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Sample records for mercury triple test

  1. Performance of Mercury Triple-Point Cells Made in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovic, S. G.; Santiago, J. F. N.; Filho, R. R.; Teixeira, R. N.; Santos, P. R. F.

    2003-09-01

    Fixed-points cells are primary standards in ITS-90. They contain reference material with a purity of 99.999 % or more. The gallium in a melting-point cell, for example, can reach a purity of 99.99999 %. This level of purity is not easy to obtain. However, substances like water and mercury can be purified by means of distillation and chemical procedures. This paper presents the results of mercury triple-point cells made in Brazil that were directly compared to a mercury triple-point cell of 99.999% purity. This reference cell, made by Isotech (England), was previously compared to cells from CENAM (Mexico) and NRC (Canada) and the maximum deviation found was approximately 0.4 mK. The purification stage started with a sample of mercury 99.3 % pure, and the repeated use of both mechanical and chemical processes led to a purification grade considered good enough for calibration of standard platinum resistance thermometers. The purification procedures, the method of construction of the cell, the laboratory facilities, the comparison results and the budget of uncertainties are described in this paper. All of the cells tested have a triple-point temperature within 0.25 mK of the triple-point temperature of the Inmetro reference cell.

  2. 21 CFR 862.3600 - Mercury test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....3600 Mercury test system. (a) Identification. A mercury test system is a device intended to measure mercury, a heavy metal, in human specimens. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mercury test system. 862.3600 Section 862.3600...

  3. Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Landreth

    2007-12-31

    This report summarizes the work conducted from September 1, 2003 through December 31, 2007 on the project entitled Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program. The project covers the testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant and the Duke Power Cliffside and Buck Stations. The St. Clair Plant used a blend of subbituminous and bituminous coal and controlled the particulate emissions by means of a cold-side ESP. The Duke Power Stations used bituminous coals and controlled their particulate emissions by means of hot-side ESPs. The testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant demonstrated that mercury sorbents could be used to achieve high mercury removal rates with low injection rates at facilities that burn subbituminous coal. A mercury removal rate of 94% was achieved at an injection rate of 3 lb/MMacf over the thirty day long-term test. Prior to this test, it was believed that the mercury in flue gas of this type would be the most difficult to capture. This is not the case. The testing at the two Duke Power Stations proved that carbon- based mercury sorbents can be used to control the mercury emissions from boilers with hot-side ESPs. It was known that plain PACs did not have any mercury capacity at elevated temperatures but that brominated B-PAC did. The mercury removal rate varies with the operation but it appears that mercury removal rates equal to or greater than 50% are achievable in facilities equipped with hot-side ESPs. As part of the program, both sorbent injection equipment and sorbent production equipment was acquired and operated. This equipment performed very well during this program. In addition, mercury instruments were acquired for this program. These instruments worked well in the flue gas at the St. Clair Plant but not as well in the flue gas at the Duke Power Stations. It is believed that the difference in the amount of oxidized mercury, more at Duke Power, was the difference in instrument performance. Much of the equipment was

  4. Mercury flow tests (first report). Wall friction factor measurement tests and future tests plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminaga, Masanori; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro; Sudo, Yukio

    1999-07-01

    In the neutron science project at JAERI, we plan to inject a pulsed proton beam of a maximum power of 5 MW from a high intense proton accelerator into a mercury target in order to produce high energy neutrons of a magnitude of ten times or more than existing facilities. The neutrons produced by the facility will be utilized for advanced field of science such as the life sciences etc. An urgent issue in order to accomplish this project is the establishment of mercury target technology. With this in mind, a mercury experimental loop with the capacity to circulate mercury up to 15 L/min was constructed to perform thermal hydraulic tests, component tests and erosion characteristic tests. A measurement of the wall friction factor was carried out as a first step of the mercury flow tests, while testing the characteristic of components installed in the mercury loop. This report presents an outline of the mercury loop and experimental results of the wall friction factor measurement. From the wall friction factor measurement, it was made clear that the wettability of the mercury was improved with an increase of the loop operation time and at the same time the wall friction factors were increased. The measured wall friction factors were much lower than the values calculated by the Blasius equation at the beginning of the loop operation because of wall slip caused by a non-wetted condition. They agreed well with the values calculated by the Blasius equation within a deviation of 10% when the sum of the operation time increased more than 11 hours. This report also introduces technical problems with a mercury circulation and future tests plan indispensable for the development of the mercury target. (author)

  5. Performance of mercury triple point cells made in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Petkovic, Slavolhub Garcia; Santiago, José Felipe Neves; Teixeira, Renato Nunes; Santos, Paulo Roberto da Fonseca

    2002-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Fixed−points cells are primary standards in ITS-90. They contain reference material with a purity of 99.999 % or more. The gallium in a melting−point cell, for example, can reach a purity of 99.99999 %. This level of purity is not easy to obtain. However, substances like water and mercury can be purified by means of distillation and chemical procedures. This paper presents the results of mercury triple−point cells made in Brazil that were directly compared to a mercury triple−point ...

  6. Off-line tests on pitting damage in mercury target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futakawa, Masatoshi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Ishikura, Shuichi; Ikeda, Yujiro

    2003-03-01

    A liquid-mercury target system for the MW-scale target is being developed in the world. The moment the proton beams bombard the target, stress waves will be imposed on the beam window and pressure waves will be generated in the mercury by the thermally shocked heat deposition. Provided that the negative pressure generates through its propagation in the mercury target and causes cavitation in the mercury, there is the possibility for the cavitation bubbles collapse to form pits on the interface between the mercury and the target vessel wall. In order to estimate the cavitation erosion damage due to pitting, two types of off-line tests were performed: Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), and Magnetic IMpact Testing Machine (MIMTM). The data on the piping damage at the high cycle impacts up to 10 million were given by the MIMTM. Additionally the data obtained were compared with classical vibratory horn tests. As a result, it is confirmed that the mean depth erosion is predictable using a homologous line in the steady state with mass loss independently of testing machines and the incubation period is very dependent on materials and imposed pressures. (author)

  7. Off-line tests on pitting damage in mercury target

    CERN Document Server

    Futakawa, M; Ishikura, S; Kogawa, H; Tsai, C C

    2003-01-01

    A liquid-mercury target system for the MW-scale target is being developed in the world. The moment the proton beams bombard the target, stress waves will be imposed on the beam window and pressure waves will be generated in the mercury by the thermally shocked heat deposition. Provided that the negative pressure generates through its propagation in the mercury target and causes cavitation in the mercury, there is the possibility for the cavitation bubbles collapse to form pits on the interface between the mercury and the target vessel wall. In order to estimate the cavitation erosion damage due to pitting, two types of off-line tests were performed: Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), and Magnetic IMpact Testing Machine (MIMTM). The data on the piping damage at the high cycle impacts up to 10 million were given by the MIMTM. Additionally the data obtained were compared with classical vibratory horn tests. As a result, it is confirmed that the mean depth erosion is predictable using a homologous line in the s...

  8. Triple Test in Carcinoma Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameer; Mukherjee, Arindam

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The commonest clinical presentation in majority of breast pathology is a lump. A definite diagnosis of breast lump is very important for the surgeon to decide on the final course of treatment and also saves the patient from unnecessary physical, emotional and psychological trauma if there is a definite preoperative diagnosis of benign lesion. The present study was done to evaluate the effectiveness and relevance of “TRIPLE TEST”in diagnosis of carcinoma breast in rural labour class population. Materials and Methods: The present study was a prospective study conducted on patients over 35 years of age having palpable breast lumps presenting in the out patient department of general surgery, ESI Hospital Basaidarapur New Delhi, India. The duration of study was from May 2007 to June 2009 and a total of 100 cases were studied. Each patient was subjected to a detailed history, clinical breast examination ,diagnostic mammography and FNAC. In this study, the results of each modality was divided in three groups: benign, suspicious and malignant. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of each test was calculated individually and as combined. Result: Out of 100 patients enrolled in this study, 60 cases were benign and 40 cases were of malignant breast disease. The age of patients with carcinoma breast in the series varied from 35 years to 70 years. The highest incidence of malignancy noted was 30% in 41-50 years age group (4th decade) followed by 27.5% in 51-60 years age group (5th decade). The sensitivity of clinical examination was found to be 75%, specificity was 83.3%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 75% and diagnostic accuracy of 80%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of mammography was calculated and was found to be 94.9% , 90% , 86% and 92% respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of

  9. Bilateral Comparison of Mercury and Gallium Fixed-Point Cells Using Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojkovski, J.; Veliki, T.; Zvizdić, D.; Drnovšek, J.

    2011-08-01

    The objective of project EURAMET 1127 (Bilateral comparison of triple point of mercury and melting point of gallium) in the field of thermometry is to compare realization of a triple point of mercury (-38.8344 °C) and melting point of gallium (29.7646 °C) between the Slovenian national laboratory MIRS/UL-FE/LMK and the Croatian national laboratory HMI/FSB-LPM using a long-stem 25 Ω standard platinum resistance thermometer (SPRT). MIRS/UL/FE-LMK participated in a number of intercomparisons on the level of EURAMET. On the other hand, the HMI/LPM-FSB laboratory recently acquired new fixed-point cells which had to be evaluated in the process of intercomparisons. A quartz-sheathed SPRT has been selected and calibrated at HMI/LPM-FSB at the triple point of mercury, the melting point of gallium, and the water triple point. A second set of measurements was made at MIRS/UL/FE-LMK. After its return, the SPRT was again recalibrated at HMI/LPM-FSB. In the comparison, the W value of the SPRT has been used. Results of the bilateral intercomparison confirmed that the new gallium cell of the HMI/LPM-FSB has a value that is within uncertainty limits of both laboratories that participated in the exercise, while the mercury cell experienced problems. After further research, a small leakage in the mercury fixed-point cell has been found.

  10. Mercury Emission Control Technologies for PPL Montana-Colstrip Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John P. Kay; Michael L. Jones; Steven A. Benson

    2007-04-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) was asked by PPL Montana LLC (PPL) to provide assistance and develop an approach to identify cost-effective options for mercury control at its coal-fired power plants. The work conducted focused on baseline mercury level and speciation measurement, short-term parametric testing, and week long testing of mercury control technology at Colstrip Unit 3. Three techniques and various combinations of these techniques were identified as viable options for mercury control. The options included oxidizing agents or sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) such as chlorine-based SEA1 and an EERC proprietary SEA2 with and without activated carbon injection. Baseline mercury emissions from Colstrip Unit 3 are comparatively low relative to other Powder River Basin (PRB) coal-fired systems and were found to range from 5 to 6.5 g/Nm3 (2.9 to 3.8 lb/TBtu), with a rough value of approximately 80% being elemental upstream of the scrubber and higher than 95% being elemental at the outlet. Levels in the stack were also greater than 95% elemental. Baseline mercury removal across the scrubber is fairly variable but generally tends to be about 5% to 10%. Parametric results of carbon injection alone yielded minimal reduction in Hg emissions. SEA1 injection resulted in 20% additional reduction over baseline with the maximum rate of 400 ppm (3 gal/min). Week long testing was conducted with the combination of SEA2 and carbon, with injection rates of 75 ppm (10.3 lb/hr) and 1.5 lb/MMacf (40 lb/hr), respectively. Reduction was found to be an additional 30% and, overall during the testing period, was measured to be 38% across the scrubber. The novel additive injection method, known as novel SEA2, is several orders of magnitude safer and less expensive than current SEA2 injection methods. However, used in conjunction with this plant configuration, the technology did not demonstrate a significant level of mercury reduction. Near-future use of this

  11. DMPS (DIMAVAL) as a challenge test to assess the mercury and arsenic body/kidney load in humans and as a treatment of mercury toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aposhian, H.V.; Maiorino, R.M.; Aposhian, M.M. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Hurlbut, K.M. [Rocky Mountain Poison Control Center, Denver, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Mercury is an element which, with its compounds, is hazardous and is found in hazardous wastes. In Order to develop suitable diagnostic and therapeutic agents for mercury exposure, we have sought alternative test systems. We have used the chelating agent 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate (DMPS, DIMAVAL{reg_sign}) for estimating the body burden of mercury in normal humans and in dental personnel in a developing country, and for detoxifying humans with mercurous chloride exposure. Use of the DMPS-mercury challenge test has shown that two-thirds of the mercury excreted in the urine of volunteers with dental amalgams appears to be derived from the mercury vapor released from their amalgams. The DMPS challenge test (300 mg, by mouth, after an 11 hr fast) was useful for monitoring dental personnel for mercury vapor exposure. The DMPS challenge test was given to 11 factory workers who make a skin lotion that contains mercurous chloride, 8 users of the skin lotion, and 9 controls. The increases in urinary Hg resulting from the DMPS challenge were 45, 87, and 38-fold, respectively. The results demonstrate that in humans exposed to mercurous chloride, the DMPS-mercury challenge test is of value for a more realistic estimation of mobilizable Hg. DMPS should be considered for use to determine mercury body burdens and to treat humans exposed to mercury and its compounds via exposure to hazardous wastes. 42 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. The triple test as a screening technique for Down syndrome: reliability and relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Reynolds

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Tim ReynoldsClinical Chemistry Department, Queen’s Hospital, Burton-on-Trent, Staffordshire, UKAbstract: The triple test is a second trimester screening test used to identify those pregnant women who should be offered a diagnostic test to identify whether their fetus has an aneuploidy. It was first described in 1988, but has largely been superseded by newer tests either conducted earlier in the first trimester (ie, the combined test, using ultrasound measurement of nuchal translucency,pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, and human chorionic gonadotrophin [hCG] or in the second trimester (ie, the quadruple test, using α-fetoprotein, hCG, uE3, and inhibin. These newer tests have been introduced because they offer greater detection and lower screen positive results thereby enhancing diagnosis rates, while decreasing the risk of iatrogenic harm caused by the invasive testing required when collecting suitable sample tissue. Noninvasive alternatives to the triple test have been identified, but these have not been adopted despite 13 years of development. It is likely, therefore, that the triple test (or variants thereof will continue to be used in routine antenatal care for the foreseeable future.Keywords: pregnancy, screening test, antenatal, Down syndrome

  13. Effects of alkoxy alkyl mercury derivative on hens in a feed test with disinfected cereal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, O; Kalliokoski, P K

    1968-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of feeding hens cereal that had been disinfected with either methoxyethyl mercury chloride or methoxyethyl mercury silicate. Two groups of hens were fed the grain and the results were compared. Both disinfectants decreased egg production and consumption of the feed. Two-thirds of the hens lost weight in the methoxyethyl mercury silicate test. The hens were not weighed in the other test. Estimated intakes of Hg were 2.5 mg for methoxyethyl mercury chloride and 0.45 mg for methoxyethyl mercury silicate.

  14. Test results for triple-modulation radar electronics with improved range disambiguation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollastrone, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.pollastrone@enea.it; Neri, Carlo

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A new digital radar electronic system based on triple-modulation has been developed. • The triple-modulation system uses an improved algorithm for the range-disambiguation. • The new radar electronics has been applied in the IVVS optical radar prototype for ITER. • The performances obtained with IVVS double and triple-modulation were compared. - Abstract: The In Vessel Viewing System (IVVS) is an optical radar with sub milimetrical resolution that will be used for imaging and metrology pourposes in ITER. The electronics of the system is based on a Digital Radar Electronics developed in ENEA Frascati laboratories during the past years. Until the present study, the system was based on amplitude modulation technique having double-modulation frequency. The power of the laser is sinusoidally modulated and the distance of the points scanned by the laser beam is obtained measuring the phase difference between outgoing and echo signals. Recently a triple-modulation radar electronics version and an algorithm able to solve the range disambiguation were developed. The aim of the upgrade was the increase of the robustness in the range disambiguation. The paper briefly describes the updates carried out on the Digital Radar Electronics and extensively the test results obtained by comparing the performance of the triple modulation versus the double modulation techniques.

  15. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael D. Durham

    2005-03-17

    Brayton Point Unit 1 was successfully tested for applicability of activated carbon injection as a mercury control technology. Test results from this site have enabled a thorough evaluation of the impacts of future mercury regulations to Brayton Point Unit 1, including performance, estimated cost, and operation data. This unit has variable (29-75%) native mercury removal, thus it was important to understand the impacts of process variables and activated carbon on mercury capture. The team responsible for executing this program included: (1) Plant and PG&E National Energy Group corporate personnel; (2) Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); (3) United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL); (4) ADA-ES, Inc.; (5) NORIT Americas, Inc.; (6) Apogee Scientific, Inc.; (7) TRC Environmental Corporation; (8) URS Corporation; (9) Quinapoxet Solutions; (10) Energy and Environmental Strategies (EES); and (11) Reaction Engineering International (REI). The technical support of all of these entities came together to make this program achieve its goals. Overall, the objectives of this field test program were to determine the impact of activated carbon injection on mercury control and balance-of-plant processes on Brayton Point Unit 1. Brayton Point Unit 1 is a 250-MW unit that fires a low-sulfur eastern bituminous coal. Particulate control is achieved by two electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) in series. The full-scale tests were conducted on one-half of the flue gas stream (nominally 125 MW). Mercury control sorbents were injected in between the two ESPs. The residence time from the injection grid to the second ESP was approximately 0.5 seconds. In preparation for the full-scale tests, 12 different sorbents were evaluated in a slipstream of flue gas via a packed-bed field test apparatus for mercury adsorption. Results from these tests were used to determine the five carbon-based sorbents that were tested at full-scale. Conditions of interest

  16. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael D. Durham

    2004-10-01

    PG&E NEG Salem Harbor Station Unit 1 was successfully tested for applicability of activated carbon injection as a mercury control technology. Test results from this site have enabled a thorough evaluation of mercury control at Salem Harbor Unit 1, including performance, estimated cost, and operation data. This unit has very high native mercury removal, thus it was important to understand the impacts of process variables on native mercury capture. The team responsible for executing this program included plant and PG&E headquarters personnel, EPRI and several of its member companies, DOE, ADA, Norit Americas, Inc., Hamon Research-Cottrell, Apogee Scientific, TRC Environmental Corporation, Reaction Engineering, as well as other laboratories. The technical support of all of these entities came together to make this program achieve its goals. Overall the objectives of this field test program were to determine the mercury control and balance-of-plant impacts resulting from activated carbon injection into a full-scale ESP on Salem Harbor Unit 1, a low sulfur bituminous-coal-fired 86 MW unit. It was also important to understand the impacts of process variables on native mercury removal (>85%). One half of the gas stream was used for these tests, or 43 MWe. Activated carbon, DARCO FGD supplied by NORIT Americas, was injected upstream of the cold side ESP, just downstream of the air preheater. This allowed for approximately 1.5 seconds residence time in the duct before entering the ESP. Conditions tested in this field evaluation included the impacts of the Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) system on mercury capture, of unburned carbon in the fly ash, of adjusting ESP inlet flue gas temperatures, and of boiler load on mercury control. The field evaluation conducted at Salem Harbor looked at several sorbent injection concentrations at several flue gas temperatures. It was noted that at the mid temperature range of 322-327 F, the LOI (unburned carbon) lost some of its

  17. Prospective audit of a one-centre combined nuchal translucency and triple test programme for the detection of trisomy 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbur, Vijayalakshmi; Lees, Christoph C; Goodburn, Sandra F; Morris, Nigel; Breeze, Andrew C G; Hackett, Gerald A

    2005-06-01

    To determine detection and false-positive rates for trisomy 21 using two-stage combined nuchal translucency (NT) and triple testing, whilst disclosing abnormal nuchal measurements at the scan. A prospective audit in a UK women's hospital, of 3188 women with singleton pregnancies, requesting screening for trisomy 21. Median age was 37 years (range 19-46). Women were offered NT screening at 11 to 14 weeks. Those with NT > or =3 mm were offered chorionic villus sampling. Those declining CVS, and those with NT risk of trisomy 21 > or = 1:250, based on age, NT, and triple test results were offered amniocentesis. Using a 3-mm NT 'cut-off' identified 16/25 cases of trisomy 21 (64%; 95% CI 38.8, 78.9). Of 2725 women who had a combined nuchal plus triple test assessment, 79 (2.6%) had a > or = 1:250 term risk of trisomy 21. Forty (1.3%) had amniocentesis identifying 6/9 remaining cases (67%:95% CI:27.9, 92.5). Overall, the detection rate was 88% (95% CI:68.8, 97.5) for a 4.8% FPR. For the screened population, to achieve an 88% detection rate using the triple test alone, the predicted FPR would be 20%. Conversely, for an FPR of 4.8% using the triple test alone, the detection rate would be only 60%. In a high-risk group, the combination of NT with triple test offers detection of trisomy 21 at least equivalent to either test, while allowing disclosure of an abnormal NT at the scan and reducing the FPR. Importantly, the FPR is less than 5%, considerably lower than expected for triple test alone for this population.

  18. Accuracy of Triple Diagnostic Test in Patients with Thyroid Nodule at Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diani Kartini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to evaluate the accuracy of triple diagnostic test on thyroid nodules. The data from patients’ medical records who came to Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital for the first time or for evaluation of thyroid nodule and patients who underwent thyroidectomy during 2010 to 2011. Clinical examination was scored by McGill Thyroid Nodule Score. ROC procedure was performed to obtain clinical cut-off scores of diagnosis of malignant. Ultrasonography (USG result was considered malignant for TIRADS 4, 5, and 6. If clinical, USG and histopathology examinations of triple diagnostic give positive results, it will be classified as concordant malignant whereas if all those three show benign results, the classification is benign. Thyroid carcinoma was found in 134 out of 161 patients with thyroid nodule. There were 84 patients with concordant results for all three elements of the triple test. Out of 84 patients with concordant triple diagnostic results, there were 53 malignant cases (32.9% and 31 benign cases (19.3%. Main histopathological findings among patients with thyroid carcinoma was papillary (90.3%, follicular (3%, medullary (0.7%, and anaplastic (6%. The sensitivity and specificity of triple diagnostic was 77% and 94%, with positive predictive value of 98%, negative predictive value of 51,6% and accuracy of 80.9%. Combination of clinical findings, USG, and FNAB gave malignant probability of 92%, better than combination of clinical findings and USG (81.6% or clinical findings and FNAB (87%. Triple diagnostic cannot be used as an ideal test to replace frozen section examination in managing thyroid nodule. However, in cases with concordant results of each triple diagnostic’s element, the positive predictive value (98% and malignant probability (92% is high. Keywords: thyroid nodule, triple diagnostic, accuracy.   Akurasi Metode Triple Diagnostic pada Pasien Nodul Tiroid  di RSUPN Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo   Abstrak Tujuan

  19. Realization of the Temperature Scale in the Range from 234.3 K (Hg Triple Point) to 1084.62°C (Cu Freezing Point) in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvizdic, Davor; Veliki, Tomislav; Grgec Bermanec, Lovorka

    2008-06-01

    This article describes the realization of the International Temperature Scale in the range from 234.3 K (mercury triple point) to 1084.62°C (copper freezing point) at the Laboratory for Process Measurement (LPM), Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture (FSB), University of Zagreb. The system for the realization of the ITS-90 consists of the sealed fixed-point cells (mercury triple point, water triple point and gallium melting point) and the apparatus designed for the optimal realization of open fixed-point cells which include the gallium melting point, tin freezing point, zinc freezing point, aluminum freezing point, and copper freezing point. The maintenance of the open fixed-point cells is described, including the system for filling the cells with pure argon and for maintaining the pressure during the realization.

  20. Mercury Conditions for the MESSENGER Mission Simulated in High- Solar-Radiation Vacuum Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.

    2003-01-01

    The MESSENGER (Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft, planned for launch in March 2004, will perform two flybys of Mercury before entering a year-long orbit of the planet in September 2009. The mission will provide opportunities for detailed characterization of the surface, interior, atmosphere, and magnetosphere of the closest planet to the Sun. The NASA Glenn Research Center and the MESSENGER spacecraft integrator, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, have partnered under a Space Act Agreement to characterize a variety of critical components and materials under simulated conditions expected near Mercury. Glenn's Vacuum Facility 6, which is equipped with a solar simulator, can simulate the vacuum and high solar radiation anticipated in Mercury orbit. The MESSENGER test hardware includes a variety of materials and components that are being characterized during the Tank 6 vacuum tests, where the hardware will be exposed to up to 11 suns insolation, simulating conditions expected in Mercury orbit. In 2002, ten solar vacuum tests were conducted, including beginning of life, end of life, backside exposure, and solar panel thermal shock cycling tests. Components tested include candidate solar array panels, sensors, thermal shielding materials, and communication devices. As an example, for the solar panel thermal shock cycling test, two candidate solar array panels were suspended on a lift mechanism that lowered the panels into a liquid-nitrogen-cooled box. After reaching -140 C, the panels were then lifted out of the box and exposed to the equivalent of 6 suns (8.1 kilowatts per square meters). After five cold soak/heating cycles were completed successfully, there was no apparent degradation in panel performance. An anticipated 100-hr thermal shield life test is planned for autumn, followed by solar panel flight qualification tests in winter. Glenn's ongoing support to the MESSENGER program has been instrumental in

  1. PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury catalytic oxidation process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates in a stable form with the byproducts from the FGD system. The co-precipitated mercury does not appear to adversely affect the disposal or reuse properties of the FGD byproduct. The current project will test previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, so as to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the first full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, most of the project efforts were related to project initiation and planning. There is no significant technical progress to report for the current period

  2. Got Mercury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Valerie E.; McCoy, J. Torin; Garcia, Hector D.; James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Many of the operational and payload lighting units used in various spacecraft contain elemental mercury. If these devices were damaged on-orbit, elemental mercury could be released into the cabin. Although there are plans to replace operational units with alternate light sources, such as LEDs, that do not contain mercury, mercury-containing lamps efficiently produce high quality illumination and may never be completely replaced on orbit. Therefore, exposure to elemental mercury during spaceflight will remain possible and represents a toxicological hazard. Elemental mercury is a liquid metal that vaporizes slowly at room temperature. However, it may be completely vaporized at the elevated operating temperatures of lamps. Although liquid mercury is not readily absorbed through the skin or digestive tract, mercury vapors are efficiently absorbed through the respiratory tract. Therefore, the amount of mercury in the vapor form must be estimated. For mercury releases from lamps that are not being operated, we utilized a study conducted by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Quality to calculate the amount of mercury vapor expected to form over a 2-week period. For longer missions and for mercury releases occurring when lamps are operating, we conservatively assumed complete volatilization of the available mercury. Because current spacecraft environmental control systems are unable to remove mercury vapors, both short-term and long-term exposures to mercury vapors are possible. Acute exposure to high concentrations of mercury vapors can cause irritation of the respiratory tract and behavioral symptoms, such as irritability and hyperactivity. Chronic exposure can result in damage to the nervous system (tremors, memory loss, insomnia, etc.) and kidneys (proteinurea). Therefore, the JSC Toxicology Group recommends that stringent safety controls and verifications (vibrational testing, etc.) be applied to any hardware that contains elemental mercury that could yield

  3. Mercury Test on macroalgae from Burung and Tikus Island, Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novianty, H.; Herandarudewi, S. M. C.; Suratno

    2018-04-01

    Environmental pollution, caused by the introduction of hazardous substances such as heavy metals into coastal waters, affects not only the condition of the waters but also the source of food that will be contaminated by hazardous metals, one of them is mercury (Hg). Mercury is toxic metal which could cause damage to the human body in certain threshold amounts. The aim of this study was to determin the content of mercury in several species of algae from Burung and Tikus Island, Jakarta. This study was using a descriptive method. The samples were collected from Burung and Tikus Island by simple rundown sampling. Mercury level was measured by NIC3000 mercury analyzer tool. The results showed that none of the mercury levels have passed 0.5 mg/kg (the safety standart level of mercury by SNI (Indonesian National Standard)7387 in 2019) mangrove. From tikus Island had lower total mercury than the ones from Burung Island. Burung Island is located near Pari Island which is a residential area, where pollution is more likely to occur.

  4. Kinematic and Kinetic Analysis of the Single-Leg Triple Hop Test in Women With and Without Patellofemoral Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Amir Curcio; Correa, João Carlos Ferrari; Bley, André Serra; Rabelo, Nayra Deise dos Anjos; Fukuda, Thiago Yukio; Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia

    2015-10-01

    Cross-sectional study. To compare the biomechanical strategies of the trunk and lower extremity during the transition period between the first and second hop of a single-leg triple hop test in women with and without patellofemoral pain (PFP). Recent literature has shown that PFP is associated with biomechanical impairments of the lower extremities. A number of studies have analyzed the position of the trunk and lower extremities for functional activities such as walking, squatting, jumping, and the step-down test. However, studies on more challenging activities, such as the single-leg triple hop test, may be more representative of sports requiring jumping movements. Women between 18 and 35 years of age (control group, n = 20; PFP group, n = 20) participated in the study. Three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data were collected during the transition period between the first and second hops while participants performed the single-leg triple hop test. Compared to the control group, women with PFP exhibited greater (Pkinetics.

  5. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael D. Durham

    2003-05-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000--2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES has developed a portable system that will be tested at four different utility power plants. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as activated carbon, which removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and

  6. DOE/NETL's phase II mercury control technology field testing program: preliminary economic analysis of activated carbon injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew P; Hoffmann, Jeffrey W; Smith, Dennis N; Feeley, Thomas J; Murphy, James T

    2007-02-15

    Based on results of field testing conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), this article provides preliminary costs for mercury control via conventional activated carbon injection (ACI), brominated ACI, and conventional ACI coupled with the application of a sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) to coal prior to combustion. The economic analyses are reported on a plant-specific basis in terms of the cost required to achieve low (50%), mid (70%), and high (90%) levels of mercury removal "above and beyond" the baseline mercury removal achieved by existing emission control equipment. In other words, the levels of mercury control are directly attributable to ACI. Mercury control costs via ACI have been amortized on a current dollar basis. Using a 20-year book life, levelized costs for the incremental increase in cost of electricity (COE), expressed in mills per kilowatt-hour (mills/kWh), and the incremental cost of mercury control, expressed in dollars per pound of mercury removed ($/lb Hg removed), have been calculated for each level of ACI mercury control. For this analysis, the increase in COE varied from 0.14 mills/kWh to 3.92 mills/kWh. Meanwhile, the incremental cost of mercury control ranged from $3810/lb Hg removed to $166000/lb Hg removed.

  7. JV TASK 45-MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRIC UTILITIES BURNING LIGNITE COAL, PHASE I BENCH-AND PILOT-SCALE TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Pavlish; Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Edwin S. Olson; Kevin C. Galbreath; Ye Zhuang; Brandon M. Pavlish

    2003-10-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center has completed the first phase of a 3-year, two-phase consortium project to develop and demonstrate mercury control technologies for utilities that burn lignite coal. The overall project goal is to maintain the viability of lignite-based energy production by providing utilities with low-cost options for meeting future mercury regulations. Phase I objectives are to develop a better understanding of mercury interactions with flue gas constituents, test a range of sorbent-based technologies targeted at removing elemental mercury (Hg{sup o}) from flue gases, and demonstrate the effectiveness of the most promising technologies at the pilot scale. The Phase II objectives are to demonstrate and quantify sorbent technology effectiveness, performance, and cost at a sponsor-owned and operated power plant. Phase I results are presented in this report along with a brief overview of the Phase II plans. Bench-scale testing provided information on mercury interactions with flue gas constituents and relative performances of the various sorbents. Activated carbons were prepared from relatively high-sodium lignites by carbonization at 400 C (752 F), followed by steam activation at 750 C (1382 F) and 800 C (1472 F). Luscar char was also steam-activated at these conditions. These lignite-based activated carbons, along with commercially available DARCO FGD and an oxidized calcium silicate, were tested in a thin-film, fixed-bed, bench-scale reactor using a simulated lignitic flue gas consisting of 10 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} Hg{sup 0}, 6% O{sub 2}, 12% CO{sub 2}, 15% H{sub 2}O, 580 ppm SO{sub 2}, 120 ppm NO, 6 ppm NO{sub 2}, and 1 ppm HCl in N{sub 2}. All of the lignite-based activated (750 C, 1382 F) carbons required a 30-45-minute conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas before they exhibited good mercury sorption capacities. The unactivated Luscar char and oxidized calcium silicate were ineffective in capturing mercury. Lignite

  8. PyMercury: Interactive Python for the Mercury Monte Carlo Particle Transport Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iandola, F.N.; O'Brien, M.J.; Procassini, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo particle transport applications are often written in low-level languages (C/C++) for optimal performance on clusters and supercomputers. However, this development approach often sacrifices straightforward usability and testing in the interest of fast application performance. To improve usability, some high-performance computing applications employ mixed-language programming with high-level and low-level languages. In this study, we consider the benefits of incorporating an interactive Python interface into a Monte Carlo application. With PyMercury, a new Python extension to the Mercury general-purpose Monte Carlo particle transport code, we improve application usability without diminishing performance. In two case studies, we illustrate how PyMercury improves usability and simplifies testing and validation in a Monte Carlo application. In short, PyMercury demonstrates the value of interactive Python for Monte Carlo particle transport applications. In the future, we expect interactive Python to play an increasingly significant role in Monte Carlo usage and testing.

  9. Field Testing of Activated Carbon Injection Options for Mercury Control at TXU's Big Brown Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Christopher Martin; Mark Musich; Lucinda Hamre

    2009-01-07

    The primary objective of the project was to evaluate the long-term feasibility of using activated carbon injection (ACI) options to effectively reduce mercury emissions from Texas electric generation plants in which a blend of lignite and subbituminous coal is fired. Field testing of ACI options was performed on one-quarter of Unit 2 at TXU's Big Brown Steam Electric Station. Unit 2 has a design output of 600 MW and burns a blend of 70% Texas Gulf Coast lignite and 30% subbituminous Powder River Basin coal. Big Brown employs a COHPAC configuration, i.e., high air-to-cloth baghouses following cold-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), for particulate control. When sorbent injection is added between the ESP and the baghouse, the combined technology is referred to as TOXECON{trademark} and is patented by the Electric Power Research Institute in the United States. Key benefits of the TOXECON configuration include better mass transfer characteristics of a fabric filter compared to an ESP for mercury capture and contamination of only a small percentage of the fly ash with AC. The field testing consisted of a baseline sampling period, a parametric screening of three sorbent injection options, and a month long test with a single mercury control technology. During the baseline sampling, native mercury removal was observed to be less than 10%. Parametric testing was conducted for three sorbent injection options: injection of standard AC alone; injection of an EERC sorbent enhancement additive, SEA4, with ACI; and injection of an EERC enhanced AC. Injection rates were determined for all of the options to achieve the minimum target of 55% mercury removal as well as for higher removals approaching 90%. Some of the higher injection rates were not sustainable because of increased differential pressure across the test baghouse module. After completion of the parametric testing, a month long test was conducted using the enhanced AC at a nominal rate of 1.5 lb/Macf. During

  10. Metallic mercury recycling. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, M.A.

    1994-07-01

    Metallic mercury is known to be a hazardous material and is regulated as such. The disposal of mercury, usually by landfill, is expensive and does not remove mercury from the environment. Results from the Metallic Mercury Recycling Project have demonstrated that metallic mercury is a good candidate for reclamation and recycling. Most of the potential contamination of mercury resides in the scum floating on the surface of the mercury. Pinhole filtration was demonstrated to be an inexpensive and easy way of removing residues from mercury. The analysis method is shown to be sufficient for present release practices, and should be sufficient for future release requirements. Data from tests are presented. The consistently higher level of activity of the filter residue versus the bulk mercury is discussed. Recommendations for the recycling procedure are made.

  11. Metallic mercury recycling. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Metallic mercury is known to be a hazardous material and is regulated as such. The disposal of mercury, usually by landfill, is expensive and does not remove mercury from the environment. Results from the Metallic Mercury Recycling Project have demonstrated that metallic mercury is a good candidate for reclamation and recycling. Most of the potential contamination of mercury resides in the scum floating on the surface of the mercury. Pinhole filtration was demonstrated to be an inexpensive and easy way of removing residues from mercury. The analysis method is shown to be sufficient for present release practices, and should be sufficient for future release requirements. Data from tests are presented. The consistently higher level of activity of the filter residue versus the bulk mercury is discussed. Recommendations for the recycling procedure are made

  12. Long-Term Carbon Injection Field Test for 90% Mercury Removal for a PRB Unit a Spray Dryer and Fabric Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjostrom, Sharon; Amrhein, Jerry

    2009-04-30

    The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon (PAC) into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. The purpose of this test program was to evaluate the long-term mercury removal capability, long-term mercury emissions variability, and operating and maintenance (O&M) costs associated with sorbent injection on a configuration being considered for many new plants. Testing was conducted by ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) at Rocky Mountain Power’s (RMP) Hardin Station through funding provided by DOE/NETL, RMP, and other industry partners. The Hardin Station is a new plant rated at 121 MW gross that was first brought online in April of 2006. Hardin fires a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and is configured with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOx control, a spray dryer absorber (SDA) for SO2 control, and a fabric filter (FF) for particulate control. Based upon previous testing at PRB sites with SCRs, very little additional mercury oxidation from the SCR was expected at Hardin. In addition, based upon results from DOE/NETL Phase II Round I testing at Holcomb Station and results from similarly configured sites, low native mercury removal was expected across the SDA and FF. The main goal of this project was met—sorbent injection was used to economically and effectively achieve 90% mercury control as measured from the air heater (AH) outlet to the stack for a period of ten months. This goal was achieved with DARCO® Hg-LH, Calgon FLUEPAC®-MC PLUS and ADA Power PAC PREMIUM brominated activated carbons at nominal loadings of 1.5–2.5 lb/MMacf. An economic analysis determined the twenty-year levelized cost to be 0.87 mills/kW-hr, or $15,000/lb Hg removed. No detrimental effects on other equipment or plant operations were observed. The

  13. Aerobic Mercury-resistant bacteria alter Mercury speciation and retention in the Tagus Estuary (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Neusa L; Canário, João; O'Driscoll, Nelson J; Duarte, Aida; Carvalho, Cristina

    2016-02-01

    Aerobic mercury-resistant bacteria were isolated from the sediments of two highly mercury-polluted areas of the Tagus Estuary (Barreiro and Cala do Norte) and one natural reserve area (Alcochete) in order to test their capacity to transform mercury. Bacterial species were identified using 16S rRNA amplification and sequencing techniques and the results indicate the prevalence of Bacillus sp. Resistance patterns to mercurial compounds were established by the determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations. Representative Hg-resistant bacteria were further tested for transformation pathways (reduction, volatilization and methylation) in cultures containing mercury chloride. Bacterial Hg-methylation was carried out by Vibrio fluvialis, Bacillus megaterium and Serratia marcescens that transformed 2-8% of total mercury into methylmercury in 48h. In addition, most of the HgR bacterial isolates showed Hg(2+)-reduction andHg(0)-volatilization resulting 6-50% mercury loss from the culture media. In summary, the results obtained under controlled laboratory conditions indicate that aerobic Hg-resistant bacteria from the Tagus Estuary significantly affect both the methylation and reduction of mercury and may have a dual face by providing a pathway for pollution dispersion while forming methylmercury, which is highly toxic for living organisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Recovery of Mercury From Contaminated Liquid Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Base Contract program emphasized the manufacture and testing of superior sorbents for mercury removal, testing of the sorption process at a DOE site, and determination of the regeneration conditions in the laboratory. During this project, ADA Technologies, Inc. demonstrated the following key elements of a successful regenerable mercury sorption process: (1) sorbents that have a high capacity for dissolved, ionic mercury; (2) removal of ionic mercury at greater than 99% efficiency; and (3) thermal regeneration of the spent sorbent. ADA's process is based on the highly efficient and selective sorption of mercury by noble metals. Contaminated liquid flows through two packed columns that contain microporous sorbent particles on which a noble metal has been finely dispersed. A third column is held in reserve. When the sorbent is loaded with mercury to the point of breakthrough at the outlet of the second column, the first column is taken off-line and the flow of contaminated liquid is switched to the second and third columns. The spent column is regenerated by heating. A small flow of purge gas carries the desorbed mercury to a capture unit where the liquid mercury is recovered. Laboratory-scale tests with mercuric chloride solutions demonstrated the sorbents' ability to remove mercury from contaminated wastewater. Isotherms on surrogate wastes from DOE's Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee showed greater than 99.9% mercury removal. Laboratory- and pilot-scale tests on actual Y-12 Plant wastes were also successful. Mercury concentrations were reduced to less than 1 ppt from a starting concentration of 1,000 ppt. The treatment objective was 50 ppt. The sorption unit showed 10 ppt discharge after six months. Laboratory-scale tests demonstrated the feasibility of sorbent regeneration. Results show that sorption behavior is not affected after four cycles

  15. Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilas, F.; Chapman, C.R.; Matthews, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Papers are presented on future observations of and missions to Mercury, the photometry and polarimetry of Mercury, the surface composition of Mercury from reflectance spectrophotometry, the Goldstone radar observations of Mercury, the radar observations of Mercury, the stratigraphy and geologic history of Mercury, the geomorphology of impact craters on Mercury, and the cratering record on Mercury and the origin of impacting objects. Consideration is also given to the tectonics of Mercury, the tectonic history of Mercury, Mercury's thermal history and the generation of its magnetic field, the rotational dynamics of Mercury and the state of its core, Mercury's magnetic field and interior, the magnetosphere of Mercury, and the Mercury atmosphere. Other papers are on the present bounds on the bulk composition of Mercury and the implications for planetary formation processes, the building stones of the planets, the origin and composition of Mercury, the formation of Mercury from planetesimals, and theoretical considerations on the strange density of Mercury

  16. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2005-06-01

    Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems. Our current strategy is to engineer plants to

  17. Estimating mercury emissions from a zinc smelter in relation to China's mercury control policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.X.; Song, J.X.; Li, G.H.; Wu, Y.; Zhang, L.; Wan, Q.; Streets, D.G.; Chin, Conrad K.; Hao, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury concentrations of flue gas at inlet/outlet of the flue gas cleaning, electrostatic demister, reclaiming tower, acid plant, and mercury contents in zinc concentrate and by-products were measured in a hydrometallurgical zinc smelter. The removal efficiency of flue gas cleaning, electrostatic demister, mercury reclaiming and acid plant was about 17.4%, 30.3%, 87.9% and 97.4% respectively. Flue gas cleaning and electrostatic demister captured 11.7% and 25.3% of the mercury in the zinc concentrate, respectively. The mercury reclaiming tower captured 58.3% of the mercury in the zinc concentrate. About 4.2% of the mercury in the zinc concentrate was captured by the acid plant. Consequently, only 0.8% of the mercury in the zinc concentrate was emitted to the atmosphere. The atmospheric mercury emission factor was 0.5 g t -1 of zinc produced for the tested smelter, indicating that this process offers the potential to effectively reduce mercury emissions from zinc smelting. - Modern scale production equipped with acid plant and Hg reclaiming tower will significantly reduce Hg emissions from zinc smelters in China.

