WorldWideScience

Sample records for mere true belief

  1. Journalism as Justified True Belief

    Lisboa, Sílvia; Benetti, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    If it is important to think of journalism as a form of knowledge, then how does it become knowledge? How does this process work? In order to answer this question, this article proposes a new understanding of journalism as a subject; presenting it as a justified true belief. We think of journalism being based on pillars of truth and justification, conditions necessary in order for Epistemology to grant it the status of knowledge. We address the concept of truth and show how journalistic report...

  2. Journalism as Justified True Belief

    Sílvia Lisboa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available If it is important to think of journalism as a form of knowledge, then how does it become knowledge? How does this process work? In order to answer this question, this article proposes a new understanding of journalism as a subject; presenting it as a justified true belief. We think of journalism being based on pillars of truth and justification, conditions necessary in order for Epistemology to grant it the status of knowledge. We address the concept of truth and show how journalistic reports are justified to the public as well as consider the central role of credibility in this process. We add to the epistemic conception by using concepts of discourse that help to understand how journalism provides evidence through its intentions, its authority and its ability. This evidence acts like a guide for the reader towards forming opinions on journalistic reports and recognizing journalism as a form of knowledge.

  3. Knowledge as Fact-Tracking True Belief

    Fred Adams

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Drawing inspiration from Fred Dretske, L. S. Carrier, John A. Barker, and Robert Nozick, we develop a tracking analysis of knowing according to which a true belief constitutes knowledge if and only if it is based on reasons that are sensitive to the fact that makes it true, that is, reasons that wouldn’t obtain if the belief weren’t true. We show that our sensitivity analysis handles numerous Gettier-type cases and lottery problems, blocks pathways leading to skepticism, and validates the epistemic closure thesis that correct inferences from known premises yield knowledge of the conclusions. We discuss the plausible views of Ted Warfield and Branden Fitelson regarding cases of knowledge acquired via inference from false premises, and we show how our sensitivity analysis can account for such cases. We present arguments designed to discredit putative counterexamples to sensitivity analyses recently proffered by Tristan Haze, John Williams and Neil Sinhababu, which involve true statements made by untrustworthy informants and strange clocks that sometimes display the correct time while running backwards. Finally, we show that in virtue of employing the paradox-free subjunctive conditionals codified by Relevance Logic theorists instead of the paradox-laden subjunctive conditionals codified by Robert Stalnaker and David Lewis.

  4. Mere Civility, or Genuine Forgiveness? Prosocial Consequences of Belief in Free Will

    Patrick C. Carmody

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent empirical findings suggest that greater belief in free will predicts positive behavioral outcomes, such as lowered aggression, decreased cheating, bettered work performance, and improved learning. To expand on this research, the current investigation re-examines the link between stronger belief in free will and pro-social behavior in the context of transgressions in interpersonal relationships. Taking into account that one’s philosophical beliefs can fluctuate in strength and across time, we conducted a daily diary survey of 85 undergraduates who reported interpersonal offenses for 14 days. Data were analyzed with a multi-level approach. We found that believing more strongly in free will was associated with greater decisional forgiveness, but was unrelated to emotional forgiveness. Higher levels of belief in scientific determinism, on the other hand, were related to greater emotional forgiveness. These relationships were not mediated by relationship attributions.

  5. Great apes distinguish true from false beliefs in an interactive helping task.

    David Buttelmann

    Full Text Available Understanding the behavior of others in a wide variety of circumstances requires an understanding of their psychological states. Humans' nearest primate relatives, the great apes, understand many psychological states of others, for example, perceptions, goals, and desires. However, so far there is little evidence that they possess the key marker of advanced human social cognition: an understanding of false beliefs. Here we demonstrate that in a nonverbal (implicit false-belief test which is passed by human 1-year-old infants, great apes as a group, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, bonobos (Pan paniscus, and orangutans (Pongo abelii, distinguish between true and false beliefs in their helping behavior. Great apes thus may possess at least some basic understanding that an agent's actions are based on her beliefs about reality. Hence, such understanding might not be the exclusive province of the human species.

  6. Children's difficulty with true belief tasks: Competence deficit or performance problem?

    Oktay-Gür, Nese; Rakoczy, Hannes

    2017-09-01

    According to the standard picture of explicit theory of mind (ToM) development, children begin to (explicitly) ascribe beliefs to others and themselves from around age 4. The empirical basis of this picture comes from numerous studies consistently showing that children master verbal false belief (FB) tasks from around age 4 while children much younger have no difficulty in mastering structurally analogous true belief (TB) tasks. The standard picture, though, has come under serious attack from recent studies using TB tasks with wider age ranges. These studies have found that, paradoxically, children begin to fail TB tasks once they master FB tasks. Such findings cast doubt on the standard picture and suggest, instead, that FB tasks may be solved by much simpler strategies than proper belief reasoning. In the present study, we tested for the development of FB and TB performance in comprehensive and systematic ways. In particular, we tested the competing predictions of competence accounts (according to which TB failure reflects lack of conceptual competence) versus performance limitation accounts (according to which the standard picture is true yet children from around age 4 fail TB tasks due to performance factors). Studies 1 and 2 showed that performance in a variety of novel TB tasks showed a clear U-shaped curve, with children until age 3 and from age 10 performing competently and children in between failing, with strong negative correlations between TB and FB. Crucially, these patterns were found for various kinds of TB tasks, including those for which existing competence limitation accounts would not even predict any difficulty. Study 3, therefore, directly tested performance limitation accounts in terms of pragmatic and related factors and found that these patterns (failure in TB and negative TB-FB correlations) disappear once the relevant performance factors have been removed from the TB tasks. Taken together, these findings suggest that previous TB findings

  7. False rumors and true belief: memory processes underlying children's errant reports of rumored events.

    Principe, Gabrielle F; Haines, Brooke; Adkins, Amber; Guiliano, Stephanie

    2010-12-01

    Previous research has shown that overhearing an errant rumor--either from an adult or from peers--about an earlier experience can lead children to make detailed false reports. This study investigates the extent to which such accounts are driven by changes in children's memory representations or merely social demands that encourage the reporting of rumored information. This was accomplished by (a) using a warning manipulation that eliminated social pressures to report an earlier heard rumor and (b) examining the qualitative characteristics of children's false narratives of a rumored-but-nonexperienced event. Findings indicated that overheard rumors can induce sensory and contextual characteristics in memory that can lead children to develop genuine false beliefs in seeing rumored-but-nonexperienced occurrences. Such constructive tendencies were especially likely among 3- and 4-year-olds (relative to 5- and 6-year-olds) and when rumors were picked up from peers during natural social interactions (relative to when they were planted by an adult). (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Persuasion Via Mere Exposure

    Tucker, Raymond K.; Ware, Paul D.

    1971-01-01

    Describes an experiment which sought to effect persuasion by merely exposing subjects to the name of a stimulus object for a specified number of times. Through illustration, explains the theoretical basis and methodology employed in a mere exposure experiment. (Author)

  9. The Weird World of Cross-Cultural False-Belief Research: A True- and False-Belief Study among Samoan Children Based on Commands

    Mayer, Andreas; Träuble, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Previous cross-cultural research using false-belief tasks has explored whether children's theory of mind develops synchronously across cultures. Success on false-belief tasks is usually interpreted as an important indicator of children's mental state understanding, but inconsistent findings have led to questions regarding the interpretation of…

  10. The Mere Exposure Instruction Effect.

    Van Dessel, Pieter; Mertens, Gaëtan; Smith, Colin Tucker; De Houwer, Jan

    2017-09-01

    The mere exposure effect refers to the well-established finding that people evaluate a stimulus more positively after repeated exposure to that stimulus. We investigated whether a change in stimulus evaluation can occur also when participants are not repeatedly exposed to a stimulus, but are merely instructed that one stimulus will occur frequently and another stimulus will occur infrequently. We report seven experiments showing that (1) mere exposure instructions influence implicit stimulus evaluations as measured with an Implicit Association Test (IAT), personalized Implicit Association Test (pIAT), or Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP), but not with an Evaluative Priming Task (EPT), (2) mere exposure instructions influence explicit evaluations, and (3) the instruction effect depends on participants' memory of which stimulus will be presented more frequently. We discuss how these findings inform us about the boundary conditions of mere exposure instruction effects, as well as the mental processes that underlie mere exposure and mere exposure instruction effects.

  11. Appetit på mere

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2014-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Steen Elsborg & Steen Høyrup Pedersens "Folkeoplysning og motivation for livslang læring..", hvor modeller for kortuddannedes ønske om mere uddannelse præsenteres på baggrund af empiriske arbejder...

  12. True Detective

    Gajhede, Andreas; Westmark, [No Value; Bantoulidis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the HBO’s television-series True Detective, a 2014 crime drama, attempting to point out the central elements of detective-fiction, to be found in its narrative. True Detective narrative is a heavy text with a number of references from various well-known, non-adjacent texts within the field of weird fiction, horror fiction and detective fiction. Therefore, the case study of this research will focus on narratological and literary analysis, in order to discover the predominan...

  13. Conscious Belief

    David Pitt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tim Crane maintains that beliefs cannot be conscious because they persist in the absence of consciousness. Conscious judgments can share their contents with beliefs, and their occurrence can be evidence for what one believes; but they cannot be beliefs, because they don’t persist. I challenge Crane’s premise that belief attributions to the temporarily unconscious are literally true. To say of an unconscious agent that she believes that p is like saying that she sings well. To say she sings well is to say that when she sings, her singing is good. To say that she believes that p is (roughly to say that when she consciously considers the content that p she consciously affirms (believes it. I also argue that the phenomenal view of intentional content Crane appears to endorse prima facie commits him to the view, at least controversial, perhaps incoherent, that there is unconscious phenomenology (the intentional contents of unconscious beliefs.

  14. More than Mere Law: Freedom of Religion or Belief

    Holsinger, Ellen S.

    2012-01-01

    Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights establishes that all people, simply because they are human, enjoy the right to freedom of religion and that governments have the obligation to ensure the protection of that right. Yet we witness a world increasingly divided by religious tradition. The failures of many governments to ensure…

  15. Attentional Modulation of the Mere Exposure Effect

    Yagi, Yoshihiko; Ikoma, Shinobu; Kikuchi, Tadashi

    2009-01-01

    The "mere exposure effect" refers to the phenomenon where previous exposures to stimuli increase participants' subsequent affective preference for those stimuli. This study explored the effect of selective attention on the mere exposure effect. The experiments manipulated the to-be-attended drawings in the exposure period (either red or green…

  16. Attentional modulation of the mere exposure effect

    Yagi, Yoshihiko; Ikoma, Shinobu; Kikuchi, Tadashi

    2009-01-01

    The mere exposure effect refers to the phenomenon where previous exposures to stimuli increase participants’ subsequent affective preference for those stimuli. This study explored the effect of selective attention on the mere exposure effect. The experiments manipulated the to-be-attended drawings in the exposure period (either red or green polygons in Experiments 1 and 2; both red and green polygons in Experiments 3 and 4) and black to-be-evaluated drawings in the affective judgment period (...

  17. The mere exposure effect with scene stimuli

    八木 , 善彦

    2016-01-01

     The mere exposure effect refers to the phenomenon where previous exposures to stimuli increasesubsequent affective preference for those stimuli. It has been indicated that with specific stimulus-category(i.e., paintings, matrices, and photographs of scene), repeated exposure has little or oppositeeffect on affective ratings. In this study, two experiments were conducted in order to explore theeffect of stimulus-category on the mere exposure effects. Photographs of young woman’s(Experiment1)a...

  18. The mere exposure effect for visual image.

    Inoue, Kazuya; Yagi, Yoshihiko; Sato, Nobuya

    2018-02-01

    Mere exposure effect refers to a phenomenon in which repeated stimuli are evaluated more positively than novel stimuli. We investigated whether this effect occurs for internally generated visual representations (i.e., visual images). In an exposure phase, a 5 × 5 dot array was presented, and a pair of dots corresponding to the neighboring vertices of an invisible polygon was sequentially flashed (in red), creating an invisible polygon. In Experiments 1, 2, and 4, participants visualized and memorized the shapes of invisible polygons based on different sequences of flashed dots, whereas in Experiment 3, participants only memorized positions of these dots. In a subsequent rating phase, participants visualized the shape of the invisible polygon from allocations of numerical characters on its vertices, and then rated their preference for invisible polygons (Experiments 1, 2, and 3). In contrast, in Experiment 4, participants rated the preference for visible polygons. Results showed that the mere exposure effect appeared only when participants visualized the shape of invisible polygons in both the exposure and rating phases (Experiments 1 and 2), suggesting that the mere exposure effect occurred for internalized visual images. This implies that the sensory inputs from repeated stimuli play a minor role in the mere exposure effect. Absence of the mere exposure effect in Experiment 4 suggests that the consistency of processing between exposure and rating phases plays an important role in the mere exposure effect.

  19. Value judgments and the true self.

    Newman, George E; Bloom, Paul; Knobe, Joshua

    2014-02-01

    The belief that individuals have a "true self" plays an important role in many areas of psychology as well as everyday life. The present studies demonstrate that people have a general tendency to conclude that the true self is fundamentally good--that is, that deep inside every individual, there is something motivating him or her to behave in ways that are virtuous. Study 1 finds that observers are more likely to see a person's true self reflected in behaviors they deem to be morally good than in behaviors they deem to be bad. Study 2 replicates this effect and demonstrates observers' own moral values influence what they judge to be another person's true self. Finally, Study 3 finds that this normative view of the true self is independent of the particular type of mental state (beliefs vs. feelings) that is seen as responsible for an agent's behavior.

  20. En mere relevant revisionspåtegning

    Kiertzner, Lars; Beck, Jon; Engelund, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Finanskrisen har ført til krav om en mere meningsfuld rapportering fra revisor oven for brugere af regnskaber. EU Kommission og PCAOB (Public Company Accounting Oversight Board) i USA har som følge heraf stillet forslag til, hvorledes denne rapportering kunne forbedres.......Finanskrisen har ført til krav om en mere meningsfuld rapportering fra revisor oven for brugere af regnskaber. EU Kommission og PCAOB (Public Company Accounting Oversight Board) i USA har som følge heraf stillet forslag til, hvorledes denne rapportering kunne forbedres....

  1. Gustave Caillebotte, French impressionism, and mere exposure.

    Cutting, James E

    2003-06-01

    Gustave Caillebotte was a painter, a collector of some of his colleagues' most renowned works, and a major force in the creation of the late 19th century French Impressionist canon. Six studies are presented as a naturalistic investigation of the effects of mere exposure to images in his collection and to those matched to them. The probabilities of cultural exposure to the 132 stimulus images were indexed by the frequencies of their separate appearances in Cornell University library books--a total of 4,232 times in 980 different books. Across the studies, adult preferences were correlated with differences in image frequencies, but not with recognition, complexity, or prototypicality judgments; children's preferences were not correlated with frequency. Prior cultural exposure also interacted with experimental exposure in predictable ways. The results suggest that mere exposure helps to maintain an artistic canon.

  2. Mere Musik til Byens Børn

    Holst, Finn

    Førsteårsrapport på København Kommunes treårige projekt Mere Musik til Byens Børn - et pilotprojekt med henblik på at sikre, at flere børn i København får mulighed for at deltage i forskellige former for frivillig musikundervisning. Særligt fokuseres der på at fremme, at alle børn i hele byen...

  3. Balti mere maade kunstiajakirja uus number

    1999-01-01

    Balti mere maade kunstiajakirja "Mare Articum" numbris 2-3 (2/1998) kirjutab H. Treier kunsti ja äri vahekorrast kahe näite varal (J. Toomiku, R. Kurvitza ning J. Paavle performance Eesti Pangale 1998. a., Barclay kampaania "Art is Everywhere. Barclay Atmosphere"), H. Liivrand I. Josingu aknakujundustest "Manifesta II-l", J. Jedlinski Estonia laevahuku monumendist Stockholmis (autor M. Balka)

  4. NoSQL for mere mortals

    Sullivan, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The Easy, Common-Sense Guide to Solving Real Problems with NoSQL The" Mere Mortals" "(r)" tutorials have earned worldwide praise as the clearest, simplest way to master essential database technologies. Now, there s one for today s exciting new NoSQL databases. "NoSQL for Mere Mortals" guides you through solving real problems with NoSQL and achieving unprecedented scalability, cost efficiency, flexibility, and availability. Drawing on 20+ years of cutting-edge database experience, Dan Sullivan explains the advantages, use cases, and terminology associated with all four main categories of NoSQL databases: key-value, document, column family, and graph databases. For each, he introduces pragmatic best practices for building high-value applications. Through step-by-step examples, you ll discover how to choose the right database for each task, and use it the right way. Coverage includes --Getting started: What NoSQL databases are, how they differ from relational databases, when to use them, and when "not" to Data m...

  5. Should informed consent be based on rational beliefs?

    Savulescu, J; Momeyer, R W

    1997-01-01

    Our aim is to expand the regulative ideal governing consent. We argue that consent should not only be informed but also based on rational beliefs. We argue that holding true beliefs promotes autonomy. Information is important insofar as it helps a person to hold the relevant true beliefs. But in order to hold the relevant true beliefs, competent people must also think rationally. Insofar as information is important, rational deliberation is important. Just as physicians should aim to provide ...

  6. Egoist-tv eller bare mere tv?

    Bjørner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Formålet med artiklen er, at give nogle indsigter i brugernes mediebrug i forhold til implementering af digitalt terrestrisk TV, og se på hvilke fordele og ulemper brugerne mener og oplever de interaktive tjenester har via tv-mediet. Artiklen giver således nogle svar på, hvad der sker når digitalt...... terrestrisk tv (med de øgede interaktive muligheder) vinder indpas i husstanden. Hvem skal bestemme i forhold til hvad der skal ses af interaktivt indhold, og vil digitaliseringen dermed fremme den stigende tendens til at vi ser mere tv hver for sig? Og ønsker seerne overhovedet at være interaktive med deres...

  7. Mere Recollection of Food Reduces Altruistic Behavior

    Okamura Yasuto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was twofold: Experiment 1 tested the possibility that the mere recollection of food aroused a state of hunger and that different types of food influenced the state of hunger differently; Experiment 2 tested the possibility that food cues affected altruistic behavior. In Experiment 1, 28 participants reported how hungry they felt before and after their recollection of certain foods (noodles and pudding. Results suggest that recollection of food increased hunger and that the type of food influenced the degree of hunger (F(2,54 = 31.88, p < .001, η2 = .54. In Experiment 2, 63 participants were randomly assigned to one of three recollection conditions: (1 noodles, (2 pudding, and (3 control. Participants in the two conditions described each food in detail; control group participants did not. Participants were then asked how much they would be willing to participate in an ostensible experiment. Results indicate that recollection-induced hunger reduced altruistic behavior (F(2, 60 = 4.11, p = .021, η2 = .12. Cue reactivity theory and the hierarchy of needs could explain these results.

  8. Sund livsstil er mere end fysik

    Nybo, Lars; Thing, Lone Friis; Astrup, Arne

    2015-01-01

    . I virkeligheden hænger tingene sammen, og i et holistisk sundhedsbillede er de psykiske og sociale dimensioner mindst lige så vigtige som de fysiske. Fællesskabet under og efter fodboldtræningen kan for eksempel være en lige så vigtig del af at være aktiv som selve træningen. Og selv om nogle...... begynder på en aktiv livsstil ud fra en ydre motivation om det fysiske aspekt af ’mere sundhed’, så er der meget, som tyder på, at den indre motivation overtager, og at de i stedet bliver drevet af glæden ved den øgede livskvalitet. Nogle mennesker fascineres af at følge en fast træningsplan og have et...... behandling af inaktivitetsrelaterede lidelser bør dog ikke være det vigtigste argument for at oplyse om og opfordre til en sund livsstil. Livskvalitetsaspektet skal være i højsædet, og det er for så vidt en legitim bekymring, at der kommer et overdrevet fokus på samfundsøkonomi og forebyggelse af somatisk...

  9. Er nogen mere lige end andre?

    Møberg, Rasmus Juul

    normativ fordring. Kohlis (2007) formulering af normalbiografien er en tredeling af livsforløbet (uddannelse – arbejdsliv - pension). En tredeling der bliver kritiseret for at være køns- og familieblind, hvorfor linked lives-begrebet bliver introduceret. Begrebet har den teoretiske implikation...... analyser tager højde for afhængighed over tid i den afhængige variabel. Overordnet set er det tre aspekter af datas karakteristika, der fordrer specielle metoder. Det er censurering af data, tidsmæssig variation i de uafhængige variable samt potentiel korrelation mellem målingerne af den afhængige variabel...... for disse ændringer, hvorved risikoen for en given transition beregnes mere præcist. Afhandlingens empiriske grundlag er registerdata for alle personer i Danmark, der tilhører fødselskohorterne 1968, 1972 og 1976. Data dækker over personlige, familiære forhold og oplysninger på arbejdspladsniveau, hvor den...

  10. False belief reasoning in the brain: An ERP study

    2008-01-01

    Understanding others mind and interpersonal interaction are the cognitive basis of successful social interactions. People’s mental states and behaviors rely on their holding beliefs for self and others. To investigate the neural substrates of false belief reasoning, the 32 channels event-related potentials (ERP) of 14 normal adults were measured while they understood false-belief and true belief used de-ceptive appearance task. After onset of the false-belief or true-belief questions, N100, P200 and late negative component (LNC) were elicited at centro-frontal sites. Compared with true belief, false belief reasoning elicited significant declined LNC in the time window from 400 to 800 ms. The source analysis of difference wave (False minus True) showed a dipole located in the middle cingulated cortex. These findings show that false belief reasoning probably included inhibitive process.

  11. False belief reasoning in the brain: An ERP study

    2008-01-01

    Understanding others mind and interpersonal interaction are the cognitive basis of successful social interactions. People's mental states and behaviors rely on their holding beliefs for self and others. To investigate the neural substrates of false belief reasoning, the 32 channels event-related potentials (ERP) of 14 normal adults were measured while they understood false-belief and true belief used deceptive appearance task. After onset of the false-belief or true-belief questions, N100, P200 and late negative component (LNC) were elicited at centro-frontal sites. Compared with true belief, false belief reasoning elicited significant declined LNC in the time window from 400 to 800 ms. The source analysis of difference wave (False minus True) showed a dipole located in the middle cingulated cortex. These findings show that false belief reasoning probably included inhibitive process.

  12. Lucky Belief in Science Education - Gettier Cases and the Value of Reliable Belief-Forming Processes

    Brock, Richard

    2018-05-01

    The conceptualisation of knowledge as justified true belief has been shown to be, at the very least, an incomplete account. One challenge to the justified true belief model arises from the proposition of situations in which a person possesses a belief that is both justified and true which some philosophers intuit should not be classified as knowledge. Though situations of this type have been imagined by a number of writers, they have come to be labelled Gettier cases. Gettier cases arise when a fallible justification happens to lead to a true belief in one context, a case of `lucky belief'. In this article, it is argued that students studying science may make claims that resemble Gettier cases. In some contexts, a student may make a claim that is both justified and true but which arises from an alternative conception of a scientific concept. A number of instances of lucky belief in topics in science education are considered leading to an examination of the criteria teachers use to assess students' claims in different contexts. The possibility of lucky belief leads to the proposal that, in addition to the acquisition of justified true beliefs, the development of reliable belief-forming processes is a significant goal of science education. The pedagogic value of various kinds of claims is considered and, it is argued, the criteria used to judge claims may be adjusted to suit the context of assessment. It is suggested that teachers should be alert to instances of lucky belief that mask alternative conceptions.

  13. Measurement of true density

    Carr-Brion, K.G.; Keen, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    System for determining the true density of a fluent mixture such as a liquid slurry, containing entrained gas, such as air comprises a restriction in pipe through which at least a part of the mixture is passed. Density measuring means such as gamma-ray detectors and source measure the apparent density of the mixture before and after its passage through the restriction. Solid-state pressure measuring devices are arranged to measure the pressure in the mixture before and after its passage through the restriction. Calculating means, such as a programmed microprocessor, determine the true density from these measurements using relationships given in the description. (author)

  14. The True Scholar.

    Bellah, Robert N.

    2000-01-01

    This essay argues for ethical inquiry as the essence of true scholarship. Individual sections address: pure reason versus ethics, the current "age of money" in the university, rational choice theory, and the fatal flaw in rational choice theory that all human actions cannot be explained by it. (DB)

  15. Your True Freedom

    Jena Rausch

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Your True Freedom is about my journey teaching inmates the fundamental truths of self worth, self acceptance and self love--through writing, mindfulness meditation and emotional healing. It is a journey that continues to enlighten me and to heal and free the inmates with whom I work.

  16. Systemic True False

    Preferred Customer

    ):. (a). (b). (c). (d). Answer: True systemics are (b & c); False Systemics (a & d). For more examples, see (10 and 11). Na2O2. NaCl. Na. HCl heat /excess. (O). 300°C electrolysis. (molten). NaOH. NaCl. Na. HCl. H2O electrolysis. (solution). NaCl.

  17. Mere Gifting: Liking a Gift More Because It Is Shared.

    Polman, Evan; Maglio, Sam J

    2017-11-01

    We investigated a type of mere similarity that describes owning the same item as someone else. Moreover, we examined this mere similarity in a gift-giving context, whereby givers gift something that they also buy for themselves (a behavior we call "companionizing"). Using a Heiderian account of balancing unit-sentiment relations, we tested whether gift recipients like gifts more when gifts are companionized. Akin to mere ownership, which describes people liking their possessions more merely because they own them, we tested a complementary prediction: whether people like their possessions more merely because others own them too. Thus, in a departure from previous work, we examined a type of similarity based on two people sharing the same material item. We find that this type of sharing causes gift recipients to like their gifts more, and feel closer to gift givers.

  18. Normal mere exposure effect with impaired recognition in Alzheimer's disease.

    Willems, Sylvie; Adam, Stéphane; Van der Linden, Martial

    2002-02-01

    We investigated the mere exposure effect and the explicit memory in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and elderly control subjects, using unfamiliar faces. During the exposure phase, the subjects estimated the age of briefly flashed faces. The mere exposure effect was examined by presenting pairs of faces (old and new) and asking participants to select the face they liked. The participants were then presented with a forced-choice explicit recognition task. Controls subjects exhibited above-chance preference and recognition scores for old faces. The AD patients also showed the mere exposure effect but no explicit recognition. These results suggest that the processes involved in the mere exposure effect are preserved in AD patients despite their impaired explicit recognition. The results are discussed in terms of Seamon et al.'s (1995) proposal that processes involved in the mere exposure effect are equivalent to those subserving perceptual priming. These processes would depend on extrastriate areas which are relatively preserved in AD patients.

  19. Cardiovascular change during encoding predicts the nonconscious mere exposure effect.

    Ladd, Sandra L; Toscano, William B; Cowings, Patricia S; Gabrieli, John D E

    2014-01-01

    These studies examined memory encoding to determine whether the mere exposure effect could be categorized as a form of conceptual or perceptual implicit priming and, if it was not conceptual or perceptual, whether cardiovascular psychophysiology could reveal its nature. Experiment 1 examined the effects of study phase level of processing on recognition, the mere exposure effect, and word identification implicit priming. Deep relative to shallow processing improved recognition but did not influence the mere exposure effect for nonwords or word identification implicit priming for words. Experiments 2 and 3 examined the effect of study-test changes in font and orientation, respectively, on the mere exposure effect and word identification implicit priming. Different study-test font and orientation reduced word identification implicit priming but had no influence on the mere exposure effect. Experiments 4 and 5 developed and used, respectively, a cardiovascular psychophysiological implicit priming paradigm to examine whether stimulus-specific cardiovascular reactivity at study predicted the mere exposure effect at test. Blood volume pulse change at study was significantly greater for nonwords that were later preferred than for nonwords that were not preferred at test. There was no difference in blood volume pulse change for words at study that were later either identified or not identified at test. Fluency effects, at encoding or retrieval, are an unlikely explanation for these behavioral and cardiovascular findings. The relation of blood volume pulse to affect suggests that an affective process that is not conceptual or perceptual contributes to the mere exposure effect.

  20. Suppressed Belief

    Komarine Romdenh-Romluc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.

  1. Trait and state anxiety reduce the mere exposure effect

    Sandra L Ladd; Sandra L Ladd; John D E Gabrieli; John D E Gabrieli

    2015-01-01

    The mere exposure effect refers to an affective preference elicited by exposure to previously unfamiliar items. Although it is a well-established finding, its mechanism remains uncertain, with some positing that it reflects affective processes and others positing that it reflects perceptual or motor fluency with repeated items. Here we examined whether individual differences in trait and state anxiety, which have been associated with the experience of emotion, influence the mere exposure effe...

  2. TV gør OL mere virkeligt

    Bjørner, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    OL er en global seersucces. TV-seerne får en hyperrealistisk præsentation, der er mere virkelig end den virkelighed, som den reelle tilskuer til legene overværer.......OL er en global seersucces. TV-seerne får en hyperrealistisk præsentation, der er mere virkelig end den virkelighed, som den reelle tilskuer til legene overværer....

  3. Normal mere exposure effect with impaired recognition in Alzheimer's disease

    Willems, Sylvie; Adam, Stéphane; Van der Linden, Martial

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the mere exposure effect and the explicit memory in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and elderly control subjects, using unfamiliar faces. During the exposure phase, the subjects estimated the age of briefly flashed faces. The mere exposure effect was examined by presenting pairs of faces (old and new) and asking participants to select the face they liked. The participants were then presented with a forced-choice explicit recognition task. Controls subjects exhibited above-ch...

  4. How "mere" is the mere ownership effect in memory? Evidence for semantic organization processes.

    Englert, Julia; Wentura, Dirk

    2016-11-01

    Memory is better for items arbitrarily assigned to the self than for items assigned to another person (mere ownership effect, MOE). In a series of six experiments, we investigated the role of semantic processes for the MOE. Following successful replication, we investigated whether the MOE was contingent upon semantic processing: For meaningless stimuli, there was no MOE. Testing for a potential role of semantic elaboration using meaningful stimuli in an encoding task without verbal labels, we found evidence of spontaneous semantic processing irrespective of self- or other-assignment. When semantic organization was manipulated, the MOE vanished if a semantic classification task was added to the self/other assignment but persisted for a perceptual classification task. Furthermore, we found greater clustering of self-assigned than of other-assigned items in free recall. Taken together, these results suggest that the MOE could be based on the organizational principle of a "me" versus "not-me" categorization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. True bursal pigmented villonodular synovitis

    Abdelwahab, Ibrahim Fikry; Kenan, Samuel; Steiner, German C.; Abdul-Quader, Mohammed

    2002-01-01

    We describe two cases of pigmented villonodular synovitis affecting true bursae. This study was also designed to discuss the term ''pigmented villonodular bursitis'', not confined to true synovial bursae, sometimes creating misunderstanding. (orig.)

  6. True bursal pigmented villonodular synovitis

    Abdelwahab, Ibrahim Fikry [Department of Radiology, New York Methodist Hospital, Affiliated with New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Kenan, Samuel [Department of Orthopedics, New York University Medical Center, NY (United States); Steiner, German C. [Department of Pathology, Hospital for Joint Diseases/Orthopedic Institute, New York, NY (United States); Abdul-Quader, Mohammed [Department of Radiology, New York Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2002-06-01

    We describe two cases of pigmented villonodular synovitis affecting true bursae. This study was also designed to discuss the term ''pigmented villonodular bursitis'', not confined to true synovial bursae, sometimes creating misunderstanding. (orig.)

  7. Trait and state anxiety reduce the mere exposure effect

    Sandra L Ladd

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The mere exposure effect refers to an affective preference elicited by exposure to previously unfamiliar items. Although it is a well-established finding, its mechanism remains uncertain, with some positing that it reflects affective processes and others positing that it reflects perceptual or motor fluency with repeated items. Here we examined whether individual differences in trait and state anxiety, which have been associated with the experience of emotion, influence the mere exposure effect. Participants’ trait (Study 1 and state (Study 2 anxiety were characterized with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Greater trait and state anxiety correlated with greater negative affect and lesser positive affect. In both experiments, greater anxiety was associated with a reduced mere exposure effect. Measures of fluency (response times at study and test were unrelated to the mere exposure effect. These findings support the role of affective processes in the mere exposure effect, and offer a new insight into the nature of anxiety such that anxiety is associated with a reduced experience of positive affect typically associated with familiarity.

  8. Neurophysiological evidence that perceptions of fluency produce mere exposure effects.

    Leynes, P Andrew; Addante, Richard J

    2016-08-01

    Recent exposure to people or objects increases liking ratings, the "mere exposure effect" (Zajonc in American Psychologist, 35, 117-123, 1968), and an increase in processing fluency has been identified as a potential mechanism for producing this effect. This fluency hypothesis was directly tested by altering the trial-by-trial image clarity (i.e., fluency) while Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded. In Experiment 1, clarity was altered across two trial blocks that each had homogenous trial-by-trial clarity, whereas clarity varied randomly across trials in Experiment 2. Blocking or randomizing image clarity across trials was expected to produce different levels of relative fluency and alter mere exposure effects. The mere exposure effect (i.e., old products liked more than new products) was observed when stimulus clarity remained constant across trials, and clear image ERPs were more positive than blurry image ERPs. Importantly, these patterns were reversed when clarity varied randomly across test trials, such that participants liked clear images more than blurry (i.e., no mere exposure effect) and clear image ERPs were more negative than blurry image ERPs. The findings provide direct experimental support from both behavioral and electrophysiological measures that, in some contexts, mere exposure is the product of top-down interpretations of fluency.

  9. Trait and state anxiety reduce the mere exposure effect.

    Ladd, Sandra L; Gabrieli, John D E

    2015-01-01

    The mere exposure effect refers to an affective preference elicited by exposure to previously unfamiliar items. Although it is a well-established finding, its mechanism remains uncertain, with some positing that it reflects affective processes and others positing that it reflects perceptual or motor fluency with repeated items. Here we examined whether individual differences in trait and state anxiety, which have been associated with the experience of emotion, influence the mere exposure effect. Participants' trait (Study 1) and state (Study 2) anxiety were characterized with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Greater trait and state anxiety correlated with greater negative affect and lesser positive affect. In both experiments, greater anxiety was associated with a reduced mere exposure effect. Measures of fluency (response times at study and test) were unrelated to the mere exposure effect. These findings support the role of affective processes in the mere exposure effect, and offer a new insight into the nature of anxiety such that anxiety is associated with a reduced experience of positive affect typically associated with familiarity.

  10. True and common balsams

    Dayana L. Custódio

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Balsams have been used since ancient times, due to their therapeutic and healing properties; in the perfume industry, they are used as fixatives, and in the cosmetics industry and in cookery, they are used as preservatives and aromatizers. They are generally defined as vegetable material with highly aromatic properties that supposedly have the ability to heal diseases, not only of the body, but also of the soul. When viewed according to this concept, many substances can be considered balsams. A more modern concept is based on its chemical composition and origin: a secretion or exudate of plants that contain cinnamic and benzoic acids, and their derivatives, in their composition. The most common naturally-occurring balsams (i.e. true balsams are the Benzoins, Liquid Storaque and the Balsams of Tolu and Peru. Many other aromatic exudates, such as Copaiba Oil and Canada Balsam, are wrongly called balsam. These usually belong to other classes of natural products, such as essential oils, resins and oleoresins. Despite the understanding of some plants, many plants are still called balsams. This article presents a chemical and pharmacological review of the most common balsams.

  11. Mere exposure and the endowment effect on consumer decision making.

    Tom, Gail; Nelson, Carolyn; Srzentic, Tamara; King, Ryan

    2007-03-01

    Previous researchers (e.g., J. A. Bargh, 1992, 2002) demonstrated the importance of nonconscious processes on consumer choice behavior. Using an advertisement, the authors determined the effect of two nonconscious processes--the mere exposure effect, which increases object preference by increasing consumer exposure to an object, and the endowment effect, which increases object valuation by providing consumer possession of an object--on consumer behavior. Although the mere exposure effect and endowment effect did not produce an interaction, they produced independent effects. The endowment effect increased object valuation but not object preference. The mere exposure effect increased object preference but not object valuation. Thus, at the unconscious level, an increase in object preference does not lead to an increase in object valuation, nor does an increase in object valuation lead to an increase in object preference. The authors discuss the importance of developing measures of unconscious process in advertising effectiveness.

  12. If it bleeds, it leads: separating threat from mere negativity.

    Kveraga, Kestutis; Boshyan, Jasmine; Adams, Reginald B; Mote, Jasmine; Betz, Nicole; Ward, Noreen; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Bar, Moshe; Barrett, Lisa F

    2015-01-01

    Most theories of emotion hold that negative stimuli are threatening and aversive. Yet in everyday experiences some negative sights (e.g. car wrecks) attract curiosity, whereas others repel (e.g. a weapon pointed in our face). To examine the diversity in negative stimuli, we employed four classes of visual images (Direct Threat, Indirect Threat, Merely Negative and Neutral) in a set of behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. Participants reliably discriminated between the images, evaluating Direct Threat stimuli most quickly, and Merely Negative images most slowly. Threat images evoked greater and earlier blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activations in the amygdala and periaqueductal gray, structures implicated in representing and responding to the motivational salience of stimuli. Conversely, the Merely Negative images evoked larger BOLD signal in the parahippocampal, retrosplenial, and medial prefrontal cortices, regions which have been implicated in contextual association processing. Ventrolateral as well as medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortices were activated by both threatening and Merely Negative images. In conclusion, negative visual stimuli can repel or attract scrutiny depending on their current threat potential, which is assessed by dynamic shifts in large-scale brain network activity. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Motormouth: Mere Exposure Depends on Stimulus-Specific Motor Simulations

    Topolinski, Sascha; Strack, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    The authors apply an embodied account to mere exposure, arguing that through the repeated exposure of a particular stimulus, motor responses specifically associated to that stimulus are repeatedly simulated, thus trained, and become increasingly fluent. This increased fluency drives preferences for repeated stimuli. This hypothesis was tested by…

  14. A Spatial Model of the Mere Exposure Effect.

    Fink, Edward L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Uses a spatial model to examine the relationship between stimulus exposure, cognition, and affect. Notes that this model accounts for cognitive changes that a stimulus may acquire as a result of exposure. Concludes that the spatial model is useful for evaluating the mere exposure effect and that affective change does not require cognitive change.…

  15. Arendt on Hobbes as the true philosopher of the bourgeoisie

    Adriano Correia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In The Origins of Totalitarianism, when examine the elements and origins of total domination, Hannah Arendt devotes special attention to the political emancipation of the bourgeoisie. For Arendt imperialism is the truth of the bourgeois understanding of politics, according to which politics should not be more than a well-organized police force. The truth of bourgeois politics is the reduction of politics to mere force. Our purpose is to reconstruct this movement from the vantage point of arendtian appropriation of Hobbes, "the true philosopher of the bourgeoisie."

  16. Pupil response and the subliminal mere exposure effect.

    Yoshimoto, Sanae; Imai, Hisato; Kashino, Makio; Takeuchi, Tatsuto

    2014-01-01

    The subliminal mere exposure effect (SMEE) is the phenomenon wherein people tend to prefer patterns they have repeatedly observed without consciously identifying them. One popular explanation for the SMEE is that perceptual fluency within exposed patterns is misattributed to a feeling of preference for those patterns. Assuming that perceptual fluency is negatively correlated with the amount of mental effort needed to analyze perceptual aspects of incoming stimuli, pupil diameter should associate with SMEE strength since the former is known to reflect mental effort. To examine this hypothesis, we measured participants' pupil diameter during exposure to subthreshold stimuli. Following exposure, a preference test was administered. Average pupil diameter throughout exposure was smaller when the SMEE was induced than when the SMEE was not induced. This supports the hypothesis that increasing perceptual fluency during mere exposure modulates autonomic nervous responses, such as pupil diameter, and eventually leads to preference.

  17. Pupil Response and the Subliminal Mere Exposure Effect

    Yoshimoto, Sanae; Imai, Hisato; Kashino, Makio; Takeuchi, Tatsuto

    2014-01-01

    The subliminal mere exposure effect (SMEE) is the phenomenon wherein people tend to prefer patterns they have repeatedly observed without consciously identifying them. One popular explanation for the SMEE is that perceptual fluency within exposed patterns is misattributed to a feeling of preference for those patterns. Assuming that perceptual fluency is negatively correlated with the amount of mental effort needed to analyze perceptual aspects of incoming stimuli, pupil diameter should associate with SMEE strength since the former is known to reflect mental effort. To examine this hypothesis, we measured participants’ pupil diameter during exposure to subthreshold stimuli. Following exposure, a preference test was administered. Average pupil diameter throughout exposure was smaller when the SMEE was induced than when the SMEE was not induced. This supports the hypothesis that increasing perceptual fluency during mere exposure modulates autonomic nervous responses, such as pupil diameter, and eventually leads to preference. PMID:24587408

  18. The mere exposure effect in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Winograd, E; Goldstein, F C; Monarch, E S; Peluso, J P; Goldman, W P

    1999-01-01

    The mere exposure effect was examined in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). Twenty patients and 20 elderly controls judged the physical characteristics of faces. Implicit memory was tested later by presenting pairs of faces (old and new) and asking participants which faces they liked better. Patients and controls exhibited above chance preference for previously exposed faces. Experiment 2 evaluated whether the preserved implicit memory of patients was mediated by explicit memory. Patients and controls again judged faces but then later chose which faces they had seen before. Patients exhibited impaired recognition memory compared to controls. These findings suggest that a mere exposure effect for unfamiliar faces is present in mild to moderate AD. The results are discussed in terms of perceptual and conceptual priming and relatively spared occipital lobe functioning in early AD.

  19. Pupil response and the subliminal mere exposure effect.

    Sanae Yoshimoto

    Full Text Available The subliminal mere exposure effect (SMEE is the phenomenon wherein people tend to prefer patterns they have repeatedly observed without consciously identifying them. One popular explanation for the SMEE is that perceptual fluency within exposed patterns is misattributed to a feeling of preference for those patterns. Assuming that perceptual fluency is negatively correlated with the amount of mental effort needed to analyze perceptual aspects of incoming stimuli, pupil diameter should associate with SMEE strength since the former is known to reflect mental effort. To examine this hypothesis, we measured participants' pupil diameter during exposure to subthreshold stimuli. Following exposure, a preference test was administered. Average pupil diameter throughout exposure was smaller when the SMEE was induced than when the SMEE was not induced. This supports the hypothesis that increasing perceptual fluency during mere exposure modulates autonomic nervous responses, such as pupil diameter, and eventually leads to preference.

  20. The mere exposure effect in patients with schizophrenia.

    Marie, A; Gabrieli, J D; Vaidya, C; Brown, B; Pratto, F; Zajonc, R B; Shaw, R J

    2001-01-01

    The mere exposure effect refers to the development of an emotional preference for previously unfamiliar material because of frequent exposure to that material. This study compared schizophrenia subjects (n = 20) to normal controls (n = 21) to determine whether implicit memory, as demonstrated by the mere exposure effect, was intact. Patients with schizophrenia demonstrated a normal preference for both verbal and visual materials seen earlier relative to novel materials, despite impaired performance on a recognition task for explicit memory using similar materials. Previous studies of schizophrenia subjects have shown a dissociation between implicit and explicit memory on verbal tasks. We found a similar dissociation demonstrated by normal functioning on an implicit memory task and impaired functioning on an explicit memory task. Potential implications of these findings are discussed with regard to treatment and rehabilitation.

  1. Pupil Response and the Subliminal Mere Exposure Effect

    Yoshimoto, Sanae; Imai, Hisato; Kashino, Makio; Takeuchi, Tatsuto

    2014-01-01

    The subliminal mere exposure effect (SMEE) is the phenomenon wherein people tend to prefer patterns they have repeatedly observed without consciously identifying them. One popular explanation for the SMEE is that perceptual fluency within exposed patterns is misattributed to a feeling of preference for those patterns. Assuming that perceptual fluency is negatively correlated with the amount of mental effort needed to analyze perceptual aspects of incoming stimuli, pupil diameter should associ...

  2. Multiple context mere exposure: Examining the limits of liking.

    de Zilva, Daniel; Newell, Ben R; Mitchell, Chris J

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that increased liking of exposed stimuli-a phenomenon known as the mere exposure effect-is dependent on experiencing the stimuli in the same context at exposure and test. Three experiments extended this work by examining the effect of presenting target stimuli in single and multiple exposure contexts. Target face stimuli were repeatedly paired with nonsense words, which took the role of contexts, across exposure. On test, the mere exposure effect was found only when the target face stimuli were presented with nonsense word cues (contexts) with which they had been repeatedly paired. The mere exposure effect was eliminated when exposure to target face stimuli with the nonsense word cues (contexts) was minimal, despite the overall number of exposures to the target face being equated across single- and multiple-context exposure conditions. The results suggest that familiarity of the relationship between stimuli and their context, not simply familiarity of the stimuli themselves, leads to liking. The finding supports a broader framework, which suggests that liking is partly a function of the consistency between past and present experiences with a target stimulus.

  3. The mere exposure effect depends on an odor's initial pleasantness.

    Delplanque, Sylvain; Coppin, Géraldine; Bloesch, Laurène; Cayeux, Isabelle; Sander, David

    2015-01-01

    The mere exposure phenomenon refers to improvement of one's attitude toward an a priori neutral stimulus after its repeated exposure. The extent to which such a phenomenon influences evaluation of a priori emotional stimuli remains under-investigated. Here we investigated this question by presenting participants with different odors varying in a priori pleasantness during different sessions spaced over time. Participants were requested to report each odor's pleasantness, intensity, and familiarity. As expected, participants became more familiar with all stimuli after the repetition procedure. However, while neutral and mildly pleasant odors showed an increase in pleasantness ratings, unpleasant and very pleasant odors remained unaffected. Correlational analyses revealed an inverse U-shape between the magnitude of the mere exposure effect and the initial pleasantness of the odor. Consequently, the initial pleasantness of the stimuli appears to modulate the impact of repeated exposures on an individual's attitude. These data underline the limits of mere exposure effect and are discussed in light of the biological relevance of odors for individual survival.

  4. Understanding the relationship between repetition priming and mere exposure.

    Butler, Laurie T; Berry, Dianne C

    2004-11-01

    Over the last two decades interest in implicit memory, most notably repetition priming, has grown considerably. During the same period, research has also focused on the mere exposure effect. Although the two areas have developed relatively independently, a number of studies has described the mere exposure effect as an example of implicit memory. Tacit in their comparisons is the assumption that the effect is more specifically a demonstration of repetition priming. Having noted that this assumption has attracted relatively little attention, this paper reviews current evidence and shows that it is by no means conclusive. Although some evidence is suggestive of a common underlying mechanism, even a modified repetition priming (perceptual fluency/attribution) framework cannot accommodate all of the differences between the two phenomena. Notwithstanding this, it seems likely that a version of this theoretical framework still offers the best hope of a comprehensive explanation for the mere exposure effect and its relationship to repetition priming. As such, the paper finishes by offering some initial guidance as to ways in which the perceptual fluency/attribution framework might be extended, as well as outlining important areas for future research.

  5. Race Research and the Ethics of Belief.

    Anomaly, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    On most accounts, beliefs are supposed to fit the world rather than change it. But believing can have social consequences, since the beliefs we form underwrite our actions and impact our character. Because our beliefs affect how we live our lives and how we treat other people, it is surprising how little attention is usually given to the moral status of believing apart from its epistemic justification. In what follows, I develop a version of the harm principle that applies to beliefs as well as actions. In doing so, I challenge the often exaggerated distinction between forming beliefs and acting on them. 1 After developing this view, I consider what it might imply about controversial research the goal of which is to yield true beliefs but the outcome of which might include negative social consequences. In particular, I focus on the implications of research into biological differences between racial groups.

  6. True ownership of traditional medicines in South Africa

    Gabriel Louw; André Duvenhage

    2017-01-01

    Background Literature postulates that traditional medicines form an important part of modern-day South African healthcare. The belief is that the traditional healer and traditional medicine is a close-knit unit, with the traditional healer as the true owner and manufacturer of traditional medicines. Various studies also postulate that the growth and development of South African traditional medicines are restricted by the pharmaceutical industries and other role players...

  7. The Origins of Belief Representation: Monkeys Fail to Automatically Represent Others’ Beliefs

    Martin, Alia; Santos, Laurie R.

    2014-01-01

    Young infants’ successful performance on false belief tasks has led several researchers to argue that there may be a core knowledge system for representing the beliefs of other agents, emerging early in human development and constraining automatic belief processing into adulthood. One way to investigate this purported core belief representation system is to examine whether non-human primates share such a system. Although non-human primates have historically performed poorly on false belief tasks that require executive function capacities, little work has explored how primates perform on more automatic measures of belief processing. To get at this issue, we modified Kovács et al. (2010)’s test of automatic belief representation to examine whether one non-human primate species—the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta)—is automatically influenced by another agent’s beliefs when tracking an object’s location. Monkeys saw an event in which a human agent watched an apple move back and forth between two boxes and an outcome in which one box was revealed to be empty. By occluding segments of the apple’s movement from either the monkey or the agent, we manipulated both the monkeys’ belief (true or false) and agent’s belief (true or false) about the final location of the apple. We found that monkeys looked longer at events that violated their own beliefs than at events that were consistent with their beliefs. In contrast to human infants, however, monkeys’ expectations were not influenced by another agent’s beliefs, suggesting that belief representation may be an aspect of core knowledge unique to humans. PMID:24374209

  8. Belief change

    Booth, R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors present a brief overview of belief change, a research area concerned with the question of how a rational agent ought to change its mind in the face of new, possibly conflicting, information. The authors limit themselves...

  9. Mere exposure alters category learning of novel objects

    Jonathan R Folstein

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how mere exposure to complex objects with correlated or uncorrelated object features affects later category learning of new objects not seen during exposure. Correlations among pre-exposed object dimensions influenced later category learning. Unlike other published studies, the collection of pre-exposed objects provided no information regarding the categories to be learned, ruling out unsupervised or incidental category learning during pre-exposure. Instead, results are interpreted with respect to statistical learning mechanisms, providing one of the first demonstrations of how statistical learning can influence visual object learning.

  10. Mere exposure alters category learning of novel objects.

    Folstein, Jonathan R; Gauthier, Isabel; Palmeri, Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    We investigated how mere exposure to complex objects with correlated or uncorrelated object features affects later category learning of new objects not seen during exposure. Correlations among pre-exposed object dimensions influenced later category learning. Unlike other published studies, the collection of pre-exposed objects provided no information regarding the categories to be learned, ruling out unsupervised or incidental category learning during pre-exposure. Instead, results are interpreted with respect to statistical learning mechanisms, providing one of the first demonstrations of how statistical learning can influence visual object learning.

  11. Self-generated visual imagery alters the mere exposure effect.

    Craver-Lemley, Catherine; Bornstein, Robert F

    2006-12-01

    To determine whether self-generated visual imagery alters liking ratings of merely exposed stimuli, 79 college students were repeatedly exposed to the ambiguous duck-rabbit figure. Half the participants were told to picture the image as a duck and half to picture it as a rabbit. When participants made liking ratings of both disambiguated versions of the figure, they rated the version consistent with earlier encoding more positively than the alternate version. Implications of these findings for theoretical models of the exposure effect are discussed.

