 5/2 1 + level to be 3.2 ns; and the structure of 83 Se 49 . Results are used to show that the intruder structure which had been previously observed in the odd mass 49 In isotopes could be observed in the N = 49 isotones. The observed structure is discussed in terms of the unified model calculations of Heyde which has been used to describe the intruder structure in the indium nuclei. The intruder structure is most strongly developed, not at core mid-shell, 89 Zr 49 , but rather at core mid-sub-shell 83 Se. This difference is qualitatively understood to be due to the blocking of collectivity by the Z = 40 subshell closure which prevents the intruder structure from occurring in 87 Sr 49 and 89 Zr 49

  9. Magnetic and structural properties of the Nd{sub 2}(Fe{sub 100-x}Nb{sub x}){sub 14}B system prepared by arc melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyola Lozano, D., E-mail: doyola@ut.edu.co [University of Tolima, Department of Physics (Colombia); Zamora, L. E.; Perez Alcazar, G. A. [University of Valle, Department of Physics (Colombia); Rojas, Y. A.; Bustos, H. [University of Tolima, Department of Physics (Colombia); Greneche, J. M. [Universite du Maine, Laboratoire de Physique de l' Etat Condense, UMR CNRS 6087 (France)

    2006-04-15

    In this work the magnetic and structural properties are investigated by Moessbauer spectrometry, Vibrating Sample Magnetometry and X-ray diffraction of Nd{sub 2}(Fe{sub 100-x}Nb{sub x}){sub 14}B powdered alloys with x = 0, 2 and 4 prepared by arc melting. The Moessbauer spectra of the samples were fitted with several contributions from: Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B, {alpha}-Fe and a paramagnetic phase associated with Nd{sub 1.1}Fe{sub 4}B{sub 4} for x = 0 and additionally from NbFeB and Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} for x = 2 and x = 4. The relative fractions of {alpha}-Fe and Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B are smaller for x = 4 than for x = 0, indicating that the amount of these two phases is reduced with increasing Nb content, while the relative fraction of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} increases. The {alpha}-Fe grain size slightly decreases while that of the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase is increasing, when the Nb content increases. The hysteresis loops indicate that these samples behave as hard ferromagnets, with a coercive field which decreases when the Nb content increases, but with rather low remanent magnetization.

  10. The hospital preparation of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction; preparation ((general - sterilization), production areas (laboratories), working methods for injections, working methods for oral preparations and iodination procedures); analytical testing (general, standards common to injections and oral preparations, standards for injections, standards for oral preparations); reliable methods of preparing sup(99m)Tc-radiopharmaceuticals and 51 Cr-red cells; commercial radiopharmaceutical kits. (U.K.)

  11. Microspheres prepared with biodegradable PHBV and PLA polymers as prolonged-release system for ibuprofen: in vitro drug release and in vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Carolina Bazzo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV and poly(l-lactide (PLA microspheres containing ibuprofen were prepared with the aim of prolonging the drug release. The oil-in-water (O/W emulsion solvent evaporation technique was used, varying the polymer ratio. All formulations provided spherical particles with drug crystals on the surface and a porous and rough polymeric matrix when PHBV was used and smooth external surface when prepared with PLA. The in vitro dissolution profiles show that the formulation containing PHBV/PLA at the proportion of 30/70 presented the best results in terms of prolonging the ibuprofen release. The analysis of the concentration of ibuprofen in the blood of rats showed that maximum levels were achieved at between one and two hours after administration of the immediate-release form (pure drug, while the prolonged microspheres led to a small amount of the drug being released within the first two hours and reached the maximum level after six hours of administration. It was concluded that it is possible to prolong the release of ibuprofen through its incorporation into PHBV/PLA microspheres.No presente estudo foram preparadas microesferas de poli(hidroxibutirato-co-hidroxivalerato (PHBV e poli(ácido láctico (PLA com o objetivo de prolongar a liberação do ibuprofeno, utilizado como fármaco modelo. Empregou-se o método de emulsificação e evaporação do solvente óleo em água (O/A, variando-se a proporção entre os polímeros. Todas as formulações originaram partículas esféricas com cristais de fármaco aderidos à superfície externa. As microesferas apresentaram superfície rugosa e porosa, quando o PHBV foi utilizado, e superfície externa lisa, quando preparadas com o PLA. Os perfis de dissolução in vitro evidenciaram que a formulação que continha PHBV/PLA na proporção de 30/70 apresentou melhores resultados para prolongar a liberação do ibuprofeno. Através da análise da concentra