  18. Mercury toxicity in the Amazon: contrast sensitivity and color discrimination of subjects exposed to mercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Rodrigues

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We measured visual performance in achromatic and chromatic spatial tasks of mercury-exposed subjects and compared the results with norms obtained from healthy individuals of similar age. Data were obtained for a group of 28 mercury-exposed subjects, comprising 20 Amazonian gold miners, 2 inhabitants of Amazonian riverside communities, and 6 laboratory technicians, who asked for medical care. Statistical norms were generated by testing healthy control subjects divided into three age groups. The performance of a substantial proportion of the mercury-exposed subjects was below the norms in all of these tasks. Eleven of 20 subjects (55% performed below the norms in the achromatic contrast sensitivity task. The mercury-exposed subjects also had lower red-green contrast sensitivity deficits at all tested spatial frequencies (9/11 subjects; 81%. Three gold miners and 1 riverine (4/19 subjects, 21% performed worse than normal subjects making more mistakes in the color arrangement test. Five of 10 subjects tested (50%, comprising 2 gold miners, 2 technicians, and 1 riverine, performed worse than normal in the color discrimination test, having areas of one or more MacAdam ellipse larger than normal subjects and high color discrimination thresholds at least in one color locus. These data indicate that psychophysical assessment can be used to quantify the degree of visual impairment of mercury-exposed subjects. They also suggest that some spatial tests such as the measurement of red-green chromatic contrast are sufficiently sensitive to detect visual dysfunction caused by mercury toxicity.

  19. Method Performance of Total Mercury (Hg) Testing in the Biological Samples by Using Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (CV-AAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susanna TS; Samin

    2007-01-01

    Method performance (validation) of total mercury (Hg) testing in the biological samples by using cold vapour atomic absorption spectrophotometer (CV-AAS) has been done. The objective of this research is to know the method performance of CV-AAS as one of points for the accreditation testing of laboratory according IS0/IEC 17025-2005. The method performance covering limit of detection (LOD), accuracy, precision and bias. As a standard material used SRM Oyster Tissue 15660 from Winopal Forshung Germany, whereas the biological samples were human hair. In principle of mercury testing for solid samples using CV-AAS is dissolving this sample and standard with 10 mL HNO 3 supra pure into a closed quartz tube and heating at 150 °C for 4 hours. The concentration of mercury in each samples was determined at the condition of operation were stirring time (T 1 ) 70 seconds, delay time (T 2 ) 15 seconds, heating time (T 3 ) 13 seconds and cooling time (T 4 ) of 25 seconds. Mercury ion in samples are reduced with SnCl 2 10 % in H 2 SO 4 20 %, and then the vapour of mercury from reduction is passed in NaOH 20 % solution and aquatridest. The result of method performance were: limit of detection (LOD) = 0.085 ng, accuracy 99.70 %, precision (RSD) = 1.64 % and bias = 0.30 %. From the validation result showed that the content of mercury total was in the range of certified values. The total mercury content (Hg) in human hair were varied from 406.93 - 699.07 ppb. (author)

  20. Carbon bed mercury emissions control for mixed waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soelberg, Nick; Enneking, Joe

    2010-11-01

    Mercury has various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so it is often present in radioactive and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. Compliance with air emission regulations such as the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards can require off-gas mercury removal efficiencies up to 99.999% for thermally treating some mixed waste streams. Test programs have demonstrated this level of off-gas mercury control using fixed beds of granular sulfur-impregnated activated carbon. Other results of these tests include (1) the depth of the mercury control mass transfer zone was less than 15-30 cm for the operating conditions of these tests; (2) MERSORB carbon can sorb mercury up to 19 wt % of the carbon mass; and (3) the spent carbon retained almost all (98.3-99.99%) of the mercury during Toxicity Characteristic Leachability Procedure (TCLP) tests, but when even a small fraction of the total mercury dissolves, the spent carbon can fail the TCLP test when the spent carbon contains high mercury concentrations.

  1. Health Effects of Exposures to Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IRIS database Top of Page Elemental (Metallic) Mercury Effects Exposures to metallic mercury most often occur when metallic ... poor performance on tests of mental function Higher exposures may also cause kidney effects, respiratory failure and death. Note that metallic mercury ...

  2. Isolation, screening and identification of mercury resistant bacteria from mercury contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalczyk Anna; Wilińska Magdalena; Chyc Marek; Bojko Monika; Latowski Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    New bacterial strains resistant to high concentration of mercury were obtained and character iz ed focusing on their potential application in bioremediation. The biological material was isolated from soil contaminated with mercury. The ability to removal of Hg from the liquid medium and the effect of the various pH and mercury concentrations in the environment on bacterial strains growth kinetics were tested. The selected strains were identified by analysis of the 16S ribosome subunit coding ...

  3. Thiosulphate assisted phytoextraction of mercury contaminated soils at the Wanshan Mercury Mining District, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wanshan, known as the “Mercury Capital” of China, is located in the Southwest of China. Due to the extensive mining and smelting works in the Wanshan area, the local ecosystem has been serious contaminated with mercury. In the present study, a number of soil samples were taken from the Wanshan mercury mining area and the mercury fractionations in soils were analyzed using sequential extraction procedure technique. The obtained results showed that the dominate mercury fractions (represent 95% of total mercury were residual and organic bound mercury. A field trial was conducted in a mercury polluted farmland at the Wanshan mercury mine. Four plant species Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var. ASKYC (ASKYC, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.DPDH (DPDH, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.CHBD(CHBD, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.LDZY (LDZY were tested their ability to extract mercury from soil with thiosulphate amendment. The results indicated that the mercury concentration in the roots and shoots of the four plants were significantly increased with thiosulphate treatment. The mercury phytoextraction yield of ASKYC, DPDH, CHBD and LDZY were 92, 526, 294 and 129 g/ha, respectively

  4. Thiosulphate assisted phytoextraction of mercury contaminated soils at the Wanshan Mercury Mining District, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wanshan, known as the “Mercury Capital” of China, is located in the Southwest of China. Due to the extensive mining and smelting works in the Wanshan area, the local ecosystem has been serious contaminated with mercury. In the present study, a number of soil samples were taken from the Wanshan mercury mining area and the mercury fractionations in soils were analyzed using sequential extraction procedure technique. The obtained results showed that the dominate mercury fractions (represent 95% of total mercury were residual and organic bound mercury. A field trial was conducted in a mercury polluted farmland at the Wanshan mercury mine. Four plant species Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var. ASKYC (ASKYC, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.DPDH (DPDH, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.CHBD(CHBD, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.LDZY (LDZY were tested their ability to extract mercury from soil with thiosulphate amendment. The results indicated that the mercury concentration in the roots and shoots of the four plants were significantly increased with thiosulphate treatment. The mercury phytoextraction yield of ASKYC, DPDH, CHBD and LDZY were 92, 526, 294 and 129 g/ha, respectively.

  5. Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac

    2006-05-01

    This document provides a summary of the full-scale demonstration efforts involved in the project ''Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC{reg_sign} System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas''. The project took place at Alabama Power's Plant Gaston Unit 3 and involved the injection of sorbent between an existing particulate collector (hot-side electrostatic precipitators) and a COHPAC{reg_sign} fabric filter (baghouse) downstream. Although the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse was designed originally for polishing the flue gas, when activated carbon injection was added, the test was actually evaluating the EPRI TOXECON{reg_sign} configuration. The results from the baseline tests with no carbon injection showed that the cleaning frequency in the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit was much higher than expected, and was above the target maximum cleaning frequency of 1.5 pulses/bag/hour (p/b/h), which was used during the Phase I test in 2001. There were times when the baghouse was cleaning continuously at 4.4 p/b/h. In the 2001 tests, there was virtually no mercury removal at baseline conditions. In this second round of tests, mercury removal varied between 0 and 90%, and was dependent on inlet mass loading. There was a much higher amount of ash exiting the electrostatic precipitators (ESP), creating an inlet loading greater than the design conditions for the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Tests were performed to try to determine the cause of the high ash loading. The LOI of the ash in the 2001 baseline tests was 11%, while the second baseline tests showed an LOI of 17.4%. The LOI is an indication of the carbon content in the ash, which can affect the native mercury uptake, and can also adversely affect the performance of ESPs, allowing more ash particles to escape the unit. To overcome this, an injection scheme was implemented that balanced the need to decrease carbon injection during times when inlet loading to the baghouse was high and

  6. Possible interferences of mercury sulfur compounds with ethylated and methylated mercury species using HPLC-ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilken, R.D.; Nitschke, F.; Falter, R.

    2003-01-01

    The HPLC-ICP-MS coupling technique is able to separate and detect methyl, ethyl and inorganic mercury isotopes specifically. An identification of ethyl mercury(+) is not possible when the widely used sodium tetraethylborate derivatisation method in combination with GC-AFS/AAS or ICP-MS techniques is performed because it contains ethyl groups. An unidentified compound with the same retention time as ethyl mercury was found in the HPLC chromatograms of industrial sewage samples and humic-rich soils of microcosm experiments after applying water vapour distillation. We also observed such unidentified peaks in samples of heavily contaminated sites in Eastern Germany, separated by HPLC fractionation only. In the experiments described, different mercury sulfur adducts were synthesised and tested for their retention times in the HPLC-ICP-MS system. It was found that the compound CH 3 -S-Hg + showed the same retention time as the ethyl mercury standard. It is therefore possible that ethyl mercury detected in chromatography by comparison of the retention time could also be due to an adduct of a sulfur compound and a mercury species. CH 3 -S-Hg + should be tested in other chromatographic mercury speciation methods for this effect. This work can also be regarded as a contribution to the discussion of artificially occurring methyl mercury in sediments during sample preparation. (orig.)

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing before first-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with dual or triple antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosme, Angel; Montes, Milagrosa; Ibarra, Begoña; Tamayo, Esther; Alonso, Horacio; Mendarte, Usua; Lizasoan, Jacobo; Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Bujanda, Luis

    2017-05-14

    To evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial susceptibility-guided therapy before first-line treatment for infection in patients with dual or triple antibiotic resistance. A total of 1034 patients infected by Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) during 2013-2014 were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. 157 of 1034 (15%) patients showed resistance to two (127/1034; 12%) and to three (30/1034; 3%) antibiotics. Sixty-eight patients with dual H. pylori -resistance (clarithromycin, metronidazole or levofloxacin) were treated for 10 d with triple therapies: OAL (omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and levofloxacin 500 mg b.i.d.) 43 cases, OAM (omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and metronidazole 500 mg b.i.d.) 12 cases and OAC (omeprazole 20 mg b.id., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d.) 13 cases based on the antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Twelve patients showed triple H. pylori -resistance (clarithromycin, metronidazole and levofloxacin) and received for 10 d triple therapy with OAR (omeprazole 20 mg b.id., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and rifabutin 150 mg b.i.d.). Eradication was confirmed by 13C-urea breath test. Adverse effects and compliance were assessed by a questionnaire. Intention-to-treat eradication rates were: OAL (97.6%), OAM (91.6%), OAC (92.3%) and OAR (58.3%). Cure rate was significantly higher in naïve patients treated with OAR-10 compared to patients who had two or three previous treatment failures (83% vs 33%). Adverse events rates for OAL, OAM, OAC and OAR were 22%, 25%, 23% and 17%, respectively, all of them mild-moderate. Antimicrobial susceptibility-guided triple therapies during 10 d for first-line treatment leads to an eradication rate superior to 90% in patients with dual antibiotic H. pylori resistance.

  8. Age/race differences in HER2 testing and in incidence rates for breast cancer triple subtypes: a population-based study and first report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Mary Jo; Butler, Ebonee N; Hair, Brionna Y; Ward, Kevin C; Andrews, Judy H; Oprea-Ilies, Gabriella; Bayakly, A Rana; O'Regan, Ruth M; Vertino, Paula M; Eley, J William

    2010-06-01

    Although US year 2000 guidelines recommended characterizing breast cancers by human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), national cancer registries do not collect HER2, rendering a population-based understanding of HER2 and clinical "triple subtypes" (estrogen receptor [ER] / progesterone receptor [PR] / HER2) largely unknown. We document the population-based prevalence of HER2 testing / status, triple subtypes and present the first report of subtype incidence rates. Medical records were searched for HER2 on 1842 metropolitan Atlanta females diagnosed with breast cancer during 2003-2004. HER2 testing/status and triple subtypes were analyzed by age, race/ethnicity, tumor factors, socioeconomic status, and treatment. Age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated. Over 90% of cases received HER2 testing: 12.6% were positive, 71.7% negative, and 15.7% unknown. HER2 testing compliance was significantly better for women who were younger, of Caucasian or African-American descent, or diagnosed with early stage disease. Incidence rates (per 100,000) were 21.1 for HER2+ tumors and 27.8 for triple-negative tumors, the latter differing by race (36.3 and 19.4 for black and white women, respectively). HER2 recommendations are not uniformly adhered to. Incidence rates for breast cancer triple subtypes differ by age/race. As biologic knowledge is translated into the clinical setting eg, HER2 as a biomarker, it will be incumbent upon national cancer registries to report this information. Incidence rates cautiously extrapolate to an annual burden of 3000 and 17,000 HER2+ tumors for black and white women, respectively, and triple-negative tumors among 5000 and 16,000 respectively. Testing, rate, and burden variations warrant population-based in-depth exploration and clinical translation. (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.

  9. Biosorption of mercury from aqueous solutions using highly characterised peats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Rizzuti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the biosorption of mercury from aqueous solutions by six highly characterised peats. Samples of the peats were tested both in unaltered condition and after being treated with hydrochloric acid (HCl to free up any occupied exchange sites. Other variables tested were sample dose, contact time, mixing temperature, and the concentration and pH of the mercury solution. Desorption studies were also performed, and tests were done to determine whether the peats could be re-used for mercury biosorption. The results indicate that all six peat types biosorb mercury from aqueous solutions extremely well (92−100 % removal and that their mercury removal capacities are not significantly affected by manipulation of the various factors tested. The factor that had the greatest impact on the mercury removal capacities of the peats was the pH of the mercury solution. The optimal mercury solution pH for mercury removal was in the range 5−7 for four of the peats and in the range 2−3 for the other two. The desorption results indicate that it may be possible to recover up to 41 % of the removed mercury. All of the peat types tested can be repeatedly re-used for additional mercury biosorption cycles. Hence, their disposal should not become a hazardous waste problem.

  10. Predicting muscle forces during the propulsion phase of single leg triple hop test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvim, Felipe Costa; Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia; Menegaldo, Luciano Luporini

    2018-01-01

    Functional biomechanical tests allow the assessment of musculoskeletal system impairments in a simple way. Muscle force synergies associated with movement can provide additional information for diagnosis. However, such forces cannot be directly measured noninvasively. This study aims to estimate muscle activations and forces exerted during the preparation phase of the single leg triple hop test. Two different approaches were tested: static optimization (SO) and computed muscle control (CMC). As an indirect validation, model-estimated muscle activations were compared with surface electromyography (EMG) of selected hip and thigh muscles. Ten physically healthy active women performed a series of jumps, and ground reaction forces, kinematics and EMG data were recorded. An existing OpenSim model with 92 musculotendon actuators was used to estimate muscle forces. Reflective markers data were processed using the OpenSim Inverse Kinematics tool. Residual Reduction Algorithm (RRA) was applied recursively before running the SO and CMC. For both, the same adjusted kinematics were used as inputs. Both approaches presented similar residuals amplitudes. SO showed a closer agreement between the estimated activations and the EMGs of some muscles. Due to inherent EMG methodological limitations, the superiority of SO in relation to CMC can be only hypothesized. It should be confirmed by conducting further studies comparing joint contact forces. The workflow presented in this study can be used to estimate muscle forces during the preparation phase of the single leg triple hop test and allows investigating muscle activation and coordination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2004-12-01

    Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems.

  12. Triple pelvic osteotomy in the treatment of hip dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović Zoran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Insufficient femoral head coverage is found in a variety of diseases, with acetabular dysplasia as the most frequent disorder and triple pelvic osteotomy as the most recently introduced surgical treatment. Objective. This study analyses pre- and postoperative pathoanatomic characteristics of triple in comparison to Salter and Chiari osteotomies, with a logistic regression analysis of outcome predictor and effect explanator factors in relation to the chosen type of operation. Methods. The study involved 136 adolescents treated with Salter and Chiari osteotomies or a triple pelvic osteotomy at the Institute of Orthopaedic Surgery 'Banjica' in Belgrade. The patients were between 10-20 years old at the time of operation. We collected and analyzed data from all the patients: illness history, operative parameters, preoperative and postoperative pathoanatomic data. The data was statistically processed using the statistical software SPSS, defining standard descriptive values, and by using the appropriate tests of analytic statistics: t-test for dependent and independent variables, χ2-test, Fisher's exact test, Wilcoxon's test, parameter correlation, one-way ANOVA, multi-factorial ANOVA and logistic regression, according to the type of the analyzed data and the conditions under which the statistical methods were applied. Results. The average CE angle after triple pelvic osteotomy was 43.5°, more improved than after the Salter osteotomy (33.0° and Chiari osteotomy (31.4° (F=16.822; p<0.01. Postoperative spherical congruence was also more frequent after the triple osteotomy than after the other two types of operations, and with a high significance. Preoperative painful discomfort was found to be a valid predictor of indications for the triple osteotomy over both Chiari and Salter osteotomies. The valid explanators of effect for the triple osteotomy are: postoperative joint congruence (compared to the Chiari osteotomy and increase in joint

  13. Behavior of mercury in high-temperature vitrification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goles, R.W.; Holton, K.K.; Sevigny, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has evaluated the waste processing behavior of mercury in simulated defense waste. A series of tests were performed under various operating conditions using an experimental-scale liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM). This solidification technology had no detectable capacity for incorporating mercury into its product, borosilicate glass. Chemically, the condensed mercury effluent was composed almost entirely of chlorides, and except in a low-temperature test, Hg 2 Cl 2 was the primary chloride formed. As a result, combined mercury accounted for most of the insoluble mass collected by the process quench scrubber. Although macroscopic quantities of elemental mercury were never observed in process secondary waste streams, finely divided and dispersed mercury that blackened all condensed Hg 2 Cl 2 residues was capable of saturating the quenched process exhaust with mercury vapor. The vapor pressure of mercury, however, in the quenched melter exhaust was easily and predictably controlled with the off-gas stream chiller

  14. Mercury Report-Children's exposure to elemental mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov . Mercury Background Mercury Report Additional Resources Mercury Report - Children's Exposure to Elemental Mercury Recommend on Facebook ... I limit exposure to mercury? Why was the report written? Children attending a daycare in New Jersey ...

  15. Biomarkers of mercury exposure at a mercury recycling facility in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, H.J.; Kozlov, K.; Buckley, J.P.; Centeno, J.; Jurgenson, V.; Kolker, A.; Conko, K.; Landa, E.; Panov, B.; Panov, Y.; Xu, H.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates biomarkers of occupational mercury exposure among workers at a mercury recycling operation in Gorlovka, Ukraine. The 29 study participants were divided into three occupational categories for analysis: (1) those who worked in the mercury recycling operation (Group A, n = 8), (2) those who worked at the facility but not in the yard where the recycling was done (Group B, n = 14), and (3) those who did not work at the facility (Group C, n = 7). Urine, blood, hair, and nail samples were collected from the participants, and a questionnaire was administered to obtain data on age, gender, occupational history, smoking, alcohol consumption, fish consumption, tattoos, dental amalgams, home heating system, education, source of drinking water, and family employment in the former mercury mine/smelter located on the site of the recycling facility. Each factor was tested in a univariate regression with total mercury in urine, blood, hair, and nails. Median biomarker concentrations were 4.04 ??g/g-Cr (urine), 2.58 ??g/L (blood), 3.95 ??g/g (hair), and 1.16 ??g/g (nails). Occupational category was significantly correlated (p < 0.001) with both blood and urinary mercury concentrations but not with hair or nail mercury. Four individuals had urinary mercury concentrations in a range previously found to be associated with subtle neurological and subjective symptoms (e.g., fatigue, loss of appetite, irritability), and one worker had a urinary mercury concentration in a range associated with a high probability of neurological effects and proteinuria. Comparison of results by occupational category found that workers directly involved with the recycling operation had the highest blood and urinary mercury levels. Those who worked at the facility but were not directly involved with the recycling operation had higher levels than those who did not work at the facility. Copyright ?? 2008 JOEH, LLC.

  16. Mockup experiments to investigate the leak rate correlation between mercury and helium for the mercury target system of J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haga, Katsuhiro; Naoe, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Wakui, Takashi; Futakawa, Masatoshi

    2009-01-01

    Checking the seal performance of the mercury piping network is very important for the mercury target system operation of J-PARC, and the test method for leaks using the pressure change measurement is preferable for this purpose because it can be carried out easily and precisely by measuring the pressure change, and it is free from the risk of mercury contamination. The piping network is pressurized by helium gas. Thus, the correlation between the helium leak rate and mercury leak flow rate was investigated experimentally by carrying out leak tests for helium and mercury with an identical mockup flange model. The results showed that the mercury leak flow rates of the experimental data were lower than those of the estimated value by 64% on average. It was also found that the threshold of the helium leak rate at which good seal performance for mercury can be obtained exists between 2.18 x 10 -4 and 1.01 x 10 -2 Pa.m 3 /s. This fact confirmed the sufficient safety margin of the mercury target system against the mercury leak, where 1 x 10 -6 Pa.m 3 /s was adopted as the seal performance criterion. (author)

  17. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2005-06-01

    Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems. Our current strategy is to engineer plants to

  18. Conditioning of spent mercury by amalgamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, S. P.; Shon, J. S.; An, B. G.; Lee, H. J.; Lee, J. W.; Ji, C. G.; Kim, S. H.; Yoon, J. H.; Yang, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    Solidification by amalgamation was performed to immobilize and stabilize the liquid spent mercury. First, the appropriate metal and alloy which can convert liquid mercury into a solid form of amalgam were selected through initial tests. The amalgam form, formulated in optimum composition, was characterized and subjected to performance tests including compressive strength, water immersion, leachability and initial vaporization rate to evaluate mechanical integrity, durability and leaching properties. Finally, bench scale amalgamation trial was conducted with about 1 kg of spent mercury to verify the feasibility of amalgamation method

  19. Risk assessment of mercury contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempel, M.

    1993-01-01

    At two sites, highly contaminated with mercury, risk assessment was executed. Methods were developed to determine organomercury compounds in water, air and soil. Toxicity tests demonstrated the high toxicity of organomercury compounds compared to inorganic mercury. Besides highly toxic methylmercury, ethylmercury was found in soils close to a chemical plant in Marktredwitz. In ultrafiltration-experiments mercury showed great affinity to high molecular substances in water. Lysimeter-experiments proved, that organomercury compounds are adsorbed and transformed to inorganic and elemental mercury. (orig.) [de

  20. Risicoschatting voor Down syndroom/neuraalbuisdefecten door analyse van triple test parameters in maternaal serum 1995-1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schielen PCJI; Hagenaars AM; Elvers LH; Loeber JG; LIS

    2003-01-01

    Between 1995 and 1999 the RIVM processed about 16,000 triple tests to estimate risks for the Down syndrome and neural tube defect pregnancies. This research was carried out on order of the Health Care Inspectorate of the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare, and Sport. The survey described here

  1. Mercury emission monitoring on municipal waste combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, H.; Gerig, A.

    1991-01-01

    In waste incineration, mercury is the only heavy metal to be released as a gas, mostly as mercury(II) chloride, because of its high volatility. Continuous emission monitoring is possible only when mercury occurs in its elemental form. This paper reports on various possibilities of converting Hg(II) into Hg(0) that has been studied and tested on a laboratory scale and in the TAMARA refuse incineration pilot facility. Continuous mercury emission measurement appears to be possible, provided mercury is converted in the flue gas condensate precipitated. The measuring results obtained on two municipal solid waste and on one sewage treatment sludge incineration plants show that the mercury monitor is a highly sensitive and selective continuously working instrument for mercury emission monitoring

  2. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury is an element that is found in air, water and soil. It has several forms. Metallic mercury is a shiny, silver-white, odorless liquid. If ... with other elements to form powders or crystals. Mercury is in many products. Metallic mercury is used ...

  3. Biomarkers of mercury exposure at a mercury recycling facility in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Herman Jones; Kozlov, Kostj; Buckley, Jessie Poulin; Centeno, Jose; Jurgenson, Vera; Kolker, Allan; Conko, Kathryn; Landa, Edward; Panov, Boris; Panov, Yuri; Xu, Hanna

    2008-08-01

    This study evaluates biomarkers of occupational mercury exposure among workers at a mercury recycling operation in Gorlovka, Ukraine. The 29 study participants were divided into three occupational categories for analysis: (1) those who worked in the mercury recycling operation (Group A, n = 8), (2) those who worked at the facility but not in the yard where the recycling was done (Group B, n = 14), and (3) those who did not work at the facility (Group C, n = 7). Urine, blood, hair, and nail samples were collected from the participants, and a questionnaire was administered to obtain data on age, gender, occupational history, smoking, alcohol consumption, fish consumption, tattoos, dental amalgams, home heating system, education, source of drinking water, and family employment in the former mercury mine/smelter located on the site of the recycling facility. Each factor was tested in a univariate regression with total mercury in urine, blood, hair, and nails. Median biomarker concentrations were 4.04 microg/g-Cr (urine), 2.58 microg/L (blood), 3.95 microg/g (hair), and 1.16 microg/g (nails). Occupational category was significantly correlated (p recycling operation had the highest blood and urinary mercury levels. Those who worked at the facility but were not directly involved with the recycling operation had higher levels than those who did not work at the facility.

  4. Bench-scale Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Blythe; John Currie; David DeBerry

    2008-03-31

    This document is the final report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42314, 'Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors'. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory and EPRI. The objective of the project has been to determine the mechanisms and kinetics of the aqueous reactions of mercury absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, and develop a kinetics model to predict mercury reactions in wet FGD systems. The model may be used to determine optimum wet FGD design and operating conditions to maximize mercury capture in wet FGD systems. Initially, a series of bench-top, liquid-phase reactor tests were conducted and mercury species concentrations were measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy to determine reactant and byproduct concentrations over time. Other measurement methods, such as atomic absorption, were used to measure concentrations of vapor-phase elemental mercury, that cannot be measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy. Next, a series of bench-scale wet FGD simulation tests were conducted. Because of the significant effects of sulfite concentration on mercury re-emission rates, new methods were developed for operating and controlling the bench-scale FGD experiments. Approximately 140 bench-scale wet FGD tests were conducted and several unusual and pertinent effects of process chemistry on mercury re-emissions were identified and characterized. These data have been used to develop an empirically adjusted, theoretically based kinetics model to predict mercury species reactions in wet FGD systems. The model has been verified in tests conducted with the bench-scale wet FGD system, where both gas-phase and liquid-phase mercury concentrations were measured to determine if the model accurately predicts the tendency for mercury re-emissions. This report presents and discusses results from the initial laboratory kinetics measurements, the bench-scale wet FGD tests, and the kinetics modeling

  5. Removal of mercury from coal-combustion flue gas using regenerable sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C S; Albiston, J; Broderick, T E; Stewart, R M

    1999-07-01

    The US EPA estimates that coal-fired power plants constitute the largest anthropogenic source of mercury emissions in the US. The Agency has contemplated emission regulations for power plants, but the large gas-flow rates and low mercury concentrations involved have made current treatment options prohibitively expensive. ADA Technologies, Inc. (Englewood, Colorado), in conjunction with the US DOE, is developing regenerable sorbents for the removal and recovery of mercury from flue gas. These sorbents are based on the ability of noble metals to amalgamate mercury at typical flue-gas temperatures and release mercury at higher temperatures. The process allows for recovery of mercury with minimal volumes of secondary wastes and no impact on fly ash quality. In 1997 and 1998, ADA tested a 20-cfm sorbent unit at CONSOL Inc.'s coal-combustion test facility in Library, PA. Results from the 1997 tests indicated that the sorbent can remove elemental and oxidized mercury and can be regenerated without loss of capacity. Design changes were implemented in 1998 to enhance the thermal efficiency of the process and to recover the mercury in a stable form. Testing during autumn, 1998 demonstrated 60% to 90% removal efficiency of mercury from a variety of different coals. However, contradictory removal results were obtained at the end of the test period. Subsequent laboratory analyses indicated that the sorbent had lost over half its capacity for mercury due to a decrease in available sites for mercury sorption. The presence of sulfur compounds on the sorbent suggests that thermal cycling may have condensed acid gases on the sorbent leading to deterioration of the active sorption sites. The regeneration time/temperature profile has been altered to minimize this potential in the upcoming power plant tests.

  6. Risicoschatting voor Down syndroom en neuraalbuisdefecten door analyse van triple test parameters in maternaal serum 1999-2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schielen PCJI; Elvers LH; Loeber JG; LIS

    2005-01-01

    In this report we describe a survey of over 14,000 triple test requests to estimate risks for Down syndrome and neural tube defect (NTD) pregnancies. They were collected between 1999 and 2002, from all the provinces in the Netherlands except Groningen, Friesland and Drenthe. This research was

  7. MERCURY CONTROL WITH CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS AND OXIDIZING AGENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas K. Gale

    2002-06-01

    The initial tasks of this DOE funded project to investigate mercury removal by calcium-based sorbents have been completed, and initial testing results have been obtained. Mercury monitoring capabilities have been obtained and validated. An approximately 1MW (3.4 Mbtu/hr) Combustion Research Facility at Southern Research Institute was used to perform pilot-scale investigations of mercury sorbents, under conditions representative of full-scale boilers. The initial results of ARCADIS G&M proprietary sorbents, showed ineffective removal of either elemental or oxidized mercury. Benchscale tests are currently underway to ascertain the importance of differences between benchscale and pilot-scale experiments. An investigation of mercury-capture temperature dependence using common sorbents has also begun. Ordinary hydrated lime removed 80 to 90% of the mercury from the flue gas, regardless of the temperature of injection. High temperature injection of hydrated lime simultaneously captured SO{sub 2} at high temperatures and Hg at low temperatures, without any deleterious effects on mercury speciation. Future work will explore alternative methods of oxidizing elemental mercury.

  8. Occupational exposure to mercury. What is a safe level?

    OpenAIRE

    Moienafshari, R.; Bar-Oz, B.; Koren, G.

    1999-01-01

    QUESTION: One of my pregnant patients, a dental hygienist, uses mercury in her workplace, but appears to have no symptoms of mercury toxicity. She has heard that mercury might affect her fetus. What should I recommend to her? What is a safe level of mercury in the air for pregnant women? ANSWER: Testing for levels of mercury in whole blood and, preferably, urine is useful for confirming exposure. Currently, mercury vapour concentrations greater than 0.01 mg/m3 are considered unsafe. Also, wom...

  9. Isolation, screening and identification of mercury resistant bacteria from mercury contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalczyk Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New bacterial strains resistant to high concentration of mercury were obtained and character iz ed focusing on their potential application in bioremediation. The biological material was isolated from soil contaminated with mercury. The ability to removal of Hg from the liquid medium and the effect of the various pH and mercury concentrations in the environment on bacterial strains growth kinetics were tested. The selected strains were identified by analysis of the 16S ribosome subunit coding sequenc es as Pseudomonas syringae. The analysis of Hg concentration in liquid medium as effect of microbial metabolism demonstrated that P. syringae is able to remove almost entire metal from medium after 120 hours of incubation. Obtained results revealed new ability of the isolated strain P. syringae. Analyzed properties of this soil bacteria species able to reduce concentration of Hg ors immobi lize this metal are promising for industrial wastewater treatment and bioremediation of the soils polluted especially by mercury lamps scrapping, measuring instruments, dry batteries, detonators or burning fuels made from crude oil, which may also contain mercury. Selected bacteria strains provide efficient and relatively low-cost bioremediation of the areas and waters contaminated with Hg.

  10. Mercury flow experiments. 4th report: Measurements of erosion rate caused by mercury flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Kaminaga, Masanori; Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro

    2002-06-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) are promoting a construction plan of the Material-Life Science Facility, which is consisted of a Muon Science Facility and a Neutron Scattering Facility, in order to open up the new science fields. The Neutron Scattering Facility will be utilized for advanced fields of Material and Life science using high intensity neutron generated by the spallation reaction of a 1 MW pulsed proton beam and mercury target. Design of the spallation mercury target system aims to obtain high neutron performance with high reliability and safety. Since the target system is using mercury as the target material and contains large amount of radioactive spallation products, it is necessary to estimate reliability for strength of instruments in a mercury flow system during lifetime of the facility. Piping and components in the mercury flow system would be damaged by erosion with mercury flow, since these components will be weak by thickness decreasing. This report presents experimental results of wall thickness change by erosion using a mercury experimental loop. In the experiments, an erosion test section and coupons were installed in the mercury experimental loop, and their wall thickness was measured with an ultra sonic thickness gage after every 1000 hours. As a result, under 0.7 m/s of mercury velocity condition which is slightly higher than the practical velocity in mercury pipelines, the erosion is about 3 μm in 1000 hours. The wall thickness decrease during facility lifetime of 30 years is estimated to be less than 0.5 mm. According to the experimental result, it is confirmed that the effect of erosion on component strength is extremely small. Moreover, a measurement of residual mercury on the piping surface was carried out. As a result, 19 g/m 2 was obtained as the residual mercury for the piping surface. According to this result, estimated amount of residual mercury for

  11. Estimating threshold limits for mercury in biological material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, M H

    1963-01-01

    A brief historical review of the study of occupational exposure to mercury is presented. Important factors in the determination of the tolerable body burden of mercury are discussed, notably the body distribution of mercury after exposure, and the risk of accumulation in different organs. In acute exposure the kidney and liver accumulate much mercury and are hence liable to injury, while recent findings indicate that in chronic exposure to moderate levels of mercury the brain and possibly testes are the critical organs because of a pronounced tendency to accumulate. The possibility of obtaining an index of mercury retention is explored; it is concluded that urinary mercury excretion does not reflect the level of body retention although it may indicate very recent exposure. It is suggested that mercury concentration in biopsies of skin, liver, kidney and colonic mucosa may serve as an index of body retention of mercury. 37 references, 7 figures.

  12. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2001-01-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000 to 2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG and E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB

  13. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2002-01-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG and E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB

  14. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2001-01-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG and E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin coal

  15. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2001-01-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG and E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB

  16. Experimental dosing of wetlands with coagulants removes mercury from surface water and decreases mercury bioaccumulation in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Kraus, Tamara E C; Fleck, Jacob A; Krabbenhoft, David P; Horwath, William R; Bachand, Sandra M; Herzog, Mark P; Hartman, C Alex; Bachand, Philip A M

    2015-05-19

    Mercury pollution is widespread globally, and strategies for managing mercury contamination in aquatic environments are necessary. We tested whether coagulation with metal-based salts could remove mercury from wetland surface waters and decrease mercury bioaccumulation in fish. In a complete randomized block design, we constructed nine experimental wetlands in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, stocked them with mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), and then continuously applied agricultural drainage water that was either untreated (control), or treated with polyaluminum chloride or ferric sulfate coagulants. Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in surface waters were decreased by 62% and 63% in polyaluminum chloride treated wetlands and 50% and 76% in ferric sulfate treated wetlands compared to control wetlands. Specifically, following coagulation, mercury was transferred from the filtered fraction of water into the particulate fraction of water which then settled within the wetland. Mosquitofish mercury concentrations were decreased by 35% in ferric sulfate treated wetlands compared to control wetlands. There was no reduction in mosquitofish mercury concentrations within the polyaluminum chloride treated wetlands, which may have been caused by production of bioavailable methylmercury within those wetlands. Coagulation may be an effective management strategy for reducing mercury contamination within wetlands, but further studies should explore potential effects on wetland ecosystems.

  17. Experimental dosing of wetlands with coagulants removes mercury from surface water and decreases mercury bioaccumulation in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Kraus, Tamara E.C.; Fleck, Jacob A.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Horwarth, William R.; Bachand, Sandra M.; Herzog, Mark; Hartman, Christopher; Bachand, Philip A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Mercury pollution is widespread globally, and strategies for managing mercury contamination in aquatic environments are necessary. We tested whether coagulation with metal-based salts could remove mercury from wetland surface waters and decrease mercury bioaccumulation in fish. In a complete randomized block design, we constructed nine experimental wetlands in California’s Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, stocked them with mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), and then continuously applied agricultural drainage water that was either untreated (control), or treated with polyaluminum chloride or ferric sulfate coagulants. Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in surface waters were decreased by 62% and 63% in polyaluminum chloride treated wetlands and 50% and 76% in ferric sulfate treated wetlands compared to control wetlands. Specifically, following coagulation, mercury was transferred from the filtered fraction of water into the particulate fraction of water which then settled within the wetland. Mosquitofish mercury concentrations were decreased by 35% in ferric sulfate treated wetlands compared to control wetlands. There was no reduction in mosquitofish mercury concentrations within the polyaluminum chloride treated wetlands, which may have been caused by production of bioavailable methylmercury within those wetlands. Coagulation may be an effective management strategy for reducing mercury contamination within wetlands, but further studies should explore potential effects on wetland ecosystems.

  18. A priori tests of combustion models based on a CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} Triple Flame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dombard, J.; Naud, B.; Jimenez Sanchez, C.

    2008-07-01

    This document reproduces the final project of Jerome Dombard, presented on June 25, 2008, for the obtention of the Master degree MIMSE (Master Ingenierie Mathematique, Statistique et Economique) of Bordeaux University (Universite Bordeaux 1). We make an a priori study of FPI/FGM-type turbulent combustion models using a 2D DNS of a triple flame. A reduced chemical scheme of 16 species and 12 reactions is used (ARM1, proposed by J.-Y. Chen at Berkeley University). The fuel (CH4/H2 mixture) and oxidizer (air) correspond to the inlet composition of the Sydney bluff-body stabilised flame experiments (flames HM1-3). First, we compute 1D laminar premixed flames. The purpose of those calculations is twofold: 1. check the differences between different computer programs and different treatments of molecular diffusion, and 2. calibrate the 2D-DNS of the laminar triple flame (mainly decide on the grid resolution). Then, the solution of the 2D laminar triple flame is used to test a priori FPI/FGM tables. Finally, preliminary considerations on sub-grid scale modelling in the context of Large Eddy Simulation are made. (Author) 14 refs.

  19. Acute mercury poisoning: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aktas Can

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mercury poisoning can occur as a result of occupational hazard or suicide attempt. This article presents a 36-year-old case admitted to emergency department (ED due to exposure to metallic mercury. Case Presentatıon A 36-year-old woman presented to the ED with a three-day history of abdominal pain, diarrhea and fever. One week ago her daughter had brought mercury in the liquid form from the school. She had put it on the heating stove. One day later, her 14-month old sister baby got fever and died before admission to the hospital. Her blood pressure was 134/87 mmHg; temperature, 40.2°C; heart rate 105 bpm and regular; respiration, 18 bpm; O2 saturation, 96%. Nothing was remarkable on examination and routine laboratory tests. As serine or urinary mercury levels could not be tested in the city, symptomatic chelation treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC was instituted with regard to presumptive diagnosis and history. At the 7th day of admission she was discharged without any sequelae or complaint. At the discharge day blood was drawn and sent for mercury levels which turned out to be 30 μg/dL (normal range: 0 - 10 μg/dL. Conclusion Public education on poisoning and the potential hazards of mercury are of vital importance for community health.

  20. Design, fabrication and testing of porous tungsten vaporizers for mercury ion thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavesky, R.; Kroeger, E.; Kami, S.

    1983-01-01

    The dispersions in the characteristics, performance and reliability of vaporizers for early model 30-cm thrusters were investigated. The purpose of the paper is to explore the findings and to discuss the approaches that were taken to reduce the observed dispersion and present the results of a program which validated those approaches. The information that is presented includes porous tungsten materials specifications, a discussion of assembly procedures, and a description of a test program which screens both material and fabrication processes. There are five appendices providing additional detail in the areas of vaporizer contamination, nitrogen flow testing, bubble testing, porosimeter testing, and mercury purity. Four neutralizers, seven cathodes and five main vaporizers were successfully fabricated, tested, and operated on thrusters. Performance data from those devices is presented and indicates extremely repeatable results from using the design and fabrication procedures.

  1. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role of chelating agents against mercury poisoning, which provides a promising research direction for broader application of chelation therapy in prevention and treatment of mercury poisoning.

  2. Movement of mercury-203 in plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, D.D.; Butler, G.P.

    1977-10-01

    Seeds of Pisum sativum, varieties Little Marvel and Alaska, were planted in soils contaminated with radioactive ionic mercury, methylmercury or phenylmercury compounds. After saturation, stems, leaves, and pods were harvested and analyzed by gamma spectroscopy. Utilizing a least squares three-way analysis of covariance coupled with a Studentized Range Test, significant differences were noted among the levels of the three mercury compounds in the plants, between mercury levels in the two pea varieties and among mercury levels in the different pea tissues examined. Phenylmercury levels differed consistently from levels of ionic mercury and methylmercury suggesting a separate pathway for it in peas

  3. Sulfur polymer cement stabilization of elemental mercury mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melamed, D.; Fuhrmann, M.; Kalb, P.; Patel, B.

    1998-04-01

    Elemental mercury, contaminated with radionuclides, is a problem throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This report describes the development and testing of a process to immobilize elemental mercury, contaminated with radionuclides, in a form that is non-dispersible, will meet EPA leaching criteria, and has low mercury vapor pressure. In this stabilization and solidification process (patent pending) elemental mercury is mixed with an excess of powdered sulfur polymer cement (SPC) and additives in a vessel and heated to ∼35 C, for several hours, until all of the mercury is converted into mercuric sulfide (HgS). Additional SPC is then added and the mixture raised to 135 C, resulting in a homogeneous molten liquid which is poured into a suitable mold where is cools and solidifies. The final stabilized and solidified waste forms were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, as well as tested for leaching behavior and mercury vapor pressure. During this study the authors have processed the entire inventory of mixed mercury waste stored at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)

  4. FGD Additives to Segregate and Sequester Mercury in Solid Byproducts - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Searcy, K; Bltyhe, G M; Steen, W A

    2012-02-28

    Many mercury control strategies for U.S. coal-fired power generating plants involve co-benefit capture of oxidized mercury from flue gases treated by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. For these processes to be effective at overall mercury control, the captured mercury must not be re-emitted to the atmosphere or into surface or ground water. The project sought to identify scrubber additives and FGD operating conditions under which mercury re-emissions would decrease and mercury would remain in the liquor and be blown down from the system in the chloride purge stream. After exiting the FGD system, mercury would react with precipitating agents to form stable solid byproducts and would be removed in a dewatering step. The FGD gypsum solids, free of most of the mercury, could then be disposed or processed for reuse as wallboard or in other beneficial reuse. The project comprised extensive bench-scale FGD scrubber tests in Phases I and II. During Phase II, the approaches developed at the bench scale were tested at the pilot scale. Laboratory wastewater treatment tests measured the performance of precipitating agents in removing mercury from the chloride purge stream. Finally, the economic viability of the approaches tested was evaluated.

  5. Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 10's first image of Mercury acquired on March 24, 1974. During its flight, Mariner 10's trajectory brought it behind the lighted hemisphere of Mercury, where this image was taken, in order to acquire important measurements with other instruments.This picture was acquired from a distance of 3,340,000 miles (5,380,000 km) from the surface of Mercury. The diameter of Mercury (3,031 miles; 4,878 km) is about 1/3 that of Earth.Images of Mercury were acquired in two steps, an inbound leg (images acquired before passing into Mercury's shadow) and an outbound leg (after exiting from Mercury's shadow). More than 2300 useful images of Mercury were taken, both moderate resolution (3-20 km/pixel) color and high resolution (better than 1 km/pixel) black and white coverage.