  12. Analytic cognitive style predicts religious and paranormal belief.

    Pennycook, Gordon; Cheyne, James Allan; Seli, Paul; Koehler, Derek J; Fugelsang, Jonathan A

    2012-06-01

    An analytic cognitive style denotes a propensity to set aside highly salient intuitions when engaging in problem solving. We assess the hypothesis that an analytic cognitive style is associated with a history of questioning, altering, and rejecting (i.e., unbelieving) supernatural claims, both religious and paranormal. In two studies, we examined associations of God beliefs, religious engagement (attendance at religious services, praying, etc.), conventional religious beliefs (heaven, miracles, etc.) and paranormal beliefs (extrasensory perception, levitation, etc.) with performance measures of cognitive ability and analytic cognitive style. An analytic cognitive style negatively predicted both religious and paranormal beliefs when controlling for cognitive ability as well as religious engagement, sex, age, political ideology, and education. Participants more willing to engage in analytic reasoning were less likely to endorse supernatural beliefs. Further, an association between analytic cognitive style and religious engagement was mediated by religious beliefs, suggesting that an analytic cognitive style negatively affects religious engagement via lower acceptance of conventional religious beliefs. Results for types of God belief indicate that the association between an analytic cognitive style and God beliefs is more nuanced than mere acceptance and rejection, but also includes adopting less conventional God beliefs, such as Pantheism or Deism. Our data are consistent with the idea that two people who share the same cognitive ability, education, political ideology, sex, age and level of religious engagement can acquire very different sets of beliefs about the world if they differ in their propensity to think analytically. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. True Fibroma of Alveolar Mucosa

    Shankargouda Patil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign fibrous overgrowths are often found in the oral cavity, almost always being reactive/irritational in nature. However, benign mesenchymal neoplasms of the fibroblasts are extremely uncommon. Here we report a case of “True Fibroma of Alveolar Mucosa” for its rarity.

  14. At the Roots of Product Placement: The Mere Exposure Effect

    Stefano Ruggieri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to analyze the effect of product placement on attitude change and takes into consideration psychological models of the mere exposure effect. A sample of high school students watched an excerpt from two widely-distributed movies in which several products were shown by using the technique known as product placement. The results indicate that students who saw the commercial brand liked the products more than those who didn’t see it. This effect, in line with the literature on the product placement effect, seems to be independent from the recognition of the brand in the movie excerpt. This study also shows that, in the high involvement condition, one exposure is enough to produce a positive attitude toward the brand.

  15. Injunctions against mere conduit of information protected by copyright

    Sandfeld Jakobsen, Søren; Petersen, Clement Salung

    2011-01-01

    This paper includes an in-depth analysis of EU law and Scandinavian law on injunctions against internet access providers (IAPs) performing as mere conduit of information protected by copyright. In recent Scandinavian case law, courts have granted preliminary injunctions which have caused IAPs...... to either shut down specific internet connections allegedly used to infringe copyright or to block access to internet content, which allegedly infringed applicable copyright rules. This paper considers some significant legal challenges, which are emerging in the wake of this case law, and which should...... requires rules, which take into due consideration the special aspects related to enforcement of copyright on the internet through IAPs. Secondly, it is shown that the termination of internet connections and the blocking of access to internet content may not support the public policies behind copyright law...

  16. Mere exposure effect can be elicited in transient global amnesia.

    Marin-Garcia, Eugenia; Ruiz-Vargas, Jose M; Kapur, Narinder

    2013-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is one of the most severe forms of anterograde amnesia seen in clinical practice, yet patients may show evidence of spared learning during the amnesic episode. The scope of spared learning in such a severe form of amnesia remains uncertain, and it is also unclear whether findings from single-case studies hold up in group studies of TGA patients. In this group study, we found evidence that extended the domain of spared learning in TGA to include the mere exposure effect, whereby enhanced preference is primed by prior exposure to stimuli. We demonstrate this effect during an acute episode in a group of TGA patients, where they showed enhanced preference for previously exposed faces, despite markedly impaired performance on standard anterograde memory tests.

  17. Belief change

    Booth, R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available in the presence of Vacuity. 3.2 Partial meet theory contraction The preceding construction works equally well when B is taken to be a theory K. But in this case, since the input to contraction is a theory, we should expect the output to be a theory too... that is analogous to that of a belief set K in theory change. Intuitively, E is the ?current? set of expectations of the agent, and the plausible consequences of a sentence ? are those sentences ? for which ? |?? holds. The set of expectations E is not explicitly...

  18. Performance specifications: the nearly impossible versus the merely difficult

    Hopper, Darrel G.

    2000-08-01

    Affordability is the objective of acquisition reform. The institution of 'performance' specifications in lieu of 'design' specifications is a key strategy. Design of a cockpit display, for example, is left to the prime contractor based on a performance requirement stated by the government. The prime delegates to the integrator. The integrator develops the display and bill of materials provided by vendors. There is no feedback loop from the vendors to the ultimate customer, the government. As a result of this situation a communication gap exists: the government, primes, and integrators have concluded that they should pay commodity prices for custom displays. One step in the closing of this gap is the establishment of cross- cutting common reference performance specifications for aerospace and defense displays. The performance specification for cockpit displays is nearly impossible to achieve -- the last ounce of technology and more is required. Commodity markets, such as consumer notebook computers, are based on but a fraction of currently available technology -- companies 'bank' technology and roll it out across several 18-month product generations. Ruggedized consumer displays can be used in aerospace and defense applications other than the cockpit, such as mission crew stations. The performance specification for non-cockpit aerospace and defense applications is merely difficult. Acquisition reform has been defined by the Secretary of Defense to mean DoD should leverage the commercial market to the maximal extent possible. For the achievement of this end, an entirely different approach is wanted for cockpit displays versus large platform mission displays. That is, the nearly impossible requires a different design and business approach from the merely difficult.

  19. A Study of Common Beliefs and Misconceptions in Physical Science

    Stein, Mary; Larrabee, Timothy G.; Barman, Charles R.

    2008-01-01

    The Science Belief Test is an online instrument comprised of 47 statements that require true or false responses and request written explanations to accompany these responses. It targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy and was initially designed to assess preservice elementary teachers' beliefs about general…

  20. Dishonest responding or true virtue?

    Zettler, Ingo; Hilbig, Benjamin E.; Moshagen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    but troubling proposition that high scores in impression management scales actually reflect honesty rather than dishonest responding. In line with findings indicating that respondents answer to personality questionnaires rather accurately in typical low demand situations, we herein suggest that high impression...... management scores indeed reflect true virtues rather than dishonesty under such conditions. We found support for this idea by replicating previous correlations between impression management scores and virtue-related basic personality traits (including honesty-humility), and additionally provided conclusive...

  1. In search of true friendship

    Luciana Karine de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present text proposes a discussion on the concept of true friendship. The argument is grounded mostly on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics, Owen Flanagan's ethics as human ecology, and on contemporary authors' works about the Greek philosopher's concept of friendship. Given that human beings flourish through 1 exercising capacities, 2 being moral, and 3 having true friendships, difficulties to establish the level of trust required by true friendships turns the search itself (for them morally valid.O presente texto propõe uma discussão sobre o conceito de amizade verdadeira. A argumentação que fundamenta o trabalho baseia-se em grande parte na Ética a Nicômaco de Aristóteles, na ética como ecologia humana de Owen Flanagan, e em autores contemporâneos sobre o conceito de amizade do filósofo grego. Considerando-se que seres humanos encontram a felicidade mediante 1 o exercício de suas capacidades, 2 ser um ente moral, e 3 ter amizades verdadeiras, as dificuldades no estabelecimento do nível de amizade requerido nas amizades verdadeiras torna a busca (por elas, por si só, algo moralmente válido.

  2. Functional neuroimaging of belief, disbelief, and uncertainty.

    Harris, Sam; Sheth, Sameer A; Cohen, Mark S

    2008-02-01

    The difference between believing and disbelieving a proposition is one of the most potent regulators of human behavior and emotion. When one accepts a statement as true, it becomes the basis for further thought and action; rejected as false, it remains a string of words. The purpose of this study was to differentiate belief, disbelief, and uncertainty at the level of the brain. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the brains of 14 adults while they judged written statements to be "true" (belief), "false" (disbelief), or "undecidable" (uncertainty). To characterize belief, disbelief, and uncertainty in a content-independent manner, we included statements from a wide range of categories: autobiographical, mathematical, geographical, religious, ethical, semantic, and factual. The states of belief, disbelief, and uncertainty differentially activated distinct regions of the prefrontal and parietal cortices, as well as the basal ganglia. Belief and disbelief differ from uncertainty in that both provide information that can subsequently inform behavior and emotion. The mechanism underlying this difference appears to involve the anterior cingulate cortex and the caudate. Although many areas of higher cognition are likely involved in assessing the truth-value of linguistic propositions, the final acceptance of a statement as "true" or its rejection as "false" appears to rely on more primitive, hedonic processing in the medial prefrontal cortex and the anterior insula. Truth may be beauty, and beauty truth, in more than a metaphorical sense, and false propositions may actually disgust us.

  3. Radionuclide therapy for true polycythemia

    Afanasieva, N.I.; Grushka, G.V.; Vasiliev, L.Ya.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: True polycythemia (Vaquez' disease) is the disease of the hemopoietic system of an unknown origin accompanied by increase of erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood with absolute and relative increase in the mass of circulating erythrocytes. True polycythemia is treated with bloodletting and myelosuppressing drugs. This treatment is not always effective. A special place among myelo-depressants is occupied by P-32. Its main therapeutic effect is mediated by the participation in the metabolic processes. Besides DNA damage with beta-radiation, P-32 incorporation by DNA followed by decay and transformation to a stable sulphur isotope (S-32) results in the damage of the structure of nucleic acids, which is main mechanism of cellular proliferation inhibition. Therefore, P-32 is considered a powerful myelosuppressive agent. The indication to P-32 administration is true polycythemia, which, in contrast to secondary polycythemia accompanying numerous diseases, requires special cytostatic treatment. The study involved 152 patients with true polycythemia (76 men and 76 women aged 48) treated with P-32. The treatment was administered in case when bloodletting proved to be ineffective and hematocrit level exceeded 75%. P-32 was administered orally in 100 ml of 10% glucose solution on an empty stomach at a dose of 37-111 MBq with a 4-10-day intervals (mean 6 days). The blood count was checked for 12 weeks. If the number of thrombocytes and leukocytes decreased less than by 25% and the level of hematocrit did not normalize, repeated P-32 treatments were performed. In 13 (8.6%) patients, haematocrit parameters became normal after a single P-32 administration, in 15 (9.9%) patients two treatments with P-32 were necessary to normalize the blood count. In 134 (88.1%) cases P-32 treatment was administered more then two times (maximum 10 treatments). Total P-32 activity ranged from 37 to 740 MBq. Of all the patients who were administered P- 32 treatment, hematological

  4. Mere social categorization modulates identification of facial expressions of emotion.

    Young, Steven G; Hugenberg, Kurt

    2010-12-01

    The ability of the human face to communicate emotional states via facial expressions is well known, and past research has established the importance and universality of emotional facial expressions. However, recent evidence has revealed that facial expressions of emotion are most accurately recognized when the perceiver and expresser are from the same cultural ingroup. The current research builds on this literature and extends this work. Specifically, we find that mere social categorization, using a minimal-group paradigm, can create an ingroup emotion-identification advantage even when the culture of the target and perceiver is held constant. Follow-up experiments show that this effect is supported by differential motivation to process ingroup versus outgroup faces and that this motivational disparity leads to more configural processing of ingroup faces than of outgroup faces. Overall, the results point to distinct processing modes for ingroup and outgroup faces, resulting in differential identification accuracy for facial expressions of emotion. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Gamma oscillations distinguish mere exposure from other likability effects.

    Kongthong, Nutchakan; Minami, Tetsuto; Nakauchi, Shigeki

    2014-02-01

    Repeated exposure to neutral stimuli enhances liking for those, which is called mere exposure effect (MEE) (Zajonc, 1968). Its behavioral effects have been extensively investigated. However, the mechanism by which it is generated remains unclear. To elucidate the neural mechanism of the MEE, we recorded electroencephalograms while subjects indicated their preferences for face stimuli with and without MEE induction. According to behavioral data, participants were divided into two groups, one with, and one without MEE tendency. In participants with an MEE tendency, gamma activity (40-60 [Hz]) in the parieto-occipital area was significantly weaker for exposed faces than unexposed ones, indicating a repetition-suppression effect. Gamma activity from sites exhibiting peak repetition-suppression effects was significantly weaker in theoretically genuine MEE trials than non-MEE trials, indicating that emotion processing might influence the MEE. These results suggest that existing theories regarding mechanisms underlying the MEE, namely, fluency misattribution and apprehensiveness reduction might not be mutually exclusive. Moreover, gamma activity might be a potential indicator to distinguish the MEE from other likability effects, at least in the case of human face stimuli. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Statistical learning: a powerful mechanism that operates by mere exposure.

    Aslin, Richard N

    2017-01-01

    How do infants learn so rapidly and with little apparent effort? In 1996, Saffran, Aslin, and Newport reported that 8-month-old human infants could learn the underlying temporal structure of a stream of speech syllables after only 2 min of passive listening. This demonstration of what was called statistical learning, involving no instruction, reinforcement, or feedback, led to dozens of confirmations of this powerful mechanism of implicit learning in a variety of modalities, domains, and species. These findings reveal that infants are not nearly as dependent on explicit forms of instruction as we might have assumed from studies of learning in which children or adults are taught facts such as math or problem solving skills. Instead, at least in some domains, infants soak up the information around them by mere exposure. Learning and development in these domains thus appear to occur automatically and with little active involvement by an instructor (parent or teacher). The details of this statistical learning mechanism are discussed, including how exposure to specific types of information can, under some circumstances, generalize to never-before-observed information, thereby enabling transfer of learning. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1373. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1373 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Alexithymia tendencies and mere exposure alter social approachability judgments.

    Campbell, Darren W; McKeen, Nancy A

    2011-04-01

    People have a fundamental motivation for social connection and social engagement, but how do they decide whom to approach in ambiguous social situations? Subjective feelings often influence such decisions, but people vary in awareness of their feelings. We evaluated two opposing hypotheses based on visual familiarity effects and emotional awareness on social approachability judgments. These hypotheses differ in their interpretation of the familiarity or mere exposure effect with either an affective or cognitive interpretation. The responses of our 128-student sample supported the cognitive interpretation. Lower emotional awareness or higher alexithymia was associated with higher approachability judgments to familiarized faces and lower approachability judgments to novel faces. These findings were independent of the Big Five personality factors. The results indicate that individual differences in emotional awareness should be integrated into social decision-making models. The results also suggest that cognitive-perceptual alterations may underlie the poorer social outcomes associated with alexithymia. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The mere exposure effect in the domain of haptics.

    Jakesch, Martina; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2012-01-01

    Zajonc showed that the attitude towards stimuli that one had been previously exposed to is more positive than towards novel stimuli. This mere exposure effect (MEE) has been tested extensively using various visual stimuli. Research on the MEE is sparse, however, for other sensory modalities. We used objects of two material categories (stone and wood) and two complexity levels (simple and complex) to test the influence of exposure frequency (F0 = novel stimuli, F2 = stimuli exposed twice, F10 = stimuli exposed ten times) under two sensory modalities (haptics only and haptics & vision). Effects of exposure frequency were found for high complex stimuli with significantly increasing liking from F0 to F2 and F10, but only for the stone category. Analysis of "Need for Touch" data showed the MEE in participants with high need for touch, which suggests different sensitivity or saturation levels of MEE. This different sensitivity or saturation levels might also reflect the effects of expertise on the haptic evaluation of objects. It seems that haptic and cross-modal MEEs are influenced by factors similar to those in the visual domain indicating a common cognitive basis.

  9. The mere exposure effect in the domain of haptics.

    Martina Jakesch

    Full Text Available Zajonc showed that the attitude towards stimuli that one had been previously exposed to is more positive than towards novel stimuli. This mere exposure effect (MEE has been tested extensively using various visual stimuli. Research on the MEE is sparse, however, for other sensory modalities.We used objects of two material categories (stone and wood and two complexity levels (simple and complex to test the influence of exposure frequency (F0 = novel stimuli, F2 = stimuli exposed twice, F10 = stimuli exposed ten times under two sensory modalities (haptics only and haptics & vision. Effects of exposure frequency were found for high complex stimuli with significantly increasing liking from F0 to F2 and F10, but only for the stone category. Analysis of "Need for Touch" data showed the MEE in participants with high need for touch, which suggests different sensitivity or saturation levels of MEE.This different sensitivity or saturation levels might also reflect the effects of expertise on the haptic evaluation of objects. It seems that haptic and cross-modal MEEs are influenced by factors similar to those in the visual domain indicating a common cognitive basis.

  10. Hierarchies of belief and interim rationalizability

    Jeffrey C. Ely

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In games with incomplete information, conventional hierarchies of belief are incomplete as descriptions of the players' information for the purposes of determining a player's behavior. We show by example that this is true for a variety of solution concepts. We then investigate what is essential about a player's information to identify behavior. We specialize to two player games and the solution concept of interim rationalizability. We construct the universal type space for rationalizability and characterize the types in terms of their beliefs. Infinite hierarchies of beliefs over conditional beliefs, which we call Delta-hierarchies, are what turn out to matter. We show that any two types in any two type spaces have the same rationalizable sets in all games if and only if they have the same Delta-hierarchies.

  11. Exposure is not enough: suppressing stimuli from awareness can abolish the mere exposure effect.

    de Zilva, Daniel; Vu, Luke; Newell, Ben R; Pearson, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Passive exposure to neutral stimuli increases subsequent liking of those stimuli--the mere exposure effect. Because of the broad implications for understanding and controlling human preferences, the role of conscious awareness in mere exposure has received much attention. Previous studies have claimed that the mere exposure effect can occur without conscious awareness of the stimuli. In two experiments, we applied a technique new to the mere exposure literature, called continuous flash suppression, to expose stimuli for a controlled duration with and without awareness. To ensure the reliability of the awareness manipulation, awareness was monitored on a trial-by-trial basis. Our results show that under these conditions the mere exposure effect does not occur without conscious awareness. In contrast, only when participants were aware of the stimuli did exposure increase liking and recognition. Together these data are consistent with the idea that the mere exposure effect requires conscious awareness and has important implications for theories of memory and affect.

  12. Stimulus threat and exposure context modulate the effect of mere exposure on approach behaviors

    Steven Young; Heather Claypool; Isaiah Jones

    2016-01-01

    Mere-exposure research has found that initially neutral objects made familiar are preferred relative to novel objects. Recent work extends these preference judgments into the behavioral domain by illustrating that mere exposure prompts approach-oriented behavior toward familiar stimuli. However, no investigations have examined the effect of mere exposure on approach-oriented behavior toward threatening stimuli. The current work examines this issue and also explores how exposure context intera...

  13. How do implicit effects of subliminal mere exposure become explicit? Mediating effects of social interaction

    Kawakami, Naoaki; Yoshida, Fujio

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the mere exposure effect under subliminal conditions is more likely to occur for implicit attitudes than for explicit attitudes. We tested whether the implicit effects of subliminal mere exposure could spill over to the explicit level through social interaction. Preliminary experiment replicated the findings that the subliminal mere exposure effect occurs only for implicit attitudes, and not for explicit attitudes. Main experiment showed that this implicit effec...

  14. True photographs and false memories.

    Lindsay, D Stephen; Hagen, Lisa; Read, J Don; Wade, Kimberley A; Garry, Maryanne

    2004-03-01

    Some trauma-memory-oriented psychotherapists advise clients to review old family photo albums to cue suspected "repressed" memories of childhood sexual abuse. Old photos might cue long-forgotten memories, but when combined with other suggestive influences they might also contribute to false memories. We asked 45 undergraduates to work at remembering three school-related childhood events (two true events provided by parents and one pseudoevent). By random assignment, 23 subjects were also given their school classes' group photos from the years of the to-be-recalled events as memory cues. As predicted, the rate of false-memory reports was dramatically higher in the photo condition than in the no-photo condition. Indeed, the rate of false-memory reports in the photo condition was substantially higher than the rate in any previously published study.

  15. Belief Elicitation in Experiments

    Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander

    Belief elicitation in economics experiments usually relies on paying subjects according to the accuracy of stated beliefs in addition to payments for other decisions. Such incentives, however, allow risk-averse subjects to hedge with their stated beliefs against adverse outcomes of other decisions......-belief elicitation treatment using a financial investment frame, where hedging arguably would be most natural....

  16. Evolution of Religious Beliefs

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    Humans may be distinguished from all other animals in having beliefs about the causal interaction of physical objects. Causal beliefs are a developmental primitive in human children; animals, by contrast, have very few causal beliefs. The origin of human causal beliefs comes from the evolutionary advantage it gave in relation to complex tool making and use. Causal beliefs gave rise religion and mystical thinking as our ancestors wanted to know the causes of events that affected their lives.

  17. Mere odor exposure learning in the rat neonate immediately after birth and 1 day later.

    Miller, Stacie S; Spear, Norman E

    2010-05-01

    Rat pups are more resistant to retroactive associative interference 3 hr after birth than 24 hr later [Cheslock et al. [2004] Developmental Science, 7, 581-598]. The present experiments tested the effect of age, retention interval and dam presence during the retention interval on odor-induced motor activity subsequent to mere odor exposure. Rats were exposed to an hour of odor immediately after birth or approximately 1 day later and tested after a given retention interval (3 or 27 hr [Exp 1]; 0, 30, 75, or 180 min [Exp. 2]). They spent the retention interval either in the presence or absence of a foster dam (Exp. 1 and 3). After the retention interval, pups were tested in a 4-min activity test including a 2-min baseline period and 2 min of odor exposure. Overall activity was scored during tape-playback. Odor-exposed pups were more active than nonexposed pups during reexposure to the odor during testing, but this was true only for P0 pups. In contrast, P1 pups without prior odor exposure were active during testing and behaviorally quieted in the presence of the odor they were previously exposed to. Though 1 day apart, newborn rats just hours old lack many of the experiences that a 1-day-old has had including nursing, huddling, and being groomed. These experiences are associated with, among other stimuli, a barrage of olfactory cues (e.g., colostrum, saliva, dander, feces, and urine). P0 and P1 pups also differ in their proximity from the birthing experience and associated neurochemical changes. The age-related pattern of responding to odors based on previous odor exposure was discussed in relation to these and other possibilities.

  18. Mere odor exposure learning in the rat neonate immediately after birth and one day later

    Miller, Stacie S.; Spear, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    Rat pups are more resistant to retroactive associative interference 3 hrs after birth than 24 hours later (Cheslock, Sanders, & Spear, 2004). The present experiments tested the effect of age, retention interval and dam presence during the retention interval on odor-induced motor activity subsequent to mere odor exposure. Rats were exposed to an hour of odor immediately after birth or approximately one day later and tested after a given retention interval (3 hrs or 27 hrs [Exp 1]; 0, 30, 75, or 180 min [Exp. 2]). They spent the retention interval either in the presence or absence of a foster dam (Exp. 1 and 3). After the retention interval, pups were tested in a four-minute activity test including a two-minute baseline period and two minutes of odor exposure. Overall activity was scored during tape-playback. Odor-exposed pups were more active than non-exposed pups during reexposure to the odor during testing, but this was true only for P0 pups. In contrast, P1 pups without prior odor exposure were active during testing and behaviorally quieted in the presence of the odor they were previously exposed to. Though one day apart, newborn rats just hours old lack many of the experiences that a one day old has had including nursing, huddling, and being groomed. These experiences are associated with, among other stimuli, a barrage of olfactory cues (e.g., colostrum, saliva, dander, feces, and urine). P0 and P1 pups also differ in their proximity from the birthing experience and associated neurochemical changes. The age-related pattern of responding to odors based on previous odor exposure was discussed in relation to these and other possibilities. PMID:20411590

  19. Very true operators on MTL-algebras

    Wang Jun Tao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to investigate very true MTL-algebras and prove the completeness of the very true MTL-logic. In this paper, the concept of very true operators on MTL-algebras is introduced and some related properties are investigated. Also, conditions for an MTL-algebra to be an MV-algebra and a Gödel algebra are given via this operator. Moreover, very true filters on very true MTL-algebras are studied. In particular, subdirectly irreducible very true MTL-algebras are characterized and an analogous of representation theorem for very true MTL-algebras is proved. Then, the left and right stabilizers of very true MTL-algebras are introduced and some related properties are given. As applications of stabilizer of very true MTL-algebras, we produce a basis for a topology on very true MTL-algebras and show that the generated topology by this basis is Baire, connected, locally connected and separable. Finally, the corresponding logic very true MTL-logic is constructed and the soundness and completeness of this logic are proved based on very true MTL-algebras.

  20. True mean rate measuring system

    Eichenlaub, D.P.

    1980-01-01

    A digital radiation-monitoring system for nuclear power plants uses digital and microprocessor circuitry to enable rapid processing of pulse information from remote radiation monitors. The pulse rates are analyzed to determine whether new pulse-rate information is statisticaly the same as that previously received and to determine the best possible averaging time, which can be changed so that the statistical error remains below a specified level while the system response time remains short. Several data modules each process the pulse-rate information from several remote radiation monitors. Each data module accepts pulse data from each radiation monitor and measures the true average or mean pulse rate of events occurring with a Poisson distribution to determine the radiation level. They then develop digital output signals which indciate the respective radiation levels and which can be transmitted via multiplexer circuits for additional processing and display. The data modules can accept signals from remote control stations or computer stations via the multiplexer circuit to change operating thresholds and alarm levels in their memories. A check module scans the various data modules to determine whether the output signals are valid. It also acts as a redundant data module and will automatically replace an inoperative unit. (DN)

  1. Stimulus threat and exposure context modulate the effect of mere exposure on approach behaviors

    Steven Young

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mere-exposure research has found that initially neutral objects made familiar are preferred relative to novel objects. Recent work extends these preference judgments into the behavioral domain by illustrating that mere exposure prompts approach-oriented behavior toward familiar stimuli. However, no investigations have examined the effect of mere exposure on approach-oriented behavior toward threatening stimuli. The current work examines this issue and also explores how exposure context interacts with stimulus threat to influence behavioral tendencies. In two experiments participants were presented with both mere-exposed and novel stimuli and approach speed was assessed. In the first experiment, when stimulus threat was presented in a homogeneous format (i.e., participants viewed exclusively neutral or threatening stimuli, mere-exposure potentiated approach behaviors for both neutral and threatening stimuli. However, in the second experiment, in which stimulus threat was presented in a heterogeneous fashion (i.e., participants viewed both neutral and threatening stimuli, mere exposure facilitated approach only for initially neutral stimuli. These results suggest that mere-exposure effects on approach behaviors are highly context sensitive and depend on both stimulus valence and exposure context. Further implications of these findings for the mere-exposure literature are discussed.

  2. Näidendivõistlusel selgus Eesti viis parimat mereäärset lugu / Teele Tammeorg

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Teatri Agentuur ja SA Tallinn 2011 kuulutasid näidendikonkursi "Mereäärsed lood" võitjateks Martin Alguse "Kontakti", Christian Auni ja Mariann Tihase "Kastis!", Urmas Lennuki "Minu tänav", Katrin Maimiku "Metspardi" ja Mario Pulveri "Fluidumi". "Mereäärsed lood" on rahvusvahelise näidendivõistluse "New Baltic Drama 2011" esimene voor

  3. Incorporating outcome uncertainty and prior outcome beliefs in stated preferences

    Lundhede, Thomas; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Hanley, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Stated preference studies tell respondents that policies create environmental changes with varying levels of uncertainty. However, respondents may include their own a priori assessments of uncertainty when making choices among policy options. Using a choice experiment eliciting respondents......’ preferences for conservation policies under climate change, we find that higher outcome uncertainty reduces utility. When accounting for endogeneity, we find that prior beliefs play a significant role in this cost of uncertainty. Thus, merely stating “objective” levels of outcome uncertainty...

  4. Dissociating mere exposure and repetition priming as a function of word type.

    Butler, Laurie T; Berry, Dianne C; Helman, Shaun

    2004-07-01

    The mere exposure effect is defined as enhanced attitude toward a stimulus that has been repeatedly exposed. Repetition priming is defined as facilitated processing of a previously exposed stimulus. We conducted a direct comparison between the two phenomena to test the assumption that the mere exposure effect represents an example of repetition priming. In two experiments, having studied a set of words or nonwords, participants were given a repetition priming task (perceptual identification) or one of two mere exposure (affective liking or preference judgment) tasks. Repetition priming was obtained for both words and nonwords, but only nonwords produced a mere exposure effect. This demonstrates a key boundary for observing the mere exposure effect, one not readily accommodated by a perceptual representation systems (Tulving & Schacter, 1990) account, which assumes that both phenomena should show some sensitivity to nonwords and words.

  5. Reincarnation belief and the Christian churches

    Waterhouse, Helen; Walter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    Reincarnation has never been part of mainstream Christian theology. This is true in spite of periodic speculations by Christian theologians, and in spite of the fact that reincarnation believers sometimes wrongly impute belief in reincarnation to prominent Christian thinkers. Even so, in 1984 Paul Badham was able to point to statistics which indicated that as many Anglicans believed in reincarnation as believed in heaven and hell. This paper is based on the responses of the many Christians wh...

  6. Strategic Belief Management

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    While (managerial) beliefs are central to many aspects of strategic organization, interactive beliefs are almost entirely neglected, save for some game theory treatments. In an increasingly connected and networked economy, firms confront coordination problems that arise because of network effects....... The capability to manage beliefs will increasingly be a strategic one, a key source of wealth creation, and a key research area for strategic organization scholars.......While (managerial) beliefs are central to many aspects of strategic organization, interactive beliefs are almost entirely neglected, save for some game theory treatments. In an increasingly connected and networked economy, firms confront coordination problems that arise because of network effects...

  7. Should informed consent be based on rational beliefs?

    Savulescu, J; Momeyer, R W

    1997-10-01

    Our aim is to expand the regulative ideal governing consent. We argue that consent should not only be informed but also based on rational beliefs. We argue that holding true beliefs promotes autonomy. Information is important insofar as it helps a person to hold the relevant true beliefs. But in order to hold the relevant true beliefs, competent people must also think rationally. Insofar as information is important, rational deliberation is important. Just as physicians should aim to provide relevant information regarding the medical procedures prior to patients consenting to have those procedures, they should also assist patients to think more rationally. We distinguish between rational choice/action and rational belief. While autonomous choice need not necessarily be rational, it should be based on rational belief. The implication for the doctrine of informed consent and the practice of medicine is that, if physicians are to respect patient autonomy and help patients to choose and act more rationally, not only must they provide information, but they should care more about the theoretical rationality of their patients. They should not abandon their patients to irrationality. They should help their patients to deliberate more effectively and to care more about thinking rationally. We illustrate these arguments in the context of Jehovah's Witnesses refusing life-saving blood transfusions. Insofar as Jehovah's Witnesses should be informed of the consequences of their actions, they should also deliberate rationally about these consequences.

  8. The subliminal mere exposure effect does not generalize to structurally related stimuli.

    Newell, Ben R; Bright, James E H

    2003-03-01

    R.F. Bornstein (1994) questioned whether subliminal mere exposure effects might generalize to structurally related stimuli, thereby providing evidence for the existence of implicit learning. Two experiments examined this claim using letter string stimuli constructed according to the rules of an artificial grammar. Experiment 1 demonstrated that brief, masked exposure to grammatical strings impaired recognition but failed to produce a mere exposure effect on novel structurally related strings seen at test. Experiment 2 replicated this result but also demonstrated that a reliable mere exposure effect could be obtained, provided the same grammatical strings were presented at test. The results suggest that the structural relationship between training and test items prevents the mere exposure effect when participants are unaware of the exposure status of stimuli, and therefore provide no evidence for the existence of implicit learning.

  9. NA årsag til mere usikre meningsmålinger

    Thomsen, Søren Risbjerg

    2007-01-01

    ANALYSE: Det er nørdet men sandt: Meningsmålingerne er mere usikre end længe set, skriver professor Søren Risbjerg Thomsen. Årsag: NA. Udgivelsesdato: 11. september......ANALYSE: Det er nørdet men sandt: Meningsmålingerne er mere usikre end længe set, skriver professor Søren Risbjerg Thomsen. Årsag: NA. Udgivelsesdato: 11. september...

  10. Exposure is not enough: suppressing stimuli from awareness can abolish the mere exposure effect.

    Daniel de Zilva

    Full Text Available Passive exposure to neutral stimuli increases subsequent liking of those stimuli--the mere exposure effect. Because of the broad implications for understanding and controlling human preferences, the role of conscious awareness in mere exposure has received much attention. Previous studies have claimed that the mere exposure effect can occur without conscious awareness of the stimuli. In two experiments, we applied a technique new to the mere exposure literature, called continuous flash suppression, to expose stimuli for a controlled duration with and without awareness. To ensure the reliability of the awareness manipulation, awareness was monitored on a trial-by-trial basis. Our results show that under these conditions the mere exposure effect does not occur without conscious awareness. In contrast, only when participants were aware of the stimuli did exposure increase liking and recognition. Together these data are consistent with the idea that the mere exposure effect requires conscious awareness and has important implications for theories of memory and affect.

  11. Performance measurement of PSF modeling reconstruction (True X) on Siemens Biograph TruePoint TrueV PET/CT.

    Lee, Young Sub; Kim, Jin Su; Kim, Kyeong Min; Kang, Joo Hyun; Lim, Sang Moo; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2014-05-01

    The Siemens Biograph TruePoint TrueV (B-TPTV) positron emission tomography (PET) scanner performs 3D PET reconstruction using a system matrix with point spread function (PSF) modeling (called the True X reconstruction). PET resolution was dramatically improved with the True X method. In this study, we assessed the spatial resolution and image quality on a B-TPTV PET scanner. In addition, we assessed the feasibility of animal imaging with a B-TPTV PET and compared it with a microPET R4 scanner. Spatial resolution was measured at center and at 8 cm offset from the center in transverse plane with warm background activity. True X, ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) without PSF modeling, and filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction methods were used. Percent contrast (% contrast) and percent background variability (% BV) were assessed according to NEMA NU2-2007. The recovery coefficient (RC), non-uniformity, spill-over ratio (SOR), and PET imaging of the Micro Deluxe Phantom were assessed to compare image quality of B-TPTV PET with that of the microPET R4. When True X reconstruction was used, spatial resolution was RC with True X reconstruction was higher than that with the FBP method and the OSEM without PSF modeling method on the microPET R4. The non-uniformity with True X reconstruction was higher than that with FBP and OSEM without PSF modeling on microPET R4. SOR with True X reconstruction was better than that with FBP or OSEM without PSF modeling on the microPET R4. This study assessed the performance of the True X reconstruction. Spatial resolution with True X reconstruction was improved by 45 % and its % contrast was significantly improved compared to those with the conventional OSEM without PSF modeling reconstruction algorithm. The noise level was higher than that with the other reconstruction algorithm. Therefore, True X reconstruction should be used with caution when quantifying PET data.

  12. Intention and Normative Belief

    Chislenko, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    I defend the view that we act “under the guise of the good.” More specifically, I argue that an intention to do something is a belief that one ought to do it. I show how conflicts in intention and belief, as well as more complex impairments in these states, account for the central problem cases: akrasia in belief and intention, apparently unintelligible choices, and lack of motivation or accidie.

  13. Conditional Belief Types

    2016-04-19

    Rationality of a player is determined by comparing her actual expected payoff to her expected payoff when her strategy is changed , while her beliefs —and...reduced strategies, and it is possible that under such conditions, beliefs about other players’ reduced strategies change as well. Thus, independence...assumptions, whether they concern observability of moves or subjective beliefs of any other kind, can be all accommodated by changing the informational

  14. Stimulus Threat and Exposure Context Modulate the Effect of Mere Exposure on Approach Behaviors.

    Young, Steven G; Jones, Isaiah F; Claypool, Heather M

    2016-01-01

    Mere-exposure (ME) research has found that initially neutral objects made familiar are preferred relative to novel objects. Recent work extends these preference judgments into the behavioral domain by illustrating that mere exposure prompts approach-oriented behavior toward familiar stimuli. However, no investigations have examined the effect of mere exposure on approach-oriented behavior toward threatening stimuli. The current work examines this issue and also explores how exposure context interacts with stimulus threat to influence behavioral tendencies. In two experiments participants were presented with both mere-exposed and novel stimuli and approach speed was assessed. In the first experiment, when stimulus threat was presented in a homogeneous format (i.e., participants viewed exclusively neutral or threatening stimuli), ME potentiated approach behaviors for both neutral and threatening stimuli. However, in the second experiment, in which stimulus threat was presented in a heterogeneous fashion (i.e., participants viewed both neutral and threatening stimuli), mere exposure facilitated approach only for initially neutral stimuli. These results suggest that ME effects on approach behaviors are highly context sensitive and depend on both stimulus valence and exposure context. Further implications of these findings for the ME literature are discussed.

  15. Responding to the Challenge of True Uncertainty

    Hallin, Carina Antonia; Andersen, Torben Juul

    We construe a conceptual framework for responding effectively to true uncertainty in the business environment. We drill down to the essential micro-foundational capabilities - sensing and seizing of dynamic capabilities - and link them to classical strategic issue management theory with suggestions...... on how to operationalize these essential capabilities. By definition true uncertainty represents environmental conditions that are hard to foresee, which can catch the unprepared by surprise while presenting opportunities to the conscious organization. We demonstrate that organizations relying...

  16. Divine Intuition: Cognitive Style Influences Belief in God

    Shenhav, Amitai; Rand, David G.; Greene, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    Some have argued that belief in God is intuitive, a natural (by-)product of the human mind given its cognitive structure and social context. If this is true, the extent to which one believes in God may be influenced by one's more general tendency to rely on intuition versus reflection. Three studies support this hypothesis, linking intuitive…

  17. Some Lessons from Kripke's A Puzzle About Belief

    KATEVG

    The first belief-attribution is true, whereas the second is false. But a change in truth-value surely reflects a change in semantic value. ..... acquiring information after all, and not, as Kripke assumes, only a matter of logical acumen. ..... object without the object actually existing and it is similarly impossible to be acquainted with.

  18. Mere lyd!

    Schweppenhäuser, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    tonesætninger heraf; digteren Morten Søndergaards samarbejde med trommeslageren Klaus “Q” Hedegård Nielsen; rapgrupperne MC Einar og Deichkind samt rapperen SuparDejen; multikunstneren Nikolaj Zeuthen og hans orkester Skammens Vogn; post-rock-ensemblet Under Byen med den fremtrædende sanger og tekstforfatter...

  19. Eliminating the mere exposure effect through changes in context between exposure and test.

    de Zilva, Daniel; Mitchell, Chris J; Newell, Ben R

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which increased liking of exposed stimuli--the mere exposure effect--is dependent on experiencing the stimuli in the same context in exposure and on test. Participants were repeatedly exposed to pairs of cues (nonsense words) and target stimuli (faces and shapes), and were asked to rate the pleasantness of the target stimuli in a subsequent test phase. Familiar targets were preferred to novel targets-a mere exposure effect was obtained. This preference for familiar targets was disrupted, however, when the cue-target pairings were rearranged between exposure and test, or a novel cue was introduced at test. Overall, the study suggests that the context of exposure and test moderates the mere exposure effect. Liking of stimuli due to exposure is specific to the context of exposure and does not apply to new or familiar but different contexts.

  20. Constructivism, Factoring, and Beliefs.

    Rauff, James V.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses errors made by remedial intermediate algebra students in factoring polynomials in light of student definitions of factoring. Found certain beliefs about factoring to logically imply many of the errors made. Suggests that belief-based teaching can be successful in teaching factoring. (16 references) (Author/MKR)

  1. Scandinavian belief in fate

    Åke Ström

    1967-02-01

    Full Text Available In point of principle, Christianity does not give room for any belief in fate. Astrology, horoscopes, divination, etc., are strictly rejected. Belief in fate never disappeared in Christian countries, nor did it in Scandinavia in Christian times. Especially in folklore we can find it at any period: People believed in an implacable fate. All folklore is filled up with this belief in destiny. Nobody can escape his fate. The future lies in the hands of fate, and the time to come takes its form according to inscrutable laws. The pre-Christian period in Scandinavia, dominated by pagan Norse religion, and the secularized epoch of the 20th century, however, show more distinctive and more widespread beliefs in fate than does the Christian period. The present paper makes a comparison between these forms of belief.

  2. The dynamic interplay between perceived true self-knowledge and decision satisfaction.

    Schlegel, Rebecca J; Hicks, Joshua A; Davis, William E; Hirsch, Kelly A; Smith, Christina M

    2013-03-01

    The present research used multiple methods to examine the hypothesis that perceived true self-knowledge and decision satisfaction are inextricably linked together by a widely held "true-self-as-guide" lay theory of decision making. Consistent with this proposition, Study 1 found that participants rated using the true self as a guide as more important for achieving personal satisfaction than a variety of other potential decision-making strategies. After establishing the prevalence of this lay theory, the remaining studies then focused on examining the proposed consequent relationship between perceived true self-knowledge and decision satisfaction. Consistent with hypotheses, 2 cross-sectional correlational studies (Studies 2 and 3) found a positive relationship between perceived true self-knowledge and decision satisfaction for different types of major decisions. Study 4 used daily diary methods to demonstrate that fluctuations in perceived true self-knowledge reliably covary with fluctuations in decision satisfaction. Finally, 2 studies directly examined the causal direction of this relationship through experimental manipulation and revealed that the relationship is truly bidirectional. More specifically, Study 5 showed that manipulating perceived knowledge of the true self (but not other self-concepts) directly affects decision satisfaction. Study 6 showed that this effect also works in reverse by manipulating feelings of decision satisfaction, which directly affected perceived knowledge of the true self (but not other self-concepts). Taken together, these studies suggest that people believe the true self should be used as a guide when making major life decisions and that this belief has observable consequences for the self and decision making. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  3. Representations built from a true geographic database

    Bodum, Lars

    2005-01-01

    the whole world in 3d and with a spatial reference given by geographic coordinates. Built on top of this is a customised viewer, based on the Xith(Java) scenegraph. The viewer reads the objects directly from the database and solves the question about Level-Of-Detail on buildings, orientation in relation...... a representation based on geographic and geospatial principles. The system GRIFINOR, developed at 3DGI, Aalborg University, DK, is capable of creating this object-orientation and furthermore does this on top of a true Geographic database. A true Geographic database can be characterized as a database that can cover...

  4. True ternary fission in 310126X

    Banupriya, B.; Vijayaraghavan, K.R.; Balasubramaniam, M.

    2015-01-01

    All possible combinations are minimized by the two dimensional minimization process and minimized with respect to neutron numbers and proton numbers of the fragments. Potential energy is low and Q - value is high at true ternary fission region. It shows that true ternary mode is the dominant mode in the ternary fission of superheavy nuclei. Also, the results show that the fragments with neutron magic numbers are the dominant one in the ternary fission of superheavy nuclei whereas the fragments with proton magic numbers are the dominant one in the ternary fission of heavy nuclei

  5. Cognitive consequences of novelty and familiarity: how mere exposure influences level of construal

    Förster, J.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments examine whether frequency of exposure influences level of construal. Using subliminal presentation, participants were exposed to neutral, unknown letters 0, 5, 15, or 40 times, and a typical mere exposure effect was found on evaluation. However, we hypothesized and showed in

  6. Gødning er mere vigtig for grønkåls smag end frost

    Grønbæk, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Mange kender myten om, at grønkål smager bedre efter termometret har været nede i det blå felt. Ny forskning viser, at smagen ganske rigtigt ændrer sig – men mængden af gødning er faktisk mere afgørende for smagen....

  7. Seeing Green: Mere Exposure to Money Triggers a Business Decision Frame and Unethical Outcomes

    Kouchaki, Maryam; Smith-Crowe, Kristin; Brief, Arthur P.; Sousa, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Can mere exposure to money corrupt? In four studies, we examined the likelihood of unethical outcomes when the construct of money was activated through the use of priming techniques. The results of Study 1 demonstrated that individuals primed with money were more likely to demonstrate unethical intentions than those in the control group. In Study…

  8. Implicit preferences: the role(s) of familiarity in the structural mere exposure effect.

    Zizak, Diane M; Reber, Arthur S

    2004-06-01

    In four experiments using an artificial grammar (AG) learning procedure, the authors examined the links between the "classic" mere exposure effect [heightened affect for previously encountered stimulus items (Bornstein, 1989; Zajonc, 1968)] and the "structural" mere exposure effect [greater hedonic appreciation for novel stimuli that conform to an implicitly acquired underlying rule system (Gordon & Holyoak, 1983)]. After learning, participants: (a) classified stimuli according to whether they conformed to the principles of the grammar and, (b) rated them in terms of how much they liked them. In some experiments unusual and unfamiliar symbols were used to instantiate the AG, in others highly familiar characters were used. In all cases participants showed standard AG learning. However, whether the two exposure effects emerged was dependent on symbol familiarity. Symbols with high a priori familiarity produced a structural mere exposure effect. Moderately familiar symbols produced only the classic, but not the structural, mere exposure effect. Highly unfamiliar symbols produced neither exposure effect. Results are discussed in the context of implicit learning theory and implications for a general theory of aesthetics are presented.

  9. Structural Facilitation: Mere Exposure Effects for Grammatical Acceptability as Evidence for Syntactic Priming in Comprehension

    Luka, B.J.; Barsalou, L.W.

    2005-01-01

    In five experiments, participants first read grammatical sentences of English and later rated identical, structurally similar, or novel sentences for grammatical acceptability. The experimental method was modeled after ''mere exposure'' and artificial grammar learning paradigms in which preference ratings are enhanced by prior experience with the…

  10. Reversing the mere exposure effect in spider fearfuls: Preliminary evidence of sensitization

    Becker, E.S.; Rinck, M.

    2016-01-01

    A mere exposure effect (MEE) is said to occur when individuals' liking of a suboptimally and repeatedly presented stimulus increases compared to never-presented stimuli, while they are unable to indicate which stimuli were previously presented and which were not. In two experiments, we used the MEE

  11. Perceptual Individuation Training (but Not Mere Exposure) Reduces Implicit Racial Bias in Preschool Children

    Qian, Miao K.; Quinn, Paul C.; Heyman, Gail D.; Pascalis, Olivier; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2017-01-01

    Two studies with preschool-age children examined the effectiveness of perceptual individuation training at reducing racial bias (Study 1, N = 32; Study 2, N = 56). We found that training preschool-age children to individuate other-race faces resulted in a reduction in implicit racial bias while mere exposure to other-race faces produced no such…

  12. Disinhibition of negative true self for identity reconstructions in cyberspace: Advancing self-discrepancy theory for virtual setting.

    Chuan Hu

    Full Text Available In face-to-face communications, to avoid sanctions and disapproval from others, people are more likely to hide negative aspects of their true self (such as socially undesirable personalities, minds, beliefs and consciousness to avoid conflict with social norms and laws. The anonymity of cyberspace provides people a unique environment to behave more freely and openly with less restraint from the real word. Existing research related to online true self expression has mainly explored true self as an independent aspect of self. Regarding true self as a two-dimensional concept, this study investigates true self from the perspective of individuals' self-guide and identity reconstruction in both online and offline world. Using qualitative research methods, the current study investigates 57 participants through interviews and questionnaires. Content analysis reveals four factors that motivate people to express more true self (especially negative true self when reconstructing their online identity and involve true self as a part of their self-guide in anonymous environment. By incorporating true self as an important part of individuals' self-guide and identity online, the current study advances self-discrepancy theory, making it more comprehensive for cyberspace. The results are also interpreted based on self-determination theory. The theoretical contributions of this study are discussed and practical implications are also presented.

  13. Chemical composition, true metabolisable energy content and ...

    The physical characteristics (thousand seed and hectolitre mass), chemical composition (dry matter, ash, crude protein (CP), ether extract, acid detergent fibre, neutral detergent fibre and mineral content), energy values (nitrogen corrected true metabolisable energy content (TMEn for roosters)) as well as the lysine and ...

  14. True fir spacing trials: 10-year results.

    Robert O. Curtis

    2008-01-01

    Eighteen precommercial thinning trials were established in true fir-hemlock stands in the Olympic Mountains and the west side of the Cascade Range during the period 1987 through 1994. This paper updates a previous report, with results for the first 10 years after establishment. Results are given for (1) all trees, (2) the largest 80 per acre of any species, and (3)...

  15. Is It True That Smoking Causes Wrinkles?

    Healthy Lifestyle Quit smoking Is it true that smoking causes wrinkles? Answers from J. Taylor Hays, M.D. Yes. So if you need another reason to motivate ... elastin, which are fibers that give your skin its strength and elasticity. As a result, skin begins ...

  16. Chemical composition, true metabolisable energy content and ...

    aneldavh

    116. Chemical composition, true metabolisable energy content and amino acid availability of grain legumes for poultry. T.S. Brand. 1, 2,3#. , D.A. Brandt. 1, 2,4 and C.W. ... alternatives (Wiseman, 1987; Brand et al., 1995). ..... The Ca, P and trace element concentrations for lupins, faba beans and peas recorded in the present.

  17. True Faith in Faith and Knowledge

    Jonkers, P.H.A.I.

    2003-01-01

    This article deals with the diverging conceptions of faith that Hegel discusses in his essay Faith and Knowledge (1802). In order to modify the usual, negative image of Hegel’s attitude towards faith, which stresses its reflective character, I analyze his idea of a ‘true faith’. My conclusion is

  18. The neural basis of testable and non-testable beliefs.

    Jonathon R Howlett

    Full Text Available Beliefs about the state of the world are an important influence on both normal behavior and psychopathology. However, understanding of the neural basis of belief processing remains incomplete, and several aspects of belief processing have only recently been explored. Specifically, different types of beliefs may involve fundamentally different inferential processes and thus recruit distinct brain regions. Additionally, neural processing of truth and falsity may differ from processing of certainty and uncertainty. The purpose of this study was to investigate the neural underpinnings of assessment of testable and non-testable propositions in terms of truth or falsity and the level of certainty in a belief. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was used to study 14 adults while they rated propositions as true or false and also rated the level of certainty in their judgments. Each proposition was classified as testable or non-testable. Testable propositions activated the DLPFC and posterior cingulate cortex, while non-testable statements activated areas including inferior frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and an anterior region of the superior frontal gyrus. No areas were more active when a proposition was accepted, while the dorsal anterior cingulate was activated when a proposition was rejected. Regardless of whether a proposition was testable or not, certainty that the proposition was true or false activated a common network of regions including the medial prefrontal cortex, caudate, posterior cingulate, and a region of middle temporal gyrus near the temporo-parietal junction. Certainty in the truth or falsity of a non-testable proposition (a strong belief without empirical evidence activated the insula. The results suggest that different brain regions contribute to the assessment of propositions based on the type of content, while a common network may mediate the influence of beliefs on motivation and behavior based on the level of

  19. Implicit false-belief processing in the human brain.

    Schneider, Dana; Slaughter, Virginia P; Becker, Stefanie I; Dux, Paul E

    2014-11-01

    Eye-movement patterns in 'Sally-Anne' tasks reflect humans' ability to implicitly process the mental states of others, particularly false-beliefs - a key theory of mind (ToM) operation. It has recently been proposed that an efficient ToM system, which operates in the absence of awareness (implicit ToM, iToM), subserves the analysis of belief-like states. This contrasts to consciously available belief processing, performed by the explicit ToM system (eToM). The frontal, temporal and parietal cortices are engaged when humans explicitly 'mentalize' about others' beliefs. However, the neural underpinnings of implicit false-belief processing and the extent to which they draw on networks involved in explicit general-belief processing are unknown. Here, participants watched 'Sally-Anne' movies while fMRI and eye-tracking measures were acquired simultaneously. Participants displayed eye-movements consistent with implicit false-belief processing. After independently localizing the brain areas involved in explicit general-belief processing, only the left anterior superior temporal sulcus and precuneus revealed greater blood-oxygen-level-dependent activity for false- relative to true-belief trials in our iToM paradigm. No such difference was found for the right temporal-parietal junction despite significant activity in this area. These findings fractionate brain regions that are associated with explicit general ToM reasoning and false-belief processing in the absence of awareness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dissociation, Paranormal Belief, and Quality of Life in Older People

    Tungshan Chou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of religiosity in current health-related literature is mostly based on the traditional Christian belief system. It has been argued that such a measurement approach may misrepresent the true degree of religiosity in Taiwanese people. In this study, religiosity was measured in two ways: self-reported religion type and a qualitatively derived index of religious piety based on principles as suggested by Gries, Su, and Schak to be used in the Taiwanese context. Their effects on dissociation, paranormal belief, and quality of life were juxtaposed for comparison. In addition, the beneficial effect of religious piety was examined in the framework of McClenon’s ritual healing theory. A total of 266 healthy older adults across Taiwan were interviewed by four trained assistants over a 4-month period. Factor scores were used to represent the dissociative tendencies (depersonalization/derealization, forgetfulness, amnesia, and psychological absorption and paranormal belief facets (precognition, psi power, other forms of life, traditional religious belief, superstition, and telepathy. The results showed that older people of high religious piety display better quality of life profiles than their counterparts in the low religious piety group. The effects of self-reported religion type were mainly seen with paranormal beliefs compatible with their religious beliefs, whereas the effects of religious piety were more pronounced in relation to quality of life than dissociation and paranormal belief. The beneficial advantage of dissociation hypothesized by ritual healing theory did not receive empirical support in the nonclinical sample of this study.