  12. Preparation and evaluation of a multi-component catalyst by using a co-sputtering system for anodic oxidation of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S.; Usui, Y.; Kimura, O. [Environmental Technology R and D Center, Ricoh Company, Ltd., 16-1 Shinei-cho, Tsuzuki-ku, Yokohama 224-0035 (Japan); Umeda, M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka 1603-1, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Ojima, H.; Uchida, I. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aramaki-Aoba 07, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2005-12-01

    In this study, a remarkable promotion of ethanol electrooxidation by a Pt--Ru-W alloy is reported for an improvement of the anodic reaction of a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC). Pt-based binary and ternary electrocatalysts including Pt-Ru-W deposited onto a Au substrate were prepared by co-sputtering process. By using this process, several metals can be arranged simultaneously and uniformly. The catalysts deposited onto Au were evaluated for anodic electrode in 1moldm{sup -3} ethanol+0.5 moldm{sup -3} sulfuric acid by electrochemical measurements. The performance of Pt-Ru-W was desirable in comparison to that of binary alloys, such as Pt-W, Pt-Sn and Pt-Ru, which exhibit higher catalytic activity than single Pt metal layer electrode. Ethanol electrooxidation on Pt-Ru-W alloy showed a cathodic shift in the onset potential and a higher current density than the binary alloy electrodes. It was found that Pt-Ru-W ternary catalyst effects to not only methanol oxidation reaction but also ethanol oxidation reaction and that the current density of ethanol oxidation with Pt-Ru-W is about 2/3 to that of methanol at 0.5V versus Ag/AgCl. The onset potentials for the ethanol oxidation reaction matched well the anodic peak potentials of the background volutammograms, i.e., 0.15V versus Ag/AgCl for Pt-Ru-W and 0.35V versus Ag/AgCl for Pt-W and Pt-Ru electrodes. That is, it was postulated that the background peak current indicates the generation of oxide species like metal-OH necessary to complete the ethanol oxidation to CO{sub 2}. (author)

  13. Encouraging Autonomy and Preparing for IELTS: Mutually Exclusive Goals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett-Lennard, Siri

    1997-01-01

    Suggests foreign students in Australia may not be getting preparation needed to integrate successfully into university study. Research is reviewed that indicates these students not only need help preparing for the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) but also with learning at an Australian university. Academic preparation courses…

  14. Fiscal 2000 survey report. High-efficiency energy system introduction promotion project for houses and structures - Houses (Technical classification tables prepared by analysis of proposed systems, and comments on the same); 2000 nendo jutaku kenchikubutsu kokoritsu energy system donyu sokushin jigyo (jutaku ni kakawaru mono) teian system no bunseki ni yoru gijutsu bunruihyo oyobi dokaisetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    As an energy conservation promotion measure, a project is under development for introducing and subsidizing high-efficiency energy systems and for letting their effect known publicly and widely. The number of proposed energy systems has increased greatly and technical divisions to follow in classifying them have become vague, from which problems are now arising over the execution of follow-up checks and the maintenance of fair treatment. In the effort to solve this problem, 376 propositions are analyzed and classified, a technical classification method is proposed, and an instruction manual on the method is compiled. The classification involves (1) proposed classification, (2) variation, (3) energy reduction rate, and (4) tentatively calculated cost. Item (1) deals with the basic classification (air-conditioning, ventilation, and hot water supply, and, to be considered in combination with them, options which are cooking, illumination, and others) and, item (2) covers eight items such as new/old construction, structure, and structural frame. In Chapter 1 of the report, the 376 propositions are put in order according to common classification items and an original classification table is prepared. In Chapter 2, the goals are clarified and the classification principles are defined. In Chapter 3, the classification is checked for its validity and some realistic ways of grouping are described. In Chapter 4, a classification implementation flow chart is shown. (NEDO)

  15. JRODOS system: a modern and efficient tool for the management and preparation of nuclear and radiological emergencies and rehabilitation. Implementation in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Prieto, M.; Dvirzhark, A.; Acero, A.; Gallego Diaz, E.

    2011-01-01

    JRODOS system is revealed as an efficient, flexible and user-approved at European level to assist in the management of nuclear and radiological emergencies and the subsequent rehabilitation of contaminated environments, both at the national response in the first phase emergence as a regional / local level in emergency preparedness and recovery environment with the help of the social partners concerned.