  6. The method of determination of mercury adsorption from flue gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budzyń Stanisław

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For several recent years Faculty of Energy and Fuels of the AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow conduct intensive studies on the occurrence of mercury contained in thermal and coking coals, as well as on the possible reduction of fossil-fuel mercury emissions. This research focuses, among others, on application of sorbents for removal of mercury from flue gases. In this paper we present the methodology for testing mercury adsorption using various types of sorbents, in laboratory conditions. Our model assumes burning a coal sample, with a specific mercury content, in a strictly determined time period and temperature conditions, oxygen or air flow rates, and the flow of flue gases through sorbent in a specific temperature. It was developed for particular projects concerning the possibilities of applying different sorbents to remove mercury from flue gases. Test stand itself is composed of a vertical pipe furnace inside which a quartz tube was mounted for sample burning purposes. At the furnace outlet, there is a heated glass vessel with a sorbent sample through which flue gases are passing. Furnace allows burning at a defined temperature. The exhaust gas flow path is heated to prevent condensation of the mercury vapor prior to contact with a sorbent. The sorbent container is positioned in the heating element, with controlled and stabilized temperature, which allows for testing mercury sorption in various temperatures. Determination of mercury content is determined before (coal and sorbent, as well as after the process (sorbent and ash. The mercury balance is calculated based on the Hg content determination results. This testing method allows to study sorbent efficiency, depending on sorption temperature, sorbent grain size, and flue-gas rates.

  7. Real-time analysis of total, elemental, and total speciated mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlager, R.J.; Wilson, K.G.; Sappey, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    ADA Technologies, Inc., is developing a continuous emissions monitoring system that measures the concentrations of mercury in flue gas. Mercury is emitted as an air pollutant from a number of industrial processes. The largest contributors of these emissions are coal and oil combustion, municipal waste combustion, medical waste combustion, and the thermal treatment of hazardous materials. It is difficult, time consuming, and expensive to measure mercury emissions using current testing methods. Part of the difficulty lies in the fact that mercury is emitted from sources in several different forms, such as elemental mercury and mercuric chloride. The ADA analyzer measures these emissions in real time, thus providing a number of advantages over existing test methods: (1) it will provide a real-time measure of emission rates, (2) it will assure facility operators, regulators, and the public that emissions control systems are working at peak efficiency, and (3) it will provide information as to the nature of the emitted mercury (elemental mercury or speciated compounds). This update presents an overview of the CEM and describes features of key components of the monitoring system--the mercury detector, a mercury species converter, and the analyzer calibration system

  8. Real-time analysis of total, elemental, and total speciated mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlager, R.J.; Wilson, K.G.; Sappey, A.D. [ADA Technologies, Inc., Englewood, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01

    ADA Technologies, Inc., is developing a continuous emissions monitoring system that measures the concentrations of mercury in flue gas. Mercury is emitted as an air pollutant from a number of industrial processes. The largest contributors of these emissions are coal and oil combustion, municipal waste combustion, medical waste combustion, and the thermal treatment of hazardous materials. It is difficult, time consuming, and expensive to measure mercury emissions using current testing methods. Part of the difficulty lies in the fact that mercury is emitted from sources in several different forms, such as elemental mercury and mercuric chloride. The ADA analyzer measures these emissions in real time, thus providing a number of advantages over existing test methods: (1) it will provide a real-time measure of emission rates, (2) it will assure facility operators, regulators, and the public that emissions control systems are working at peak efficiency, and (3) it will provide information as to the nature of the emitted mercury (elemental mercury or speciated compounds). This update presents an overview of the CEM and describes features of key components of the monitoring system--the mercury detector, a mercury species converter, and the analyzer calibration system.

  9. Triple test cross analysis for salinity tolerance in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, M.; Khan, A.S.; Chowdhry, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Triple test cross analysis applied to study additive, dominance and epistatic components of genetic variation for five seedling traits namely shoot length, fresh shoot weight, root length, fresh root weight and root shoot ratio at two salinity levels 0 (control) and 10 dSm/sup -1/ in wheat. The results revealed that the epistatic component is an important element for salinity tolerance at seedling stage in wheat. Both additive and dominance gene effects were involved in the inheritance of shoot length, fresh shoot weight, root length fresh root weight and root shoot ratio Complete dominance was indicated for shoot length, fresh root weight and root/shoot ratio and partial dominance was observed for other traits at control and over dominance was observed for shoot length, fresh shoot weight and root/shoot ratio, complete dominance for fresh root weight and partial dominance for root length at 10 dSm/sup -1/ salinity level. Significant epitasis was observed for all the traits except shoot length at both the salinity treatments. (author)

  10. Mercury erosion experiments for spallation target system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Kaminaga, Masanori; Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro

    2003-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) are promoting a plan to construct the spallation neutron source at the Tokai Research Establishment, JAERI, under the High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Project (J-PARC). A mercury circulation system has been designed so as to supply mercury to the target stably under the rated flow rate of 41 m 3 /hr. Then, it was necessary to confirm a mercury pump performance from the viewpoint of making the mercury circulation system feasible, and more, to investigate erosion rate under the mercury flow as well as an amount of mercury remained on the surface after drain from the viewpoints of mechanical strength relating to the lifetime and remote handling of mercury components. The mercury pump performance was tested under the mercury flow conditions by using an experimental gear pump, which had almost the same structure as a practical mercury pump to be expected in the mercury circulation system, and the erosion rates in a mercury pipeline as well as the amount of mercury remained on the surface were also investigated. The discharged flow rates of the experimental gear pump increased linearly with the rotation speed, so that the gear pump would work as the flow meter. Erosion rates obtained under the mercury velocity less than 1.6 m/s was found to be so small that decrease of pipeline wall thickness would be 390 μm after 30-year operation under the rated mercury velocity of 0.7 m/s. For the amount of remaining mercury on the pipeline, remaining rates of weight and volume were estimated at 50.7 g/m 2 and 3.74 Hg-cm 3 /m 2 , respectively. Applying these remaining rates of weight and volume to the mercury target, the remaining mercury was estimated at about 106.5 g and 7.9 cm 3 . Radioactivity of this remaining mercury volume was found to be three-order lower than that of the target casing. (author)

  11. Mercury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Irma

    2017-01-01

    Mercury is a naturally occurring metal that exists in several physical and chemical forms. Inorganic mercury refers to compounds formed after the combining of mercury with elements such as chlorine, sulfur, or oxygen. After combining with carbon by covalent linkage, the compounds formed are called

  12. Estimation of uncertainty of a reference material for proficiency testing for the determination of total mercury in fish in nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, L V; Sarkis, J E S; Ulrich, J C; Hortellani, M A

    2015-01-01

    We provide an uncertainty estimates for homogeneity and stability studies of reference material used in proficiency test for determination of total mercury in fish fresh muscle tissue. Stability was estimated by linear regression and homogeneity by ANOVA. The results indicate that the reference material is both homogeneous and chemically stable over the short term. Total mercury concentration of the muscle tissue, with expanded uncertainty, was 0.294 ± 0.089 μg g −1

  13. Results of the mission profile life test. [for J-series mercury ion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, R. T.; Trump, G. E.; James, E. L.

    1982-01-01

    Seven J series 30-cm diameter thrusters have been tested in segments of up to 5,070 hr, for 14,541 hr in the Mission Profile Life Test facility. Test results have indicated the basic thruster design to be consistent with the lifetime goal of 15,000 hr at 2-A beam. The only areas of concern identified which appear to require additional verification testing involve contamination of mercury propellant isolators, which may be due to facility constituents, and the ability of specially covered surfaces to contain sputtered material and prevent flake formation. The ability of the SCR, series resonant inverter power processor to operate the J series thruster and autonomous computer control of the thruster/processor system were demonstrated.

  14. Preliminary temperature Accelerated Life Test (ALT) on III-V commercial concentrator triple-junction solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Espinet González, Pilar; Algora del Valle, Carlos; Orlando Carrillo, Vincenzo; Nuñez Mendoza, Neftali; Vázquez López, Manuel; Bautista Villares, Jesus; Xiugang, He; Barrutia Poncela, Laura; Rey-Stolle Prado, Ignacio; Araki, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    A quantitative temperature accelerated life test on sixty GaInP/GaInAs/Ge triple-junction commercial concentrator solar cells is being carried out. The final objective of this experiment is to evaluate the reliability, warranty period, and failure mechanism of high concentration solar cells in a moderate period of time. The acceleration of the degradation is realized by subjecting the solar cells at temperatures markedly higher than the nominal working temperature under a concentrator Three e...

  15. A dip-and-read test strip for the determination of mercury(II) ion in aqueous samples based on urease activity inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guo-Qing; Jiang, Guibin

    2002-11-01

    A sensitive dip-and-read test strip for the determination of mercury in aqueous samples based on the inhibition of urease reaction by the ion has been developed. The strip has a circular sensing zone that containing two layers: the top layer is a cellulose acetate membrane where urease is immobilized on it; the bottom layer is a pH indicator wafer that is impregnated with urea. The principle of the measurement is based on the disappearance of a yellow spot on the pH indicator wafer. The elapsing time until the disappearance of the spot which depends on the concentration of mercury(II) ion is measured with a stopwatch. Under the experimental conditions, as low as 0.2 ng/ml mercury can be observed with the detection range from 0.2 to 200 ng/ml in water. Organomercury compounds give essentially the same response as inorganic mercury. Heavy-metal ions such as Ag(I), Cu(II), Cd(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), and Pb(II) as well as other sample matrixes basically do not interfere with the mercury measurement.

  16. 49 CFR 173.164 - Mercury (metallic and articles containing mercury).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ounces) of mercury per package; (iv) Tubes which are completely jacketed in sealed leakproof metal cases... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mercury (metallic and articles containing mercury... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.164 Mercury (metallic and articles containing mercury). (a) For...

  17. RECOVERY OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED PRIMARY AND SECONDARY WASTES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Faucette; J. Bognar; T. Broderick; T. Battaglia

    2000-01-01

    Effective removal of mercury contamination from water is a complex and difficult problem. In particular, mercury treatment of natural waters is difficult because of the low regulatory standards. For example, the Environmental Protection Agency has established a national ambient water quality standard of 12 parts-per-trillion (ppt), whereas the standard is 1.8 ppt in the Great Lakes Region. In addition, mercury is typically present in several different forms, but sorption processes are rarely effective with more than one or two of these forms. To meet the low regulatory discharge limits, a sorption process must be able to address all forms of mercury present in the water. One approach is to apply different sorbents in series depending on the mercury speciation and the regulatory discharge limits. Four new sorbents have been developed to address the variety of mercury species present in industrial discharges and natural waters. Three of these sorbents have been field tested on contaminated creek water at the Y-12 Plant. Two of these sorbents have demonstrated very high removal efficiencies for soluble mercury species, with mercury concentrations at the outlet of a pilot-scale system less than 12 ppt for as long as six months. The other sorbent tested at the Y-12 Plant is targeted at colloidal mercury that is not removed by standard sorption or filtration processes. At the Y-12 Plant, colloidal mercury appears to be associated with iron, so a sorbent that removes mercury-iron complexes in the presence of a magnetic field was evaluated. Field results indicate good removal of this mercury fraction from the Y-12 waters. In addition, this sorbent is easily regenerated by simply removing the magnetic field and flushing the columns with water. The fourth sorbent is still undergoing laboratory development, but results to date indicate exceptionally high mercury sorption capacity. The sorbent is capable of removing all forms of mercury typically present in natural and

  18. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  19. Mercury material-balance in industrial electrolytic cells, by using radioactive mercury (203Hg)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caras, I.; Pasi, M.

    1976-01-01

    A material-balance test for industrial mercury electrolytic cells is described. The test uses the radioactive dilution technique with 203 Hg. The preparation of the 203 Hg from irradiated mercuric oxide is also described. The accuracy of the test is shown to be +-1% for each cell. (author)

  20. Thermal-treated soil for mercury removal: Soil and phytotoxicity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Y.; Edwards, N.T.; Lee, S.Y.; Stiles, C.A.; Armes, S.; Foss, J.E.

    2000-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of soils and sediments is one of many environmental problems at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, TN. Mercury-contaminated soil from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) at the Oak Ridge Reservation was treated thermally to reduce Hg concentration to a below target level (20 mg kg{sup {minus}1}) as a pilot scale thermal treatment demonstration. As a part of performance evaluation, the soil characteristics and plant growth response of the untreated and treated soil were examined. The soil treated at 350 C retained most of its original soil properties, but the soil treated at 600 C exhibited considerable changes in mineralogical composition and physicochemical characteristics. Growth and physiological response of the three plant species radish (Raphanus sativus L.), fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), and oat (Avena sativa L.) indicated adverse effects of the thermal treatment. The addition of N fertilizer had beneficial effects in the 350 C treated soil, but had little beneficial effect in the 600 C treated soil. Some changes of soil characteristics induced by thermal treatment cannot be avoided. Soil characteristics and phytotoxicity test results strongly suggest that changes occurring following the 350 C treatment do not limit the use of the treated soil to refill the excavated site for full-scale remediation. The only problem with the 350 C treatment is that small amounts of Hg compounds (<15 mg kg{sup {minus}1}) remain in the soil and a processing cost of $45/Mg.

  1. Mercury Information Clearinghouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chad A. Wocken; Michael J. Holmes; Dennis L. Laudal; Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett; Greg F. Weber; Nicholas V. C. Ralston; Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Edwin S. Olson; Laura J. Raymond; John H. Pavlish; Everett A. Sondreal; Steven A. Benson

    2006-03-31

    The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) identified a need and contracted the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to create and maintain an information clearinghouse on global research and development activities related to mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. With the support of CEA, the Center for Air Toxic Metals{reg_sign} (CATM{reg_sign}) Affiliates, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the EERC developed comprehensive quarterly information updates that provide a detailed assessment of developments in the various areas of mercury monitoring, control, policy, and research. A total of eight topical reports were completed and are summarized and updated in this final CEA quarterly report. The original quarterly reports can be viewed at the CEA Web site (www.ceamercuryprogram.ca). In addition to a comprehensive update of previous mercury-related topics, a review of results from the CEA Mercury Program is provided. Members of Canada's coal-fired electricity generation sector (ATCO Power, EPCOR, Manitoba Hydro, New Brunswick Power, Nova Scotia Power Inc., Ontario Power Generation, SaskPower, and TransAlta) and CEA, have compiled an extensive database of information from stack-, coal-, and ash-sampling activities. Data from this effort are also available at the CEA Web site and have provided critical information for establishing and reviewing a mercury standard for Canada that is protective of environment and public health and is cost-effective. Specific goals outlined for the CEA mercury program included the following: (1) Improve emission inventories and develop management options through an intensive 2-year coal-, ash-, and stack-sampling program; (2) Promote effective stack testing through the development of guidance material and the support of on-site training on the Ontario Hydro method for employees, government representatives, and contractors on an as-needed basis; (3) Strengthen laboratory analytical capabilities through

  2. Mercury in a thin layer in HgMn stars: A test of a diffusion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megessier, C.; Michaud, G.; Weiler, E.J.

    1980-01-01

    Lines of the first three states of ionization of mercury have been observed in μ Leporis and chi Lupi using the Copernicus satellite. Lines of Hg II and Hg III have been observed in α Andromedae. There appears to be an absorption feature at every wavelength where there is expected to be a mercury line. The presence of all three states of ionization is likely in μ Lep and chi Lup. The relative equivalent widths of the lines of the various states of ionization do not depend on the effective temperature of the stars, in contradiction to what is expected if mercury were uniformly distributed in the atmosphere. It is, however, expected if mercury has been concentrated, by diffusion, in a thin layer, where the radiative forces just equal the gravitational forces on mercury. That mercury should be so concentrated is also required by the explanation of the mercury isotope anomaly proposed by Michaud, Reeves, and Charland. The diffusion model for Ap stars predicts in its simplest form the presence of very thin layers. However, any leftover turbulence may increase the depth of these layers without eliminating the element separation

  3. Mixed Waste Focus Area mercury contamination product line: An integrated approach to mercury waste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulet, G.A.; Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is tasked with ensuring that solutions are available for the mixed waste treatment problems of the DOE complex. During the MWFA's initial technical baseline development process, three of the top four technology deficiencies identified were related to the need for amalgamation, stabilization, and separation/removal technologies for the treatment of mercury and mercury-contaminated mixed waste. The focus area grouped mercury-waste-treatment activities into the mercury contamination product line under which development, demonstration, and deployment efforts are coordinated to provide tested technologies to meet the site needs. The Mercury Working Group (HgWG), a selected group of representatives from DOE sites with significant mercury waste inventories, is assisting the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing efforts to address these areas. Based on the scope and magnitude of the mercury mixed waste problem, as defined by HgWG, solicitations and contract awards have been made to the private sector to demonstrate amalgamation and stabilization processes using actual mixed wastes. Development efforts are currently being funded under the product line that will address DOE's needs for separation/removal processes. This paper discusses the technology selection process, development activities, and the accomplishments of the MWFA to date through these various activities

  4. Introduction of Mercury-free Gold Extraction Methods to Medium-Scale Miners and Education of Health Care Providers to Reduce the use of Mercury in Sorata, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W. U. Appel

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions. The gold ores tested during the project proved amenable to mercury-free gold extraction using borax smelting. The miners also realized that gold recovery increased when performing mercury-free gold extraction. The miners decided to stop using mercury and a follow-up project cleaned their mining equipment for mercury and modified the processing lines. The health care providers were also successfully trained.

  5. Corrective action plan for corrective action Unit 342: Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nacht, S.

    1999-01-01

    The Mercury Fire Training Pit is a former fire training area located in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Mercury Fire Training Pit was used from approximately 1965 to the early 1990s to train fire-fighting personnel at the NTS, and encompasses an area approximately 107 meters (m) (350 feet [ft]) by 137 m (450 ft). The Mercury Fire Training Pit formerly included a bermed burn pit with four small burn tanks, four large above ground storage tanks an overturned bus, a telephone pole storage area, and areas for burning sheds, pallets, and cables. Closure activities will include excavation of the impacted soil in the aboveground storage tank and burn pit areas to a depth of 1.5 m (5 ft), and excavation of the impacted surface soil downgradient of the former ASTs and burnpit areas to a depth of 0.3 m (1 ft). Excavated soil will be disposed in the Area 6 Hydrocarbon Landfill at the NTS

  6. Mercury-induced motor and sensory neurotoxicity: systematic review of workers currently exposed to mercury vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Cheryl A; Borak, Jonathan; Louis, Elan D

    2017-11-01

    The neurotoxicity of elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) is well-recognized, but it is uncertain whether and for how long neurotoxicity persists; among studies that evaluated previously exposed workers, only one examined workers during and also years after exposure ceased. The aim of this review is to document the type, frequency, and dose-relatedness of objective neurological effects in currently exposed mercury workers and thereby provide first approximations of the effects one would have expected in previously exposed workers evaluated during exposure. We systematically reviewed studies of neurotoxicity in currently exposed mercury workers identified by searching MEDLINE (1950-2015), government reports, textbook chapters, and references cited therein; dental cohorts were not included. Outcomes on physical examination (PE), neurobehavioral (NB) tests, and electrophysiological studies were extracted and evaluated for consistency and dose-relatedness. Forty-five eligible studies were identified, comprising over 3000 workers chronically exposed to a range of Hg 0 concentrations (0.002-1.7 mg/m 3 ). Effects that demonstrated consistency across studies and increased frequency across urine mercury levels (200 μg/L, while NB testing is more appropriate for those with lower U Hg levels. They also provide benchmarks to which findings in workers with historical exposure can be compared.

  7. Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of Coal Combustion By-Product Disposal and Utilizaton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher; Mei Xin; Mae Sexauer Gustin; Rob Jung

    2007-03-31

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a multiyear study to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements (ATEs) on the management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). The ATEs evaluated in this project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. The study included laboratory tasks to develop measurement techniques for mercury and ATE releases, sample characterization, and release experiments. A field task was also performed to measure mercury releases at a field site. Samples of fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were collected preferentially from full-scale coal-fired power plants operating both without and with mercury control technologies in place. In some cases, samples from pilot- and bench-scale emission control tests were included in the laboratory studies. Several sets of 'paired' baseline and test fly ash and FGD materials collected during full-scale mercury emission control tests were also included in laboratory evaluations. Samples from mercury emission control tests all contained activated carbon (AC) and some also incorporated a sorbent-enhancing agent (EA). Laboratory release experiments focused on measuring releases of mercury under conditions designed to simulate CCB exposure to water, ambient-temperature air, elevated temperatures, and microbes in both wet and dry conditions. Results of laboratory evaluations indicated that: (1) Mercury and sometimes selenium are collected with AC used for mercury emission control and, therefore, present at higher concentrations than samples collected without mercury emission controls present. (2) Mercury is stable on CCBs collected from systems both without and with mercury emission controls present under most conditions tested, with the exception of vapor-phase releases of mercury exposed to elevated temperatures. (3) The presence of carbon either from added AC or from unburned coal can result in mercury

  8. Radiotracer Dilution Method for Mercury Inventory Study in Electrolytic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiharto, Su'ud, Zaki; Kurniadi, Rizal; Waris, Abdul; Santoso, Sigit Budi; Abidin, Zainal; Santoso, Gatot Budi

    2010-06-01

    Purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate feasibility the use of radiotracer to measure weight of mercury in electrolytic cells of soda industry. The weight of mercury in each cell of the plant is designed approximately 1700 kg. Radiotracer is prepared by mixing 203 Hg radioactive mercury with 2400 g of inactive mercury in a bath. The respective precisely weighted mercury aliquots to be injected into the cells are prepared by pouring approximately 130 g of radioactive mercury taken from the bath into 13 standard vials, in accordance with the number of the cells tested. Four standard references prepared by further dilution of ±2 g active mercury taken from the bath to obtain the dilution factors range of 12,000 to 20,000 from which the calibration graph is constructed. The injection process is conducting by pouring the radioactive mercury from aliquots into the flowing mercury at the inlet side of the cell and allows them to mix thoroughly. It is assumed that the mass of the radiotracer injected into a closed system remains constant, at least during the period of the test. From this experiment it was observed that the mixing time is two days after injection of radioactive mercury. The inactive mercury in each electrolytic cell calculated by the radiotracer method is of the range 1351.529 kg to 1966.354 kg with maximum error (95% confidence) is 1.52 %. The accuracy of measurement of the present method is better than gravimetric one which accounts 4 % of error on average.

  9. Radiotracer Dilution Method for Mercury Inventory Study in Electrolytic Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiharto; Su'ud, Zaki; Kurniadi, Rizal; Waris, Abdul; Santoso, Sigit Budi; Abidin, Zainal; Santoso, Gatot Budi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate feasibility the use of radiotracer to measure weight of mercury in electrolytic cells of soda industry. The weight of mercury in each cell of the plant is designed approximately 1700 kg. Radiotracer is prepared by mixing 203 Hg radioactive mercury with 2400 g of inactive mercury in a bath. The respective precisely weighted mercury aliquots to be injected into the cells are prepared by pouring approximately 130 g of radioactive mercury taken from the bath into 13 standard vials, in accordance with the number of the cells tested. Four standard references prepared by further dilution of ±2 g active mercury taken from the bath to obtain the dilution factors range of 12,000 to 20,000 from which the calibration graph is constructed. The injection process is conducting by pouring the radioactive mercury from aliquots into the flowing mercury at the inlet side of the cell and allows them to mix thoroughly. It is assumed that the mass of the radiotracer injected into a closed system remains constant, at least during the period of the test. From this experiment it was observed that the mixing time is two days after injection of radioactive mercury. The inactive mercury in each electrolytic cell calculated by the radiotracer method is of the range 1351.529 kg to 1966.354 kg with maximum error (95% confidence) is 1.52 %. The accuracy of measurement of the present method is better than gravimetric one which accounts 4 % of error on average.

  10. Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated SRS soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated soil were performed at the SRTC to determine the optimum waste loading obtainable in the glass product without sacrificing durability, leach resistance, and processability. Vitrifying this waste stream also required offgas treatment for the capture of the vaporized mercury. Four soil glasses with slight variations in composition were produced, which were capable of passing the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The optimum glass feed composition contained 60 weight percent soil and produced a soda-lime-silica glass when melted at 1,350 C. The glass additives used to produce this glass were 24 weight percent Na 2 CO 3 and 16 weight percent CaCO 3 . Volatilized mercury released during the vitrification process was released to the proposed mercury collection system. The proposed mercury collection system consisted of quartz and silica tubing with a Na 2 S wash bottle followed by a NaOH wash bottle. Once in the system, the volatile mercury would pass through the wash bottle containing Na 2 S, where it would be converted to Hg 2 S, which is a stable form of mercury. However, attempts to capture the volatilized mercury in a Na 2 S solution wash bottle were not as successful as anticipated. Maximum mercury captured was only about 3.24% of the mercury contained in the feed. Mercury capture efforts then shifted to condensing and capturing the volatilized mercury. These attempts were much more successful at capturing the volatile mercury, with a capture efficiency of 34.24% when dry ice was used to pack the condenser. This captured mercury was treated on a mercury specific resin after digestion of the volatilized mercury

  11. Mercury Thermal Hydraulic Loop (MTHL) Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felde, David K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Crye, Jason Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wendel, Mark W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yoder, Jr, Graydon L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Farquharson, George [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jallouk, Philip A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McFee, Marshall T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pointer, William David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ruggles, Art E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Carbajo, Juan J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a high-power linear accelerator built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) which incorporates the use of a flowing liquid mercury target. The Mercury Thermal Hydraulic Loop (MTHL) was constructed to investigate and verify the heat transfer characteristics of liquid mercury in a rectangular channel. This report provides a compilation of previously reported results from the water-cooled and electrically heated straight and curved test sections that simulate the geometry of the window cooling channel in the target nose region.

  12. Mercury and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Risk of Exposure to Mercury Learn About Mercury What is Mercury What is Metallic mercury? Toxicological Profile ToxFAQs Mercury Resources CDC’s National Biomonitoring Program Factsheet on Mercury ...

  13. Occupational Exposure to Mercury among Workers in a Fluorescent Lamp Factory, Quisna Industrial Zone, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Al-Batanony

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the fast growth in the market of fluorescent lamps, particularly compact fluorescent light, the associated risk of mercury exposure, which is an essential component in all types of fluorescent lamps, has received increasing public attention worldwide. Even low doses of mercury are toxic. Objective: To study the health consequences of occupational exposure to mercury in workers of a fluorescent lamp factory. Methods: In a cross-sectional study 138 workers of a florescent lamp factory and 151 people who had no occupational exposure to mercury (the comparison group were studied. Environmental study of mercury and noise levels was done. For all participants a neurobehavioral test battery was administered, spirometry was performed and air conduction audiometry was done. Urinary mercury level was also measured for all participants. Results: Prominent symptoms among workers exposed to mercury included tremors, emotional lability, memory changes, neuromuscular changes, and performance deficits in tests of cognitive function. Among the exposed group, the mean urinary mercury level was significantly higher in those who had personality changes or had manifestations of mercury toxicity. With increasing duration of employment and urinary mercury level, the performance of participants in neurobehavioral test battery and spirometric parameters deteriorated. Conclusion: Neurobehavioral test battery must be used for studying subclinical central nervous system dysfunction in those with chronic exposure to mercury. The test is especially useful for evaluating the severity of mercury effects in epidemiological studies. This study also reinforces the need for effective preventive programs for florescent lamp industry workplaces especially in developing countries with the lowest unhygienic work conditions.

  14. Chronic psychological effects of exposure to mercury vapour among chlorine-alkali plant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranjić, N; Sinanović, O; Jakubović, R

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of nervous system function is essential in characterising the nature and extent of impairment in individuals experiencing symptoms following work-place mercury vapour exposure. The purpose of this study was the application of standardised tests of behavioural, psychomotor and memory function to understand the neuropsychological effects of mercury in occupationally exposed chlorine-alkali plant workers. The study comprised 45 workers at a chlorine-alkali plant with the mean age of 39.36 +/- 5.94 years, who had been exposed to daily inhalation of mercury vapour over long-term employment of 16.06 +/- 4.29 years. The cumulative mercury index was 155.32 +/- 95.02 micrograms/g creatinine, the mean of urinary mercury concentrations on the first day of the study was 119.50 +/- 157.24 micrograms/g creatinine, and the mean of urinary mercury concentrations 120 days after cessation of exposure was 21.70 +/- 26.07 micrograms/g creatinine. The analysis included tests of behavioural, psychomotor and memory function. The behavioural test battery consisted of: Environmental Worry Scale (EWS), Minnesota Modified Personal Inventory (MMPI-2), Purdue standard 25 minute test, and adapted, 10 minutes test, Bender's Visual-Motor Gestalt test (BGT), and Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPQ). The data were compared to a control group of 32 not directly exposed workers. In the mercury vapour exposed workers with relatively high level exposure to inorganic mercury vapour (TWA/TLV = 0.12 mg/m3/0.025 mg/m3) we identified somatic depression-hypochondria symptoms with higher scores for scales: hysteria (P introvert behaviour (EPQ, MMPI-2). The cognitive disturbances in mercury-exposed workers were identified as: concentration difficulty, psychomotor, perceptual and motor coordination disturbances, and brain effects. We identified fine tremor of the hands in 34 out of 45 mercury-exposed workers (BGT). The results point to a relationship between the duration of mercury

  15. Rethinking mercury: the role of selenium in the pathophysiology of mercury toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Henry A

    2018-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that the pathophysiological target of mercury is in fact selenium, rather than the covalent binding of mercury to sulfur in the body's ubiquitous sulfhydryl groups. The role of selenium in mercury poisoning is multifaceted, bidirectional, and central to understanding the target organ toxicity of mercury. An initial search was performed using Medline/PubMed, Toxline, Google Scholar, and Google for published work on mercury and selenium. These searches yielded 2018 citations. Publications that did not evaluate selenium status or evaluated environmental status (e.g., lake or ocean sediment) were excluded, leaving approximately 500 citations. This initial selection was scrutinized carefully and 117 of the most relevant and representative references were selected for use in this review. Binding of mercury to thiol/sulfhydryl groups: Mercury has a lower affinity for thiol groups and higher affinity for selenium containing groups by several orders of magnitude, allowing for binding in a multifaceted way. The established binding of mercury to thiol moieties appears to primarily involve the transport across membranes, tissue distribution, and enhanced excretion, but does not explain the oxidative stress, calcium dyshomeostasis, or specific organ injury seen with mercury. Effects of mercury on selenium and the role this plays in the pathophysiology of mercury toxicity: Mercury impairs control of intracellular redox homeostasis with subsequent increased intracellular oxidative stress. Recent work has provided convincing evidence that the primary cellular targets are the selenoproteins of the thioredoxin system (thioredoxin reductase 1 and thioredoxin reductase 2) and the glutathione-glutaredoxin system (glutathione peroxidase). Mercury binds to the selenium site on these proteins and permanently inhibits their function, disrupting the intracellular redox environment. A number of other important possible target selenoproteins have been identified

  16. Measurements of Mercury Released From Solidified/Stabilized Waste Forms-FY2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattus, C.H.

    2003-01-01

    This report covers work performed during FY 2002 in support of treatment demonstrations conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) Mercury Working Group. To comply with the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as implemented by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), DOE must use one of the following procedures for mixed low-level radioactive wastes containing mercury at levels above 260 ppm: a retorting/roasting treatment or (if the wastes also contain organics) an incineration treatment. The recovered radioactively contaminated mercury must then be treated by an amalgamation process prior to disposal. The DOE MWFA Mercury Working Group is working with EPA to determine whether some alternative processes could be used to treat these types of waste directly, thereby avoiding a costly recovery step for DOE. In previous years, demonstrations were performed in which commercial vendors applied their technologies for the treatment of radiologically contaminated elemental mercury as well as radiologically contaminated and mercury-contaminated waste soils from Brookhaven National Laboratory. The test results for mercury release in the headspace were reported in two reports, ''Measurements of Mercury Released from Amalgams and Sulfide Compounds'' (ORNL/TM-13728) and ''Measurements of Mercury Released from Solidified/Stabilized Waste Forms'' (ORNL/TM-2001/17). The current work did not use a real waste; a surrogate sludge had been prepared and used in the testing in an effort to understand the consequences of mercury speciation on mercury release

  17. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2002-01-01

    Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control, called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a utility power plant to prove scaleup and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. This project, if successful, will demonstrate at the pilot-scale level a technology that would provide a cost-effective technique to accomplish control of mercury emissions and, at the same time, greatly enhance fine particulate collection efficiency. The technology can be used to retrofit systems currently employing inefficient ESP technology as well as for new construction, thereby providing a solution to a large segment of the U.S. utility industry as well as other industries requiring mercury control

  18. Mercury Quick Facts: Health Effects of Mercury Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2012 What are the Health Effects of Mercury Exposure? The health effects that can be caused by breathing mercury depend ... they breathe faster and have smaller lungs. Health effects caused by long-term exposure to mercury vapors • • Anxiety • • Excessive shyness • • Anorexia • • Sleeping ...

  19. STABILIZATION AND TESTING OF MERCURY CONTAINING WASTES: BORDEN SLUDGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report details the stability assessment of a mercury containing sulfide treatment sludge. Information contained in this report will consist of background data submitted by the geneerator, landfill data supplied by EPA and characterization and leaching studies conducted by UC...

  20. Mercury balance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maag, J.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed assessment of the consumption of mercury, divided into use areas, was carried out. Disposal and emissions to the environment were also qualified. The assessment is mainly based on data from 1992 - 1993. The most important source of emission of mercury to air is solid waste incineration which is assessed in particular to be due to the supply of mercury in batteries (most likely mercury oxide batteries from photo equipment) and to dental fillings. The second most important source of mercury emission to air is coal-fired power plants which are estimated to account for 200-500 kg of mercury emission p.a. Other mercury emissions are mainly related to waste treatment and disposal. The consumption of mercury is generally decreasing. During the period from 1982/83 - 1992-93, the total consumption of mercury in Denmark was about halved. This development is related to the fact that consumption with regard to several important use areas (batteries, dental fillings, thermometers etc.) has been significantly reduced, while for other purposes the use of mercury has completely, or almost disappeared, i.e. (fungicides for seed, tubes etc.). (EG)

  1. Mercury exposure may influence fluctuating asymmetry in waterbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2017-01-01

    Variation in avian bilateral symmetry can be an indicator of developmental instability in response to a variety of stressors, including environmental contaminants. The authors used composite measures of fluctuating asymmetry to examine the influence of mercury concentrations in 2 tissues on fluctuating asymmetry within 4 waterbird species. Fluctuating asymmetry increased with mercury concentrations in whole blood and breast feathers of Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri), a species with elevated mercury concentrations. Specifically, fluctuating asymmetry in rectrix feather 1 was the most strongly correlated structural variable of those tested (wing chord, tarsus, primary feather 10, rectrix feather 6) with mercury concentrations in Forster's terns. However, for American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia), the authors found no relationship between fluctuating asymmetry and either whole-blood or breast feather mercury concentrations, even though these species had moderate to elevated mercury exposure. The results indicate that mercury contamination may act as an environmental stressor during development and feather growth and contribute to fluctuating asymmetry of some species of highly contaminated waterbirds.

  2. Mercury Phase II Study - Mercury Behavior in Salt Processing Flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, V.; Shah, H.; Wilmarth, W. R.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) in the Savannah River Site Liquid Waste System (LWS) originated from decades of canyon processing where it was used as a catalyst for dissolving the aluminum cladding of reactor fuel. Approximately 60 metric tons of mercury is currently present throughout the LWS. Mercury has long been a consideration in the LWS, from both hazard and processing perspectives. In February 2015, a Mercury Program Team was established at the request of the Department of Energy to develop a comprehensive action plan for long-term management and removal of mercury. Evaluation was focused in two Phases. Phase I activities assessed the Liquid Waste inventory and chemical processing behavior using a system-by-system review methodology, and determined the speciation of the different mercury forms (Hg+, Hg++, elemental Hg, organomercury, and soluble versus insoluble mercury) within the LWS. Phase II activities are building on the Phase I activities, and results of the LWS flowsheet evaluations will be summarized in three reports: Mercury Behavior in the Salt Processing Flowsheet (i.e. this report); Mercury Behavior in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Flowsheet; and Mercury behavior in the Tank Farm Flowsheet (Evaporator Operations). The evaluation of the mercury behavior in the salt processing flowsheet indicates, inter alia, the following: (1) In the assembled Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 in Tank 21, the total mercury is mostly soluble with methylmercury (MHg) contributing over 50% of the total mercury. Based on the analyses of samples from 2H Evaporator feed and drop tanks (Tanks 38/43), the source of MHg in Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 can be attributed to the 2H evaporator concentrate used in assembling the salt batches. The 2H Evaporator is used to evaporate DWPF recycle water. (2) Comparison of data between Tank 21/49, Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), and Tank 50 samples suggests that the total mercury as well as speciated

  3. Feather growth influences blood mercury level of young songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Anne M; Cristol, Daniel A

    2009-02-01

    Dynamics of mercury in feathers and blood of free-living songbirds is poorly understood. Nestling eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) living along the mercury-contaminated South River (Virginia, USA) had blood mercury levels an order of magnitude lower than their parents (nestling: 0.09 +/- 0.06 mg/kg [mean +/- standard deviation], n = 156; adult: 1.21 +/- 0.57 mg/kg, n = 86). To test whether this low blood mercury was the result of mercury sequestration in rapidly growing feathers, we repeatedly sampled free-living juveniles throughout the period of feather growth and molt. Mean blood mercury concentrations increased to 0.52 +/- 0.36 mg/kg (n = 44) after the completion of feather growth. Some individuals had reached adult blood mercury levels within three months of leaving the nest, but levels dropped to 0.20 +/- 0.09 mg/kg (n = 11) once the autumn molt had begun. Most studies of mercury contamination in juvenile birds have focused on recently hatched young with thousands of rapidly growing feathers. However, the highest risk period for mercury intoxication in young birds may be during the vulnerable period after fledging, when feathers no longer serve as a buffer against dietary mercury. We found that nestling blood mercury levels were not indicative of the extent of contamination because a large portion of the ingested mercury ended up in feathers. The present study demonstrates unequivocally that in songbirds blood mercury level is influenced strongly by the growth and molt of feathers.

  4. Five Hundred Years of Mercury Exposure and Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Guido; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Qualls, Clifford; Socola, Francisco; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi; Appenzeller, Otto

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is added to the biosphere by anthropogenic activities raising the question of whether changes in the human chromatin, induced by mercury, in a parental generation could allow adaptation of their descendants to mercury. We review the history of Andean mining since pre-Hispanic times in Huancavelica, Peru. Despite the persistent degradation of the biosphere today, no overt signs of mercury toxicity could be discerned in present day inhabitants. However, mercury is especially toxic to the autonomic nervous system (ANS). We, therefore, tested ANS function and biologic rhythms, under the control of the ANS, in 5 Huancavelicans and examined the metal content in their hair. Mercury levels varied from none to 1.014 ppm, significantly less than accepted standards. This was confirmed by microfocused synchrotron X-ray fluorescence analysis. Biologic rhythms were abnormal and hair growth rate per year, also under ANS control, was reduced (P Peru. This would generally benefit survival in the Anthropocene, the man-made world, we now live in. PMID:22910643

  5. Amended Silicated for Mercury Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Butz; Thomas Broderick; Craig Turchi

    2006-12-31

    Amended Silicates{trademark}, a powdered, noncarbon mercury-control sorbent, was tested at Duke Energy's Miami Fort Station, Unit 6 during the first quarter of 2006. Unit 6 is a 175-MW boiler with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The plant burns run-of-the-river eastern bituminous coal with typical ash contents ranging from 8-15% and sulfur contents from 1.6-2.6% on an as-received basis. The performance of the Amended Silicates sorbent was compared with that for powdered activated carbon (PAC). The trial began with a period of baseline monitoring during which no sorbent was injected. Sampling during this and subsequent periods indicated mercury capture by the native fly ash was less than 10%. After the baseline period, Amended Silicates sorbent was injected at several different ratios, followed by a 30-day trial at a fixed injection ratio of 5-6 lb/MMACF. After this period, PAC was injected to provide a comparison. Approximately 40% mercury control was achieved for both the Amended Silicates sorbent and PAC at injection ratios of 5-6 lbs/MMACF. Higher injection ratios did not achieve significantly increased removal. Similar removal efficiencies have been reported for PAC injection trials at other plants with cold-side ESPs, most notably for plants using medium to high sulfur coal. Sorbent injection did not detrimentally impact plant operations and testing confirmed that the use of Amended Silicates sorbent does not degrade fly ash quality (unlike PAC). The cost for mercury control using either PAC or Amended Silicates sorbent was estimated to be equivalent if fly ash sales are not a consideration. However, if the plant did sell fly ash, the effective cost for mercury control could more than double if those sales were no longer possible, due to lost by-product sales and additional cost for waste disposal. Accordingly, the use of Amended Silicates sorbent could reduce the overall cost of mercury control by 50% or more versus PAC for locations where

  6. Distribution and retention of organic and inorganic mercury in methyl mercury-treated neonatal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.J.; Fisher, H.L.; Sumler, M.R.; Hall, L.L.; Mushak, P.

    1988-01-01

    Seven-day-old Long Evans rats received one mumol of 203 Hg-labeled methyl mercury/kg sc and whole body retention and tissue distribution of organic and inorganic mercury were examined for 32 days postdosing. Neonates cleared mercury slowly until 10 days postdosing when the clearance rate abruptly increased. During the interval when whole body clearance of mercury was extremely slow, methyl mercury was metabolized to inorganic mercury. Peak concentration of mercury in kidney occurred at 2 days postdosing. At 32 days postdosing, 8% of mercury in kidney was in an organic from. Liver mercury concentration peaked at 2 days postdosing and organic mercury accounted for 38% at 32 days postdosing. Brain concentrations of mercury peaked at 2 days postdosing. At 10 days postdosing, organic mercury accounted for 86% of the brain mercury burden, and, at 32 days postdosing, for 60%. The percentage of mercury body burden in pelt rose from 30 to 70% between 1 and 10 days postdosing. At 32 days postdosing pelt contained 85% of the body burden of mercury. At all time points, about 95% of mercury in pelt was in an organic form. Compartmental analysis of these data permitted development of a model to describe the distribution and excretion of organic and inorganic mercury in methyl mercury-treated neonatal rats

  7. Prevalence of Germline Mutations in Genes Engaged in DNA Damage Repair by Homologous Recombination in Patients with Triple-Negative and Hereditary Non-Triple-Negative Breast Cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Domagala

    Full Text Available This study sought to assess the prevalence of common germline mutations in several genes engaged in the repair of DNA double-strand break by homologous recombination in patients with triple-negative breast cancers and hereditary non-triple-negative breast cancers. Tumors deficient in this type of DNA damage repair are known to be especially sensitive to DNA cross-linking agents (e.g., platinum drugs and to poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors.Genetic testing was performed for 36 common germline mutations in genes engaged in the repair of DNA by homologous recombination, i.e., BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, NBN, ATM, PALB2, BARD1, and RAD51D, in 202 consecutive patients with triple-negative breast cancers and hereditary non-triple-negative breast cancers.Thirty five (22.2% of 158 patients in the triple-negative group carried mutations in genes involved in DNA repair by homologous recombination, while 10 (22.7% of the 44 patients in the hereditary non-triple-negative group carried such mutations. Mutations in BRCA1 were most frequent in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (18.4%, and mutations in CHEK2 were most frequent in patients with hereditary non-triple-negative breast cancers (15.9%. In addition, in the triple-negative group, mutations in CHEK2, NBN, and ATM (3.8% combined were found, while mutations in BRCA1, NBN, and PALB2 (6.8% combined were identified in the hereditary non-triple-negative group.Identifying mutations in genes engaged in DNA damage repair by homologous recombination other than BRCA1/2 can substantially increase the proportion of patients with triple-negative breast cancer and hereditary non-triple-negative breast cancer who may be eligible for therapy using PARP inhibitors and platinum drugs.