  1. Belief Change in Reasoning Agents

    Jin, Yi

    2007-01-01

    The capability of changing beliefs upon new information in a rational and efficient way is crucial for an intelligent agent. Belief change therefore is one of the central research fields in Artificial Intelligence (AI) for over two decades. In the AI literature, two different kinds of belief change operations have been intensively investigated: belief update, which deal with situations where the new information describes changes of the world; and belief revision, which assumes the world is st...

  2. True ternary fission of 252Cf

    Vijayaraghavan, K.R.; Balasubramaniam, M.; Oertzen, W. von

    2014-01-01

    Splitting of heavy radioactive nucleus into three fragments is known as ternary fission. If the size of the fragments are almost equal it is referred to as true ternary fission. Recently, Yu. V. Pyatkov et al observed/reported the experimental observation of true ternary fission in 252 Cf. In this work, the possibilities of different true ternary fission modes of 252 Cf through potential energy surface (PES) calculations based on three cluster model (TCM) are discussed. In TCM a condition on the mass numbers of the fission fragments is implied as A 1 ≥ A 2 ≥ A 3 in order to avoid repetition of combinations. Due to this condition, the values of Z 3 vary from 0 to 36 and Z 2 vary from 16 to 51. Of the different pairs having similar (Z 2 , Z 3 ) with different potential energy, a pair possessing minimum potential energy is chosen. Thus identified favourable combinations are plotted. For the PES calculations the arrangement of the fragments is considered in the order of A 1 +A 2 +A 3 . i.e. the heavy and the lightest fragments are kept at the ends. It is seen that the deepest minimum in the PES occurs for Z 3 =2 labelled as (Z 2 ; 2) indicating He accompanied breakup as the most favourable one. Of which, the breakup with Z 2 around 46 to 48 is the least (shown by dashed (Z 1 = 50) and dotted (Z 1 = 52) lines indicating a constant Z 1 value). The other notable minima in the PES are labelled and they correspond to the (Z 2 , Z 3 ) pairs viz., (20, 20), (28, 20), (28, 28) and (32, 32). Of these four minima, the first three are associated with the magic numbers 20 and 28. For Z 3 =20, there are two minimums at (20,20) and (28,20) among them (28,20) is the lowest minimum through which the minimum-path passes, and it is the ternary decay observed by Yu. V. Pyatkov et al. The fourth minima is the most interesting due to the fact that it corresponds to true ternary fission mode with Z 2 =32, Z 3 =32 and Z 1 =34. The minimum potential energy path also goes through this true

  3. Cosmic chirality both true and false.

    Barron, Laurence D

    2012-12-01

    The discrete symmetries of parity P, time reversal T, and charge conjugation C may be used to characterize the properties of chiral systems. It is well known that parity violation infiltrates into ordinary matter via an interaction between the nucleons and electrons, mediated by the Z(0) particle, that lifts the degeneracy of the mirror-image enantiomers of a chiral molecule. Being odd under P but even under T, this P-violating interaction exhibits true chirality and so may induce absolute enantioselection under all circumstances. It has been suggested that CP violation may also infiltrate into ordinary matter via a P-odd, T-odd interaction mediated by the (as yet undetected) axion. This CP-violating interaction exhibits false chirality and so may induce absolute enantioselection in processes far from equilibrium. Both true and false cosmic chirality should be considered together as possible sources of homochirality in the molecules of life. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Merely asking the customer to recommend has an impact on word-of-mouth activity

    Mattsson, Jan; Söderlund, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    impact on customers' WOM activity. In addition, we found that receiving the request was not negatively associated with the customers' overall evaluations, such as customer satisfaction, which indicates that the potential for negative consequences of making the request seems to be low.......This paper examines if a mere request to a customer – within the frame of a service encounter – to engage in word-of-mouth (WOM) would have an impact on the customer's subsequent WOM activity. Although previous studies have not examined this issue, theoretical arguments do exist. And they point...... in different directions; some suggest a positive impact, while others suggest a negative impact. To explore the issue empirically, we carried out two studies (one survey-based study and one experiment). Both generated the same result: they indicate that merely asking customers to engage in WOM has a positive...

  5. Listen, Learn, Like! Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Involved in the Mere Exposure Effect in Music

    Anders C. Green

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural basis of the mere exposure effect in music listening, which links previous exposure to liking. Prior to scanning, participants underwent a learning phase, where exposure to melodies was systematically varied. During scanning, participants rated liking for each melody and, later, their recognition of them. Participants showed learning effects, better recognising melodies heard more often. Melodies heard most often were most liked, consistent with the mere exposure effect. We found neural activations as a function of previous exposure in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex, probably reflecting retrieval and working memory-related processes. This was despite the fact that the task during scanning was to judge liking, not recognition, thus suggesting that appreciation of music relies strongly on memory processes. Subjective liking per se caused differential activation in the left hemisphere, of the anterior insula, the caudate nucleus, and the putamen.

  6. Novel stimuli are negative stimuli: evidence that negative affect is reduced in the mere exposure effect.

    Robinson, Brent M; Elias, Lorin J

    2005-04-01

    Repeated exposure of a nonreinforced stimulus results in an increased preference for that stimulus, the mere exposure effect. The present study repeatedly presented positive, negative, and neutrally affective faces to 48 participants while they made judgments about the emotional expression. Participants then rated the likeability of novel neutrally expressive faces and some of these previously presented faces, this time in their neutral expression. Faces originally presented as happy were rated as the most likeable, followed by faces originally presented as neutral. Negative and novel faces were not rated significantly differently from each other. These findings support the notion that the increase in preference towards repeatedly presented stimuli is the result of the reduction in negative affect, consistent with the modified two-factor uncertainty-reduction model and classical conditioning model of the mere exposure effect.

  7. The mere exposure effect is differentially sensitive to different judgment tasks.

    Seamon, J G; McKenna, P A; Binder, N

    1998-03-01

    The mere exposure effect is the increase in positive affect that results from the repeated exposure to previously novel stimuli. We sought to determine if judgments other than affective preference could reliably produce a mere exposure effect for two-dimensional random shapes. In two experiments, we found that brighter and darker judgments did not differentiate target from distracter shapes, liking judgments led to target selection greater than chance, and disliking judgments led to distracter selection greater than chance. These results for brighter, darker, and liking judgments were obtained regardless of whether shape recognition was greater (Experiment 1) or not greater (Experiment 2) than chance. Effects of prior exposure to novel shapes were reliably observed only for affective judgment tasks. These results are inconsistent with general predictions made by the nonspecific activation hypothesis, but not the affective primacy or perceptual fluency hypotheses which were discussed in terms of cognitive neuroscience research. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  8. Implicit/explicit memory versus analytic/nonanalytic processing: rethinking the mere exposure effect.

    Whittlesea, B W; Price, J R

    2001-03-01

    In studies of the mere exposure effect, rapid presentation of items can increase liking without accurate recognition. The effect on liking has been explained as a misattribution of fluency caused by prior presentation. However, fluency is also a source of feelings of familiarity. It is, therefore, surprising that prior experience can enhance liking without also causing familiarity-based recognition. We suggest that when study opportunities are minimal and test items are perceptually similar, people adopt an analytic approach, attempting to recognize distinctive features. That strategy fails because rapid presentation prevents effective encoding of such features; it also prevents people from experiencing fluency and a consequent feeling of familiarity. We suggest that the liking-without-recognition effect results from using an effective (nonanalytic) strategy in judging pleasantness, but an ineffective (analytic) strategy in recognition. Explanations of the mere exposure effect based on a distinction between implicit and explicit memory are unnecessary.

  9. Listen, learn, like! Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex involved in the mere exposure effect in music.

    Green, Anders C; Bærentsen, Klaus B; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Roepstorff, Andreas; Vuust, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural basis of the mere exposure effect in music listening, which links previous exposure to liking. Prior to scanning, participants underwent a learning phase, where exposure to melodies was systematically varied. During scanning, participants rated liking for each melody and, later, their recognition of them. Participants showed learning effects, better recognising melodies heard more often. Melodies heard most often were most liked, consistent with the mere exposure effect. We found neural activations as a function of previous exposure in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex, probably reflecting retrieval and working memory-related processes. This was despite the fact that the task during scanning was to judge liking, not recognition, thus suggesting that appreciation of music relies strongly on memory processes. Subjective liking per se caused differential activation in the left hemisphere, of the anterior insula, the caudate nucleus, and the putamen.

  10. The implicit influence of a negative mood on the subliminal mere exposure effect.

    Kawakami, Naoaki

    2012-12-01

    Despite numerous studies on the mere exposure effect, it is still not clear why it occurs. The present study examined whether a negative mood would enhance or inhibit the effects. Fifty-two participants (30 men, 22 women; M age = 20.5 yr.) were assigned to one of two mood-induction groups (negative and neutral), and were exposed to a photograph 20 times after the mood induction. Thereafter, a single-category Implicit Association Test was conducted to measure their implicit attitudes toward the photograph. There was a significant interaction, with exposed stimuli evaluated more favorably than unexposed stimuli in the neutral condition, but not in the negative condition. This result suggests that a negative mood inhibited the mere exposure effect, implying that people could use their emotional states as cues to evaluate ambiguous objects that they have been repeatedly exposed to.

  11. Breaking the Barriers to True Augmented Reality

    Sandor, Christian; Fuchs, Martin; Cassinelli, Alvaro; Li, Hao; Newcombe, Richard; Yamamoto, Goshiro; Feiner, Steven

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) have gained considerable commercial traction, with Facebook acquiring Oculus VR for \\$2 billion, Magic Leap attracting more than \\$500 million of funding, and Microsoft announcing their HoloLens head-worn computer. Where is humanity headed: a brave new dystopia-or a paradise come true? In this article, we present discussions, which started at the symposium "Making Augmented Reality Real", held at Nara Institute of Science and Te...

  12. Frege on Truths, Truth and the True

    Wolfgang Künne

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The founder of modern logic and grandfather of analytic philosophy was 70 years old when he published his paper 'Der Gedanke' (The Thought in 1918. This essay contains some of Gottlob Frege's deepest and most provocative reflections on the concept of truth, and it will play a prominent role in my lectures. The plan for my lectures is as follows. What is it that is (primarily true or false? 'Thoughts', is Frege's answer. In §1, I shall explain and defend this answer. In §2, I shall briefly consider his enthymematic argument for the conclusion that the word 'true' resists any attempt at defining it. In §3, I shall discuss his thesis that the thought that things are thus and so is identical with the thought that it is true that things are thus and so. The reasons we are offered for this thesis will be found wanting. In §4, I shall comment extensively on Frege's claim that, in a non-formal language like the one I am currently trying to speak, we can say whatever we want to say without ever using the word 'true' or any of its synonyms. I will reject the propositional-redundancy claim, endorse the assertive-redundancy claim and deny the connection Frege ascribes to them. In his classic 1892 paper 'Über Sinn und Bedeutung' (On Sense and Signification Frege argues that truth-values are objects. In §5, I shall scrutinize his argument. In §6, I will show that in Frege's ideography (Begriffsschrift truth, far from being redundant, is omnipresent. The final §7 is again on truth-bearers, this time as a topic in the theory of intentionality and in metaphysics. In the course of discussing Frege's views on the objecthood, the objectivity of thoughts and the timelessness of truth(s, I will plead for a somewhat mitigated Platonism.

  13. A True Open-Loop Synchronization Technique

    Golestan, Saeed; Vidal, Ana; Yepes, Alejandro G.

    2016-01-01

    Synchronization techniques can be broadly classified into two major categories: Closed-loop and open-loop methods. The open-loop synchronization (OLS) techniques, contrary to the closed-loop ones, are unconditionally stable and benefit from a fast dynamic response. Their performance, however, tends...... is to develop a true OLS (and therefore, unconditionally stable) technique without any need for the calculation of sine and cosine functions. The effectiveness of the proposed synchronization technique is confirmed through the simulation and experimental results....

  14. True vaginal prolapse in a bitch.

    Alan, M; Cetin, Y; Sendag, S; Eski, F

    2007-08-01

    Frequently, vaginal fold prolapse is the protrusion of edematous vaginal tissue into and through the opening of the vulva occurring during proestrus and estrus stages of the sexual cycle. True vaginal prolapse may occur near parturition, as the concentration of serum progesterone declines and the concentration of serum oestrogen increases. In the bitch, this type of true vaginal prolapse is a very rare condition. This short communication describes a 5-year-old female, cross-breed dog in moderate condition, weighing 33 kg, with distocia and true vaginal prolapse. Abdominal palpation and transabdominal ultrasonography revealed live and dead foetuses in the uterine horns. One dead and four live fetuses were removed from uterus by cesarean section. The ovariohysterectomy was performed after repositioning the vaginal wall with a combination of traction from within the abdomen and external manipulation through the vulva. Re-occurrence of a vaginal prolapse was not observed and the bitch recovered completely after the surgical therapy. Compared to other vaginal disorders, vaginal prolapse is an uncommon condition in the bitch. In the present case, extreme tenesmus arising from distocia may have predisposed to the vaginal prolapse. The cause of dystocia was probably the disposition of the first foetus. We concluded that the vaginal prolapse was the result of dystocia in the present case.

  15. True random numbers from amplified quantum vacuum.

    Jofre, M; Curty, M; Steinlechner, F; Anzolin, G; Torres, J P; Mitchell, M W; Pruneri, V

    2011-10-10

    Random numbers are essential for applications ranging from secure communications to numerical simulation and quantitative finance. Algorithms can rapidly produce pseudo-random outcomes, series of numbers that mimic most properties of true random numbers while quantum random number generators (QRNGs) exploit intrinsic quantum randomness to produce true random numbers. Single-photon QRNGs are conceptually simple but produce few random bits per detection. In contrast, vacuum fluctuations are a vast resource for QRNGs: they are broad-band and thus can encode many random bits per second. Direct recording of vacuum fluctuations is possible, but requires shot-noise-limited detectors, at the cost of bandwidth. We demonstrate efficient conversion of vacuum fluctuations to true random bits using optical amplification of vacuum and interferometry. Using commercially-available optical components we demonstrate a QRNG at a bit rate of 1.11 Gbps. The proposed scheme has the potential to be extended to 10 Gbps and even up to 100 Gbps by taking advantage of high speed modulation sources and detectors for optical fiber telecommunication devices.

  16. Implicit Structured Sequence Learning: An FMRI Study of the Structural Mere-Exposure Effect

    Vasiliki eFolia; Vasiliki eFolia; Karl Magnus ePetersson; Karl Magnus ePetersson; Karl Magnus ePetersson

    2014-01-01

    In this event-related FMRI study we investigated the effect of five days of implicit acquisition on preference classification by means of an artificial grammar learning (AGL) paradigm based on the structural mere-exposure effect and preference classification using a simple right-linear unification grammar. This allowed us to investigate implicit AGL in a proper learning design by including baseline measurements prior to grammar exposure. After 5 days of implicit acquisition, the FMRI results ...

  17. The mere exposure effect depends on an odour’s initial pleasantness

    Sylvain eDelplanque; Sylvain eDelplanque; Géraldine eCoppin; Géraldine eCoppin; Laurène eBloesch; Isabelle eCayeux; David eSander; David eSander

    2015-01-01

    The mere exposure phenomenon refers to improvement of one’s attitude toward an a priori neutral stimulus after its repeated exposure. The extent to which such a phenomenon influences evaluation of a priori emotional stimuli remains under-investigated. Here we investigated this question by presenting participants with different odours varying in a priori pleasantness during different sessions spaced over time. Participants were requested to report each odour’s pleasantness, intensity, and fami...

  18. The mere exposure effect depends on an odor?s initial pleasantness

    Delplanque, Sylvain; Coppin, G?raldine; Bloesch, Laur?ne; Cayeux, Isabelle; Sander, David

    2015-01-01

    The mere exposure phenomenon refers to improvement of one’s attitude toward an a priori neutral stimulus after its repeated exposure. The extent to which such a phenomenon influences evaluation of a priori emotional stimuli remains under-investigated. Here we investigated this question by presenting participants with different odors varying in a priori pleasantness during different sessions spaced over time. Participants were requested to report each odor’s pleasantness, intensity, and famili...

  19. ‘Objectively there is no truth’ – Wittgenstein and Kierkegaard on Religious Belief

    Schönbaumsfeld, Genia

    2017-01-01

    Kierkegaard’s influence on Wittgenstein’s conception of religious belief was profound, but this hasn’t so far been given the attention it deserves. Although Wittgenstein wrote comparatively little on the subject, while the whole of Kierkegaard’s oeuvre has a religious theme, both philosophers have become notorious for refusing to construe religious belief in either of the two traditional ways: as a ‘propositional attitude’ on the one hand or as a mere ‘emotional response’ with no reference to...

  20. A general framework for updating belief distributions.

    Bissiri, P G; Holmes, C C; Walker, S G

    2016-11-01

    We propose a framework for general Bayesian inference. We argue that a valid update of a prior belief distribution to a posterior can be made for parameters which are connected to observations through a loss function rather than the traditional likelihood function, which is recovered as a special case. Modern application areas make it increasingly challenging for Bayesians to attempt to model the true data-generating mechanism. For instance, when the object of interest is low dimensional, such as a mean or median, it is cumbersome to have to achieve this via a complete model for the whole data distribution. More importantly, there are settings where the parameter of interest does not directly index a family of density functions and thus the Bayesian approach to learning about such parameters is currently regarded as problematic. Our framework uses loss functions to connect information in the data to functionals of interest. The updating of beliefs then follows from a decision theoretic approach involving cumulative loss functions. Importantly, the procedure coincides with Bayesian updating when a true likelihood is known yet provides coherent subjective inference in much more general settings. Connections to other inference frameworks are highlighted.

  1. Belief, hope and faith.

    Figueiredo, Luis Claudio

    2004-12-01

    A case of hysteria is presented in order to create a frame of reference for the author's approach to the concepts of hope, belief and faith. A difference between hope as a 'sad passion' (which is here called regressive hope) and hope as a principle of mental functioning is established. The concept of hope will at first always be based on beliefs--either beliefs organised in the paranoid-schizoid position (called here fragmented and delusional beliefs)--or those organised from the depressive position (complex systems of beliefs, which end up being dogmatic); the latter typically occur in neurotics. It is suggested here that there is another possibility for hope, which is based on faith. The meaning of faith is considered here externally to the religious sense. The solid establishment of hope as a principle--based on faith--can be viewed as responsible for the opening up of creative potentials and as one of the main aims of analysis. Such an aim, however requires the establishment of a deep relationship, both in theory and in clinical practice, between the Kleinian question of the depressive position and the Freudian question of the Oedipus complex.

  2. The mere exposure effect depends on an odour’s initial pleasantness

    Sylvain eDelplanque

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The mere exposure phenomenon refers to improvement of one’s attitude toward an a priori neutral stimulus after its repeated exposure. The extent to which such a phenomenon influences evaluation of a priori emotional stimuli remains under-investigated. Here we investigated this question by presenting participants with different odours varying in a priori pleasantness during different sessions spaced over time. Participants were requested to report each odour’s pleasantness, intensity, and familiarity. As expected, participants became more familiar with all stimuli after the repetition procedure. However, while neutral and mildly pleasant odours showed an increase in pleasantness ratings, unpleasant and very pleasant odours remained unaffected. Correlational analyses revealed an inverse U-shape between the magnitude of the mere exposure effect and the initial pleasantness of the odour. Consequently, the initial pleasantness of the stimuli appears to modulate the impact of repeated exposures on an individual’s attitude. These data underline the limits of mere exposure effect and are discussed in light of the biological relevance of odours for individual survival.

  3. Voluntarily controlled but not merely observed visual feedback affects postural sway

    Asai, Tomohisa; Hiromitsu, Kentaro; Imamizu, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    Online stabilization of human standing posture utilizes multisensory afferences (e.g., vision). Whereas visual feedback of spontaneous postural sway can stabilize postural control especially when observers concentrate on their body and intend to minimize postural sway, the effect of intentional control of visual feedback on postural sway itself remains unclear. This study assessed quiet standing posture in healthy adults voluntarily controlling or merely observing visual feedback. The visual feedback (moving square) had either low or high gain and was either horizontally flipped or not. Participants in the voluntary-control group were instructed to minimize their postural sway while voluntarily controlling visual feedback, whereas those in the observation group were instructed to minimize their postural sway while merely observing visual feedback. As a result, magnified and flipped visual feedback increased postural sway only in the voluntary-control group. Furthermore, regardless of the instructions and feedback manipulations, the experienced sense of control over visual feedback positively correlated with the magnitude of postural sway. We suggest that voluntarily controlled, but not merely observed, visual feedback is incorporated into the feedback control system for posture and begins to affect postural sway. PMID:29682421

  4. [Accumulative effects and long-term persistence of subliminal mere exposure].

    Kawakami, Naoaki; Yoshida, Fujio

    2011-10-01

    We examined the accumulative effects and long-term persistence of subliminal mere exposure. An accumulative exposure condition (100 exposures distributed over five days) and a massed exposure condition (100 exposures in one day) were used in a Go/No-go Association Task (GNAT), with assessments of likability from Time 1 (just after) to Time 6 (after three months). First, a single stimulus was shown subliminally for a total of 100 times. The results indicated that mere exposure effects occurred equally often at Time 1. However, after Time 2, likability gradually decreased under the massed exposure condition, while it did not decrease under the accumulative exposure condition until Time 6. Second, in order to investigate the effect of multiple exposure, five stimuli belonging to a common category were shown 20 times each, for a total of 100 times. An ANOVA suggested that massed exposure had an instantaneous effect on likability, whereas accumulative exposure had a long-term persistence effect. Also, multiple exposures strengthened the mere exposure effect.

  5. Neural evidence for reduced apprehensiveness of familiarized stimuli in a mere exposure paradigm.

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A; Zhang, Yi

    2012-07-01

    Mere familiarization with a stimulus increases liking for it or similar stimuli ("mere exposure" effects) as well as perceptual fluency, indexed by the speed and accuracy of categorizing it or similar stimuli ("priming" effects). Candidate mechanisms proposed to explain mere exposure effects include both increased positive affect associated with greater perceptual fluency, and reduced negative affect associated with diminished apprehensiveness of novel stimuli. Although these two mechanisms are not mutually exclusive, it is difficult for behavioral measures to disentangle them, since increased liking or other indices of greater positive affect toward exposed stimuli could result from increases in positive feelings or decreases in negative feelings or both. The present study sought to clarify this issue by building on research showing a dissociation at the neural level in which the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (LOFC) is activated more by negatively valenced than by neutral or positively valenced stimuli, with the reverse effect for medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC). Supporting the reduced apprehensiveness hypothesis, we found lower LOFC activation to familiarized faces and objects (repetition suppression). We did not find evidence to support the positive affect hypothesis in increased activation to familiarized stimuli in MOFC or in other parts of the reward circuit that respond more to positively valenced stimuli (repetition enhancement), although enhancement effects were shown in some regions.

  6. The mere exposure effect depends on an odor’s initial pleasantness

    Delplanque, Sylvain; Coppin, Géraldine; Bloesch, Laurène; Cayeux, Isabelle; Sander, David

    2015-01-01

    The mere exposure phenomenon refers to improvement of one’s attitude toward an a priori neutral stimulus after its repeated exposure. The extent to which such a phenomenon influences evaluation of a priori emotional stimuli remains under-investigated. Here we investigated this question by presenting participants with different odors varying in a priori pleasantness during different sessions spaced over time. Participants were requested to report each odor’s pleasantness, intensity, and familiarity. As expected, participants became more familiar with all stimuli after the repetition procedure. However, while neutral and mildly pleasant odors showed an increase in pleasantness ratings, unpleasant and very pleasant odors remained unaffected. Correlational analyses revealed an inverse U-shape between the magnitude of the mere exposure effect and the initial pleasantness of the odor. Consequently, the initial pleasantness of the stimuli appears to modulate the impact of repeated exposures on an individual’s attitude. These data underline the limits of mere exposure effect and are discussed in light of the biological relevance of odors for individual survival. PMID:26191021

  7. True bilateral nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: report and review.

    Mishra, Anupam; Mishra, Subhash Chandra

    2016-10-01

    This report describes the third case of a true bilateral Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA), i.e. two separate JNA arising from both sides simultaneously. The associated multiple recurrences in such a case have not yet been reported. A 21-year-man underwent transpalatal excision and recurred twice. The last 'neo-occurrence' encountered after 2 years was at a different site and was subsequently managed by post-embolization endoscopic resection. A complete report of its clinico-radiological features and management outcome is discussed.

  8. On a true value of risk

    Kozin, Igor

    2018-01-01

    The paper suggests looking on probabilistic risk quantities and concepts through the prism of accepting one of the views: whether a true value of risk exists or not. It is argued that discussions until now have been primarily focused on closely related topics that are different from the topic...... intervals, the use of Byes rule, models of complete ignorance, hierarchical models of uncertainty, assignment of probabilities over possibility space and interpretation of derived probabilistic measures. Behavioural implications of favouring the either view are also briefly described....

  9. Automated fuel fabrication- a vision comes true

    Hemantha Rao, G.V.S.; Prakash, M.S.; Setty, C.R.P.; Gupta, U.C.

    1997-01-01

    When New Uranium Fuel Assembly Project at Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC) begins production, its operator will have equipment provided with intramachine handling systems working automatically by pressing a single button. Additionally simple low cost inter machine handling systems will further help in critical areas. All these inter and intra machine handling systems will result in improved reliability, productivity and quality. The fault diagnostics, mimics and real time data acquisition systems make the plant more operator friendly. The paper deals with the experience starting from layout, selection of product carriers, different handling systems, the latest technology and the integration of which made the vision on automation in fuel fabrication come true. (author)

  10. Islamic Beliefs and Practices.

    Sefein, Naim A.

    1981-01-01

    To help social studies classroom teachers present a realistic picture of the Middle Eastern religion of Islam, this article presents an overview of major beliefs and religious practices of Moslems. Information is presented on religious fundamentals, Islam's relationship to Judaism and Christianity, the development of Islam, the role of women, and…

  11. True HIV seroprevalence in Indian blood donors.

    Choudhury, N; Ayagiri, A; Ray, V L

    2000-03-01

    The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO), the apex body for controlling AIDS in India, projected that HIV seroprevalence would increase from 7/1000 in 1995 to 21.2/1000 in 1997. A high incidence (8.2%) of HIV was observed in blood donors. This study was carried out to find out the true HIV positivity in Indian blood donors. Blood donors from our centre were followed for more than 5 years to determine the true HIV seroprevalence and our result was compared with similar studies from India. Voluntary and relative blood donors who visited the SGPGIMS, Lucknow, since 1993 to June 1998 were included. They were screened for HIV 1/2 by ELISA kits (WHO approved). First-time HIV-positive samples were preserved frozen for further study (stage-I). They were repeated in duplicate and retested with other kits. If found positive, the sample was labelled as ELISA positive (stage-II). ELISA-positive samples were confirmed by Western Blot (WB) at stage-III. A total of 65 288 donors were included and 834 (12.8/1000) were reactive at stage-I. But 1.1/1000 donors were found to be ELISA positive at stage-II, and 0.28/1000 donors were positive by WB at stage-III. The 'seropositivity' rate from the NACO was significantly (P commercial blood banks. The HIV prevalence of blood donors (and national prevalence) is to be reassessed.

  12. Benign cementoblastoma (true cementoma in a cat

    Lenin A Villamizar-Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 10-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was presented for assessment of a gingival mass surrounding the left maxillary third and fourth premolar teeth. The mass was surgically removed by means of a marginal rim excision, and the tissue was submitted for histological assessment. It was identified as a benign cementoblastoma (true cementoma. There was proliferation of mineralized eosinophilic material with multiple irregularly placed lacunae and reversal lines, reminiscent of cementum. The cat recovered uneventfully from the anesthesia, and there was no evidence of tumor recurrence 6 months after surgery. Relevance and novel information Cementoblastomas (true cementomas in domestic animals are rare, with just a few reports in ruminants, monogastric herbivores and rodents. Cementoblastoma is considered a benign tumor that arises from the tooth root. The slow, expansive and constant growth that characterizes these masses may be accompanied by signs of oral discomfort and dysphagia. This case report is intended to increase knowledge regarding this tumor in cats and also highlights the importance of complete excision of the neoplasm. To our knowledge, there are no previous reports in the literature of cementoblastoma in the cat.

  13. TRUE Block Scale Continuation Project. Final Report

    Andersson, Peter; Byegaard, Johan [Geosigma AB (Sweden); Billaux, Daniel [Itasca Consultants SA (France); Cvetkovic, Vladimir [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Dershowitz, William; Doe, Thomas [Golder Associates Inc. (United States); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates AB (Sweden); Poteri, Antti [VTT (Finland); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB (Sweden); Winberg, Anders [Conterra AB (SE)] (ed.)

    2007-03-15

    The TRUE Block Scale project was carried out during 1996-2002. This project focused on site characterisation and building of hydrostructural and microstructural models, sorbing tracer experiments in single structures and networks of structures over distances ranging between 1 and 100 m and also involved a unified application of various model approaches for modelling the in situ experiments. In 2002, ANDRA, Posiva, JNC and SKB decided to pursue some remaining issues in the so-called TRUE Block Scale Continuation project (TRUE BS2). The specific objectives of BS2 can be summarised as: 'Improve understanding of transport pathways at the block scale, including assessment of effects of geology and geometry, macrostructure and microstructure'. In order to cater to addressing the stated objective a series of hypotheses were formulated which explored the importance of geological information for predicting transport and retention and the possible differences between transport and retention between transport paths dominated by faults and those dominated by non-fault fractures (background fractures). In the process, prospects for carrying out experiments in fracture networks over longer distances (c 20-100 m) were explored. It was identified that experiments with sorbing tracers over these distances were prohibitive because of the time frames involved and the projected low mass recoveries. Instead the experimental locus was shifted to a geological structure previously not investigated by tracer tests in the TRUE Block Scale experiments. The lower immobile zone retention material properties assigned to background fractures compared to those assigned to the fault-type Structure 19 have been verified by means of back-calculations. The evaluated Type 1 flow path (Structure 19, Flow path I) retention material properties, as expressed by {kappa} parameter, are one order of magnitude higher than for the background fracture flow path. This finding is consistent with the

  14. Don’t Always Prefer My Chosen Objects: Low Level of Trait Autonomy and Autonomy Deprivation Decreases Mere Choice Effect

    Shang, Zhe; Tao, Tuoxin; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Choice effect is a robust phenomenon in which even “mere choice” that does not include actual choosing actions could result in more preference for the self-chosen objects over other-chosen objects. In the current research, we proposed that autonomy would impact the mere choice effect. We conducted two studies to examine the hypothesis. The results showed that the mere choice effect measured by Implicit Association Test (IAT) significantly decreased for participants with lower levels of trait autonomy (Study 1) and when participants were primed to experience autonomy deprivation (Study 2). The theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:27148132

  15. Teacher Beliefs and Technology Integration

    Kim, ChanMin; Kim, Min Kyu; Lee, Chiajung; Spector, J. Michael; DeMeester, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory mixed methods study was to investigate how teacher beliefs were related to technology integration practices. We were interested in how and to what extent teachers' (a) beliefs about the nature of knowledge and learning, (b) beliefs about effective ways of teaching, and (c) technology integration practices were…

  16. Underestimating belief in climate change

    Jost, John T.

    2018-03-01

    People are influenced by second-order beliefsbeliefs about the beliefs of others. New research finds that citizens in the US and China systematically underestimate popular support for taking action to curb climate change. Fortunately, they seem willing and able to correct their misperceptions.

  17. Core Intuitions About Persons Coexist and Interfere With Acquired Christian Beliefs About God.

    Barlev, Michael; Mermelstein, Spencer; German, Tamsin C

    2017-04-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that in the minds of adult religious adherents, acquired beliefs about the extraordinary characteristics of God coexist with, rather than replace, an initial representation of God formed by co-option of the evolved person concept. In three experiments, Christian religious adherents were asked to evaluate a series of statements for which core intuitions about persons and acquired Christian beliefs about God were consistent (i.e., true according to both [e.g., "God has beliefs that are true"] or false according to both [e.g., "All beliefs God has are false"]) or inconsistent (i.e., true on intuition but false theologically [e.g., "God has beliefs that are false"] or false on intuition but true theologically [e.g., "All beliefs God has are true"]). Participants were less accurate and slower to respond to inconsistent versus consistent statements, suggesting that the core intuitions both coexisted alongside and interfered with the acquired beliefs (Experiments 1 and 2). In Experiment 2 when responding under time pressure participants were disproportionately more likely to make errors on inconsistent versus consistent statements than when responding with no time pressure, suggesting that the resolution of interference requires cognitive resources the functioning of which decreases under cognitive load. In Experiment 3 a plausible alternative interpretation of these findings was ruled out by demonstrating that the response accuracy and time differences on consistent versus inconsistent statements occur for God-a supernatural religious entity-but not for a natural religious entity (a priest). Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. Listen, learn, like! Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex involved in the mere exposure effect in music

    Green, Anders Christian; Bærentsen, Klaus B.; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    , participants rated liking for each melody and, later, their recognition of them. Participants showed learning effects, better recognising melodies heard more often. Melodies heard most often were most liked, consistent with the mere exposure effect. We found neural activations as a function of previous...... exposure in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex, probably reflecting retrieval and working memory-related processes. This was despite the fact that the task during scanning was to judge liking, not recognition, thus suggesting that appreciation of music relies strongly on memory...

  19. The Effect of Telling Lies on Belief in the Truth

    Danielle Polage

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study looks at the effect of telling lies, in contrast to simply planning lies, on participants’ belief in the truth. Participants planned and told a lie, planned to tell a lie but didn’t tell it, told an unplanned lie, or neither planned nor told a lie (control about events that did not actually happen to them. Participants attempted to convince researchers that all of the stories told were true. Results show that telling a lie plays a more important role in inflating belief scores than simply preparing the script of a lie. Cognitive dissonance may lead to motivated forgetting of information that does not align with the lie. This research suggests that telling lies may lead to confusion as to the veracity of the lie leading to inflated belief scores.

  20. True Nature of Supply Network Communication Structure

    Lokhman Hakim bin Osman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of world economy has altered the definition of organizational structure. Global supply chain can no longer be viewed as an arm-length structure. It has become more complex. The complexity demands deeper research and understanding. This research analyzed a structure of supply network in an attempt to elucidate the true structure of the supply network. Using the quantitative Social Network Analysis methodology, findings of this study indicated that, the structure of the supply network differs depending on the types of network relations. An important implication of these findings would be a more focus resource management upon network relationship development that is based on firms’ positions in the different network structure. This research also contributes to the various strategies of effective and efficient supply chain management.

  1. Hadronic vacuum polarization in true muonium

    Lamm, Henry

    2017-01-01

    In order to reduce the theoretical uncertainty in the prediction, the leading-order hadronic vacuum polarization contribution to the hyperfine splitting of true muonium is reevaluated in two ways. A more complex pionic form factor and better estimates of the perturbative QCD contributions are used to study the model dependence of the previous calculation. The second, more accurate method directly integrates the Drell ratio R (s ) to obtain C1 ,HVP=-0.04874 (9 ) . This corresponds to an energy shift in the hyperfine splitting (HFS) of Δ EHFS,HVP μ=-8202 (16 ) MHz and represents a factor-of-50 reduction in the theoretical uncertainty from hadronic sources. We also compute the contribution in positronium, which is too small at present to detect.

  2. True Visions The Emergence of Ambient Intelligence

    Aarts, Emile

    2006-01-01

    Ambient intelligence (AI) refers to a developing technology that will increasingly make our everyday environment sensitive and responsive to our presence. The AI vision requires technology invisibly embedded in our everyday surroundings, present whenever we need it that will lead to the seamless integration of lighting, sounds, vision, domestic appliances, and personal healthcare products to enhance our living experience. Written for the non-specialist seeking an authoritative but accessible overview of this interdisciplinary field, True Visions explains how the devices making up the AI world will operate collectively using information and intelligence hidden in the wireless network connecting them. Expert contributions address key AI components such as smart materials and textiles, system architecture, mobile computing, broadband communication, and underlying issues of human-environment interactions. It seeks to unify the perspectives of scientists from diverse backgrounds ranging from the physics of materia...

  3. True or False Customer Engagement Behaviour

    Haurum, Helle; Beckmann, Suzanne C.

    2014-01-01

    Customers’ engagement behaviours are considered an important source of value to the company. So far, the discussion has mainly been conceptual and focused on the company’s perspective. By adopting the customer’s perspective we investigated how customers perceive their service relationship...... encounters with a company, using in-depth interviews. We found the following key factors driving and explaining customers’ engagement behaviours: (1) transactions matter and inconsistent engagement behaviours are a reality, (2) mundane products and services are still highly relevant for customers, and (3......) different degrees of customer experience alignment with services and products exist. Moreover, the distinction between true and false engagement behaviours we suggest indeed is relevant and we could establish their mediating capabilities....

  4. Implicit Structured Sequence Learning: An FMRI Study of the Structural Mere-Exposure Effect

    Vasiliki eFolia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this event-related FMRI study we investigated the effect of five days of implicit acquisition on preference classification by means of an artificial grammar learning (AGL paradigm based on the structural mere-exposure effect and preference classification using a simple right-linear unification grammar. This allowed us to investigate implicit AGL in a proper learning design by including baseline measurements prior to grammar exposure. After 5 days of implicit acquisition, the FMRI results showed activations in a network of brain regions including the inferior frontal (centered on BA 44/45 and the medial prefrontal regions (centered on BA 8/32. Importantly, and central to this study, the inclusion of a naive preference FMRI baseline measurement allowed us to conclude that these FMRI findings were the intrinsic outcomes of the learning process itself and not a reflection of a preexisting functionality recruited during classification, independent of acquisition. Support for the implicit nature of the knowledge utilized during preference classification on day 5 come from the fact that the basal ganglia, associated with implicit procedural learning, were activated during classification, while the medial temporal lobe system, associated with explicit declarative memory, was consistently deactivated. Thus, preference classification in combination with structural mere-exposure can be used to investigate structural sequence processing (syntax in unsupervised AGL paradigms with proper learning designs.

  5. Easier Seen Than Done: Merely Watching Others Perform Can Foster an Illusion of Skill Acquisition.

    Kardas, Michael; O'Brien, Ed

    2018-04-01

    Modern technologies such as YouTube afford unprecedented access to the skilled performances of other people. Six experiments ( N = 2,225) reveal that repeatedly watching others can foster an illusion of skill acquisition. The more people merely watch others perform (without actually practicing themselves), the more they nonetheless believe they could perform the skill, too (Experiment 1). However, people's actual abilities-from throwing darts and doing the moonwalk to playing an online game-do not improve after merely watching others, despite predictions to the contrary (Experiments 2-4). What do viewers see that makes them think they are learning? We found that extensive viewing allows people to track what steps to take (Experiment 5) but not how those steps feel when taking them. Accordingly, experiencing a "taste" of performing attenuates the illusion: Watching others juggle but then holding the pins oneself tempers perceived change in one's own ability (Experiment 6). These findings highlight unforeseen problems for self-assessment when watching other people.

  6. Implicit structured sequence learning: an fMRI study of the structural mere-exposure effect.

    Folia, Vasiliki; Petersson, Karl Magnus

    2014-01-01

    In this event-related fMRI study we investigated the effect of 5 days of implicit acquisition on preference classification by means of an artificial grammar learning (AGL) paradigm based on the structural mere-exposure effect and preference classification using a simple right-linear unification grammar. This allowed us to investigate implicit AGL in a proper learning design by including baseline measurements prior to grammar exposure. After 5 days of implicit acquisition, the fMRI results showed activations in a network of brain regions including the inferior frontal (centered on BA 44/45) and the medial prefrontal regions (centered on BA 8/32). Importantly, and central to this study, the inclusion of a naive preference fMRI baseline measurement allowed us to conclude that these fMRI findings were the intrinsic outcomes of the learning process itself and not a reflection of a preexisting functionality recruited during classification, independent of acquisition. Support for the implicit nature of the knowledge utilized during preference classification on day 5 come from the fact that the basal ganglia, associated with implicit procedural learning, were activated during classification, while the medial temporal lobe system, associated with explicit declarative memory, was consistently deactivated. Thus, preference classification in combination with structural mere-exposure can be used to investigate structural sequence processing (syntax) in unsupervised AGL paradigms with proper learning designs.

  7. The relationship between the structural mere exposure effect and the implicit learning process.

    Newell, B R; Bright, J E

    2001-11-01

    Three experiments are reported that investigate the relationship between the structural mere exposure effect (SMEE) and implicit learning in an artificial grammar task. Subjects were presented with stimuli generated from a finite-state grammar and were asked to memorize them. In a subsequent test phase subjects were required first to rate how much they liked novel items, and second whether or not they thought items conformed to the rules of the grammar. A small but consistent effect of grammaticality was found on subjects' liking ratings (a "structural mere exposure effect") in all three experiments, but only when encoding and testing conditions were consistent. A change in the surface representation of stimuli between encoding and test (Experiment 1), memorizing fragments of items and being tested on whole items (Experiment 2), and a mismatch of processing operations between encoding and test (Experiment 3) all removed the SMEE. In contrast, the effect of grammaticality on rule judgements remained intact in the face of all three manipulations. It is suggested that rule judgements reflect attempts to explicitly recall information about training items, whereas the SMEE can be explained in terms of an attribution of processing fluency.

  8. [Effects of mere exposure on category evaluation measured by the IAT and the GNAT].

    Kawakami, Naoaki; Sato, Hirotsune; Yoshida, Fujio

    2010-12-01

    Based on mere exposure studies, we proposed that repeated exposure to stimuli belonging to a common category leads to a positive evaluation of that category. Furthermore, to investigate the implicit effects of mere exposure, indirect measures were used. In a series of experiments, participants were repeatedly exposed to mimetic words written in Japanese hiragana or katakana, or nothing (control). Then their evaluations of the category ("hiragana" or "katakana") were measured using indirect and direct measures. In Experiment 1 (Implicit Association Test; IAT), we adopted a traditional design using an exposure paradigm, such that the rating stimuli were identical to the exposed stimuli. Significant effects were observed for both measures. In Experiment 2 (IAT) and Experiment 3 (Go/No-go Association Task; GNAT), we used non-exposed stimuli that belonged to a common category as the rating stimuli. Significant effects were observed only for indirect measures. These results indicate that repeated exposure has unconscious positive effects on category evaluation. Theoretical and methodological implications of the findings are discussed.

  9. Information and Heterogeneous Beliefs

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Qin, Zhenjiang

    2014-01-01

    In an incomplete market with heterogeneous prior beliefs, we show public information can have a substantial impact on the ex ante cost of capital, trading volume, and investor welfare. The Pareto effcient public information system is the system enjoying the maximum ex ante cost of capital...... and the maximum expected abnormal trading volume. Imperfect public information increases the gains-to-trade based on heterogeneously updated posterior beliefs. In an exchange economy, this leads to higher growth in the investors' certainty equivalents and, thus, a higher equilibrium interest rate, whereas the ex...... ante risk premium is unaffected by the informativeness of the public information system. Similar results are obtained in a production economy, but the impact on the ex ante cost of capital is dampened compared to the exchange economy due to welfare improving reductions in real investments to smooth...

  10. Mixmaster: fact and belief

    Heinzle, J Mark; Uggla, Claes

    2009-01-01

    We consider the dynamics towards the initial singularity of Bianchi type IX vacuum and orthogonal perfect fluid models with a linear equation of state. Surprisingly few facts are known about the 'Mixmaster' dynamics of these models, while at the same time most of the commonly held beliefs are rather vague. In this paper, we use Mixmaster facts as a base to build an infrastructure that makes it possible to sharpen the main Mixmaster beliefs. We formulate explicit conjectures concerning (i) the past asymptotic states of type IX solutions and (ii) the relevance of the Mixmaster/Kasner map for generic past asymptotic dynamics. The evidence for the conjectures is based on a study of the stochastic properties of this map in conjunction with dynamical systems techniques. We use a dynamical systems formulation, since this approach has so far been the only successful path to obtain theorems, but we also make comparisons with the 'metric' and Hamiltonian 'billiard' approaches.

  11. Eesti kaubandusliku meresõidu koodeksi vahekord rahvusvaheliste kaubavedusid reguleerivate konventsioonidega : [bakalaureusetöö] / Kaia Vask ; Akadeemia Nord, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Igor Gräzin

    Vask, Kaia

    2001-01-01

    Rahvusvaheliste merekaubavedude regulatsioon, mereõigus kui eraldiseisev õigussüsteem, rahvusvahelised konventsioonid (Haagi, Haagi-Visby konventsioonid, Hamburgi reeglid), Eesti kaubanduslikust meresõidukoodeksist, vastutus, vaidluste lahendamine

  12. Ontological confusions but not mentalizing abilities predict religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in supernatural purpose.

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M; Lipsanen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    The current research tested the hypothesis that the abilities for understanding other people's minds give rise to the cognitive biases that underlie supernatural beliefs. We used structural equation modeling (N=2789) to determine the roles of various mentalizing tendencies, namely self-reported affective and cognitive empathy (i.e., mind reading), actual cognitive and affective empathic abilities, hyper-empathizing, and two cognitive biases (core ontological confusions and promiscuous teleology) in giving rise to supernatural beliefs. Support for a path from mentalizing abilities through cognitive biases to supernatural beliefs was weak. The relationships of mentalizing abilities with supernatural beliefs were also weak, and these relationships were not substantially mediated by cognitive biases. Core ontological confusions emerged as the best predictor, while promiscuous teleology predicted only a small proportion of variance. The results were similar for religious beliefs, paranormal beliefs, and for belief in supernatural purpose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. What attitudes and beliefs underlie patients' decisions about participating in chemotherapy trials?

    Sutherland, H J; da Cunha, R; Lockwood, G A; Till, J E

    1998-01-01

    The theory of reasoned action, which postulates that personal attitudes and external social influences predict intentions to undertake a behavior, was used as a conceptual framework for developing a questionnaire to elicit beliefs and attitudes associated with the decision to participate in a hypothetical cancer chemotherapy trial. After completing the questionnaire, two-thirds of the 150 respondents indicated they would enroll in such a trial if it were available. Considerable variation existed in both "universal" and "trial-specific" beliefs and attitudes underpinning their intentions. A substantial amount of the variance in "intention" to participate was explained by "attitude" alone (75%). Social influences, although statistically significant, made a mere 1% additional contribution. One interpretation is that subjective expected-utility theory, which essentially predicts beliefs or "attitude," is a better model. The authors conclude that both theories may be criticized regarding how well they capture the rationality and nuances of decision behavior.

  14. The True Gravitational Degrees Of Freedom

    Murchadha, N. o

    2011-01-01

    More than 50 years ago it was realized that General Relativity could be expressed in Hamiltonian form. Unfortunately, just like electromagnetism and Yang-Mills theory, the Einstein equations split into evolution equations and constraints which complicates matters. The 4 constraints are expressions of the gauge freedom of the theory, general covariance. One can cleanly pose initial data for the gravitational field, but this data has to satisfy the constraints. To find the independent degrees of freedom, one needs to factor the initial data by the constraints. There are many ways of doing this. I can do so in such a way as to implement the model suggested by Poincare for a well-posed dynamical system: Pick a configuration space and give the free initial data as a point of the configuration space and a tangent vector at the same point. Now, the evolution equations should give a unique curve in the same configuration space. This gives a natural definition of what I call the true gravitational degrees of freedom. (author)

  15. True pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysms: A decision analysis

    Takao, Hidemasa; Nojo, Takeshi; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: True pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysms are rare. No definitive study evaluating the natural history of these lesions or their preferred method of treatment has been published. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of preventive treatment of unruptured pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysms using a Markov model. Materials and methods: With the use of a Markov model, we performed a decision analysis to evaluate the outcome of preventive treatment of unruptured pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysms. The risk of rupture and the mortality of preventive treatment are unknown. Therefore, we performed sensitivity analysis using these parameters. Effectiveness was measured in life expectancy. Results: For 80-year-old patients, preventive treatment was dominated by no treatment if mortality rates of preventive treatment were greater than 1.4%, greater than 2.6%, greater than 3.8%, and greater than 4.8% at annual rupture rates of 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%, respectively. For 50-year-old patients, preventive treatment was dominated by no treatment if mortality rates of preventive treatment were greater than 3.3%, greater than 5.9%, greater than 8.0%, and greater than 9.7% at annual rupture rates of 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%, respectively. Conclusion: The effectiveness of preventive treatment of unruptured pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysms depends on the aneurysm rupture rate, mortality rate of preventive treatment, and patient age. Taking into account the effects of these parameters is important in making treatment decisions.