  16. The definition, selection and implementation of a new Clinical Information System to prepare the hospital for the electronic future : an example of project-based education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spil, Antonius A.M.; van de Meeberg, Henk J.; Sikkel, Nicolaas

    The software supplier of a large hospital has been taken over. The hospital gets notice that the central hospital information system (HIS) will no longer be maintained, starting next year. This problem, not uncommon in business today, is used as a real-life case in a project-based course for first

  17. Decommissioning of Active Ventilation Systems in a Nuclear R and D Facility to Prepare for Building Demolition (Whiteshell Laboratories Decommissioning Project, Canada) - 13073

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, Brian; May, Doug; Howlett, Don; Bilinsky, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Whiteshell Laboratories (WL) is a nuclear research establishment owned by the Canadian government and operated by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) since the early 1960's. WL is currently under a decommissioning license and the mandate is to remediate the nuclear legacy liabilities in a safe and cost effective manner. The WL Project is the first major nuclear decommissioning project in Canada. A major initiative underway is to decommission and demolish the main R and D Laboratory complex. The Building 300 R and D complex was constructed to accommodate laboratories and offices which were mainly used for research and development associated with organic-cooled reactors, nuclear fuel waste management, reactor safety, advanced fuel cycles and other applications of nuclear energy. Building 300 is a three storey structure of approximately 16,000 m 2 . In order to proceed with building demolition, the contaminated systems inside the building have to be characterized, removed, and the waste managed. There is a significant focus on volume reduction of radioactive waste for the WL project. The active ventilation system is one of the significant contaminated systems in Building 300 that requires decommissioning and removal. The active ventilation system was designed to manage hazardous fumes and radioactivity from ventilation devices (e.g., fume hoods, snorkels and glove boxes) and to prevent the escape of airborne hazardous material outside of the laboratory boundary in the event of an upset condition. The system includes over 200 ventilation devices and 32 active exhaust fan units and high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The strategy to remove the ventilation system was to work from the laboratory end back to the fan/filter system. Each ventilation duct was radiologically characterized. Fogging was used to minimize loose contamination. Sections of the duct were removed by various cutting methods and bagged for temporary storage prior to disposition

  18. How to assess and prepare health systems in low- and middle-income countries for integration of services-a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topp, Stephanie M; Abimbola, Seye; Joshi, Rohina; Negin, Joel

    2018-03-01

    Despite growing support for integration of frontline services, a lack of information about the pre-conditions necessary to integrate such services hampers the ability of policy makers and implementers to assess how feasible or worthwhile integration may be, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We adopted a modified systematic review with aspects of realist review, including quantitative and qualitative studies that incorporated assessment of health system preparedness for and capacity to implement integrated services. We searched Medline via Ovid, Web of Science and the Cochrane library using terms adapted from Dudley and Garner's systematic review on integration in LMICs. From an initial list of 10 550 articles, 206 were selected for full-text review by two reviewers who independently reviewed articles and inductively extracted and synthesized themes related to health system preparedness. We identified five 'context' related categories and four health system 'capability' themes. The contextual enabling and constraining factors for frontline service integration were: (1) the organizational framework of frontline services, (2) health care worker preparedness, (3) community and client preparedness, (4) upstream logistics and (5) policy and governance issues. The intersecting health system capabilities identified were the need for: (1) sufficiently functional frontline health services, (2) sufficiently trained and motivated health care workers, (3) availability of technical tools and equipment suitable to facilitate integrated frontline services and (4) appropriately devolved authority and decision-making processes to enable frontline managers and staff to adapt integration to local circumstances. Moving beyond claims that integration is defined differently by different programs and thus unsuitable for comparison, this review demonstrates that synthesis is possible. It presents a common set of contextual factors and health system capabilities

  19. Preparation of alumina microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, W.R. dos; Abrao, A.

    1980-01-01

    Inorganic exchangers are widely used for adsorption and column partition chromatography. The main difficulty of using commercial alumina (in powder) for column chromatography is related to its packing, and the operations through the column become diffcult and time-consuming; also it turns to be virtually impossible to use large dimension columns. In order to eliminate these problems, a process for the preparation of alumina micro-spheres was developed as an adaptation of a similar process used to prepare nuclear fuel microspheres (UO 2 , ThO 2 ). The flowsheet of this process is presented together with the analytical results of sphericity after calcination, granulometry, density and characterization by X-ray diffractometry. Solubility tests showed that the so-prepared microspheres are well resistant to strong acids and bases; retention tests showed their efficiency, mainly to copper. (C.L.B.) [pt