  8. BEHAVIOR OF MERCURY DURING DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J.; Koopman, D.

    2012-04-09

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility has experienced significant issues with the stripping and recovery of mercury in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The stripping rate has been inconsistent, often resulting in extended processing times to remove mercury to the required endpoint concentration. The recovery of mercury in the Mercury Water Wash Tank has never been high, and has decreased significantly since the Mercury Water Wash Tank was replaced after the seventh batch of Sludge Batch 5. Since this time, essentially no recovery of mercury has been seen. Pertinent literature was reviewed, previous lab-scale data on mercury stripping and recovery was examined, and new lab-scale CPC Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) runs were conducted. For previous lab-scale data, many of the runs with sufficient mercury recovery data were examined to determine what factors affect the stripping and recovery of mercury and to improve closure of the mercury material balance. Ten new lab-scale SRAT runs (HG runs) were performed to examine the effects of acid stoichiometry, sludge solids concentration, antifoam concentration, form of mercury added to simulant, presence of a SRAT heel, operation of the SRAT condenser at higher than prototypic temperature, varying noble metals from none to very high concentrations, and higher agitation rate. Data from simulant runs from SB6, SB7a, glycolic/formic, and the HG tests showed that a significant amount of Hg metal was found on the vessel bottom at the end of tests. Material balance closure improved from 12-71% to 48-93% when this segregated Hg was considered. The amount of Hg segregated as elemental Hg on the vessel bottom was 4-77% of the amount added. The highest recovery of mercury in the offgas system generally correlated with the highest retention of Hg in the slurry. Low retention in the slurry (high segregation on the vessel bottom) resulted in low recovery in the offgas system. High agitation rates appear to result in lower

  9. Compact, passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for the MESSENGER mission to Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Danny J; Novo-Gradac, Anne-Marie; Li, Steven X; Lindauer, Steven J; Afzal, Robert S; Yu, Anthony W

    2005-03-20

    A compact, passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser has been developed for the Mercury Laser Altimeter, an instrument on the Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry, and Ranging mission to the planet Mercury. The laser achieves 5.4% efficiency with a near-diffraction-limited beam. It passed all space-flight environmental tests at subsystem, instrument, and satellite integration testing and successfully completes a postlaunch aliveness check en route to Mercury. The laser design draws on a heritage of previous laser altimetry missions, specifically the Ice Cloud and Elevation Satellite and the Mars Global Surveyor, but incorporates thermal management features unique to the requirements of an orbit of the planet Mercury.

  10. Mercury Induced Biochemical Alterations As Oxidative Stress In Mugil Cephalus In Short Term Toxicity Test

    OpenAIRE

    J.S.I Rajkumar; Samuel Tennyson

    2013-01-01

    Mugil cephalus juveniles of size 2.5 ±0.6cm were exposed to mercury in short term chronic toxicity test through static renewal bioassay to detect the possible biochemical agent as biomarkers in aquatic pollution and in estuarine contamination as specific. Lipid peroxidation levels, glutathione S -transferase, catalase, reduced glutathione and acetylcholinesterase were studied as biochemical parameters. Increased thio-barbituric acid reactive substances levels were observed under exposur...

  11. A downstream voyage with mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Retrospective essay for the Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology.As I look back on my paper, “Effects of Low Dietary Levels of Methyl Mercury on Mallard Reproduction,” published in 1974 in the Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, a thought sticks in my mind. I realize just how much my mercury research was not unlike a leaf in a stream, carried this way and that, sometimes stalled in an eddy, restarted, and carried downstream at a pace and path that was not completely under my control. I was hired in 1969 by the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center to study the effects of environmental pollutants on the behavior of wildlife. A colleague was conducting a study on the reproductive effects of methylmercury on mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and he offered to give me some of the ducklings. I conducted a pilot study, testing how readily ducklings approached a tape-recorded maternal call. Sample sizes were small, but the results suggested that ducklings from mercury-treated parents behaved differently than controls. That’s how I got into mercury research—pretty much by chance.

  12. Evaluation of potential for mercury volatilization from natural and FGD gypsum products using flux-chamber tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, Scott S; Noggle, Jessica J; Bloom, Nicholas; Yost, Lisa J

    2009-04-01

    Synthetic gypsum produced by flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) in coal-fired power plants (FGD gypsum) is put to productive use in manufacturing wallboard. FGD gypsum wallboard is widely used, accounting for nearly 30% of wallboard sold in the United States. Mercury is captured in flue gas and thus is one of the trace metals present in FGD gypsum; raising questions about the potential for mercury exposure from wallboard. Mercury is also one of the trace metals present in "natural" mined gypsum used to make wall board. Data available in the literature were not adequate to assess whether mercury in wallboard from either FGD or natural gypsum could volatilize into indoor air. In this study, mercury volatilization was evaluated using small-scale (5 L) glass and Teflon flux chambers, with samples collected using both iodated carbon and gold-coated sand traps. Mercury flux measurements made using iodated carbon traps (n=6) were below the detection limit of 11.5 ng/m2-day for all natural and synthetic gypsum wallboard samples. Mercury flux measurements made using gold-coated sand traps (n=6) were 0.92 +/- 0.11 ng/m2-day for natural gypsum wallboard and 5.9 +/- 2.4 ng/m2-day for synthetic gypsum wallboard. Room air mercury concentrations between 0.028 and 0.28 ng/m3 and between 0.13 and 2.2 ng/m3 were estimated based on the flux-rate data for natural and synthetic gypsum wallboard samples, respectively, and were calculated assuming a 3 m x 4 m x 5 m room, and 10th and 90th percentile air exchange rates of 0.18/hour and 1.26/hour. The resulting concentration estimates are well below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reference concentration for indoor air elemental mercury of 300 ng/m3 and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry minimal risk level (MRL) of 200 ng/m3. Further, these estimates are below background mercury concentrations in indoor air and within or below the range of typical background mercury concentrations in outdoor air.

  13. Article Commentary: Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role of chelating agents against mercury poisoning, which provides a promising research direction for broader application of chelation therapy in prevention and treatment of mercury poisoning.

  14. Advanced Gasification Mercury/Trace Metal Control with Monolith Traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musich, Mark; Swanson, Michael; Dunham, Grant; Stanislowski, Joshua

    2010-10-05

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400°F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m{sup 3} (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m{sup 3} (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400°F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most

  15. ADVANCED GASIFICATION MERCURY/TRACE METAL CONTROL WITH MONOLITH TRAPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark A. Musich; Michael L. Swanson; Grant E. Dunham; Joshua J. Stanislowski

    2010-07-31

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400°F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m3 (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m3 (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400°F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most effective arsine

  16. Method for removal and stabilization of mercury in mercury-containing gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Thomas E.

    2005-09-13

    The present invention is directed to a process and apparatus for removing and stabilizing mercury from mercury-containing gas streams. A gas stream containing vapor phase elemental and/or speciated mercury is contacted with reagent, such as an oxygen-containing oxidant, in a liquid environment to form a mercury-containing precipitate. The mercury-containing precipitate is kept or placed in solution and reacts with one or more additional reagents to form a solid, stable mercury-containing compound.

  17. Monitoring and assessment of mercury pollution in the vicinity of a chloralkali plant. III. Concentration and genotoxicity of mercury in the industrial effluent and contaminated water of Rushikulya estuary, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, K K; Lenka, M; Panda, B B

    1992-01-01

    Aquatic mercury pollution of the Rushikulya estuary in the vicinity of the chloralkali plant at Ganjam, India was monitored over a period from October 1987 to May 1989. The concentrations of aquatic mercury in the water samples taken from the effluent channel and from different sites along the course of the estuary covering a distance of 2 km were periodically recorded and ranged from 0 to 0.5 mg/l. The bioconcentration and genotoxicity of aquatic mercury in the samples were assessed by the Allium micronucleus (MNC) assay. The frequency of cells with MNC was highly correlated not only with bioconcentrated mercury (root mercury) but also with the levels of aquatic mercury. The threshold assessment values such as effective concentration fifty (EC50) for root growth, lowest effective concentration tested (LECT), and highest ineffective concentration tested (HICT) for induction of MNC in Allium MNC assay for the present aquatic industrial mercury were determined to be 0.14, 0.06 and 0.02 mg/l, respectively.

  18. Use of implantable pellets to administer low levels of methyl mercury to fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, B.S.; Jagoe, C.H.; Gross, T.S.

    1999-07-01

    Implantable pellets of methyl mercury chloride were tested in Nile Tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) to appraise the effectiveness of the method for chronic studies of mercury. Two dosing regimes of 15 and 1.5 grams/CH{sub 3}HgCl pellet (test 1) and 1 and 0.1 grams/pellet (tests 2--3) of methyl mercury chloride were used in three tests. Additional pellets containing only matrix were used as controls. The pellets were inserted into the peritoneal cavity along with a microchip for identification. Three methods of incision closure: sutures and two types of surgical glue, were tested. Pellets used in test one released the dose too fast, resulting in premature death of the fish. Results from tests 2 and 3 show blood mercury concentrations over time and tissue levels at necropsy consistent with dose suggestion that this is a viable method of dosing fish.

  19. Mercury-impacted scrap metal: Source and nature of the mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Molly E; Raymond, Michelle R; Scofield, Marcienne A; Smith, Karen P

    2015-09-15

    The reuse and recycling of industrial solid wastes such as scrap metal is supported and encouraged both internationally and domestically, especially when such wastes can be used as substitutes for raw material. However, scrap metal processing facilities, such as mini-mills, have been identified as a source of mercury (Hg) emissions in the United States. This research aims to better define some of the key issues related to the source and nature of mercury in the scrap metal waste stream. Overall, it is difficult to pinpoint the key mercury sources feeding into scrap metal recycling facilities, quantify their associated mercury concentrations, or determine which chemical forms are most significant. Potential sources of mercury in scrap metal include mercury switches from discarded vehicles, electronic-based scrap from household appliances and related industrial systems, and Hg-impacted scrap metal from the oil and gas industry. The form of mercury associated with scrap metal varies and depends on the source type. The specific amount of mercury that can be adsorbed and retained by steel appears to be a function of both metallurgical and environmental factors. In general, the longer the steel is in contact with a fluid or condensate that contains measurable concentrations of elemental mercury, the greater the potential for mercury accumulation in that steel. Most mercury compounds are thermally unstable at elevated temperatures (i.e., above 350 °C). As such, the mercury associated with impacted scrap is expected to be volatilized out of the metal when it is heated during processing (e.g., shredding or torch cutting) or melted in a furnace. This release of fugitive gas (Hg vapor) and particulates, as well as Hg-impacted bag-house dust and control filters, could potentially pose an occupational exposure risk to workers at a scrap metal processing facility. Thus, identifying and characterizing the key sources of Hg-impacted scrap, and understanding the nature and extent

  20. Remediation aspect of microbial changes of plant rhizosphere in mercury contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sas-Nowosielska, Aleksandra; Galimska-Stypa, Regina; Kucharski, Rafał; Zielonka, Urszula; Małkowski, Eugeniusz; Gray, Laymon

    2008-02-01

    Phytoremediation, an approach that uses plants to remediate contaminated soil through degradation, stabilization or accumulation, may provide an efficient solution to some mercury contamination problems. This paper presents growth chamber experiments that tested the ability of plant species to stabilize mercury in soil. Several indigenous herbaceous species and Salix viminalis were grown in soil collected from a mercury-contaminated site in southern Poland. The uptake and distribution of mercury by these plants were investigated, and the growth and vitality of the plants through a part of one vegetative cycle were assessed. The highest concentrations of mercury were found at the roots, but translocation to the aerial part also occurred. Most of the plant species tested displayed good growth on mercury contaminated soil and sustained a rich microbial population in the rhizosphere. The microbial populations of root-free soil and rhizosphere soil from all species were also examined. An inverse correlation between the number of sulfur amino acid decomposing bacteria and root mercury content was observed. These results indicate the potential for using some species of plants to treat mercury contaminated soil through stabilization rather than extraction. The present investigation proposes a practical cost-effective temporary solution for phytostabilization of soil with moderate mercury contamination as well as the basis for plant selection.

  1. Mercury contamination extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Mark [Silver Spring, MD; Heiser, John [Bayport, NY; Kalb, Paul [Wading River, NY

    2009-09-15

    Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

  2. Global Trends in Mercury Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyunghee

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Environmental Program Governing Council has regulated mercury as a global pollutant since 2001 and has been preparing the mercury convention, which will have a strongly binding force through Global Mercury Assessment, Global Mercury Partnership Activities, and establishment of the Open-Ended Working Group on Mercury. The European Union maintains an inclusive strategy on risks and contamination of mercury, and has executed the Mercury Export Ban Act since December in 2010. The US Environmental Protection Agency established the Mercury Action Plan (1998) and the Mercury Roadmap (2006) and has proposed systematic mercury management methods to reduce the health risks posed by mercury exposure. Japan, which experienced Minamata disease, aims vigorously at perfection in mercury management in several ways. In Korea, the Ministry of Environment established the Comprehensive Plan and Countermeasures for Mercury Management to prepare for the mercury convention and to reduce risks of mercury to protect public health. PMID:23230466

  3. The Content of Mercury in Herbal Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodziak-Dopierała, Barbara; Fischer, Agnieszka; Szczelina, Wioletta; Stojko, Jerzy

    2018-01-17

    The dietary supplement market in Poland has been growing rapidly, and the number of registered products and their consumption increases steadily. Among the most popular and the easiest to get are herbal supplements, available in any supermarket. The aim of this paper was to investigate the mercury content in the herbal supplements. The dietary supplements that have been examined (24) are available on the Polish market and contain one or more herbal ingredients. Supplements were pulverized in porcelain mortar and identified by AMA 254 atomic absorption spectrometer. The range of variations for all tested supplements was within 0.02-4293.07 μg/kg. The arithmetic mean of the total result was 193.77 μg/kg. A higher mercury content then this mean was found in preparations-bamboo shoots and alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa. The studies have shown that mercury is present in every examined herbal supplement, and its content exceeds in two preparations (with bamboo and alga) the permissible limit of 0.10 mg/kg. There were statistically significant differences in the occurrence of mercury depending on the herbal ingredient in the supplement. The lowest content was found in the preparation with Tanacetum parthenium and the highest with bamboo shoots. The mercury content in the tested herbal supplements was statistically significant in the form of a supplement-a tablet and a capsule. Daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly consumption of mercury with examined supplements was calculated-the results did not exceed the PTWI-provisional tolerable weekly intake of mercury. To increase consumer safety, it is imperative to conduct further research on dietary supplements and implement a stricter quality control of the dietary supplements.

  4. Release of mercury halides from KCl denuders in the presence of ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Lyman

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available KCl-coated denuders have become a standard method for measurement of gaseous oxidized mercury, but their performance has not been exhaustively evaluated, especially in field conditions. In this study, KCl-coated and uncoated quartz denuders loaded with HgCl2 and HgBr2 lost 29–55% of these compounds, apparently as elemental mercury, when exposed to ozone (range of 6–100 ppb tested. This effect was also observed for denuders loaded with gaseous oxidized mercury at a field site in Nevada (3–37% of oxidized mercury lost. In addition, collection efficiency decreased by 12–30% for denuders exposed to 50 ppb ozone during collection of HgCl2. While data presented were obtained from laboratory tests and as such do not exactly simulate field sampling conditions, these results indicate that the KCl denuder oxidized mercury collection method may not be as robust as previously thought. This work highlights needs for further testing of this method, clear identification of gaseous oxidized mercury compounds in the atmosphere, and development of field calibration methods for these compounds.

  5. Design study on large-scale mercury loop for engineering test of target of high-intensity proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Ryutaro; Haga, Katsuhiro; Aita, Hideki; Sekita, Kenji; Sudo, Yukio; Koiso, Kohji; Kaminaga, Masanori; Takahashi, Hiromichi.

    1997-03-01

    A heavy liquid-metal target has been proposed as a representative target of a 5MW-scale neutron source for a neutron scattering facility coupled with a high-intensity proton accelerator. In the report, about mercury considered to be the best material of the heavy liquid-metal target, its properties needed for the design were formulated, and results of research on mercury treatment and of evaluation of heat removal performance on the basis of generating heat obtained by a numerical calculation of a spallation reaction were presented. From these results, a 1.5MW-scale mercury loop which equals to that for the first stage operation of the neutron science program of JAERI was designed conceptually for obtaining design data of the mercury target, and basic flow diagram of the loop and specifications of components were decided: diameter of pipelines flowing mercury at the velocity below 1m/s, power of an electro-magnet pump and structure of a cooler. Through the design, engineering problems were made clear such as selection and development of mercury-resistant materials and optimization of the loop and components for decreasing mercury inventory. (author)

  6. Testing the strong equivalence principle with the triple pulsar PSR J 0337 +1715

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Lijing

    2016-04-01

    Three conceptually different masses appear in equations of motion for objects under gravity, namely, the inertial mass, mI , the passive gravitational mass, mP, and the active gravitational mass, mA. It is assumed that, for any objects, mI=mP=mA in the Newtonian gravity, and mI=mP in the Einsteinian gravity, oblivious to objects' sophisticated internal structure. Empirical examination of the equivalence probes deep into gravity theories. We study the possibility of carrying out new tests based on pulsar timing of the stellar triple system, PSR J 0337 +1715 . Various machine-precision three-body simulations are performed, from which, the equivalence-violating parameters are extracted with Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling that takes full correlations into account. We show that the difference in masses could be probed to 3 ×1 0-8 , improving the current constraints from lunar laser ranging on the post-Newtonian parameters that govern violations of mP=mI and mA=mP by thousands and millions, respectively. The test of mP=mA would represent the first test of Newton's third law with compact objects.

  7. Mercurial poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorton, B

    1924-01-01

    Cats which had been kept in a thermometer factory to catch rats were afflicted with mercury poisoning. So were the rats they were supposed to eat. The symptoms of mercury poisoning were the same in both species. The source of mercury for these animals is a fine film of the metal which coats floors, a result of accidental spills during the manufacturing process.

  8. Use of continuous mercury monitors at coal-fired utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudal, Dennis L.; Thompson, Jeffrey S.; Pavlish, John H. [Energy and Environmental Research Center, PO Box 9018, Grand Forks, ND 58202-9018 (United States); Brickett, Lynn A. [U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, PO Box 10940 MS 922-273C, Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 (United States); Chu, Paul [EPRI, 3412 Hillview Avenue, PO Box 10412, Palo Alto, CA 94303 (United States)

    2004-06-15

    In December 2000, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a notice of its determination that regulation of coal-fired utilities for mercury is appropriate and necessary as part of the hazardous air pollutant emission regulation for electric utility steam-generating units. To aid in the determination of mercury emissions from these sources, on-line mercury semicontinuous emission monitors (Hg SCEMs) have been developed and tested in recent years. Although Hg SCEMs have shown promise during these previous tests, rigorous field or long-term testing has not been done. In the past year, commercially available and prototype Hg SCEMs have been used by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and others at several power plants. As part of the EERC work, Hg SCEMs were operated at a range of conditions and locations. In addition, the Hg SCEMs were operated for up to 1 month. The use of Hg SCEMs at these plants allowed for near-real-time data to be collected under changing plant conditions, as well as during normal ranges of operating conditions. Mercury emission data were obtained from different plants with different configurations. The plant configurations incorporated various pollution control technologies, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR), selective noncatalytic reduction, ammonium sulfate injection for flue gas conditioning, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The particulate control devices included electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), a fabric filter (FF), and a venturi scrubber. The testing at these sites included the operation of Hg SCEMs before and after particulate control devices, in wet and dry stack conditions, and at high temperatures (343 C). The results from these field measurements have provided data that have been evaluated to determine the reliability, variability, biases, and overall capability of Hg SCEMs for monitoring mercury at coal-fired utilities. Even under the best conditions, operation of Hg SCEMs is by no

  9. Selective partitioning of mercury from co-extracted actinides in a simulated acidic ICPP waste stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, K.N.; Herbst, R.S.; Tranter, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    The TRUEX process is being evaluated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) as a means to partition the actinides from acidic sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The mercury content of this waste averages 1 g/l. Because the chemistry of mercury has not been extensively evaluated in the TRUEX process, mercury was singled out as an element of interest. Radioactive mercury, 203 Hg, was spiked into a simulated solution of SBW containing 1 g/l mercury. Successive extraction batch contacts with the mercury spiked waste simulant and successive scrubbing and stripping batch contacts of the mercury loaded TRUEX solvent (0.2 M CMPO-1.4 M TBP in dodecane) show that mercury will extract into and strip from the solvent. The extraction distribution coefficient for mercury, as HgCl 2 from SBW having a nitric acid concentration of 1.4 M and a chloride concentration of 0.035 M was found to be 3. The stripping distribution coefficient was found to be 0.5 with 5 M HNO 3 and 0.077 with 0.25 M Na 2 CO 3 . An experimental flowsheet was designed from the batch contact tests and tested counter-currently using 5.5 cm centrifugal contactors. Results from the counter-current test show that mercury can be removed from the acidic mixed SBW simulant and recovered separately from the actinides

  10. Bromine based mercury abatement in waste and coal combustion. Mercury retention in the catalyst bed of a tail-end-SCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vosteen, Bernhard W. [Vosteen Consulting GmbH, Koeln (Germany); Kanefke, Rico; Beyer, Joachim; Bonkhofer, Theodor Gerhard [CURRENTA GmbH und Co. OHG, Leverkusen (Germany); Ullrich, Rick [WastePro Engineering Inc., Kennett Square, PA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Observations and testing at a CURRENTA waste incineration plant and several coal fired power plants has derived the following aspects of mercury behavior in the plant's waste heat boiler and its gas cleaning train: - Hg{sub met} is oxidized to Hg{sub ion} most readily by bromine, and also by chlorine, - sulfur (SO{sub 2}) inhibit the Hg{sub met} chlorination but not the Hg{sub met} bromination, - Hg{sub met} passes through scrubbers and is adsorbed onto the catalyst bed of a tail-end SCR, slowly oxidized and finally elutes off as Hg{sub ion}, - sulfur (SO{sub 2}) impacts the reduction of molecular halogens in different ways; SO{sub 2} reduces Cl{sub 2} at elevated temperatures (boiler range), but reduces Br{sub 2} only at low temperatures (scrubber range) The operational tests and studies performed in the spring and summer of 2000 at this plant led to some specific knowledge about Hg{sub met} adsorption and also Hg{sub ion} desorption at the catalyst bed of a tail-end SCR. This knowledge, which was at that time in many respects novel, has provided more insight into the mercury oxidation behaviour. Today, process options derived from this knowledge could be implemented in hazardous waste incineration plants and also municipal solid waste incineration plants, to achieve complete mercury halogenation in the boiler flue gas, ahead of the scrubber system, at any time. This might prevent penetration of metallic mercury to the tail-end SCR and avoid the corresponding long time mercury elution. For effective prevention to be achieved in practice, it is strongly recommended to also install a continuously measuring (possibly uncalibrated) AAS mercury monitor for immediate detection of any unexpected Hg{sub met} breakthrough, for example caused by ''hidden mercury'' in the waste feed, and to initiate the rapid (preferably automized) injection of some bromine compound before even more mercury is transferred into the tail-end SCR, stored there as Hg

  11. Atmospheric mercury in Changbai Mountain area, northeastern China II. The distribution of reactive gaseous mercury and particulate mercury and mercury deposition fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Qi; Feng, Xinbin; Lu, Julia; Zheng, Wei; Song, Xinjie; Li, Ping; Han, Shijie; Xu, Hao

    2009-08-01

    Reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particulate mercury (Hgp) concentrations in ambient air from a remote site at Changbai Mountain area in northeastern China were intermittently monitored from August 2005 to July 2006 totaling 93 days representing fall, winter-spring and summer season, respectively. Rainwater and snow samples were collected during a whole year, and total mercury (THg) in rain samples were used to calculate wet depositional flux. A throughfall method and a model method were used to estimate dry depositional flux. Results showed mean concentrations of RGM and Hgp are 65 and 77 pg m(-3). Compared to background concentrations of atmospheric mercury species in Northern Hemisphere, RGM and Hgp are significantly elevated in Changbai area. Large values for standard deviation indicated fast reactivity and a low residence time for these mercury species. Seasonal variability is also important, with lower mercury levels in summer compared to other seasons, which is attributed to scavenging by rainfall and low local mercury emissions in summer. THg concentrations ranged from 11.5 to 15.9 ng L(-1) in rainwater samples and 14.9-18.6 ng L(-1) in throughfall samples. Wet depositional flux in Changbai area is calculated to be 8.4 microg m(-2) a(-1), and dry deposition flux is estimated to be 16.5 microg m(-2) a(-1) according to a throughfall method and 20.2 microg m(-2) a(-1) using a model method.

  12. Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. A. Withum; S. C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

    2006-01-31

    {sub 2} emissions, respectively. Four sampling tests were performed in August 2004 during ozone season with the SCR operating; flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the SCR inlet, SCR outlet, air heater outlet (ESP inlet), ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Three sampling tests were also performed in November 2004 during non-ozone season with the SCR bypassed; flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet). Process samples for material balances were collected during the flue gas measurements. The results show that, at the point where the flue gas enters the FGD, a greater percentage of the mercury was in the oxidized form when the SCR was operating compared to when the SCR was bypassed (97% vs 91%). This higher level of oxidation resulted in higher mercury removals in the FGD because the FGD removed 90-94% of the oxidized mercury in both cases. Total coal-to-stack mercury removal was 86% with the SCR operating, and 73% with the SCR bypassed. The average mercury mass balance closure was 81% during the ozone season tests and 87% during the non-ozone season tests.

  13. Mercury accumulation plant Cyrtomium macrophyllum and its potential for phytoremediation of mercury polluted sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Yu; Feng, Liu; Li, Youdan; Dong, Haochen

    2017-12-01

    Cyrtomium macrophyllum naturally grown in 225.73 mg kg -1 of soil mercury in mining area was found to be a potential mercury accumulator plant with the translocation factor of 2.62 and the high mercury concentration of 36.44 mg kg -1 accumulated in its aerial parts. Pot experiments indicated that Cyrtomium macrophyllum could even grow in 500 mg kg -1 of soil mercury with observed inhibition on growth but no obvious toxic effects, and showed excellent mercury accumulation and translocation abilities with both translocation and bioconcentration factors greater than 1 when exposed to 200 mg kg -1 and lower soil mercury, indicating that it could be considered as a great mercury accumulating species. Furthermore, the leaf tissue of Cyrtomium macrophyllum showed high resistance to mercury stress because of both the increased superoxide dismutase activity and the accumulation of glutathione and proline induced by mercury stress, which favorited mercury translocation from the roots to the aerial parts, revealing the possible reason for Cyrtomium macrophyllum to tolerate high concentration of soil mercury. In sum, due to its excellent mercury accumulation and translocation abilities as well as its high resistance to mercury stress, the use of Cyrtomium macrophyllum should be a promising approach to remediating mercury polluted soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mercury Control With The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Jay C. Almlie

    2004-01-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Program Solicitation DE-FC26-01NT41184 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4 - Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy and Environmental Research Center as the main contractor; W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., and is marketed as the Advanced Hybrid(trademark) filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the original five-task project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included benchscale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. The scope of work was modified to include an additional sixth task, initiated in April 2003. The objective of this task was to

  15. Speciation of mercury in sludge solids: washed sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Lourie, A. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-24

    The objective of this applied research task was to study the type and concentration of mercury compounds found within the contaminated Savannah River Site Liquid Waste System (SRS LWS). A method of selective sequential extraction (SSE), developed by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences1,2 and adapted by SRNL, utilizes an extraction procedure divided into seven separate tests for different species of mercury. In the SRNL’s modified procedure four of these tests were applied to a washed sample of high level radioactive waste sludge.

  16. Toward a Unified Understanding of Mercury and Methylated Mercury from the World's Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, M. K.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Landing, W. M.; Sunderland, E. M.

    2012-12-01

    Marine fish and shellfish are the main source of toxic methylmercury exposure for humans. As recently as decade ago, very limited aqueous methylated mercury data were available from marine settings, resulting in a generally poor understanding of the processes controlling mercury in pelagic marine food webs. Recent oceanographic cruises have significantly improved availability of reliable measurements of methylated mercury and total mercury in seawater. This presentation will focus on vertical seawater profiles collected to depths 1000 m from three recent sampling efforts in collaboration with the CLIVAR Repeat Hydrography Program sponsored by NOAA including: 1) the northeastern Pacific (P16N cruise from Honolulu, Hawaii to Kodiak, Alaska); (2) the southern Indian Ocean (I5 cruise from Cape Town, South Africa, to Fremantle, Australia); and, (3) the Southern Ocean cruise (S4P from McMurdo, Antarctica, to Punta Arenas, Chile). Analytical results presented were all derived from the USGS Mercury Research Lab (http://wi.water.usgs.gov/mercury-lab). Supporting data derived from these cruises on water mass ages, nutrients, carbon and dissolved oxygen provide an opportunity to develop a stronger understanding of the biogeochemical factors controlling oceanic distributions of mercury and methylated mercury. Whole-water, median total mercury, and methylated mercury concentrations for the northern Pacific, southern Indian, and Southern Ocean were 1.10, 0.80, and 1.65 pM, , and 0.11, 0.08, and 0.32 pM, respectively. For all three oceans, vertical profiles of total mercury generally show the lowest concentrations in the surface mixed layer, and concentration maxima at the 700-1000 m depths. Surface depletion of total mercury is attributed to photo-chemical reduction and evasion of gaseous elemental mercury as well as scavenging by settling particulate matter, the main vector of transport to the subsurface ocean. Methylated mercury in all the ocean profiles reveal distinct mid

  17. Mercury concentrations in fish jerky snack food: marlin, ahi, and salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, Jane M; Brown, David L

    2011-10-11

    Dried meat and fish have served as an important durable nutrition source for humans for centuries. Because omega 3 fatty acids in fish are recognized as having antioxidant and anti inflammatory properties found to be beneficial for good health, many consumers are looking to fish as their main source of protein. Unfortunately, contaminants such as methylmercury can accumulate in some species of fish. The purpose of this research is to test commercially available fish jerky snack foods for mercury contamination. Fifteen bags of marlin jerky, three bags of ahi jerky, and three bags of salmon jerky were purchased from large retail stores in Hawaii and California, and directly from the proprietors' Internet websites. Five individual strips of jerky per bag were analyzed for a total of one hundred and five tests. From the seventy-five marlin jerky samples, mercury concentration ranged from 0.052-28.17 μg/g, with an average of 5.53 μg/g, median 4.1 μg/g. Fifty-six (75%) marlin samples had mercury concentrations that exceeded the FDA's current mercury action level of 1.0 μg/g, while six samples had greater than 10 μg/g. Fifteen samples of ahi had mercury concentrations ranging from 0.09-0.55 μg/g, while mercury concentrations in fifteen salmon samples ranged from 0.030-0.17 μg/g. This study found that mercury concentrations in some fish jerky can often exceed the FDA's allowable mercury limit and could be a significant source of mercury exposure.

  18. Mercury Concentrations in Fish Jerky Snack Food: Marlin, Ahi, and Salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown David L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dried meat and fish have served as an important durable nutrition source for humans for centuries. Because omega 3 fatty acids in fish are recognized as having antioxidant and anti inflammatory properties found to be beneficial for good health, many consumers are looking to fish as their main source of protein. Unfortunately, contaminants such as methylmercury can accumulate in some species of fish. The purpose of this research is to test commercially available fish jerky snack foods for mercury contamination. Methods Fifteen bags of marlin jerky, three bags of ahi jerky, and three bags of salmon jerky were purchased from large retail stores in Hawaii and California, and directly from the proprietors' Internet websites. Five individual strips of jerky per bag were analyzed for a total of one hundred and five tests. Results From the seventy-five marlin jerky samples, mercury concentration ranged from 0.052-28.17 μg/g, with an average of 5.53 μg/g, median 4.1 μg/g. Fifty-six (75% marlin samples had mercury concentrations that exceeded the FDA's current mercury action level of 1.0 μg/g, while six samples had greater than 10 μg/g. Fifteen samples of ahi had mercury concentrations ranging from 0.09-0.55 μg/g, while mercury concentrations in fifteen salmon samples ranged from 0.030-0.17 μg/g. Conclusions This study found that mercury concentrations in some fish jerky can often exceed the FDA's allowable mercury limit and could be a significant source of mercury exposure.

  19. Excretion and distribution of mercury in rats, antidotes for mercury and effects of egg production and fertility of hens after mercury administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulfvarson, U

    1973-01-01

    The results of investigations of the distribution and excretion of organic and inorganic mercury compounds in albino rats and white leghorn hens conducted over a period of ten years are surveyed. The storage of mercury in eggs as well as its effects on the egg-lay-frequency and hatchability of the eggs have also been studied. All investigated mercury compounds were labelled with the radioactive mercury isotope /sup 203/Hg and the mercury level was measured with a scintillation technique. Since antidotes used in the treatment of mercury poisoning influence not only the excretion of mercury, but also its distribution in the body, the effects of nine antidotes on the metabolism of different mercury compounds were also investigated. The results of the survey are presented graphically. 6 references, 15 figures, 1 table.

  20. An Analysis of the Mechanical Characteristics and Constitutive Relation of Cemented Mercury Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinwei Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on mercury slag in the Tongren area of Guizhou Province, China. Computed tomography (CT is used with uniaxial and triaxial compression tests to examine the mechanical changes in cemented mercury slag and its formation. The CT results for the uniaxial compression test reveal the overall failure process of the mercury slag structure. Based on the coarse-grained soil triaxial test, a modified Duncan-Chang model is compared with the actual monitoring results and is found to be suitable for the analysis of the slag constitutive model.

  1. Methods for measuring specific rates of mercury methylation and degradation and their use in determining factors controlling net rates of mercury methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramlal, P.S.; Rudd, J.W.M.; Hecky, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    A method was developed to estimate specific rates of demethylation of methyl mercury in aquatic samples by measuring the volatile 14 C end products of 14 CH 3 HgI demethylation. This method was used in conjuction with a 203 Hg 2+ radiochemical method which determines specific rates of mercury methylation. Together, these methods enabled us to examine some factors controlling the net rate of mercury methylation. The methodologies were field tested, using lake sediment samples from a recently flooded reservoir in the Southern Indian Lake system which had developed a mercury contamination problem in fish. Ratios of the specific rates of methylation/demethylation were calculated. The highest ratios of methylation/demethylation were calculated. The highest ratios of methylation/demethylation occurred in the flooded shorelines of Southern Indian Lake. These results provide an explanation for the observed increases in the methyl mercury concentrations in fish after flooding

  2. Mercury's exosphere: observations during MESSENGER's First Mercury flyby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, William E; Bradley, E Todd; Vervack, Ronald J; Killen, Rosemary M; Sprague, Ann L; Izenberg, Noam R; Solomon, Sean C

    2008-07-04

    During MESSENGER's first Mercury flyby, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer measured Mercury's exospheric emissions, including those from the antisunward sodium tail, calcium and sodium close to the planet, and hydrogen at high altitudes on the dayside. Spatial variations indicate that multiple source and loss processes generate and maintain the exosphere. Energetic processes connected to the solar wind and magnetospheric interaction with the planet likely played an important role in determining the distributions of exospheric species during the flyby.

  3. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2001-01-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot-Scale. The project team will include the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor, W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner, and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, which will host the field testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control, called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a utility power plant to prove scaleup and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. This project, if successful, will demonstrate at the pilot-scale level a

  4. Mercury exposure in the freshwater tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Rui [Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wong Minghung [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University (Hong Kong); Wang Wenxiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.h [Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-08-15

    Mercury (Hg) can be strongly accumulated and biomagnified along aquatic food chain, but the exposure pathway remains little studied. In this study, we quantified the uptake and elimination of both inorganic mercury [as Hg(II)] and methylmercury (as MeHg) in an important farmed freshwater fish, the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, using {sup 203}Hg radiotracer technique. The dissolved uptake rates of both mercury species increased linearly with Hg concentration (tested at ng/L levels), and the uptake rate constant of MeHg was 4 times higher than that of Hg(II). Dissolved uptake of mercury was highly dependent on the water pH and dissolved organic carbon concentration. The dietborne assimilation efficiency of MeHg was 3.7-7.2 times higher than that of Hg(II), while the efflux rate constant of MeHg was 7.1 times lower. The biokinetic modeling results showed that MeHg was the greater contributor to the overall mercury bioaccumulation and dietary exposure was the predominant pathway. - Trophic transfer was the predominant pathway for mercury accumulation in tilapia, and methylmercury was more important in contributing to Hg accumulation than Hg(II).

  5. Mercury exposure in the freshwater tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Rui; Wong Minghung; Wang Wenxiong

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) can be strongly accumulated and biomagnified along aquatic food chain, but the exposure pathway remains little studied. In this study, we quantified the uptake and elimination of both inorganic mercury [as Hg(II)] and methylmercury (as MeHg) in an important farmed freshwater fish, the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, using 203 Hg radiotracer technique. The dissolved uptake rates of both mercury species increased linearly with Hg concentration (tested at ng/L levels), and the uptake rate constant of MeHg was 4 times higher than that of Hg(II). Dissolved uptake of mercury was highly dependent on the water pH and dissolved organic carbon concentration. The dietborne assimilation efficiency of MeHg was 3.7-7.2 times higher than that of Hg(II), while the efflux rate constant of MeHg was 7.1 times lower. The biokinetic modeling results showed that MeHg was the greater contributor to the overall mercury bioaccumulation and dietary exposure was the predominant pathway. - Trophic transfer was the predominant pathway for mercury accumulation in tilapia, and methylmercury was more important in contributing to Hg accumulation than Hg(II).

  6. Mercury - Introduction to an end-member planet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    This chapter introduces the major themes of this book. In many ways, Mercury is an extreme planet, and thus it provides a unique benchmark for testing our theories about the origin and evolution of other (particularly terrestrial) planets. Emphasis is given to synthesizing and critiquing the book's chapters on the planet's origin, its metal-rich composition, its thermal and geophysical evolution, and its cratering history; these topics are complex and controversial, and this book contains a variety of new perspectives on them. Mercury's geology, atmosphere and magnetosphere are discussed more briefly. The study of Mercury is placed in its historical context and in the context of the spacecraft exploration program, both past and future

  7. Two-week, high-dose proton pump inhibitor, moxifloxacin triple Helicobacter pylori therapy after failure of standard triple or non-bismuth quadruple treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisbert, Javier P; Romano, Marco; Molina-Infante, Javier; Lucendo, Alfredo J; Medina, Enrique; Modolell, Inés; Rodríguez-Tellez, Manuel; Gomez, Blas; Barrio, Jesús; Perona, Monica; Ortuño, Juan; Ariño, Inés; Domínguez-Muñoz, Juan Enrique; Perez-Aisa, Ángeles; Bermejo, Fernando; Domínguez, Jose Luis; Almela, Pedro; Gomez-Camarero, Judith; Millastre, Judith; Martin-Noguerol, Elisa; Gravina, Antonietta G; Martorano, Marco; Miranda, Agnese; Federico, Alessandro; Fernandez-Bermejo, Miguel; Angueira, Teresa; Ferrer-Barcelo, Luis; Fernández, Nuria; Marín, Alicia C; McNicholl, Adrián G

    2015-02-01

    Aim was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a moxifloxacin-containing second-line triple regimen in patients whose previous Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment failed. Prospective multicentre study including patients in whom a triple therapy or a non-bismuth-quadruple-therapy failed. Moxifloxacin (400mg qd), amoxicillin (1g bid), and esomeprazole (40 mg bid) were prescribed for 14 days. Eradication was confirmed by (13)C-urea-breath-test. Compliance was determined through questioning and recovery of empty medication envelopes. 250 patients were consecutively included (mean age 48 ± 15 years, 11% with ulcer). Previous (failed) therapy included: standard triple (n = 179), sequential (n = 27), and concomitant (n = 44); 97% of patients took all medications, 4 were lost to follow-up. Intention-to-treat and per-protocol eradication rates were 82.4% (95% CI, 77-87%) and 85.7% (95% CI, 81-90%). Cure rates were similar independently of diagnosis (ulcer, 77%; dyspepsia, 82%) and previous treatment (standard triple, 83%; sequential, 89%; concomitant, 77%). At multivariate analysis, only age was associated with eradication (OR = 0.957; 95% CI, 0.933-0.981). Adverse events were reported in 25.2% of patients: diarrhoea (9.6%), abdominal pain (9.6%), and nausea (9.2%). 14-day moxifloxacin-containing triple therapy is an effective and safe second-line strategy in patients whose previous standard triple therapy or non-bismuth quadruple (sequential or concomitant) therapy has failed, providing a simple alternative to bismuth quadruple regimen. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Almost convergence of triple sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Ayhan Esi; M.Necdet Catalbas

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and study the concepts of almost convergence and almost Cauchy for triple sequences. Weshow that the set of almost convergent triple sequences of 0's and 1's is of the first category and also almost everytriple sequence of 0's and 1's is not almost convergent.Keywords: almost convergence, P-convergent, triple sequence.

  9. Revised Reynolds Stress and Triple Product Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Michael E.; Lillard, Randolph P.

    2017-01-01

    Revised versions of Lag methodology Reynolds-stress and triple product models are applied to accepted test cases to assess the improvement, or lack thereof, in the prediction capability of the models. The Bachalo-Johnson bump flow is shown as an example for this abstract submission.

  10. Mercury removal in utility wet scrubber using a chelating agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrhein, Gerald T.

    2001-01-01

    A method for capturing and reducing the mercury content of an industrial flue gas such as that produced in the combustion of a fossil fuel or solid waste adds a chelating agent, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or other similar compounds like HEDTA, DTPA and/or NTA, to the flue gas being scrubbed in a wet scrubber used in the industrial process. The chelating agent prevents the reduction of oxidized mercury to elemental mercury, thereby increasing the mercury removal efficiency of the wet scrubber. Exemplary tests on inlet and outlet mercury concentration in an industrial flue gas were performed without and with EDTA addition. Without EDTA, mercury removal totaled 42%. With EDTA, mercury removal increased to 71%. The invention may be readily adapted to known wet scrubber systems and it specifically provides for the removal of unwanted mercury both by supplying S.sup.2- ions to convert Hg.sup.2+ ions into mercuric sulfide (HgS) and by supplying a chelating agent to sequester other ions, including but not limited to Fe.sup.2+ ions, which could otherwise induce the unwanted reduction of Hg.sup.2+ to the form, Hg.sup.0.