  16. True polar wander on convecting planets

    Rose, Ian Robert

    Rotating planets are most stable when spinning around their maximum moment of inertia, and will tend to reorient themselves to achieve this configuration. Geological activity redistributes mass in the planet, making the moment of inertia a function of time. As the moment of inertia of the planet changes, the spin axis shifts with respect to a mantle reference frame in order to maintain rotational stability. This process is known as true polar wander (TPW). Of the processes that contribute to a planet's moment of inertia, convection in the mantle generates the largest and longest-period fluctuations, with corresponding shifts in the spin axis. True polar wander has been hypothesized to explain several physiographic features on planets and moons in our solar system. On Earth, TPW events have been invoked in some interpretations of paleomagnetic data. Large swings in the spin axis could have enormous ramifications for paleogeography, paleoclimate, and the history of life. Although the existence of TPW is well-verified, it is not known whether its rate and magnitude have been large enough for it to be an important process in Earth history. If true polar wander has been sluggish compared to plate tectonic speeds, then it would be difficult to detect and its consequences would be minor. I investigate rates of true polar wander on convecting planets using scaling, numerics, and inverse problems. I perform a scaling analysis of TPW on a convecting planet, identifying a minimal set of nondimensional parameters which describe the problem. The primary nondimensional numbers that control the rate of TPW are the ratio of centrifugal to gravitational forces m and the Rayleigh number Ra. The parameter m sets the size of a planet's rotational bulge, which determines the amount of work that needs to be done to move the spin axis. The Rayleigh number controls the size, distribution, and rate of change of moment of inertia anomalies, all of which affect the rate of TPW. I find that

  17. Free love? On the relation between belief in free will, determinism, and passionate love.

    Boudesseul, Jordane; Lantian, Anthony; Cova, Florian; Bègue, Laurent

    2016-11-01

    Is love possible if we are not free? Some philosophers consider that true love is necessarily free, while others think that the nature of love makes it incompatible with a certain type of freedom. Here, we explored the relationship between feelings of passionate love, belief in free will and determinism across three online studies. In Study 1 (N=257), participants who believed strongly in free will (or determinism) expressed stronger passionate love. In Study 2 (N=305), we again found a positive association between belief in free will (or determinism) and passionate love, although the passionate love-determinism relationship seems more conditional. Finally, Study 3 (N=309) confirmed the relationship between belief in free will and passionate love but not between belief in determinism and passionate love. These findings, along with a meta-analysis, suggest that both beliefs in free will and determinism are compatible with passionate love. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Meresõiduohutus, kontroll ja järelevalve : [bakalaureusetöö] / Margit Markus ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Tanel Kerikmäe

    Markus, Margit

    1999-01-01

    Meresõiduohutus - mõisted ja määratlused, rahvusvahelised meresõiduohutust reguleerivad aktid (konventsioonid, SOLAS, MARPOL, LL, COLREG), meresõiduohutuse alane kontroll ja järelevalve, laevade klassifitseerimine ja klassifikatsiooniühingud, vastutus

  19. Undermining belief in false memories leads to less efficient problem-solving behaviour.

    Wang, Jianqin; Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L; Smeets, Tom; Merckelbach, Harald; Nahouli, Zacharia

    2017-08-01

    Memories of events for which the belief in the occurrence of those events is undermined, but recollection is retained, are called nonbelieved memories (NBMs). The present experiments examined the effects of NBMs on subsequent problem-solving behaviour. In Experiment 1, we challenged participants' beliefs in their memories and examined whether NBMs affected subsequent solution rates on insight-based problems. True and false memories were elicited using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Then participants' belief in true and false memories was challenged by telling them the item had not been presented. We found that when the challenge led to undermining belief in false memories, fewer problems were solved than when belief was not challenged. In Experiment 2, a similar procedure was used except that some participants solved the problems one week rather than immediately after the feedback. Again, our results showed that undermining belief in false memories resulted in lower problem solution rates. These findings suggest that for false memories, belief is an important agent in whether memories serve as effective primes for immediate and delayed problem-solving.

  20. Agents' beliefs and economic regimes polarization in interacting markets

    Cavalli, F.; Naimzada, A. K.; Pecora, N.; Pireddu, M.

    2018-05-01

    In the present paper, a model of a market consisting of real and financial interacting sectors is studied. Agents populating the stock market are assumed to be not able to observe the true underlying fundamental, and their beliefs are biased by either optimism or pessimism. Depending on the relevance they give to beliefs, they select the best performing strategy in an evolutionary perspective. The real side of the economy is described within a multiplier-accelerator framework with a nonlinear, bounded investment function. We study the effect of market integration, in particular, of the financialization of the real market. We show that strongly polarized beliefs in an evolutionary framework can introduce multiplicity of steady states, which, consisting in enhanced or depressed levels of income, reflect and reproduce the optimistic or pessimistic nature of the agents' beliefs. The polarization of these steady states, which coexist with an unbiased steady state, positively depends on that of the beliefs and on their relevance. Moreover, with a mixture of analytical and numerical tools, we show that such static characterization is inherited also at the dynamical level, with possibly complex attractors that are characterized by endogenously fluctuating pessimistic and optimistic prices and levels of national income, with the effect of having several coexisting business cycles. This framework, when stochastic perturbations are included, is able to account for stylized facts commonly observed in real financial markets, such as fat tails and excess volatility in the returns distributions, as well as bubbles and crashes for stock prices.

  1. Weighing the Evidence of Common Beliefs in Obesity Research.

    Casazza, Krista; Brown, Andrew; Astrup, Arne; Bertz, Fredrik; Baum, Charles; Brown, Michelle Bohan; Dawson, John; Durant, Nefertiti; Dutton, Gareth; Fields, David A; Fontaine, Kevin R; Heymsfield, Steven; Levitsky, David; Mehta, Tapan; Menachemi, Nir; Newby, P K; Pate, Russell; Raynor, Hollie; Rolls, Barbara J; Sen, Bisakha; Smith, Daniel L; Thomas, Diana; Wansink, Brian; Allison, David B

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a topic on which many views are strongly held in the absence of scientific evidence to support those views, and some views are strongly held despite evidence to contradict those views. We refer to the former as "presumptions" and the latter as "myths." Here, we present nine myths and 10 presumptions surrounding the effects of rapid weight loss; setting realistic goals in weight loss therapy; stage of change or readiness to lose weight; physical education classes; breastfeeding; daily self-weighing; genetic contribution to obesity; the "Freshman 15"; food deserts; regularly eating (versus skipping) breakfast; eating close to bedtime; eating more fruits and vegetables; weight cycling (i.e., yo-yo dieting); snacking; built environment; reducing screen time in childhood obesity; portion size; participation in family mealtime; and drinking water as a means of weight loss. For each of these, we describe the belief and present evidence that the belief is widely held or stated, reasons to support the conjecture that the belief might be true, evidence to directly support or refute the belief, and findings from randomized controlled trials, if available. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these determinations, conjecture on why so many myths and presumptions exist, and suggestions for limiting the spread of these and other unsubstantiated beliefs about the obesity domain.

  2. Acquirement of true stress-strain curve using true fracture strain obtained by tensile test and FE analysis

    Lee, Kyoung Yoon; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Hyung Yil

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we predict a true fracture strain using load-displacement curves from tensile test and Finite Element Analysis (FEA), and suggest a method for acquiring true Stress-Strain (SS) curves by predicted fracture strain. We first derived the true SS curve up to necking point from load-displacement curve. As the beginning, the posterior necking part of true SS curve is linearly extrapolated with the slope at necking point. The whole SS curve is then adopted for FE simulation of tensile test. The Bridgman factor or suitable plate correction factors are applied to pre and post FEA. In the load-true strain curve from FEA, the true fracture strain is determined as the matching point to test fracture load. The determined true strain is validated by comparing with test fracture strain. Finally, we complete the true SS curve by combining the prior necking part and linear part, the latter of which connects necking and predicted fracture points.

  3. Acquirement of true stress-strain curve using true fracture strain obtained by tensile test and FE analysis

    Lee, Kyoung Yoon; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Hyung Yil [Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    In this work, we predict a true fracture strain using load-displacement curves from tensile test and Finite Element Analysis (FEA), and suggest a method for acquiring true Stress-Strain (SS) curves by predicted fracture strain. We first derived the true SS curve up to necking point from load-displacement curve. As the beginning, the posterior necking part of true SS curve is linearly extrapolated with the slope at necking point. The whole SS curve is then adopted for FE simulation of tensile test. The Bridgman factor or suitable plate correction factors are applied to pre and post FEA. In the load-true strain curve from FEA, the true fracture strain is determined as the matching point to test fracture load. The determined true strain is validated by comparing with test fracture strain. Finally, we complete the true SS curve by combining the prior necking part and linear part, the latter of which connects necking and predicted fracture points.

  4. Acquirement of True Stress-strain Curve Using True Fracture Strain Obtained by Tensile Test and FE Analysis

    Lee, Kyoung Yoon; Lee, Hyung Yil [Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hyung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    In this work, we predict a true fracture strain using load-displacement curves from tensile test and finite element analysis (FEA), and suggest a method for acquiring true stress-strain (SS) curves by predicted fracture strain. We first derived the true SS curve up to necking point from load-displacement curve. As the beginning, the posterior necking part of true SS curve is linearly extrapolated with the slope at necking point. The whole SS curve is then adopted for FE simulation of tensile test. The Bridgman factor or suitable plate correction factors are applied to pre and post FEA. In the load-true strain curve from FEA, the true fracture strain is determined as the matching point to test fracture load. The determined true strain is validated by comparing with test fracture strain. Finally, we complete the true SS curve by combining the prior necking part and linear part, the latter of which connects necking and predicted fracture points.

  5. Turning art into mere illustration: concretizing art renders its influence context dependent.

    Hagtvedt, Henrik; Patrick, Vanessa M

    2011-12-01

    Broadly speaking, artworks are accorded a special significance and are recognized as powerful communication tools. In the current research, the authors posit that the "specialness" of artworks may be diminished simply by emphasizing that which is depicted in them. This emphasis results in the artwork being viewed as a mere illustration rather than a work of art. Specifically, the influence of an "artwork as art" is context independent, but the influence of an "artwork as illustration" is context dependent. The authors demonstrate this phenomenon in two experiments, in the context of products associated with artworks. In a third experiment, they further demonstrate that an abstract (concrete) mind-set aligns with the influence of an artwork as art (illustration).

  6. REFLEXIONS ON MBYA-GUARANI SCHOOLING: MERE ENVIRONMENTAL BEING AND KNOWLEDGE OF THE TECHNIQUE

    Rosemary Modernel Madeira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the relationship between the Mbyá Guarani and the School and about how they are getting closer to citizen life, including perspectives of job, monetary gain and consumption of the object. Substantiated on Rodolfo Kusch and Martin Heidegger, the article looks for a vision of the human in his antagonistic facets: the one who believes in destiny and surrenders to the ambiental ¨mere being¨, and the one who pursuits ¨being someone¨ on the effort of the citizen ethics, proclaimed by the School. Through the analysis of the texts and speeches from teachers and leaders, the article develops trying to understand how the Mbyá take the citizen tecnique, represented in the School, to (reinvent their own tecnique and (retake their own culture

  7. The mere exposure effect and recognition depend on the way you look!

    Willems, Sylvie; Dedonder, Jonathan; Van der Linden, Martial

    2010-01-01

    In line with Whittlesea and Price (2001), we investigated whether the memory effect measured with an implicit memory paradigm (mere exposure effect) and an explicit recognition task depended on perceptual processing strategies, regardless of whether the task required intentional retrieval. We found that manipulation intended to prompt functional implicit-explicit dissociation no longer had a differential effect when we induced similar perceptual strategies in both tasks. Indeed, the results showed that prompting a nonanalytic strategy ensured performance above chance on both tasks. Conversely, inducing an analytic strategy drastically decreased both explicit and implicit performance. Furthermore, we noted that the nonanalytic strategy involved less extensive gaze scanning than the analytic strategy and that memory effects under this processing strategy were largely independent of gaze movement.

  8. When mere exposure leads to less liking: the incremental threat effect in intergroup contexts.

    Crisp, Richard J; Hutter, Russell R C; Young, Bryony

    2009-02-01

    In two experiments we tested the hypothesis that repeated exposure to out-group-relevant attitude objects would lead to less liking following a threat to identity. In Experiment 1 exposure to abstract artwork ostensibly created by a member of an out-group university led to more liking under baseline conditions, but not following a manipulation of threat. In Experiment 2 we observed a negative relationship between exposure and liking following threat: liking reversed the typical mere exposure effect. Reported emotion mediated the interactive effect of threat and exposure on liking. These findings illustrate how social identity threat can be experienced incrementally as a function of exposure. We discuss the findings in the context of an integration of research on exposure, identity, attitudes, and contact.

  9. The mere exposure effect is modulated by selective attention but not visual awareness.

    Huang, Yu-Feng; Hsieh, Po-Jang

    2013-10-18

    Repeated exposures to an object will lead to an enhancement of evaluation toward that object. Although this mere exposure effect may occur when the objects are presented subliminally, the role of conscious perception per se on evaluation has never been examined. Here we use a binocular rivalry paradigm to investigate whether a variance in conscious perceptual duration of faces has an effect on their subsequent evaluation, and how selective attention and memory interact with this effect. Our results show that face evaluation is positively biased by selective attention but not affected by visual awareness. Furthermore, this effect is not due to participants recalling which face had been attended to. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 'TrueCoinc' software utility for calculation of the true coincidence correction

    Sudar, S.

    2002-01-01

    The true coincidence correction plays an important role in the overall accuracy of the γ ray spectrometry especially in the case of present-day high volume detectors. The calculation of true coincidence corrections needs detailed nuclear structure information. Recently these data are available in computerized form from the Nuclear Data Centers through the Internet or on a CD-ROM of the Table of Isotopes. The aim has been to develop software for this calculation, using available databases for the levels data. The user has to supply only the parameters of the detector to be used. The new computer program runs under the Windows 95/98 operating system. In the framework of the project a new formula was prepared for calculating the summing out correction and calculation of the intensity of alias lines (sum peaks). The file converter for reading the ENDSF-2 type files was completed. Reading and converting the original ENDSF was added to the program. A computer accessible database of the X rays energies and intensities was created. The X ray emissions were taken in account in the 'summing out' calculation. Calculation of the true coincidence 'summing in' correction was done. The output was arranged to show independently two types of corrections and to calculate the final correction as multiplication of the two. A minimal intensity threshold can be set to show the final list only for the strongest lines. The calculation takes into account all the transitions, independently of the threshold. The program calculates the intensity of X rays (K, L lines). The true coincidence corrections for X rays were calculated. The intensities of the alias γ lines were calculated. (author)

  11. True resolution enhancement for optical spectroscopy

    Cooper, Justin T.; Oleske, Jeffrey B.

    2018-02-01

    Resolving spectrally adjacent peaks is important for techniques, such as tracking small shifts in Raman or fluorescence spectra, quantifying pharmaceutical polymorph ratios, or molecular orientation studies. Thus, suitable spectral resolution is a vital consideration when designing most spectroscopic systems. Most parameters that influence spectral resolution are fixed for a given system (spectrometer length, grating groove density, excitation source, CCD pixel size, etc.). Inflexible systems are non-problematic if the spectrometer is dedicated for a single purpose; however, these specifications cannot be optimized for different applications with wider range resolution requirements. Data processing techniques, including peak fitting, partial least squares, or principal component analysis, are typically used to achieve sub-optical resolution information. These techniques can be plagued by spectral artifacts introduced by post-processing as well as the subjective implementation of statistical parameters. TruRes™, from Andor Technology, uses an innovative optical means to greatly improve and expand the range of spectral resolutions accessible on a single setup. True spectral resolution enhancement of >30% is achieved without mathematical spectral alteration, dataprocessing, or spectrometer component changes. Discreet characteristic spectral lines from Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and atomic calibration sources are now fully resolved from spectrally-adjacent peaks under otherwise identical configuration. TruRes™ has added advantage of increasing the spectral resolution without sacrificing bandpass. Using TruRes™ the Kymera 328i resolution can approach that of a 500 mm focal spectrometer. Furthermore, the bandpass of a 500 mm spectrograph with would be 50% narrower than the Kymera 328i with all other spectrometer components constant. However, the Kymera 328i with TruRes™ is able to preserve a 50% wider bandpass.

  12. Developing instruments concerning scientific epistemic beliefs and goal orientations in learning science: a validation study

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate two survey instruments to evaluate high school students' scientific epistemic beliefs and goal orientations in learning science. The initial relationships between the sampled students' scientific epistemic beliefs and goal orientations in learning science were also investigated. A final valid sample of 600 volunteer Taiwanese high school students participated in this survey by responding to the Scientific Epistemic Beliefs Instrument (SEBI) and the Goal Orientations in Learning Science Instrument (GOLSI). Through both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, the SEBI and GOLSI were proven to be valid and reliable for assessing the participants' scientific epistemic beliefs and goal orientations in learning science. The path analysis results indicated that, by and large, the students with more sophisticated epistemic beliefs in various dimensions such as Development of Knowledge, Justification for Knowing, and Purpose of Knowing tended to adopt both Mastery-approach and Mastery-avoidance goals. Some interesting results were also found. For example, the students tended to set a learning goal to outperform others or merely demonstrate competence (Performance-approach) if they had more informed epistemic beliefs in the dimensions of Multiplicity of Knowledge, Uncertainty of Knowledge, and Purpose of Knowing.

  13. The impact of sleep on true and false memory across long delays.

    Pardilla-Delgado, Enmanuelle; Payne, Jessica D

    2017-01-01

    While the influence of sleep on memory has a long history, sleep's role in the formation of false memories is less clear. Moreover, virtually nothing is known about the development of false memories beyond delays of about 12h. Here, for the first time, we assess post-sleep development of true and false memories across longer delay intervals of 24 and 48h. Although technically a false memory, remembering information that is related to the theme, or gist, of an experience can be considered an adaptive process. Some evidence suggests that sleep, compared to a wake period, increases both true and gist-based false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) task, but not all studies have returned this result, and most studies cannot rule out the possibility that sleep is merely protecting the information from interference, as opposed to actively aiding its consolidation. Here, to equate amount of time spent awake and asleep across groups, we assess how the positioning of sleep relative to memory encoding impacts retention across longer delays of 24 and 48h. Participants encoded 16 DRM lists in the morning (WAKE 1st Groups) or evening (SLEEP 1st Groups), and were tested either 24 or 48h later at the same time of day. Results demonstrate that true memory is better when participants sleep soon after learning. Sleeping first also increased false memory, but only in low performers. Importantly, and similar to previous studies, we found a negative correlation between slow-wave sleep (SWS) and false memory, suggesting that SWS may be detrimental for semantic/gist processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Economic Beliefs and Party Preference

    Michael W.M. Roos; Andreas Orland

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a questionnaire study used to explore the economic understanding, normative positions along the egalitarian-libertarian spectrum, and the party preferences of a large student sample. The aim of the study is both to find socio-economic determinants of normative and positive beliefs and to explore how beliefs about the economy influence party support. We find that positive beliefs of lay people differ systematically from those of economic experts. Positive beli...

  15. Homo economicus belief inhibits trust.

    Ziqiang Xin

    Full Text Available As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners' benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals' homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people's increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust.

  16. Homo Economicus Belief Inhibits Trust

    Xin, Ziqiang; Liu, Guofang

    2013-01-01

    As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners’ benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals’ homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people’s increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust. PMID:24146907

  17. The influence of a bystander agent's beliefs on children's and adults' decision-making process.

    Buttelmann, Frances; Buttelmann, David

    2017-01-01

    The ability to attribute and represent others' mental states (e.g., beliefs; so-called "theory of mind") is essential for participation in human social interaction. Despite a considerable body of research using tasks in which protagonists in the participants' attentional focus held false or true beliefs, the question of automatic belief attribution to bystander agents has received little attention. In the current study, we presented adults and 6-year-olds (N=92) with an implicit computer-based avoidance false-belief task in which participants were asked to place an object into one of three boxes. While doing so, we manipulated the beliefs of an irrelevant human-like or non-human-like bystander agent who was visible on the screen. Importantly, the bystander agent's beliefs were irrelevant for solving the task. Still, children's decision making was significantly influenced by the bystander agent's beliefs even if this was a non-human-like self-propelled object. Such an influence did not become obvious in adults' deliberate decisions but occurred only in their reaction times, which suggests that they also processed the bystander agent's beliefs but were able to suppress the influence of such beliefs on their behavior regulation. The results of a control study (N=53) ruled out low-level explanations and confirmed that self-propelledness of agents is a necessary factor for belief attribution to occur. Thus, not only do humans spontaneously ascribe beliefs to self-propelled bystander agents, but those beliefs even influence meaningful decisions in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Effects of subliminal mere exposure to group members on intergroup evaluation: category evaluation measured in the Implicit Association Test (IAT)].

    Kawakami, Naoaki; Yoshida, Fujio

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of subliminal mere exposure to ingroup or outgroup members on intergroup evaluation as measured in the Implicit Association Test (IAT). Participants first memorized the members of two groups. Then, they were assigned to either group by lot, and completed the IAT for intergroup evaluation (Time 1). In the next phase, half the participants were subliminally exposed to ingroup members and half to outgroup members. Upon completion of the exposure, the same IAT was administered at Time 2. The results showed that participants who were exposed to ingroup members evaluated the ingroup more positively at Time 2 than at Time 1. Participants who were exposed to outgroup members did not show an effect toward the outgroup. The finding that the mere exposure effect occurred only for the ingroup exposure condition suggests that unconscious awareness of the ingroup enhances the mere exposure effect.

  19. A re-examination of the mere exposure effect: The influence of repeated exposure on recognition, familiarity, and liking.

    Montoya, R Matthew; Horton, Robert S; Vevea, Jack L; Citkowicz, Martyna; Lauber, Elissa A

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the veracity of models of the mere exposure effect and to understand the processes that moderate the effect, we conducted a meta-analysis of the influence of repeated exposure on liking, familiarity, recognition, among other evaluations. We estimated parameters from 268 curve estimates drawn from 81 articles and revealed that the mere exposure effect was characterized by a positive slope and negative quadratic effect consistent with an inverted-U shaped curve. In fact, such curves were associated with (a) all visual, but not auditory stimuli; (b) exposure durations shorter than 10 s and longer than 1 min; (c) both homogeneous and heterogeneous presentation types; and (d) ratings that were taken after all stimuli were presented. We conclude that existing models for the mere exposure effect do not adequately account for the findings, and we provide a framework to help guide future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Mere exposure and flavour-flavour learning increase 2-3 year-old children's acceptance of a novel vegetable.

    Hausner, Helene; Olsen, Annemarie; Møller, Per

    2012-06-01

    Vegetable consumption is low among many children. This study compared the efficacy of the exposure learning strategies mere exposure, flavour-flavour and flavour-nutrient learning in changing children's intake of a novel vegetable. An unmodified artichoke purée was served at pre-testing. Hereafter children were exposed 10 times to unmodified purée (mere exposure, n=32), a sweetened purée (flavour-flavour learning, n=33) or an energy dense purée with added fat (flavour-nutrient learning, n=39). Unmodified and sweet purée contained approximately 200 kJ/100g; the energy dense purée 580 kJ/100g. The unmodified purée was served again at post-testing, 3 and 6 months after last exposure to monitor long-term effects of learning. Intake of purée increased in the mere exposure and flavour-flavour condition, and was unchanged in the flavour-nutrient condition. Mere exposure changed children's intake by the 5th exposure, flavour-flavour learning by the 10th. Mere exposure led to the largest increase in intake of unmodified purée at post-test and over 6 months. Children following flavour-flavour learning consumed more of the sweet purée than of unmodified purée. About 30-40% of the children were resistant to acceptance changes. The results of this study imply that mere exposure and flavour-flavour learning are powerful strategies for changing children's acceptance of a novel vegetable, even though a substantial number of children are resistant to these types of exposure learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Belief update as social choice

    van Benthem, J.; Girard, P.; Roy, O.; Marion, M.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic epistemic-doxastic logics describe the new knowledge or new beliefs indexBelief of agents after some informational event has happened. Technically, this requires an update rule that turns a doxastic-epistemic modelM(recording the current information state of the agents) and a dynamic ‘event

  2. Free will and paranormal beliefs.

    Mogi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs.

  3. Assessment of Religious Beliefs Form.

    Faiver, Christopher M.; O'Brien, Eugene M.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that religion may be source of spiritual strength or source of conflict and guilt. Outlines importance of assessing religious beliefs of clients for treatment purposes and provides format for counselor to use. Says that, because counselors may be unaware of clients' individual perspectives, it is important to evaluate client's belief system…

  4. Playing with knowledge and belief

    Fiutek, V.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the development of Soft Dynamic Epistemic Logic (Soft DEL). Soft DEL has been introduced to deal with a number of informational phenomena, including belief revision. The work in this thesis extends the scope of Soft DEL to belief contraction, providing as such a framework

  5. Free will and paranormal beliefs

    Mogi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs. PMID:24765084

  6. Comparing strengths of beliefs explicitly

    Ghosh, S.; de Jongh, D.

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by a similar use in provability logic, formulas p > B q and p ≥ B q are introduced in the existing logical framework for discussing beliefs to express that the strength of belief in p is greater than (or equal to) that in q. Besides its usefulness in studying the properties of the concept

  7. Free will and paranormal beliefs

    Ken eMogi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi. Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs.

  8. Equilibria in social belief removal

    Booth, R

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In studies of multi-agent interaction, especially in game theory, the notion of equilibrium often plays a prominent role. A typical scenario for the belief merging problem is one in which several agents pool their beliefs together to form a...

  9. Politics of climate change belief

    2017-01-01

    Donald Trump's actions during the election and his first weeks as US president-elect send a strong message about his belief in climate change, or lack thereof. However, these actions may reflect polarization of climate change beliefs, not climate mitigation behaviour.

  10. The Relational Responding Task: Toward a New Implicit Measure of Beliefs

    Jan eDe Houwer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the Relational Responding Task (RRT as a tool for capturing beliefs at the implicit level. Flemish participants were asked to respond as if they believed that Flemish people are more intelligent than immigrants (e.g., respond true to the statement Flemish people are wiser than immigrants or to respond as if they believed that immigrants are more intelligent than Flemish people (e.g., respond true to the statement Flemish people are dumber than immigrants. The difference in performance between these two tasks correlated with ratings of the extent to which participants explicitly endorsed the belief that Flemish people are more intelligent than immigrants and with questionnaire measures of subtle and blatant racism. The current study provides a first step towards validating RRT effects as a viable measure of implicit beliefs.

  11. LIGO: The strong belief

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  12. Against Motivational Efficacy of Beliefs

    Seungbae Park

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Danielle Bromwich (2010 argues that a belief is motivationally efficacious in that, other things being equal, it disposes an agent to answer a question in accordance with that belief. I reply that what we are disposed to do is largely determined by our genes, whereas what we believe is largely determined by stimuli from the environment. We have a standing and default disposition to answer questions honestly, ceteris paribus, even before we are exposed to environmental stimuli. Since this standing and default disposition is innate, and our beliefs have their source in environmental stimuli, our beliefs cannot be the source of the disposition. Moreover, a recent finding in neuroscience suggests that motivation is extrinsic to belief.

  13. Belief Reasoning and Emotion Understanding in Balanced Bilingual and Language-Dominant Mexican American Young Children.

    Weimer, Amy A; Gasquoine, Philip G

    2016-01-01

    Belief reasoning and emotion understanding were measured among 102 Mexican American bilingual children ranging from 4 to 7 years old. All children were tested in English and Spanish after ensuring minimum comprehension in each language. Belief reasoning was assessed using 2 false and 1 true belief tasks. Emotion understanding was measured using subtests from the Test for Emotion Comprehension. The influence of family background variables of yearly income, parental education level, and number of siblings on combined Spanish and English vocabulary, belief reasoning, and emotion understanding was assessed by regression analyses. Age and emotion understanding predicted belief reasoning. Vocabulary and belief reasoning predicted emotion understanding. When the sample was divided into language-dominant and balanced bilingual groups on the basis of language proficiency difference scores, there were no significant differences on belief reasoning or emotion understanding. Language groups were demographically similar with regard to child age, parental educational level, and family income. Results suggest Mexican American language-dominant and balanced bilinguals develop belief reasoning and emotion understanding similarly.

  14. Mere undervisning, større studieintensitet? En multilevelanalyse af 7.917 studerendes tidsforbrug

    Kim Jesper Herrmann

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Der har de seneste år været betydelig interesse for danske universitetsstuderendes studieintensitet, og der er blevet givet forskellige anbefalinger i forhold til, hvordan de studerende kan motiveres til at studere mere. Det empiriske grundlag for sådanne anbefalinger er imidlertid sparsomt. Formålet med dette studie er dels at beskrive den gennemsnitlige studieaktivitet blandt studerende på Aarhus Universitet, dels at analysere det indbyrdes forhold mellem undervisning og forberedelse. En multilevelanalyse af 7.917 studerendes selvrapporterede tidsforbrug viser overraskende en negativ sammenhæng mellem antallet af timer brugt på undervisning og antallet af timer brugt på forberedelse. Yderligere analyser tyder på, at sammenhængen mellem undervisningstid og forberedelsestid varierer på tværs af uddannelser.   In recent years, the study habits of Danish university students have been a cause for concern, and various initiatives to improve motivation and encourage students to study harder have been introduced. However, the empirical support for such initiatives is limited. This article aims to describe the average student’s study habits and analyse the interrelationship between teaching and independent study time. A multilevel analysis of 7,917 students self-reported time budgets surprisingly reveals negative correlation between hours spent studying and hours spent participating in classes. Further analyses suggest that this correlation varies across study programmes.

  15. Syntactic learning by mere exposure – An ERP study in adult learners

    Friederici Angela D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artificial language studies have revealed the remarkable ability of humans to extract syntactic structures from a continuous sound stream by mere exposure. However, it remains unclear whether the processes acquired in such tasks are comparable to those applied during normal language processing. The present study compares the ERPs to auditory processing of simple Italian sentences in native and non-native speakers after brief exposure to Italian sentences of a similar structure. The sentences contained a non-adjacent dependency between an auxiliary and the morphologically marked suffix of the verb. Participants were presented four alternating learning and testing phases. During learning phases only correct sentences were presented while during testing phases 50 percent of the sentences contained a grammatical violation. Results The non-native speakers successfully learned the dependency and displayed an N400-like negativity and a subsequent anteriorily distributed positivity in response to rule violations. The native Italian group showed an N400 followed by a P600 effect. Conclusion The presence of the P600 suggests that native speakers applied a grammatical rule. In contrast, non-native speakers appeared to use a lexical form-based processing strategy. Thus, the processing mechanisms acquired in the language learning task were only partly comparable to those applied by competent native speakers.

  16. [Effects of mere subliminal exposure on trait judgments and the role of stereotyped knowledge].

    Yamada, Ayumi

    2004-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of repeated exposures to male and female targets on trait impressions and the role of stereotyped knowledge for the target's social category in impression formation process. The participants were repeatedly exposed to slides of male and female faces for subliminal durations. For each of 12 pairs containing both previously presented slide and newly presented slide, the participants made forced-choice liking judgments (Experiment 1), trait judgments (Experiment 2) and recognition judgments (Experiments 1 and 2). It was found that participants' attitude toward the targets became more positive, even though target recognition was not significantly greater than the chance level. Yet, when the dimension of judgment was stereotypically associated with the target's social category, exposure effects were obtained for the targets whose social category and its dimension were inferentially matched, but not obtained for the targets whose social category and its dimension were not inferentially matched. Some theoretical implications of the role of social category information in the mere exposure phenomenon are discussed.

  17. Reversing the mere exposure effect in spider fearfuls: Preliminary evidence of sensitization.

    Becker, Eni S; Rinck, Mike

    2016-12-01

    A mere exposure effect (MEE) is said to occur when individuals' liking of a suboptimally and repeatedly presented stimulus increases compared to never-presented stimuli, while they are unable to indicate which stimuli were previously presented and which were not. In two experiments, we used the MEE to study automatic evaluative processes in highly spider-fearful individuals (SFs). Pictures of spiders and butterflies were repeatedly presented suboptimally to SFs and to non-anxious controls (NACs). In Experiment 1, both groups showed the MEE for butterflies, preferring previously presented butterfly pictures over new ones. For spider pictures, only NACs showed an MEE, whereas SFs showed no preference. Experiment 2 involved a more unpleasant presentation situation, because for each picture, participants had the difficult task to indicate what had been presented to them. This led to a reversed MEE for spiders in SFs: They preferred new spider pictures over previously presented ones. In both experiments, no evidence was observed for the ability to differentiate between old an new pictures. The results are tentatively explained within Zajonc' theory of the MEE, and they are related to the concept of sensitization in anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The mere exposure effect for consumer products as a consequence of existing familiarity and controlled exposure.

    Hekkert, Paul; Thurgood, Clementine; Whitfield, T W Allan

    2013-10-01

    The finding that repeated exposure to a stimulus enhances attitudes directed towards it is a well-established phenomenon. Despite this, the effects of exposure to products are difficult to determine given that they could have previously been exposed to participants any number of times. Furthermore, factors other than simple repeated exposure can influence affective evaluations for stimuli that are meaningful. In our first study, we examined the influence of existing familiarity with common objects and showed that the attractiveness of shapes representing common objects increases with their rated commonness. In our second study, we eliminated the effects of prior exposure by creating fictitious yet plausible products; thus, exposure frequency was under complete experimental control. We also manipulated the attention to be drawn to the products' designs by placing them in contexts where their visual appearance was stressed to be important versus contexts in which it was indicated that little attention had been paid to their design. Following mere exposure, attractiveness ratings increased linearly with exposure frequency, with the slope of the function being steeper for stimuli presented in an inconspicuous context-indicating that individuals engage in more deliberate processing of the stimuli when attention is drawn to their visual appearance. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Multiple mere exposure effect: category evaluation measured in the Go/No-go association task (GNAT)].

    Kawakami, Naoaki; Yoshida, Fujio

    2011-12-01

    The effect on likability of multiple subliminal exposures to the same person was investigated. Past studies on the mere exposure effect indicated a correlation between the frequency of repeated exposure to the same stimulus and likability. We proposed that exposure to various stimuli of the same person would have a stronger effect on likability. Participants were subliminally exposed to photographs of a person's face taken from seven angles (multi-angle-exposure) three times each (Experiment 1), or photographs of a person with seven facial expressions (multi-expression-exposure) three times each (Experiment 2). Then, the likability toward the exposed person was measured using the Go/No-go Association Task. The results indicated that the effect of the multiple exposures from various angles was equivalent to exposure to only one full-face photograph shown 21 times (Experiment 1). Moreover, likability was significantly higher in the case of exposure to various facial expressions than for exposure to only a single facial expression (Experiment 2). The results suggest that exposure to various stimuli in a category is more effective than repeated exposure to a single stimulus for increasing likability.

  20. Syntactic learning by mere exposure--an ERP study in adult learners.

    Mueller, Jutta L; Oberecker, Regine; Friederici, Angela D

    2009-07-29

    Artificial language studies have revealed the remarkable ability of humans to extract syntactic structures from a continuous sound stream by mere exposure. However, it remains unclear whether the processes acquired in such tasks are comparable to those applied during normal language processing. The present study compares the ERPs to auditory processing of simple Italian sentences in native and non-native speakers after brief exposure to Italian sentences of a similar structure. The sentences contained a non-adjacent dependency between an auxiliary and the morphologically marked suffix of the verb. Participants were presented four alternating learning and testing phases. During learning phases only correct sentences were presented while during testing phases 50 percent of the sentences contained a grammatical violation. The non-native speakers successfully learned the dependency and displayed an N400-like negativity and a subsequent anteriorily distributed positivity in response to rule violations. The native Italian group showed an N400 followed by a P600 effect. The presence of the P600 suggests that native speakers applied a grammatical rule. In contrast, non-native speakers appeared to use a lexical form-based processing strategy. Thus, the processing mechanisms acquired in the language learning task were only partly comparable to those applied by competent native speakers.

  1. Seeing and liking cigarette advertisements: is there a 'mere exposure' effect?.

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Isensee, Barbara; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to explain the association between exposure to a cigarette advertisement and favorable attitudes towards the advertisement. We used data from an observational cross-sectional study with a sample of 3,415 German schoolchildren aged 10-17 years. Cigarette advertising exposure was assessed with an image of a Marlboro ad, asking for contact frequency (number of times seen the ad) and brand name. Liking of the ad was measured with two items (alpha = 0.78). We found a positive linear association between exposure to the Marlboro ad and liking it. This association remained significant (standardized β = 0.09; p exposure to other advertisings, age, sex, socioeconomic status, rebelliousness and sensation seeking, self-reported school performance, and study region. The association between exposure to an advertisement and liking it was robust and could not be fully explained without referring to either unmeasured confounding or implicit advertising effects (e.g. mere exposure). Implicit effects have implications for prevention strategies as it may be very difficult to counteract unconscious advertising effects. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Infant long-term memory for associations formed during mere exposure.

    Giles, Amy; Rovee-Collier, Carolyn

    2011-04-01

    We previously found that young infants spontaneously associate stimuli that they merely see together. Using a sensory preconditioning paradigm with 6- and 9-month-olds, we asked how long such associations remain latent before being forgotten and what exposure conditions affect their persistence. Groups were preexposed to two puppets for 1h/day for 2 days, 1h on 1 day, or 1h on 1 day in two sessions; 1-27 days later, target actions were modeled on one puppet, and infants were tested with the other puppet 1 day later. The longest delay after which infants imitated the actions on the other puppet defined how long they remembered the association. The data revealed that the preexposure regimen determined retention. Regardless of exposure time, both ages remembered the association longer after two sessions, and younger infants remembered longer than older infants--for 4 weeks--after two 30-min sessions on 1 day. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Syntactic learning by mere exposure - An ERP study in adult learners

    Mueller, Jutta L; Oberecker, Regine; Friederici, Angela D

    2009-01-01

    Background Artificial language studies have revealed the remarkable ability of humans to extract syntactic structures from a continuous sound stream by mere exposure. However, it remains unclear whether the processes acquired in such tasks are comparable to those applied during normal language processing. The present study compares the ERPs to auditory processing of simple Italian sentences in native and non-native speakers after brief exposure to Italian sentences of a similar structure. The sentences contained a non-adjacent dependency between an auxiliary and the morphologically marked suffix of the verb. Participants were presented four alternating learning and testing phases. During learning phases only correct sentences were presented while during testing phases 50 percent of the sentences contained a grammatical violation. Results The non-native speakers successfully learned the dependency and displayed an N400-like negativity and a subsequent anteriorily distributed positivity in response to rule violations. The native Italian group showed an N400 followed by a P600 effect. Conclusion The presence of the P600 suggests that native speakers applied a grammatical rule. In contrast, non-native speakers appeared to use a lexical form-based processing strategy. Thus, the processing mechanisms acquired in the language learning task were only partly comparable to those applied by competent native speakers. PMID:19640301

  4. The true costs of nuclear power

    Wallner, A.; Mraz, G.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, many nuclear power plants will be reaching the end of their lifetimes over the next few years. States must therefore decide now on the direction they intend to steer their energy policies. Possible options are the construction of new nuclear power plants, extending the lifetime of existing ones, or changing direction towards a sustainable energy future. Arguments put forward by the nuclear power lobby in favour of new builds are, on the one hand, the claim that nuclear power is low in CO2 emissions,1and on the other, that it is low cost. This paper examines the second claim and identifies the “true costs of nuclear power”. This paper provides an overview for the general reader and presents the most important aspects of “costs of nuclear power”, as well as sound information to contribute to discussions of this complex issue. The first part of this paper focuses on the costs of nuclear new-build: Approximately two thirds of electricity generation costs consist of fixed costs, the largest part of which covers the construction of the nuclear power plant (NPP) itself, including the interest rates (capital costs). Consequently, construction costs are a crucial factor in the overall cost of nuclear power. The issue of nuclear new build is currently under discussion in many states in Europe which are considering replacing their aged nuclear power plant fleet, e.g. UK (Hinkley Point and further plans for new builds), Finland (Olkiluoto 3), France (Flamanville 3), the Czech Republic (Temelin 3/4), Slovakia (Mochovce 3/4) and Romania (Cernavoda 3/4). Those projects have one crucial point in common: problems with costs or financing. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has calculated that construction costs rose 15% per annum from 2003 to 2009; construction costs rose from 2,000 to 4,000 USD, amounting to total construction costs of US$ 4 billion for a 1,000 MW NPP. A current example of cost and construction time overrun is the Finnish reactor

  5. Lossed in translation: an off-the-shelf method to recover probabilistic beliefs from loss-averse agents.

    Offerman, Theo; Palley, Asa B

    2016-01-01

    Strictly proper scoring rules are designed to truthfully elicit subjective probabilistic beliefs from risk neutral agents. Previous experimental studies have identified two problems with this method: (i) risk aversion causes agents to bias their reports toward the probability of [Formula: see text], and (ii) for moderate beliefs agents simply report [Formula: see text]. Applying a prospect theory model of risk preferences, we show that loss aversion can explain both of these behavioral phenomena. Using the insights of this model, we develop a simple off-the-shelf probability assessment mechanism that encourages loss-averse agents to report true beliefs. In an experiment, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this modification in both eliminating uninformative reports and eliciting true probabilistic beliefs.

  6. Cognitive biases explain religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in life's purpose.

    Willard, Aiyana K; Norenzayan, Ara

    2013-11-01

    Cognitive theories of religion have postulated several cognitive biases that predispose human minds towards religious belief. However, to date, these hypotheses have not been tested simultaneously and in relation to each other, using an individual difference approach. We used a path model to assess the extent to which several interacting cognitive tendencies, namely mentalizing, mind body dualism, teleological thinking, and anthropomorphism, as well as cultural exposure to religion, predict belief in God, paranormal beliefs and belief in life's purpose. Our model, based on two independent samples (N=492 and N=920) found that the previously known relationship between mentalizing and belief is mediated by individual differences in dualism, and to a lesser extent by teleological thinking. Anthropomorphism was unrelated to religious belief, but was related to paranormal belief. Cultural exposure to religion (mostly Christianity) was negatively related to anthropomorphism, and was unrelated to any of the other cognitive tendencies. These patterns were robust for both men and women, and across at least two ethnic identifications. The data were most consistent with a path model suggesting that mentalizing comes first, which leads to dualism and teleology, which in turn lead to religious, paranormal, and life's-purpose beliefs. Alternative theoretical models were tested but did not find empirical support. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Recursive belief manipulation and second-order false-beliefs

    Braüner, Torben; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Polyanskaya, Irina

    2016-01-01

    it indicate that a more fundamental *conceptual change* has taken place? In this paper we extend Braüner's hybrid-logical analysis of first-order false-belief tasks to the second-order case, and argue that our analysis supports a version of the conceptual change position.......The literature on first-order false-belief is extensive, but less is known about the second-order case. The ability to handle second-order false-beliefs correctly seems to mark a cognitively significant step, but what is its status? Is it an example of *complexity only* development, or does...

  8. Moral Beliefs and Cognitive Homogeneity

    Nevia Dolcini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Emotional Perception Model of moral judgment intends to account for experientialism about morality and moral reasoning. In explaining how moral beliefs are formed and applied in practical reasoning, the model attempts to overcome the mismatch between reason and action/desire: morality isn’t about reason for actions, yet moral beliefs, if caused by desires, may play a motivational role in (moral agency. The account allows for two kinds of moral beliefs: genuine moral beliefs, which enjoy a relation to desire, and motivationally inert moral beliefs acquired in ways other than experience. Such etiology-based dichotomy of concepts, I will argue, leads to the undesirable view of cognition as a non-homogeneous phenomenon. Moreover, the distinction between moral beliefs and moral beliefs would entail a further dichotomy encompassing the domain of moral agency: one and the same action might possibly be either genuine moral, or not moral, if acted by individuals lacking the capacity for moral feelings, such as psychopaths.

  9. Belief attribution despite verbal interference.

    Forgeot d'Arc, Baudouin; Ramus, Franck

    2011-05-01

    False-belief (FB) tasks have been widely used to study the ability of individuals to represent the content of their conspecifics' mental states (theory of mind). However, the cognitive processes involved are still poorly understood, and it remains particularly debated whether language and inner speech are necessary for the attribution of beliefs to other agents. We present a completely nonverbal paradigm consisting of silent animated cartoons in five closely related conditions, systematically teasing apart different aspects of scene analysis and allowing the assessment of the attribution of beliefs, goals, and physical causation. In order to test the role of language in belief attribution, we used verbal shadowing as a dual task to inhibit inner speech. Data on 58 healthy adults indicate that verbal interference decreases overall performance, but has no specific effect on belief attribution. Participants remained able to attribute beliefs despite heavy concurrent demands on their verbal abilities. Our results are most consistent with the hypothesis that belief attribution is independent from inner speech.

  10. Material Properties Test to Determine Ultimate Strain and True Stress-True Strain Curves for High Yield Steels

    K.R. Arpin; T.F. Trimble

    2003-04-01

    This testing was undertaken to develop material true stress-true strain curves for elastic-plastic material behavior for use in performing transient analysis. Based on the conclusions of this test, the true stress-true strain curves derived herein are valid for use in elastic-plastic finite element analysis for structures fabricated from these materials. In addition, for the materials tested herein, the ultimate strain values are greater than those values cited as the limits for the elastic-plastic strain acceptance criteria for transient analysis.

  11. Resits in Higher Education: Merely a Bar to Jump Over, or Do They Give a Pedagogical "Leg Up"?

    Proud, Steven

    2015-01-01

    When students fail an examination at the end of their first year, they are offered a resit examination, which they merely need to pass to progress into the second year. These resits anecdotally provide a dual purpose of testing that students have achieved the required level of attainment to progress, and incentivising additional effort. This paper…

  12. The impact of mining on the environment: necessary evil or merely a calamity?

    Filho, E.R.

    1994-01-01

    Mankind has always used mineral assets and has become increasingly dependent upon them during his cultural, scientific and technological evolution. If it is true that mining is one of the ways in which man interferes with the environment by disfiguring, degrading and polluting it, it is no less true that mining is one of the ways to supply the needs indispensable to modern societies. For an unpredictable period of time to come, mankind will have to live with the consumption of metallic and non-metallic mineral and energy resources. It is impossible to sustain the unsustainable, to renew the non-renewable, but it is perfectly possible to make rationally executed mining compatible with the recovery and/or restoration of the environment. In developing countries like Brazil, politicians and business people, poorly-informed about environmental problems, usually try, without success, to solve the problems far away from metropolitan areas, for example in the Amazon region, forgetting about those problems close to home which make life intolerable in the great urban centres like Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Belo Horizonte. 10 refs

  13. Extreme Overvalued Beliefs: How Violent Extremist Beliefs Become "Normalized".

    Rahman, Tahir

    2018-01-12

    Extreme overvalued beliefs (EOB) are rigidly held, non-deusional beliefs that are the motive behind most acts of terrorism and mass shootings. EOBs are differentiated from delusions and obsessions. The concept of an overvalued idea was first described by Wernicke and later applied to terrorism by McHugh. Our group of forensic psychiatrists (Rahman, Resnick, Harry) refined the definition as an aid in the differential diagnosis seen in acts of violence. The form and content of EOBs is discussed as well as group effects, conformity, and obedience to authority. Religious cults such as The People's Temple, Heaven's Gate, Aum Shinrikyo, and Islamic State (ISIS) and conspiracy beliefs such as assassinations, moon-hoax, and vaccine-induced autism beliefs are discussed using this construct. Finally, some concluding thoughts on countering violent extremism, including its online presence is discussed utilizing information learned from online eating disorders and consumer experience.

  14. True and False Memories, Parietal Cortex, and Confidence Judgments

    Urgolites, Zhisen J.; Smith, Christine N.; Squire, Larry R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have asked whether activity in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the neocortex can distinguish true memory from false memory. A frequent complication has been that the confidence associated with correct memory judgments (true memory) is typically higher than the confidence associated with incorrect memory judgments (false memory).…

  15. Effect of caecectomy on true metabolizable energy and lysine ...

    True metabolizable energy, conected for nitrogen retention. cfMEx) and true rysine avilabiliry, was determined for maize and sunflower oilcake o,?, t*o ,u*ii"s of each, *O in-r*ples of fishmeal, soyabean oilcake -"ur -a sorghum meal using intact and caecectomized roosters. The roosters were allowed ad tibitum intake over a ...

  16. True Umbilical Cord Knot Leading to Fetal Demise | Ikechebelu ...

    The incidence of true knot of the umbilical cord is not only very low but it is often undiagnosed antenatally when present despite the availability of prenatal ultrasonography. When the true knot remains tight, it may impede the circulation of the fetus and may result to fetal death in utero especially in labor. We report a very ...

  17. Mere experience of low subjective socioeconomic status stimulates appetite and food intake.

    Cheon, Bobby K; Hong, Ying-Yi

    2017-01-03

    Among social animals, subordinate status or low social rank is associated with increased caloric intake and weight gain. This may reflect an adaptive behavioral pattern that promotes acquisition of caloric resources to compensate for low social resources that may otherwise serve as a buffer against environmental demands. Similarly, diet-related health risks like obesity and diabetes are disproportionately more prevalent among people of low socioeconomic resources. Whereas this relationship may be associated with reduced financial and material resources to support healthier lifestyles, it remains unclear whether the subjective experience of low socioeconomic status may alone be sufficient to stimulate consumption of greater calories. Here we show that the mere feeling of lower socioeconomic status relative to others stimulates appetite and food intake. Across four studies, we found that participants who were experimentally induced to feel low (vs. high or neutral) socioeconomic status subsequently exhibited greater automatic preferences for high-calorie foods (e.g., pizza, hamburgers), as well as intake of greater calories from snack and meal contexts. Moreover, these results were observed even in the absence of differences in access to financial resources. Our results demonstrate that among humans, the experience of low social class may contribute to preferences and behaviors that risk excess energy intake. These findings suggest that psychological and physiological systems regulating appetite may also be sensitive to subjective feelings of deprivation for critical nonfood resources (e.g., social standing). Importantly, efforts to mitigate the socioeconomic gradient in obesity may also need to address the psychological experience of low social status.

  18. Pointing gesture in a bird- merely instrumental or a cognitively complex behavior?

    Gisela KAPLAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Gestures, particularly pointing, are regarded as important pre-speech acts. Intentional and referential pointing has been shown previously in humans and apes but not in songbirds, although some avian species show cognitive abilities rivaling those of apes, and their brain structures and functions show putative preconditions for referential gestural signaling (i.e. mirror neurons, links of vocal learning nuclei to discrete brain areas active during limb and body movements. The results reported are based on trials testing predator detection and responses to a taxidermic model of a wedge-tailed eagle by Australian magpies Gymnorhina tibicen. Magpies were subjected to three conditions of finding this model in their territory (open, sheltered and hidden. In the sheltered and hidden conditions, the discoverer simultaneously engaged in alarm calls and beak pointing, a behavior that has not been described previously. Other group members at once assembled and, after watching the first bird, adopted the same posture by pointing to the location of the intruder. The question is whether beak and body movements orienting towards important stimuli or events are instances of arousal, imitation or intentional communication. The latter presupposes that onlookers interpret the signal and respond by altering their own behavior appropriate to the original stimulus and not merely by imitating the first signaler. Evidence presented here indicates that the act of pointing may well be a complex cognitive behavior, i.e., an intentional and referential signal, showing that pointing is not limited to having hands and arms [Current Zoology 57 (4: 453–467, 2011].

  19. Preferences and Beliefs in a Sequential Social Dilemma: A Within-Subjects Analysis

    Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander

    Within-subject data from sequential social dilemma experiments reveal a correlation of first and second-mover decisions for which two channels may be responsible, that our experiment allows to separate: i) a direct, preference-based channel that influences both first- and second-mover decisions; ii......) an indirect channel, where second-mover decisions influence beliefs via a consensus effect, and the first-mover decision is a best response to these beliefs. We find strong evidence for the indirect channel: beliefs about second-mover cooperation are biased toward own second-mover behavior, and most subjects...... best respond to stated beliefs. But when first movers know the true probability of second-mover cooperation, subjects' own second moves still have predictive power regarding their first moves, suggesting that the direct channel also plays a role....