  20. Surface preparation of niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneisel, P.

    1980-01-01

    Any discussion of surface preparation for superconducting rf-surfaces is certainly connected with the question what is the best recipe for achieving high Q-values and high break-down fields. Since the break-down in a cavity is not understood so far and because several mechanisms play a role, it also is not possible to give one recipe which always works. Nevertheless in the past certain preparation techniques for niobium surfaces have been developed and certain rules for preparation can be applied. In the following the to-days state of the art will be described and it is attempted to give a short description of the surface in conjunction with the methods of surface treatments, which generally can be applied to niobium cavities. (orig./WTR)

  1. Preparation of shaped bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, P.W.; Isaacs, J.W.; Lyon, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    A method for the preparation of a shaped body includes pressing a powder to give a 'green' shaped body, the powder having been made by comminuting a material prepared by means of a gelation process, the material prior to comminuting being of a selected physical configuration (e.g. spherical). Thus, a material prepared by means of a gelation process can be transported and handled in an environmentally desirable, substantially dust-free form (e.g. spherical particles) and then comminuted to produce a powder for pressing into e.g. a shaped nuclear fuel body (e.g. pellets of (70%U/30%Pu)O 2 ), which can be sintered. (author)

  2. Shear bond strength of two bonding systems on dentin surfaces prepared with Er:YAG laser; Resistencia de uniao ao cisalhamento de dois sistemas adesivos em superficies dentinarias preparadas com laser de Er:YAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Magro, Eduardo

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the shear bond strength of two bonding dentin systems, one 'one step' (Single Bond - 3M) and one 'self-etching' (Prompt-L-ESPE), when applied on dentin surfaces prepared with Er:YAG laser (2,94{mu}m) that underwent ar not, acid etched. Forty one human molars just extracted were selected and after the cut with diamond disc and included in acrylic resin, resulting in 81 specimens (hemi crowns). After, the specimens were divided in one group treated with sand paper and another two groups treated with Er:YAG laser with 200 mJ and 250 mJ of energy and 2 Hz of frequency. Next, the prepared surfaces received three treatments with following application: 1) acid + Single Bond + Z 250 resin, 2) prompt-L-Pop + Z 250 resin, and 3) acid without, Single Bond + Z 250 resin. The Z 250 resin was applied and photopolymerized in increments on a Teflon matrix that belonged to an apparatus called 'Assembly Apparatus' machine producing cylinders of 3,5 mm of diameter and 5 mm of height. After these specimens were submitted to thermo cycling during 1 minute the 55 deg C and during 1 minute with 5 deg C with a total of 500 cycles for specimen, and the measures of shear bond strength were abstained using EMIC model DL 2000 rehearsed machine, with speed of 0,5 mm/min, measuring the final rupture tension (Mpa). The results showed an statistic superiority of 5% of probability level in dentin flattened with sandpaper and with laser using 200 mJ of energy with aspect to the ones flattened with laser using 250 mJ of energy. It was observed that using 'Single Bond' bonding dentin system the marks were statistically superior at 5% of probability with reference to the use of the Prompt-L-Pop adhesive system. So, it was concluded that Er:YAG Laser with 200 mJ of energy produced similar dentin cavity prepare than sandpaper and Single Bond seemed the best bonding agent system between restorative material and dentin

  3. Optimization of Water/Oil/Surfactant System for Preparation of Medium-Chain-Length Poly-3-Hydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA)-Incorporated Nanoparticles via Nanoemulsion Templating Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, K A; Annuar, M Suffian M; Ahmad, N

    2017-12-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles gain a widespread interest in food and pharmaceutical industries as delivery systems that encapsulate, protect, and release lipophilic compounds such as omega-3 fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins, carotenoids, carvedilol, cyclosporine, and ketoprofen. In this study, medium-chain-length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoate (mcl-PHA)-incorporated nanoparticle was developed via facile organic solvent-free nanoemulsion templating technique. The water content (W/surfactant-to-oil (S/O)), S/O, and Cremophor EL-to-Span 80 (Cremo/Sp80) ratios were first optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) to obtain nanoemulsion template prior to incorporation of mcl-PHA. Their effects on nanoemulsion formation were investigated. The mcl-PHA-incorporated nanoparticle system showed a good preservation capability of β-carotene and extended storage stability.