  11. A mercury transport and fate model (LM2-mercury) for mass budget assessment of mercury cycling in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    LM2-Mercury, a mercury mass balance model, was developed to simulate and evaluate the transport, fate, and biogeochemical transformations of mercury in Lake Michigan. The model simulates total suspended solids (TSS), disolved organic carbon (DOC), and total, elemental, divalent, ...

  12. Mercury Emission Measurement in Coal-Fired Boilers by Continuous Mercury Monitor and Ontario Hydro Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanqun; Zhou, Jinsong; He, Sheng; Cai, Xiaoshu; Hu, Changxin; Zheng, Jianming; Zhang, Le; Luo, Zhongyang; Cen, Kefa

    2007-06-01

    The mercury emission control approach attaches more importance. The accurate measurement of mercury speciation is a first step. Because OH method (accepted method) can't provide the real-time data and 2-week time for results attained, it's high time to seek on line mercury continuous emission monitors(Hg-CEM). Firstly, the gaseous elemental and oxidized mercury were conducted to measure using OH and CEM method under normal operation conditions of PC boiler after ESP, the results between two methods show good consistency. Secondly, through ESP, gaseous oxidized mercury decrease a little and particulate mercury reduce a little bit, but the elemental mercury is just the opposite. Besides, the WFGD system achieved to gaseous oxidized mercury removal of 53.4%, gaseous overall mercury and elemental mercury are 37.1% and 22.1%, respectively.

  13. ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest F. Stine Jr; Steven T. Downey

    2002-08-14

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) used large quantities of mercury in the uranium separating process from the 1950s until the late 1980s in support of national defense. Some of this mercury, as well as other hazardous metals and radionuclides, found its way into, and under, several buildings, soil and subsurface soils and into some of the surface waters. Several of these areas may pose potential health or environmental risks and must be dealt with under current environmental regulations. DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) awarded a contract ''Alternative Field Methods to Treat Mercury in Soil'' to IT Group, Knoxville TN (IT) and its subcontractor NFS, Erwin, TN to identify remedial methods to clean up mercury-contaminated high-clay content soils using proven treatment chemistries. The sites of interest were the Y-12 National Security Complex located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the David Witherspoon properties located in Knoxville, Tennessee, and at other similarly contaminated sites. The primary laboratory-scale contract objectives were (1) to safely retrieve and test samples of contaminated soil in an approved laboratory and (2) to determine an acceptable treatment method to ensure that the mercury does not leach from the soil above regulatory levels. The leaching requirements were to meet the TC (0.2 mg/l) and UTS (0.025 mg/l) TCLP criteria. In-situ treatments were preferred to control potential mercury vapors emissions and liquid mercury spills associated with ex-situ treatments. All laboratory work was conducted in IT's and NFS laboratories. Mercury contaminated nonradioactive soil from under the Alpha 2 building in the Y-12 complex was used. This soils contained insufficient levels of leachable mercury and resulted in TCLP mercury concentrations that were similar to the applicable LDR limits. The soil was spiked at multiple levels with metallic (up to 6000 mg/l) and soluble mercury compounds (up to 500 mg/kg) to

  14. Concentration of mercury in wheat samples stored with mercury tablets as preservative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalit, B.Y.; Ramachandran, T.V.

    1977-01-01

    Tablets consisting of mercury in the form of a dull grey powder made by triturating mercury with chalk and sugar are used in Indian household for storing food-grains. The contamination of wheat samples by mercury, when stored with mercury tablets for period of upto four years has been assessed by using non-destructive neutron activation analysis. The details of the analytical procedure used have also been briefly described. The concentration of mercury in wheat increases with storage period. Loss of weight of mercury tablet is proportional to the storage period to a first approximation. In the present experiment, the average weight loss at the and end of first year was 0.009716 g corresponding to 6 ppm in wheat. (T.G.)

  15. The potential for Probiotic Bacteria from milkfish intestine in reducing mercury metals in skimmed milk media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyana, Zaraswati; Priosambodo, D.; Haedar, N.; Erviani, A. E.; Djabura, A. K.; Sukma, R.

    2018-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the heavy metals that is harmful to humans. The accumulation of mercury in the body is generally derived from food. Several types of bacteria from intestine of milkfish are known to reduce mercury concentration. People can take advantage of this bacterial ability by eating it through probiotic foods. This research conducted to figure out the potential for probiotic bacteria from milkfish intestine in reducing mercury. Isolation from probiotic bacteria from milkfish intestine conducted with grown the isolates in MRSA medium with addition of 1% CaCO3. Twelve isolate were obtained from milkfish intestine. Mercury resistance tested was performed by measuring cell density using a spectrophotometer at concentrations of 10, 15 and 20 ppm respectively in skim milk media. Probiotic tests (gastric acid, bile salts and antimicrobial activity) for MRSB media was also conducted. Results showed that seven isolate were resistant to mercury in all concentrations and potential as probiotics. All resistant isolate then tested for skim milk media with addition of 5, 10, 20 ppm mercury acetate respectively. Result showed that only one isolated was able to reduce the concentration of mercury (Hg) in all variations on concentration and potential as mercury reducer probiotic bacteria.

  16. Mercury Flow Through the Mercury-Containing Lamp Sector of the Economy of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This Scientific Investigations Report examines the flow of mercury through the mercury-containing lamp sector of the U.S. economy in 2001 from lamp manufacture through disposal or recycling. Mercury-containing lamps illuminate commercial and industrial buildings, outdoor areas, and residences. Mercury is an essential component in fluorescent lamps and high-intensity discharge lamps (high-pressure sodium, mercury-vapor, and metal halide). A typical fluorescent lamp is composed of a phosphor-coated glass tube with electrodes located at either end. Only a very small amount of the mercury is in vapor form. The remainder of the mercury is in the form of either liquid mercury metal or solid mercury oxide (mercury oxidizes over the life of the lamp). When voltage is applied, the electrodes energize the mercury vapor and cause it to emit ultraviolet energy. The phosphor coating absorbs the ultraviolet energy, which causes the phosphor to fluoresce and emit visible light. Mercury-containing lamps provide more lumens per watt than incandescent lamps and, as a result, require from three to four times less energy to operate. Mercury is persistent and toxic within the environment. Mercury-containing lamps are of environmental concern because they are widely distributed throughout the environment and are easily broken in handling. The magnitude of lamp sector mercury emissions, estimated to be 2.9 metric tons per year (t/yr), is small compared with the estimated mercury losses of the U.S. coal-burning and chlor-alkali industries, which are about 70 t/yr and about 90 t/yr, respectively.

  17. [Determination of mercury in Boletus impolitus by flow injection-atomic absorption spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Wang, Yuan-Zhong

    2008-04-01

    Various test conditions and effect factors for the determination of mercury by flow injection-atomic absorption spectrometry were discussed, and a method for the determination of mercury in Boletus impolitus has been developed. The linear range for mercury is 0-60 microg x L(-1). The relative standard deviation is less than 3.0%, and the recovery is 96%-107%. This method is simple, rapid and has been applied to the determination of mercury in Boletus impolitus samples with satisfactory results.

  18. Mercury: The Los Alamos ICF KrF laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czuchlewski, S.J.; York, G.W.; Bigio, I.J.; Brucker, J.; Hanson, D.; Honig, E.M.; Kurnit, N.; Leland, W.; McCown, A.W.; McLeod, J.; Rose, E.; Thomas, S.; Thompson, D.

    1993-01-01

    The Mercury KrF laser facility at Los Alamos is being built with the benefit of lessons learned from the Aurora system. An increased understanding of KrF laser engineering, and the designed implementation of system flexibility, will permit Mercury to serve as a tested for a variety of advanced KrF technology concepts

  19. Influence of the temperature, volume and type of solution in the mercury vaporization of dental amalgam residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Raquel dalla [Department of Chemical Engineering, State University of Maringa, Maringa - PR (Brazil)], E-mail: raqueldc_eng@yahoo.com.br; Cossich, Eneida Sala; Tavares, Celia Regina Granhen [Department of Chemical Engineering, State University of Maringa, Maringa - PR (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    One of the qualitative methods for the identification of mercury vapor is what it occurs as a way of chemical reaction between palladium chloride and metallic mercury. Palladium chloride ribbons with yellowish coloration put in contact with the vaporized mercury of dental amalgam residue, liberates palladium and forms mercury chloride in your surface, and starts to have black coloration; this form identify the presence of the mercury vapor in the system. This work studies the influence of temperature, volume and type of barrier-solution in the vaporization of mercury during the period of storage of dental amalgam residues, aiming to establish the best conditions for storage of these residues. It was found that for all tested solutions, the longest storage times without any occurrence of mercury vaporization were obtained in the lowest temperatures tested and the largest solution volumes of barrier-solution. The radiographic effluent presented bigger efficacy in the reduction of the volatilization, increasing the period when the residue was stored, however the analysis of this solution after the vaporization test showed the presence of organic mercury. These results show that water is the most efficient barrier against the vaporization of mercury, since it did not result in organic mercury formation in the effluent solution from the storage process.

  20. Influence of the temperature, volume and type of solution in the mercury vaporization of dental amalgam residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Raquel dalla; Cossich, Eneida Sala; Tavares, Celia Regina Granhen

    2008-01-01

    One of the qualitative methods for the identification of mercury vapor is what it occurs as a way of chemical reaction between palladium chloride and metallic mercury. Palladium chloride ribbons with yellowish coloration put in contact with the vaporized mercury of dental amalgam residue, liberates palladium and forms mercury chloride in your surface, and starts to have black coloration; this form identify the presence of the mercury vapor in the system. This work studies the influence of temperature, volume and type of barrier-solution in the vaporization of mercury during the period of storage of dental amalgam residues, aiming to establish the best conditions for storage of these residues. It was found that for all tested solutions, the longest storage times without any occurrence of mercury vaporization were obtained in the lowest temperatures tested and the largest solution volumes of barrier-solution. The radiographic effluent presented bigger efficacy in the reduction of the volatilization, increasing the period when the residue was stored, however the analysis of this solution after the vaporization test showed the presence of organic mercury. These results show that water is the most efficient barrier against the vaporization of mercury, since it did not result in organic mercury formation in the effluent solution from the storage process

  1. Optical System Design and Integration of the Mercury Laser Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis; Scott, V. Stanley, III; Schmidt, Stephen; Britt, Jamie; Mamakos, William; Trunzo, Raymond; Cavanaugh, John; Miller, Roger

    2005-01-01

    The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA). developed for the 2004 MESSENGER mission to Mercury, is designed to measure the planet's topography via laser ranging. A description of the MLA optical system and its measured optical performance during instrument-level and spacecraft-level integration and testing are presented.

  2. Spatial variation of mercury bioaccumulation in bats of Canada linked to atmospheric mercury deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chételat, John; Hickey, M Brian C; Poulain, Alexandre J; Dastoor, Ashu; Ryjkov, Andrei; McAlpine, Donald; Vanderwolf, Karen; Jung, Thomas S; Hale, Lesley; Cooke, Emma L L; Hobson, Dave; Jonasson, Kristin; Kaupas, Laura; McCarthy, Sara; McClelland, Christine; Morningstar, Derek; Norquay, Kaleigh J O; Novy, Richard; Player, Delanie; Redford, Tony; Simard, Anouk; Stamler, Samantha; Webber, Quinn M R; Yumvihoze, Emmanuel; Zanuttig, Michelle

    2018-06-01

    Wildlife are exposed to neurotoxic mercury at locations distant from anthropogenic emission sources because of long-range atmospheric transport of this metal. In this study, mercury bioaccumulation in insectivorous bat species (Mammalia: Chiroptera) was investigated on a broad geographic scale in Canada. Fur was analyzed (n=1178) for total mercury from 43 locations spanning 20° latitude and 77° longitude. Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in fur were positively correlated with concentrations in internal tissues (brain, liver, kidney) for a small subset (n=21) of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) and big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), validating the use of fur to indicate internal mercury exposure. Brain methylmercury concentrations were approximately 10% of total mercury concentrations in fur. Three bat species were mainly collected (little brown bats, big brown bats, and northern long-eared bats [M. septentrionalis]), with little brown bats having lower total mercury concentrations in their fur than the other two species at sites where both species were sampled. On average, juvenile bats had lower total mercury concentrations than adults but no differences were found between males and females of a species. Combining our dataset with previously published data for eastern Canada, median total mercury concentrations in fur of little brown bats ranged from 0.88-12.78μg/g among 11 provinces and territories. Highest concentrations were found in eastern Canada where bats are most endangered from introduced disease. Model estimates of atmospheric mercury deposition indicated that eastern Canada was exposed to greater mercury deposition than central and western sites. Further, mean total mercury concentrations in fur of adult little brown bats were positively correlated with site-specific estimates of atmospheric mercury deposition. This study provides the largest geographic coverage of mercury measurements in bats to date and indicates that atmospheric

  3. The use of lactic acid bacteria to reduce mercury bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadán-Piedra, C; Alcántara, C; Monedero, V; Zúñiga, M; Vélez, D; Devesa, V

    2017-08-01

    Mercury in food is present in either inorganic [Hg(II)] or methylmercury (CH 3 Hg) form. Intestinal absorption of mercury is influenced by interactions with other food components. The use of dietary components to reduce mercury bioavailability has been previously proposed. The aim of this work is to explore the use of lactic acid bacteria to reduce the amount of mercury solubilized after gastrointestinal digestion and available for absorption (bioaccessibility). Ten strains were tested by addition to aqueous solutions containing Hg(II) or CH 3 Hg, or to food samples, and submission of the mixtures to gastrointestinal digestion. All of the strains assayed reduce the soluble fraction from standards of mercury species under gastrointestinal digestion conditions (72-98%). However their effectiveness is lower in food, and reductions in bioaccessibility are only observed with mushrooms (⩽68%). It is hypothesized that bioaccessible mercury in seafood forms part of complexes that do not interact with lactic acid bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mercury(II) and methyl mercury speciation on Streptococcus pyogenes loaded Dowex Optipore SD-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan; Karaman, Isa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    A solid phase extraction procedure based on speciation of mercury(II) and methyl mercury on Streptococcus pyogenes immobilized on Dowex Optipore SD-2 has been established. Selective and sequential elution with 0.1 mol L -1 HCl for methyl mercury and 2 mol L -1 HCl for mercury(II) were performed at pH 8. The determination of mercury levels was performed by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Optimal analytical conditions including pH, amounts of biosorbent, sample volumes, etc., were investigated. The influences of the some alkaline and earth alkaline ions and some transition metals on the recoveries were also investigated. The capacity of biosorbent for mercury(II) and methyl mercury was 4.8 and 3.4 mg g -1 . The detection limit (3 sigma) of the reagent blank for mercury(II) and methyl mercury was 2.1 and 1.5 ng L -1 . Preconcentration factor was calculated as 25. The relative standard deviations of the procedure were below 7%. The validation of the presented procedure is performed by the analysis of standard reference material (NRCC-DORM 2 Dogfish Muscle). The procedure was successfully applied to the speciation of mercury(II) and methyl mercury in natural water and environmental samples.

  5. Mercury(II) and methyl mercury speciation on Streptococcus pyogenes loaded Dowex Optipore SD-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuzen, Mustafa, E-mail: m.tuzen@gmail.com [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Karaman, Isa [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Biology Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Erciyes University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2009-09-30

    A solid phase extraction procedure based on speciation of mercury(II) and methyl mercury on Streptococcus pyogenes immobilized on Dowex Optipore SD-2 has been established. Selective and sequential elution with 0.1 mol L{sup -1} HCl for methyl mercury and 2 mol L{sup -1} HCl for mercury(II) were performed at pH 8. The determination of mercury levels was performed by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Optimal analytical conditions including pH, amounts of biosorbent, sample volumes, etc., were investigated. The influences of the some alkaline and earth alkaline ions and some transition metals on the recoveries were also investigated. The capacity of biosorbent for mercury(II) and methyl mercury was 4.8 and 3.4 mg g{sup -1}. The detection limit (3 sigma) of the reagent blank for mercury(II) and methyl mercury was 2.1 and 1.5 ng L{sup -1}. Preconcentration factor was calculated as 25. The relative standard deviations of the procedure were below 7%. The validation of the presented procedure is performed by the analysis of standard reference material (NRCC-DORM 2 Dogfish Muscle). The procedure was successfully applied to the speciation of mercury(II) and methyl mercury in natural water and environmental samples.

  6. Mercury CEM Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Schabron; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson

    2008-02-29

    Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks. The power industry desires to conduct at least a full year of monitoring before the formal monitoring and reporting requirement begins on January 1, 2009. It is important for the industry to have available reliable, turnkey equipment from CEM vendors. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The generators are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 requires that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards (Federal Register 2007). Traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued an interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury generators (EPA 2007). The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of generators by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the generator models that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD. The

  7. Mercury emission and speciation of coal-fired power plants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. X.; Zhang, L.; Li, G. H.; Wu, Y.; Hao, J. M.; Pirrone, N.; Sprovieri, F.; Ancora, M. P.

    2010-02-01

    Comprehensive field measurements are needed to understand the mercury emissions from Chinese power plants and to improve the accuracy of emission inventories. Characterization of mercury emissions and their behavior were measured in six typical coal-fired power plants in China. During the tests, the flue gas was sampled simultaneously at inlet and outlet of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), electrostatic precipitators (ESP), and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM). The pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash and gypsum were also sampled in the field. Mercury concentrations in coal burned in the measured power plants ranged from 17 to 385 μg/kg. The mercury mass balances for the six power plants varied from 87 to 116% of the input coal mercury for the whole system. The total mercury concentrations in the flue gas from boilers were at the range of 1.92-27.15 μg/m3, which were significantly related to the mercury contents in burned coal. The mercury speciation in flue gas right after the boiler is influenced by the contents of halogen, mercury, and ash in the burned coal. The average mercury removal efficiencies of ESP, ESP plus wet FGD, and ESP plus dry FGD-FF systems were 24%, 73% and 66%, respectively, which were similar to the average removal efficiencies of pollution control device systems in other countries such as US, Japan and South Korea. The SCR system oxidized 16% elemental mercury and reduced about 32% of total mercury. Elemental mercury, accounting for 66-94% of total mercury, was the dominant species emitted to the atmosphere. The mercury emission factor was also calculated for each power plant.

  8. Accumulation of mercury in selected plant species grown in soils contaminated with different mercury compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yi; Han, Fengxiang; Shiyab, Safwan; Chen, Jian; Monts, David L.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of our research is to screen and search for suitable plant species for phyto-remediation of mercury-contaminated soil. Currently our effort is specifically focused on mercury removal from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, where mercury contamination is a major concern. In order to cost effectively implement mercury remediation efforts, it is necessary now to obtain an improved understanding of biological means of removing mercury and mercury compounds.. Phyto-remediation is a technology that uses various plants to degrade, extract, contain, or immobilize contaminants from soil and water. In particular, phyto-extraction is the uptake of contaminants by plant roots and translocation within the plants to shoots or leaves. Contaminants are generally removed by harvesting the plants. We have investigated phyto-extraction of mercury from contaminated soil by using some of the known metal-accumulating plants since no natural plant species with mercury hyper-accumulating properties has yet been identified. Different natural plant species have been studied for mercury uptake, accumulation, toxicity and overall mercury removal efficiency. Various mercury compounds, such as HgS, HgCl 2 , and Hg(NO 3 ) 2 , were used as contaminant sources. Different types of soil were examined and chosen for phyto-remediation experiments. We have applied microscopy and diffuse reflectance spectrometry as well as conventional analytical chemistry to monitor the phyto-remediation processes of mercury uptake, translocation and accumulation, and the physiological impact of mercury contaminants on selected plant species. Our results indicate that certain plant species, such as beard grass (Polypogon monospeliensis), accumulated a very limited amount of mercury in the shoots ( 2 powder, respectively; no visual stress symptoms were observed. We also studied mercury phyto-remediation using aged soils that contained HgS, HgCl 2 , or Hg(NO 3 ) 2 . We have found that up to hundreds

  9. REMOVAL OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS AT THE PAVLODAR CHEMICAL PLANT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KHRAPUNOV, V. YE.; ISAKOVA, R.A.; LEVINTOV, B.L.; KALB, P.D.; KAMBEROV, I.M.; TREBUKHOV, A.

    2004-09-25

    Soils beneath and adjacent to the Pavlodar Chemical Plant in Kazakhstan have been contaminated with elemental mercury as a result of chlor alkali processing using mercury cathode cell technology. The work described in this paper was conducted in preparation for a demonstration of a technology to remove the mercury from the contaminated soils using a vacuum assisted thermal distillation process. The process can operate at temperatures from 250-500 C and pressures of 0.13kPa-1.33kPa. Following vaporization, the mercury vapor is cooled, condensed and concentrated back to liquid elemental mercury. It will then be treated using the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory as described in a companion paper at this conference. The overall project objectives include chemical and physical characterization of the contaminated soils, study of the influence of the soil's physical-chemical and hydro dynamical characteristics on process parameters, and laboratory testing to optimize the mercury sublimation rate when heating in vacuum. Based on these laboratory and pilot-scale data, a full-scale production process will be designed for testing. This paper describes the soil characterization. This work is being sponsored by the International Science and Technology Center.

  10. Methyl mercury, but not inorganic mercury, associated with higher blood pressure during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ellen M; Herbstman, Julie B; Lin, Yu Hong; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Halden, Rolf U; Witter, Frank R; Goldman, Lynn R

    2017-04-01

    Prior studies addressing associations between mercury and blood pressure have produced inconsistent findings; some of this may result from measuring total instead of speciated mercury. This cross-sectional study of 263 pregnant women assessed total mercury, speciated mercury, selenium, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in umbilical cord blood and blood pressure during labor and delivery. Models with a) total mercury or b) methyl and inorganic mercury were evaluated. Regression models adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, prepregnancy body mass index, neighborhood income, parity, smoking, n-3 fatty acids and selenium. Geometric mean total, methyl, and inorganic mercury concentrations were 1.40µg/L (95% confidence interval: 1.29, 1.52); 0.95µg/L (0.84, 1.07); and 0.13µg/L (0.10, 0.17), respectively. Elevated systolic BP, diastolic BP, and pulse pressure were found, respectively, in 11.4%, 6.8%, and 19.8% of mothers. In adjusted multivariable models, a one-tertile increase of methyl mercury was associated with 2.83mmHg (0.17, 5.50) higher systolic blood pressure and 2.99mmHg (0.91, 5.08) higher pulse pressure. In the same models, an increase of one tertile of inorganic mercury was associated with -1.18mmHg (-3.72, 1.35) lower systolic blood pressure and -2.51mmHg (-4.49, -0.53) lower pulse pressure. No associations were observed with diastolic pressure. There was a non-significant trend of higher total mercury with higher systolic blood pressure. We observed a significant association of higher methyl mercury with higher systolic and pulse pressure, yet higher inorganic mercury was significantly associated with lower pulse pressure. These results should be confirmed with larger, longitudinal studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Transient analysis of mercury experimental loop using the RELAP5 code. 3rd report. Transient analysis using mercury properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Kaminaga, Masanori; Hino, Ryutaro

    2000-02-01

    In order to promote the Neutron Science Project of JAERI, the design of a 5MW-spallation target system is in progress with the purpose of producing a practical neutron application while at the same time adhering to the highest levels of safety. To establish the safety of the target system, it is important to understand the transient behaviors during anticipated operational events of the system, and to design the safety protection systems for the safe termination of the transients. This report presents the analytical results of transient behaviors in the mercury experimental loop using mercury properties. At first, the analytical pressure distributions were compared with experimental data measured with the mercury experimental loop. The modeling data were modified to reproduce the actual pressure distributions of the mercury experimental loop. Then a loss of forced convection and a loss of coolant accident were analyzed. In the case of the pump trip, the transient analysis was conducted using two types of mercury pumps, the mechanical type pump with moment of inertia, and the electrical-magnetic type pump without moment of inertia. The results show there was no clear difference in the two analyses, since the mercury had a large inertia, which was 13.5 times that of the water. Moreover, in the case of a pipe rupture at the pump exit, a moderate pressure decrease was confirmed when a small breakage area existed in which the coolant flowed out gradually. Based on these results, it was appeared that the transient fluctuation of pressure in the mercury loop would not become large and accidents would have to be detected by small fluctuations in pressure. Based on these analyses, we plan to conduct a simulation test to verify the RELAP5 code, and then the analysis of a full-scale mercury system will be performed. (author)

  12. Mercury and halogens in coal--Their role in determining mercury emissions from coal combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Allan; Quick, Jeffrey C.; Senior, Connie L.; Belkin, Harvey E.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic pollutant. In its elemental form, gaseous mercury has a long residence time in the atmosphere, up to a year, allowing it to be transported long distances from emission sources. Mercury can be emitted from natural sources such as volcanoes, or from anthropogenic sources, such as coal-fired powerplants. In addition, all sources of mercury on the Earth's surface can re-emit it from land and sea back to the atmosphere, from which it is then redeposited. Mercury in the atmosphere is present in such low concentrations that it is not considered harmful. Once mercury enters the aquatic environment, however, it can undergo a series of biochemical transformations that convert a portion of the mercury originally present to methylmercury, a highly toxic organic form of mercury that accumulates in fish and birds. Many factors contribute to creation of methylmercury in aquatic ecosystems, including mercury availability, sediment and nutrient load, bacterial influence, and chemical conditions. In the United States, consumption of fish with high levels of methylmercury is the most common pathway for human exposure to mercury, leading the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to issue fish consumption advisories in every State. The EPA estimates that 50 percent of the mercury entering the atmosphere in the United States is emitted from coal-burning utility powerplants. An EPA rule, known as MATS (for Mercury and Air Toxics Standards), to reduce emissions of mercury and other toxic pollutants from powerplants, was signed in December 2011. The rule, which is currently under review, specifies limits for mercury and other toxic elements, such as arsenic, chromium, and nickel. MATS also places limits on emission of harmful acid gases, such as hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. These standards are the result of a 2010 detailed nationwide program by the EPA to sample stack emissions and thousands of shipments of coal to coal-burning powerplants. The United

  13. Modeling Mercury in Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally occurring element that is released into the biosphere both by natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Although its reduced, elemental form Hg(0) is relatively non-toxic, other forms such as Hg2+ and, in particular, its methylated form, methylmercury, are toxic, with deleterious effects on both ecosystems and humans. Microorganisms play important roles in the transformation of mercury in the environment. Inorganic Hg2+ can be methylated by certain bacteria and archaea to form methylmercury. Conversely, bacteria also demethylate methylmercury and reduce Hg2+ to relatively inert Hg(0). Transformations and toxicity occur as a result of mercury interacting with various proteins. Clearly, then, understanding the toxic effects of mercury and its cycling in the environment requires characterization of these interactions. Computational approaches are ideally suited to studies of mercury in proteins because they can provide a detailed picture and circumvent issues associated with toxicity. Here we describe computational methods for investigating and characterizing how mercury binds to proteins, how inter- and intra-protein transfer of mercury is orchestrated in biological systems, and how chemical reactions in proteins transform the metal. We describe quantum chemical analyses of aqueous Hg(II), which reveal critical factors that determine ligand binding propensities. We then provide a perspective on how we used chemical reasoning to discover how microorganisms methylate mercury. We also highlight our combined computational and experimental studies of the proteins and enzymes of the mer operon, a suite of genes that confers mercury resistance in many bacteria. Lastly, we place work on mercury in proteins in the context of what is needed for a comprehensive multi-scale model of environmental mercury cycling.

  14. Dynamic measurement of mercury adsorption and oxidation on activated carbon in simulated cement kiln flue gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Anker Degn; Windelin, Christian

    2012-01-01

    of the sulfite converter is short and typically within 2min. Dynamic mercury adsorption and oxidation tests on commercial activated carbons Darco Hg and HOK standard were performed at 150°C using simulated cement kiln gas and a fixed bed reactor system. It is shown that the converter and analyzer system...... are still under development and are investigated in this work. A commercial red brass converter was tested at 180°C and it was found that the red brass chips work in nitrogen atmosphere only, but do not work properly under simulated cement kiln flue gas conditions. Test of the red brass converter using only...... elemental mercury shows that when HCl is present with either SO2 or NOx the mercury measurement after the converter is unstable and lower than the elemental mercury inlet level. The conclusion is that red brass chips cannot fully reduce oxidized mercury to elemental mercury when simulated cement kiln gas...

  15. Summary of Pilot-Scale Activities with Mercury Contaminated Sludges (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero, C.A.; Hutson, N.D.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Smith, M.E.; Miller, D. H.; Ritter, J.A.; Hardy, B.J.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    Technologies for treatment of low level mixed wastes (LLMW) are currently being investigated by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE). The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has been chartered by the MWFA to study vitrification treatment of the wastes through an Office of Technology Development (OTD) Technical Task Plan (TTP). SRTC's efforts have included crucible-scale studies and pilot-scale testing on simulated LLMW sludges, resins, soils, and other solid wastes. Results from the crucible-scale studies have been used as the basis for the pilot-scale demonstrations. One of the streams to be investigated in fiscal year (FY) 1995 by SRTC was a mercury waste. In FY 1995, SRTC performed crucible-scale studies with mercury contaminated soil. This waste stream was selected because of the large number of DOE sites that have an inventory of contaminated or hazardous soil. More importantly, it was readily available for treatment. Pilot-scale studies were to be completed in FY 1995, but could not be completed due to a reduction in funding. Since the main driver for focusing on a mercury waste stream was to determine how the mercury could be treated, a compilation of pilot-scale tests with mercury sludges performed under the guidance of SRTC is provided in this report. The studies summarized in this report include several pilot-scale vitrification demonstrations with simulated radioactive sludges that contained mercury. The pilot-scale studies were performed at the SRTC in the Integrated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Melter System (IDMS). The studies involved complete glass and offgas product characterization. Future pilot-scale studies with mercury streams will likely be performed with mercury contaminated soils, sediments, or sludges because of the need to dispose of this technically challenging waste stream. (Abstract Truncated)

  16. The Triple Spar campaign: Model tests of a 10MW floating wind turbine with waves, wind and pitch control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredmose, Henrik; Lemmer, F.; Borg, Michael Borg

    2017-01-01

    Results of a test campaign for a floating wind turbine in simultaneous wind and wave forcing at scale 1:60 are presented. The floater is the Triple Spar floater, a hybrid between a spar buoy and a semi submersible tri-floater, tested here for the first time. The turbine is a model scale version...... of the DTU 10 MW reference wind turbine, which, also for the first time, is tested with active blade pitch control. The tests focus on the effects of aerodynamic damping and interaction effects between the wind forcing, wave forcing and the blade pitch control algorithm. Special focus is devoted...... to the instability of the platform pitch natural mode, that can occur if a standard land-based controller is applied....

  17. Fatigue properties of type 316LN stainless steel in air and mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strizak, J.P.; Tian, H.; Liaw, P.K.; Mansur, L.K.

    2005-01-01

    An extensive fatigue testing program on 316LN stainless steel was recently carried out to support the design of the mercury target container for the spallation neutron source (SNS) that is currently under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the United States. The major objective was to determine the effects of mercury on fatigue behavior. The S-N fatigue behavior of 316LN stainless steel is characterized by a family of bilinear fatigue curves which are dependent on frequency, environment, mean stress and cold work. Generally, fatigue life increases with decreasing stress and levels off in the high cycle region to an endurance limit below which the material will not fail. For fully reversed loading as well as tensile mean stress loading conditions mercury had no effect on endurance limit. However, at higher stresses a synergistic relationship between mercury and cyclic loading frequency was observed at low frequencies. As expected, fatigue life decreased with decreasing frequency, but the response was more pronounced in mercury compared with air. As a result of liquid metal embrittlement (LME), fracture surfaces of specimens tested in mercury showed widespread brittle intergranular cracking as opposed to typical transgranular cracking for specimens tested in air. For fully reversed loading (zero mean stress) the effect of mercury disappeared as frequency increased to 10 Hz. For mean stress conditions with R-ratios of 0.1 and 0.3, LME was still evident at 10 Hz, but at 700 Hz the effect of mercury had disappeared (R 0.1). Further, for higher R-ratios (0.5 and 0.75) fatigue curves for 10 Hz showed no environmental effect. Finally, cold working (20%) increased tensile strength and hardness, and improved fatigue resistance. Fatigue behavior at 10 and 700 Hz was similar and no environmental effect was observed

  18. Fatigue properties of type 316LN stainless steel in air and mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strizak, J. P.; Tian, H.; Liaw, P. K.; Mansur, L. K.

    2005-08-01

    An extensive fatigue testing program on 316LN stainless steel was recently carried out to support the design of the mercury target container for the spallation neutron source (SNS) that is currently under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the United States. The major objective was to determine the effects of mercury on fatigue behavior. The S- N fatigue behavior of 316LN stainless steel is characterized by a family of bilinear fatigue curves which are dependent on frequency, environment, mean stress and cold work. Generally, fatigue life increases with decreasing stress and levels off in the high cycle region to an endurance limit below which the material will not fail. For fully reversed loading as well as tensile mean stress loading conditions mercury had no effect on endurance limit. However, at higher stresses a synergistic relationship between mercury and cyclic loading frequency was observed at low frequencies. As expected, fatigue life decreased with decreasing frequency, but the response was more pronounced in mercury compared with air. As a result of liquid metal embrittlement (LME), fracture surfaces of specimens tested in mercury showed widespread brittle intergranular cracking as opposed to typical transgranular cracking for specimens tested in air. For fully reversed loading (zero mean stress) the effect of mercury disappeared as frequency increased to 10 Hz. For mean stress conditions with R-ratios of 0.1 and 0.3, LME was still evident at 10 Hz, but at 700 Hz the effect of mercury had disappeared ( R = 0.1). Further, for higher R-ratios (0.5 and 0.75) fatigue curves for 10 Hz showed no environmental effect. Finally, cold working (20%) increased tensile strength and hardness, and improved fatigue resistance. Fatigue behavior at 10 and 700 Hz was similar and no environmental effect was observed.

  19. Mercury is Moon's brother

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksanfomalifi, L.V.

    1976-01-01

    The latest information on Mercury planet is presented obtained by studying the planet with the aid of radar and space vehicles. Rotation of Mercury about its axis has been discovered; within 2/3 of its year it executes a complete revolution about its axis. In images obtained by the ''Mariner-10'' Mercurys surface differs little from that of the Moon. The ''Mariner-10'' has also discovered the Mercurys atmosphere, which consists of extremely rarefied helium. The helium is continuously supplied to the planet by the solar wind. The Mercury's magnetic field has been discovered, whose strength is 35 x 10 -4 at the Equator and 70 x 10 -4 E at the poles. The inclination of the dipole axis to the Mercury's rotation axis is 7 deg

  20. Mercury nano-trap for effective and efficient removal of mercury(II) from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baiyan; Zhang, Yiming; Ma, Dingxuan; Shi, Zhan; Ma, Shengqian

    2014-11-01

    Highly effective and highly efficient decontamination of mercury from aqueous media remains a serious task for public health and ecosystem protection. Here we report that this task can be addressed by creating a mercury ‘nano-trap’ as illustrated by functionalizing a high surface area and robust porous organic polymer with a high density of strong mercury chelating groups. The resultant porous organic polymer-based mercury ‘nano-trap’ exhibits a record-high saturation mercury uptake capacity of over 1,000 mg g-1, and can effectively reduce the mercury(II) concentration from 10 p.p.m. to the extremely low level of smaller than 0.4 p.p.b. well below the acceptable limits in drinking water standards (2 p.p.b.), and can also efficiently remove >99.9% mercury(II) within a few minutes. Our work therefore presents a new benchmark for mercury adsorbent materials and provides a new perspective for removing mercury(II) and also other heavy metal ions from contaminated water for environmental remediation.

  1. Geodynamical simulation of the RRF triple junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Wei, D.; Liu, M.; Shi, Y.; Wang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Triple junction is the point at which three plate boundaries meet. Three plates at the triple junction form a complex geological tectonics, which is a natural laboratory to study the interactions of plates. This work studies a special triple junction, the oceanic transform fault intersects the collinear ridges with different-spreading rates, which is free of influence of ridge-transform faults and nearby hotspots. First, we build 3-D numerical model of this triple junction used to calculate the stead-state velocity and temperature fields resulting from advective and conductive heat transfer. We discuss in detail the influence of the velocity and temperature fields of the triple junction from viscosity, spreading rate of the ridge. The two sides of the oceanic transform fault are different sensitivities to the two factors. And, the influence of the velocity mainly occurs within 200km of the triple junction. Then, we modify the model by adding a ridge-transform fault to above model and directly use the velocity structure of the Macquarie triple junction. The simulation results show that the temperature at both sides of the oceanic transform fault decreases gradually from the triple junction, but the temperature difference between the two sides is a constant about 200°. And, there is little effect of upwelling velocity away from the triple junction 100km. The model results are compared with observational data. The heat flux and thermal topography along the oceanic transform fault of this model are consistent with the observed data of the Macquarie triple junction. The earthquakes are strike slip distributed along the oceanic transform fault. Their depths are also consistent with the zone of maximum shear stress. This work can help us to understand the interactions of plates of triple junctions and help us with the foundation for the future study of triple junctions.

  2. Early stage cost-effectiveness analysis of a BRCA1-like test to detect triple negative breast cancers responsive to high dose alkylating chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miquel-Cases, Anna; Steuten, Lotte Maria Gertruda; Retel, Valesca P.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) with a BRCA1-like profile may benefit from high dose alkylating chemotherapy (HDAC). This study examines whether BRCA1-like testing to target effective HDAC in TNBC patients can be more cost-effective than treating all patients with standard

  3. Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katherine Dombrowski

    2009-12-31

    This report presents the results of a multi-year test program conducted as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42779, 'Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD.' The objective of this program was to determine the level of mercury removal achievable using sorbent injection for a plant firing Texas lignite fuel and equipped with an ESP and wet FGD. The project was primarily funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. EPRI, NRG Texas, Luminant (formerly TXU), and AEP were project co-funders. URS Group was the prime contractor, and Apogee Scientific and ADA-ES were subcontractors. The host site for this program was NRG Texas Limestone Electric Generating Station (LMS) Units 1 and 2, located in Jewett, Texas. The plant fires a blend of Texas lignite and Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. Full-scale tests were conducted to evaluate the mercury removal performance of powdered sorbents injected into the flue gas upstream of the ESP (traditional configuration), upstream of the air preheater, and/or between electric fields within the ESP (Toxecon{trademark} II configuration). Phases I through III of the test program, conducted on Unit 1 in 2006-2007, consisted of three short-term parametric test phases followed by a 60-day continuous operation test. Selected mercury sorbents were injected to treat one quarter of the flue gas (e.g., approximately 225 MW equivalence) produced by Limestone Unit 1. Six sorbents and three injection configurations were evaluated and results were used to select the best combination of sorbent (Norit Americas DARCO Hg-LH at 2 lb/Macf) and injection location (upstream of the ESP) for a two-month performance evaluation. A mercury removal rate of 50-70% was targeted for the long-term test. During this continuous-injection test, mercury removal performance and variability were evaluated as the plant operated under normal conditions. Additional evaluations were made to determine any

  4. Simulation of triple coincidences in PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cal-González, J; Herranz, E; Vicente, E; Udias, J M; Lage, E; Dave, S R; Parot, V; Herraiz, J L; Moore, S C; Park, M-A

    2015-01-01

    Although current PET scanners are designed and optimized to detect double coincidence events, there is a significant amount of triple coincidences in any PET acquisition. Triple coincidences may arise from causes such as: inter-detector scatter (IDS), random triple interactions (R T ), or the detection of prompt gamma rays in coincidence with annihilation photons when non-pure positron-emitting radionuclides are used (β + γ events). Depending on the data acquisition settings of the PET scanner, these triple events are discarded or processed as a set of double coincidences if the energy of the three detected events is within the scanner’s energy window. This latter option introduces noise in the data, as at most, only one of the possible lines-of-response defined by triple interactions corresponds to the line along which the decay occurred. Several novel works have pointed out the possibility of using triple events to increase the sensitivity of PET scanners or to expand PET imaging capabilities by allowing differentiation between radiotracers labeled with non-pure and pure positron-emitting radionuclides. In this work, we extended the Monte Carlo simulator PeneloPET to assess the proportion of triple coincidences in PET acquisitions and to evaluate their possible applications. We validated the results of the simulator against experimental data acquired with a modified version of a commercial preclinical PET/CT scanner, which was enabled to acquire and process triple-coincidence events. We used as figures of merit the energy spectra for double and triple coincidences and the triples-to-doubles ratio for different energy windows and radionuclides. After validation, the simulator was used to predict the relative quantity of triple-coincidence events in two clinical scanners assuming different acquisition settings. Good agreement between simulations and preclinical experiments was found, with differences below 10% for most of the observables considered. For

  5. Mercury exposure may influence fluctuating asymmetry in waterbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Ackerman, Joshua T

    2017-06-01

    Variation in avian bilateral symmetry can be an indicator of developmental instability in response to a variety of stressors, including environmental contaminants. The authors used composite measures of fluctuating asymmetry to examine the influence of mercury concentrations in 2 tissues on fluctuating asymmetry within 4 waterbird species. Fluctuating asymmetry increased with mercury concentrations in whole blood and breast feathers of Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri), a species with elevated mercury concentrations. Specifically, fluctuating asymmetry in rectrix feather 1 was the most strongly correlated structural variable of those tested (wing chord, tarsus, primary feather 10, rectrix feather 6) with mercury concentrations in Forster's terns. However, for American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia), the authors found no relationship between fluctuating asymmetry and either whole-blood or breast feather mercury concentrations, even though these species had moderate to elevated mercury exposure. The results indicate that mercury contamination may act as an environmental stressor during development and feather growth and contribute to fluctuating asymmetry of some species of highly contaminated waterbirds. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1599-1605. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  6. Treatability study for removal of leachable mercury in crushed fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.D.; Beck, D.E.; Bowser, K.T.

    1996-02-01

    Nonserviceable fluorescent lamps removed from radiological control areas at the Oak Ridge Department of Energy facilities have been crushed and are currently managed as mixed waste (hazardous and radiologically contaminated). We present proposed treatment flowsheets and supporting treatability study data for conditioning this solid waste residue so that it can qualify for disposal in a sanitary landfill. Mercury in spent fluorescent lamps occurs primarily as condensate on high-surface-area phosphor material. It can be solubilized with excess oxidants (e.g., hypochlorite solution) and stabilized by complexation with halide ions. Soluble mercury in dechlorinated saline solution is effectively removed by cementation with zero-valent iron in the form of steel wool. In packed column dynamic flow testing, soluble mercury was reduced to mercury metal and insoluble calomel, loading > 1.2 g of mercury per grain of steel wool before an appreciable breakthrough of soluble mercury in the effluent

  7. Treatability study for removal of leachable mercury in crushed fluorescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, W.D.; Beck, D.E.; Bowser, K.T. [and others

    1996-02-01

    Nonserviceable fluorescent lamps removed from radiological control areas at the Oak Ridge Department of Energy facilities have been crushed and are currently managed as mixed waste (hazardous and radiologically contaminated). We present proposed treatment flowsheets and supporting treatability study data for conditioning this solid waste residue so that it can qualify for disposal in a sanitary landfill. Mercury in spent fluorescent lamps occurs primarily as condensate on high-surface-area phosphor material. It can be solubilized with excess oxidants (e.g., hypochlorite solution) and stabilized by complexation with halide ions. Soluble mercury in dechlorinated saline solution is effectively removed by cementation with zero-valent iron in the form of steel wool. In packed column dynamic flow testing, soluble mercury was reduced to mercury metal and insoluble calomel, loading > 1.2 g of mercury per grain of steel wool before an appreciable breakthrough of soluble mercury in the effluent.