  20. True self-alienation positively predicts reports of mindwandering.

    Vess, Matthew; Leal, Stephanie A; Hoeldtke, Russell T; Schlegel, Rebecca J; Hicks, Joshua A

    2016-10-01

    Two studies assessed the relationship between feelings of uncertainty about who one truly is (i.e., true self-alienation) and self-reported task-unrelated thoughts (i.e., mindwandering) during performance tasks. Because true self-alienation is conceptualized as the subjective disconnect between conscious awareness and actual experience, we hypothesized that greater feelings of true self-alienation would positively relate to subjective reports of mindwandering. Two convergent studies supported this hypothesis. Moreover, this relationship could not consistently be accounted for by the independent influence of other aspects of authenticity, negative mood, mindfulness, or broad personality dimensions. These findings suggest that individual differences in true self-alienation are reliably associated with subjective reports of mindwandering. The implications of these findings for the true self-alienation construct, the ways that personality relates to mindwandering, and future research directions focused on curtailing mindwandering and improving performance and achievement are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Subjective Belief Distributions and the Characterization of Economic Literacy

    Di Girolamo, Amalia; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten

    2015-01-01

    the confidence that an individual has about their knowledge of some fact. We consider literacy across several financial and economic domains. We find considerable demographic heterogeneity in the degree of literacy. We also measure the degree of consistency within a sample about their knowledge, even when......We characterize the literacy of an individual in a domain by their elicited subjective belief distribution over the possible responses to a question posed in that domain. By eliciting the distribution, rather than just the answers to true/false or multiple choice questions, we can directly measure...

  2. The Relationship among Pre-Service EFL Teachers' Beliefs about Language Learning, Pedagogical Beliefs, and Beliefs about ICT Integration

    Inayati, Dian; Emaliana, Ive

    2017-01-01

    This paper elucidates the relationship among pre-service teachers' beliefs about language learning, pedagogical beliefs, and beliefs about ICT Integration through survey methodology. This study employed a quantitative approach, particularly a correlational relationship to investigate the relationships among beliefs about language learning,…

  3. Paranormal belief and attributional style.

    Dudley, R T; Whisnand, E A

    2000-06-01

    52 college students completed Tobacyk's 1988 Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and Peterson, Semmel, von Baeyer, Abramson, Metalsky, and Seligman's 1982 Attributional Style Questionnaire. Analysis showed significantly higher depressive attributional styles among high scorers on paranormal phenomena than low scorers.

  4. Breast Health Belief Systems Study

    Williams, Mary

    1999-01-01

    .... The hypothesis underlying this research is that a breast health promotion approach that is based in specific belief systems among three disparate African American rural populations of low socioeconomic status (SES...

  5. Young Adolescents' Beliefs Concerning Menstruation

    Clarke, Anne E.; Ruble, Diane N.

    1978-01-01

    A sample of 54 young adolescent girls (both pre- and postmenarcheal) and boys responded to a questionnaire assessing evaluative attitudes toward menstruation, expected symptomatology, perceived effects on moods and activities, and sources of information for these beliefs. (Author/JMB)

  6. THE TRUE FACE OF PRE-COLONIAL AFRICA IN "THINGS FALL APART"

    Ecevit Bekler

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Nigerian writer Chinua Achebe is known to be one of the most influential African wri­ters and holds an important place in postcolonial studies. His main aim was to reconstruct the wrongly established beliefs, ideas, and thoughts of the Western world regarding Africa. To realize his aim, he made careful selections in his choice of language, which contributed greatly to sharing his observations, ideas, and beliefs with the rest of the world. He wrote his novels in English, believing that doing so would be more powerful in conveying the true face of pre-colonial Africa, rather than in Nigerian, which could not be as effective as the language of the colonizers. Achebe’s complaint was that the history of Africa had mainly been written by white men who did not belong to his continent and who would not judge life there fairly. With his novels, he changed the prejudices of those who had never been to Africa, and he managed to convert the negative ideas and feelings caused by the portrayal of his continent to positive ones. "Things Fall Apart" is a novel whose mission is to portray Africa in a very realistic and authentic environment, contrary to the one-sided point of view of the colonizers. The novel presents us, in very authentic language, with many details about the customs, rituals, daily life practices, ceremonies, beliefs, and even jokes of the African Igbos. Chinua Achebe thus realizes his aim in revealing that African tribes, although regarded as having a primitive life and being very far from civilization, in fact had their own life with traditions and a culture specific to themselves.

  7. Children's beliefs about parental divorce

    Dovydaitienė, Miglė

    2001-01-01

    This article investigates children's beliefs about parental divorce and attitudes toward environment and people. Children's believes about parental divorce is evaluated in a sample 8 through 10-year children whose parents had been separated for about 3 years. Attitudes toward environment and people between children of separated as well as intact families are compared. We also examined the relation of children's beliefs about parental divorce and attitudes toward environment and people. The me...

  8. Is Olodumare, God In Yoruba Belief, God?

    Benson O. Igboin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak : Pertanyaan apakah Olodumare, Tuhan dalam kepercayaan Yoruba, sebagaimana diterjemahkan oleh Bolaji Idowu, adalah Tuhan merupakan persoalan penuh liku. Hal ini karena konsep dan kepercayaan atas Olodumare ini mengalami serangkaian analisis berputar sehingga memancing pertanyaan tersebut dijawab dalam tiga tahap episodik mendasar. Pertama dari kalangan antropolog Barat yang, sengaja atau tidak, keliru memahami bahwa Olodumare bukanlah, atau tidaklah sederajat dengan, Tuhan; tahap kedua diperjuangkan oleh pengkaji Africa (Africanist / teolog Yoruba yang mengajukan status Olodumare sebagai Tuhan; sementara mazhab dekolonisasi mutakhir berupaya melepaskan Olodumare dari apa yang disebut sebagai jerat Helenistik (Helenistic grab periode kedua, dan memberikan citra yang ‘tepat’ tentang Olodumare. Masing-masing ‘kebenaran’ tentang Olodumare ini memiliki pertanyaan-pertanyaan turunan yang memengaruhi pemahaman atas Olodumare. Kajian ini mempertanyakan klaim-klaim tiga filsuf dekolonisasi saat ini, dan mengemukakan bahwa apa yang mereka lontarkan seputar Olodumare tidak konsisten. Kesimpulannya, untuk memperoleh konsep yang kuat tentang Olodumare, perlu upaya untuk mengadopsi padanan kata-kata terjemahan alternatif yang tepat, baik terhadap ajaran Yoruba maupun ajaran Kristen; jika tidak demikian, pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang muncul mungkin tetap akan tak terjawab, sementara tesis Idowu tetap dirasakan sudah memadai.Kata kunci : Olodumare, Esu, Masalah keburukan, Tuhan, Yoruba Abstract : The question whether Olodumare, God in Yoruba belief, as Bolaji Idowu translated it, is God is a tortuous one. It is so because the concept of, and the belief in, Olodumare are undergoing circuitous strings of analysis that tempt one to answer the question in three fundamental episodic phases. The first came from the Western anthropologists who advertently or inadvertently ‘misconceived’ Olodumare, as completely less than a God; the second stage

  9. Is the Abstract a Mere Teaser? Evaluating Generosity of Article Abstracts in the Environmental Sciences

    Liana Ermakova

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available An abstract is not only a mirror of the full article; it also aims to draw attention to the most important information of the document it summarizes. Many studies have compared abstracts with full texts for their informativeness. In contrast to previous studies, we propose to investigate this relation based not only on the amount of information given by the abstract but also on its importance. The main objective of this paper is to introduce a new metric called GEM to measure the “generosity” or representativeness of an abstract. Schematically speaking, a generous abstract should have the best possible score of similarity for the sections important to the reader. Based on a questionnaire gathering information from 630 researchers, we were able to weight sections according to their importance. In our approach, seven sections were first automatically detected in the full text. The accuracy of this classification into sections was above 80% compared with a dataset of documents where sentences were assigned to sections by experts. Second, each section was weighted according to the questionnaire results. The GEM score was then calculated as a sum of weights of sections in the full text corresponding to sentences in the abstract normalized over the total sum of weights of sections in the full text. The correlation between GEM score and the mean of the scores assigned by annotators was higher than the correlation between scores from different experts. As a case study, the GEM score was calculated for 36,237 articles in environmental sciences (1930–2013 retrieved from the French ISTEX database. The main result was that GEM score has increased over time. Moreover, this trend depends on subject area and publisher. No correlation was found between GEM score and citation rate or open access status of articles. We conclude that abstracts are more generous in recent publications and cannot be considered as mere teasers. This research should be pursued

  10. A Case of True Hermaphroditism Presenting as a Testicular Tumour

    Michelle Ceci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available True hermaphroditism represents only 5% cases of all of disorders of sexual differentiation (DSD and usually present in early childhood with ambiguous genitalia. Occasionally, cases might present later on in adolescence with problems of sexual maturation. Our case report presents a true hermaphrodite with normal male phenotype that presented as a left testicular mass, two years after being diagnosed with Sertoli cell only syndrome in the contralateral testis. Histological examination of the left testis showed ovarian, fallopian tube, myometrial, endometrial, and epididymal tissue. This combination of findings is found in approximately one-third of true hermaphrodites, but it is very rare to present clinically as an inguinoscrotal mass.

  11. The neural correlates of religious and nonreligious belief.

    Sam Harris

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available While religious faith remains one of the most significant features of human life, little is known about its relationship to ordinary belief at the level of the brain. Nor is it known whether religious believers and nonbelievers differ in how they evaluate statements of fact. Our lab previously has used functional neuroimaging to study belief as a general mode of cognition [1], and others have looked specifically at religious belief [2]. However, no research has compared these two states of mind directly.We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to measure signal changes in the brains of thirty subjects-fifteen committed Christians and fifteen nonbelievers-as they evaluated the truth and falsity of religious and nonreligious propositions. For both groups, and in both categories of stimuli, belief (judgments of "true" vs judgments of "false" was associated with greater signal in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, an area important for self-representation [3], [4], [5], [6], emotional associations [7], reward [8], [9], [10], and goal-driven behavior [11]. This region showed greater signal whether subjects believed statements about God, the Virgin Birth, etc. or statements about ordinary facts. A comparison of both stimulus categories suggests that religious thinking is more associated with brain regions that govern emotion, self-representation, and cognitive conflict, while thinking about ordinary facts is more reliant upon memory retrieval networks.While religious and nonreligious thinking differentially engage broad regions of the frontal, parietal, and medial temporal lobes, the difference between belief and disbelief appears to be content-independent. Our study compares religious thinking with ordinary cognition and, as such, constitutes a step toward developing a neuropsychology of religion. However, these findings may also further our understanding of how the brain accepts statements of all kinds to be valid descriptions of the

  12. Attitudes and beliefs as verbal behavior

    Guerin, Bernard

    1994-01-01

    Attitudes and beliefs are analyzed as verbal behavior. It is argued that shaping by a verbal community is an essential part of the formation and maintenance of both attitudes and beliefs, and it is suggested that verbal communities mediate the important shift in control from events in the environment (attitudes and beliefs as tacts) to control by other words (attitudes and beliefs as intraverbals). It appears that both attitudes and beliefs are constantly being socially negotiated through aut...

  13. Merely a stepping stone? Professional identity and career prospects following postgraduate mental health nurse training.

    McCrae, N; Askey-Jones, S; Laker, C

    2014-01-01

    Accelerated mental health nurse training attracts talented graduates, many with a psychology degree. Our study shows that such trainees feel incompatible with the nursing culture. Consequently, professional identification is inhibited, and on qualifying these nurses may choose to develop their careers elsewhere. Nurse educators and mentors should pay greater attention to nurturing a positive professional identity in trainees. Alongside their attainment of knowledge and skills, nursing trainees are moulded by a professional culture and inculcated to norms of beliefs and behaviour. The process of professional identification may be inhibited by accelerated nurse training and an influx of psychology graduates potentially using mental health nursing qualification as a springboard to other career opportunities. This study explored facilitators and barriers to professional identification in newly qualified nurses of accelerated postgraduate training. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 nurses who had recently completed a postgraduate diploma in mental health nursing at King's College London. Participants identified more with the mental health field than with the broader profession of nursing. They defined their practice in terms of values rather than skills and found difficulty in articulating a distinct role for mental health nursing. Although participants had found experience in training and as a registered practitioner rewarding, they were concerned that nursing may not fulfil their aspirations. Professional identity is likely to be a major factor in satisfaction and retention of nurses. Training and continuing professional development should promote career advancement within clinical nursing practice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. True amplitude wave equation migration arising from true amplitude one-way wave equations

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Guanquan; Bleistein, Norman

    2003-10-01

    One-way wave operators are powerful tools for use in forward modelling and inversion. Their implementation, however, involves introduction of the square root of an operator as a pseudo-differential operator. Furthermore, a simple factoring of the wave operator produces one-way wave equations that yield the same travel times as the full wave equation, but do not yield accurate amplitudes except for homogeneous media and for almost all points in heterogeneous media. Here, we present augmented one-way wave equations. We show that these equations yield solutions for which the leading order asymptotic amplitude as well as the travel time satisfy the same differential equations as the corresponding functions for the full wave equation. Exact representations of the square-root operator appearing in these differential equations are elusive, except in cases in which the heterogeneity of the medium is independent of the transverse spatial variables. Here, we address the fully heterogeneous case. Singling out depth as the preferred direction of propagation, we introduce a representation of the square-root operator as an integral in which a rational function of the transverse Laplacian appears in the integrand. This allows us to carry out explicit asymptotic analysis of the resulting one-way wave equations. To do this, we introduce an auxiliary function that satisfies a lower dimensional wave equation in transverse spatial variables only. We prove that ray theory for these one-way wave equations leads to one-way eikonal equations and the correct leading order transport equation for the full wave equation. We then introduce appropriate boundary conditions at z = 0 to generate waves at depth whose quotient leads to a reflector map and an estimate of the ray theoretical reflection coefficient on the reflector. Thus, these true amplitude one-way wave equations lead to a 'true amplitude wave equation migration' (WEM) method. In fact, we prove that applying the WEM imaging condition

  15. The Dream Comes True in the Golden Hall

    JianZhong; ChenJianguo

    2004-01-01

    Nanjing Traditional Music Ensemble has long dreamed of performing in Vienna's Golden Hall.Now the dream has come true.the whole troupe felt so exciting that they did not even sleep well during the flight.

  16. A True-False Test on Methods of Typewriting Instruction.

    West, Leonard J.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a true-false test on typewriting instruction to illustrate the effects of educational lag, publishing practices, and deficiencies in preservice and inservice teacher education upon teaching methods. (SK)

  17. The True Self: A Psychological Concept Distinct From the Self.

    Strohminger, Nina; Knobe, Joshua; Newman, George

    2017-07-01

    A long tradition of psychological research has explored the distinction between characteristics that are part of the self and those that lie outside of it. Recently, a surge of research has begun examining a further distinction. Even among characteristics that are internal to the self, people pick out a subset as belonging to the true self. These factors are judged as making people who they really are, deep down. In this paper, we introduce the concept of the true self and identify features that distinguish people's understanding of the true self from their understanding of the self more generally. In particular, we consider recent findings that the true self is perceived as positive and moral and that this tendency is actor-observer invariant and cross-culturally stable. We then explore possible explanations for these findings and discuss their implications for a variety of issues in psychology.

  18. Mere Exposure and Racial Prejudice: Exposure to Other-Race Faces Increases Liking for Strangers of That Race.

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A; White, Benjamin; Wieneke, Kristin

    2008-01-01

    White participants were exposed to other-race or own-race faces to test the generalized mere exposure hypothesis in the domain of face perception, namely that exposure to a set of faces yields increased liking for similar faces that have never been seen. In Experiment 1, rapid supraliminal exposures to Asian faces increased White participants' subsequent liking for a different set of Asian faces. In Experiment 2, subliminal exposures to Black faces increased White participants' subsequent liking for a different set of Black faces. The findings are consistent with prominent explanations for mere exposure effects as well as with the familiar face overgeneralization hypothesis that prejudice derives in part from negative reactions to faces that deviate from the familiar own-race prototype.

  19. Evidence for the influence of the mere-exposure effect on voting in the Eurovision Song Contest

    Diarmuid B. Verrier

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The mere exposure, or familiarity, effect is the tendency for people to feel more positive about stimuli to which they have previously been exposed. The Eurovision Song Contest is a two-stage event, in which some contestants in the final will be more familiar to viewers than others. Thus, viewers' voting is likely to be influenced by this effect. Previous work attempting to demonstrate this effect in this context has been unable to control for contestant quality. The current study, which used a novel procedure to analyse the way in which contestant countries distributed their points (a function of how viewers voted in those countries between 2008 and 2011, showed that contestants did better if they previously appeared in a semifinal that was seen by voters. This is evidence that the mere exposure effect, alongside previously studied factors such as cultural and geographical closeness, influences the way viewers vote in the Eurovision.

  20. The "True and fair view" concept in Lithuanian accounting regulation

    Rudžionienė, Kristina; Christauskas, Česlovas

    2010-01-01

    The "true and fair view" concept is very popular in the professional accountants’ language. After theoretical analysis of the "true and fair view" concept it was made research how understanding of this concept was created in Lithuanian accounting regulation. The stated purpose of financial statements is taken from the United Kingdom, and is different in the particular formulation. Additionally, it is not explained anywhere what it is and how to reach it. There are not specifically defined qua...

  1. Scaling Irrational Beliefs in the General Attitude and Belief Scale

    Lindsay R. Owings

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurement of key constructs is essential to the continued development of Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT. The General Attitude and Belief Scale (GABS, a contemporary inventory of rational and irrational beliefs based on current REBT theory, is one of the most valid and widely used instruments available, and recent research has continued to improve its psychometric standing. In this study of 544 students, item response theory (IRT methods were used (a to identify the most informative item in each irrational subscale of the GABS, (b to determine the level of irrationality represented by each of those items, and (c to suggest a condensed form of the GABS for further study with clinical populations. Administering only the most psychometrically informative items to clients could result in economies of time and effort. Further research based on the scaling of items could clarify the specific patterns of irrational beliefs associated with particular clinical syndromes.

  2. Tallinna mereäär on paik elamisele, kultuurile ja kommunikatsioonile = Tallinn's seashore is a place for culture, communication, and for living / Tõnu Laigu

    Laigu, Tõnu, 1956-

    2011-01-01

    27.-28.10. 2009 toimus Eesti Arhitektuurikeskuse linnafoorumite projekti avaüritus alal, kus saavad kokku Tallinna kesklinn, vanalinn, bastionivöönd ning lähim mereäär. Foorumi ülesandeks oli aidata kaasa kesklinna avardamisele mere suunas. Kujunenud olukorrast. Käsitletavat ala mõjutavad arengud. Foorumil väljapakutud linnalahendused

  3. The ecology of religious beliefs

    Botero, Carlos A.; Gardner, Beth; Kirby, Kathryn R.; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gavin, Michael C.; Gray, Russell D.

    2014-01-01

    Although ecological forces are known to shape the expression of sociality across a broad range of biological taxa, their role in shaping human behavior is currently disputed. Both comparative and experimental evidence indicate that beliefs in moralizing high gods promote cooperation among humans, a behavioral attribute known to correlate with environmental harshness in nonhuman animals. Here we combine fine-grained bioclimatic data with the latest statistical tools from ecology and the social sciences to evaluate the potential effects of environmental forces, language history, and culture on the global distribution of belief in moralizing high gods (n = 583 societies). After simultaneously accounting for potential nonindependence among societies because of shared ancestry and cultural diffusion, we find that these beliefs are more prevalent among societies that inhabit poorer environments and are more prone to ecological duress. In addition, we find that these beliefs are more likely in politically complex societies that recognize rights to movable property. Overall, our multimodel inference approach predicts the global distribution of beliefs in moralizing high gods with an accuracy of 91%, and estimates the relative importance of different potential mechanisms by which this spatial pattern may have arisen. The emerging picture is neither one of pure cultural transmission nor of simple ecological determinism, but rather a complex mixture of social, cultural, and environmental influences. Our methods and findings provide a blueprint for how the increasing wealth of ecological, linguistic, and historical data can be leveraged to understand the forces that have shaped the behavior of our own species. PMID:25385605

  4. Assessing True and False Belief in Young Children with Cerebral Palsy through Anticipatory Gaze Behaviours: A Pilot Study

    Clarke, Michael T.; Loganathan, Deborah; Swettenham, John

    2012-01-01

    Children with a clinical description of cerebral palsy (CP) commonly experience cognitive and sensory difficulties that co-occur with motor impairment, and for some children this can include impairments in social communication. While research has begun to examine theory of mind abilities in children with CP, relatively little is known about social…

  5. Public beliefs about and attitudes towards bipolar disorder: testing theory based models of stigma.

    Ellison, Nell; Mason, Oliver; Scior, Katrina

    2015-04-01

    Given the vast literature into public beliefs and attitudes towards schizophrenia and depression, there is paucity of research on attitudes towards bipolar disorder despite its similar prevalence to schizophrenia. This study explored public beliefs and attitudes towards bipolar disorder and examined the relationship between these different components of stigma. Using an online questionnaire distributed via email, social networking sites and public institutions, 753 members of the UK population were presented with a vignette depicting someone who met DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder. Causal beliefs, beliefs about prognosis, emotional reactions, stereotypes, and social distance were assessed in response to the vignette. Preacher and Hayes procedure for estimating direct and indirect effects of multiple mediators was used to examine the relationship between these components of stigma. Bipolar disorder was primarily associated with positive beliefs and attitudes and elicited a relatively low desire for social distance. Fear partially mediated the relationship between stereotypes and social distance. Biomedical causal beliefs reduced desire for social distance by increasing compassion, whereas fate causal beliefs increased it through eliciting fear. Psychosocial causal beliefs had mixed effects. The measurement of stigma using vignettes and self-report questionnaires has implications for ecological validity and participants may have been reluctant to reveal the true extent of their negative attitudes. Dissemination of these findings to people with bipolar disorder has implications for the reduction of internalised stigma in this population. Anti-stigma campaigns should attend to causal beliefs, stereotypes and emotional reactions as these all play a vital role in discriminatory behaviour towards people with bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Declines in American Adults’ Religious Participation and Beliefs, 1972-2014

    Jean M. Twenge

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous research found declines in Americans’ religious affiliation but few changes in religious beliefs and practices. By 2014, however, markedly fewer Americans participated in religious activities or embraced religious beliefs, with especially striking declines between 2006 and 2014 and among 18- to 29-year-olds in data from the nationally representative General Social Survey (N = 58,893, 1972-2014. In recent years, fewer Americans prayed, believed in God, took the Bible literally, attended religious services, identified as religious, affiliated with a religion, or had confidence in religious institutions. Only slightly more identified as spiritual since 1998, and then only those above age 30. Nearly a third of Millennials were secular not merely in religious affiliation but also in belief in God, religiosity, and religious service attendance, many more than Boomers and Generation X’ers at the same age. Eight times more 18- to 29-year-olds never prayed in 2014 versus the early 1980s. However, Americans have become slightly more likely to believe in an afterlife. In hierarchical linear modeling analyses, the decline in religious commitment was primarily due to time period rather than generation/birth cohort, with the decline in public religious practice larger (d = −.50 and beginning sooner (early 1990s than the smaller (d = −.18 decline in private religious practice and belief (primarily after 2006. Differences in religious commitment due to gender, race, education, and region grew larger, suggesting a more religiously polarized nation.

  7. True dreams: Encounter of the worlds in Islamic philosophy

    Halilović Tehran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available True dreams that explicitly or symbolically reveal the events of the past and the future, in the ontological sense tell more than just about the content of a dream because they bespeak the supratemporal dimension of human beings and represent man's ability to connect to different worlds, and respectively multitudinous forms and levels of being. In this paper, without going into the psychological or physiological analysis of dreams, we try to clarify the ontological significance and position of true dreams in existing worlds. In Islamic philosophy, the underlying cognitive basis for the description of the ontological level of true dreams was established by the founder of Illuminative Philosophy, Shaykh al-Ishraq (1155-1191, and it was expanded by the founder of Transcendental Philosophy, Mulla Sadra Shirazi (1572-1640. Shaykh al-Ishraq explained in detail existential position of supramaterial beings that on the one hand are above the world of matter and in a direct active contact with it, and on the other hand, are under the dominant world of intellect. He called these creatures Midworld (Barzakh and, for the first time in Islamic philosophy, stated that it is a separate world of imagination that is different from the material and intelligible one. True dreams are one of the many indications that man has a supratemporal dimension that exposes supramaterial and temporally unlimited worlds to him. Apart from true dreams, most important signs of supramaterial worlds in human life are the prophetic revelation, as well as revelations and mystical-gnostic intuition. Unlike the last two examples, true dreams are known and accessible to all people, both from their immediate experience and from the stories of the ones close to them. For this reason, in this paper we explain how true dreams represent a blend of worlds in human life.

  8. Aggregation of Information and Beliefs

    Ottaviani, Marco; Sørensen, Peter Norman

    In a binary prediction market in which risk-neutral traders have heterogeneous prior beliefs and are allowed to invest a limited amount of money, the static rational expectations equilibrium price is demonstrated to underreact to information. This effect is consistent with a favorite-longshot bias......, and is more pronounced when prior beliefs are more heterogeneous. Relaxing the assumptions of risk neutrality and bounded budget, underreaction to information also holds in a more general asset market with heterogeneous priors, provided traders have decreasing absolute risk aversion. In a dynamic asset market...

  9. Teachers’ Beliefs and Their Belief Change in an Intercultural Context

    Wang, Li

    of teaching in a new context and in their early years of the teaching careers of CFL teachers in the Danish context. It has been shown that the multifaceted beliefs that CFL teachers hold are based on their personal experience, shaped by context, and mediated by their classroom practices. The educational...

  10. True Teaching Expertise: The Weaving Together of Theory and Practice

    Mascio, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    How do we strengthen the teaching profession? This question weighs on many educators, researchers, politicians, and parents. The public discourse around teaching often feels very negative; it does not clearly define teaching expertise, but it does reflect a very clear belief that many teachers just do not have it. In this article, a former…

  11. The spread of true and false news online.

    Vosoughi, Soroush; Roy, Deb; Aral, Sinan

    2018-03-09

    We investigated the differential diffusion of all of the verified true and false news stories distributed on Twitter from 2006 to 2017. The data comprise ~126,000 stories tweeted by ~3 million people more than 4.5 million times. We classified news as true or false using information from six independent fact-checking organizations that exhibited 95 to 98% agreement on the classifications. Falsehood diffused significantly farther, faster, deeper, and more broadly than the truth in all categories of information, and the effects were more pronounced for false political news than for false news about terrorism, natural disasters, science, urban legends, or financial information. We found that false news was more novel than true news, which suggests that people were more likely to share novel information. Whereas false stories inspired fear, disgust, and surprise in replies, true stories inspired anticipation, sadness, joy, and trust. Contrary to conventional wisdom, robots accelerated the spread of true and false news at the same rate, implying that false news spreads more than the truth because humans, not robots, are more likely to spread it. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  12. "True" posterior communicating aneurysms: Three cases, three strategies.

    Nery, Breno; Araujo, Ricardo; Burjaili, Bruno; Smith, Timothy R; Rodrigues, Jose Carlos; Silva, Marcelo Nery

    2016-01-01

    The authors provide a review of true aneurysms of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA). Three cases admitted in our hospital are presented and discussed as follows. First patient is a 51-year-old female presenting with a Fisher II, Hunt-Hess III (headache and confusion) subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from a ruptured true aneurysm of the right PCoA. She underwent a successful ipsilateral pterional craniotomy for aneurysm clipping and was discharged on postoperative day 4 without neurological deficit. Second patient is a 53-year-old female with a Fisher I, Hunt-Hess III (headache, mild hemiparesis) SAH and multiple aneurisms, one from left ophthalmic carotid artery and one (true) from right PCoA. These lesions were approached and successfully treated by a single pterional craniotomy on the left side. The patient was discharged 4 days after surgery, with complete recovery of muscle strength during follow-up. Third patient is a 69-year-old male with a Fisher III, Hunt-Hess III (headache and confusion) SAH, from a true PCoA on the right. He had a left subclavian artery occlusion with flow theft from the right vertebral artery to the left vertebral artery. The patient underwent endovascular treatment with angioplasty and stent placement on the left subclavian artery that resulted in aneurysm occlusion. In conclusion, despite their seldom occurrence, true PCoA aneurysms can be successfully treated with different strategies.

  13. The true cost of electric power. Summary for policymakers

    Burtraw, Dallas; Knupnick, Alan [Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States). Center for Energy Economics and Policy

    2012-06-15

    This report examines the various methods that have been used to measure 'true' costs of electricity generation technologies and looks at how such estimates can be used in company decision-making and public policy to ensure that investments are directed at the electricity generation methods with the lowest true costs to investors and society. In some geographic areas, adequate data and methods exist to make a solid estimate of the total social costs of energy production. In those places where the data or methods (or both) are less robust, it is possible to use a benefits transfer approach that still gives stakeholders important guidance about the scale of the true costs of their investments and to get started in formulating policies to incorporate those costs into the market price.

  14. The Relationships among Chinese Practicing Teachers' Epistemic Beliefs, Pedagogical Beliefs and Their Beliefs about the Use of ICT

    Deng, Feng; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Lee, Min-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationships among practicing teachers' epistemic beliefs, pedagogical beliefs and their beliefs about the use of ICT through survey methodology. Participants were 396 high school practicing teachers from mainland China. The path analysis results analyzed via structural equation modelling technique indicated…

  15. Witchcraft Beliefs and Witch Hunts

    Koning, N.B.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an interdisciplinary explanation of the cross-cultural similarities and evolutionary patterns of witchcraft beliefs. It argues that human social dilemmas have led to the evolution of a fear system that is sensitive to signs of deceit and envy. This was adapted in the evolutionary

  16. Heterogeneous Beliefs and Climate Catastrophes

    Kiseleva, T.

    2016-01-01

    We study how heterogeneous beliefs about the causes and extent of global warming affect local mitigation and adaptation strategies and therefore global climate dynamics. Local policies are determined by expectations of policy makers about future climate. There are three types of expectations: strong

  17. Resilience: It Begins with Beliefs

    Truebridge, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Educators' beliefs are powerful, affecting not only their pedagogical practices, but also student efficacy and success. The academic achievement of any particular student may rely greatly on whether the teacher believes that student has the ability to succeed. This article affirms the imperative for administrators and educators to spend time…

  18. Astrology Beliefs among Undergraduate Students

    Sugarman, Hannah; Impey, Chris; Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, Jessie

    2011-01-01

    A survey of the science knowledge and attitudes toward science of nearly 10000 undergraduates at a large public university over a 20-year period included several questions addressing student beliefs in astrology and other forms of pseudoscience. The results from our data reveal that a large majority of students (78%) considered astrology "very" or…

  19. Negligent Rape and Reasonable Beliefs

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2008-01-01

    practice such defences are often acknowledged if the belief is reasonable by some general standard, even when this standard does not pertain to the rules currently governing the practice of intercourse in Denmark. As a result it has often been argued that the notion of negligent rape should be introduced...

  20. Machiavellian Beliefs and Social Influence.

    O'Hair, Dan; Cody, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    Replicates previous findings of separate Machiavellian belief constructs (Deceit, Flatter, Immorality, and Cynicism). Indicates that different constructs predict selection of compliance-gaining strategies; for example, actors who scored high on Immorality used more referent influence on superiors. Discusses implications of this study concerning a…

  1. Changing Conspiracy Beliefs through Rationality and Ridiculing.

    Orosz, Gábor; Krekó, Péter; Paskuj, Benedek; Tóth-Király, István; Bőthe, Beáta; Roland-Lévy, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Conspiracy theory (CT) beliefs can be harmful. How is it possible to reduce them effectively? Three reduction strategies were tested in an online experiment using general and well-known CT beliefs on a comprehensive randomly assigned Hungarian sample ( N = 813): exposing rational counter CT arguments, ridiculing those who hold CT beliefs, and empathizing with the targets of CT beliefs. Several relevant individual differences were measured. Rational and ridiculing arguments were effective in reducing CT, whereas empathizing with the targets of CTs had no effect. Individual differences played no role in CT reduction, but the perceived intelligence and competence of the individual who conveyed the CT belief-reduction information contributed to the success of the CT belief reduction. Rational arguments targeting the link between the object of belief and its characteristics appear to be an effective tool in fighting conspiracy theory beliefs.

  2. Mood-congruent true and false memory: effects of depression.

    Howe, Mark L; Malone, Catherine

    2011-02-01

    The Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm was used to investigate the effect of depression on true and false recognition. In this experiment true and false recognition was examined across positive, neutral, negative, and depression-relevant lists for individuals with and without a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. Results showed that participants with major depressive disorder falsely recognised significantly more depression-relevant words than non-depressed controls. These findings also parallel recent research using recall instead of recognition and show that there are clear mood congruence effects for depression on false memory performance. © 2011 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  3. Posttraumatic True Aneurysm of the Axillary Artery Following Blunt Trauma

    Tugrul Goncu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the axillary artery aneurysm cases arise as pseudoaneurysms secondary to blunt or iatrogenic trauma. Isolated traumatic true axillary artery aneurysm is a relatively unusual disorder and generally occurs with repetitive blunt trauma. A 22-year-old female patient with distal axillary artery true aneurysm due to simple blunt axillothoracic trauma is presented. The aneurysm was excised with subpectoral-axillary approach and saphenous vein graft interposition was applied. Long-term follow-up with the patient was uneventful.

  4. Illness causal beliefs in Turkish immigrants

    Klimidis Steven

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People hold a wide variety of beliefs concerning the causes of illness. Such beliefs vary across cultures and, among immigrants, may be influenced by many factors, including level of acculturation, gender, level of education, and experience of illness and treatment. This study examines illness causal beliefs in Turkish-immigrants in Australia. Methods Causal beliefs about somatic and mental illness were examined in a sample of 444 members of the Turkish population of Melbourne. The socio-demographic characteristics of the sample were broadly similar to those of the Melbourne Turkish community. Five issues were examined: the structure of causal beliefs; the relative frequency of natural, supernatural and metaphysical beliefs; ascription of somatic, mental, or both somatic and mental conditions to the various causes; the correlations of belief types with socio-demographic, modernizing and acculturation variables; and the relationship between causal beliefs and current illness. Results Principal components analysis revealed two broad factors, accounting for 58 percent of the variation in scores on illness belief scales, distinctly interpretable as natural and supernatural beliefs. Second, beliefs in natural causes were more frequent than beliefs in supernatural causes. Third, some causal beliefs were commonly linked to both somatic and mental conditions while others were regarded as more specific to either somatic or mental disorders. Last, there was a range of correlations between endorsement of belief types and factors defining heterogeneity within the community, including with demographic factors, indicators of modernizing and acculturative processes, and the current presence of illness. Conclusion Results supported the classification of causal beliefs proposed by Murdock, Wilson & Frederick, with a division into natural and supernatural causes. While belief in natural causes is more common, belief in supernatural causes

  5. Illness causal beliefs in Turkish immigrants.

    Minas, Harry; Klimidis, Steven; Tuncer, Can

    2007-07-24

    People hold a wide variety of beliefs concerning the causes of illness. Such beliefs vary across cultures and, among immigrants, may be influenced by many factors, including level of acculturation, gender, level of education, and experience of illness and treatment. This study examines illness causal beliefs in Turkish-immigrants in Australia. Causal beliefs about somatic and mental illness were examined in a sample of 444 members of the Turkish population of Melbourne. The socio-demographic characteristics of the sample were broadly similar to those of the Melbourne Turkish community. Five issues were examined: the structure of causal beliefs; the relative frequency of natural, supernatural and metaphysical beliefs; ascription of somatic, mental, or both somatic and mental conditions to the various causes; the correlations of belief types with socio-demographic, modernizing and acculturation variables; and the relationship between causal beliefs and current illness. Principal components analysis revealed two broad factors, accounting for 58 percent of the variation in scores on illness belief scales, distinctly interpretable as natural and supernatural beliefs. Second, beliefs in natural causes were more frequent than beliefs in supernatural causes. Third, some causal beliefs were commonly linked to both somatic and mental conditions while others were regarded as more specific to either somatic or mental disorders. Last, there was a range of correlations between endorsement of belief types and factors defining heterogeneity within the community, including with demographic factors, indicators of modernizing and acculturative processes, and the current presence of illness. Results supported the classification of causal beliefs proposed by Murdock, Wilson & Frederick, with a division into natural and supernatural causes. While belief in natural causes is more common, belief in supernatural causes persists despite modernizing and acculturative influences. Different

  6. Negatively-Biased Credulity and the Cultural Evolution of Beliefs

    Fessler, Daniel M. T.; Pisor, Anne C.; Navarrete, Carlos David

    2014-01-01

    The functions of cultural beliefs are often opaque to those who hold them. Accordingly, to benefit from cultural evolution’s ability to solve complex adaptive problems, learners must be credulous. However, credulity entails costs, including susceptibility to exploitation, and effort wasted due to false beliefs. One determinant of the optimal level of credulity is the ratio between the costs of two types of errors: erroneous incredulity (failing to believe information that is true) and erroneous credulity (believing information that is false). This ratio can be expected to be asymmetric when information concerns hazards, as the costs of erroneous incredulity will, on average, exceed the costs of erroneous credulity; no equivalent asymmetry characterizes information concerning benefits. Natural selection can therefore be expected to have crafted learners’ minds so as to be more credulous toward information concerning hazards. This negatively-biased credulity extends general negativity bias, the adaptive tendency for negative events to be more salient than positive events. Together, these biases constitute attractors that should shape cultural evolution via the aggregated effects of learners’ differential retention and transmission of information. In two studies in the U.S., we demonstrate the existence of negatively-biased credulity, and show that it is most pronounced in those who believe the world to be dangerous, individuals who may constitute important nodes in cultural transmission networks. We then document the predicted imbalance in cultural content using a sample of urban legends collected from the Internet and a sample of supernatural beliefs obtained from ethnographies of a representative collection of the world’s cultures, showing that beliefs about hazards predominate in both. PMID:24736596

  7. Negatively-biased credulity and the cultural evolution of beliefs.

    Daniel M T Fessler

    Full Text Available The functions of cultural beliefs are often opaque to those who hold them. Accordingly, to benefit from cultural evolution's ability to solve complex adaptive problems, learners must be credulous. However, credulity entails costs, including susceptibility to exploitation, and effort wasted due to false beliefs. One determinant of the optimal level of credulity is the ratio between the costs of two types of errors: erroneous incredulity (failing to believe information that is true and erroneous credulity (believing information that is false. This ratio can be expected to be asymmetric when information concerns hazards, as the costs of erroneous incredulity will, on average, exceed the costs of erroneous credulity; no equivalent asymmetry characterizes information concerning benefits. Natural selection can therefore be expected to have crafted learners' minds so as to be more credulous toward information concerning hazards. This negatively-biased credulity extends general negativity bias, the adaptive tendency for negative events to be more salient than positive events. Together, these biases constitute attractors that should shape cultural evolution via the aggregated effects of learners' differential retention and transmission of information. In two studies in the U.S., we demonstrate the existence of negatively-biased credulity, and show that it is most pronounced in those who believe the world to be dangerous, individuals who may constitute important nodes in cultural transmission networks. We then document the predicted imbalance in cultural content using a sample of urban legends collected from the Internet and a sample of supernatural beliefs obtained from ethnographies of a representative collection of the world's cultures, showing that beliefs about hazards predominate in both.

  8. Negatively-biased credulity and the cultural evolution of beliefs.

    Fessler, Daniel M T; Pisor, Anne C; Navarrete, Carlos David

    2014-01-01

    The functions of cultural beliefs are often opaque to those who hold them. Accordingly, to benefit from cultural evolution's ability to solve complex adaptive problems, learners must be credulous. However, credulity entails costs, including susceptibility to exploitation, and effort wasted due to false beliefs. One determinant of the optimal level of credulity is the ratio between the costs of two types of errors: erroneous incredulity (failing to believe information that is true) and erroneous credulity (believing information that is false). This ratio can be expected to be asymmetric when information concerns hazards, as the costs of erroneous incredulity will, on average, exceed the costs of erroneous credulity; no equivalent asymmetry characterizes information concerning benefits. Natural selection can therefore be expected to have crafted learners' minds so as to be more credulous toward information concerning hazards. This negatively-biased credulity extends general negativity bias, the adaptive tendency for negative events to be more salient than positive events. Together, these biases constitute attractors that should shape cultural evolution via the aggregated effects of learners' differential retention and transmission of information. In two studies in the U.S., we demonstrate the existence of negatively-biased credulity, and show that it is most pronounced in those who believe the world to be dangerous, individuals who may constitute important nodes in cultural transmission networks. We then document the predicted imbalance in cultural content using a sample of urban legends collected from the Internet and a sample of supernatural beliefs obtained from ethnographies of a representative collection of the world's cultures, showing that beliefs about hazards predominate in both.

  9. Order effects in research on paranormal belief.

    Dudley, R Thomas

    2002-04-01

    Measures of paranormal belief and emotional intelligence were given a group of 72 college students using Tobacyk's Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and Schutte, Malouff, Hall, Haggerty, Cooper, Golden, and Dornheim's Emotional Intelligence Scale. Order effects indicated that participants who took the Paranormal Belief Scale first had lower emotional intelligence scores than those who took the Emotional Intelligence Scale first. The study demonstrates the importance of taking order effects into account when conducting research on paranormal belief.

  10. Folk beliefs of cultural changes in China

    Xu, Yi; Hamamura, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    For the last several decades, Chinese society has experienced transformative changes. How are these changes understood among Chinese people? To examine this question, Part 1 in this research solicited folk beliefs of cultural change from a group of Chinese participants in an open-ended format, and the generated folk beliefs were rated by another group of participants in Part 2 to gage each belief's level of agreement. Part 3 plotted the folk beliefs retained in Part 2 using the Google Ngram V...

  11. Changing Conspiracy Beliefs through Rationality and Ridiculing

    Orosz, Gábor; Krekó, Péter; Paskuj, Benedek; Tóth-Király, István; Bőthe, Beáta; Roland-Lévy, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Conspiracy theory (CT) beliefs can be harmful. How is it possible to reduce them effectively? Three reduction strategies were tested in an online experiment using general and well-known CT beliefs on a comprehensive randomly assigned Hungarian sample (N = 813): exposing rational counter CT arguments, ridiculing those who hold CT beliefs, and empathizing with the targets of CT beliefs. Several relevant individual differences were measured. Rational and ridiculing arguments were effective in re...

  12. Bureaucratic politics and national preference formation in EU constitutional politics – is the state merely a transmission belt?

    Beach, Derek

      In a perfect representative democracy, there is a democratic chain of delegation that links voters with their elected representatives and then onwards to the executive branch and finally to civil servants in the bureaucracy (Strøm 2000). But is this an accurate picture of foreign policy making ...... that bureaucratic politics do matter, and that how positions are coordinated did have some independent impact upon national positions. But in the majority of issues, it does appear that the state was merely a transmission belt for executive priorities....

  13. The moderating role of rational beliefs in the relationship between irrational beliefs and posttraumatic stress symptomology.

    Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary; Boduszek, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) assumes that rational beliefs act as cognitive protective factors against the development of psychopathology; however little empirical evidence exists regarding the nature of the possible protective effects that they offer. The current study investigates whether rational beliefs moderate the impact of irrational beliefs on posttraumatic stress symptomology (PTS). Three hundred and thirteen active law enforcement, military, and related emergency service personnel took part in the current study. Sequential moderated multiple regression analysis was employed to investigate: (i) the direct impact of irrational beliefs on PTS; (ii) the direct impact of rational beliefs on PTS; (iii) the moderating effects of rational beliefs in the relationship between irrational beliefs and PTS. The irrational beliefs predicted by REBT theory emerged as critical predictors of PTS symptomology, in particular Depreciation beliefs. Rational beliefs (Preferences, and Acceptance beliefs) had a direct, negative impact on levels of PTS, and Acceptance beliefs moderated the impact of Catastrophizing beliefs on PTS. Irrational beliefs are important cognitive vulnerability factors in symptoms of PTS, while rational beliefs (Acceptance) appear to have a protective role in the emergence of PTS symptoms, both directly and by moderating the impact of Catastrophizing beliefs.

  14. Korean Americans' Beliefs about Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Shin-Young Lee, PhD, RN

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: Results show the critical need for in-depth understanding of unique health and cultural beliefs about CRC screening in KAs. These beliefs could be useful for future intervention strategies to change health and cultural beliefs in order to increase CRC screening participation in KAs.

  15. Losing Belief, While Keeping Up the Attitudes

    Klausen, Søren Harnow

    2013-01-01

    While arguing that many cognitive states do indeed have a characteristic phenomenology, I find reasons for exempting beliefs from the program of cognitive phenomenology. Examining the complex relationship between beliefs and various kinds of conscious experience shows that belief is a messy conce...

  16. Well-Founded Belief and Perceptual Justification

    Broncano-Berrocal, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    According to Alan Millar, justified beliefs are well-founded beliefs. Millar cashes out the notion of well-foundedness in terms of having an adequate reason to believe something and believing it for that reason. To make his account of justified belief compatible with perceptual justification he...

  17. Forward induction reasoning and correct beliefs

    Perea y Monsuwé, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    All equilibrium concepts implicitly make a correct beliefs assumption, stating that a player believes that his opponents are correct about his first-order beliefs. In this paper we show that in many dynamic games of interest, this correct beliefs assumption may be incompatible with a very basic form

  18. Islamic Cultures: Health Care Beliefs and Practices.

    Kemp, Charles

    1996-01-01

    Presents an overview of Islamic health care beliefs and practices, noting health-related social and spiritual issues, fundamental beliefs and themes in Islam, health care beliefs and practices common among Muslims, and health-affecting social roles among Muslims. Cultural, religious, and social barriers to health care and ways to reduce them are…

  19. Changing Preservice Teachers' Beliefs about Motivating Students

    Peterson, Sarah; Schreiber, Jim; Moss, Connie

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of an educational psychology course on students' beliefs about motivating students. After providing opportunities to engage in systematic intentional inquiry of their beliefs about teaching and learning, we expected that students' beliefs would become more soundly based in theory and research. Following several classes on…

  20. Semantics and pragmatics of social influence: how affirmations and denials affect beliefs in referent propositions.

    Gruenfeld, D H; Wyer, R S

    1992-01-01

    Ss read either affirmations or denials of target propositions that ostensibly came from either newspapers or reference volumes. Denials of the validity of a proposition that was already assumed to be false increased Ss' beliefs in this proposition. The effect generalized to beliefs in related propositions that could be used to support the target's validity. When denials came from a newspaper, their "boomerang effect" was nearly equal in magnitude to the direct effect of affirming the target proposition's validity. When Ss were asked explicitly to consider the implications of the assertions, however, the impact of denials was eliminated. Affirmations of a target proposition that was already assumed to be true also had a boomerang effect. Results have implications for the effects of both semantic and pragmatic processing of assertions on belief change.

  1. Differentiating true and false schematic memories in older adults.

    Webb, Christina E; Dennis, Nancy A

    2018-02-06

    While schemas aid memory for schematically related information, the gist induced by the schema can also lead to high rates of false memories, especially in older adults. The neural mechanisms that support and differentiate true and false memories in aging are not well understood. The current study sought to clarify this, using a novel scene paradigm to investigate the role of schemas on true and false memories in older adults. Healthy older adults encoded schematic scenes (e.g., bathroom). At retrieval, participants were tested on their memory for both schematic and non-schematic targets and lures while fMRI data was collected. Results indicate that true memories were supported by the typical retrieval network, and activity in this network was greater for true than false memories. Schema specific retrieval was supported by mPFC, extending this common finding to aging. While no region differentiated false memories compared to correct rejections, results showed that individual differences in false memory rates were associated with variability in neural activity. The findings underscore the importance of elucidating the neural basis of cognition within older adults, as well as the specific contribution of individual differences to the neural basis of memory errors in aging. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. True Umbilical Cord Knot Leading to Fetal Demise

    weight was 140 kg, height 1.69 m, blood pressure 120 mmHg. The booking ... The fetal heart tones were monitored using Doppler sonicaid. They remained normal throughout .... true knot, seemingly because the umbilical cord vessels can be compressed ... Therefore, the Wharton's jelly surrounding the fetal vessels has the ...

  3. Endovascular treatment of ruptured true posterior communicating artery aneurysms.

    Yang, Yonglin; Su, Wandong; Meng, Qinghai

    2015-01-01

    Although true posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms are rare, they are of vital importance. We reviewed 9 patients with this fatal disease, who were treated with endovascular embolization, and discussed the meaning of endovascular embolization for the treatment of true PCoA aneurysms. From September 2006 to May 2012, 9 patients with digital substraction angiography (DSA) confirmed true PCoA aneurysms were treated with endovascular embolization. Patients were followed-up with a minimal duration of 17 months and assessed by Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score. All the patients presented with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage from the ruptured aneurysms. The ratio of males to females was 1:2, and the average age of onset was 59.9 (ranging from 52 to 72) years. The preoperative Hunt-Hess grade scores were I to III. All patients had recovered satisfactorily. No permanent neurological deficits were left. Currently, endovascular embolization can be recommended as the top choice for the treatment of most true PCoA aneurysms, due to its advanced technique, especially the application of the stent-assisted coiling technique, combined with its advantage of mininal invasiveness and quick recovery. However, the choice of treatment methods should be based on the clinical and anatomical characteristics of the aneurysm and the skillfulness of the surgeon.

  4. Activation of Imaginal Information on True and False Memories

    Chang, Sau Hou; Pierce, Benton H.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the activation of imaginal information on true and false memories. Participants studied a series of concrete objects in pictures or words. The imagery group (n = 96) was instructed to form images and the control group (n = 96) was not instructed to do so. Both groups were then given a standard recognition memory test and…

  5. Using Story Contexts to Bias Children's True and False Memories

    Howe, Mark L.; Wilkinson, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    The effects of embedding standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists into stories whose context biased interpretation either toward or away from the overall themes of the DRM lists on both true and false recognition were investigated with 7- and 11-year-olds. These biased story contexts were compared with the same children's susceptibility to…

  6. True navigation and magnetic maps in spiny lobsters.

    Boles, Larry C; Lohmann, Kenneth J

    2003-01-02

    Animals are capable of true navigation if, after displacement to a location where they have never been, they can determine their position relative to a goal without relying on familiar surroundings, cues that emanate from the destination, or information collected during the outward journey. So far, only a few animals, all vertebrates, have been shown to possess true navigation. Those few invertebrates that have been carefully studied return to target areas using path integration, landmark recognition, compass orientation and other mechanisms that cannot compensate for displacements into unfamiliar territory. Here we report, however, that the spiny lobster Panulirus argus oriented reliably towards a capture site when displaced 12-37 km to unfamiliar locations, even when deprived of all known orientation cues en route. Little is known about how lobsters and other animals determine position during true navigation. To test the hypothesis that lobsters derive positional information from the Earth's magnetic field, lobsters were exposed to fields replicating those that exist at specific locations in their environment. Lobsters tested in a field north of the capture site oriented themselves southwards, whereas those tested in a field south of the capture site oriented themselves northwards. These results imply that true navigation in spiny lobsters, and perhaps in other animals, is based on a magnetic map sense.

  7. BMI may underestimate the socioeconomic gradient in true obesity

    van den Berg, G.; van Eijsden, M.; Vrijkotte, T. G. M.; Gemke, R. J. B. J.