  4. Specification of requirements for upgrades using digital instrument and control systems. Report prepared within the framework of the international working group on nuclear power plant control and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The need to develop good specifications of requirements for instrument and control (I and C) systems applies throughout the world and is becoming more and more important as more upgrades are planned. Better guidance on how to develop good requirements specifications would support safer, more effective and more economical refits and upgrades. The need for this was pointed out by the IAEA International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (IWG-NPPCI). This report is the result of a series of advisory and consultants meetings held by the IAEA in 1997 and 1998 in Vienna. The scope of the activities described covers a methodology for the determination of requirements and the development of the necessary specifications and plans needed through the life-cycle of digital instrumentation and control systems. It is restricted to technical aspects and indicates subjects which should be included in specifications and plans at different phases

  5. Preparing valuable hydrocarbons by hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1930-08-22

    A process is described for the preparation of valuable hydrocarbons by treatment of carbonaceous materials, like coal, tars, minerals oils, and their distillation and conversion products, and for refining of liquid hydrocarbon mixture obtained at raised temperature and under pressure, preferably in the presence of catalysts, by the use of hydrogen-containing gases, purified and obtained by distilling solid combustibles, characterized by the purification of the hydrogen-containing gases being accomplished for the purpose of practically complete removal of the oxygen by heating at ordinary or higher pressure in the presence of a catalyst containing silver and oxides of metals of group VI of the periodic system.

  6. Preparation of inorganic hydrophobic catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Heyi; Du, Yang

    2009-04-01

    In order to catalyse the oxidation of tritium gas, two inorganic hydrophobic catalysts are prepared. Under room temperature, the catalysed oxidation ratio of 0.3%-1% (V/V) hydrogen gas in air is higher than 95%. Pt-II inorganic hydrophobic catalysts has obviously better catalysing ability than Pt-PTFE and lower ability than Pt-SDB in H 2 -HTO isotopic exchange, because the pressure resistence of Pt-II is much higher than Pt-SDB, it can be used to the CECE cell of heavy water detritium system. (authors)

  7. Factors associated with preparedness of the US healthcare system to respond to a pediatric surge during an infectious disease pandemic: Is our nation prepared?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Christy; Thomas, Tito Joe; Berg, Bridget M; Burke, Rita V; Upperman, Jeffrey S

    2017-01-01

    Recent incidents have demonstrated that the US health system is unprepared for infectious pandemics resulting in a pediatric surge. Development of efficient plans and a structured and coordinated regional response to pediatric pandemic surge remains an opportunity. To address this gap, we conducted a literature review to assess current efforts, propose a response plan structure, and recommend policy actions. A literature review, utilizing MEDLINE and PubMed, through March 2017 identified articles regarding infectious disease pandemics affecting the US pediatric population. After review of current literature, a proposed response plan structure for a pediatric pandemic surge was designed. Inclusion and exclusion criteria reduced an initial screening of 1,787 articles to 162 articles. Articles ranged in their discussion of pediatric pandemic surge. Review of the articles led to the proposal of organizing the results according to 4 S's; (1) Structure, (2) Staff, (3) Stuff (Resources), and (4) Space. The review has supported the concern that the US health system is unprepared for a pediatric surge induced by infectious disease pandemics. Common themes suggest that response plans should reflect the 4Ss and national guidelines must be translated into regional response systems that account for local nuances.

  8. "Last-Mile" preparation for a potential disaster – Interdisciplinary approach towards tsunami early warning and an evacuation information system for the coastal city of Padang, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Taubenböck

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Extreme natural events, like e.g. tsunamis or earthquakes, regularly lead to catastrophes with dramatic consequences. In recent years natural disasters caused hundreds of thousands of deaths, destruction of infrastructure, disruption of economic activity and loss of billions of dollars worth of property and thus revealed considerable deficits hindering their effective management: Needs for stakeholders, decision-makers as well as for persons concerned include systematic risk identification and evaluation, a way to assess countermeasures, awareness raising and decision support systems to be employed before, during and after crisis situations. The overall goal of this study focuses on interdisciplinary integration of various scientific disciplines to contribute to a tsunami early warning information system. In comparison to most studies our focus is on high-end geometric and thematic analysis to meet the requirements of small-scale, heterogeneous and complex coastal urban systems. Data, methods and results from engineering, remote sensing and social sciences are interlinked and provide comprehensive information for disaster risk assessment, management and reduction. In detail, we combine inundation modeling, urban morphology analysis, population assessment, socio-economic analysis of the population and evacuation modeling. The interdisciplinary results eventually lead to recommendations for mitigation strategies in the fields of spatial planning or coping capacity.