  8. Mercury emission and speciation of coal-fired power plants in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. X. Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive field measurements are needed to understand the mercury emissions from Chinese power plants and to improve the accuracy of emission inventories. Characterization of mercury emissions and their behavior were measured in six typical coal-fired power plants in China. During the tests, the flue gas was sampled simultaneously at inlet and outlet of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR, electrostatic precipitators (ESP, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM. The pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash and gypsum were also sampled in the field. Mercury concentrations in coal burned in the measured power plants ranged from 17 to 385 μg/kg. The mercury mass balances for the six power plants varied from 87 to 116% of the input coal mercury for the whole system. The total mercury concentrations in the flue gas from boilers were at the range of 1.92–27.15 μg/m3, which were significantly related to the mercury contents in burned coal. The mercury speciation in flue gas right after the boiler is influenced by the contents of halogen, mercury, and ash in the burned coal. The average mercury removal efficiencies of ESP, ESP plus wet FGD, and ESP plus dry FGD-FF systems were 24%, 73% and 66%, respectively, which were similar to the average removal efficiencies of pollution control device systems in other countries such as US, Japan and South Korea. The SCR system oxidized 16% elemental mercury and reduced about 32% of total mercury. Elemental mercury, accounting for 66–94% of total mercury, was the dominant species emitted to the atmosphere. The mercury emission factor was also calculated for each power plant.

  9. MERCURY REMOVAL FROM DOE SOLID MIXED WASTE USING THE GEMEP(sm) TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-03-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), Metcalf and Eddy (M and E), in association with General Electric Corporate Research and Development Center (GE-CRD), Colorado Minerals Research Institute (CMRI), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), conducted laboratory-scale and bench-scale tests of the General Electric Mercury Extraction Process technology on two mercury-contaminated mixed solid wastes from U. S. Department of Energy sites: sediment from the East Fork of Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge (samples supplied by Oak Ridge National Laboratory), and drummed soils from Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL). Fluorescent lamps provided by GE-CRD were also studied. The GEMEP technology, invented and patented by the General Electric Company, uses an extraction solution composed of aqueous potassium iodide plus iodine to remove mercury from soils and other wastes. The extraction solution is regenerated by chemical oxidation and reused, after the solubilized mercury is removed from solution by reducing it to the metallic state. The results of the laboratory- and bench-scale testing conducted for this project included: (1) GEMEP extraction tests to optimize extraction conditions and determine the extent of co-extraction of radionuclides; (2) pre-screening (pre-segregation) tests to determine if initial separation steps could be used effectively to reduce the volume of material needing GEMEP extraction; and (3) demonstration of the complete extraction, mercury recovery, and iodine recovery and regeneration process (known as locked-cycle testing).

  10. Analysis of Halogen-Mercury Reactions in Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula Buitrago; Geoffrey Silcox; Constance Senior; Brydger Van Otten

    2010-01-01

    was observed at SO{sub 2} concentrations of 400 ppmv and higher. In contrast, SO{sub 2} concentrations as low as 50 ppmv significantly reduced mercury oxidation by bromine, this reduction could be due to both gas and liquid phase interactions between SO{sub 2} and oxidized mercury species. The simultaneous presence of chlorine and bromine in the flue gas resulted in a slight increase in mercury oxidation above that obtained with bromine alone, the extent of the observed increase is proportional to the chlorine concentration. The results of this study can be used to understand the relative importance of gas-phase mercury oxidation by bromine and chlorine in combustion systems. Two temperature profiles were tested: a low quench (210 K/s) and a high quench (440 K/s). For chlorine the effects of quench rate were slight and hard to characterize with confidence. Oxidation with bromine proved sensitive to quench rate with significantly more oxidation at the lower rate. The data generated in this program are the first homogeneous laboratory-scale data on bromine-induced oxidation of mercury in a combustion system. Five Hg-Cl and three Hg-Br mechanisms, some published and others under development, were evaluated and compared to the new data. The Hg-halogen mechanisms were combined with submechanisms from Reaction Engineering International for NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and hydrocarbons. The homogeneous kinetics under-predicted the levels of mercury oxidation observed in full-scale systems. This shortcoming can be corrected by including heterogeneous kinetics in the model calculations.

  11. Study of high levels indoor air mercury contamination from mercury amalgam use in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khwaja, M.A.; Abbasi, M.S.; Mehmood, F.; Jahangir, S.

    2014-01-01

    In 2005, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) estimated that 362 tonnes of dental mercury are consumed annually worldwide. Dental mercury amalgams also called silver fillings and amalgam fillings are widely done. These fillings gave off mercury vapours. Estimated average absorbed concentrations of mercury vapours from dental fillings vary from 3,000 to 17,000 ng Hg. Mercury (Hg) also known as quick silver is an essential constituent of dental amalgam. It is a toxic substance of global concern. A persistent pollutant, mercury is not limited to its source but it travels, on time thousands of kilometers away from the source. Scientific evidence, including, UNEP Global Mercury report, establishes mercury as an extremely toxic substance, which is a major threat to wildlife, ecosystem and human health, at a global scale. Children are more at risk from mercury poisoning which affects their neurological development and brain. Mercury poisoning diminishes memory, attention, thinking and sight. In the past, a number of studies at dental sites in many countries have been carried out and reported which have been reviewed and briefly described. This paper describes and discusses the recent investigations, regarding mercury vapours level in air, carried out at 18 dental sites in Pakistan and other countries. It is evident from the data of 42 dental sites in 17 countries, including, selected dental sites in five main cities of Pakistan, described and discussed in this paper that at most dental sites in many countries including Pakistan, the indoor mercury vapours levels exceed far above the permissible limit, recommended for safe physical and mental health. At these sites, public, in general, and the medical, paramedical staff and vulnerable population, in particular, are at most serious risk to health resulting from exposure to toxic and hazardous mercury. (author)

  12. Mercury enrichment and its effects on atmospheric emissions in cement plants of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengyang; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Hai; Wu, Qingru; Hao, Jiming

    2014-08-01

    The cement industry is one of the most significant anthropogenic sources of atmospheric mercury emissions worldwide. In this study of three typical Chinese cement plants, mercury in kiln flue gas was sampled using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM), and solid samples were analyzed. Particulate matter recycling, preheating of raw materials, and the use of coal and flue gas desulfurization derived gypsum contributed to emissions of Hg in the air and to accumulation in cement. Over 90% of the mercury input was emitted into the atmosphere. Mercury emission factors were 0.044-0.072 g/t clinker for the test plants. The major species emitted into the atmosphere from cement plants is oxidized mercury, accounting for 61%-91% of the total mercury in flue gas. The results of this study help improve the accuracy of the mercury emission inventory in China and provide useful information for developing mercury controls.

  13. The Mercury Laser Altimeter Instrument for the MESSENGER Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, John F.; Smith, James C.; Sun, Xiaoli; Bartels, Arlin E.; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis; Krebs, Danny J.; Novo-Gradac, Anne marie; McGarry, Jan F.; Trunzo, Raymond; Britt, Jamie L.

    2006-01-01

    The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) is one of the payload science instruments on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, which launched on 3 August 2004. The altimeter will measure the round trip time-of-flight of transmitted laser pulses reflected from the surface of the planet that, in combination with the spacecraft orbit position and pointing data, gives a high-precision measurement of surface topography referenced to Mercury's center of mass. The altimeter measurements will be used to determine the planet's forced librations by tracking the motion of large-scale topographic features as a function of time. MLA's laser pulse energy monitor and the echo pulse energy estimate will provide an active measurement of the surface reflectivity at 1064 nm. This paper describes the instrument design, prelaunch testing, calibration, and results of post-launch testing.

  14. Concentration of mercury in wheat samples stored with mercury tablets as preservative. [Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalit, B Y; Ramachandran, T V [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Air Monitoring Section

    1977-01-01

    Tablets consisting of mercury in the form of a dull grey powder made by triturating mercury with chalk and sugar are used in Indian household for storing food-grains. The contamination of wheat samples by mercury, when stored with mercury tablets for period of upto four years has been assessed by using non-destructive neutron activation analysis. The details of the analytical procedure used have also been briefly described. The concentration of mercury in wheat increases with storage period. Loss of weight of mercury tablet is proportional to the storage period to a first approximation. In the present experiment, the average weight loss at the and end of first year was 0.009716 g corresponding to 6 ppm in wheat.

  15. Comparative study on mammography between triple negative and triple positive breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Chunxiao; Lin Qing; Yang Qing; Zhang Chuanyu; Wang Shaohua; Yu Hualong; Duan Feng; Liu Shihe

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the mammographic findings of triple-negative breast cancer [TNBC, which is estrogen receptor (ER) negative, progesterone receptor (PR) negative, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) negative] and triple-positive breast cancer (TPBC, which is ER positive, PR positive, and HER2 positive), and to evaluate the relationship of immunohistochemologic receptor status and mammographic findings. Methods: The immunohistochemistry results of 631 cases with breast cancers were reviewed, including 117 cases of TNBC and 44 cases of TPBC. All of the patients took mammography at initial diagnosis. We retrospectively evaluated the visibility, morphology, distribution and size of the lesion (masses and calcifications) and breast density on mammography of TNBC, and compared them with those of TPBC. The age onset and tumor sizes of TNBC and TPBC were compared by using Chi-square test and t test. Results: The visibility rate of TNBC and TPBC on mammography were 88.0%(103/117) and 90.9% (40/44), and the difference between them was insignificant (χ 2 =0.055, P >0.05). TNBC was more frequently associated with merely a mass (56/103) than TPBC (12/40) (χ 2 =6.860, P<0.01), and the mean diameter of the mass of TNBC [(2.6 ± 1.4) cm] was larger than that of TPBC [(2.0 ± 0.6) cm] (t=2.087, P<0.05). TNBC were less frequently associated with microcalcifications (37/103) than TPBC (24/40) (χ 2 =7.423, P<0.01). Mammographic density and lesion visibility were similar between the two different immunophenotypes of breast cancers. The mean age of TNBC (52±9) was more than that of TPBC (48 ±8) (t=2.759, P<0.01). Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the main pathologic type of both groups. Basal-like breast cancer accounted for 49% (57/117) of TNBC while none happened in TPBC. Conclusions: TNBC shows merely a mass with indistinct margins,lager size and is less associated with microcalcifications. These mammographic features might be useful in diagnosing triple

  16. Investigation of mercury-free potentiometric stripping analysis and the influence of mercury in the analysis of trace-elements lead and zinc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Andersen, Laust

    1997-01-01

    in an electrolyte containing 0.1 M HCl and 2 mg/g Zn2+ and electrolysis at -1400 mV(SCE). It is suggested that the concentration range of linear response occur where the electrode is not fully covered by metal clusters during the electrolysis step. The influence of mercury is investigated and a model is proposed...... which explains the co-deposition of mercury and test metals in the electrolysis step in terms of a charge-distribution parameter. The model explains that the decrease of stripping peak area, as a function of concentration, is entirely due to mercury ions being simultaneously reduced together......Application of Potentiometric Stripping Analysis (PSA), without any mercury, to determination of trace-elements lead and zinc, results in linear responses between stripping-peak areas and concentrations within the range 0-2000 ng/g. The best response, as determined by the size of stripping areas...

  17. Remote process cell mercury transfer pumps for DWPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, M.G.; Vaughn, V.G.

    1986-01-01

    Final design and the results of the testing performed thus far show that the water displacement of mercury to a height of 40 feet is feasible with just 6 gallons of motive water. Control of the transfer is achieved by monitoring the pump discharge pressure. An air actuated plug valve configuration successfully contained the required discharge pressure of 260 psi. The requirements of low flow and maximum separation of mercury from particulates are achieved due to the configuration of the pressure canister. The pump is capable of transferring a discrete amount of mercury with little additional slurry particulates. The success of this new pumping configuration is highlighted by the fact that it was the inspiration for other remote transfer applications tested at SRP. These application include the dual canister sample pump shown in Figure 7, as well as a successful prototype pump designed at Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL). The PNL pump was designed for the purpose of metering waste slurries to an electric melter. Upon completion of final pump fabrication, the Defense Waste Processing facility (DWPF) facility will have a simple and highly reliable method of remotely transferring small discrete batches of mercury as required from radioactive process vessels. 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  18. Radioactive mercury distribution in biological fluids and excretion in human subjects after inhalation of mercury vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherian, M.G.; Hursh, J.B.; Clarkson, T.W.; Allen, J.

    1978-01-01

    The distribution of mercury in red blood cells (RBCs) and plasma, and its excretion in urine and feces are described in five human subjects during the first 7 days following inhalation of radioactive mercury vapor. A major portion (98%) of radioactive mercury in whole blood is initially accumulated in the RBCs and is transferred partly to the plasma compartment until the ratio of mercury in RBCs to plasma is about 2 within 20 h. The cumulative urinary and fecal excretion of mercury for 7 days is about 11.6% of the retained dose, and is closely related to the percent decline in body burden of mercury. There is little correlation between either the urinary excretion and plasma radioactivity of mercury, or the specific activities of urine and plasma mercury, suggesting a mechanism other than a direct glomerular filtration involved in the urinary excretion of recently exposed mercury. These studies suggest that blood mercury levels can be used as an index of recent exposure, while urinary levels may be an index of renal concentration of mercury. However, there is no reliable index for mercury concentration in the brain

  19. Solubility of helium in mercury for bubbling technology of the spallation neutron mercury target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, S.; Naoe, T.; Futakawa, M.

    2010-01-01

    The pitting damage of mercury target container that originates in the pressure wave excited by the proton beam incidence becomes a large problem to reach the high-power neutron source in JSNS and SNS. The lifetime of mercury container is decreased remarkably by the pitting damage. As one of solutions, the pressure wave is mitigated by injecting the helium micro bubbles in mercury. In order to inject the helium micro bubbles into mercury, it is important to understand the characteristic of micro bubbles in mercury. The solubility of mercury-helium system is a key factor to decide bubbling conditions, because the disappearance behavior, i.e. the lifetime of micro bubbles, depends on the solubility. In addition, the bubble generation method is affected by it. Moreover, the experimental data related to the solubility of helium in mercury hardly exist. In this work, the solubility was obtained experimentally by measuring precisely the pressure drop of the gas that is facing to mercury surface. The pressure drop was attributed to the helium dissolution into mercury. Based on the measured solubility, the lifetime of micro bubbles and the method of the bubble generation is estimated using the solubility data.

  20. Potassium permanganate for mercury vapor environmental control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuivinen, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) was evaluated for application in removing mercury vapor from exhaust air systems. The KMnO4 may be used in water solution with a liquid spray scrubber system or as a solid adsorber bed material when impregnated onto a zeolite. Air samples contaminated with as much as 112 mg/cu m of mercury were scrubbed to 0.06mg/cum with the KMnO4-impregnated zeolite (molecular sieve material). The water spray solution of permanganate was also found to be as effective as the impregnated zeolite. The KMnO4-impregnated zeolite was applied as a solid adsorber material to (1) a hardware decontamination system, (2) a model incinerator, and (3) a high vacuum chamber for ion engine testing with mercury as the propellant. A liquid scrubber system was also applied in an incinerator system. Based on the results of these experiments, it is concluded that the use of KMnO4 can be an effective method for controlling noxious mercury vapor.

  1. Mercury CEM Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani; Susan S. Sorini

    2007-03-31

    The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005, requires that calibration of mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The traceability protocol will be written by EPA. Traceability will be based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging from about 2-40 ug/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ID ICP/MS) through a chain of analyses linking the calibration unit in the power plant to the NIST ID ICP/MS. Prior to this project, NIST did not provide a recommended mercury vapor pressure equation or list mercury vapor pressure in its vapor pressure database. The NIST Physical and Chemical Properties Division in Boulder, Colorado was subcontracted under this project to study the issue in detail and to recommend a mercury vapor pressure equation that the vendors of mercury vapor pressure calibration units can use to calculate the elemental mercury vapor concentration in an equilibrium chamber at a particular temperature. As part of this study, a preliminary evaluation of calibration units from five vendors was made. The work was performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD and Joe Rovani from WRI who traveled to NIST as a Visiting Scientist.

  2. Water striders (family Gerridae): mercury sentinels in small freshwater ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, Timothy D.; Al, Tom A.; MacQuarrie, Kerry T.B.; Ritchie, Charles D.; Arp, Paul A.; Maprani, Antu; Cunjak, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    To circumvent some of the previous limitations associated with contaminant-monitoring programs, we tested the suitability of the water strider (Hemiptera: Gerridae) as a mercury sentinel by comparing total mercury concentrations in water striders and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) from a variety of stream sites in New Brunswick, Canada. There was a strong association between the two variables across sites (r 2 = 0.81, P < 0.001) in systems where both atmospheric deposition and a point source (an abandoned gold mine) were likely contributing to ambient mercury levels. In a small stream draining the gold mine tailings pile, water striders had mercury concentrations an order of magnitude higher than those from reference locations. Temporal variation at three southern New Brunswick stream sites was non-significant. These results suggest that water strider mercury levels accurately quantify food chain entry of the element. The use of sentinel species holds great potential for expanding contaminant-monitoring programs. - Water striders accurately reflect the entry of mercury in food chains of small freshwater systems

  3. Mercury removal from coal combustion flue gas by fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, Junyan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Research Center for Process Pollution Control; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Graduate Univ.; Xu, Wenqing; Zhu, Tingyu; Jing, Pengfei [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Research Center for Process Pollution Control

    2013-07-01

    The effect of physicochemical properties on the mercury adsorption performance of three fly ash samples has been investigated. The samples were tested for mercury adsorption using a fixed-bed with a simulated gas. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and other methods were used to characterize the samples. The results indicate that mercury adsorption on fly ash is mainly physisorption and chemisorption. Uncompleted burned carbon is an important factor for the improvement of mercury removal efficiency, especially, the C-M bond may improve the oxidation of mercury, which formed via the reaction of C and Ti, Si and other elements. The higher specific surface areas and smaller pore diameter are all beneficial for the high mercury removal efficiency. The presence of O{sub 2} plays a positive role on Hg adsorption of modified fly ash, while SO{sub 2} has double role of inhibition because of competitive adsorption and promotion to chemisorption. In addition, sample modified with FeCl{sub 3} has a great performance in Hg removal.

  4. Mercury Exposure and Heart Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genchi, Giuseppe; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Carocci, Alessia; Lauria, Graziantonio; Catalano, Alessia

    2017-01-01

    Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. It has been determined that mercury is not only harmful to the health of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children, but is also toxic to ordinary adults in various ways. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities. Nowadays, the exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Recent studies suggest that chronic exposure, even to low concentration levels of mercury, can cause cardiovascular, reproductive, and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Possible biological effects of mercury, including the relationship between mercury toxicity and diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction, are being studied. As heart rhythm and function are under autonomic nervous system control, it has been hypothesized that the neurotoxic effects of mercury might also impact cardiac autonomic function. Mercury exposure could have a long-lasting effect on cardiac parasympathetic activity and some evidence has shown that mercury exposure might affect heart rate variability, particularly early exposures in children. The mechanism by which mercury produces toxic effects on the cardiovascular system is not fully elucidated, but this mechanism is believed to involve an increase in oxidative stress. The exposure to mercury increases the production of free radicals, potentially because of the role of mercury in the Fenton reaction and a reduction in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase. In this review we report an overview on the toxicity of mercury and focus our attention on the toxic effects on the cardiovascular system. PMID:28085104

  5. Mercury Exposure and Heart Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genchi, Giuseppe; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Carocci, Alessia; Lauria, Graziantonio; Catalano, Alessia

    2017-01-12

    Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. It has been determined that mercury is not only harmful to the health of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children, but is also toxic to ordinary adults in various ways. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities. Nowadays, the exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Recent studies suggest that chronic exposure, even to low concentration levels of mercury, can cause cardiovascular, reproductive, and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Possible biological effects of mercury, including the relationship between mercury toxicity and diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction, are being studied. As heart rhythm and function are under autonomic nervous system control, it has been hypothesized that the neurotoxic effects of mercury might also impact cardiac autonomic function. Mercury exposure could have a long-lasting effect on cardiac parasympathetic activity and some evidence has shown that mercury exposure might affect heart rate variability, particularly early exposures in children. The mechanism by which mercury produces toxic effects on the cardiovascular system is not fully elucidated, but this mechanism is believed to involve an increase in oxidative stress. The exposure to mercury increases the production of free radicals, potentially because of the role of mercury in the Fenton reaction and a reduction in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase. In this review we report an overview on the toxicity of mercury and focus our attention on the toxic effects on the cardiovascular system.

  6. Mercury Exposure and Heart Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Genchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. It has been determined that mercury is not only harmful to the health of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children, but is also toxic to ordinary adults in various ways. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities. Nowadays, the exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Recent studies suggest that chronic exposure, even to low concentration levels of mercury, can cause cardiovascular, reproductive, and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Possible biological effects of mercury, including the relationship between mercury toxicity and diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction, are being studied. As heart rhythm and function are under autonomic nervous system control, it has been hypothesized that the neurotoxic effects of mercury might also impact cardiac autonomic function. Mercury exposure could have a long-lasting effect on cardiac parasympathetic activity and some evidence has shown that mercury exposure might affect heart rate variability, particularly early exposures in children. The mechanism by which mercury produces toxic effects on the cardiovascular system is not fully elucidated, but this mechanism is believed to involve an increase in oxidative stress. The exposure to mercury increases the production of free radicals, potentially because of the role of mercury in the Fenton reaction and a reduction in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase. In this review we report an overview on the toxicity of mercury and focus our attention on the toxic effects on the cardiovascular system.

  7. Mercury exposure on potential plant Ludwigia octovalvis L. - Preliminary toxicological testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrawiq, Huda S. M.; Mushrifah, I.

    2013-11-01

    The preliminary test in phytoremediation is necessaryto determine the ability of plant to survive in media with different concentrations of contaminant. It was conducted to determine the maximum concentration of the contaminant that isharmful to the plant and suppress the plant growth. This study showed the ability of Ludwigia octovalvisto resist mercury (Hg) contaminant in sand containing different concentrations of Hg (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 mg/L). The experimental work wasperformed under greenhouse conditions for an observation period of 4 weeks. Throughout the 4 weeks duration, the resultsshowed that 66.66% of the plants withered for on exposure to Hg concentration of 4 mg/L and 100% withered at higher concentrations of 6 and 8 mg/L. The results of this study may serve as a basis for research that aims to study uptake and accumulation of Hg using potential phytoremediation plants.

  8. Sexual differences in the excretion of organic and inorganic mercury by methyl mercury-treated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.J.; Fisher, H.L.; Sumler, M.R.; Mushak, P.; Hall, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    Adult male and female Long Evans rats received 1 mumole of methyl ( 203 Hg) mercuric chloride per kilogram sc. Whole-body retention of mercury and excretion of organic and inorganic mercury in urine and feces were monitored for 98 days after dosing. Females cleared mercury from the body more rapidly than did males. The major route of mercury excretion was feces. By 98 days after dosing, cumulative mercury excretion in feces accounted for about 51% of the dose in males and about 54% of the dose in females. For both sexes, about 33% of the dose was excreted in feces as inorganic mercury. Cumulative excretion of organic mercury in feces accounted for about 18 and 21% of the dose in males and females, respectively. Urinary excretion of mercury was quantitatively a smaller route for mercury clearance but important sexual differences in loss by this route were found. Over the 98-day experimental period, males excreted in urine about 3.2% of the dose and females excreted 7.5%. Cumulative organic Hg excretion in urine accounted for 1.8% of the dose in males and 5.3% of the dose in females. These sexual differences in urinary and fecal excretion of organic and inorganic mercury following methyl mercury treatment were consistent with previous reports of sexual differences in mercury distribution and retention in methyl mercury-treated rats, particularly sexual differences in organic mercury uptake and retention in the kidney. Relationships between body burdens of organic or inorganic Hg and output of these forms of Hg in urine and feces were also found to be influenced by the interval after MeHg treatment and by sex. Relationship between concentration of Hg in liver and feces and in kidney and urine differed for organic and inorganic Hg and depended upon sexual status and interval after MeHg treatment

  9. 76 FR 13851 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali...-5] RIN 2060-AN99 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Supplemental...

  10. Wakeless triple soliton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mima, K.; Ohsuga, T.; Takabe, H.; Nishihara, K.; Tajima, T.; Zaidman, E.; Horton, W.

    1986-09-01

    We introduce and analyze the concept of a wakeless triple soliton accelerator in a plasma fiber. Under appropriate conditions the triple soliton with two electromagnetic and one electrostatic waves in the beat-wave resonance propagates with velocity c leaving no plasma wake behind, while the phase velocity of the electrostatic wave is made also c in the fiber

  11. Mercury in Nordic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munthe, John; Waengberg, Ingvar (IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (SE)); Rognerud, Sigurd; Fjeld, Eirik (Norwegian Inst. for Water Research (NIVA), Oslo (Norway)); Verta, Matti; Porvari, Petri (Finnish Environment Inst. (SYKE), Helsinki (Finland)); Meili, Markus (Inst. of Applied Environmental Research (ITM), Stockholm (Sweden))

    2007-12-15

    This report provides a first comprehensive compilation and assessment of available data on mercury in air, precipitation, sediments and fish in the Nordic countries. The main conclusion is that mercury levels in Nordic ecosystems continue to be affected by long-range atmospheric transport. The geographical patterns of mercury concentrations in both sediments and fish are also strongly affected by ecosystem characteristics and in some regions possibly by historical pollution. An evaluation of geographical variations in mercury concentrations in precipitation indicates that the influence from anthropogenic sources from Central European areas is still significant. The annual variability of deposition is large and dependant of precipitation amounts. An evaluation of data from stations around the North Sea has indicated a significant decrease in mercury concentrations in precipitation indicating a continuous decrease of emissions in Europe (Waengberg et al., 2007). For mercury in air (TGM), the geographical pattern is less pronounced indicating the influence of mercury emissions and distribution over a larger geographical area (i.e. hemispherical transport). Comparison of recent (surficial) and historical lake sediments show significantly elevated concentrations of mercury most likely caused by anthropogenic atmospheric deposition over the past century. The highest pollution impact was observed in the coastal areas of southern Norway, in south western Finland and in Sweden from the coastal areas in the southwest across the central parts to the north-east. The general increase in recent versus old sediments was 2-5 fold. Data on mercury in Nordic freshwater fish was assembled and evaluated with respect to geographical variations. The fish data were further compared with temporal and spatial trends in mercury deposition and mercury contamination of lake sediments in order to investigate the coupling between atmospheric transport and deposition of mercury and local mercury

  12. SHORT COMMUNICATION: Correlation between the Resistance Ratios of Platinum Resistance Thermometers at the Melting Point of Gallium and the Triple Point of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Y. P.; Maas, H.; Edler, F.; Zaidi, Z. H.

    1994-01-01

    A set of resistance ratios (W) for platinum resistance thermometers was obtained at the triple point of Hg and the melting point of Ga in order to study their relationship. It was found that using measured values for one of the fixed points, a linear equation will predict the value of the other. These measurements also indicate that the fixed points of Hg and of Ga are inconsistent by about 1,5 mK in the sense that either the melting point of Ga or the triple point of Hg was assigned too high a value on the ITS-90.

  13. Triple Pulse Tester - Efficient Power Loss Characterization of Power Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Poulsen, Thomas; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the triple pulse testing method and circuit for power loss characterization of power modules is introduced. The proposed test platform is able to accurately characterize both the switching and conduction losses of power modules in a single automated process. A configuration of a half...

  14. Understanding the mercury reduction issue: the impact of mercury on the environment and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Richard T; Dault, Scott; Pichay, Teresa

    2004-07-01

    Mercury has been used in both medicine and dentistry for centuries. Recent media attention regarding the increased levels of mercury in dietary fish, high levels of mercury in air emissions, and conjecture that certain diseases may be caused by mercury exposure has increased public awareness of the potential adverse health effects of high doses of mercury. Dentistry has been criticized for its continued use of mercury in dental amalgam for both public health and environmental reasons. To address these concerns, dental professionals should understand the impact of the various levels and types of mercury on the environment and human health. Mercury is unique in its ability to form amalgams with other metals. Dental amalgam--consisting of silver, copper, tin, and mercury--has been used as a safe, stable, and cost-effective restorative material for more than 150 years. As a result of this use, the dental profession has been confronted by the public on two separate health issues concerning the mercury content in amalgam. The first issue is whether the mercury amalgamated with the various metals to create dental restorations poses a health issue for patients. The second is whether the scraps associated with amalgam placement and the removal of amalgam restorations poses environmental hazards which may eventually have an impact on human health. Despite the lack of scientific evidence for such hazards, there is growing pressure for the dental profession to address these health issues. In this article, the toxicology of mercury will be reviewed and the impact of amalgam on health and the environment will be examined.

  15. Chemical Form Matters: Differential Accumulation of Mercury Following Inorganic and Organic Mercury Exposures in Zebrafish Larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korbas, Malgorzata; MacDonald, Tracy C.; Pickering, Ingrid J.; George, Graham N.; Krone, Patrick H. (Saskatchewan)

    2013-04-08

    Mercury, one of the most toxic elements, exists in various chemical forms each with different toxicities and health implications. Some methylated mercury forms, one of which exists in fish and other seafood products, pose a potential threat, especially during embryonic and early postnatal development. Despite global concerns, little is known about the mechanisms underlying transport and toxicity of different mercury species. To investigate the impact of different mercury chemical forms on vertebrate development, we have successfully combined the zebrafish, a well-established developmental biology model system, with synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence imaging. Our work revealed substantial differences in tissue-specific accumulation patterns of mercury in zebrafish larvae exposed to four different mercury formulations in water. Methylmercury species not only resulted in overall higher mercury burdens but also targeted different cells and tissues than their inorganic counterparts, thus revealing a significant role of speciation in cellular and molecular targeting and mercury sequestration. For methylmercury species, the highest mercury concentrations were in the eye lens epithelial cells, independent of the formulation ligand (chloride versus L-cysteine). For inorganic mercury species, in absence of L-cysteine, the olfactory epithelium and kidney accumulated the greatest amounts of mercury. However, with L-cysteine present in the treatment solution, mercuric bis-L-cysteineate species dominated the treatment, significantly decreasing uptake. Our results clearly demonstrate that the common differentiation between organic and inorganic mercury is not sufficient to determine the toxicity of various mercury species.

  16. Exposure to dietary mercury alters cognition and behavior of zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaddle, John P; Diehl, Tessa R; Taylor, Capwell E; Fanaee, Aaron S; Benson, Jessica L; Huckstep, Neil R; Cristol, Daniel A

    2017-04-01

    Environmental stressors can negatively affect avian cognitive abilities, potentially reducing fitness, for example by altering response to predators, display to mates, or memory of locations of food. We expand on current knowledge by investigating the effects of dietary mercury, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and known neurotoxin, on avian cognition. Zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata were dosed for their entire lives with sub-lethal levels of mercury, at the environmentally relevant dose of 1.2 parts per million. In our first study, we compared the dosed birds with controls of the same age using tests of three cognitive abilities: spatial memory, inhibitory control, and color association. In the spatial memory assay, birds were tested on their ability to learn and remember the location of hidden food in their cage. The inhibitory control assay measured their ability to ignore visible but inaccessible food in favor of a learned behavior that provided the same reward. Finally, the color association task tested each bird's ability to associate a specific color with the presence of hidden food. Dietary mercury negatively affected spatial memory ability but not inhibitory control or color association. Our second study focused on three behavioral assays not tied to a specific skill or problem-solving: activity level, neophobia, and social dominance. Zebra finches exposed to dietary mercury throughout their lives were subordinate to, and more active than, control birds. We found no evidence that mercury exposure influenced our metric of neophobia. Together, these results suggest that sub-lethal exposure to environmental mercury selectively harms neurological pathways that control different cognitive abilities, with complex effects on behavior and fitness.

  17. Mercury capture within coal-fired power plant electrostatic precipitators: model evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Herek L

    2009-03-01

    Efforts to reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions worldwide have recently focused on a variety of sources, including mercury emitted during coal combustion. Toward that end, much research has been ongoing seeking to develop new processes for reducing coal combustion mercury emissions. Among air pollution control processes that can be applied to coal-fired boilers, electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are by far the most common, both on a global scale and among the principal countries of India, China, and the U.S. that burn coal for electric power generation. A previously reported theoretical model of in-flight mercury capture within ESPs is herein evaluated against data from a number of full-scale tests of activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control. By using the established particle size distribution of the activated carbon and actual or estimated values of its equilibrium mercury adsorption capacity, the incremental reduction in mercury concentration across each ESP can be predicted and compared to experimental results. Because the model does not incorporate kinetics associated with gas-phase mercury transformation or surface adsorption, the model predictions representthe mass-transfer-limited performance. Comparing field data to model results reveals many facilities performing at or near the predicted mass-transfer-limited maximum, particularly at low rates of sorbent injection. Where agreement is poor between field data and model predictions, additional chemical or physical phenomena may be responsible for reducing mercury removal efficiencies.

  18. NIM Realization of the Gallium Triple Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoke, Yan; Ping, Qiu; Yuning, Duan; Yongmei, Qu

    2003-09-01

    In the last three years (1999 to 2001), the gallium triple-point cell has been successfully developed, and much corresponding research has been carried out at the National Institute of Metrology (NIM), Beijing, China. This paper presents the cell design, apparatus and procedure for realizing the gallium triple point, and presents studies on the different freezing methods. The reproducibility is 0.03 mK, and the expanded uncertainty of realization of the gallium triple point is evaluated to be 0.17 mK (p=0.99, k=2.9). Also, the reproducibility of the gallium triple point was compared with that of the triple point of water.

  19. Getting Mercury out of Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    This guide was prepared while working with many Massachusetts schools to remove items that contain mercury and to find suitable alternatives. It contains fact sheets on: mercury in science laboratories and classrooms, mercury in school buildings and maintenance areas, mercury in the medical office and in medical technology classrooms in vocational…

  20. Organizing product innovation: hierarchy, market or triple-helix networks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitjar, Rune Dahl; Gjelsvik, Martin; Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés

    This paper assesses the extent to which the organization of the innovation effort in firms, as well as the geographical scale at which this effort is pursued, affects the capacity to benefit from product innovations. Three alternative modes of organization are studied: hierarchy, market and triple-helix-type networks. Furthermore, we consider triple-helix networks at three geographical scales: local, national and international. These relationships are tested on a random sample of 763 firms located in five urban regions of Norway which reported having introduced new products or services during the preceding 3 years. The analysis shows that firms exploiting internal hierarchy or triple-helix networks with a wide range of partners managed to derive a significantly higher share of their income from new products, compared to those that mainly relied on outsourcing within the market. In addition, the analysis shows that the geographical scale of cooperation in networks, as well as the type of partner used, matters for the capacity of firms to benefit from product innovation. In particular, firms that collaborate in international triple-helix-type networks involving suppliers, customers and R&D institutions extract a higher share of their income from product innovations, regardless of whether they organize the processes internally or through the network.

  1. Vaporization of elemental mercury from pools of molten lead at low concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, G.A.; Finfrock, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    Should coolant accidentally be lost to the APT (Accelerator Production of Tritium) blanket and target, and the decay heat in the target be deposited in the surrounding blanket by thermal radiation, temperatures in the blanket modules could exceed structural limits and cause a physical collapse of the blanket modules into a non-coolable geometry. Such a sequence of unmitigated events could result in some melting of the APT blanket and create the potential for the release of mercury into the target-blanket cavity air space. Experiments were conducted which simulate such hypothetical accident conditions in order to measure the rate of vaporization of elemental mercury from pools of molten lead to quantify the possible severe accident source term for the APT blanket region. Molten pools of from 0.01% to 0.10% mercury in lead were prepared under inert conditions. Experiments were conducted, which varied in duration from several hours to as long as a month, to measure the mercury vaporization from the lead pools. The melt pools and gas atmospheres were held fixed at 340 C during the tests. Parameters which were varied in the tests included the mercury concentration, gas flow rate over the melt and agitation of the melt, gas atmosphere composition and the addition of aluminum to the melt. The vaporization of mercury was found to scale roughly linearly with the concentration of mercury in the pool. Variations in the gas flow rates were not found to have any effect on the mass transfer, however agitation of the melt by a submerged stirrer did enhance the mercury vaporization rate. The rate of mercury vaporization with an argon (inert) atmosphere was found to exceed that for an air (oxidizing) atmosphere by as much as a factor of from ten to 20; the causal factor in this variation was the formation of an oxide layer over the melt pool with the air atmosphere which served to retard mass transfer across the melt-atmosphere interface. Aluminum was introduced into the melt to

  2. Demonstration Results on the Effects of Mercury Speciation on the Stabilization of Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, T.B.; Hulet, G.A.; Morris, M.I.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.

    1999-01-01

    Mercury-contaminated wastes are currently being stored at approximately 19 Department of Energy sites, the volume of which is estimated to be about 16m(sup)3. These wastes exist in various forms including soil, sludges, and debris, which present a particular challenge regarding possible mercury stabilization methods. This reports provides the test results of three vendors, Allied Technology Group, IT Corporation, and Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc., that demonstrate the effects of mercury speciation on the stabilization of the mercury wastes. Mercury present in concentrations that exceed 260 parts per million must be removed by extraction methods and requires stabilization to ensure that the final wasteforms leach less than 0.2mg/L of mercury by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure or 0.025 mg/L using the Universal Treatment Standard

  3. Neuropsychological dysfunction related to earlier occupational exposure to mercury vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Zachi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the neuropsychological test performances of 26 patients (mean age = 41.5 ± 6.1 years; mean years of education = 9.8 ± 1.8; 20 males diagnosed with chronic occupational mercurialism who were former workers at a fluorescent lamp factory. They had been exposed to elemental mercury for an average of 10.2 ± 3.8 years and had been away from this work for 6 ± 4.7 years. Mean urinary mercury concentrations 1 year after cessation of work were 1.8 ± 0.9 µg/g creatinine. Twenty control subjects matched for age, gender, and education (18 males were used for comparison. Neuropsychological assessment included attention, inhibitory control, verbal and visual memory, verbal fluency, manual dexterity, visual-spatial function, executive function, and semantic knowledge tests. The Beck Depression Inventory and the State and Trait Inventory were used to assess depression and anxiety symptoms, respectively. The raw score for the group exposed to mercury indicated slower information processing speed, inferior performance in psychomotor speed, verbal spontaneous recall memory, and manual dexterity of the dominant hand and non-dominant hand (P < 0.05. In addition, the patients showed increased depression and anxiety symptoms (P < 0.001. A statistically significant correlation (Pearson was demonstrable between mean urinary mercury and anxiety trait (r = 0.75, P = 0.03. The neuropsychological performances of the former workers suggest that occupational exposure to elemental mercury has long-term effects on information processing and psychomotor function, with increased depression and anxiety also possibly reflecting the psychosocial context.

  4. Feeding mice with diets containing mercury-contaminated fish flesh from French Guiana: a model for the mercurial intoxication of the Wayana Amerindians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossignol Rodrigue

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2005, 84% of Wayana Amerindians living in the upper marshes of the Maroni River in French Guiana presented a hair mercury concentration exceeding the limit set up by the World Health Organization (10 μg/g. To determine whether this mercurial contamination was harmful, mice have been fed diets prepared by incorporation of mercury-polluted fish from French Guiana. Methods Four diets containing 0, 0.1, 1, and 7.5% fish flesh, representing 0, 5, 62, and 520 ng methylmercury per g, respectively, were given to four groups of mice for a month. The lowest fish regimen led to a mercurial contamination pressure of 1 ng mercury per day per g of body weight, which is precisely that affecting the Wayana Amerindians. Results The expression of several genes was modified with mercury intoxication in liver, kidneys, and hippocampus, even at the lowest tested fish regimen. A net genetic response could be observed for mercury concentrations accumulated within tissues as weak as 0.15 ppm in the liver, 1.4 ppm in the kidneys, and 0.4 ppm in the hippocampus. This last value is in the range of the mercury concentrations found in the brains of chronically exposed patients in the Minamata region or in brains from heavy fish consumers. Mitochondrial respiratory rates showed a 35–40% decrease in respiration for the three contaminated mice groups. In the muscles of mice fed the lightest fish-containing diet, cytochrome c oxidase activity was decreased to 45% of that of the control muscles. When mice behavior was assessed in a cross maze, those fed the lowest and mid-level fish-containing diets developed higher anxiety state behaviors compared to mice fed with control diet. Conclusion We conclude that a vegetarian diet containing as little as 0.1% of mercury-contaminated fish is able to trigger in mice, after only one month of exposure, disorders presenting all the hallmarks of mercurial contamination.

  5. Environmental Mercury and Its Toxic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Rice

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mercury exists naturally and as a man-made contaminant. The release of processed mercury can lead to a progressive increase in the amount of atmospheric mercury, which enters the atmospheric-soil-water distribution cycles where it can remain in circulation for years. Mercury poisoning is the result of exposure to mercury or mercury compounds resulting in various toxic effects depend on its chemical form and route of exposure. The major route of human exposure to methylmercury (MeHg is largely through eating contaminated fish, seafood, and wildlife which have been exposed to mercury through ingestion of contaminated lower organisms. MeHg toxicity is associated with nervous system damage in adults and impaired neurological development in infants and children. Ingested mercury may undergo bioaccumulation leading to progressive increases in body burdens. This review addresses the systemic pathophysiology of individual organ systems associated with mercury poisoning. Mercury has profound cellular, cardiovascular, hematological, pulmonary, renal, immunological, neurological, endocrine, reproductive, and embryonic toxicological effects.

  6. Quality of the spare triple-GEM detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lenci, Rosario; Paoletti, Emiliano; Pasquali, Luigi; Pinci, Davide; Piscitelli, Carmelo; Poli Lener, Marco; Sciubba, Adalberto; Tskhadadze, Edisher

    2017-01-01

    Triple-GEM chambers equip the inner region of the M1 muon station. In order to provide spare detectors in case of problems in the operating ones, new chambers have been assembled at the Frascati National Laboratories of the INFN. This note summarizes the results of the quality tests performed at the end of the production procedure.

  7. Histochemical demonstration of two mercury pools in trout tissues: mercury in kidney and liver after mercuric chloride exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baatrup, E.; Nielsen, M.G.; Danscher, G.