    2013-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) does not make a distinction between fat mass and lean mass. In children, high fat mass appears to be associated with low maternal education, as well as low lean mass because maternal education is associated with physical activity. Therefore, BMI might underestimate true obesity

  8. MR-Venography Using High Resolution True-FISP

    Spuentrup, E. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Medicine; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Buecker, A.; Guenther, R.W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Stuber, M. [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Medicine; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Philips Med. Syst., Best (Netherlands)

    2001-08-01

    A new fast MR-venography approach using a high resolution True-FISP imaging sequence was investigated in 20 patients suffering from 23 deep vein thromboses. Diagnosis was proven by X-ray venography, CT or ultrasound examination. The presented technique allowed for clear thrombus visualization with a high contrast to the surrounding blood pool even in calf veins. Acquisition time was less than 10 minutes for imaging the pelvis and the legs. No contrast media was needed. The presented high resolution True-FISP MR-veography is a promising non-invasive, fast MR-venography approach for detection of deep venous thrombosis. (orig.) [German] Eine neue schnelle, oertlich hochaufgeloeste MR-Phlebographietechnik mit einer axialen True-FISP Bildgebungssequenz wurde an 20 Patienten mit 23 nach-gewiesenen tiefen Beinvenenthrombosen untersucht. Die Befunde wurden mit einer konventionellen Roentgenphlebographie, einer CT oder einer Sonographie gesichert. Die vorgestellte Technik erlaubte in allen Faellen eine Thrombusdarstellung mit hohem Kontrast zum umgebenden venoesen Blut, wobei aufgrund der hohen Ortsaufloesung auch die Unterschenkelvenen beurteilt werden konnten. Die Datenaufnahmezeit zur Untersuchung des Beckens und der Beine betrug weniger als 10 Minuten. Kontrastmittel wurde nicht benoetigt. Die vorgestellte MR-Phlebographietechnik unter Verwendung einer oertlich hochauf-geloesten True-FISP Sequenz ist eine neue, vielversprechende, nicht-invasive Technik zur Diagnostik der tiefen Bein- und Beckenvenenthrombose. (orig.)

  9. Molecular characterization of true morels (Morchella) in Turkey

    A collection of 247 true morels (Morchella spp.) was made from 10 different provinces of Turkey during the 2007-2008 growing season. This collection was analyzed for species diversity using phylogenetic analyses of partial Ribonucleic acid (RNA) polymerase I (RPB1) and nuclear ribosomal large subuni...

  10. Detecting the True Nature of Allegations of Rape

    De Zutter, André; Horselenberg, Robert; van Koppen, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    A study was conducted to test whether it is possible to build a model to distinguish true and false allegations of rape based on the theory of fabricated rape. The theory is based on the principle that a false complainant of rape has not been raped and has to fabricate a story while the story of a

  11. True fir-hemlock spacing trials: design and first results.

    Robert O. Curtis; Gary W. Clendenen; Jan A. Henderson

    2000-01-01

    A series of 18 precommercial thinning trials was established in true fir-hemlock stands in the Olympic Mountains and along the west side of the Cascade Range in Washington and Oregon from 1987 through 1994. This paper documents establishment of these installations and presents some preliminary observations and results. Substantial differences in growth rates in height...

  12. True and Fair View: Incentive or Inhibitor for Creative Accounting?

    Ciocan Claudia-Cătălina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of accounting is to present information about the financial position, changes forthe financial position and performance of an economic entity and the financial statements mustpresent a true and fair view of the economic reality for the enterprise concerned. Creativeaccounting is a present issue, a phenomenon that increases users mistrust in financial statements,being considered a manipulation of figures in order to obtain a favorable image, far from beingtrue. In order to address this issue, we analyzed several definitions and forms of this concept, andfollowed how they relate to the objective of the true and fair view. The paper points out that theinteraction between creative accounting and true and fair view can be regarded in a double way:on one side, taking into account the influence of creative accounting on the objective of the trueand fair view, and, on the other side, considering the influence of the perception of the true and fairview on the choice of these techniques.

  13. Understanding the Mind or Predicting Signal-Dependent Action? Performance of Children With and Without Autism on Analogues of the False-Belief Task

    Bowler, D. M.; Briskman, J.; Gurvidi, N.; Fornells-Ambrojo, M.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the claim that correct performance on unexpected transfer false-belief tasks specifically involves mental-state understanding, two experiments were carried out with children with autism, intellectual disabilities, and typical development. In both experiments, children were given a standard unexpected transfer false-belief task and a mental-state-free, mechanical analogue task in which participants had to predict the destination of a train based on true or false signal information....

  14. Beliefs about work and beliefs about groupwork: Exploring the relationship

    Cullen, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Smrt & Karau’s (2011) finding that the Protestant Work Ethic (PWE) influences individual behaviour towards groups, emphasized that individuals who have a stronger PWE are less likely to socially loaf. This note aims to contribute to this research by exploring the influence which a key component of the PWE, the vocation, has on individual beliefs about groupwork. An online questionnaire based on Wrzesniewski et al.’s (1997) research on personal relationships to work and Karau & Elsaid’s (200...

  15. Introducing the modified paranormal belief scale: distinguishing between classic paranormal beliefs, religious paranormal beliefs and conventional religiosity among undergraduates in Northern Ireland and Wales

    Williams, Emyr; Francis, Leslie J.; Lewis, Christopher Alan

    2009-01-01

    Previous empirical studies concerned with the association between paranormal beliefs and conventional religiosity have produced conflicting evidence. Drawing on Rice's (2003) distinction between classic paranormal beliefs and religious paranormal beliefs, the present study proposed a modified form of the Tobacyk Revised Paranormal Belief Scale to produce separate scores for these two forms of paranormal belief, styled 'religious paranormal beliefs' and 'classic paranormal beliefs'. Data provi...

  16. Apparent and true resistant hypertension: definition, prevalence and outcomes.

    Judd, E; Calhoun, D A

    2014-08-01

    Resistant hypertension, defined as blood pressure (BP) remaining above goal despite the use of > or =3 antihypertensive medications at maximally tolerated doses (one ideally being a diuretic) or BP that requires > or =4 agents to achieve control, has received more attention with increased efforts to improve BP control rates and the emergence of device-based therapies for hypertension. This classically defined resistant group consists of patients with true resistant hypertension, controlled resistant hypertension and pseudo-resistant hypertension. In studies where pseudo-resistant hypertension cannot be excluded (for example, 24-h ambulatory BP not obtained), the term apparent resistant hypertension has been used to identify 'apparent' lack of control on > or =3 medications. Large, well-designed studies have recently reported the prevalence of resistant hypertension. Pooling prevalence data from these studies and others within North America and Europe with a combined sample size of >600,000 hypertensive participants, the prevalence of resistant hypertension is 14.8% of treated hypertensive patients and 12.5% of all hypertensives. However, the prevalence of true resistant hypertension, defined as uncontrolled both by office and 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring with confirmed medication adherence, may be more meaningful in terms of identifying risk and estimating benefit from newer therapies like renal denervation. Rates of cardiovascular events and mortality follow mean 24-h ambulatory BPs in patients with resistant hypertension, and true resistant hypertension represents the highest risk. The prevalence of true resistant hypertension has not been directly measured in large trials; however, combined data from smaller studies suggest that true resistant hypertension is present in half of the patients with resistant hypertension who are uncontrolled in the office. Our pooled analysis shows prevalence rates of 10.1% and 7.9% for uncontrolled resistant hypertension among

  17. Neural Global Pattern Similarity Underlies True and False Memories.

    Ye, Zhifang; Zhu, Bi; Zhuang, Liping; Lu, Zhonglin; Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Gui

    2016-06-22

    The neural processes giving rise to human memory strength signals remain poorly understood. Inspired by formal computational models that posit a central role of global matching in memory strength, we tested a novel hypothesis that the strengths of both true and false memories arise from the global similarity of an item's neural activation pattern during retrieval to that of all the studied items during encoding (i.e., the encoding-retrieval neural global pattern similarity [ER-nGPS]). We revealed multiple ER-nGPS signals that carried distinct information and contributed differentially to true and false memories: Whereas the ER-nGPS in the parietal regions reflected semantic similarity and was scaled with the recognition strengths of both true and false memories, ER-nGPS in the visual cortex contributed solely to true memory. Moreover, ER-nGPS differences between the parietal and visual cortices were correlated with frontal monitoring processes. By combining computational and neuroimaging approaches, our results advance a mechanistic understanding of memory strength in recognition. What neural processes give rise to memory strength signals, and lead to our conscious feelings of familiarity? Using fMRI, we found that the memory strength of a given item depends not only on how it was encoded during learning, but also on the similarity of its neural representation with other studied items. The global neural matching signal, mainly in the parietal lobule, could account for the memory strengths of both studied and unstudied items. Interestingly, a different global matching signal, originated from the visual cortex, could distinguish true from false memories. The findings reveal multiple neural mechanisms underlying the memory strengths of events registered in the brain. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/366792-11$15.00/0.

  18. PLATONISTS AND GNOSTICS ON NEGATIVE THEOLOGY AND TRUE INNER SELF

    VICTOR ALEXANDRU PRICOPI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Late Antiquity is characterized by a strong search for human’s true nature. This is proper to almost all philosophical and religious movements in the first three Christian centuries. Christians, Gnostics, and philosophers of those days aim to find the true nature of man. In this study we will deal mainly with anthropology and gnoseology of Valentinian Gnostics and Platonists. In their case, knowledge of human nature is inextricably linked to knowledge of God's true nature. These thinkers say that the first Principle/the Father/the source of this universe is inherently unknowable, indescribable and unspeakable. However, God can be known, either through secret revelation (Gnostics or through a purely rational approach (Platonists. For these thinkers, the true knowledge of the Divine Principle and knowledge of the human being or the world we live in is carried out in a double sense. By knowing God is possible the knowledge of human nature, while knowing human nature unfolds the nature of the first Principle. This is due to the fact that although the creator is alien to this world, he is now here through man true nature. In other words, in man there is a spark of the divine that has fallen or was dropped in the sublunary world. These ideas are found in Plato’s Phaedrus, Meno or Phaedo and also in some Valentinian gnostic texts as Gospel of Truth, Tripartite Tractate, Gospel of Philip and Treatise on Resurrection. Therefore, in this paper we will analyze the Platonists conceptions about human nature in comparison to Gnostic conception of man, as it appears in Plato’s works and Coptic texts discovered in Egypt, at Nag Hammadi.

  19. Do Our Perceptions of Students’ Activity Preferences Come True?

    Hossein Saadabadi M.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to have an effective second language education, students, and teachers should share beliefs and assumptions about language and learning as well as educational goals.  Achieving such efficiency requires deep understanding of students’ and teachers’ beliefs, and considering them in the process of syllabus design and materials preparation for English courses. To provide a deeper understanding of Iranian university students’ preferences regarding activities in General English classes, this research tried to find the participants' preferences and expectations in foreign language learning and teaching through finding out  whether there is any correspondence between teachers' and learners' preferred activities,  and to what extent teachers’ beliefs about language learning and class activities correspond with those of the learners'. To obtain the required data, this study made use of a questionnaire that covered areas such as language skills, feedback, testing and evaluation, participation mode, and class size. statistical analysis of the data (Independent samples t-test showed that only 43.75%; namely, twenty one out of forty eight of the differences were significant at 0.05 or below. These findings indicate a need to take more time to share ideas with students regarding classroom practices.

  20. Effects of pretesting implicit self-determined motivation on behavioral engagement: evidence for the mere measurement effect at the implicit level

    Keatley, David A.; Clarke, David D.; Ferguson, Eamonn; Hagger, Martin S.

    2014-01-01

    Research into individuals’ intended behavior and performance has traditionally adopted explicitly measured, self-report constructs, and outcomes. More recently, research has shown that completing explicit self-report measures of constructs may effect subsequent behavior, termed the “mere measurement” effect. The aim of the present experiment was to investigate whether implicit measures of motivation showed a similar mere measurement effect on subsequent behavior. It may be the case that measu...

  1. Narcissism and belief in the paranormal.

    Roe, Chris A; Morgan, Claire L

    2002-04-01

    The present study was designed to assess whether the relationship between narcissistic personality and paranormal belief identified by Tobacyk and Mitchell earlier could be replicated with a general population and to see whether the effect could be found with a narrower definition of paranormal beliefs that focuses only on belief in psychic phenomena. 75 participants completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and two measures of paranormal belief, the Paranormal Belief Scale and the Australian Sheep-Goat Scale. There was no correlation between narcissism and Paranormal Belief Scale scores, but narcissism and Australian Sheep-Goat Scale scores were significantly positively correlated. Of the three subscales to the Australian Sheep-Goat measure, scores for narcissism correlated with belief in ESP and PK but not in Life after death. These relationships were interpreted in terms of need for control.

  2. Belief in reciprocity in a Chinese sample.

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Jianxin

    2012-08-01

    Belief in reciprocity refers to a personally internalized faith in the reciprocity norm: that people will return positive and negative interactions or favors in kind. The current study aims to examine the relationship between belief in reciprocity and altruism among a Chinese sample. The Personal Norm of Reciprocity Scale, Trait Forgiveness Scale, Prosocial Tendency Measure, and Altruism Scale were used to assess extent of belief in reciprocity, forgiveness, and prosocial motivation, respectively, among 204 Chinese undergraduates. The results indicated that belief in reciprocity was a partially negative, but not neutral, reciprocity norm for Chinese people. Specifically, belief in reciprocity was positively related to negative reciprocity, but not significantly related to positive reciprocity. Moreover, belief in reciprocity was negatively related to both prosocial tendency and altruistic motivation. The results also indicated that forgiveness largely mediated the effect of belief in reciprocity on altruism. Finally, the implications and limitations of the current study were discussed.

  3. Comparison of true metabolisable energy and true amino acid availability between normal maize and quality protein maize (Shandan 17

    Mei Li Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A precision-fed assay was conducted to determine true metabolisable energy and true amino acid digestibility in Chinese quality protein maize (QPM compared with normal maize (NM. Thirty adult roosters, kept in individual cages, were made to fast for 48h and then tub-fed 50g QPM or NM per bird and their excreta was colleted for the subsequent 48h. Additional fifteen roosters were made to fast in order to estimate endogenous losses of energy and amino acids (AA in excreta. Gross energy of the two types of maize were similar; the lysine content in NM and QPM were 0.27% and 0.41% (DM basis, respectively. True metabolisable energy (TME and true metabolisable energy nitrogen corrected (TMEn values of QPM and NM were not significantly different (P>0.05. Digestibility of some AA, including lysine and methionine, in QPM were higher than those in NM (P<0.05. The results of this study indicated that the nutritive value of QPM might be higher than that of NM.

  4. Airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a true paradox.

    Eapen, Mathew Suji; Myers, Stephen; Walters, Eugene Haydn; Sohal, Sukhwinder Singh

    2017-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is primarily an airway condition, which mainly affects cigarette smokers and presents with shortness of breath that is progressive and poorly reversible. In COPD research, there has been a long held belief that airway disease progression is due to inflammation. Although this may be true in the airway lumen with innate immunity activated by the effect of smoke or secondary to infection, the accurate picture of inflammatory cells in the airway wall, where the pathophysiological COPD remodeling occurs, is uncertain and debatable. Areas covered: The current review provides a comprehensive literature survey of the changes in the main inflammatory cells in human COPD patients and focuses on contrarian views that affect the prevailing dogma on inflammation. The review also delves into the role of oxidative stress and inflammasomes in modulating the immune response in COPD. Further, the effects of inflammation in affecting the epithelium, fibroblasts, and airway remodeling are discussed. Expert commentary: Inflammation as a driving force for airway wall damage and remodelling in early COPD is at the very least 'oversimplified' and is likely to be misleading. This has serious implications for rational thinking about the illness, including pathogenesis and designing therapy.

  5. Parent artery occlusion for ruptured "true" posterior communicating artery aneurysm.

    Mitsuhashi, Takashi; Takeda, Nobuaki; Oishi, Hidenori; Arai, Hajime

    2015-04-01

    A case of a patient with a ruptured true posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysm is reported, who had been managed by early endovascular parent artery occlusion with coils. The small blister aneurysm was located at the proximal PCoA itself and directed superiorly. Postoperative course was uneventful. During 1-month follow-up, the patient recovered well and could care for herself. Aneurysms of the PCoA itself are very rare. As reported to date, surgical procedures would favor microsurgical clipping over endovascular coil embolization. Endovascular treatment may be a good alternative to surgical trapping for true PCoA blister aneurysm. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. Endovascular treatment of a true posterior communicating artery aneurysm.

    Munarriz, Pablo M; Castaño-Leon, Ana M; Cepeda, Santiago; Campollo, Jorge; Alén, Jose F; Lagares, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms are most commonly located at the junction of the internal carotid artery and the PCoA. "True" PCoA aneurysms, which originate from the PCoA itself, are rarely encountered. Most previously reported cases were treated surgically mainly before the endovascular option became available. A 53-year-old male presented with sudden onset of right hemiparesis and aphasia. Left middle cerebral artery stroke was diagnosed. Further studies revealed a 3 mm left PCoA aneurysm arising from the PCoA itself, attached to neither the internal carotid artery nor the posterior cerebral artery. Endovascular treatment was performed and the aneurysm was coiled completely. Technical advances in endovascular interventional technology have permitted an additional approach to these lesions. The possible endovascular significance of the treatment of true PCoA aneurysms is discussed.

  7. Two Cases of True Uterine Artery Aneurysms Diagnosed during Pregnancy

    Schlütter, Jacob Mørup; Johansen, Gry; Helmig, Rikke Bek

    2016-01-01

    We report 2 cases of true uterine artery aneurysms diagnosed during pregnancy. Both cases presented with nonspecific symptoms such as urethral obstruction, minimal vaginal bleeding and lower abdominal pain in the 2nd trimester. Both aneurysms were diagnosed by color Doppler ultrasound. In the fir...... masses, vague bladder symptoms or radiating pelvic pain. The diagnosis is readily made by color Doppler imaging. Elective Caesarean section should be the preferred mode of delivery to avoid rupture of the aneurysm during labor.......We report 2 cases of true uterine artery aneurysms diagnosed during pregnancy. Both cases presented with nonspecific symptoms such as urethral obstruction, minimal vaginal bleeding and lower abdominal pain in the 2nd trimester. Both aneurysms were diagnosed by color Doppler ultrasound. In the first...

  8. Chernobyl, the true, the false and the uncertain

    1996-04-01

    This work makes the part between the true and the false information in France about the Chernobyl accident that have been read in different newspapers during the last years. This document is divide in three parts: what is true, what is false, what is uncertain. In each part are noticed extracts from newspapers face to the synthesis of thoughts about them. It is the fourth edition, the first one was in April 1990, the second one was in 1992 after a report from IAEA on the radiological consequences, the third edition was born in 1994 with the emergence of thyroid cancers especially among children, this fourth edition of 1996 takes into account the sanitary report given by the World Health Organisation experts in 1995. It confirms the progression of thyroid cancers and the absence of any other cancer as well leukemia. (N.C.)

  9. Content Adaptive True Motion Estimator for H.264 Video Compression

    P. Kulla

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Content adaptive true motion estimator for H.264 video coding is a fast block-based matching estimator with implemented multi-stage approach to estimate motion fields between two image frames. It considers the theory of 3D scene objects projection into 2D image plane for selection of motion vector candidates from the higher stages. The stages of the algorithm and its hierarchy are defined upon motion estimation reliability measurement (image blocks including two different directions of spatial gradient, blocks with one dominant spatial gradient and blocks including minimal spatial gradient. Parameters of the image classification into stages are set adaptively upon image structure. Due to search strategy are the estimated motion fields more corresponding to a true motion in an image sequence as in the case of conventional motion estimation algorithms that use fixed sets of motion vector candidates from tight neighborhood.

  10. Electrically tunable photonic true-time-delay line.

    Barmenkov, Yuri O; Cruz, José Luis; Díez, Antonio; Andrés, Miguel V

    2010-08-16

    We present a new application of the acousto-optic superlattice modulation of a fiber Bragg grating based on the dynamic phase and group delay properties of this fiber-optic component. We demonstrate a tunable photonic true-time-delay line based on the group delay change of the light reflected from the grating sidebands. The delay is electrically tuned by adjusting the voltage applied to a piezoelectric transducer that generates the acoustic wave propagating along the grating. In our experiments, a true-time delay of 400 ps is continuously adjusted (300 ps within the 3 dB amplitude range of the first sideband), using a 12 cm long uniform grating.

  11. An Explanation of True Dreams: Aristotle and Jung

    Ali Sanai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The naturalistic explanation of realized dream (or dreams that come true means that this phenomen will be explained regardless of supernatural agents. Aristotle in Parva naturalia and Jung in his works explained dream visionary. In this article by scrutiny on these thinkers’ theory, we will indicate the naturalistic approach to dream that is far- fetched for followers of metaphysics. In spite of this fact that Aristotle and Jung both belongs to different historical contexts, they have common aspects in terms of naturalistic method; in the universal or broad sense of word, but in terms of content both explain the true dream by the term “coincidence” or accidental conformity between objective events and psychological affairs. It also seems that the notion of Neutral monism in Jung is adaptive to Hylomorphism in Aristotle psychology, and this, provides a path for naturalistic approach to dream as one forms of consciousness.

  12. ID-Check: Online Concealed Information Test Reveals True Identity.

    Verschuere, Bruno; Kleinberg, Bennett

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has already changed people's lives considerably and is likely to drastically change forensic research. We developed a web-based test to reveal concealed autobiographical information. Initial studies identified a number of conditions that affect diagnostic efficiency. By combining these moderators, this study investigated the full potential of the online ID-check. Participants (n = 101) tried to hide their identity and claimed a false identity in a reaction time-based Concealed Information Test. Half of the participants were presented with personal details (e.g., first name, last name, birthday), whereas the others only saw irrelevant details. Results showed that participants' true identity could be detected with high accuracy (AUC = 0.98; overall accuracy: 86-94%). Online memory detection can reliably and validly detect whether someone is hiding their true identity. This suggests that online memory detection might become a valuable tool for forensic applications. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Commercialized VCSEL components fabricated at TrueLight Corporation

    Pan, Jin-Shan; Lin, Yung-Sen; Li, Chao-Fang A.; Chang, C. H.; Wu, Jack; Lee, Bor-Lin; Chuang, Y. H.; Tu, S. L.; Wu, Calvin; Huang, Kai-Feng

    2001-05-01

    TrueLight Corporation was found in 1997 and it is the pioneer of VCSEL components supplier in Taiwan. We specialize in the production and distribution of VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser) and other high-speed PIN-detector devices and components. Our core technology is developed to meet blooming demand of fiber optic transmission. Our intention is to diverse the device application into data communication, telecommunication and industrial markets. One mission is to provide the high performance, highly reliable and low-cost VCSEL components for data communication and sensing applications. For the past three years, TrueLight Corporation has entered successfully into the Gigabit Ethernet and the Fiber Channel data communication area. In this paper, we will focus on the fabrication of VCSEL components. We will present you the evolution of implanted and oxide-confined VCSEL process, device characterization, also performance in Gigabit data communication and the most important reliability issue

  14. Endovascular treatment of a true posterior communicating artery aneurysm

    Munarriz, Pablo M.; Castaño-Leon, Ana M.; Cepeda, Santiago; Campollo, Jorge; Alén, Jose F.; Lagares, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Background: Posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms are most commonly located at the junction of the internal carotid artery and the PCoA. "True" PCoA aneurysms, which originate from the PCoA itself, are rarely encountered. Most previously reported cases were treated surgically mainly before the endovascular option became available. Case Description: A 53-year-old male presented with sudden onset of right hemiparesis and aphasia. Left middle cerebral artery stroke was diagnosed. F...

  15. Apparent and true resistant hypertension: definition, prevalence and outcomes

    Judd, E; Calhoun, DA

    2014-01-01

    Resistant hypertension, defined as blood pressure (BP) remaining above goal despite the use of ≥3 antihypertensive medications at maximally tolerated doses (one ideally being a diuretic) or BP that requires ≥4 agents to achieve control, has received more attention with increased efforts to improve BP control rates and the emergence of device-based therapies for hypertension. This classically defined resistant group consists of patients with true resistant hypertension, controlled resistant hy...

  16. True many-particle scattering theory in oscillator representation

    Smirnov, Yu.F.; Shirokov, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    The scattering theory in oscillator representation in case of true multiparticle scattering (TMS) is generalized. All necessary expressions to construct a wave function of several particles system in a discrete or continuous spectra at TMS approximation are obtained. Essential advantage of the method suggested lies in the fact that the most difficult part: construction and diagonolization of the Hamiltonian cutted matrix is to be carried out only once, and then the wave function can be calculated at any designed energy. 23 refs

  17. True Crime: Forbrydelse, fortælling og dom

    Lundtofte, Thomas Enemark

    2016-01-01

    De seneste år har budt på en række opsigtsvækkende dokumentarkrimiserier, der har udfordret det amerikanske retssystem. Serierne inviterer os til at tage stilling til skyldsspørgsmål og blande os i debatten om retfærdighed. Angiveligt som følge af true crime-serien Making a Murderer (2015) bliver...

  18. Psychotherapy of the child with true brain damage.

    Christ, Adolph E

    1978-07-01

    Psychotherapy of the child with true brain damage presents special problems and requires special approaches. Those who are cognitively primitive--at the sensorimotor or preoperational stage of development--require a crisis approach; those at the concrete or formal operational stage can be treated with a modified insight-oriented approach. Development of a therapeutic alliance, establishment of workable defense mechanisms, identification and clarification of unalterable cognitive defects and issues of termination unique to this special population are discussed.

  19. The Influence of (Dis)belief in Free Will on Immoral Behavior.

    Caspar, Emilie A; Vuillaume, Laurène; Magalhães De Saldanha da Gama, Pedro A; Cleeremans, Axel

    2017-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of human existence is that we all hold beliefs that determine how we act. Amongst such beliefs, the idea that we are endowed with free will appears to be linked to prosocial behaviors, probably by enhancing the feeling of responsibility of individuals over their own actions. However, such effects appear to be more complex that one might have initially thought. Here, we aimed at exploring how induced disbeliefs in free will impact the sense of agency over the consequences of one's own actions in a paradigm that engages morality. To do so, we asked participants to choose to inflict or to refrain from inflicting an electric choc to another participant in exchange of a small financial benefit. Our results show that participants who were primed with a text defending neural determinism - the idea that humans are a mere bunch of neurons guided by their biology - administered fewer shocks and were less vindictive toward the other participant. Importantly, this finding only held for female participants. These results show the complex interaction between gender, (dis)beliefs in free will and moral behavior.

  20. Bias versus bias: harnessing hindsight to reveal paranormal belief change beyond demand characteristics.

    Kane, Michael J; Core, Tammy J; Hunt, R Reed

    2010-04-01

    Psychological change is difficult to assess, in part because self-reported beliefs and attitudes may be biased or distorted. The present study probed belief change, in an educational context, by using the hindsight bias to counter another bias that generally plagues assessment of subjective change. Although research has indicated that skepticism courses reduce paranormal beliefs, those findings may reflect demand characteristics (biases toward desired, skeptical responses). Our hindsight-bias procedure circumvented demand by asking students, following semester-long skepticism (and control) courses, to recall their precourse levels of paranormal belief. People typically remember themselves as previously thinking, believing, and acting as they do now, so current skepticism should provoke false recollections of previous skepticism. Given true belief change, therefore, skepticism students should have remembered themselves as having been more skeptical than they were. They did, at least about paranormal topics that were covered most extensively in the course. Our findings thus show hindsight to be useful in evaluating cognitive change beyond demand characteristics.

  1. How beliefs about self-creation inflate value in the human brain.

    Koster, Raphael; Sharot, Tali; Yuan, Rachel; De Martino, Benedetto; Norton, Michael I; Dolan, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    Humans have a tendency to overvalue their own ideas and creations. Understanding how these errors in judgement emerge is important for explaining suboptimal decisions, as when individuals and groups choose self-created alternatives over superior or equal ones. We show that such overvaluation is a reconstructive process that emerges when participants believe they have created an item, regardless of whether this belief is true or false. This overvaluation is observed both when false beliefs of self-creation are elicited (Experiment 1) or implanted (Experiment 2). Using brain imaging data we highlight the brain processes mediating an interaction between value and belief of self-creation. Specifically, following the creation manipulation there is an increased functional connectivity during valuation between the right caudate nucleus, where we show BOLD activity correlated with subjective value, and the left amygdala, where we show BOLD activity is linked to subjective belief. Our study highlights psychological and neurobiological processes through which false beliefs alter human valuation and in doing so throw light on a common source of error in judgements of value.

  2. Clear Speech - Mere Speech? How segmental and prosodic speech reduction shape the impression that speakers create on listeners

    Niebuhr, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    of reduction levels and perceived speaker attributes in which moderate reduction can make a better impression on listeners than no reduction. In addition to its relevance in reduction models and theories, this interplay is instructive for various fields of speech application from social robotics to charisma...... whether variation in the degree of reduction also has a systematic effect on the attributes we ascribe to the speaker who produces the speech signal. A perception experiment was carried out for German in which 46 listeners judged whether or not speakers showing 3 different combinations of segmental...... and prosodic reduction levels (unreduced, moderately reduced, strongly reduced) are appropriately described by 13 physical, social, and cognitive attributes. The experiment shows that clear speech is not mere speech, and less clear speech is not just reduced either. Rather, results revealed a complex interplay...

  3. 21st CENTURY LEARNING: IS ICT REALLY INTEGRATED IN EFL CLASSROOM OR MERELY SEGREGATED OUTSIDE THE CLASSROOM?

    Ririn Ovilia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 21st century, along with the rapid development of technology, the teachers begin to involve Information and Communication Technology (ICT in EFL learning. However, the case arises whether the use of ICT is really integrated or merely segregated outside the classroom. This study was a case study which attempted to see the practice of integrating ICT in EFL classroom, particularly in Charis School?a private Junior High School in Malang, and to investigate the students� and teacher�s perceptions toward the learning process. The instruments were interview guide, observation sheet, and questionnaire. The results of this study showed that the teacher was aware to integrate ICT in EFL classroom and the students showed positive attitudes in the learning process.

  4. Changes in background impair fluency-triggered positive affect: a cross-cultural test using a mere-exposure paradigm.

    Ishii, Keiko

    2011-04-01

    This study examined whether repeated exposure would enhance positive evaluations when only a part of a stimulus (e.g., the central object) was identical to a previously presented stimulus. Japanese and American participants were exposed to photographs of animals with scenery, then asked their preferences for each of four types of photographs of animals (photographs of animals with the original scenery, photographs of animals without scenery, photographs of animals with novel scenery, and photographs of animals not depicted previously). Finally, their recognition of the animals presented in the exposure phase was tested. Members of both groups showed the mere-exposure effect for the first two types of stimuli, irrespective of stimulus recognition accuracy, whereas this effect was not observed for animals presented with novel scenery. This suggests that changes in background impair positive affect as a result of repeated exposure.

  5. Canadian Environmental Assessment Act - comprehensive study report: new Grand-Mere hydroelectric facility proposed by Hydro-Quebec

    1999-06-01

    A description is given of the hydroelectric construction project as well as the environment surrounding it, the outcome of consultations with interest parties in the public, the overall environmental impacts and cumulative impacts with associated problems that may occur in carrying out the project, attempts at project and environmental mitigation, measuring the importance of the cumulative and environmental effects, conditions for project acceptance, and the overall acceptance of the project or its rejection. The older hydroelectric project was constructed in the post-1910 period and being out of date is experiencing operational problems. There are four problem areas that are important including a need for major repairs to the turbine-generators, lack of flexibility and low electrical capacity that affect the working of the sending-end substation, a state of deterioration affecting operation of the spillways concrete structure, and a bottleneck problem on the Saint-Maurice river caused by the low flow design of the Grand-Mere power station in comparison with that of the Saint-Maurice station. Considering economical, social and environmental factors, of the three options of abandoning the site, upgrading the existing site or constructing a new one, the third option is the preferred one, a conclusion based on considering the out of date state of Grand-Mere facilities and the bottleneck flow condition created on the Saint-Maurice river by the older station. Given the proposed efforts at mitigation, and the follow-up operations stated by the third option advocate, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans is of the opinion that the proposed plans will not affect the environment in an adverse manner. 7 refs

  6. Does social distance modulate adults' egocentric biases when reasoning about false beliefs?

    Farrar, Benjamin G; Ostojić, Ljerka

    2018-01-01

    When given privileged information of an object's true location, adults often overestimate the likelihood that a protagonist holding a false belief will search in the correct location for that object. This type of egocentric bias is often labelled the 'curse of knowledge'. Interestingly, the magnitude of this bias may be modulated by the social distance between the perspective taker and target. However, this social distance effect has yet to be fully demonstrated when adults reason about false beliefs. Using a continuous false belief task, we investigated i) whether adults were biased by their own knowledge when reasoning about another's false belief, ii) whether the magnitude of this egocentric bias was modulated by social distance, and iii) whether this social distance effect extended to a heterospecific out-group, namely a dog. To test these hypotheses we conducted three experiments. In Experiment 1 (N = 283), we used an established continuous false belief task, in Experiment 2 (N = 281) we modified this task, and Experiment 3 (N = 744) was a direct replication of Experiment 2. Across these experiments, the curse of knowledge effect was reliably replicated when adults mentalised about an in-group protagonist, and replicated in two of the three studies (Experiments 1 and 3) when adults mentalised about out-group protagonists. In an internal-meta analysis, the curse of knowledge effect was present across all conditions, and there was no effect of social distance. Hence, overall these data are not consistent with the hypothesis that social distance modulates adults' egocentric biases when reasoning about false beliefs. The finding that egocentric biases of a similar magnitude were observed when adults mentalised about an in-group protagonist and a dog suggests that interpersonal dissimilarity is not in itself sufficient to reduce egocentric bias when reasoning about false beliefs.

  7. True or Not True.

    Fields, Joyce I.

    1993-01-01

    Ascertained seven- and eight-year-olds' understanding of advertising, the role of the buyer and seller, and the role of real estate agents. Interviewed an experimental group of students who had been exposed, and a control group of students who had not been exposed, to classroom presentations concerning these topics. (MDM)

  8. Attitudes, beliefs, uncertainty and risk

    Greenhalgh, Geoffrey [Down Park Place, Crawley Down (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    There is now unmistakable evidence of a widening split within the Western industrial nations arising from conflicting views of society; for and against change. The argument is over the benefits of 'progress' and growth. On one side are those who seek more jobs, more production and consumption, higher standards of living, an ever-increasing GNP with an increasing globalisation of production and welcome the advances of science and technology confident that any temporary problems that arise can be solved by further technological development - possible energy shortages as a growing population increases energy usage can be met by nuclear power development; food shortages by the increased yields of GM crops. In opposition are those who put the quality of life before GNP, advocate a more frugal life-style, reducing needs and energy consumption, and, pointing to the harm caused by increasing pollution, press for cleaner air and water standards. They seek to reduce the pressure of an ever-increasing population and above all to preserve the natural environment. This view is associated with a growing uncertainty as the established order is challenged with the rise in status of 'alternative' science and medicine. This paper argues that these conflicting views reflect instinctive attitudes. These in turn draw support from beliefs selected from those which uncertainty offers. Where there is scope for argument over the truth or validity of a 'fact', the choice of which of the disputed views to believe will be determined by a value judgement. This applies to all controversial social and political issues. Nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are but two particular examples in the technological field; joining the EMU is a current political controversy where value judgements based on attitudes determine beliefs. When, or if, a controversy is finally resolved the judgement arrived at will be justified by the belief that the consequences of the course chosen will be more favourable

  9. Attitudes, beliefs, uncertainty and risk

    Greenhalgh, Geoffrey [Down Park Place, Crawley Down (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    There is now unmistakable evidence of a widening split within the Western industrial nations arising from conflicting views of society; for and against change. The argument is over the benefits of 'progress' and growth. On one side are those who seek more jobs, more production and consumption, higher standards of living, an ever-increasing GNP with an increasing globalisation of production and welcome the advances of science and technology confident that any temporary problems that arise can be solved by further technological development - possible energy shortages as a growing population increases energy usage can be met by nuclear power development; food shortages by the increased yields of GM crops. In opposition are those who put the quality of life before GNP, advocate a more frugal life-style, reducing needs and energy consumption, and, pointing to the harm caused by increasing pollution, press for cleaner air and water standards. They seek to reduce the pressure of an ever-increasing population and above all to preserve the natural environment. This view is associated with a growing uncertainty as the established order is challenged with the rise in status of 'alternative' science and medicine. This paper argues that these conflicting views reflect instinctive attitudes. These in turn draw support from beliefs selected from those which uncertainty offers. Where there is scope for argument over the truth or validity of a 'fact', the choice of which of the disputed views to believe will be determined by a value judgement. This applies to all controversial social and political issues. Nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are but two particular examples in the technological field; joining the EMU is a current political controversy where value judgements based on attitudes determine beliefs. When, or if, a controversy is finally resolved the judgement arrived at will be justified by the belief that the consequences of the course

  10. Attitudes, beliefs, uncertainty and risk

    Greenhalgh, Geoffrey

    2001-01-01

    There is now unmistakable evidence of a widening split within the Western industrial nations arising from conflicting views of society; for and against change. The argument is over the benefits of 'progress' and growth. On one side are those who seek more jobs, more production and consumption, higher standards of living, an ever-increasing GNP with an increasing globalisation of production and welcome the advances of science and technology confident that any temporary problems that arise can be solved by further technological development - possible energy shortages as a growing population increases energy usage can be met by nuclear power development; food shortages by the increased yields of GM crops. In opposition are those who put the quality of life before GNP, advocate a more frugal life-style, reducing needs and energy consumption, and, pointing to the harm caused by increasing pollution, press for cleaner air and water standards. They seek to reduce the pressure of an ever-increasing population and above all to preserve the natural environment. This view is associated with a growing uncertainty as the established order is challenged with the rise in status of 'alternative' science and medicine. This paper argues that these conflicting views reflect instinctive attitudes. These in turn draw support from beliefs selected from those which uncertainty offers. Where there is scope for argument over the truth or validity of a 'fact', the choice of which of the disputed views to believe will be determined by a value judgement. This applies to all controversial social and political issues. Nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are but two particular examples in the technological field; joining the EMU is a current political controversy where value judgements based on attitudes determine beliefs. When, or if, a controversy is finally resolved the judgement arrived at will be justified by the belief that the consequences of the course chosen will be more favourable

  11. Graduates beliefs about career management

    Babić Lepa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Career management is increasingly becoming an individuals' matter, despite the various activities organized by the different institutions to support career development and planning. An exploratory survey was conducted to determine what kind of beliefs graduates have about career management. Results indicate that graduates are aware of the importance of university knowledge for getting a job, the importance of knowledge and investment in education for positioning in the labor market, so they give priority to development opportunities that business brings opposed to the material rewards.

  12. Equilibria in social belief removal [Journal article

    Booth, R

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available removal function >i, which tells it how to remove any given sentence from its belief set. In this paper we view >i as a unary function on the set L of non- tautologous sentences, i.e., agents are never required to remove >. The result of removing 2 L... from i?s belief set is denoted by >i( ). We assume i?s initial belief set can always be recaptured from >i alone by just removing the (b) (1) (A) contradiction, i.e., i?s initial belief set is >i(?). We call any n-tuple (>i)i2A of removal functions a...

  13. Nuclear Reactor RA Safety Report, Vol. 14, Safety protection measures; Izvestaj o sigurnosti nuklearnog reaktora RA, Knjiga 14, Sigurnosne zastitne mere

    NONE

    1986-11-01

    Nuclear reactor accidents can be caused by three type of errors: failure of reactor components including (1) control and measuring instrumentation, (2) errors in operation procedure, (3) natural disasters. Safety during reactor operation are secured during its design and construction and later during operation. Both construction and administrative procedures are applied to attain safe operation. Technical safety features include fission product barriers, fuel elements cladding, primary reactor components (reactor vessel, primary cooling pipes, heat exchanger in the pump), reactor building. Safety system is the system for safe reactor shutdown and auxiliary safety system. RA reactor operating regulations and instructions are administrative acts applied to avoid possible human error caused accidents. [Serbo-Croat] Uzroci udesa na nuklearnim reaktorima mogu se svrstati u jednu od sledece tri grupe: (1) otkaz pojedinih delova opreme, ukljucujuci mernu i kontrolnu instrumentaciju, (2) greske u pogonu i eksploataciji, (3) prirodne nepogode, katastrofe. Bezbednost i sigurnost u radu nuklearnog reaktora osiguravaju se odredjenim merama koje se preduzimaju pri njegovoj izgradnji i kasnije njegovoj elsploataciji. Te mere se mogu podeliti u sledece dve kategorije: (1) mere tehnicke zastite, i (2) administrativne mere. Mere tehnicke zastite sastoje se od barijere fissionih produkata, kosuljice gorivnih elemenata, primarnog kola reaktora RA (reaktorski sud, cevovod primarnog kola, toploizmenjivac u pimpi), zgrada reaktora. Sigurnosni sistem cini sistem za sigurnosno zaustavljanje reaktora i pomocni sigurnosni sistem. Kroz odgovarajuce propise i uputstva za rad na reaktoru RA primenjene su administrativne mere neophodne za sprecavanje udes koji bi mogao nastati kao posledica ljudskog faktora.

  14. The True Ultracool Binary Fraction Using Spectral Binaries

    Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella; Burgasser, Adam J.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Gagné, Jonathan; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Cruz, Kelle; Gelino, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Brown dwarfs bridge the gap between stars and giant planets. While the essential mechanisms governing their formation are not well constrained, binary statistics are a direct outcome of the formation process, and thus provide a means to test formation theories. Observational constraints on the brown dwarf binary fraction place it at 10 ‑ 20%, dominated by imaging studies (85% of systems) with the most common separation at 4 AU. This coincides with the resolution limit of state-of-the-art imaging techniques, suggesting that the binary fraction is underestimated. We have developed a separation-independent method to identify and characterize tightly-separated (dwarfs as spectral binaries by identifying traces of methane in the spectra of late-M and early-L dwarfs. Imaging follow-up of 17 spectral binaries yielded 3 (18%) resolved systems, corroborating the observed binary fraction, but 5 (29%) known binaries were missed, reinforcing the hypothesis that the short-separation systems are undercounted. In order to find the true binary fraction of brown dwarfs, we have compiled a volume-limited, spectroscopic sample of M7-L5 dwarfs and searched for T dwarf companions. In the 25 pc volume, 4 candidates were found, three of which are already confirmed, leading to a spectral binary fraction of 0.95 ± 0.50%, albeit for a specific combination of spectral types. To extract the true binary fraction and determine the biases of the spectral binary method, we have produced a binary population simulation based on different assumptions of the mass function, age distribution, evolutionary models and mass ratio distribution. Applying the correction fraction resulting from this method to the observed spectral binary fraction yields a true binary fraction of 27 ± 4%, which is roughly within 1σ of the binary fraction obtained from high resolution imaging studies, radial velocity and astrometric monitoring. This method can be extended to identify giant planet companions to young brown

  15. True aneurysm of the proximal occipital artery: Case report.

    Illuminati, Giulio; Cannistrà, Marco; Pizzardi, Giulia; Pasqua, Rocco; Frezzotti, Francesca; Calio', Francesco G

    2018-01-01

    True aneurysms of the proximal occipital artery are rare, may cause neurological symptoms due to compression of the hypoglossal nerve and their resection may be technically demanding. The case of an aneurysm of the proximal occipital artery causing discomfort and tongue deviation by compression on the hypoglossal nerve is reported. Postoperative course after resection was followed by complete regression of symptoms. Surgical resection, as standard treatment of aneurysms of the occipital artery, with the eventual technical adjunct of intubation by the nose is effective in durably relieving symptoms and preventing aneurysm-related complication. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. True aneurysm of the proximal occipital artery: Case report

    Giulio Illuminati

    Full Text Available Introduction: True aneurysms of the proximal occipital artery are rare, may cause neurological symptoms due to compression of the hypoglossal nerve and their resection may be technically demanding. Presentation of case: The case of an aneurysm of the proximal occipital artery causing discomfort and tongue deviation by compression on the hypoglossal nerve is reported. Postoperative course after resection was followed by complete regression of symptoms. Conclusion: Surgical resection, as standard treatment of aneurysms of the occipital artery, with the eventual technical adjunct of intubation by the nose is effective in durably relieving symptoms and preventing aneurysm-related complication. Keywords: Arterial aneurysm, Occipital artery, Case report

  17. True to Yourself Leading a Values-Based Business

    Albion, Mark

    2006-01-01

    How do you build the kind of company you've always wanted to work in--one that serves people and the planet while being financially successful, too? What do you do when you believe that business should serve the common good, but everyday business pressures--meeting payroll, battling competition, keeping customers and investors happy--are at a fever pitch? Leading a small business when you measure success more broadly than with a single financial bottom line is no easy task. True to Yourself is a practical guide to doing just that. It provides tools you can use to combine profit with purpose, m

  18. The true invariant of an arbitrage free portfolio

    Schmidt, Anatoly B.

    2003-03-01

    It is shown that the arbitrage free portfolio paradigm being applied to a portfolio with an arbitrary number of shares N allows for the extended solution in which the option price F depends on N. However the resulting stock hedging expense Q= MF (where M is the number of options in the portfolio) does not depend on whether N is treated as an independent variable or as a parameter. Therefore the stock hedging expense is the true invariant of the arbitrage free portfolio paradigm.

  19. True versus spurious state dependence in firm performance

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kongsted, Hans Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the persistence of firms' exporting behavior in a panel of German manufacturing firms using dynamic binary choice models. We distinguish between true and spurious state dependence in exports and apply fixed effects methods that allow us to verify the robustness of our results ...... determinants. Our results, which are consistent with the findings of previous studies on firms in developing countries and in the United States, show the presence of important sunk costs in export market entry and a depreciation of knowledge and experience in export markets....

  20. True Versus Spurious State Dependence in Firm Performance

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kongsted, Hans Christian

    This paper analyzes the persistence of firms' exporting behavior in a panel of German manufacturing firms using dynamic binary choice models. We distinguish between true and spurious state dependence in exports and apply fixed effects methods that allow us to verify the robustness of our results ...... determinants. Our results, which are consistent with the findings of previous studies on firms in developing countries and in the United States, show the presence of important sunk costs in export market entry and a depreciation of knowledge and experience in export markets...

  1. The incidence and prognosis of true duodenal carcinomas

    Buchbjerg, Thomas; Fristrup, C.; Mortensen, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    the criteria for true PDC. The incidence was 5.4 per 1,000,000, and the pathological classification was: Adenocarcinoma 87%, mucinous adenocarcinoma 7%, carcinoma 4% and signet ring cell carcinoma 1%. Intended curative resection was performed in 28 patients (39%) (22 Whipple procedures and 6 local resections......), and all but one patient had negative resection margins. Thirteen patients (46%) had lymph node metastasis. Twenty-nine (67%) of the palliative treated patients had a single (n = 24) or double by-pass procedure (n = 5). The median and 5-year survival for the resected patients were 23 months (CI 7...

  2. When fast logic meets slow belief: Evidence for a parallel-processing model of belief bias

    Trippas, Dries; Thompson, Valerie A.; Handley, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments pitted the default-interventionist account of belief bias against a parallel-processing model. According to the former, belief bias occurs because a fast, belief-based evaluation of the conclusion pre-empts a working-memory demanding logical analysis. In contrast, according to the latter both belief-based and logic-based responding occur in parallel. Participants were given deductive reasoning problems of variable complexity and instructed to decide whether the conclusion was ...

  3. Associative processing and paranormal belief.

    Gianotti, L R; Mohr, C; Pizzagalli, D; Lehmann, D; Brugger, P

    2001-12-01

    In the present study we introduce a novel task for the quantitative assessment of both originality and speed of individual associations. This 'BAG' (Bridge-the-Associative-Gap) task was used to investigate the relationships between creativity and paranormal belief. Twelve strong 'believers' and 12 strong 'skeptics' in paranormal phenomena were selected from a large student population (n > 350). Subjects were asked to produce single-word associations to word pairs. In 40 trials the two stimulus words were semantically indirectly related and in 40 other trials the words were semantically unrelated. Separately for these two stimulus types, response commonalities and association latencies were calculated. The main finding was that for unrelated stimuli, believers produced associations that were more original (had a lower frequency of occurrence in the group as a whole) than those of the skeptics. For the interpretation of the result we propose a model of association behavior that captures both 'positive' psychological aspects (i.e., verbal creativity) and 'negative' aspects (susceptibility to unfounded inferences), and outline its relevance for psychiatry. This model suggests that believers adopt a looser response criterion than skeptics when confronted with 'semantic noise'. Such a signal detection view of the presence/absence of judgments for loose semantic relations may help to elucidate the commonalities between creative thinking, paranormal belief and delusional ideation.

  4. Belief in complementary and alternative medicine is related to age and paranormal beliefs in adults.

    Van den Bulck, Jan; Custers, Kathleen

    2010-04-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widespread, even among people who use conventional medicine. Positive beliefs about CAM are common among physicians and medical students. Little is known about the beliefs regarding CAM among the general public. Among science students, belief in CAM was predicted by belief in the paranormal. In a cross-sectional study, 712 randomly selected adults (>18 years old) responded to the CAM Health Belief Questionnaire (CHBQ) and a paranormal beliefs scale. CAM beliefs were very prevalent in this sample of adult Flemish men and women. Zero-order correlations indicated that belief in CAM was associated with age (r = 0.173 P paranormal belief (r = 0.365 P paranormal. Paranormal beliefs accounted for 14% of the variance of the CAM beliefs (regression coefficient: 0.376; 95%: CI 0.30-0.44). The level of education (regression coefficient: 0.06; 95% CI: -0.014-0.129) and social desirability (regression coefficient: -0.023; 95% CI: -0.048-0.026) did not make a significant contribution to the explained variance (paranormal beliefs.

  5. Posttraumatic Maladaptive Beliefs Scale: Evolution of the Personal Beliefs and Reactions Scale

    Vogt, Dawne S.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The Posttraumatic Maladaptive Beliefs Scale (PMBS) was developed to measure maladaptive beliefs about current life circumstances that may occur following trauma exposure. This scale assesses maladaptive beliefs within three domains: (a) Threat of Harm, (b) Self-Worth and Judgment, and (c) Reliability and Trustworthiness of Others. Items for the…

  6. Do Humans Have Two Systems to Track Beliefs and Belief-Like States?

    Apperly, Ian A.; Butterfill, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    The lack of consensus on how to characterize humans' capacity for belief reasoning has been brought into sharp focus by recent research. Children fail critical tests of belief reasoning before 3 to 4 years of age (H. Wellman, D. Cross, & J. Watson, 2001; H. Wimmer & J. Perner, 1983), yet infants apparently pass false-belief tasks at 13 or 15…

  7. Man er mere fri

    Berliner, Peter; Larsen, Line Natascha

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen belyser community psykologisk praksis gennem en præsentation af det community psykologiske perspektiv i psyko-sociale programmer, der iværksættes for at fremme mental og social trivsel hos individer,i familier og i lokalsamfund og netværk. Der gives en beskrivelse og analyse af projektet...

  8. A mere metaphor?

    Knudsen, Sanne

    2015-01-01

    , and whether the different framings were related to the specific discipline or genre or even stage of scientific development. Though the concept of metaphor is generally valued as a scientific heuristic resource, two distinct positions on the specific values of metaphor in science are represented...... in the material. The dominant position criticizes metaphor for its open-endedness and aims at either empirically sanitizing or discarding the metaphor. A less dominant and more social-constructive position embraces the open-endedness as a valuable and dynamic scientific driving force suitable for scientific...... communication as well as heuristics. In either case, the explicit reference to metaphor functions as a rhetorical strategy for promoting and positioning the author’s own research....