  9. ADMINISTRATIVE AND ORGANIZATIONAL ASPECTS OF FUNCTIONING OF THE SYSTEM OF AVAILABILITY NARCOTIC AND PSYCHOTROPIC MEDICINAL PREPARATIONS FOR PATIENTS WHO NEED THEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kaminskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances still remain indispensable in medicine. One of the top priorities of health care is to ensure the required availability of this group of drugs. The development of an effective system which can ensure crucially important availability of narcotic and psychotropic agents to people who need them for medical purposes must rely on the identification and analysis of the nature and specificity of the problems related to them as well as the ways of solving these problems. ThePurpose of the Study was to explore the constituents of the system ensuring medicinal availability of narcotic and psychotropic agents and to identify the factors hindering the availability of this group of medicinal agents.Materials and Methods. The study involved the systematic review analysis of the scientific publications and guidance  documents regulating various aspects of activities involving the turnover of controlled drugs, and the results of surveys and interviews in which medical and pharmaceutical professionals were engaged. The study employed the methods of content analysis, logical and functional analysis, etc.Results and Discussion. The system of narcotic and psychotropic drug (NPD availability for patients who need them is currently going through reforms which have been conditioned by low accessibilty of these drugs when used for medical purposes. Those engaged in the drug supply system including medical and pharmaceutical professionals point out that excessive bureaucratization of the system of NPD supply and availability, complexity of documentation and paperwork reporting thedrug flow, costliness of these activities, and strict liability account for low availability of such drugs. To ensure the rights of the citizens to relieve pain due to diseases or medical interventions, a number of changes in the laws and regulations have been made. They have simplified the requirements for NPD

  10. Preparation of hydraulic cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-08-28

    A process for the preparation of hydraulic cement by the use of oil-shale residues is characterized in that the oil-shale refuse is mixed with granular basic blast-furnace slag and a small amount of portland cement and ground together.

  11. Preparation of uranium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, R.A.; Tennery, V.J.

    1976-01-01

    A process is described for preparing actinide-nitrides from massive actinide metal which is suitable for sintering into low density fuel shapes by partially hydriding the massive metal and simultaneously dehydriding and nitriding the dehydrided portion. The process is repeated until all of the massive metal is converted to a nitride

  12. Preparation of 1-bromoheptacosane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, L.; Hernandez, A.; Gonzalez, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Alkybromides are ones of the main organic precursors for fatty acids and alcohols labelling with Carbon 1-14. In this work the preparation of 1-bromoheptacosane by bromodescarboxylation of 1-octacosanoic acid is described. The synthesis yielded 80.5% of final product and more than 97% of chemical purity. Clean-up procedure modifications and spectral data bromoheptacosane are also reported

  13. Preparing for CLIC tests

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    The Canon 5 undergoes first brazing for preparation in the CLIC study at the CLIC Test Facility 2 (CTF2). This will test injection for a proposed linear collider that will further explore discoveries made at the LHC. Electric fields in the canon will boost electrons into the acceleration fields of the collider.

  14. Preparation of beryllium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, C.B.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for preparing beryllium hydride by the direct reaction of beryllium borohydride and aluminum hydride trimethylamine adduct. Volatile by-products and unreacted reactants are readily removed from the product mass by sublimation and/or evaporation. (U.S.)

  15. Process for preparing radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barak, M.; Winchell, H.S.

    1977-01-01

    A process for the preparation of technetium-99m labeled pharmaceuticals is disclosed. The process comprises initially isolating technetium-99m pertechnetate by adsorption upon an adsorbent packing in a chromatographic column. The technetium-99m is then eluted from the packing with a biological compound to form a radiopharmaceutical

  16. Evaluation of a centrifuge with rapid turnaround time for the preparation of plasma samples for measurement of common STAT markers on the ACS: 180 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, K; Datta, P; Orswell, M; Tasaico, K; Alpert, A; Bluestein, B

    2000-01-01

    Reported is the evaluation of a new centrifugation method, Statspin, that addresses both time and sample separation integrity. The method can successfully separate the plasma fraction from the cellular material in 2 minutes as compared to 20 minutes for the conventional centrifuge method. The Statspin, combined with the ACS:180 system, can generate test results in less than 30 minutes, exclusive of transport to the laboratory. This study demonstrated that the combined technologies offer timing-saving improvements for clinical laboratories offering STAT immunoassays for cardiac markers, endocrine molecules, and therapeutic drugs.