    1986-01-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were exposed to 100 ppb mercury (as HgCl 2 ) in the water for 14 days. Concentrations of mercury in water and fish organs were monitored using radiolabeled mercury. Tissues from kidney and liver were fixed, and sections were developed by autometallography, a method whereby accumulations of mercury sulfides and/or mercury selenides are silver amplified. In the kidney, mercury was found within lysosomes and extracellularly in the basal lamina of proximal tubules. In the liver, mercury was found within lysosomes of the hepatocytes. Additional groups of mercury-exposed trout were subjected to selenium (as Na 2 SeO 3 ), administered intraperitoneally 2 hr before fixation. Following this treatment, additional mercury could be visualized in the kidney circulatory system, including glomeruli, and in the nucleus and endoplasmic reticulum of liver cells. It is suggested that the mercury visualized prior to selenium treatment represents inorganic mercury, while additional mercury visualized after selenium administration represents an organic form

  8. Distribution of mercury in guinea pig offspring after in utero exposure to mercury vapor during late gestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Minoru; Yamamura, Yukio; Sataoh, Hiroshi

    1986-04-01

    Organ distribution of mercury after in utero mercury vapor exposure was investigated in neonatal guinea pigs. Mother guinea pigs in late gestation were exposed to 0.2-0.3 mg/m/sup 3/ mercury vapor 2 h per day until giving birth. Mercury concentrations in neonatal brain, lungs, heart, kidneys, plasma and erythrocytes were much lower than those of maternal organs and tissues. Neonatal liver, however, showed a mercury concentration twice as high as maternal liver. Mercury concentration ratios of erythrocytes to plasma in offspring were quite different from those of mothers, being 0.2-0.4 for offspring, and 1.3-3.0 for mothers. These results suggested that mercury vapor metabolism in fetuses was quite different from that in their mothers. This may be due to the different blood circulation, as mercury vapor transferred through the placental barrier would be rapidly oxidized into ionic mercury in fetal liver and accumulated in the organ. The different mercury vapor metabolism may prevent fetal brain, which is rapidly developing, and thus vulnerable, from being exposed to excessive mercury vapor.

  9. Toxecon Retrofit for Mercury and Mulit-Pollutant Control on Three 90-MW Coal-Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Derenne; Robin Stewart

    2009-09-30

    This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) project was based on a cooperative agreement between We Energies and the DOE Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to design, install, evaluate, and demonstrate the EPRI-patented TOXECON{trademark} air pollution control process. Project partners included Cummins & Barnard, ADA-ES, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The primary goal of this project was to reduce mercury emissions from three 90-MW units that burn Powder River Basin coal at the We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant in Marquette, Michigan. Additional goals were to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and particulate matter emissions; allow reuse and sale of fly ash; advance commercialization of the technology; demonstrate a reliable mercury continuous emission monitor (CEM) suitable for use at power plants; and demonstrate recovery of mercury from the sorbent. Mercury was controlled by injection of activated carbon upstream of the TOXECON{trademark} baghouse, which achieved more than 90% removal on average over a 44-month period. During a two-week test involving trona injection, SO{sub 2} emissions were reduced by 70%, although no coincident removal of NOx was achieved. The TOXECON{trademark} baghouse also provided enhanced particulate control, particularly during startup of the boilers. On this project, mercury CEMs were developed and tested in collaboration with Thermo Fisher Scientific, resulting in a reliable CEM that could be used in the power plant environment and that could measure mercury as low as 0.1 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. Sorbents were injected downstream of the primary particulate collection device, allowing for continued sale and beneficial use of captured fly ash. Two methods for recovering mercury using thermal desorption on the TOXECON{trademark} PAC/ash mixture were successfully tested during this program. Two methods for using the TOXECON

  10. Mercury in mercury(II)-spiked soils is highly susceptible to plant bioaccumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlodák, Michal; Urík, Martin; Matúš, Peter; Kořenková, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metal phytotoxicity assessments usually use soluble metal compounds in spiked soils to evaluate metal bioaccumulation, growth inhibition and adverse effects on physiological parameters. However, exampling mercury phytotoxicity for barley (Hordeum vulgare) this paper highlights unsuitability of this experimental approach. Mercury(II) in spiked soils is extremely bioavailable, and there experimentally determined bioaccumulation is significantly higher compared to reported mercury bioaccumulation efficiency from soils collected from mercury-polluted areas. Our results indicate this is not affected by soil sorption capacity, thus soil ageing and formation of more stable mercuric complexes with soil fractions is necessary for reasonable metal phytotoxicity assessments.

  11. Below a Historic Mercury Mine: Non-linear Patterns of Mercury Bioaccumulation in Aquatic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, J.; Ichikawa, G.; Ode, P.; Salsbery, D.; Abel, J.

    2001-12-01

    Unlike most heavy metals, mercury is capable of bioaccumulating in aquatic food-chains, primarily because it is methylated by bacteria in sediment to the more toxic methylmercury form. Mercury concentrations in a number of riparian systems in California are highly elevated as a result of historic mining activities. These activities included both the mining of cinnabar in the coastal ranges to recover elemental mercury and the use of elemental mercury in the gold fields of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. The most productive mercury mining area was the New Almaden District, now a county park, located in the Guadalupe River drainage of Santa Clara County, where cinnabar was mined and retorted for over 100 years. As a consequence, riparian systems in several subwatersheds of the Guadalupe River drainage are contaminated with total mercury concentrations that exceed state hazardous waste criteria. Mercury concentrations in fish tissue frequently exceed human health guidelines. However, the potential ecological effects of these elevated mercury concentrations have not been thoroughly evaluated. One difficulty is in extrapolating sediment concentrations to fish tissue concentrations without accounting for physical and biological processes that determine bioaccumulation patterns. Many processes, such as methylation and demethylation of mercury by bacteria, assimilation efficiency in invertebrates, and metabolic rates in fish, are nonlinear, a factor that often confounds attempts to evaluate the effects of mercury contamination on aquatic food webs. Sediment, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish tissue samples were collected in 1998 from the Guadalupe River drainage in Santa Clara County at 13 sites upstream and downstream from the historic mining district. Sediment and macroinvertebrate samples were analyzed for total mercury and methylmercury. Fish samples were analyzed for total mercury as whole bodies, composited by species and size. While linear correlations of sediment

  12. Mercury pollution in Wuchuan mercury mining area, Guizhou, Southwestern China: the impacts from large scale and artisanal mercury mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Guangle; Shang, Lihai; Wang, Shaofeng

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the environmental impacts from large scale mercury mining (LSMM) and artisanal mercury mining (AMM), total mercury (THg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) were determined in mine waste, ambient air, stream water and soil samples collected from Wuchuan mercury (Hg) mining area, Guizhou, Southwestern China. Mine wastes from both LSMM and AMM contained high THg concentrations, which are important Hg contamination sources to the local environment. Total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in the ambient air near AMM furnaces were highly elevated, which indicated that AMM retorting is a major source of Hg emission. THg concentrations in the stream water varied from 43 to 2100 ng/L, where the elevated values were mainly found in the vicinity of AMM and mine waste heaps of LSMM. Surface soils were seriously contaminated with Hg, and land using types and organic matter played an important role in accumulation and transportation of Hg in soil. The results indicated heavy Hg contaminations in the study area, which were resulted from both LSMM and AMM. The areas impacted by LSMM were concentrated in the historical mining and smelting facilities, while Hg pollution resulted from AMM can be distributed anywhere in the Hg mining area. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Behaviour of mercury compounds in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booer, J R

    1944-01-01

    The uses of inorganic compounds of mercury for the control of plant pests is reviewed, and a summary of the relevant chemical and physical properties of the compounds concerned is given. On chemical evidence a working hypothesis is propounded showing that all compounds may be expected to decompose into metallic mercury. A pot technique is described by means of which a correlation can be obtained between the effective mercury content of a given soil sample and the rate of growth of wheat seedlings. The mathematical treatment of the results is described, and the validity of the pot technique is verified by statistical analysis of results. Using the pot technqiue it is shown that volatilization losses are insignificant but that mercury is slowly rendered ineffective by the formation of mercuric sulphide. The effect of sulphur-reducing bacteria is considered and the influence of Vibrio desulphuricans on mercury is studied in detail. Experimental evidence obtained by the pot technique is produced to show that mercurous chloride slowly decomposes in the soil giving mercury and mercuric chloride, mercuric chloride rapidly decomposes into mercury and mercurous chloride, and other inorganic compounds decompose directly into mercury. The working hypothesis is substantiated in all major aspects. The uses and properties of the organo-mercury compounds are then discussed. Type compounds selected are ethyl mercury phosphate, phenyl mercury acetate and methoxyethyl mercury acetate. Using the pot technique it is shown that the formation of organo-mercury clays takes place and that these clays decompose giving metallic mercury. A mechanism is suggested.

  14. Mercury in the environment : a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarzi, F.

    2000-01-01

    Both geogenic and anthropogenic sources are responsible for the input of mercury into the environment. However, mercury comes mostly from geogenic sources and is found naturally in air, water and soil. Crustal degassing results in emission of mercury into the atmosphere. Mercury in water and soil is due mostly to input from sedimentary rocks. Mercury in lake sediments is related mainly to input by country rock and anthropogenic activities such as agriculture. The mercury content of coal is similar to or less than the amount found in the earths crust. Natural charcoal is also able to capture mercury at low temperature combustion. The amount of mercury emitted from the stack of coal-fired power plants is related to the nature of the milled coal and its mineralogical and elemental content. Mercury emissions originating from the combustion of coal from electric utility power plants are considered to be among the greatest contributors to global mercury air emissions. In order to quantify the impact the electric power industry has on the environment, information regarding mercury concentrations in coal and their speciation is needed. For this reason the author examined the behaviour of mercury in three coal samples ashed at increasing temperatures. Mercury removal from coal-fired power plants ranges from 10 to 50 per cent by fabric filters and 20 to 95 per cent by FGD systems. This data will help in regulating emissions of hazardous air pollutants from electric utility steam generating units and will potentially provide insight into the industry's contribution to the global mercury burden. 50 refs

  15. Mercury mass measurement in fluorescent lamps via neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viererbl, L.; Vinš, M.; Lahodová, Z.; Fuksa, A.; Kučera, J.; Koleška, M.; Voljanskij, A.

    2015-11-01

    Mercury is an essential component of fluorescent lamps. Not all fluorescent lamps are recycled, resulting in contamination of the environment with toxic mercury, making measurement of the mercury mass used in fluorescent lamps important. Mercury mass measurement of lamps via instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) was tested under various conditions in the LVR-15 research reactor. Fluorescent lamps were irradiated in different positions in vertical irradiation channels and a horizontal channel in neutron fields with total fluence rates from 3×108 cm-2 s-1 to 1014 cm-2 s-1. The 202Hg(n,γ)203Hg nuclear reaction was used for mercury mass evaluation. Activities of 203Hg and others induced radionuclides were measured via gamma spectrometry with an HPGe detector at various times after irradiation. Standards containing an Hg2Cl2 compound were used to determine mercury mass. Problems arise from the presence of elements with a large effective cross section in luminescent material (europium, antimony and gadolinium) and glass (boron). The paper describes optimization of the NAA procedure in the LVR-15 research reactor with particular attention to influence of neutron self-absorption in fluorescent lamps.

  16. Axial mercury segregation in direct current operated low-pressure argon-mercury gas discharge: Part II. Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gielen, John W A M; Groot, Simon de; Dijk, Jan van; Mullen, Joost J A M van der

    2004-01-01

    In a previous paper we had presented experimental results on mercury segregation due to cataphoresis in direct current operated low-pressure argon-mercury gas discharges. In this paper, we present our model to describe cataphoretic segregation in argon (or another noble gas)-mercury discharges. The model is based on the balance equations for mass and momentum and includes electrophoresis effects of electrons on mercury. Good agreement is found between the experimental results and model calculations. The model confirms our experimental observation that the mercury vapour pressure gradient depends on the local mercury vapour pressure. Furthermore, the model predicts the reversal of the direction of the transport of mercury under certain conditions (the phenomenon known as retrograde cataphoresis)

  17. Normal range of hepatic fat fraction on dual- and triple-echo fat quantification MR in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun Joo; Kim, Hyun Gi; Kim, Myung-Joon; Koh, Hong; Kim, Ha Yan; Roh, Yun Ho; Lee, Mi-Jung

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate hepatic fat fraction on dual- and triple-echo gradient-recalled echo MRI sequences in healthy children. We retrospectively reviewed the records of children in a medical check-up clinic from May 2012 to November 2013. We excluded children with abnormal laboratory findings or those who were overweight. Hepatic fat fraction was measured on dual- and triple-echo sequences using 3T MRI. We compared fat fractions using the Wilcoxon signed rank test and the Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement. The correlation between fat fractions and clinical and laboratory findings was evaluated using Spearman's correlation test, and the cut-off values of fat fractions for diagnosing fatty liver were obtained from reference intervals. In 54 children (M:F = 26:28; 5-15 years; mean 9 years), the dual fat fraction (0.1-8.0%; median 1.6%) was not different from the triple fat fraction (0.4-6.5%; median 2.7%) (p = 0.010). The dual- and triple-echo fat fractions showed good agreement using a Bland-Altman plot (-0.6 ± 2.8%). Eight children (14.8%) on dual-echo sequences and six (11.1%) on triple-echo sequences had greater than 5% fat fraction. From these children, six out of eight children on dual-echo sequences and four out of six children on triple-echo sequences had a 5-6% hepatic fat fraction. When using a cut-off value of a 6% fat fraction derived from a reference interval, only 3.7% of children were diagnosed with fatty liver. There was no significant correlation between clinical and laboratory findings with dual and triple-echo fat fractions. Dual fat fraction was not different from triple fat fraction. We suggest a cut-off value of a 6% fat fraction is more appropriate for diagnosing fatty liver on both dual- and triple-echo sequences in children.

  18. Mercury in Canadian crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollebone, B.P.

    2005-01-01

    Estimates for average mercury concentrations in crude oil range widely from 10 ng/g of oil to 3,500 ng/g of oil. With such a broad range of estimates, it is difficult to determine the contributions of the petroleum sector to the total budget of mercury emissions. In response to concerns that the combustion of petroleum products may be a major source of air-borne mercury pollution, Environment Canada and the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute has undertaken a survey of the average total mercury concentration in crude oil processed in Canadian refineries. In order to calculate the potential upper limit of total mercury in all refined products, samples of more than 30 different types of crude oil collected from refineries were measured for their concentration of mercury as it enters into a refinery before processing. High temperature combustion, cold vapour atomic absorption and cold vapour atomic fluorescence were the techniques used to quantify mercury in the samples. The results of the study provide information on the total mass of mercury present in crude oil processed in Canada each year. Results can be used to determine the impact of vehicle exhaust emissions to the overall Canadian mercury emission budget. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  19. MESSENGER: Exploring Mercury's Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet's miniature magnetosphere since Mariner 10's brief fly-bys in 1974-5. Mercury's magnetosphere is unique in many respects. The magnetosphere of Mercury is the smallest in the solar system with its magnetic field typically standing off the solar wind only - 1000 to 2000 km above the surface. For this reason there are no closed dri-fi paths for energetic particles and, hence, no radiation belts; the characteristic time scales for wave propagation and convective transport are short possibly coupling kinetic and fluid modes; magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause may erode the subsolar magnetosphere allowing solar wind ions to directly impact the dayside regolith; inductive currents in Mercury's interior should act to modify the solar In addition, Mercury's magnetosphere is the only one with its defining magnetic flux tubes rooted in a planetary regolith as opposed to an atmosphere with a conductive ionosphere. This lack of an ionosphere is thought to be the underlying reason for the brevity of the very intense, but short lived, approx. 1-2 min, substorm-like energetic particle events observed by Mariner 10 in Mercury's magnetic tail. In this seminar, we review what we think we know about Mercury's magnetosphere and describe the MESSENGER science team's strategy for obtaining answers to the outstanding science questions surrounding the interaction of the solar wind with Mercury and its small, but dynamic magnetosphere.

  20. Mercury mass measurement in fluorescent lamps via neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viererbl, L.; Vinš, M.; Lahodová, Z.; Fuksa, A.; Kučera, J.; Koleška, M.; Voljanskij, A.

    2015-01-01

    Mercury is an essential component of fluorescent lamps. Not all fluorescent lamps are recycled, resulting in contamination of the environment with toxic mercury, making measurement of the mercury mass used in fluorescent lamps important. Mercury mass measurement of lamps via instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) was tested under various conditions in the LVR-15 research reactor. Fluorescent lamps were irradiated in different positions in vertical irradiation channels and a horizontal channel in neutron fields with total fluence rates from 3×10 8 cm −2 s −1 to 10 14 cm −2 s −1 . The 202 Hg(n,γ) 203 Hg nuclear reaction was used for mercury mass evaluation. Activities of 203 Hg and others induced radionuclides were measured via gamma spectrometry with an HPGe detector at various times after irradiation. Standards containing an Hg 2 Cl 2 compound were used to determine mercury mass. Problems arise from the presence of elements with a large effective cross section in luminescent material (europium, antimony and gadolinium) and glass (boron). The paper describes optimization of the NAA procedure in the LVR-15 research reactor with particular attention to influence of neutron self-absorption in fluorescent lamps. - Highlights: • Mercury is an essential component of fluorescent lamps. • Fluorescent lamps were irradiated in neutron fields in research reactor. • 203 Hg induced radionuclide activity was measured using gamma spectrometry. • Mercury mass in fluorescent lamps can be measured by neutron activation analysis.

  1. Effect of bismuth addition to the triple therapy of Helicobacter pylori eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezel Taşdemir

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Success rates of amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and proton-pump inhibitor therapy in the Helicobacter pylori (Hp eradication have been decreasing. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of bismuth subcitrate addition to triple therapy.Materials and methods: 148 patients diagnosed Hp infection with both histology and Hp stool antigen (HpSA tests were examined retrospectively. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to the eradication therapy. The first group received triple therapy with claritromycine 2x 500 mg, amoxicilline 2x1 g and PPI 2x1 for 14 days (n=40. The second group had bismuth subcitrate 4x120 mg with triple therapy for 14 days (n=73. The third group received 14 days pretreatment with bismuth subcitrate 4x1 together with PPI 2x1 then had triple therapy for 14 days (n=35. (14C urea breath and HpSA tests were used to detect posttreatment H.pylori status.Results: There were no statistical difference between the groups in terms of gender and age (p > 0.05. In group one 12 patients, in group two 20 patients and in group three 10 patients were identified as Hp positive after treatment. Eradication rates were 70% for group one, 72.6% for group two and 71.4% for group three respectively. There was no statistical difference between the groups in terms of eradication rates of treatment (p > 0.05.Conclusions: The addition of bismuth to conventional triple therapy did not affect treatment success rates.

  2. Final disposal options for mercury/uranium mixed wastes from the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorin, A.H.; Leckey, J.H.; Nulf, L.E.

    1994-01-01

    Laboratory testing was completed on chemical stabilization and physical encapsulation methods that are applicable (to comply with federal and state regulations) to the final disposal of both hazardous and mixed hazardous elemental mercury waste that is in either of the following categories: (1) waste generated during decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities on mercury-contaminated buildings, such as Building 9201-4 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, or (2) waste stored and regulated under either the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement or the Federal Facilities Compliance Act. Methods were used that produced copper-mercury, zinc-mercury, and sulfur-mercury materials at room temperature by dry mixing techniques. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) results for mercury on batches of both the copper-mercury and the sulfur-mercury amalgams consistently produced leachates with less than the 0.2-mg/L Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulatory limit for mercury. The results clearly showed that the reaction of mercury with sulfur at room temperature produces black mercuric sulfide, a material that is well suited for land disposal. The results also showed that the copper-mercury and zinc-mercury amalgams had major adverse properties that make them undesirable for land disposal. In particular, they reacted readily in air to form oxides and liberate elemental mercury. Another major finding of this study is that sulfur polymer cement is potentially useful as a physical encapsulating agent for mercuric sulfide. This material provides a barrier in addition to the chemical stabilization that further prevents mercury, in the form of mercuric sulfide, from migrating into the environment

  3. Harmonic analysis on triple spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Thomas Hjortgaard

    In this thesis we study examples of triple spaces, both their structure theory, their invariant differential operators as well as analysis on them. The first major results provide us with some examples of triple spaces which are strongly spherical, i.e. satisfy some conditions reminiscent...

  4. Application of a mer-lux biosensor for estimating bioavailable mercury in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lasse Dam; Sørensen, S. J.; Turner, R. R.

    2000-01-01

    A previously described bioassay using a mer-lux gene fusion for detection of bioavailable mercury was applied for the estimation of the bioavailable fraction of mercury in soil. The bioavailable fraction is defined here as being part of the water leachable fraction. Due to masking of light emission...... responses. The utility of the mer-lux biosensor assay was tested by relating measurements of bioavailable and total mercury to the response of the soil microbial community to mercury exposure. Two different soil types (an agricultural and a beech forest soil) were spiked with 2.5 µg Hg(II) g-1 in microcosms...... in resistance or diversity. This study showed that the bioassay using the mer-lux biosensor is a useful and sensitive tool for estimation of bioavailable mercury in soil....

  5. Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The source of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief passages is due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet's lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute to Mercury's very brief Dungey cycle, approx. 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury's tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

  6. Mercury in Your Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic information about mercury, how it gets in the air, how people are exposed to it and health effects associated with exposure; what EPA and other organizations are doing to limit exposures; what citizens should know to minimize exposures and to reduce mercury in the environment; and information about products that contain mercury.

  7. Rapid Monitoring of Mercury in Air from an Organic Chemical Factory in China Using a Portable Mercury Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yasutake

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A chemical factory, using a production technology of acetaldehyde with mercury catalysis, was located southeast of Qingzhen City in Guizhou Province, China. Previous research showed heavy mercury pollution through an extensive downstream area. A current investigation of the mercury distribution in ambient air, soils, and plants suggests that mobile mercury species in soils created elevated mercury concentrations in ambient air and vegetation. Mercury concentrations of up to 600 ng/m3 in air over the contaminated area provided evidence of the mercury transformation to volatile Hg(0. Mercury analysis of soil and plant samples demonstrated that the mercury concentrations in soil with vaporized and plant-absorbable forms were higher in the southern area, which was closer to the factory. Our results suggest that air monitoring using a portable mercury analyzer can be a convenient and useful method for the rapid detection and mapping of mercury pollution in advanced field surveys.

  8. Gain uniformity experimental study performed on triple-GEM gas detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Liyuan; Qi Huirong; Lu Xinyu; Ouyang Qun; Chen Yuanbo; Li Yuhong

    2012-01-01

    With the application of the two-dimensional GEM gaseous detector in X-ray imaging, the correction method of gain uniformity caused by triple-GEM avalanche structures and electric field uniformity should be studied. The paper reported the study of the triple-GEM detector with effective area 100 mm × 100 mm used the Pad's size of 9.5 mm × 9.5 mm. In the test, 100 readout channels were designed. Results showed that gain remained stable over time; at air flow increases, gain from increases obviously to changes very little. Particularly, triple-GEM's gain uniformity was very good (more than 80%) and the range of energy resolution was from 0.18 to 0.2. To improve gain consistency of results, the difference value revised was obtained to be about 0.1 by the least square method. It provided a better method to improve gain uniformity of GEM detector. (authors)

  9. EDITORIAL: Mercury-free discharges for lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverlag, M.

    2007-07-01

    This special Cluster of articles in Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics covers the subject of mercury-free discharges that are being investigated by different light source researchers, as an alternative to existing mercury-containing lamps. The main driving force to move away from mercury-containing discharge light sources is connected to the environmentally unfriendly nature of mercury. After inhalation or direct contact, severe mercury exposure can lead to damage to human brain cells, the kidneys, the liver and the nervous system. For this reason, the use of mercury in products is becoming more and more restricted by different governmental bodies. In the lighting industry, however, many products still make use of mercury, for different reasons. The main reason is that mercury-containing products are, in most cases, more efficient than mercury-free products. For a realistic comparison of the environmental impact, the mercury-contamination due to electricity production must be taken into account, which depends on the type of fuel being used. For an average European fuel-mix, the amount of mercury that is released into the environment is around 29 μg kWh-1. This means that a typical 30 W TL lamp during a lifetime of 20,000 hours will release a total of about 20 mg mercury due to electricity production, which exceeds the total mercury dose in the lamp (more and more of which is being recycled) by a factor of 5-10 for a modern TL lamp. This illustrates that, quite apart from other environmental arguments like increased CO2 production, mercury-free alternatives that use more energy can in fact be detrimental for the total mercury pollution over the lifetime of the lamp. For this reason, the lighting industry has concentrated on lowering the mercury content in lamps as long as no efficient alternatives exist. Nevertheless, new initiatives for HID lamps and fluorescent lamps with more or less equal efficiency are underway, and a number of them are described in this

  10. Intoxication with metallic mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichte, B.; Assmann, H.; Ritzau, F.

    1984-01-01

    Intoxications by metallic mercury are extremely rare. Report of a patient, who tried to commit suicide by subcutaneous injection of 500 g of metallic mercury. He died 16 months later in the course of the intoxication. A short review is given of effects and reactions of metallic mercury in the human organism. (orig.) [de

  11. Intoxication with metallic mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichte, B.; Ritzau, F.; Assmann, H.

    1984-02-01

    Intoxications by metallic mercury are extremely rare. Report is given of a patient who tried to commit suicide by subcutaneous injection of 500 g of metallic mercury. He died 16 months later in the course of the intoxication. A short review is given of effects and reactions of metallic mercury in the human organism.

  12. Intoxication with metallic mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichte, B.; Assmann, H.; Ritzau, F.

    1984-02-01

    Intoxications by metallic mercury are extremely rare. Report is given of a patient, who tried to commit suicide by subcutaneous injection of 500 g of metallic mercury. He died 16 months later in the course of the intoxication. A short review is given of effects and reactions of metallic mercury in the human organism.

  13. Mercury in dated Greenland marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmund, G.; Nielsen, S.P.

    2000-01-01

    Twenty marine sediment cores from Greenland were analysed for mercury, and dated by the lead-210 method. In general the cores exhibit a mercury profile with higher mercury concentrations in the upper centimetres of the core. The cores were studied by linear regression of In Hg vs, age of the sedi......Twenty marine sediment cores from Greenland were analysed for mercury, and dated by the lead-210 method. In general the cores exhibit a mercury profile with higher mercury concentrations in the upper centimetres of the core. The cores were studied by linear regression of In Hg vs, age...... indicating that the mercury mainly originates from atmospheric washout. But the large variability indicates that other processes also influence the mercury flux to Arctic marine sediments. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  14. Mercury kinetics in marine zooplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.; Heyraud, M.; LaRosa, J.

    1976-01-01

    Mercury, like many other heavy metals, is potentially available to marine animals by uptake directly from water and/or through the organisms food. Furthermore, bioavailability, assimilation and subsequent retention in biota may be affected by the chemical species of the element in sea water. While mercury is known to exist in the inorganic form in sea water, recent work has indicated that, in certain coastal areas, a good portion of the total mercury appears to be organically bound; however, the exact chemical nature of the organic fraction has yet to be determined. Methyl mercury may be one constituent of the natural organically bound fraction since microbial mechanisms for in situ methylation of mercury have been demonstrated in the aquatic environment. Despite the fact that naturally produced methyl mercury probably comprises only a small fraction of an aquatic ecosystem, the well-documented toxic effects of this organo-mercurial, caused by man-made introductions into marine food chains, make it an important compound to study

  15. Clinical studies on mercury poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoda, M; Nakamura, R; Too, K; Matsuhashi, A; Ishimoto, H; Sasaki, R; Ishida, K; Takahashi, M

    1956-01-01

    A sporadic outbreak of an unknown disease occurred among dairy cattle, from early February to late May 1955, in Japan. The characteristic symptoms of this disease were dyspnea and depilation; out of 29 cases, 8 died while 2 were slaughtered. Clinical studies have disclosed that the symptoms were similar to those found in cases of mercury poisoning as described by others. So the animals' feed was suspected of being the cause of the sickness. It was confirmed that the incident was due to poisoning resulting from ingestion of linseed meal treated with a mercurial fungicide. From the results of the testing anamnesis, it was found that 171 cattle were fed with the meal and 29 cases were affected. In veiw of the wide use of mercurial preparations for treating seed grains against fungi infection, a further experimental study was made on the effects of the feed and fungicide upon calves.

  16. EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. A. Withum; S.C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

    2004-10-31

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) - wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on Hg speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for Hg capture. This document, the second in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on a 330 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing 1.0% sulfur. The unit is equipped with a SCR system for NOx control and a spray dryer absorber for SO{sub 2} control followed by a baghouse unit for particulate emissions control. Four sampling tests were performed in March 2003. Flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the SCR inlet, air heater outlet (ESP inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process stream samples for a mercury balance were collected to coincide with the flue gas measurements. Due to mechanical problems with the boiler feed water pumps, the actual gross output was between 195 and 221 MW during the tests. The results showed that the SCR/air heater combination oxidized nearly 95% of the elemental mercury. Mercury removal, on a

  17. Mercury and antibiotic resistance in Enterobacteriaceae: an experimental study on pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laub-Kupersztejn, R; Thomas, J; Pohl, P

    1974-01-01

    Tests on faeces from 5 different groups of pigs, showed that 47.2% of the coliforms present were resistant to mercury ions. None of the 3127 bacteria examined were resistant to cadmium ions. The resistance of these strains to mercury was mainly associated with resistance to one or more antibiotics (98%). Feeding the animals with ampicillin (20 ppm) led to modification of the Escherichia coli in the alimentary tract, with ampicillin and mercury resistant strains emerging in great number. These resistance characters could be wholly, or partially, transferred to a sensitive strain of E. coli, thus suggesting that they were mediated by R-factors. The existence of a plasmid resistant only to mercury ions was demonstrated. 9 references, 4 tables.

  18. The secondary release of mercury in coal fly ash-based flue-gas mercury removal technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jingfeng; Duan, Chenlong; Lei, Mingzhe; Zhu, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    The secondary release of mercury from coal fly ash is a negative by-product from coal-fired power plants, and requires effective control to reduce environmental pollution. Analysing particle size distribution and composition of the coal fly ash produced by different mercury removing technologies indicates that the particles are generally less than 0.5 mm in size and are composed mainly of SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3. The relationships between mercury concentration in the coal fly ash, its particle size, and loss of ignition were studied using different mercury removing approaches. The research indicates that the coal fly ash's mercury levels are significantly higher after injecting activated carbon or brominating activated carbon when compared to regular cooperating-pollution control technology. This is particularly true for particle size ranges of >0.125, 0.075-0.125, and 0.05-0.075 mm. Leaching experiments revealed the secondary release of mercury in discarded coal fly ash. The concentration of mercury in the coal fly ash increases as the quantity of injecting activated carbon or brominating activated carbon increases. The leached concentrations of mercury increase as the particle size of the coal fly ash increases. Therefore, the secondary release of mercury can be controlled by adding suitable activated carbon or brominating activated carbon when disposing of coal fly ash. Adding CaBr2 before coal combustion in the boiler also helps control the secondary release of mercury, by increasing the Hg(2+) concentration in the leachate. This work provides a theoretical foundation for controlling and removing mercury in coal fly ash disposal.

  19. CFD Validation of Gas Injection in Flowing Mercury over Vertical Smooth and Grooved Wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, Ashraf A.; Wendel, Mark W.; Felde, David K.; Riemer, Bernie

    2009-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The nuclear spallation reaction occurs when a proton beam hits liquid mercury. This interaction causes thermal expansion of the liquid mercury which produces high pressure waves. When these pressure waves hit the target vessel wall, cavitation can occur and erode the wall. Research and development efforts at SNS include creation of a vertical protective gas layer between the flowing liquid mercury and target vessel wall to mitigate the cavitation damage erosion and extend the life time of the target. Since mercury is opaque, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used as a diagnostic tool to see inside the liquid mercury and guide the experimental efforts. In this study, CFD simulations of three dimensional, unsteady, turbulent, two-phase flow of helium gas injection in flowing liquid mercury over smooth, vertically grooved and horizontally grooved walls are carried out with the commercially available CFD code Fluent-12 from ANSYS. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) model is used to track the helium-mercury interface. V-shaped vertical and horizontal grooves with 0.5 mm pitch and about 0.7 mm depth were machined in the transparent wall of acrylic test sections. Flow visualization data of helium gas coverage through transparent test sections is obtained with a high-speed camera at the ORNL target test facility (TTF). The helium gas mass flow rate is 8 mg/min and introduced through a 0.5 mm diameter port. The local mercury velocity is 0.9 m/s. In this paper, the helium gas flow rate and the local mercury velocity are kept constant for the three cases. Time integration of predicted helium gas volume fraction over time is done to evaluate the gas coverage and calculate the average thickness of the helium gas layer. The predicted time-integrated gas coverage over vertically grooved and horizontally grooved test sections is better than over a smooth wall. The

  20. Determination of mercury in ppb level by activation analysis and chemical separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requejo, C.S.

    1983-02-01

    A method for determining mercury in steel samples was developed. Activation analysis using thermal neutrons, followed by radiochemical separations to eliminate 75 Se interferences, were applied. Sixty hours after the end of the irradiation, the samples were processed and distillation of mercury and selenium bromides were carried out. Selenium was separated as an element and mercury sulfide was precipitaded. The chemical separation procedure was tested by using a tracer technique; the recovery yield was 99,2% + - 2,7%. (C.L.B.) [pt

  1. Bioavailability of mercury in East Fork Poplar Creek soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, M.O.; Turner, R.R.

    1995-05-01

    The initial risk assessment for the East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) floodplain in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, a superfund site heavily contaminated with mercury, was based upon a reference dose for mercuric chloride, a soluble mercury compound not expected to be present in the floodplain, which is frequently saturated with water. Previous investigations had suggested mercury in the EFPC floodplain was less soluble and therefore less bioavailable than mercuric chloride, possibly making the results of the risk assessment unduly conservative. A bioavailability study, designed to measure the amount of mercury available for absorption in a child's digestive tract, the most critical risk endpoint and pathway, was performed on twenty soils from the EFPC floodplain. The average percentage of mercury released during the study for the twenty soils was 5.3%, compared to 100% of the compound mercuric chloride subjected to the same conditions. Alteration of the procedure to test additional conditions possible during soil digestion did not appreciably alter the results. Therefore, use of a reference dose for mercuric chloride in the EFPC risk assessment without inclusion of a corresponding bioavailability factor may be unduly conservative

  2. Groundwater Modeling Of Mercury Pollution At A Former Mercury Cell Chlor Alkali Facility In Pavoldar, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Kazakhstan, there is a serious case of mercury pollution near the city of Pavlodar from an old mercury cell chlor-alkali plant. The soil, sediment, and water is severly contaminated with mercury and mercury compounds as a result of the industrial activity of this chemical pla...

  3. Evaluation of Triple Containment Method for Air Transport of Contaminated Human

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neville, J

    2003-01-01

    A triple containment system intended for transport of biologically contaminated human remains was tested for its ability to maintain integrity during exposure to altitude changes representative of air transport...

  4. Process for low mercury coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Norman W.; Grimes, R. William; Tweed, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

  5. Form of Dietary Methylmercury does not Affect Total Mercury Accumulation in the Tissues of Zebra Finch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varian-Ramos, Claire W; Whitney, Margaret; Rice, Gary W; Cristol, Daniel A

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to mercury in humans, other mammals, and birds is primarily dietary, with mercury in the methylated form and bound to cysteine in the tissues of prey items. Yet dosing studies are generally carried out using methylmercury chloride. Here we tested whether the accumulation of total mercury in zebra finch blood, egg, muscle, liver, kidney or brain differed depending on whether dietary mercury was complexed with chloride or cysteine. We found no effect of form of mercury on tissue accumulation. Some previous studies have found lower accumulation of mercury in tissues of animals fed complexed mercury. Much remains to be understood about what happens to ingested mercury once it enters the intestines, but our results suggest that dietary studies using methylmercury chloride in birds will produce similar tissue accumulation levels to those using methylmercury cysteine.

  6. Mercury's magnetic field and interior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connerney, J.E.P.; Ness, N.F.

    1988-01-01

    The magnetic-field data collected on Mercury by the Mariner-10 spacecraft present substantial evidence for an intrinsic global magnetic field. However, studies of Mercury's thermal evolution show that it is most likely that the inner core region of Mercury solidified or froze early in the planet's history. Thus, the explanation of Mercury's magnetic field in the framework of the traditional planetary dynamo is less than certain

  7. Multi-model study of mercury dispersion in the atmosphere: vertical and interhemispheric distribution of mercury species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bieser

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric chemistry and transport of mercury play a key role in the global mercury cycle. However, there are still considerable knowledge gaps concerning the fate of mercury in the atmosphere. This is the second part of a model intercomparison study investigating the impact of atmospheric chemistry and emissions on mercury in the atmosphere. While the first study focused on ground-based observations of mercury concentration and deposition, here we investigate the vertical and interhemispheric distribution and speciation of mercury from the planetary boundary layer to the lower stratosphere. So far, there have been few model studies investigating the vertical distribution of mercury, mostly focusing on single aircraft campaigns. Here, we present a first comprehensive analysis based on various aircraft observations in Europe, North America, and on intercontinental flights. The investigated models proved to be able to reproduce the distribution of total and elemental mercury concentrations in the troposphere including interhemispheric trends. One key aspect of the study is the investigation of mercury oxidation in the troposphere. We found that different chemistry schemes were better at reproducing observed oxidized mercury patterns depending on altitude. High concentrations of oxidized mercury in the upper troposphere could be reproduced with oxidation by bromine while elevated concentrations in the lower troposphere were better reproduced by OH and ozone chemistry. However, the results were not always conclusive as the physical and chemical parameterizations in the chemistry transport models also proved to have a substantial impact on model results.

  8. Vertical Distribution of Total Mercury and Mercury Methylation in a Landfill Site in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a neurotoxin, with certain organic forms of the element being particularly harmful to humans. The Minamata Convention was adopted to reduce the intentional use and emission of mercury. Because mercury is an element, it cannot be decomposed. Mercury-containing products and mercury used for various processes will eventually enter the waste stream, and landfill sites will become a mercury sink. While landfill sites can be a source of mercury pollution, the behavior of mercury in solid waste within a landfill site is still not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the depth profile of mercury, the levels of methyl mercury (MeHg, and the factors controlling methylation in an old landfill site that received waste for over 30 years. Three sampling cores were selected, and boring sampling was conducted to a maximum depth of 18 m, which reached the bottom layer of the landfill. Total mercury (THg and MeHg were measured in the samples to determine the characteristics of mercury at different depths. Bacterial species were identified by 16S rRNA amplification and sequencing, because the methylation process is promoted by a series of genes. It was found that the THg concentration was 19–975 ng/g, with a geometric mean of 298 ng/g, which was slightly less than the 400 ng/g concentration recorded 30 years previously. In some samples, MeHg accounted for up to 15–20% of THg, which is far greater than the general level in soils and sediments, although the source of MeHg was unclear. The genetic data indicated that hgcA was present mostly in the upper and lower layers of the three cores, merA was almost as much as hgcA, while the level of merB was hundreds of times less than those of the other two genes. A significant correlation was found between THg and MeHg, as well as between MeHg and MeHg/THg. In addition, a negative correlation was found between THg and merA. The coexistence of the three genes indicated that both

  9. Sorption equilibrium of mercury onto ground-up tree fern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yuh-Shan; Wang, Chung-Chi

    2008-08-15

    The sorption behavior of mercury at different temperatures onto ground-up tree fern was investigated. The experimental results were fitted to two two-parameter isotherms, the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms, as well as to two three-parameter isotherms, the Redlich-Peterson and Sips isotherms to obtain the characteristic parameters of each model. A comparison of best-fitting was performed using the coefficient of determination and Chi-square test. Both the Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson isotherms were found to well represent the measured sorption data. According to the evaluation using the Langmuir equation, the saturated monolayer sorption capacity of mercury ions onto ground-up tree fern was 26.5 mg/g at 298 K. It was noted that an increase in temperature resulted in a higher mercury ion loading per unit weight of the tree fern. In addition, various thermodynamic parameters, such as DeltaG degrees, DeltaH degrees, and DeltaS degrees, were calculated and compared with the sorption of mercury by other sorbents.

  10. Sorption equilibrium of mercury onto ground-up tree fern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Y.-S.; Wang, C.-C.

    2008-01-01

    The sorption behavior of mercury at different temperatures onto ground-up tree fern was investigated. The experimental results were fitted to two two-parameter isotherms, the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms, as well as to two three-parameter isotherms, the Redlich-Peterson and Sips isotherms to obtain the characteristic parameters of each model. A comparison of best-fitting was performed using the coefficient of determination and Chi-square test. Both the Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson isotherms were found to well represent the measured sorption data. According to the evaluation using the Langmuir equation, the saturated monolayer sorption capacity of mercury ions onto ground-up tree fern was 26.5 mg/g at 298 K. It was noted that an increase in temperature resulted in a higher mercury ion loading per unit weight of the tree fern. In addition, various thermodynamic parameters, such as ΔG o , ΔH o , and ΔS o , were calculated and compared with the sorption of mercury by other sorbents

  11. Sorption equilibrium of mercury onto ground-up tree fern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Y.-S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, I-Shou University, No. 1, Section 1, Hsueh-Cheng Road, Ta-Hsu Hsiang, Kaohsiung County 840, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: ysho@isu.edu.tw; Wang, C.-C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, I-Shou University, No. 1, Section 1, Hsueh-Cheng Road, Ta-Hsu Hsiang, Kaohsiung County 840, Taiwan (China)

    2008-08-15

    The sorption behavior of mercury at different temperatures onto ground-up tree fern was investigated. The experimental results were fitted to two two-parameter isotherms, the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms, as well as to two three-parameter isotherms, the Redlich-Peterson and Sips isotherms to obtain the characteristic parameters of each model. A comparison of best-fitting was performed using the coefficient of determination and Chi-square test. Both the Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson isotherms were found to well represent the measured sorption data. According to the evaluation using the Langmuir equation, the saturated monolayer sorption capacity of mercury ions onto ground-up tree fern was 26.5 mg/g at 298 K. It was noted that an increase in temperature resulted in a higher mercury ion loading per unit weight of the tree fern. In addition, various thermodynamic parameters, such as {delta}G{sup o}, {delta}H{sup o}, and {delta}S{sup o}, were calculated and compared with the sorption of mercury by other sorbents.

  12. Mercury (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in contact with) to mercury is by eating fish or shellfish that have high levels of mercury. You can also get sick from: Touching it Breathing it in Drinking contaminated water How can mercury ...

  13. The Centroid of a Lie Triple Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available General results on the centroids of Lie triple algebras are developed. Centroids of the tensor product of a Lie triple algebra and a unitary commutative associative algebra are studied. Furthermore, the centroid of the tensor product of a simple Lie triple algebra and a polynomial ring is completely determined.

  14. mTOR in breast cancer: differential expression in triple-negative and non-triple-negative tumors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, S

    2012-04-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is defined by the absence of estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR) and overexpression of HER2. Targeted therapy is currently unavailable for this subgroup of breast cancer patients. mTOR controls cancer cell growth, survival and invasion and is thus a potential target for the treatment of patients with TNBC. Using immunohistochemistry, mTOR and p-mTOR were measured in 89 TNBCs and 99 non-TNBCs. While mTOR expression was confined to tumor cell cytoplasm, p-mTOR staining was located in the nucleus, perinuclear area and in the cytoplasm. Potentially important, was our finding that nuclear p-mTOR was found more frequently in triple-negative than non triple-negative cancers (p < 0.001). These results suggest that mTOR may play a more important role in the progression of TNBC compared to non-TNBC. Based on these findings, we conclude that mTOR may be a new target for the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer.