  9. Kontrol skaber mere vold

    Fugl, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Siden begyndelsen af 90'erne er der sket en kraftig stigning i antallet af anmeldelser af vold mod offentligt ansatte. Stigningen forklares ofte med befolkningens 'dalende respekt for autoriteter', men ifølge kriminolog Peter Kruize handler det i høj grad om, at man fra offentlig side fører en hå...

  10. Mere end blot pirringer

    Jantzen, Christian; Østergaard, Per

    2006-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i en række cases på vellykkede oplevelsesøkonomiske forretningsmodeller argumenterer artiklen for, at oplevelsesprodukter skal bygge på et klart tema, som forbrugeren kan koble sig sanse- og følelsesmæssigt op på. Forbrugeren skal kunne omsætte produktets pirringer til egne erfar...

  11. Mere om konstruktivisme

    Wohlgemuth, Ole

    2012-01-01

    antager. Det indre verdensbillede er ifølge det konstruktivistiske princip opbygget af en selv og læring foregår gennem fortolkning af sanseindtryk, der bearbejdes på grundlag af kognitive skemaer – dvs. de samlede konstruktioner, man har i hovedet i forvejen og som Jean Piaget kalder for ”indre...

  12. Meget mere gaming tak

    Gamborg, Maria Louise; Lieberoth, Andreas; Mehlsen, Mimi

    2018-01-01

    Videnskaben og medierne har skabt en fortælling om computerspillende unge, der mister sociale kompetencer eller bliver afhængige af at game. Men det er en stærk unuanceret fortælling. Tværtimod kan computerspil være adgangen til ægte, følelsesmæssigt udviklende, sociale fællesskaber, hvor gameres...... sociale kapital øges ved at spille sammen online. Det skal vi lade os inspirere af - fx når det gælder ældre...

  13. Mere end marionetdukker

    Lehmann-Jacobsen, Emilie Tinne

    2016-01-01

    Pressefrihed er en mangelvare i flere sydøstasiatiske lande, og journalisterne beskrives sjældent som andet end viljeløse marionetdukker for de siddende magthavere. Det er dog langt fra den fulde fortælling. Men myten lever videre til frustration for de fagligt stolte journalister og med konsekve......Pressefrihed er en mangelvare i flere sydøstasiatiske lande, og journalisterne beskrives sjældent som andet end viljeløse marionetdukker for de siddende magthavere. Det er dog langt fra den fulde fortælling. Men myten lever videre til frustration for de fagligt stolte journalister og med...

  14. Mere end meninger

    Jantzen, Christian; Vetner, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    Oplevelsesøkonomi og oplevelsesdesign er en videreudvikling af den symboløkonomi, som virksomheders brandingstrategier har frembragt. Men i modsætning til symboløkonomien har oplevelsesøkonomien også fokus på de sider af forbrug som ligger hinsides eller forud for ’mening’: altså på de emotionell...

  15. A Screening Mechanism Differentiating True from False Pain during Empathy.

    Sun, Ya-Bin; Lin, Xiao-Xiao; Ye, Wen; Wang, Ning; Wang, Jin-Yan; Luo, Fei

    2017-09-13

    Empathizing with another's suffering is important in social interactions. Empathic behavior is selectively elicited from genuine, meaningful pain but not from fake, meaningless scenarios. However, the brain's screening mechanism of false information from meaningful events and the time course for the screening process remains unclear. Using EEG combined with principle components analysis (PCA) techniques, here we compared temporal neurodynamics between the observation of pain and no-pain pictures as well as between true (painful expressions and needle-penetrated arms) and false (needle-penetrated faces with neutral expressions) pain pictures. The results revealed that pain vs. no-pain information is differentiated in the very early ERP components, i.e., the N1/P1 for the face and arm pictures categories and the VPP/N170 for the facial expression category while the mid-latency ERP components, N2 and P3, played key roles in differentiating true from false situations. The complex of N2 and P3 components may serve as a screening mechanism through which observers allocate their attentions to more important or relevant events and screen out false environmental information. This is the first study to describe and provide a time course of the screening process during pain empathy. These findings shed new light on the understanding of empathic processing.

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study Using True versus Sham Acupuncture

    Chunxiao Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has been shown to detect the specificity of acupuncture points, as proved by numerous studies. In this study, resting-state fMRI was used to observe brain areas activated by acupuncture at the Taichong (LR3 acupoint. A total of 15 healthy subjects received brain resting-state fMRI before acupuncture and after sham and true acupuncture, respectively, at LR3. Image data processing was performed using Data Processing Assistant for Resting-State fMRI and REST software. The combination of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF and regional homogeneity (ReHo was used to analyze the changes in brain function during sham and true acupuncture. Acupuncture at LR3 can specifically activate or deactivate brain areas related to vision, movement, sensation, emotion, and analgesia. The specific alterations in the anterior cingulate gyrus, thalamus, and cerebellar posterior lobe have a crucial effect and provide a valuable reference. Sham acupuncture has a certain effect on psychological processes and does not affect brain areas related to function.

  17. [Intel random number generator-based true random number generator].

    Huang, Feng; Shen, Hong

    2004-09-01

    To establish a true random number generator on the basis of certain Intel chips. The random numbers were acquired by programming using Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 via register reading from the random number generator (RNG) unit of an Intel 815 chipset-based computer with Intel Security Driver (ISD). We tested the generator with 500 random numbers in NIST FIPS 140-1 and X(2) R-Squared test, and the result showed that the random number it generated satisfied the demand of independence and uniform distribution. We also compared the random numbers generated by Intel RNG-based true random number generator and those from the random number table statistically, by using the same amount of 7500 random numbers in the same value domain, which showed that the SD, SE and CV of Intel RNG-based random number generator were less than those of the random number table. The result of u test of two CVs revealed no significant difference between the two methods. Intel RNG-based random number generator can produce high-quality random numbers with good independence and uniform distribution, and solves some problems with random number table in acquisition of the random numbers.

  18. Optical resonators for true-time-delay beam steering

    Gesell, Leslie H.; Evanko, Stephen M.

    1996-06-01

    Conventional true time delay beamforming and steering devices rely on switching between various lengths of delay line. Therefore only discrete delays are possible. Proposed is a new photonics concept for true time delay beamforming which provides a finely controlled continuum of delays with switching speeds on the order of 10's of nanoseconds or faster. The architecture uses an array of waveguide cavities with different resonate frequencies to channelize the signal. Each spectral component of the signal is phase shifted by an amount proportional to the frequency of that component and the desired time delay. These phase shifted spectral components are then summed to obtain the delayed signal. This paper provides an overview of the results of a Phase I SBIR contract where this concept has been refined and analyzed. The parameters for an operational system are determined and indication of the feasibility of this approach is given. Among the issues addressed are the requirements of the resonators and the methods necessary to implement fiber optic Bragg gratings as these resonators.

  19. Perfusion MR imaging of the heart with TrueFISP

    Schreiber, W.G.; Schmitt, M.; Kalden, P.; Mohrs, O.; Kreitner, K.F.; Thelen, M.; Horstick, G.; Gumbrich, T.; Petersen, S.; Voigtlaender, T.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Development and test of a saturation-recovery TrueFISP (SR-Trufi) pulse sequence for myocardial perfusion MR imaging (MRI) using improved gradient hardware. Material and methods: Measurements were performed on a 1.5 T scanner with prototype gradients (50 mT/m, minimum rise time 300 μs). T 1 -weighted first-pass MRI of Gd-DTPA (0.025 μmol/kg) kinetics in the myocardium was performed using an SR-Trufi pulse sequence (T R /T E /α=2.6 ms/1.4 ms/55 ) with a saturation preparation of TD-30 ms before the TrueFISP readout. Measurements were performed in volunteers (n=4) and in a pig model of chronic ischemia (n=1). Results: In phantoms, the signal intensity was linear with contrast concentration up to 0.9 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA. MR images obtained with SR-Trufi had a good image quality and high spatial resolution of 2.1 mmx2.1 mm. Differences of the contrast agent's kinetics between a subendocardial perfusion deficit and neighboring myocardium were well visible on both MR images and signal-time curves derived from the region-of-interest analysis. Conclusion: SR-Trufi appears to be an interesting new technique for the assessment of myocardial microcirculation using dedicated cardiovascular MR systems. (orig.) [de

  20. Deep Brain Stimulation, Continuity over Time, and the True Self.

    Nyholm, Sven; O'Neill, Elizabeth

    2016-10-01

    One of the topics that often comes up in ethical discussions of deep brain stimulation (DBS) is the question of what impact DBS has, or might have, on the patient's self. This is often understood as a question of whether DBS poses a threat to personal identity, which is typically understood as having to do with psychological and/or narrative continuity over time. In this article, we argue that the discussion of whether DBS is a threat to continuity over time is too narrow. There are other questions concerning DBS and the self that are overlooked in discussions exclusively focusing on psychological and/or narrative continuity. For example, it is also important to investigate whether DBS might sometimes have a positive (e.g., a rehabilitating) effect on the patient's self. To widen the discussion of DBS, so as to make it encompass a broader range of considerations that bear on DBS's impact on the self, we identify six features of the commonly used concept of a person's "true self." We apply these six features to the relation between DBS and the self. And we end with a brief discussion of the role DBS might play in treating otherwise treatment-refractory anorexia nervosa. This further highlights the importance of discussing both continuity over time and the notion of the true self.

  1. A new approach to probabilistic belief change

    Rens, G

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One way for an agent to deal with uncertainty about its beliefs is to maintain a probability distribution over the worlds it believes are possible. A belief change operation may recommend some previously believed worlds to become impossible and some...

  2. How psychotic-like are paranormal beliefs?

    Cella, Matteo; Vellante, Marcello; Preti, Antonio

    2012-09-01

    Paranormal beliefs and Psychotic-like Experiences (PLE) are phenotypically similar and can occur in individuals with psychosis but also in the general population; however the relationship of these experiences for psychosis risk is largely unclear. This study investigates the association of PLE and paranormal beliefs with psychological distress. Five hundred and three young adults completed measures of paranormal beliefs (Beliefs in the Paranormal Scale), psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire), delusion (Peters et al. Delusions Inventory), and hallucination (Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale) proneness. The frequency and intensity of PLE was higher in believers in the paranormal compared to non-believers, however psychological distress levels were comparable. Regression findings confirmed that paranormal beliefs were predicted by delusion and hallucination-proneness but not psychological distress. The use of a cross-sectional design in a specific young adult population makes the findings exploratory and in need of replication with longitudinal studies. The predictive value of paranormal beliefs and experiences for psychosis may be limited; appraisal or the belief emotional salience rather than the belief per se may be more relevant risk factors to predict psychotic risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Criminalising defamation of religion and belief

    van Noorloos, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the role of criminal law in dealing with defamatory expressions about religion or belief. Defamation of religion and belief is a form of indirect defamation ‘via identification’ which, as the discussion about the Dutch group defamation law shows, stretches up the notion of

  4. relationship between patients' beliefs about their antihypertensives ...

    userpc

    effects of their medication, suggesting a high counter-balancing effect of this belief on their ... patients have positive belief regarding the efficacy of their ... Divorced. Widow. 11. 100. 5. 11. 9. 79. 4. 8. Religion. Muslim. Christian. 108. 19. 85. 15.

  5. Investigating Teachers' Personal Visions and Beliefs: Implications ...

    Investigating Teachers' Personal Visions and Beliefs: Implications for Quality in Language Teacher Education. ... attitude, focus and performance. The growing influence of constructivism in teacher education and the increase in the amount of research into teacher cognition has put the notion of beliefs and vision into central ...

  6. Using Bayesian belief networks in adaptive management.

    J.B. Nyberg; B.G. Marcot; R. Sulyma

    2006-01-01

    Bayesian belief and decision networks are relatively new modeling methods that are especially well suited to adaptive-management applications, but they appear not to have been widely used in adaptive management to date. Bayesian belief networks (BBNs) can serve many purposes for practioners of adaptive management, from illustrating system relations conceptually to...

  7. The product of capacities and belief functions

    Hendon, Ebbe; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1996-01-01

    Capacities (monotone, non-additive set functions) have been suggested to describe situations of uncertainty. We examine the question of how to define the product of two independent capacities. In particular, for the product of two belief functions (totally monotone capacities), there is a unique...... minimal product belief function. This is characterized in several ways...

  8. 116 THE IGALA TRADITIONAL RELIGIOUS BELIEF SYSTEM ...

    Ike Odimegwu

    supreme God called Ọjọ, but that it is a function of intercourse between ..... other deities at the same time; implicit monotheism,. i.e. a belief in a supreme deity yet no definite denial of other gods; and lastly, explicit monotheism, a belief in a ...

  9. Teachers' Beliefs about Neuroscience and Education

    Zambo, Debby; Zambo, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Information from neuroscience is readily available to educators, yet instructors of educational psychology and related fields have not investigated teachers' beliefs regarding this information. The purpose of this survey study was to uncover the beliefs 62 teachers held about neuroscience and education. Results indicate there were three types of…

  10. The product of capacities and belief functions

    Hendon, Ebbe; Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1996-01-01

    Capacities (monotone, non-additive set functions) have been suggested to describe situations of uncertainty. We examine the question of how to define the product of two independent capacities. In particular, for the product of two belief functions (totally monotone capacities), there is a unique...... minimal product belief function. This is characterized in several ways....

  11. The Hot Hand Belief and Framing Effects

    MacMahon, Clare; Köppen, Jörn; Raab, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Recent evidence of the hot hand in sport--where success breeds success in a positive recency of successful shots, for instance--indicates that this pattern does not actually exist. Yet the belief persists. We used 2 studies to explore the effects of framing on the hot hand belief in sport. We looked at the effect of sport experience and…

  12. Academic Optimism: An Individual Teacher Belief

    Ngidi, David P.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, academic optimism as an individual teacher belief was investigated. Teachers' self-efficacy beliefs were measured using the short form of the Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale. One subtest from the Omnibus T-Scale, the faculty trust in clients subtest, was used to measure teachers' trust in students and parents. One subtest from the…

  13. Are Teacher Beliefs Gender-Related?

    Kraker - de Pauw, Emmy; van Wesel, F.; Verwijmeren, Thijs; Denessen, Eddie; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Teacher beliefs influence student behaviour and learning outcomes. Little is known about the role of specific teacher characteristics (e.g., gender and teaching domain) in the formation of these beliefs. In the current study, three versions of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) were used to assess

  14. Are teacher beliefs gender-related?

    Kraker-Pauw, E. de; Wesel, F. van; Verwijmeren, T.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Krabbendam, L.

    2016-01-01

    Teacher beliefs influence student behaviour and learning outcomes. Little is known about the role of specific teacher characteristics (e.g., gender and teaching domain) in the formation of these beliefs. In the current study, three versions of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) were used to assess

  15. Total Evidence, Uncertainty and A Priori Beliefs

    Bewersdorf, Benjamin; Felline, Laura; Ledda, Antonio; Paoli, Francesco; Rossanese, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Defining the rational belief state of an agent in terms of her initial or a priori belief state as well as her total evidence can help to address a number of important philosophical problems. In this paper, I discuss how this strategy can be applied to cases in which evidence is uncertain. I argue

  16. SPORT SCIENCE STUDENTS‟ BELIEFS ABOUT LANGUAGE LEARNING

    Suvi Akhiriyah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There are many reasons for students of Sport Science to use English. Yet, knowing the importance of learning English is sometimes not enough to encourage them to learn English well. Based on the experience in teaching them, erroneous belief seems to be held by many of them. It arouses curiosity about the beliefs which might be revealed to help the students to be successful in language learning. By investigating sport science students‘ beliefs about language learning, it is expected that types of the beliefs which they hold can be revealed. Understanding students‘ beliefs about language learning is essential because these beliefs can have possible consequences for second language learning and instruction. This study is expected to provide empirical evidence. The subjects of this study were 1st semester students majoring in Sport Science of Sport Science Faculty. There were 4 classes with 38 students in each class. There were approximately 152 students as the population of the study. The sample was taken by using random sampling. All members of the population received the questionnaire. The questionnaire which was later handed back to the researcher is considered as the sample. The instrument in this study is the newest version of Beliefs About Language Learning Inventory (BALLI, version 2.0, developed by Horwitz to asses the beliefs about learning a foreign language.

  17. Cultural Beliefs about Autism in Indonesia

    Riany, Yulina Eva; Cuskelly, Monica; Meredith, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Cultural beliefs about parenting have an important influence on parenting behaviours, including considerations about appropriate ways to parent children with autism. Although Indonesia has one of the largest and most ethnically diverse populations in the world, little is known about cultural beliefs regarding children with autism within Indonesian…

  18. Lay belief in biopolitics and political prejudice

    Suhay, E; Brandt, M.J.; Proulx, T.

    2017-01-01

    Building on psychological research linking essentialist beliefs about human differences with prejudice, we test whether lay belief in the biological basis of political ideology is associated with political intolerance and social avoidance. In two studies of American adults (Study 1: N = 288, Study

  19. Changing Professional Practice Requires Changing Beliefs

    Guerra, Patricia L.; Nelson, Sarah W.

    2009-01-01

    Creating schools that are culturally responsive and successful with all students requires doing basic work with educators to uncover their beliefs about children. If school leaders believe, like many people do, that changed behavior will result in changed beliefs, they are mistaken. Leaders must be proactive in identifying what teachers believe…

  20. Double preference relations for generalised belief change

    Booth, R

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Many belief change formalisms employ plausibility orderings over the set of possible worlds to determine how the beliefs of an agent ought to be modified after the receipt of a new epistemic input. While most such possible world semantics rely on a...

  1. Motivational beliefs, values, and goals.

    Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Wigfield, Allan

    2002-01-01

    This chapter reviews the recent research on motivation, beliefs, values, and goals, focusing on developmental and educational psychology. The authors divide the chapter into four major sections: theories focused on expectancies for success (self-efficacy theory and control theory), theories focused on task value (theories focused on intrinsic motivation, self-determination, flow, interest, and goals), theories that integrate expectancies and values (attribution theory, the expectancy-value models of Eccles et al., Feather, and Heckhausen, and self-worth theory), and theories integrating motivation and cognition (social cognitive theories of self-regulation and motivation, the work by Winne & Marx, Borkowski et al., Pintrich et al., and theories of motivation and volition). The authors end the chapter with a discussion of how to integrate theories of self-regulation and expectancy-value models of motivation and suggest new directions for future research.

  2. Paranormal belief, schizotypy, and Body Mass Index.

    Hergovich, Andreas; Willinger, Ulrike; Arendasy, Martin

    2005-06-01

    There are indications that subjects with schizotypal personality have a lower Body Mass Index. Also schizotypal personality is linked to a higher incidence of paranormal belief. In this study we examined whether low Body Mass Index is also linked to paranormal belief. In a pilot study 48 students of psychology (85.4% women) between the ages of 20 and 27 years were administered a questionnaire assessing weight, height, and paranormal belief. Analysis suggested an association between belief in paranormal phenomena and low Body Mass Index. In a follow-up study with 300 subjects and equal sex distribution, the relationship was examined under control of schizotypy. The results for Body Mass Index could not be confirmed; however, paranormal belief was heavily associated with the cognitive-perceptual component of schizotypy.

  3. Normative beliefs and sexual risk in China.

    Li, Li; Ding, Ying Ying; Wu, Zunyou; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Guo, Sam

    2011-08-01

    We examined normative beliefs about multiple sexual partners and social status in China and their association with risky sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Self-reported and biological markers of sexual risk were examined among 3,716 market vendors from a city in eastern China. Men who were older or with less education believed having multiple sexual partners was linked to higher social status. Adjusting for demographic characteristics, normative beliefs were significantly associated with having multiple sexual partners, while having multiple sexual partners was significantly associated with STIs. Normative beliefs regarding sexual behaviors may play an important role in individual risk behaviors. Future HIV/STI interventions must address community beliefs about the positive meaning of sexual risks, particularly among men with traditional beliefs about gender roles.

  4. Indonesian teachers' epistemological beliefs and inclusive education.

    Sheehy, Kieron; Budiyanto; Kaye, Helen; Rofiah, Khofidotur

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of children with intellectual disabilities attend inclusive schools in Indonesia. Previous research has suggested that teachers' type of school and experience influences their beliefs about inclusive education. This research collected questionnaire data from 267 Indonesian teachers and compared the responses from those working in inclusive, special and regular schools regarding their epistemological and pedagogical beliefs. The results showed that teachers in inclusive schools expressed stronger social constructivist beliefs than those in other schools. However, it was teachers' epistemological beliefs, rather than their type of school or experience, which were the significant predictor of their beliefs about inclusive education. The findings suggest that international epistemological research needs to have a more nuanced view of constructivist models of learning to better understand and inform how inclusive pedagogy is being enacted in different contexts.

  5. A belief-based evolutionarily stable strategy.

    Deng, Xinyang; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Qi; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2014-11-21

    As an equilibrium refinement of the Nash equilibrium, evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) is a key concept in evolutionary game theory and has attracted growing interest. An ESS can be either a pure strategy or a mixed strategy. Even though the randomness is allowed in mixed strategy, the selection probability of pure strategy in a mixed strategy may fluctuate due to the impact of many factors. The fluctuation can lead to more uncertainty. In this paper, such uncertainty involved in mixed strategy has been further taken into consideration: a belief strategy is proposed in terms of Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. Furthermore, based on the proposed belief strategy, a belief-based ESS has been developed. The belief strategy and belief-based ESS can reduce to the mixed strategy and mixed ESS, which provide more realistic and powerful tools to describe interactions among agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Test Performance Related Dysfunctional Beliefs

    Recep TÜTÜNCÜ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Examinations by using tests are very frequently used in educational settings and successful studying before the examinations is a complex matter to deal with. In order to understand the determinants of success in exams better, we need to take into account not only emotional and motivational, but also cognitive aspects of the participants such as dysfunctional beliefs. Our aim is to present the relationship between candidates’ characteristics and distorted beliefs/schemata just before an examination. Method: The subjects of the study were 30 female and 30 male physicians who were about to take the medical specialization exam (MSE in Turkey. Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS and Young Schema Questionnaire Short Form (YSQ-SF were applied to the subjects. The statistical analysis was done using the F test, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, chi-square test and spearman’s correlation test. Results: It was shown that some of the DAS and YSQ-SF scores were significantly higher in female gender, in the group who could not pass the exam, who had repetitive examinations, who had their first try taking an examination and who were unemployed at the time of the examination. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that candidates seeking help before MSE examination could be referred for cognitive therapy or counseling even they do not have any psychiatric diagnosis due to clinically significant cognitive distortion. Measurement and treatment of cognitive distortions that have negative impact on MSE performance may improve the cost-effectiveness and mental well being of the young doctors.

  7. Forecasting elections with mere recognition from small, lousy samples: A comparison of collective recognition, wisdom of crowds, and representative polls

    Wolfgang Gaissmeier

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the extent to which the human capacity for recognition helps to forecast political elections: We compared naive recognition-based election forecasts computed from convenience samples of citizens' recognition of party names to (i standard polling forecasts computed from representative samples of citizens' voting intentions, and to (ii simple---and typically very accurate---wisdom-of-crowds-forecasts computed from the same convenience samples of citizens' aggregated hunches about election results. Results from four major German elections show that mere recognition of party names forecast the parties' electoral success fairly well. Recognition-based forecasts were most competitive with the other models when forecasting the smaller parties' success and for small sample sizes. However, wisdom-of-crowds-forecasts outperformed recognition-based forecasts in most cases. It seems that wisdom-of-crowds-forecasts are able to draw on the benefits of recognition while at the same time avoiding its downsides, such as lack of discrimination among very famous parties or recognition caused by factors unrelated to electoral success. Yet it seems that a simple extension of the recognition-based forecasts---asking people what proportion of the population would recognize a party instead of whether they themselves recognize it---is also able to eliminate these downsides.

  8. The mere exposure effect is sensitive to color information: evidence for color effects in a perceptual implicit memory test.

    Hupbach, Almut; Melzer, André; Hardt, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Priming effects in perceptual tests of implicit memory are assumed to be perceptually specific. Surprisingly, changing object colors from study to test did not diminish priming in most previous studies. However, these studies used implicit tests that are based on object identification, which mainly depends on the analysis of the object shape and therefore operates color-independently. The present study shows that color effects can be found in perceptual implicit tests when the test task requires the processing of color information. In Experiment 1, reliable color priming was found in a mere exposure design (preference test). In Experiment 2, the preference test was contrasted with a conceptually driven color-choice test. Altering the shape of object from study to test resulted in significant priming in the color-choice test but eliminated priming in the preference test. Preference judgments thus largely depend on perceptual processes. In Experiment 3, the preference and the color-choice test were studied under explicit test instructions. Differences in reaction times between the implicit and the explicit test suggest that the implicit test results were not an artifact of explicit retrieval attempts. In contrast with previous assumptions, it is therefore concluded that color is part of the representation that mediates perceptual priming.

  9. Effectiveness of flavour nutrient learning and mere exposure as mechanisms to increase toddler's intake and preference for green vegetables.

    de Wild, Victoire W T; de Graaf, Cees; Jager, Gerry

    2013-05-01

    Children's consumption of vegetables is still below recommendations. Since preference is the most important predictor of children's intake and most children dislike vegetables, new strategies are needed to increase their preferences for vegetables. Flavour nutrient learning (FNL) could be an effective mechanism to change preferences. Forty healthy toddlers were included in a randomized intervention study. During an intervention period of 7weeks, they consumed vegetable soups (endive and spinach) twice per week. Half of the group received a high-energy variant of one soup (e.g. HE spinach) and a low energy variant of the other (LE endive), whereas for the other half the order was reversed (HE endive, LE spinach). Primary outcome measures were preference and ad libitum consumption (with a maximum of 200g) of both vegetable products (LE), measured before, shortly after the intervention period, and 2 and 6months following conditioning to assess longer-term effects. After completion of the intervention period, 28 children (14 girls and 14 boys, age 35months; SD±8.3) met criteria for FNL to occur, and were included in further data analysis. Results showed a significant increase (~58g) in ad libitum intake for both vegetable soups (stable over time), but irrespective of the energy content. This indicates a robust effect of mere exposure on intake, but no FNL. For preference, however, results showed a significant shift in liking for the vegetable soup consistently paired with high energy, supporting FNL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Religious beliefs are factual beliefs: Content does not correlate with context sensitivity.

    Levy, Neil

    2017-04-01

    Neil Van Leeuwen argues that religious beliefs are not factual beliefs: typically, at least, they are attitudes of a different type. He argues that they exhibit much more sensitivity to context than factual beliefs: outside of contexts in which they are salient, they do not govern behaviour or inference, or provide background assumptions for cognition. This article surveys a large range of data to show that the kind of context sensitivity that Van Leeuwen thinks is the province of religious beliefs does not correlate with belief content. Beliefs about matters of fact beyond the theological realm exhibit this kind of sensitivity too. Conversely, theological and supernatural beliefs often guide behaviour across contexts. It is the intuitiveness of representations across contexts that predicts context (in)sensitivity, and intuitiveness is powerfully influenced by processing fluency. Fluency, in turn, is sensitive to cues that vary across contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimating the true energy value of a wind farm

    Bass, J.

    1995-01-01

    To assess the true energy yield of a wind farm taking into account real-world effects such as control losses in individual turbines, losses in the distribution network and wake and topographic effects, this report from the Energy Technology Support Unit, has developed a more appropriate methodology for making economic assessments of wind farm projects. Simulations of wind turbines are used to enable control losses to be quantified, and long term performance data from wind turbines in operational United Kingdom wind farms adds to the accuracy of assessment. A model has also been used to estimate performance of a power distribution system for a wind farm, to enable losses associated with wind turbine, wind speed and various distribution layouts to be predicted. Data on wake effects are drawn from a separate study. All these are drawn into an economic simulation model which predicts a wind farm's likely achievement of its target energy yield, thus demonstrating the risk factors involved. (UK)

  12. Spontaneous resolution of hemorrhagic polyps of the true vocal fold.

    Klein, Adam M; Lehmann, Marcus; Hapner, Edie R; Johns, Michael M

    2009-01-01

    Hemorrhagic polyps are the most common benign lesions surgically removed from the vocal folds. Although this modality does offer satisfactory results in most of the cases, there is a subset of polyps that seems to resolve with conservative therapy. This study was performed to examine this subset of polyps. Thirty-four consecutive subjects diagnosed with hemorrhagic polyps of the true vocal fold were retrospectively reviewed to determine the incidence of spontaneous resolution of the lesions with nonsurgical therapy. Sixteen subjects began conservative therapy, consisting of voice therapy and proper vocal hygiene, often while awaiting an optimal personal time for surgical intervention. Of these subjects, nine (56.3%) experienced a resolution of their lesion and symptoms without undergoing surgical therapy. Surgical removal of hemorrhagic polyps is often considered the standard of treatment for these benign lesions. However, these observations support a regimen of voice therapy and observation in select cases.

  13. Evaluation Method of Collision Risk by Using True Motion

    Hayama Imazu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to develop a useful application to use big data like as AIS for safety and efficiency of ship operation. AIS is very useful system to collect targets information, but this information is not effective use yet. The evaluation method of collision risk is one of the cause disturb. Usually the collision risk of ship is evaluated by the value of the Closest Point of Approach (CPA which is related to a relative motion. So, it becomes difficult to find out a safety pass in a congested water. Here, Line of Predicted Collision (LOPC and Obstacle Zone by Target (OZT for evaluation of collision risk are introduced, these values are related to a true motion and it became visible of dangerous place, so it will make easy to find out a safety pass in a congested water.

  14. Task constraints distinguish perspective inferences from perspective use during discourse interpretation in a false belief task.

    Ferguson, Heather J; Apperly, Ian; Ahmad, Jumana; Bindemann, Markus; Cane, James

    2015-06-01

    Interpreting other peoples' actions relies on an understanding of their current mental states (e.g. beliefs, desires and intentions). In this paper, we distinguish between listeners' ability to infer others' perspectives and their explicit use of this knowledge to predict subsequent actions. In a visual-world study, two groups of participants (passive observers vs. active participants) watched short videos, depicting transfer events, where one character ('Jane') either held a true or false belief about an object's location. We tracked participants' eye-movements around the final visual scene, time-locked to related auditory descriptions (e.g. "Jane will look for the chocolates in the container on the left".). Results showed that active participants had already inferred the character's belief in the 1s preview period prior to auditory onset, before it was possible to use this information to predict an outcome. Moreover, they used this inference to correctly anticipate reference to the object's initial location on false belief trials at the earliest possible point (i.e. from "Jane" onwards). In contrast, passive observers only showed evidence of a belief inference from the onset of "Jane", and did not show reliable use of this inference to predict Jane's behaviour on false belief trials until much later, when the location ("left/right") was auditorily available. These results show that active engagement in a task activates earlier inferences about others' perspectives, and drives immediate use of this information to anticipate others' actions, compared to passive observers, who are susceptible to influences from egocentric or reality biases. Finally, we review evidence that using other peoples' perspectives to predict their behaviour is more cognitively effortful than simply using one's own. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Lunar true polar wander inferred from polar hydrogen.

    Siegler, M A; Miller, R S; Keane, J T; Laneuville, M; Paige, D A; Matsuyama, I; Lawrence, D J; Crotts, A; Poston, M J

    2016-03-24

    The earliest dynamic and thermal history of the Moon is not well understood. The hydrogen content of deposits near the lunar poles may yield insight into this history, because these deposits (which are probably composed of water ice) survive only if they remain in permanent shadow. If the orientation of the Moon has changed, then the locations of the shadowed regions will also have changed. The polar hydrogen deposits have been mapped by orbiting neutron spectrometers, and their observed spatial distribution does not match the expected distribution of water ice inferred from present-day lunar temperatures. This finding is in contrast to the distribution of volatiles observed in similar thermal environments at Mercury's poles. Here we show that polar hydrogen preserves evidence that the spin axis of the Moon has shifted: the hydrogen deposits are antipodal and displaced equally from each pole along opposite longitudes. From the direction and magnitude of the inferred reorientation, and from analysis of the moments of inertia of the Moon, we hypothesize that this change in the spin axis, known as true polar wander, was caused by a low-density thermal anomaly beneath the Procellarum region. Radiogenic heating within this region resulted in the bulk of lunar mare volcanism and altered the density structure of the Moon, changing its moments of inertia. This resulted in true polar wander consistent with the observed remnant polar hydrogen. This thermal anomaly still exists and, in part, controls the current orientation of the Moon. The Procellarum region was most geologically active early in lunar history, which implies that polar wander initiated billions of years ago and that a large portion of the measured polar hydrogen is ancient, recording early delivery of water to the inner Solar System. Our hypothesis provides an explanation for the antipodal distribution of lunar polar hydrogen, and connects polar volatiles to the geologic and geophysical evolution of the Moon

  16. The True Ponte Osteotomy: By the One Who Developed It.

    Ponte, Alberto; Orlando, Giuseppe; Siccardi, Gian Luigi

    2018-01-01

    Technique and applications. To define the anatomy, biomechanics, indications, and surgical technique of the true Ponte osteotomy. The Ponte osteotomy, originally developed for thoracic kyphosis, was the first one to obtain posterior shortening of the thoracic spine, maintaining the anterior column load-sharing capacity. It has become a widely applied technique in various types of spine deformities and a frequent topic of presentations at meetings and in scientific articles. Several of them offer unquestionable evidence of an incorrect execution, with consequently distorted outcomes and erroneous conclusions. A clearing up became essential. Our original experience is based on a series of 240 patients with thoracic hyperkyphosis operated in the years 1969-2015, at first with a standard posterior Harrington technique and then by using the Ponte osteotomy with different instrumentations. A series of 78 of them, operated in the years 1987-1997, who had Ponte osteotomies at every level, is presented. The average preoperative kyphosis has been corrected from 80° (range 61°-102°) to 31° (range 15°-50°) by a substantial posterior shortening. A number of publications use the term Ponte osteotomy loosely for by far incomplete resections and mixing it up with Smith-Petersen's osteotomy. The true Ponte osteotomy is capable of producing marked flexibility in extension, flexion and rotation, justifying its wide use in thoracic deformities, mainly in scoliosis. An exact performance of the osteotomy with adequate bony resections, including the laminae, is an absolute condition to take full advantage of its properties. Level IV, therapeutic study. Copyright © 2017 Scoliosis Research Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [A study on the true nature of "Chinese jinseng"].

    Yang, Jeong-pil; Yeo, In-sok

    2003-12-01

    Studies generally, it is believed that the ancient 'Chinese ginseng' did exist due to the fact that it is clearly recorded in the Chinese historical and medicine-related sources. Although it is hard to deny that such 'ginseng' did exist in ancient China, the re-examination of its true nature is also necessary. In other words, certain refutation can be made against the claim that ancient 'Chinese jinseng' was in fact 'Panax jinseng' (C. A. Mey.), since the Chinese jinseng accounts do not tell that it is such. For example, when looking into its shape based on descriptions, the 'Chinese Jinseng' has black seed, hairy stem, and violet flower. ' Panax jinseng' on the other hand, has opal seed, no-hair stem, and light-green flower. In terms of cultivation centre, most of mainland China is unsuitable for Jinseng production with the exception of the Shangdang area of Shanxi province, which solely had the reputation of being the production centre of ancient 'Chinese jinseng'. However, when looking into the Chinese sources for jinseng-producing areas, they show that Hepei and Liaoning province and Jiangnan (south of the Yangtze river) areas also have had some jinseng-related history. Regardless of such instance, these regions did not cultivate Panax jinseng. As shown above, ancient 'Chinese jinseng' was far from being identical, in respect to its shape or production areas, to Panax jinseng. Hence, this study came to the conclusion that there is indeed very high skepticism about whether the true nature of 'jinseng' in ancient China was in fact Panax jinseng. On the contrary, there is higher possibility that the ancient 'Chinese jinseng' is totally different plant from Panax jinseng which is actually Codonopsis pilosula. When examining the shape and production areas of Codonopsis pilosula, it is closely matched with many parts of ancient 'Chinese jinseng' texts. In short, it is presumed that the 'Chinese jinseng' did indeed exist in ancient China but it was Codonopsis pilosula

  18. Uniaxial tension test on Rubber at constant true strain rate

    Sourne H.L.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Elastomers are widely used for damping parts in different industrial contexts because of their remarkable dissipation properties. Indeed, they can undergo severe mechanical loading conditions, i.e., high strain rates and large strains. Nevertheless, the mechanical response of these materials can vary from purely rubber-like to glassy depending on the strain rate undergone. Classically, uniaxial tension tests are made in order to find a relation between the stress and the strain in the material at various strain rates. However, even if the strain rate is searched to be constant, it is the nominal strain rate that is considered. Here we develop a test at constant true strain rate, i.e. the strain rate that is experienced by the material. In order to do such a test, the displacement imposed by the machine is an exponential function of time. This test has been performed with a high speed hydraulic machine for strain rates between 0.01/s and 100/s. A specific specimen has been designed, yielding a uniform strain field (and so a uniform stress field. Furthermore, an instrumented aluminum bar has been used to take into account dynamic effects in the measurement of the applied force. A high speed camera enables the determination of strain in the sample using point tracking technique. Using this method, the stress-strain curve of a rubber-like material during a loading-unloading cycle has been determined, up to a stretch ratio λ = 2.5. The influence of the true strain rate both on stiffness and on dissipation of the material is then discussed.

  19. Tunable Optical True-Time Delay Devices Would Exploit EIT

    Kulikov, Igor; DiDomenico, Leo; Lee, Hwang

    2004-01-01

    Tunable optical true-time delay devices that would exploit electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) have been proposed. Relative to prior true-time delay devices (for example, devices based on ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials) and electronically controlled phase shifters, the proposed devices would offer much greater bandwidths. In a typical envisioned application, an optical pulse would be modulated with an ultra-wideband radio-frequency (RF) signal that would convey the information that one seeks to communicate, and it would be required to couple differently delayed replicas of the RF signal to the radiating elements of a phased-array antenna. One or more of the proposed devices would be used to impose the delays and/or generate the delayed replicas of the RF-modulated optical pulse. The beam radiated or received by the antenna would be steered by use of a microprocessor-based control system that would adjust operational parameters of the devices to tune the delays to the required values. EIT is a nonlinear quantum optical interference effect that enables the propagation of light through an initially opaque medium. A suitable medium must have, among other properties, three quantum states (see Figure 1): an excited state (state 3), an upper ground state (state 2), and a lower ground state (state 1). These three states must form a closed system that exhibits no decays to other states in the presence of either or both of two laser beams: (1) a probe beam having the wavelength corresponding to the photon energy equal to the energy difference between states 3 and 1; and (2) a coupling beam having the wavelength corresponding to the photon energy equal to the energy difference between states 3 and 2. The probe beam is the one that is pulsed and modulated with an RF signal.

  20. Kas tasemetööd täidavad oma eesmärki? / Marge Lepik, Kristi Mere, Merike Haas...[jt.

    2009-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad Lääne-Viru maavalitsuse haridusosakonna juhataja Marge Lepik, Haridus- ja Teadusministeeriumi välishindamisosakonna peaekspert Kristi Mere, Viira kooli klassiõpetaja Merike Haas, Rääma põhikooli direktor Elmo Joa ja Tallinna Ülikooli Haapsalu kolledži õppejõud Sirje Piht

  1. Teeninduse taseme hoidmine ja heade teenindajate leidmine on tööandjatele võtmeküsimus / Anu-Mall Naarits, Anneli Mere, Kristjan Laja, Inge Suder

    2009-01-01

    Anu-Mall Naarits Maratist, Anneli Mere Matkasport OÜ-st, Kristjan Laja Ambient Marketingist ning Inge Suder AS-ist Eesti Post vastavad küsimustele, mis puudutavad tagasisidet teenindusele, teenindajatele pakutavaid koolitusi ja motivatsioonipakette, teeninduse taset Eestis, teenindustöötajate palgataset, hea teenindaja isikuomadusi ning raskemaid ülesandeid teenindaja töös

  2. Anders Breivik: Extreme Beliefs Mistaken for Psychosis.

    Rahman, Tahir; Resnick, Phillip J; Harry, Bruce

    2016-03-01

    The case of Anders Breivik, who committed mass murder in Norway in 2011, stirred controversy among forensic mental health experts. His bizarrely composed compendium and references to himself as the "Knights Templar" raised concerns that he had a psychotic mental illness. Beliefs such as Mr. Breivik's that precede odd, unusual, or extremely violent behavior present a unique challenge to the forensic evaluator, who sometimes struggles to understand those beliefs. Psychotic disorder frequently is invoked to characterize odd, unusual, or extreme beliefs, with a classification that has evolved over time. However, the important concept of overvalued idea, largely ignored in American psychiatry, may better characterize these beliefs in some cases. We discuss the definitions of delusion and overvalued ideas in the context of Anders Breivik's rigidly held extreme beliefs. We also review the British definition of overvalued idea and discuss McHugh's construct, to introduce the term "extreme overvalued belief" as an aid in sharpening the forensic evaluator's conceptualization of these and similar beliefs. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  3. The hot hand belief and framing effects.

    MacMahon, Clare; Köppen, Jörn; Raab, Markus

    2014-09-01

    Recent evidence of the hot hand in sport-where success breeds success in a positive recency of successful shots, for instance-indicates that this pattern does not actually exist. Yet the belief persists. We used 2 studies to explore the effects of framing on the hot hand belief in sport. We looked at the effect of sport experience and task on the perception of baseball pitch behavior as well as the hot hand belief and free-throw behavior in basketball. Study 1 asked participants to designate outcomes with different alternation rates as the result of baseball pitches or coin tosses. Study 2 examined basketball free-throw behavior and measured predicted success before each shot as well as general belief in the hot hand pattern. The results of Study 1 illustrate that experience and stimulus alternation rates influence the perception of chance in human performance tasks. Study 2 shows that physically performing an act and making judgments are related. Specifically, beliefs were related to overall performance, with more successful shooters showing greater belief in the hot hand and greater predicted success for upcoming shots. Both of these studies highlight that the hot hand belief is influenced by framing, which leads to instability and situational contingencies. We show the specific effects of framing using accumulated experience of the individual with the sport and knowledge of its structure and specific experience with sport actions (basketball shots) prior to judgments.

  4. Analytic thinking reduces belief in conspiracy theories.

    Swami, Viren; Voracek, Martin; Stieger, Stefan; Tran, Ulrich S; Furnham, Adrian

    2014-12-01

    Belief in conspiracy theories has been associated with a range of negative health, civic, and social outcomes, requiring reliable methods of reducing such belief. Thinking dispositions have been highlighted as one possible factor associated with belief in conspiracy theories, but actual relationships have only been infrequently studied. In Study 1, we examined associations between belief in conspiracy theories and a range of measures of thinking dispositions in a British sample (N=990). Results indicated that a stronger belief in conspiracy theories was significantly associated with lower analytic thinking and open-mindedness and greater intuitive thinking. In Studies 2-4, we examined the causational role played by analytic thinking in relation to conspiracist ideation. In Study 2 (N=112), we showed that a verbal fluency task that elicited analytic thinking reduced belief in conspiracy theories. In Study 3 (N=189), we found that an alternative method of eliciting analytic thinking, which related to cognitive disfluency, was effective at reducing conspiracist ideation in a student sample. In Study 4, we replicated the results of Study 3 among a general population sample (N=140) in relation to generic conspiracist ideation and belief in conspiracy theories about the July 7, 2005, bombings in London. Our results highlight the potential utility of supporting attempts to promote analytic thinking as a means of countering the widespread acceptance of conspiracy theories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. How do Epistemological Beliefs Affect Training Motivation?

    Ingrid Molan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies show that human resources development through workplace training is one of the major investments in the workforce in today’s globalized and challenging market. As training motivation influences employees’ preparation for the workplace training, their respond to the programme, their learning outcome, their performance levels, and use of acquired knowledge and skills in their workplace it seems logical to investigate and determine antecedents of training motivation. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the concepts of epistemological beliefs, training motivation and the actual participation in the workplace training. We predicted that epistemological beliefs would have an effect on training motivation and actual participation on the workplace training and that there would be a positive relationship between the concepts, meaning that the more sophisticated epistemological beliefs would lead to higher motivation and participation. To test the epistemological beliefs, the Epistemic Belief Inventory (Schraw, Bendixen & Dunkle, 2002 was used and adjusted to the workplace setting. Then the results were compared to employees’ training motivation, which was measured with a questionnaire made by authors of the present study, and employees’ actual number of training hours annually. The results confirmed the relationship between the concepts as well as a significant predicting value of epistemological beliefs on motivation and actual participation. Epistemic Belief Inventory did not yield expected results reported by the authors of the instrument therefore the limitations, possible other interpretations and suggested further exploration are discussed.

  6. Are essentialist beliefs associated with prejudice?

    Haslam, Nick; Rothschild, Louis; Ernst, Donald

    2002-03-01

    Gordon Allport (1954) proposed that belief in group essences is one aspect of the prejudiced personality, alongside a rigid, dichotomous and ambiguity-intolerant cognitive style. We examined whether essentialist beliefs-beliefs that a social category has a fixed, inherent, identity-defining nature-are indeed associated in this fashion with prejudice towards black people, women and gay men. Allport's claim, which is mirrored by many contemporary social theorists, received partial support but had to be qualified in important respects. Essence-related beliefs were associated strongly with anti-gay attitudes but only weakly with sexism and racism, and they did not reflect a cognitive style that was consistent across stigmatized categories. When associations with prejudice were obtained, only a few specific beliefs were involved, and some anti-essentialist beliefs were associated with anti-gay attitudes. Nevertheless, the powerful association that essence-related beliefs had with anti-gay attitudes was independent of established prejudice-related traits, indicating that they have a significant role to play in the psychology of prejudice.

  7. Plantinga\\\\\\'s Internal and External Approach toRationality of Belief in God

    Mahdi Farajipak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Various views about the rationality/irrationality of believing in God have been suggested by western religious and secular thinners. The theory of "Basicalism" together with its similar views such as "Evidentialism", "Fideism" and"Pragmatism" is one of the epistemological views posed about the belief in God and seeks to prove its rationality. In general, based on this view, believing in God does not require any rational reasoning. Various versions of this view have been presented so far.One of its versions expressed by scholars like Swinburne, Alston and Plantinga is what is known as Experientialism. In his special exposition of Experientialism – which he refers to as "reformed epistemology" –Plantinga has had two different dictions in his works. In his early woks such as God and other Minds, "Is Belief in God Rational?", "Is Belief in God Properly Basic?" and"Reformed Epistemology and Christian Apologetics", he endeavored to prove the rationality and justificationof believing in God and tried to offer certain and compelling arguments to prove the existence of God. In these works, Plantinga has adopted an internal approach toward the rationality of believing in God and regards it as a basic belief. Criticizing classic foundationalism, he sought to expand a different version of foundationalism according to which God's existence is regarded as basic for a believer. Based on this approach, Palntinga, like other proponents of foundationalism, considers the knowledgea "True Justified Belief". His view is, however, different from other foundationalists in defining the nature of the third element of knowledge. According to Plantinga's early exposition of his theory, the criteria of rationality of believing in God include the principles of classic foundationalism(such as evident to senses, evident to reason and incorrigibility and other elements. He rejected the deductive-priori method concerning the criteria of determining basic belief and

  8. Plantinga's Internal and External Approach toRationality of Belief in God

    Mahdi Farajipak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Various views about the rationality/irrationality of believing in God have been suggested by western religious and secular thinners. The theory of "Basicalism" together with its similar views such as "Evidentialism", "Fideism" and"Pragmatism" is one of the epistemological views posed about the belief in God and seeks to prove its rationality. In general, based on this view, believing in God does not require any rational reasoning. Various versions of this view have been presented so far.One of its versions expressed by scholars like Swinburne, Alston and Plantinga is what is known as Experientialism. In his special exposition of Experientialism – which he refers to as "reformed epistemology" –Plantinga has had two different dictions in his works. In his early woks such as God and other Minds, "Is Belief in God Rational?", "Is Belief in God Properly Basic?" and"Reformed Epistemology and Christian Apologetics", he endeavored to prove the rationality and justificationof believing in God and tried to offer certain and compelling arguments to prove the existence of God. In these works, Plantinga has adopted an internal approach toward the rationality of believing in God and regards it as a basic belief. Criticizing classic foundationalism, he sought to expand a different version of foundationalism according to which God's existence is regarded as basic for a believer. Based on this approach, Palntinga, like other proponents of foundationalism, considers the knowledgea "True Justified Belief". His view is, however, different from other foundationalists in defining the nature of the third element of knowledge. According to Plantinga's early exposition of his theory, the criteria of rationality of believing in God include the principles of classic foundationalism(such as evident to senses, evident to reason and incorrigibility and other elements. He rejected the deductive-priori method concerning the criteria of determining basic belief and

  9. Two Types of Belief Report

    Michael Hegarty

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ascriptions of belief and other doxastic propositional attitudes are commonly interpreted as quantifying over a set of possible worlds constituting doxastic alternatives for the belief experiencer. Katz (2000, 2003, 2008 has argued that belief predicates and other stative attitude predicates, along with stative predicates generally, lack a Davidsonian event argument and therefore do not report on any eventuality (event or state. Hacquard (2010, in contrast, assumes that all attitude ascriptions describe an event corresponding to the mental state of the attitude experiencer. The present investigation suggests that the strengths of doxastic predicates can be modeled by generalized quantifiers over the doxastic alternative set, permitting us to formulate and test predictions based on standard interactions of these quantifiers with negation when these ascriptions are negated. This provides a middle ground between Katz and Hacquard, whereby some belief ascriptions are interpreted as nothing more than a quantified condition over a doxastic alternative set, while others attribute a Davidsonian belief state to the experiencer. In the latter case, the condition involving quantification over doxastic alternatives is an essential content condition which serves to individuate the eventuality described by the belief report, and to identify it across possible worlds.ReferencesCappelli, G. 2007. “I reckon I know how Leonardo da Vinci must have felt...” Epistemicity, Evidentiality and English Verbs of Cognitive Attitude. Pari: Pari Publishing.Carlson, G. 1998. ‘Thematic roles and the individuation of events’. In S. Rothstein (ed. ‘Events and Grammar’, 35–51. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Davidson, D. 1980[1967]. ‘The Logical Form of Action Sentences’. In N. Rescher (ed. ‘The Logic of Decision and Action’, 81–95. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. Reprinted in Davidson, D., Essays on Actions and Events, pp. 105

  10. [Interdisciplinary pain assessment in the hospital setting : Merely a door-opener to multimodal pain therapy?

    Sens, E; Mothes-Lasch, M; Lutz, J F

    2017-12-01

    Chronic pain is characterized by a complex interaction of somatic, mental and social factors. Assessing these factors in patients with chronic pain is vital during the diagnostic work-up and when making a structured treatment plan. Interdisciplinary pain assessment (ISA) is the most promising method to deal with these challenges. This article presents our experience in performing pain assessments in the hospital setting and also illustrates the characteristic features of chronic pain patients undergoing such assessments. This study reviews and evaluates patient data from 2704 ISAs performed at the Interdisciplinary Pain Centre of the Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Germany, between 2008 and 2015. The majority of our ISA patients are severely handicapped and show distinct signs of chronic disease. A large proportion of patients is either unable to work or receiving benefits (invalidity pension or retirement pension). In addition, patients reported long disease durations and high emotional distress. Treatment recommendations were based on the patients' individual clinical presentations and examination results. More than half of the patients required multimodal pain management, while adjustments or therapeutic withdrawal of pain medications, in particular of opioids, were indicated in many patients. Our study shows that ISA enables fast, high-quality diagnostic assessments of chronic pain while taking the biopsychosocial model of pain in particular into account. In addition, ISA is not biased with regard to outcome results and recommends the further treatment that appears best for the individual patient. ISA leads not only to inpatient treatment, but also to treatment in other therapeutic settings and, as such, is not merely a door-opener to multimodal pain therapy.