  17. Intelligent Support System of Steel Technical Preparation in an Arc Furnace: Functional Scheme of Interactive Builder of the Multi Objective Optimization Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logunova, O. S.; Sibileva, N. S.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of the study is to increase the efficiency of the steelmaking process in large capacity arc furnace on the basis of implementation a new decision-making system about the composition of charge materials. The authors proposed an interactive builder for the formation of the optimization problem, taking into account the requirements of the customer, normative documents and stocks of charge materials in the warehouse. To implement the interactive builder, the sets of deterministic and stochastic model components are developed, as well as a list of preferences of criteria and constraints.

  18. Consultancy Meeting on Preparation of the Final Technical Document of the IAEA CRP on Analytical and Experimental Benchmark Analysis of Accelerator Driven Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    With the objective to study the major physics phenomena of the spallation source and its coupling to a subcritical system, between 2005 and 2010 the IAEA carried out a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) called “Analytical and Experimental Benchmark Analyses of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS)”. The CRP was contributed by 27 institutions from 18 Member States (Argentina, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, China, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Poland, Russian Federation, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine and the USA), which performed a number of analytical and experimental benchmark activities. The main objective of the CRP was to develop, verify and validate calculation tools able to perform detailed ADS calculations, from the high energy proton beam to thermal neutron energies. The purpose of this meeting was to: - Collect and review all the available contributions produced by the CRP participants; - Define structure and content of the final TECDOC; - Assemble the first draft of the TECDOC; - Identify important missing parts; - Distribute tasks and responsibilities for drafting and editing the different sections and sub-sections of the TECDOC; - Agree on the time schedule for the TECDOC finalization, review and publication. The participants were requested to contribute to all the foreseen tasks

  19. How the Knowledge of Interactions between Meningococcus and the Human Immune System Has Been Used to Prepare Effective Neisseria meningitidis Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gasparini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, tremendous advancement in dissecting the mechanisms of pathogenicity of Neisseria meningitidis at a molecular level has been achieved, exploiting converging approaches of different disciplines, ranging from pathology to microbiology, immunology, and omics sciences (such as genomics and proteomics. Here, we review the molecular biology of the infectious agent and, in particular, its interactions with the immune system, focusing on both the innate and the adaptive responses. Meningococci exploit different mechanisms and complex machineries in order to subvert the immune system and to avoid being killed. Capsular polysaccharide and lipooligosaccharide glycan composition, in particular, play a major role in circumventing immune response. The understanding of these mechanisms has opened new horizons in the field of vaccinology. Nowadays different licensed meningococcal vaccines are available and used: conjugate meningococcal C vaccines, tetravalent conjugate vaccines, an affordable conjugate vaccine against the N. menigitidis serogroup A, and universal vaccines based on multiple antigens each one with a different and peculiar function against meningococcal group B strains.

  20. Preparation, Characterization, and In Vivo Pharmacoscintigraphy Evaluation of an Intestinal Release Delivery System of Prussian Blue for Decorporation of Cesium and Thallium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Sandal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prussian blue (PB, ferric hexacyanoferrate is approved by US-FDA for internal decorporation of Cesium-137 (137Cs and Thallium-201 (201Tl. Aim. Since PB is a costly drug, pH-dependent oral delivery system of PB was developed using calcium alginate matrix system. Methods. Alginate (Alg beads containing PB were optimized by gelation of sodium alginate with calcium ions and effect of varying polymer concentration on encapsulation efficiency and release profile was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was carried out to study surface morphology. Adsorption efficacy of Alg-PB beads for 201Tl was evaluated and compared with native PB. In vivo pH-dependent release of the formulation was studied in humans using gamma scintigraphy. Results. Encapsulation efficiencies of Alg-PB beads with 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% polymer solution were 99.9, 91, 92, and 93%, respectively. SEM and particle size analysis revealed differences between formulations in their appearance and size distribution. No drug release was seen in acidic media (pH of 1-2 while complete release was observed at pH of 6.8. Dissolution data was fitted to various mathematical models and beads were found to follow Hixson-Crowell mechanism of release. The pH-dependent release of beads was confirmed in vivo by pharmacoscintigraphy in humans.