  11. Meaningful activities for improving the wellbeing of people with dementia: beyond mere pleasure to meeting fundamental psychological needs.

    Nyman, Samuel R; Szymczynska, Paulina

    2016-03-01

    Dementia is being increasingly recognised as a major public health issue for our ageing populations. A critical aspect of supporting people with dementia is facilitating their participation in meaningful activities. However, research to date has not drawn on theories of ageing from developmental psychology that would help undergird the importance of such meaningful activity. For the first time, we connect existing activity provision for people with dementia with developmental psychology theories of ageing. We reviewed the literature in two stages: first, we narratively searched the literature to demonstrate the relevance of psychological theories of ageing for provision of meaningful activities for people with dementia, and in particular focused on stage-based theories of adult development (Carl Jung and Erik Erikson), gerotranscendence (Tornstam), selective optimisation with compensation (Baltes and Baltes), and optimisation in primary and secondary control (Heckhausen and Schulz). Second, we systematically searched PubMed and PsycINFO for studies with people with dementia that made use of the aforementioned theories. The narrative review highlights that activity provision for people with dementia goes beyond mere pleasure to meeting fundamental psychological needs. More specifically, that life review therapy and life story work address the need for life review; spiritual/religious activities address the need for death preparation; intergenerational activities address the need for intergenerational relationships; re-acquaintance with previously conducted leisure activities addresses the need for a sense of control and to achieve life goals; and pursuit of new leisure activities addresses the need to be creative. The systematic searches identified two studies that demonstrated the utility of applying Erikson's theory of psychosocial development to dementia care. We argue for the importance of activity provision for people with dementia to help promote wellbeing

  12. Plan-Belief Revision in Jason

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    When information is shared between agents of unknown reliability, it is possible that their belief bases become inconsistent. In such cases, the belief base must be revised to restore consistency, so that the agent is able to reason. In some cases the inconsistent information may be due to use of...... of incorrect plans. We extend work by Alechina et al. to revise belief bases in which plans can be dynamically added and removed. We present an implementation of the algorithm in the AgentSpeak implementation Jason....

  13. True beam commissioning experience at Nordland Hospital Trust, Norway

    Daci, Lulzime, E-mail: lulzime.daci@nodlandssykehuset.no [Nordland Hospital Trust, Bodø (Norway); Malkaj, Partizan, E-mail: malkaj-p@hotmail.com [Faculty of Mathematics Engineering and Physics Engineering, Polytechnic University of Tirana (Albania)

    2016-03-25

    To evaluate the measured of all photon beam data of first Varian True Beam version 2.0 slim model, recently commissioned at Nordland Hospital Trust, Bodø. To compare and evaluate the possibility of beam matching with the Clinac2300, for the energies of 6MV and 15 MV. Materials/Methods: Measurements of PDD, OAR, and Output factors were realized with the IBA Blue-phantom with different detectors and evaluated between them for all photon energies: 6MV, 15MV, 6MV FFF and 10MV FFF. The ionization chambers used were Pin Point CC01, CC04, Semiflex CC13 and photon diode by Iba dosimetry. The data were processed using Beizer algorithm with a resolution of 1 mm. The measured depth dose curves, diagonals, OAR, and output factors were imported into Eclipse in order to calculate beam data for the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA version 10.0.28) for both the dataset measured with CC04 and CC13 and compared. The model head of 23EX was selected as the most near model to True Beam as a restriction of our version of Aria. It was seen that better results were achieved with the CC04 measured data as a result of better resolution. For the biggest field after 10 cm depth a larger difference is seen between measured and calculated for both dataset, but it is within the criteria for acceptance. Results: The Beam analysis criteria of 2 mm at 50% dose is achieved for all the fields accept for 40x40 that is within 3%. Depth difference at maximum dose is within 1 mm for all the fields and dose difference at 100 mm and 200 mm is lower than 1% for or all the fields. The PDD between two machines for all the fields differ after Dmax with less than 1%. For profiles in the field zone and outside field the difference is within 1% for all the fields. In the penumbra region the difference is from 2% up to 12% for big fields. As for diagonals they differ as a result of the head construction at the edge of the field and the penumbra region. The output factors differ for big fields

  14. True beam commissioning experience at Nordland Hospital Trust, Norway

    Daci, Lulzime; Malkaj, Partizan

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the measured of all photon beam data of first Varian True Beam version 2.0 slim model, recently commissioned at Nordland Hospital Trust, Bodø. To compare and evaluate the possibility of beam matching with the Clinac2300, for the energies of 6MV and 15 MV. Materials/Methods: Measurements of PDD, OAR, and Output factors were realized with the IBA Blue-phantom with different detectors and evaluated between them for all photon energies: 6MV, 15MV, 6MV FFF and 10MV FFF. The ionization chambers used were Pin Point CC01, CC04, Semiflex CC13 and photon diode by Iba dosimetry. The data were processed using Beizer algorithm with a resolution of 1 mm. The measured depth dose curves, diagonals, OAR, and output factors were imported into Eclipse in order to calculate beam data for the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA version 10.0.28) for both the dataset measured with CC04 and CC13 and compared. The model head of 23EX was selected as the most near model to True Beam as a restriction of our version of Aria. It was seen that better results were achieved with the CC04 measured data as a result of better resolution. For the biggest field after 10 cm depth a larger difference is seen between measured and calculated for both dataset, but it is within the criteria for acceptance. Results: The Beam analysis criteria of 2 mm at 50% dose is achieved for all the fields accept for 40x40 that is within 3%. Depth difference at maximum dose is within 1 mm for all the fields and dose difference at 100 mm and 200 mm is lower than 1% for or all the fields. The PDD between two machines for all the fields differ after Dmax with less than 1%. For profiles in the field zone and outside field the difference is within 1% for all the fields. In the penumbra region the difference is from 2% up to 12% for big fields. As for diagonals they differ as a result of the head construction at the edge of the field and the penumbra region. The output factors differ for big fields

  15. Fault Rock Zones Characterisation - Final report. TRUE-1 Continuation Project

    Winberg, Anders

    2010-11-01

    At the conclusion of the TRUE-1 and TRUE Block Scale experimental programmes at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory one remaining identified uncertainty was the in situ internal structure of conductive structures, and in particular the in situ material properties of unconsolidated fault gouge of such conductive structures. With the aim of reducing these uncertainties an experimental program has been conducted at depth in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Four conductive structures in the immediate vicinity of the Aespoe tunnel were identified for further study. Following basic geometrical and geological modelling based on tunnel observations, geological/ mineralogical and hydrogeological investigations in four boreholes at each site, epoxy resin was injected in selected packed off borehole sections containing the structure. Following a sufficient time for curing of the epoxy, the injected borehole 72 mm sections were overcored with a 300 mm core barrel. Customised techniques were employed to section the core in the borehole and for its retrieval out of the borehole. Following basic geological mapping, selected overcores were sectioned and were subject to image analysis to assess the pore structure using a variety of different descriptive geometrical attributes. In addition, an attempt was made to infer the porosity of the fault rock (including fault gouge) using binary images. Since analysis has been made on multiple slices of impregnated rock it is also possible to crudely map the 3D variability of a given entity. It was furthermore identified that porosity estimates, which range from some 10-70% are, apart from being dependent on the penetration of the epoxy, dependent on the resolution of the given image, the size of the averaging window, and the porosity components contained therein. The obtained quantifications of porosity can therefore only be regarded as ball-park relative porosities of a complete fault rock zones. It does not, however, provide firm

  16. Fault Rock Zones Characterisation - Final report. TRUE-1 Continuation Project

    Winberg, Anders (ed.) (Conterra AB (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    At the conclusion of the TRUE-1 and TRUE Block Scale experimental programmes at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory one remaining identified uncertainty was the in situ internal structure of conductive structures, and in particular the in situ material properties of unconsolidated fault gouge of such conductive structures. With the aim of reducing these uncertainties an experimental program has been conducted at depth in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Four conductive structures in the immediate vicinity of the Aespoe tunnel were identified for further study. Following basic geometrical and geological modelling based on tunnel observations, geological/ mineralogical and hydrogeological investigations in four boreholes at each site, epoxy resin was injected in selected packed off borehole sections containing the structure. Following a sufficient time for curing of the epoxy, the injected borehole 72 mm sections were overcored with a 300 mm core barrel. Customised techniques were employed to section the core in the borehole and for its retrieval out of the borehole. Following basic geological mapping, selected overcores were sectioned and were subject to image analysis to assess the pore structure using a variety of different descriptive geometrical attributes. In addition, an attempt was made to infer the porosity of the fault rock (including fault gouge) using binary images. Since analysis has been made on multiple slices of impregnated rock it is also possible to crudely map the 3D variability of a given entity. It was furthermore identified that porosity estimates, which range from some 10-70% are, apart from being dependent on the penetration of the epoxy, dependent on the resolution of the given image, the size of the averaging window, and the porosity components contained therein. The obtained quantifications of porosity can therefore only be regarded as ball-park relative porosities of a complete fault rock zones. It does not, however, provide firm

  17. Diagnostic pitfalls associated with a large true posterior communicating artery aneurysm: a case report.

    Nagatani, Kimihiro; Otani, Naoki; Seno, Soichiro; Takeuchi, Satoru; Wada, Kojiro; Mori, Kentaro

    2013-10-01

    True posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysm is an aneurysm that originates from the PCoA, and large or giant true PCoA aneurysms are rare. We report a case of a large true PCoA aneurysm successfully clipped after anterior clinoidectomy and discuss the diagnostic pitfalls associated with this rare clinical entity.

  18. Imaging diagnosis--positive contrast peritoneographic features of true diaphragmatic hernia.

    Choi, Jihye; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Mieun; Yoon, Junghee

    2009-01-01

    A true diaphragmatic hernia is a congenital diaphragmatic malformation that can appear identical to a peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia (PPDH). True diaphragmatic hernias are rare in dogs. Herein we describe the use of positive contrast peritoneography for diagnosis of a true diaphragmatic hernia in two dogs.

  19. Solution-Processed Carbon Nanotube True Random Number Generator.

    Gaviria Rojas, William A; McMorrow, Julian J; Geier, Michael L; Tang, Qianying; Kim, Chris H; Marks, Tobin J; Hersam, Mark C

    2017-08-09

    With the growing adoption of interconnected electronic devices in consumer and industrial applications, there is an increasing demand for robust security protocols when transmitting and receiving sensitive data. Toward this end, hardware true random number generators (TRNGs), commonly used to create encryption keys, offer significant advantages over software pseudorandom number generators. However, the vast network of devices and sensors envisioned for the "Internet of Things" will require small, low-cost, and mechanically flexible TRNGs with low computational complexity. These rigorous constraints position solution-processed semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as leading candidates for next-generation security devices. Here, we demonstrate the first TRNG using static random access memory (SRAM) cells based on solution-processed SWCNTs that digitize thermal noise to generate random bits. This bit generation strategy can be readily implemented in hardware with minimal transistor and computational overhead, resulting in an output stream that passes standardized statistical tests for randomness. By using solution-processed semiconducting SWCNTs in a low-power, complementary architecture to achieve TRNG, we demonstrate a promising approach for improving the security of printable and flexible electronics.

  20. Management of unilateral true vocal cord paralysis in children.

    Setlur, Jennifer; Hartnick, Christopher J

    2012-12-01

    Historically, information gained from the treatment of unilateral true vocal cord paralysis (UVCP) in adults was the same used to treat children. Today, there is a growing body of literature aimed specifically at the treatment of this condition in children. It is an area of growing interest as UVCP can significantly impact a child's quality of life. Children with UVCP may present with stridor, dysphonia, aspiration, feeding difficulties, or a combination of these symptoms. Diagnosis relies on laryngoscopy, but other adjuncts such as ultrasound and laryngeal electromyography may also be helpful in making the diagnosis and forming a treatment plan. In many instances, there is effective compensation by the contralateral vocal fold, making surgical intervention unnecessary. Children who cannot compensate for a unilateral defect may suffer from significant dysphonia that can affect their quality of life because their ability to be understood may be diminished. In these patients, treatment in the form of medialization or reinnervation of the affected recurrent laryngeal nerve may be warranted. UVCP is a well recognized problem in pediatric patients with disordered voice and feeding problems. Some patients will spontaneously recover their laryngeal function. For those who do not, a variety of reliable techniques are available for rehabilitative treatment. Improved diagnostics and a growing understanding of prognosis can help guide therapy decisions along with the goals and desires of the patient and his or her family.

  1. Reaching for the true overlay in advanced nodes

    Koay, Chiew-seng; Hamieh, Bassem; Felix, Nelson; Gaudiello, John

    2017-03-01

    Traditionally, the total measurement uncertainty (TMU) of overlay metrology focuses on dynamic precision, toolinduced-shift, and matching, while rarely examining inaccuracy. However, some researchers have recently shown that measurement inaccuracy can still be large despite optimized small TMU. Moreover, this inaccuracy can consume a significant portion of the overlay budget in the advanced nodes. In addition to qualifying the overlay error of inline wafers, overlay metrology is also used for improving on-product overlay as it provides corrective feedback to the lithography scanner. The accuracy of the correction terms as a result depends directly upon the measurement accuracy. As such, enhanced overlay accuracy will improve the overlay performance of reworked wafers, or subsequently exposed wafers. We have previously shown that a segmented Blossom target is more prone to asymmetry-induced inaccuracy than a nonsegmented target is [1]. Since target segmentation is inevitable for SADP and SAQP patterning processes, their resulting overlay performance leaves a lot to be desired. In our quest to reach for the true overlay, this paper reports our investigations on accuracy enhancement techniques for image-based targets, such as redundancy and self-calibration, and on the use of simulation-optimized scatterometry-based targets.

  2. True-personality-assisted self-awareness expert system

    Laleuf, M.

    1988-01-01

    Based on psychoanalytic theory, the Who am I? expert system explains in simple terms the individual's true personality, even it its unconscious or hidden aspects. Our overt personality traits are deeply rooted. The Who am I? expert system gives access to an individual's primary personality, starting from his habitual everyday-life behavior: (1) describes the individual's basic personality, (2) explains this personality through the individual's deeply rooted experience and motivation, and (3) makes links with other people with a similar profile. The following are the primary features of the system: easy individual access, results in <20 minutes, and guaranteed confidentiality. Business applications include the following: (1) Individual training: Self-awareness improves a person's ability to fit in and to succeed within the group. (2) Communication: a homogeneous team has a better chance of success. (3) Human reliability: A close-knit team remains reliable even when faced with serious difficulties. (4) Recruitment: This technique enables the selection of individuals who will fit an existing homogeneous team. The system also enables a psychological diagnosis to be confirmed

  3. Ethics in medicine: students' opinions on disclosure of true diagnosis.

    Pulanić, Drazen; Vrazić, Hrvoje; Cuk, Mario; Petrovecki, Mladen

    2002-02-01

    To determine students opinions about diagnosis disclosure to the patient and other interested parties. During 2000/2001 academic year, an anonymous survey was conducted among the first-year (200 questionnaires) and sixth-year medical students (200 questionnaires) at the Zagreb University School of Medicine. Students were asked what they would say about the diagnosis to the patient, patients family, friend, employer, colleague from work, health insurance agent, another physician, or medical student, if the diagnosis was inoperable lung carcinoma in a 20- and 66-year-old patient vs bacterial pneumonia in patients of the same age. The possibilities were to tell the truth, lie, or refuse to disclose the diagnosis. The response rate was 55%. Students would disclose the true diagnosis to the patient, patients family, friend, and employer in case of benign disease more often than in case of malignant disease (pemployer, and rarely to the patient's colleague from work. First-year students would generally tell the truth more often than sixth-year students (pethical issues should be discussed during the studies.

  4. TRUE AND FAIR VIEW – THE SUPREM TRUTH IN ACCOUNTING?

    Ana-Maria MARCULESCU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Acting in a social and economic environment in a continuous movement and transformation, accounting is experiencing with new situations, in its attempt to answer all functions and information users that it generates, making it an important arbitration instrument in the game of those involved in business world. The main characteristic of accounting is represented by providing useful information retrodictive and predictive in an efficient and economic decision process regarding the economic entity's financial position and accounting performance. Under these circumstances, the information must not contain significant errors, is not biased, and users can be confident that it accurately represents what they proposed to represent, or what is expected, in a reasonably manner to be. Fair and true view seen as an ideal to which any professional accountant should aim, seems to be more difficult to achieve under the current conditions, in which fiscal pressure is more and more unbearable and top management is more and more willing to make compromises that sometimes are at a legal limit. In theory, it is well known that registrations and accounting reports must provide a clear image, honest, fair and full on the assets, financial position and results of the entity. In practice, contrary to ethical principles, more and more "servants" of the accounting profession are either willing, or forced to submit distorted accounting information giving the impression of calmness to a disastrous situation.

  5. Open Pollinated Offspring for Producing Potatoes from True Seed

    Golmirzaie, AM.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Open pollinated (OP offspring offers a cheap propagule for potato production from true seed (TPS. A series of trials in contrasting Peruvian locations including several generations derived by open pollination were carried out to determine the potential of OP for TPS. The results suggest that several generations of OP did not affect the performance of TPS for tuber characteristics. On average, F1 hybrids out-yielded first generation OP offspring, but tuber yield per plot of advanced OP generations (OP5 across locations did not differ significantly from that shown by F1 hybrids. It seems that the effect of potential inbreeding in early OP generations was absent in advanced OP generations, maybe due to selection of heterozygous parents in the preceding generations. Results from sequential harvests showed that initiation and bulking of tubers are slower in advanced generations of OP than in the first OP generation, particularly in the warm tropics. Nonetheless, some OP TPS did not differ significantly for tuber yield across generations, suggesting that farmers may grow commercially selected OP offspring.

  6. Estimating true evolutionary distances under the DCJ model.

    Lin, Yu; Moret, Bernard M E

    2008-07-01

    Modern techniques can yield the ordering and strandedness of genes on each chromosome of a genome; such data already exists for hundreds of organisms. The evolutionary mechanisms through which the set of the genes of an organism is altered and reordered are of great interest to systematists, evolutionary biologists, comparative genomicists and biomedical researchers. Perhaps the most basic concept in this area is that of evolutionary distance between two genomes: under a given model of genomic evolution, how many events most likely took place to account for the difference between the two genomes? We present a method to estimate the true evolutionary distance between two genomes under the 'double-cut-and-join' (DCJ) model of genome rearrangement, a model under which a single multichromosomal operation accounts for all genomic rearrangement events: inversion, transposition, translocation, block interchange and chromosomal fusion and fission. Our method relies on a simple structural characterization of a genome pair and is both analytically and computationally tractable. We provide analytical results to describe the asymptotic behavior of genomes under the DCJ model, as well as experimental results on a wide variety of genome structures to exemplify the very high accuracy (and low variance) of our estimator. Our results provide a tool for accurate phylogenetic reconstruction from multichromosomal gene rearrangement data as well as a theoretical basis for refinements of the DCJ model to account for biological constraints. All of our software is available in source form under GPL at http://lcbb.epfl.ch.

  7. Assessing students' beliefs, emotions and causal attribution ...

    Keywords: academic emotion; belief; causal attribution; statistical validation; students' conceptions of learning ... Sadi & Lee, 2015), through their effect on motivation and learning strategies .... to understand why they may or may not be doing.

  8. Relationship between patients' beliefs about their antihypertensives ...

    ... patients' beliefs about their antihypertensives and adherence in a secondary hospital in ... The study was a cross-sectional study on hypertensive patients in General ... were effective in protecting them from the effects of high blood pressure.

  9. The role of beliefs in teacher agency

    Biesta, Gert; Priestley, Mark; Robinson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    ’s Curriculum for Excellence – in order to explore these questions. We focus on teachers’ beliefs in order to get a sense of the individual and collective discourses that inform teachers’ perceptions, judgements and decision-making and that motivate and drive teachers’ action. While the research suggests...... that beliefs play an important role in teachers’ work, an apparent mismatch between teachers’ individual beliefs and values and wider institutional discourses and cultures, and a relative lack of a clear and robust professional vision of the purposes of education indicate that the promotion of teacher agency...... does not just rely on the beliefs that individual teachers bring to their practice, but also requires collective development and consideration....

  10. Descriptor revision belief change through direct choice

    Hansson, Sven Ove

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a critical examination of how the choice of what to believe is represented in the standard model of belief change. In particular the use of possible worlds and infinite remainders as objects of choice is critically examined. Descriptors are introduced as a versatile tool for expressing the success conditions of belief change, addressing both local and global descriptor revision. The book presents dynamic descriptors such as Ramsey descriptors that convey how an agent’s beliefs tend to be changed in response to different inputs. It also explores sentential revision and demonstrates how local and global operations of revision by a sentence can be derived as a special case of descriptor revision. Lastly, the book examines revocation, a generalization of contraction in which a specified sentence is removed in a process that may possibly also involve the addition of some new information to the belief set.

  11. General family of preferential belief removal operators

    Booth, R

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Most belief change operators in the AGM tradition assume an underlying plausibility ordering over the possible worlds which is transitive and complete. A unifying structure for these operators, based on supplementing the plausibility ordering with a...

  12. The Making of Paranormal Belief: History, Discourse Analysis and the Object of Belief

    White, Lewis

    2013-01-01

    The present study comprises a discursive analysis of a cognitive phenomenon, paranormal beliefs. A discursive psychological approach to belief highlights that an important component of the cognitivist work has been how the object of paranormal belief has been defined in formal study. Using discourse analysis, as developed as a method in the history of psychology, this problem is explored through analysis of published scales. The findings highlight three rhetorical themes that are deployed in ...

  13. Language Learner Beliefs from an Attributional Perspective

    Gabillon, Zehra

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This qualitative study, aimed to analyze eight French-speaking learners' beliefs about English and English language learning. The data were obtained via semi-structured interviews. The study drew on Weiner's attribution theory of achievement motivation and Bandura's self-efficacy theory. The novelty about this research is the employment of an attributional analysis framework to study and explain the learners' stated beliefs about English and English language learning.

  14. Plural religious beliefs: A Comparison between the Dutch and white ...

    The concept of religious beliefs is distilled from the perspective of one's belief in God. With regard to this belief in God we propose to distinguish between two dimensions: The personal versus the a-personal character of God and his transcendent versus his immanent nature. This leaves us with a plurality of beliefs in God.

  15. Proposing an Operational Definition of Science Teacher Beliefs

    Hutner, Todd L.; Markman, Arthur B.

    2016-01-01

    Much research has shown that a science teacher's beliefs are related to their teaching practice. This line of research has often defined "belief" epistemologically. That is, beliefs are often defined relative to other mental constructs, such as knowledge, dispositions, or attitudes. Left unspecified is the role beliefs play in cognition…

  16. Explaining body size beliefs in anorexia.

    Gadsby, Stephen

    2017-11-01

    Cognitive neuropsychiatry has had much success in providing theoretical models for the causal origins of many delusional beliefs. Recently, it has been suggested that some anorexia nervosa patients' beliefs about their own body size should be considered delusions. As such, it seems high time the methods of cognitive neuropsychiatry were turned to modelling the false body size beliefs of anorexics. In this paper, I adopt an empiricist approach to modelling the causal origins of false body size beliefs in anorexia. Within the background of cognitive neuropsychiatry, empiricist models claim that abnormal beliefs are grounded by abnormal experiences bearing similar content. I discuss the kinds of abnormal experiences of body size anorexics suffer from which could ground their false beliefs about body size. These oversized experiences come in three varieties: false self-other body comparisons, spontaneous mental imagery of a fat body and distorted perception of affordances. Further theoretical and empirical research into the oversized experiences which anorexics suffer from presents a promising avenue for understanding and treating the disorder.

  17. Mental Rotation in False Belief Understanding.

    Xie, Jiushu; Cheung, Him; Shen, Manqiong; Wang, Ruiming

    2018-05-01

    This study examines the spontaneous use of embodied egocentric transformation (EET) in understanding false beliefs in the minds of others. EET involves the participants mentally transforming or rotating themselves into the orientation of an agent when trying to adopt his or her visuospatial perspective. We argue that psychological perspective taking such as false belief reasoning may also involve EET because of what has been widely reported in the embodied cognition literature, showing that our processing of abstract, propositional information is often grounded in concrete bodily sensations which are not apparently linked to higher cognition. In Experiment 1, an agent placed a ball into one of two boxes and left. The ball then rolled out and moved either into the other box (new box) or back into the original one (old box). The participants were to decide from which box they themselves or the agent would try to recover the ball. Results showed that false belief performance was affected by increased orientation disparity between the participants and the agent, suggesting involvement of embodied transformation. In Experiment 2, false belief was similarly induced and the participants were to decide if the agent would try to recover the ball in one specific box. Orientation disparity was again found to affect false belief performance. The present results extend previous findings on EET in visuospatial perspective taking and suggest that false belief reasoning, which is a kind of psychological perspective taking, can also involve embodied rotation, consistent with the embodied cognition view. Copyright © 2018 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. Folk Beliefs of Cultural Changes in China

    Yi eXu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For the last several decades, Chinese society has experienced transformative changes. How are these changes understood among Chinese people? To examine this question, Part 1 in this research solicited folk beliefs of cultural change from a group of Chinese participants in an open-ended format, and the generated folk beliefs were rated by another group of participants in Part 2 to gauge each belief’s level of agreement. Part 3 plotted the folk beliefs retained in Part 2 using the Google Ngram Viewer in order to infer the amount of intellectual interests that each belief has received cross-temporarily. These analyses suggested a few themes in Chinese folk beliefs of cultural change (1 rising perceived importance of materialism and individualism in understanding contemporary Chinese culture and Chinese psychology relative to those of the past (2 rising perceived importance of freedom, democracy and human rights and (3 enduring perceived importance of family relations and friendship as well as patriotism. Interestingly, findings from Parts 2 and 3 diverged somewhat, illuminating possible divergence between folk beliefs and intellectual interests especially for issues related to heritage of Confucianism.

  19. Diabetes screening anxiety and beliefs.

    Skinner, T C; Davies, M J; Farooqi, A M; Jarvis, J; Tringham, J R; Khunti, K

    2005-11-01

    This study assesses the impact of screening for diabetes on anxiety levels in an ethnically mixed population in the UK, and explores whether beliefs about Type 2 diabetes account for these anxiety levels. This cross-sectional study recruited individuals who were identified at high risk of developing diabetes through general practitioners' (GPs) lists or through public media recruitment. Participants completed an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Between blood tests, participants completed the Spielberger State Anxiety Scale Short Form, the Emotional Stability Scale of the Big Five Inventory 44 and three scales from the Diabetes Illness Representations Questionnaire, revised for this study. Of the 1339 who completed the OGTT and questionnaire booklet, 54% were female, with 21% from an Asian background. Forty-five per cent of participants reported little to moderate amounts of anxiety at screening (mean 35.2; sd = 11.6). There was no significant effect of family history of diabetes, ethnic group or recruitment method on anxiety. The only variable significantly associated (negatively) with anxiety was the personality trait of emotional stability. Of responders, 64% and 61% agreed that diabetes was caused by diet or hereditary factors, respectively. Only 155 individuals (12%) agreed that diabetes was serious, shortens life and causes complications. The results of this study replicate that of previous studies, indicating that screening for diabetes does not induce significant anxiety. Bivariate analysis indicated that individuals who perceived diabetes to be serious, life shortening and resulting in complications had higher anxiety scores, the personality trait of emotional stability being the strongest predictor of anxiety.

  20. Using Shakespeare's Sotto Voce to Determine True Identity From Text

    David Kernot

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Little is known of the private life of William Shakespeare, but he is famous for his collection of plays and poems, even though many of the works attributed to him were published anonymously. Determining the identity of Shakespeare has fascinated scholars for 400 years, and four significant figures in English literary history have been suggested as likely alternatives to Shakespeare for some disputed works: Bacon, de Vere, Stanley, and Marlowe. A myriad of computational and statistical tools and techniques have been used to determine the true authorship of his works. Many of these techniques rely on basic statistical correlations, word counts, collocated word groups, or keyword density, but no one method has been decided on. We suggest that an alternative technique that uses word semantics to draw on personality can provide an accurate profile of a person. To test this claim, we analyse the works of Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe, and Elizabeth Cary. We use Word Accumulation Curves, Hierarchical Clustering overlays, Principal Component Analysis, and Linear Discriminant Analysis techniques in combination with RPAS, a multi-faceted text analysis approach that draws on a writer's personality, or self to identify subtle characteristics within a person's writing style. Here we find that RPAS can separate the known authored works of Shakespeare from Marlowe and Cary. Further, it separates their contested works, works suspected of being written by others. While few authorship identification techniques identify self from the way a person writes, we demonstrate that these stylistic characteristics are as applicable 400 years ago as they are today and have the potential to be used within cyberspace for law enforcement purposes.

  1. Kocuria kristinae: a true pathogen in pediatric patients.

    Chen, Hsin-Mao; Chi, Hsin; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Huang, Fu-Yuan

    2015-02-01

    Kocuria kristinae is a Gram-positive microorganism, which has rarely been reported as a pathogen that causes infection in humans. Recently, a few studies had concluded that this pathogen can indeed cause infection in immunocompromised hosts. However, the number of reports on K. kristinae infection in pediatric patients is still relatively limited. Clinical data on pediatric patients who had K. kristinae cells isolated from their blood specimens during the period from January 2008 to May 2012 in a tertiary-care hospital in northern Taiwan were gathered and analyzed. Among 12 patients with K. kristinae cells isolated from their blood specimens, laboratory test results confirmed seven to have K. kristinae bloodstream infection. Six of them were premature babies, and one had acute leukemia. The infections were all healthcare associated. All the six premature babies had clinical presentation of sepsis and were inserted with percutaneous central venous catheters. One patient had two sets of blood culture positive for K. kristinae infection, and two premature patients had two sets of K. kristinae isolated, one from blood culture and the other from catheter tip culture, both of which were done at the same time. The leukemic child was inserted with a Broviac catheter and had K. kristinae isolated from both blood specimen and Broviac catheter. In the remaining five patients, K. kristinae infection was considered to be contaminant because they had only one set of positive blood culture and had other recognized infections. K. kristinae can cause infections in premature babies and immunocompromised pediatric patients using long-term intravenous catheters. Therefore, K. kristinae should be considered as a true pathogen and proper treatment should be provided to all susceptible pediatric patients. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Using Shakespeare's Sotto Voce to Determine True Identity From Text

    Kernot, David; Bossomaier, Terry; Bradbury, Roger

    2018-01-01

    Little is known of the private life of William Shakespeare, but he is famous for his collection of plays and poems, even though many of the works attributed to him were published anonymously. Determining the identity of Shakespeare has fascinated scholars for 400 years, and four significant figures in English literary history have been suggested as likely alternatives to Shakespeare for some disputed works: Bacon, de Vere, Stanley, and Marlowe. A myriad of computational and statistical tools and techniques have been used to determine the true authorship of his works. Many of these techniques rely on basic statistical correlations, word counts, collocated word groups, or keyword density, but no one method has been decided on. We suggest that an alternative technique that uses word semantics to draw on personality can provide an accurate profile of a person. To test this claim, we analyse the works of Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe, and Elizabeth Cary. We use Word Accumulation Curves, Hierarchical Clustering overlays, Principal Component Analysis, and Linear Discriminant Analysis techniques in combination with RPAS, a multi-faceted text analysis approach that draws on a writer's personality, or self to identify subtle characteristics within a person's writing style. Here we find that RPAS can separate the known authored works of Shakespeare from Marlowe and Cary. Further, it separates their contested works, works suspected of being written by others. While few authorship identification techniques identify self from the way a person writes, we demonstrate that these stylistic characteristics are as applicable 400 years ago as they are today and have the potential to be used within cyberspace for law enforcement purposes. PMID:29599734

  3. Hydrodynamic perception in true seals (Phocidae) and eared seals (Otariidae).

    Hanke, Wolf; Wieskotten, Sven; Marshall, Christopher; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2013-06-01

    Pinnipeds, that is true seals (Phocidae), eared seals (Otariidae), and walruses (Odobenidae), possess highly developed vibrissal systems for mechanoreception. They can use their vibrissae to detect and discriminate objects by direct touch. At least in Phocidae and Otariidae, the vibrissae can also be used to detect and analyse water movements. Here, we review what is known about this ability, known as hydrodynamic perception, in pinnipeds. Hydrodynamic perception in pinnipeds developed convergently to the hydrodynamic perception with the lateral line system in fish and the sensory hairs in crustaceans. So far two species of pinnipeds, the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) representing the Phocidae and the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) representing the Otariidae, have been studied for their ability to detect local water movements (dipole stimuli) and to follow hydrodynamic trails, that is the water movements left behind by objects that have passed by at an earlier point in time. Both species are highly sensitive to dipole stimuli and can follow hydrodynamic trails accurately. In the individuals tested, California sea lions were clearly more sensitive to dipole stimuli than harbour seals, and harbour seals showed a superior trail following ability as compared to California sea lions. Harbour seals have also been shown to derive additional information from hydrodynamic trails, such as motion direction, size and shape of the object that caused the trail (California sea lions have not yet been tested). The peculiar undulated shape of the harbour seals' vibrissae appears to play a crucial role in trail following, as it suppresses self-generated noise while the animal is swimming.

  4. True Love: Effectiveness of a School-Based Program to Reduce Dating Violence Among Adolescents in Mexico City.

    Sosa-Rubi, Sandra G; Saavedra-Avendano, Biani; Piras, Claudia; Van Buren, S Janae; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio

    2017-10-01

    Dating violence is a significant problem in Mexico. National survey data estimated 76 % of Mexican youth have been victims of psychological aggression in their relationships; 15.5 % have experienced physical violence; and 16.5 % of women have been the victims of sexual violence. Female adolescents perpetrate physical violence more frequently than males, while perpetration between genders of other types of violence is unclear. Furthermore, poor, marginalized youth are at a higher risk for experiencing dating violence. "Amor… pero del Bueno" (True Love) was piloted in two urban, low-income high schools in Mexico City to prevent dating violence. The intervention consisted of school-level and individual-level components delivered over 16 weeks covering topics on gender roles, dating violence, sexual rights, and strategies for coping with dating violence. The short-term impact was assessed quasi-experimentally, using matching techniques and fixed-effects models. A sample of 885 students (381 students exposed to the classroom-based curriculum of the individual-level component (SCC, IL-1) and 540 exposed only to the school climate component (SCC)) was evaluated for the following: changes in dating violence behaviors (psychological, physical and sexual), beliefs related to gender norms, knowledge, and skills for preventing dating violence. We found a 58 % (p violence, respectively, among SCC, IL-1 males compared to males exposed only to the SCC component. We also found a significant reduction in beliefs and attitudes justifying sexism and violence in dating relationships among SCC, IL-1 females (6 %; p < 0.05) and males (7 %; p < 0.05).

  5. ABORTION AND VIOLENCE IN JANE MARTIN’S KEELY AND DU: PRO-CHOICE, PRO-LIFE, OR MERELY PROVOCATIVE?

    Eta Farmacelia Nurulhady

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abortion and violence are global issues, yet different culture might respond to the issues somewhat differently. This study aims to reveal the abortion and violence issues in Jane Martin’s Keely and Du in terms of pro-choice and pro life movements and see how Indonesian students reading the play respond to the issues. In the United States of America, the discussion of abortion issue can be grouped into two major categories: the pro-life and pro-choice. In Indonesia, the majority of people would be against abortion when it is not for medical reasons. The students reading Keely and Du find the play challenging their beliefs as religious people still keeping hold of eastern values. Having discussed the nature of pro-life and pro-choice movements, it is difficult for them to decide whether they are proponent of either one. Keely and Du is successfully provocative in offering insight on how abortion and violence issues cannot be judged in a black and white manner.

  6. Effect of married women's beliefs about gender equity on their use of prenatal and delivery care in rural China.

    Cui, Ying; Zhang, Qiaoli; Yang, Li; Ye, Jianli; Lv, Mentao

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the effect of married women's beliefs regarding gender equity on their use of prenatal and delivery care in China's rural Xinjiang and Anhui provinces. In this survey, 1029 women aged from 15 to 69 years, living in rural Xinjiang and Anhui provinces, and married, answered a questionnaire designed to collect information on their demographic characteristics, reproductive history (number of pregnancies, level of prenatal care, and mode and place of delivery), and beliefs regarding gender equity. We quantified "belief in gender equity" based on responses to 7 specific statements and graded the responses according to a system scoring the strength of the overall belief (a total score ≥19, strong; 15-18, moderate; and ≤14, weak). Only 34.3% of the women demonstrated strong convictions about gender equity. Even after adjusting for education and ethnicity, the percentage of women who received consistent prenatal care and were delivered at a maternity facility was highest among those scoring 19 or higher, and the reverse was true for women scoring 14 or less. Overall, women in China's rural Xinjiang and Anhui provinces do not hold strong convictions about gender equity. There was a positive correlation between belief in gender equity and use of prenatal and delivery care. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gravity, God and Ghosts? Parents' Beliefs in Science, Religion, and the Paranormal and the Encouragement of Beliefs in Their Children

    Braswell, Gregory S.; Rosengren, Karl S.; Berenbaum, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Using a questionnaire, the present study examined parents' beliefs regarding the development of children's beliefs about science, religion, and the paranormal. The study also investigated parental encouragement of children's beliefs, as well as parents' own beliefs within these domains. Results revealed that parents make distinctions between…

  8. Effects of Epistemological Beliefs and Topic-Specific Beliefs on Undergraduates' Cognitive and Strategic Processing of Dual-Positional Text.

    Kardash, CarolAnne M.; Howell, Karen L.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates effects of epistemological beliefs and topic-specific beliefs on undergraduates' (N=40) cognitive and strategic processing of a dual-positional text. Findings reveal that epistemological beliefs about the speed of learning affected the overall number of cognitive processes exhibited, whereas topic-specific beliefs interacted with the…

  9. When fast logic meets slow belief: Evidence for a parallel-processing model of belief bias.

    Trippas, Dries; Thompson, Valerie A; Handley, Simon J

    2017-05-01

    Two experiments pitted the default-interventionist account of belief bias against a parallel-processing model. According to the former, belief bias occurs because a fast, belief-based evaluation of the conclusion pre-empts a working-memory demanding logical analysis. In contrast, according to the latter both belief-based and logic-based responding occur in parallel. Participants were given deductive reasoning problems of variable complexity and instructed to decide whether the conclusion was valid on half the trials or to decide whether the conclusion was believable on the other half. When belief and logic conflict, the default-interventionist view predicts that it should take less time to respond on the basis of belief than logic, and that the believability of a conclusion should interfere with judgments of validity, but not the reverse. The parallel-processing view predicts that beliefs should interfere with logic judgments only if the processing required to evaluate the logical structure exceeds that required to evaluate the knowledge necessary to make a belief-based judgment, and vice versa otherwise. Consistent with this latter view, for the simplest reasoning problems (modus ponens), judgments of belief resulted in lower accuracy than judgments of validity, and believability interfered more with judgments of validity than the converse. For problems of moderate complexity (modus tollens and single-model syllogisms), the interference was symmetrical, in that validity interfered with belief judgments to the same degree that believability interfered with validity judgments. For the most complex (three-term multiple-model syllogisms), conclusion believability interfered more with judgments of validity than vice versa, in spite of the significant interference from conclusion validity on judgments of belief.

  10. Formal and Informal Normative Beliefs Regarding Purchasing and Using Condoms

    樋口, 匡貴; 中村, 菜々子

    2009-01-01

    Properly using condoms is one of the most effective types of protection against HIV. To clarify the contents of normative beliefs regarding purchasing and using condoms, 390 undergraduate student volunteers were surveyed. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that both males and females held two types of normative beliefs, namely formal normative beliefs and informal normative beliefs, regarding purchasing and using condoms. Formal normative beliefs were concerned with the...

  11. Psychics, aliens, or experience? Using the Anomalistic Belief Scale to examine the relationship between type of belief and probabilistic reasoning.

    Prike, Toby; Arnold, Michelle M; Williamson, Paul

    2017-08-01

    A growing body of research has shown people who hold anomalistic (e.g., paranormal) beliefs may differ from nonbelievers in their propensity to make probabilistic reasoning errors. The current study explored the relationship between these beliefs and performance through the development of a new measure of anomalistic belief, called the Anomalistic Belief Scale (ABS). One key feature of the ABS is that it includes a balance of both experiential and theoretical belief items. Another aim of the study was to use the ABS to investigate the relationship between belief and probabilistic reasoning errors on conjunction fallacy tasks. As expected, results showed there was a relationship between anomalistic belief and propensity to commit the conjunction fallacy. Importantly, regression analyses on the factors that make up the ABS showed that the relationship between anomalistic belief and probabilistic reasoning occurred only for beliefs about having experienced anomalistic phenomena, and not for theoretical anomalistic beliefs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pulling smarties out of a bag: a Headed Records analysis of children's recall of their own past beliefs.

    Barreau, S; Morton, J

    1999-11-09

    The work reported provides an information processing account of young children's performance on the Smarties task (Perner, J., Leekam, S.R., & Wimmer, H. 1987, Three-year-olds' difficulty with false belief: the case for a conceptual deficit. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 5, 125-137). In this task, a 3-year-old is shown a Smarties tube and asked about the supposed contents. The true contents, pencils, is then revealed, and the majority of 3-year-olds cannot recall their initial belief that the tube contained Smarties. The theoretical analysis, based on the Headed Records framework (Morton, J., Hammersley, R.J., & Bekerian, D.A. 1985, Headed records: a model for memory and its failures, Cognition, 20, 1-23), focuses on the computational conditions that are required to resolve the Smarties task; on the possible limitations in the developing memory system that may lead to a computational breakdown; and on ways of bypassing such limitations to ensure correct resolution. The design, motivated by this analysis, is a variation on Perner's Smarties task. Instead of revealing the tube's contents immediately after establishing the child's beliefs about it, these contents were then transferred to a bag and a (false) belief about the bag's contents established. Only then were the true contents of the bag revealed. The same procedure (different contents) was carried out a week later. As predicted children's performance was better (a) in the 'tube' condition; and (b) on the second test. Consistent with the proposed analysis, the data show that when the computational demands imposed by the original task are reduced, young children can and do remember what they had thought about the contents of the tube even after its true contents are revealed.

  13. The extended reciprocity: Strong belief outperforms persistence.

    Kurokawa, Shun

    2017-05-21

    The existence of cooperation is a mysterious phenomenon and demands explanation, and direct reciprocity is one key potential explanation for the evolution of cooperation. Direct reciprocity allows cooperation to evolve for cooperators who switch their behavior on the basis of information about the opponent's behavior. Here, relevant to direct reciprocity is information deficiency. When the opponent's last move is unknown, how should players behave? One possibility is to choose cooperation with some default probability without using any further information. In fact, our previous paper (Kurokawa, 2016a) examined this strategy. However, there might be beneficial information other than the opponent's last move. A subsequent study of ours (Kurokawa, 2017) examined the strategy which uses the own last move when the opponent's last move is unknown, and revealed that referring to the own move and trying to imitate it when information is absent is beneficial. Is there any other beneficial information else? How about strong belief (i.e., have infinite memory and believe that the opponent's behavior is unchanged)? Here, we examine the evolution of strategies with strong belief. Analyzing the repeated prisoner's dilemma game and using evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) analysis against an invasion by unconditional defectors, we find the strategy with strong belief is more likely to evolve than the strategy which does not use information other than the opponent player's last move and more likely to evolve than the strategy which uses not only the opponent player's last move but also the own last move. Strong belief produces the extended reciprocity and facilitates the evolution of cooperation. Additionally, we consider the two strategies game between strategies with strong belief and any strategy, and we consider the four strategies game in which unconditional cooperators, unconditional defectors, pessimistic reciprocators with strong belief, and optimistic reciprocators with

  14. True Polar Wander of Enceladus From Topographic Data

    Tajeddine, Radwan; Soderlund, Krista M.; Thomas, Peter C.; Helfenstein, Paul; Hedman, Matthew M.; Burns, Joseph A.; Schenk, Paul M.

    2016-10-01

    Besides the relative motion of lithospheric plates, the Earth as a whole moves with respect to its rotation pole, as shown by paleomagnetic, astrometric and geodetic measurements [1]. Such so-called true polar wander (TPW) occurs because our planet's moments of inertia change temporally owing to internal thermal convection and to the redistribution of surficial mass during ice ages. Thus, to conserve angular momentum while losing rotational energy, Earth's axis of maximum moment of inertia aligns with its spin axis. Theoreticians suspect similar reorientations of other celestial bodies but supporting evidence is fragmentary, at best [2]. Here we report the discovery of a global series of topographic lows on Saturn's satellite Enceladus indicating that this synchronously locked moon has undergone reorientation by ~55°. We use improved topographic data from spherical harmonic expansion of Cassini limb [3,4,5] and stereogrammetric [5,6,7] measurements to characterize regional topography over the surface of Enceladus. We identify a group of nearly antipodal basins orthogonal to a topographic basin chain tracing a non-equatorial circumglobal belt across Enceladus' surface. We argue that the belt and the antipodal regions are fossil remnants of old equator and poles, respectively. These lows are argued to arise from isostasic compensation [7,8] with their pattern reflecting variations in internal dynamics of the ice shell. Our hypothesis is consistent with many geological features visible in Cassini images [9].References:[1] Mitrovica, J.X. & Wahr, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 39, 577-616 (2011).[2] Matsuyama, I. et al. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 42, 605-634 (2014).[3] Thomas, P.C. et al. Icarus, 190, 573-584 (2007).[4] Thomas, P.C. Icarus, 208, 395-401 (2010).[5] Thomas, P.C. et al. Icarus, 264, 37-47 (2016).[6] Edwards, K. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 53, 1219-1222 (1987).[7] Schenk, P.M. & McKinnon, W. B

  15. STATED VS. ENACTED BELIEFS: LOOKING AT PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS' PEDAGOGICAL BELIEFS THROUGH CLASSROOM INTERACTION

    Alberto Fajardo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between pedagogical beliefs and classroom practice. Two Colombian pre-service primary school language teachers in the final stage of their five-year training programme were the research participants. Interview and classroom observation were the methods used, and content analysis was the analytical approach. It is argued in this study that by comparing the stated beliefs (as articulated in interviews and enacted beliefs (as manifested in classroom interaction, it is possible to gain a fine-grained understanding of the relationship between beliefs and teaching practice. The findings suggested that while there were significant cases of coherence between beliefs and classroom action, there was also evidence of some incongruent relationships.

  16. Paranormal beliefs and religiosity: Chinese version of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale.

    Shiah, Yung-Jong; Tam, Wai-Cheong Carl; Wu, Ming-Hsun; Chang, Frances

    2010-10-01

    This paper reports an initial study investigating the relations of paranormal beliefs with religiosity in a Chinese sample, as well as the development of a Chinese version of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and a test of its psychometric properties with 310 college students (5.5% Christians, 21.3% Buddhists, 61% believers in traditional Chinese religions, and 12% atheists). The reliability and validity of the Chinese version were satisfactory. In general, traditional Chinese religious believers had higher scores on paranormal belief than did Christians and atheists, and the mean total score of the Chinese participants was higher than previously reported in a Western sample. It was concluded that the greater involvement of practitioners of traditional Chinese religions in activities emphasizing paranormal experiences might contribute to their greater paranormal belief, especially as compared to the minority Christian group. The results are consistent with the idea that Christianity may offer the least support for paranormal belief.

  17. Belief Functions: Theory and Applications - Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Belief Functions

    Masson, Marie-Hélène

    2012-01-01

    The theory of belief functions, also known as evidence theory or Dempster-Shafer theory, was first introduced by Arthur P. Dempster in the context of statistical inference, and was later developed by Glenn Shafer as a general framework for modeling epistemic uncertainty. These early contributions have been the starting points of many important developments, including the Transferable Belief Model and the Theory of Hints. The theory of belief functions is now well established as a general framework for reasoning with uncertainty, and has well understood connections to other frameworks such as probability, possibility and imprecise probability theories.   This volume contains the proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Belief Functions that was held in Compiègne, France on 9-11 May 2012. It gathers 51 contributions describing recent developments both on theoretical issues (including approximation methods, combination rules, continuous belief functions, graphical models and independence concepts) an...

  18. Paranormal beliefs of Latvian college students: a Latvian version of the revised paranormal belief scale.

    Utinans, A; Ancane, G; Tobacyk, J J; Boyraz, G; Livingston, M M; Tobacyk, J S

    2015-02-01

    A Latvian version of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale (RPBS) was completed by 229 Latvian university students. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed six relatively independent factors labeled Magical Abilities, Psychokinesis, Traditional Religious Belief, Superstition, Spirit Travel, and Extraordinary Life Forms. Based on the motivational-control model, it was hypothesized that the societal stressors affecting Latvian society during the last 50 yr. have led to a reduced sense of personal control which, in turn, has resulted in increased endorsement of paranormal beliefs to re-establish a sense of control. The motivational-control hypothesis was not supported. Results indicated that (except for Traditional Religious Belief in women), the majority of these students were disbelievers in paranormal phenomena. As hypothesized, Latvian women reported significantly greater paranormal belief than men.

  19. To share or not to share: The role of epistemic belief in online health rumors.

    Chua, Alton Y K; Banerjee, Snehasish

    2017-12-01

    This paper investigates the role of epistemic belief in affecting Internet users' decision to share online health rumors. To delve deeper, it examines how the characteristics of rumors-true or false, textual or pictorial, dread or wish-shape the decision-making among epistemologically naïve and robust users separately. An experiment was conducted. Responses were obtained from 110 participants, who were exposed to eight rumors. This yielded 880 cases (110 participants×8 rumors) for statistical analyses. Epistemologically naive participants were more likely to share online health rumors than epistemologically robust individuals. Epistemologically robust participants were more likely to share textual rumors than pictorial ones. However, there were no differences between true and false rumors or between dread and wish rumors for either epistemologically naive or robust participants. This paper contributes to the understanding of users' health information sharing behavior. It encourages users to cultivate robust epistemic belief in order to improve their online health information processing skills. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Linking unfounded beliefs to genetic dopamine availability

    Schmack, Katharina; Rössler, Hannes; Sekutowicz, Maria; Brandl, Eva J.; Müller, Daniel J.; Petrovic, Predrag; Sterzer, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Unfounded convictions involving beliefs in the paranormal, grandiosity ideas or suspicious thoughts are endorsed at varying degrees among the general population. Here, we investigated the neurobiopsychological basis of the observed inter-individual variability in the propensity toward unfounded beliefs. One hundred two healthy individuals were genotyped for four polymorphisms in the COMT gene (rs6269, rs4633, rs4818, and rs4680, also known as val158met) that define common functional haplotypes with substantial impact on synaptic dopamine degradation, completed a questionnaire measuring unfounded beliefs, and took part in a behavioral experiment assessing perceptual inference. We found that greater dopamine availability was associated with a stronger propensity toward unfounded beliefs, and that this effect was statistically mediated by an enhanced influence of expectations on perceptual inference. Our results indicate that genetic differences in dopaminergic neurotransmission account for inter-individual differences in perceptual inference linked to the formation and maintenance of unfounded beliefs. Thus, dopamine might be critically involved in the processes underlying one's interpretation of the relationship between the self and the world. PMID:26483654