  15. Elimination of mercury in health care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Mercury is a persistent, bioaccumulative toxin that has been linked to numerous health effects in humans and wildlife. It is a potent neurotoxin that may also harm the brain, kidneys, and lungs. Unborn children and young infants are at particular risk for brain damage from mercury exposure. Hospitals' use of mercury in chemical solutions, thermometers, blood pressure gauges, batteries, and fluorescent lamps makes these facilities large contributors to the overall emission of mercury into the environment. Most hospitals recognize the dangers of mercury. In a recent survey, four out of five hospitals stated that they have policies in place to eliminate the use of mercury-containing products. Sixty-two percent of them require vendors to disclose the presence of mercury in chemicals that the hospitals purchase. Only 12 percent distribute mercury-containing thermometers to new parents. Ninety-two percent teach their employees about the health and environmental effects of mercury, and 46 percent teach all employees how to clean up mercury spills. However, the same study showed that many hospitals have not implemented their policies. Forty-two percent were not aware whether they still purchased items containing mercury. In addition, 49 percent still purchase mercury thermometers, 44 percent purchase mercury gastrointestinal diagnostic equipment, and 64 percent still purchase mercury lab thermometers.

  16. An integrated systems-based approach to mercury research and technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Mathews, Teresa J [ORNL; Mayes, Melanie [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL; Johs, Alexander [ORNL; Mehlhorn, Tonia L [ORNL; Dickson, Johnbull O [ORNL; Mansfield, Charles [East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP); Phillips, Elizabeth [U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); Pierce, Eric M [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    A 3-year strategic planning process was undertaken in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to develop a research and technology development approach that can help guide mercury remediation in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). Mercury remediation is a high priority for the US Department of Energy s (DOE s) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management because of large historical losses of mercury to the environment at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). Because of the extent of mercury losses and the complexities of mercury transport and fate in the stream environment, the success of conventional options for mercury remediation in the downstream sections of EFPC is uncertain. The overall Oak Ridge mercury remediation strategy focuses on mercury treatment actions at Y-12 in the short-term and research and technology development to evaluate longer-term solutions in the downstream environment. The technology development strategy is consistent with a phased, adaptive management paradigm and DOE s Technology Readiness Level guidelines. That is, early evaluation includes literature review, site characterization, and small-scale studies of a broad number of potential technologies. As more information is gathered, technologies that may have the most promise and potential remediation benefit will be chosen for more extensive and larger-scale pilot testing before being considered for remedial implementation. Field and laboratory research in EFPC is providing an improved level of understanding of mercury transport and fate processes in EFPC that will inform the development of site-specific remedial technologies. Technology development has centered on developing strategies that can mitigate the primary factors affecting mercury risks in the stream: (1) the amount of inorganic mercury available to the stream system, (2) the conversion of inorganic mercury to methylmercury, and (3) the bioaccumulation of methylmercury through the food web. Given the downstream complexities and

  17. Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, André; Steiger, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Mercury, the planet closest to the Sun, is different in several respects from the other three terrestrial planets. In appearance, it resembles the heavily cratered surface of the Moon, but its density is high, it has a magnetic field and magnetosphere, but no atmosphere or ionosphere. This book reviews the progress made in Mercury studies since the flybys by Mariner 10 in 1974-75, based on the continued research using the Mariner 10 archive, on observations from Earth, and on increasingly realistic models of its interior evolution.

  18. Autometallographic tracing of mercury in frog liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loumbourdis, N.S.; Danscher, G.

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of mercury in the liver of the frog Rana ridibunda with the autometallographic method was investigated. The mercury specific autometallographic (HgS/Se AMG ) technique is a sensitive histochemical approach for tracing mercury in tissues from mercury-exposed organisms. Mercury accumulates in vivo as mercury sulphur/mercury selenium nanocrystals that can be silver-enhanced. Thus, only a fraction of the Hg can be visualized. Six animals were exposed for one day and another group of six animals for 6 days in 1 ppm mercury (as HgCI 2 ) dissolved in fresh water. A third group of six animals, served as controls, were sacrificed the day of arrival at the laboratory. First, mercury appears in the blood plasma and erythrocytes. Next, mercury moves to hepatocytes and in the apical part of the cells, that facing bile canaliculi. In a next step, mercury appears in the endothelial and Kupffer cells. It seems likely that, the mercury of hepatocytes moves through bile canaliculi to the gut, most probably bound to glutathione and/or other similar ligands. Most probably, the endothelial and Kupffer cells comprise the first line of defense against metal toxicity. - Frogs can be good bioindicators of mercury

  19. Constructional Volcanic Edifices on Mercury: Candidates and Hypotheses of Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jack; Rothery, David A.; Balme, Matthew R.; Conway, Susan J.

    2018-04-01

    Mercury, a planet with a predominantly volcanic crust, has perplexingly few, if any, constructional volcanic edifices, despite their common occurrence on other solar system bodies with volcanic histories. Using image and topographical data from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, we describe two small (Earth and the Moon. Though we cannot definitively conclude that these landforms are volcanic, the paucity of constructional volcanic edifices on Mercury is intriguing in itself. We suggest that this lack is because volcanic eruptions with sufficiently low eruption volumes, rates, and flow lengths, suitable for edifice construction, were highly spatiotemporally restricted during Mercury's geological history. We suggest that volcanic edifices may preferentially occur in association with late-stage, postimpact effusive volcanic deposits. The European Space Agency/Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency BepiColombo mission to Mercury will be able to investigate further our candidate volcanic edifices; search for other, as-yet unrecognized edifices beneath the detection limits of MESSENGER data; and test our hypothesis that edifice construction is favored by late-stage, low-volume effusive eruptions.

  20. Teaching Triple Science: GCSE Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning and Skills Network (NJ3), 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) has contracted with the Learning and Skills Network to support awareness and take-up of Triple Science GCSEs through the Triple Science Support Programme. This publication provides an introduction to teaching and learning approaches for the extension topics within GCSE Chemistry. It…

  1. Method and apparatus for sampling atmospheric mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Patricio E.; Campbell, Evan E.; Eutsler, Bernard C.

    1976-01-20

    A method of simultaneously sampling particulate mercury, organic mercurial vapors, and metallic mercury vapor in the working and occupational environment and determining the amount of mercury derived from each such source in the sampled air. A known volume of air is passed through a sampling tube containing a filter for particulate mercury collection, a first adsorber for the selective adsorption of organic mercurial vapors, and a second adsorber for the adsorption of metallic mercury vapor. Carbon black molecular sieves are particularly useful as the selective adsorber for organic mercurial vapors. The amount of mercury adsorbed or collected in each section of the sampling tube is readily quantitatively determined by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  2. Evaluation of CP sil 8 film thickness for the capillary GC analysis of methyl mercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Drabæk, Iver

    1992-01-01

    Different commercially available CP-Sil 8 CB capillary columns have been tested with a mixed standard containing methyl mercury chloride, ethyl mercury chloride and a stable nonpolar chlorinated hydrocarbon. The aim of the study was to see whether the columns tested could be used without special...... available insert for on-column injections on wide bore columns, and a 5.35 mum thick stationary phase. It was concluded that this CP Sil 8 CB column gave good results although minor interactions between the organo-mercury compounds and the column could be seen....

  3. Assessment of chronic neuropsychological effects of mercury vapour poisoning in chloral-alkali plant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranjić, Nurka; Sinanović, Osman; Karamehić, Jasenko; Jakubović, Rusid

    2002-12-01

    A prospective case study was conducted in the Department of Occupational Medicine, Tuzla. The purpose of this study was to indicate negative effects from occupational exposure to mercury on behavioural and mental health, memory and psychomotor function that was tested in 46 chloral-alkali plant workers (mean age was 38. 8+/- 5. 7 years; mean age of occupational history 16. 5+/- 6. 0 years). Data on toxicological monitoring on atomic absorption spectrometer, and data on mental health were collected, psychiatric and other subjective symptoms, and behavioural, psychomotor and memory function tested. The data were compared to control group, 32 healthy non exposed workers. The study was designed to assess blood and urine mercury levels and length of occupational exposure and investigate its relationships to effects on the mental health. The mean air mercury levels were 0.23 mg/m3, the mean blood mercury concentrations was 3. 6 mg/ dl and the mean urine mercury concentrations were 151.7 +/- 180.4 mg/l. In 25 (53%) workers exposed to mercury vapour was identified Depression-Hypochondrias Syndrome (p trend 2. 9 mg/ dl, or urine mercury levels > 87 mg/l workers exposed to mercury vapour knew that toxic effects in body resulted in loosing some of intellectual abilities, and that people who handle chemicals had an increased health risk (ESW questionnaire). The occupational mercury exposed workers had introvert behaviour (EPQ). Aggressiveness was found in 71.7% workers. The cognitive disturbances: short-term memory loss, difficult to concentrate on tasks which require attention and thinking, were significantly differed compared to those of controls (p trend < 0. 001). In 24 (52%) exposed to mercury workers we have determined ego strength loss and regressive defensive mechanisms (LB). Handwriting disturbances-micrography we have identified in 27 (58.7%) workers.

  4. Recovery and normalization of triple coincidences in PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Eduardo; Parot, Vicente; Moore, Stephen C; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Udías, Jose M; Dave, Shivang R; Park, Mi-Ae; Vaquero, Juan J; Herraiz, Joaquin L

    2015-03-01

    Triple coincidences in positron emission tomography (PET) are events in which three γ-rays are detected simultaneously. These events, though potentially useful for enhancing the sensitivity of PET scanners, are discarded or processed without special consideration in current systems, because there is not a clear criterion for assigning them to a unique line-of-response (LOR). Methods proposed for recovering such events usually rely on the use of highly specialized detection systems, hampering general adoption, and/or are based on Compton-scatter kinematics and, consequently, are limited in accuracy by the energy resolution of standard PET detectors. In this work, the authors propose a simple and general solution for recovering triple coincidences, which does not require specialized detectors or additional energy resolution requirements. To recover triple coincidences, the authors' method distributes such events among their possible LORs using the relative proportions of double coincidences in these LORs. The authors show analytically that this assignment scheme represents the maximum-likelihood solution for the triple-coincidence distribution problem. The PET component of a preclinical PET/CT scanner was adapted to enable the acquisition and processing of triple coincidences. Since the efficiencies for detecting double and triple events were found to be different throughout the scanner field-of-view, a normalization procedure specific for triple coincidences was also developed. The effect of including triple coincidences using their method was compared against the cases of equally weighting the triples among their possible LORs and discarding all the triple events. The authors used as figures of merit for this comparison sensitivity, noise-equivalent count (NEC) rates and image quality calculated as described in the NEMA NU-4 protocol for the assessment of preclinical PET scanners. The addition of triple-coincidence events with the authors' method increased peak

  5. Recovery and normalization of triple coincidences in PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lage, Eduardo, E-mail: elage@mit.edu; Parot, Vicente; Dave, Shivang R.; Herraiz, Joaquin L. [Madrid-MIT M+Visión Consortium, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Moore, Stephen C.; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Park, Mi-Ae [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Udías, Jose M. [Grupo de Física Nuclear, Departamento de Física Atómica Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, CEI Moncloa, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Vaquero, Juan J. [Departamento de Ingeniería Biomédica e Ingeniería Aeroespacial, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Leganés 28911 (Spain)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Triple coincidences in positron emission tomography (PET) are events in which three γ-rays are detected simultaneously. These events, though potentially useful for enhancing the sensitivity of PET scanners, are discarded or processed without special consideration in current systems, because there is not a clear criterion for assigning them to a unique line-of-response (LOR). Methods proposed for recovering such events usually rely on the use of highly specialized detection systems, hampering general adoption, and/or are based on Compton-scatter kinematics and, consequently, are limited in accuracy by the energy resolution of standard PET detectors. In this work, the authors propose a simple and general solution for recovering triple coincidences, which does not require specialized detectors or additional energy resolution requirements. Methods: To recover triple coincidences, the authors’ method distributes such events among their possible LORs using the relative proportions of double coincidences in these LORs. The authors show analytically that this assignment scheme represents the maximum-likelihood solution for the triple-coincidence distribution problem. The PET component of a preclinical PET/CT scanner was adapted to enable the acquisition and processing of triple coincidences. Since the efficiencies for detecting double and triple events were found to be different throughout the scanner field-of-view, a normalization procedure specific for triple coincidences was also developed. The effect of including triple coincidences using their method was compared against the cases of equally weighting the triples among their possible LORs and discarding all the triple events. The authors used as figures of merit for this comparison sensitivity, noise-equivalent count (NEC) rates and image quality calculated as described in the NEMA NU-4 protocol for the assessment of preclinical PET scanners. Results: The addition of triple-coincidence events with the

  6. Methods for dispensing mercury into devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1987-04-28

    A process for dispensing mercury into devices which requires mercury. Mercury is first electrolytically separated from either HgO or Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 and plated onto a cathode wire. The cathode wire is then placed into a device requiring mercury.

  7. Histochemical demonstration of two mercury pools in trout tissues: mercury in kidney and liver after mercuric chloride exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, E; Nielsen, M G; Danscher, G

    1987-01-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were exposed to 100 ppb mercury (as HgCl2) in the water for 14 days. Concentrations of mercury in water and fish organs were monitored using radiolabeled mercury. Tissues from kidney and liver were fixed, and sections were developed by autometallography......, a method whereby accumulations of mercury sulfides and/or mercury selenides are silver amplified. In the kidney, mercury was found within lysosomes and extracellularly in the basal lamina of proximal tubules. In the liver, mercury was found within lysosomes of the hepatocytes. Additional groups of mercury......-exposed trout were subjected to selenium (as Na2SeO3), administered intraperitoneally 2 hr before fixation. Following this treatment, additional mercury could be visualized in the kidney circulatory system, including glomeruli, and in the nucleus and endoplasmic reticulum of liver cells. It is suggested...

  8. Mercury flow experiments. 4th report Measurements of erosion rate caused by mercury flow

    CERN Document Server

    Kinoshita, H; Hino, R; Kaminaga, M

    2002-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) are promoting a construction plan of the Material-Life Science Facility, which is consisted of a Muon Science Facility and a Neutron Scattering Facility, in order to open up the new science fields. The Neutron Scattering Facility will be utilized for advanced fields of Material and Life science using high intensity neutron generated by the spallation reaction of a 1 MW pulsed proton beam and mercury target. Design of the spallation mercury target system aims to obtain high neutron performance with high reliability and safety. Since the target system is using mercury as the target material and contains large amount of radioactive spallation products, it is necessary to estimate reliability for strength of instruments in a mercury flow system during lifetime of the facility. Piping and components in the mercury flow system would be damaged by erosion with mercury flow, since these components will be we...

  9. Mercury uptake in vivo by normal and acatalasemic mice exposed to metallic mercury vapor (203Hg degrees) and injected with metallic mercury or mercuric chloride (203HgCl2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, M.; Kenmotsu, K.; Hirota, N.; Meguro, T.; Aikoh, H.

    1985-01-01

    Levels of mercury in the brain and liver of acatalasemic mice immediately following exposure to metallic mercury vapor or injection of metallic mercury were higher than those found in normal mice. Acatalasemic mice had decreased levels of mercury in the blood and kidneys when the levels were compared with those of normal mice, which indicated that catalase plays a role in oxidizing and taking up mercury. Thus, the brain/blood or liver/blood ratio of mercury concentration in acatalasemic mice was significantly higher than that of normal mice. These results suggest that metallic mercury in the blood easily passed through the blood-brain or blood-liver barrier. The levels of mercury distribution to the kidneys of normal and acatalasemic mice, 1 hr after injection of mercuric chloride solution, were higher than that of normal and acatalasemic mice, respectively, 1 hr after injection of metallic mercury

  10. Mercury content in Hot Springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, R

    1974-01-01

    A method of determination of mercury in hot spring waters by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry is described. Further, the mercury content and the chemical behavior of the elementary mercury in hot springs are described. Sulfide and iodide ions interfered with the determination of mercury by the reduction-vapor phase technique. These interferences could, however, be minimized by the addition of potassium permanganate. Waters collected from 55 hot springs were found to contain up to 26.0 ppb mercury. High concentrations of mercury have been found in waters from Shimoburo Springs, Aomori (10.0 ppb), Osorezan Springs, Aomori (1.3 approximately 18.8 ppb), Gosyogake Springs, Akita (26.0 ppb), Manza Springs, Gunma (0.30 approximately 19.5 ppb) and Kusatu Springs, Gunma (1.70 approximately 4.50 ppb). These hot springs were acid waters containing a relatively high quantity of chloride or sulfate.

  11. Database for content of mercury in Polish brown coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrząb, Krzysztof

    2018-01-01

    Poland is rated among the countries with largest level of mercury emission in Europe. According to information provided by the National Centre for Balancing and Management of Emissions (KOBiZE) more than 10.5 tons of mercury and its compounds were emitted into the atmosphere in 2015 from the area of Poland. Within the scope of the BazaHg project lasting from 2014 to 2015 and co-financed from the National Centre of Research and Development (NCBiR) a database was set up with specification of mercury content in Polish hard steam coal, coking coal and brown coal (lignite) grades. With regard to domestic brown coal the database comprises information on coal grades from Brown Coal Mines of `Bełchatów', `Adamów', `Turów' and `Sieniawa'. Currently the database contains 130 records with parameters of brown coal, where each record stands for technical analysis (content of moisture, ash and volatile particles), elemental analysis (CHNS), content of chlorine and mercury as well as net calorific value and combustion heat. Content of mercury in samples of brown coal grades under test ranged from 44 to 985 μg of Hg/kg with the average level of 345 μg of Hg/kg. The established database makes up a reliable and trustworthy source of information about content of mercury in Polish fossils. The foregoing details completed with information about consumption of coal by individual electric power stations and multiplied by appropriate emission coefficients may serve as the background to establish loads of mercury emitted into atmosphere from individual stations and by the entire sector of power engineering in total. It will also enable Polish central organizations and individual business entities to implement reasonable policy with respect of mercury emission into atmosphere.

  12. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Michael D.; Schlager, Richard J.; Sappey, Andrew D.; Sagan, Francis J.; Marmaro, Roger W.; Wilson, Kevin G.

    1997-01-01

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber.

  13. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program: Mercury Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.P.; Redinger, K.W.; Holmes, M.J.

    1997-07-01

    selenium and mercury, the majority of trace elements are well controlled due to their association with the particulate phase of flue gas. Reflecting the current focus of the US EPA and state environmental agencies on mercury as a potential candidate for regulation, the project specifically targets the measurement and control of mercury species. This paper discusses the results of testing on the quantity and species distribution of mercury while firing Ohio high-sulfur coal to assess the mercury emissions control potential of conventional SO 2 and particulate control systems. Results from recent AECDP tests are presented and two alternative mercury speciation methods are compared. The AECDP results clearly show that higher total mercury control efficiency can be achieved with a wet FGD scrubber than recently reported in the interim final US EPA report on HAP emissions from fossil-fired electric utility steam generating units

  14. Neurotoxic impact of mercury on the central nervous system evaluated by neuropsychological tests and on the autonomic nervous system evaluated by dynamic pupillometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milioni, Ana Luiza V; Nagy, Balázs V; Moura, Ana Laura A; Zachi, Elaine C; Barboni, Mirella T S; Ventura, Dora F

    2017-03-01

    Mercury vapor is highly toxic to the human body. The present study aimed to investigate the occurrence of neuropsychological dysfunction in former workers of fluorescent lamps factories that were exposed to mercury vapor (years after cessation of exposure), diagnosed with chronic mercurialism, and to investigate the effects of such exposure on the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) using the non-invasive method of dynamic pupillometry. The exposed group and a control group matched by age and educational level were evaluated by the Beck Depression Inventory and with the computerized neuropsychological battery CANTABeclipse - subtests of working memory (Spatial Span), spatial memory (Spatial Recognition Memory), visual memory (Pattern Recognition Memory) and action planning (Stockings of Cambridge). The ANS was assessed by dynamic pupillometry, which provides information on the operation on both the sympathetic and parasympathetic functions. Depression scores were significantly higher among the former workers when compared with the control group. The exposed group also showed significantly worse performance in most of the cognitive functions assessed. In the dynamic pupillometry test, former workers showed significantly lower response than the control group in the sympathetic response parameter (time of 75% of pupillary recovery at 10cd/m 2 luminance). Our study found indications that are suggestive of cognitive deficits and losses in sympathetic autonomic activity among patients occupationally exposed to mercury vapor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Technology demonstration for reducing mercury emissions from small-scale gold refining facilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habegger, L. J.; Fernandez, L. E.; Engle, M.; Bailey, J. L.; Peterson, D. P.; MacDonell, M. M.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    2008-06-30

    Gold that is brought from artisanal and small-scale gold mining areas to gold shops for processing and sale typically contains 5-40% mercury. The uncontrolled removal of the residual mercury in gold shops by using high-temperature evaporation can be a significant source of mercury emissions in urban areas where the shops are located. Emissions from gold shop hoods during a burn can exceed 1,000 mg/m{sup 3}. Because the saturation concentration of mercury vapor at operating temperatures at the hood exhaust is less than 100 mg/m{sup 3}, the dominant component of the exhaust is in the form of aerosol or liquid particles. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with technical support from Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), has completed a project to design and test a technology to remove the dominant aerosol component in the emissions from gold shops. The objective was to demonstrate a technology that could be manufactured at low cost and by using locally available materials and manufacturing capabilities. Six prototypes designed by Argonne were locally manufactured, installed, and tested in gold shops in Itaituba and Creporizao, Brazil. The initial prototype design incorporated a pebble bed as the media for collecting the mercury aerosols, and a mercury collection efficiency of over 90% was demonstrated. Though achieving high efficiencies, the initial prototype was determined to have practical disadvantages such as excessive weight, a somewhat complex construction, and high costs (>US$1,000). To further simplify the construction, operation, and associated costs, a second prototype design was developed in which the pebble bed was replaced with slotted steel baffle plates. The system was designed to have flexibility for installation in various hood configurations. The second prototype with the baffle plate design was installed and tested in several different hood/exhaust systems to determine the optimal installation configuration. The significance of

  16. Return to Mercury: a global perspective on MESSENGER's first Mercury flyby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Sean C; McNutt, Ralph L; Watters, Thomas R; Lawrence, David J; Feldman, William C; Head, James W; Krimigis, Stamatios M; Murchie, Scott L; Phillips, Roger J; Slavin, James A; Zuber, Maria T

    2008-07-04

    In January 2008, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft became the first probe to fly past the planet Mercury in 33 years. The encounter revealed that Mercury is a dynamic system; its liquid iron-rich outer core is coupled through a dominantly dipolar magnetic field to the surface, exosphere, and magnetosphere, all of which interact with the solar wind. MESSENGER images confirm that lobate scarps are the dominant tectonic landform and record global contraction associated with cooling of the planet. The history of contraction can be related to the history of volcanism and cratering, and the total contractional strain is at least one-third greater than inferred from Mariner 10 images. On the basis of measurements of thermal neutrons made during the flyby, the average abundance of iron in Mercury's surface material is less than 6% by weight.

  17. Chemical mechanisms in mercury emission control technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, E.S.; Laumb, J.D.; Benson, S.A.; Dunham, G.E.; Sharma, R.K.; Mibeck, B.A.; Miller, S.J.; Holmes, M.J.; Pavlish, J.H. [University of North Dakota, Energy and Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    2003-05-01

    The emission of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-burning power plants is a major environmental concern. Control technologies utilizing activated carbon show promise and are currently under intense review. Oxidation and capture of elemental mercury on activated carbon was extensively investigated in a variety of flue gas atmospheres. Extensive parametric testing with individual and a variety of combinations and concentrations of reactive flue gas components and spectroscopic examination of the sulfur and chlorine forms present before and after breakthrough have led to an improved model to explain the kinetic and capacity results. The improved model delineates the independent Lewis acid oxidation site as well as a zig-zag carbene site on the carbon edge that performs as a Lewis base in reacting with both the oxidized mercury formed at the oxidation site and with the acidic flue gas components in competing reactions to form organochlorine, sulfinate, and sulfate ester moieties on the carbon edge.

  18. THEORY OF SECULAR CHAOS AND MERCURY'S ORBIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithwick, Yoram; Wu Yanqin

    2011-01-01

    We study the chaotic orbital evolution of planetary systems, focusing on secular (i.e., orbit-averaged) interactions, which dominate on long timescales. We first focus on the evolution of a test particle that is forced by multiple planets. To linear order in eccentricity and inclination, its orbit precesses with constant frequencies. But nonlinearities modify the frequencies, and can shift them into and out of resonance with either the planets' eigenfrequencies (forming eccentricity or inclination secular resonances), or with linear combinations of those frequencies (forming mixed high-order secular resonances). The overlap of these nonlinear secular resonances drives secular chaos. We calculate the locations and widths of nonlinear secular resonances, display them together on a newly developed map (the 'map of the mean momenta'), and find good agreement between analytical and numerical results. This map also graphically demonstrates how chaos emerges from overlapping secular resonances. We then apply this newfound understanding to Mercury to elucidate the origin of its orbital chaos. We find that since Mercury's two free precession frequencies (in eccentricity and inclination) lie within ∼25% of two other eigenfrequencies in the solar system (those of the Jupiter-dominated eccentricity mode and the Venus-dominated inclination mode), secular resonances involving these four modes overlap and cause Mercury's chaos. We confirm this with N-body integrations by showing that a slew of these resonant angles alternately librate and circulate. Our new analytical understanding allows us to calculate the criterion for Mercury to become chaotic: Jupiter and Venus must have eccentricity and inclination of a few percent. The timescale for Mercury's chaotic diffusion depends sensitively on the forcing. As it is, Mercury appears to be perched on the threshold for chaos, with an instability timescale comparable to the lifetime of the solar system.

  19. Mercury: Aspects of its ecology and environmental toxicity. [physiological effects of mercury compound contamination of environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of mercury pollution on the environment. The possible sources of mercury contamination in sea water are identified. The effects of mercury on food sources, as represented by swordfish, are analyzed. The physiological effects of varying concentrations of mercury are reported. Emphasis is placed on the situation existing in the Hawaiian Islands.

  20. Axial mercury segregation in direct current operated low-pressure argon-mercury gas discharges: Part I. Experimental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gielen, John W A M; Groot, Simon de; Mullen, Joost J A M van der

    2004-01-01

    Due to cataphoresis, axial segregation of mercury will occur when the gas discharge of a fluorescent lamp is operated by means of a direct current. A consequence of this is a non-uniform axial luminance distribution along the lamp. To determine the degree of axial mercury segregation experimentally, axial luminance distributions have been measured which are converted into axial mercury vapour pressure distributions by an appropriate calibration method. The mercury segregation has been investigated for variations in lamp tube radius (3.6-4.8 mm), argon buffer gas pressure (200-600 Pa) and lamp current (100-250 mA) at mercury vapour pressures set at the anode in the range from 0.2 to 9.0 Pa. From the experiments it has been concluded that the mercury vapour pressure gradient at any axial position for a certain lamp tube diameter, argon pressure and lamp current depends on the local mercury vapour pressure. This observation is in contrast to assumptions made in earlier modelling publications in which one mercury vapour pressure gradient is used for all axial positions. By applying a full factorial design, an empirical relation of the mercury segregation is found for any set of parameters inside the investigated parameter ranges

  1. Mercury Sorption onto Malt Spent Rootlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manariotis, I. D.; Anagnostopoulos, V.; Karapanagioti, H. K.; Chrysikopoulos, C.

    2011-12-01

    Mercury is a metal of particular concern due to its toxicity even at relatively low concentrations. The maximum permissible level for mercury in drinking water set by the European Union is 0.001 mg/L. Mercury is released into the environment via four principal pathways: (1) natural processes; i.e. a volcanic eruption, (2) incidental to some other activity; i.e. coal burning power plants, (3) accidentally during the manufacture, breakage or disposal of products that have mercury put into them deliberately, and (4) direct use in industrial settings. The present study focuses on the removal of mercury (II) from aqueous solutions via sorption onto Malt Spent Rootlets (MSR). Batch experiments were conducted employing MSR with size ranging from 0.18 to 1 mm. The effects of pH, mercury concentration, contact time, and solid to liquid ratio on mercury sorption onto MSR were investigated. The highest mercury removal from the aqueous phase, of 41%, was observed at pH of 5.

  2. Influence of coal properties on mercury uptake from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, J.; Brown, S.D.; Snape, C.E. [Miskolc University, Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary). Research Inst. of Applied Chemistry

    1999-10-01

    The uptake of mercury (II) from aqueous solution by a range of coals has been studied and the results have been compared to those for a number of other sorbents, including commercial active carbons and cation-exchange resins. At pH 5 in a buffer medium, the capacities for mercury removal of the low-rank coals and the oxidized bituminous coals investigated are comparable to those of the other sorbents tested. For the lignites investigated, a high content of organic sulfur does not markedly affect the capacity for mercury uptake in relatively neutral and low chloride media, owing to redox reactions being the most likely mechanism involved. However, in highly acidic solutions, the capacities for mercury uptake are considerably greater for the high-sulfur coals investigated than for their low-sulfur counterparts due to chelation being the major sorption process involved. 36 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Mercury Exposure: Protein Biomarkers of Mercury Exposure in Jaraqui Fish from the Amazon Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, José Cavalcante Souza; Braga, Camila Pereira; de Oliveira, Grasieli; Padilha, Cilene do Carmo Federici; de Moraes, Paula Martin; Zara, Luiz Fabricio; Leite, Aline de Lima; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Padilha, Pedro de Magalhães

    2018-05-01

    This study presents data on the extraction and characterization of proteins associated with mercury in the muscle and liver tissues of jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp.) from the Madeira River in the Brazilian Amazon. Protein fractionation was carried out by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). Mercury determination in tissues, pellets, and protein spots was performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Proteins in the spots that showed mercury were characterized by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). The highest mercury concentrations were found in liver tissues and pellets (426 ± 6 and 277 ± 4 μg kg -1 ), followed by muscle tissues and pellets (132 ± 4 and 86 ± 1 μg kg -1 , respectively). Mercury quantification in the protein spots allowed us to propose stoichiometric ratios in the range of 1-4 mercury atoms per molecule of protein in the protein spots. The proteins characterized in the analysis by ESI-MS/MS were keratin, type II cytoskeletal 8, parvalbumin beta, parvalbumin-2, ubiquitin-40S ribosomal S27a, 39S ribosomal protein L36 mitochondrial, hemoglobin subunit beta, and hemoglobin subunit beta-A/B. The results suggest that proteins such as ubiquitin-40S ribosomal protein S27a, which have specific domains, possibly zinc finger, can be used as biomarkers of mercury, whereas mercury and zinc present characteristics of soft acids.

  4. Mercury removal from SRP radioactive waste streams using ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, J.P.; Wallace, R.M.; Ebra, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Mercury is present in varying concentrations in some Savannah River Plant (SRP) waste streams as a result of its use as a catalyst in the dissolution of fuel elements composed of uranium-aluminum alloys. It may be desirable to remove mercury from these streams before treatment of the waste for incorporation in glass for long-term storage. The glass forming process will also create waste from which mercury will have to be removed. The goal of mercury would be to eliminate ultimate emission of the toxic substance into the environment. This paper describes tests that demonstrate the feasibility of using a specific cation exchange resin, Duolite GT-73 for the removal of mercury from five waste streams generated at the SRP. Two of these streams are dilute; one is the condensate from a waste evaporator while the other is the effluent from an effluent treatment plant now under development. The three other streams are related to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) that is being built at SRP. One of these streams is a concentrated salt solution (principally sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide) that constitutes the soluble fraction of SRP waste and contains 20% mercury in the waste. The second stream is a slurry of the insoluble components in SRP waste and contains 80% of the mercury. The third stream is the offgas condensate from the glass melter system in the DWPF

  5. Sorption of mercury by activated carbon in the presence of flue gas components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamantopoulou, Ir.; Skodras, G.; Sakellaropoulos, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the mercury removal ability of F400 and Norit FGD activated carbons, through fixed bed adsorption tests at inert atmosphere (Hg + N 2 ). Additionally, adsorption tests were realized on F400 activated carbon, in the presence of HCl, O 2 , SO 2 and CO 2 in nitrogen flow. The obtained results, revealed that F400 activated carbon, with a high-developed micropore structure and increased BET area, exhibit larger Hg adsorptive capacity compared to Norit. HCl and O 2 , can strongly affect mercury adsorption, owing to heterogeneous oxidation and chemisorption reactions, which is in accordance with the assumptions of some researchers. Additionally, SO 2 presence enhances mercury adsorption, in contrast with the conclusions evaluated in other studies. The above result could be attributed to the possible formation of sulphur spaces on activated carbon surface and consist of a clarification for the role of SO 2 on mercury adsorption. On the contrary, the mercury adsorption efficiency of F400 activated carbon showed a decrease at about 25%, with increasing CO 2 concentration from 0 to 12%. (author)

  6. Sorption of mercury by activated carbon in the presence of flue gas components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamantopoulou, Ir. [Chemical Process Engineering Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece); Skodras, G. [Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Ptolemais (Greece); Sakellaropoulos, G.P. [Chemical Process Engineering Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece); Laboratory of Energy and Environmental Processes, Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2010-02-15

    The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the mercury removal ability of F400 and Norit FGD activated carbons, through fixed bed adsorption tests at inert atmosphere (Hg + N{sub 2}). Additionally, adsorption tests were realized on F400 activated carbon, in the presence of HCl, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} in nitrogen flow. The obtained results, revealed that F400 activated carbon, with a high-developed micropore structure and increased BET area, exhibit larger Hg adsorptive capacity compared to Norit. HCl and O{sub 2}, can strongly affect mercury adsorption, owing to heterogeneous oxidation and chemisorption reactions, which is in accordance with the assumptions of some researchers. Additionally, SO{sub 2} presence enhances mercury adsorption, in contrast with the conclusions evaluated in other studies. The above result could be attributed to the possible formation of sulphur spaces on activated carbon surface and consist of a clarification for the role of SO{sub 2} on mercury adsorption. On the contrary, the mercury adsorption efficiency of F400 activated carbon showed a decrease at about 25%, with increasing CO{sub 2} concentration from 0 to 12%. (author)

  7. Method for the removal and recovery of mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterly, Clay E.; Vass, Arpad A.; Tyndall, Richard L.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.

  8. Groundwater Modeling of Mercury Pollution at a Former Mercury Cell Chlor Alkali Facility in Pavlodar City, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    In northern Kazakhstan, there is a serious case of mercury pollution near the city of Pavlodar from an old mercury cell chlor-alkali plant. The soil, sediment, and water is severely contaminated with mercury and mercury compounds as a result of the industrial activity of this ch...

  9. Exposure of Small-Scale Gold Miners in Prestea to Mercury, Ghana, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, Ebenezer Kofi; Afari, Edwin; Wurapa, Frederick; Sackey, Samuel; Quainoo, Albert; Kenu, Ernest; Nyarko, Kofi Mensah

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale gold miners in Ghana have been using mercury to amalgamate gold for many years. Mercury is toxic even at low concentration. We assessed occupational exposure of small-scale gold miners to mercury in Prestea, a gold mining town in Ghana . We conducted a cross-sectional study in which we collected morning urine samples from 343 small-scale gold miners and tested for elemental mercury. Data on small-scale gold miner's socio-demographics, adverse health effects and occupational factors for mercury exposure were obtained and analyzed using SPSS Version 16 to determine frequency and percentage. Bivariate analysis was used to determine occupational factors associated with mercury exposure at 95% confidence level. The mean age of the small-scale gold miners was 29.5 ±9.6 years, and 323(94.20%) were males. One hundred and sixty (46.65%) of the small-scale gold miners had urine mercury above the recommended exposure limit (mercury exposure among those who have previously worked at other small-scale gold mines (χ 2 =4.96, p=0.03). The use of personal protective equipment among the small-scale gold miners was low. Retorts, which are globally recommended for burning amalgam, were not found at mining sites. A large proportion of small-scale gold miners in Prestea were having mercury exposure in excess of occupational exposure limits, and are at risk of experiencing adverse health related complications. Ghana Environmental Protection Agency should organize training for the miners.

  10. Advances in encapsulation technologies for the management of mercury-contaminated hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, Paul; Chattopadhyay, Sandip

    2004-01-01

    Although industrial and commercial uses of mercury have been curtailed in recent times, there is a demonstrated need for the development of reliable hazardous waste management techniques because of historic operations that have led to significant contamination and ongoing hazardous waste generation. This study was performed to evaluate whether the U.S. EPA could propose treatment and disposal alternatives to the current land disposal restriction (LDR) treatment standards for mercury. The focus of this article is on the current state of encapsulation technologies that can be used to immobilize elemental mercury, mercury-contaminated debris, and other mercury-contaminated wastes, soils, sediments, or sludges. The range of encapsulation materials used in bench-scale, pilot-scale, and full-scale applications for mercury-contaminated wastes are summarized. Several studies have been completed regarding the application of sulfur polymer stabilization/solidification, chemically bonded phosphate ceramic encapsulation, and polyethylene encapsulation. Other materials reported in the literature as under development for encapsulation use include asphalt, polyester resins, synthetic elastomers, polysiloxane, sol-gels, Dolocrete TM , and carbon/cement mixtures. The primary objective of these encapsulation methods is to physically immobilize the wastes to prevent contact with leaching agents such as water. However, when used for mercury-contaminated wastes, several of these methods require a pretreatment or stabilization step to chemically fix mercury into a highly insoluble form prior to encapsulation. Performance data is summarized from the testing and evaluation of various encapsulated, mercury-contaminated wastes. Future technology development and research needs are also discussed

  11. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constance Senior; Temi Linjewile

    2003-07-25

    This is the first Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Ceramics GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, analysis of the coal, ash and mercury speciation data from the first test series was completed. Good agreement was shown between different methods of measuring mercury in the flue gas: Ontario Hydro, semi-continuous emission monitor (SCEM) and coal composition. There was a loss of total mercury across the commercial catalysts, but not across the blank monolith. The blank monolith showed no oxidation. The data from the first test series show the same trend in mercury oxidation as a function of space velocity that has been seen elsewhere. At space velocities in the range of 6,000-7,000 hr{sup -1} the blank monolith did not show any mercury oxidation, with or without ammonia present. Two of the commercial catalysts clearly showed an effect of ammonia. Two other commercial catalysts showed an effect of ammonia, although the error bars for the no-ammonia case are large. A test plan was written for the second test series and is being reviewed.

  12. Mercury emission from crematories in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Takaoka

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic sources of mercury emissions have a significant impact on global pollution. Therefore, finding uncharacterised sources and assessing the emissions from these sources are important. However, limited data are available worldwide on mercury emissions from crematories. In Japan, 99.9% of dead bodies are cremated, which is the highest percentage in the world, and more than 1600 crematories are in operation. We thus focused on emissions from crematories in Japan. The number of targeted facilities was seven, and we used continuous emission monitoring to measure the mercury concentrations and investigate mercury behaviour. The total mercury concentrations in stack gases were a few μg/Nm3 (normal cubic meters. Considering the time profile of mercury and its species in cremations, the findings confirmed that the mercury in stack gas originated from dental amalgam. The amount of mercury emissions was calculated using the total concentration and gas flow rate. Furthermore, the annual amount of mercury emission from crematories in Japan was estimated by using the total number of corpses. The emission amount was considerably lower than that estimated in the United Kingdom. From statistical analyses on population demographics and measurements, future total emissions from crematories were also predicted. As a result, the amount of mercury emitted by crematories will likely increase by 2.6-fold from 2007 to 2037.

  13. The prevalence of BRCA1 mutations among young women with triple-negative breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, SR; DeSai, Damini; Zandvakili, Inuk; Royer, Robert; Li, Song; Narod, Steven A; Pilarski, Robert T; Donenberg, Talia; Shapiro, Charles; Hammond, Lyn S; Miller, Judith; Brooks, Karen A; Cohen, Stephanie; Tenenholz, Beverly

    2009-01-01

    Molecular screening for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations is now an established component of risk evaluation and management of familial breast cancer. Features of hereditary breast cancer include an early age-of-onset and over-representation of the 'triple-negative' phenotype (negative for estrogen-receptor, progesterone-receptor and HER2). The decision to offer genetic testing to a breast cancer patient is usually based on her family history, but in the absence of a family history of cancer, some women may qualify for testing based on the age-of-onset and/or the pathologic features of the breast cancer. We studied 54 women who were diagnosed with high-grade, triple-negative invasive breast cancer at or before age 40. These women were selected for study because they had little or no family history of breast or ovarian cancer and they did not qualify for genetic testing using conventional family history criteria. BRCA1 screening was performed using a combination of fluorescent multiplexed-PCR analysis, BRCA1 exon-13 6 kb duplication screening, the protein truncation test (PTT) and fluorescent multiplexed denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). All coding exons of BRCA1 were screened. The two large exons of BRCA2 were also screened using PTT. All mutations were confirmed with direct sequencing. Five deleterious BRCA1 mutations and one deleterious BRCA2 mutation were identified in the 54 patients with early-onset, triple-negative breast cancer (11%). Women with early-onset triple-negative breast cancer are candidates for genetic testing for BRCA1, even in the absence of a family history of breast or ovarian cancer

  14. Mercury controls for coal-fired power plants - status and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offen, G.; Shick, N.; Chang, R.; Chu, P.; Dene, C.; Rhudy, R. [EPRI, Palo Alto (US)

    2005-05-01

    Although the US Environmental Protection Agency has issued its mercury rule, setting limits for emissions from new power plants and placing an eventual cap on emissions from all plants, mercury control technologies offering sustainable performance and known applicability, impact, and cost are still in the future. Co-operative funding for long-term, full-scale tests of technologies in advanced stages of development, and support for emerging ones, promises to close the gap. The goal is to learn how to tailor control technologies to flue gas environments at individual power plants. In this paper the authors describe the current performance of mercury control technologies and outline the research needed to demonstrate their easiness for commercial deployment. 4 figs.

  15. Genetic effects of organic mercury compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramel, C

    1967-01-01

    Organic mercury compounds have a c-mitotic effect on plant cells that cause polyploidi. Studies were performed on Allium root cells. These investigations involved methyl mercury dicyandiamide, methyl mercury hydroxide, and phenyl mercury hydroxide. The lowest concentration necessary for a cytologically observable effect was about 0.05 ppM Hg for the methyl compounds. For the phenyl compound, the value was lower. Experiments were performed on Drosophila melanogaster. The question was whether the mercury would reach the gonads. Experimental data with mercury treated larvae indicated a chromosome disjunction. Data indicated a preferential segregation at the meiotic division might be involved. Experiments are being performed on mice inbred (CBA) in order to investigate teratogenic effects and dominant lethality caused by organic mercury compounds. The mutagenic effects of these compounds are studied on Neurospora Drosophila. No conclusive data is now available.

  16. Atmospheric speciation of mercury in two contrasting Southeastern US airsheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Mark C.; Williamson, Derek G.; Brooks, Steve; Lindberg, Steve

    Simultaneous measurement of gaseous elemental, reactive gaseous, and fine particulate mercury took place in Tuscaloosa AL, (urban airshed) and Cove Mountain, TN (non-urban airshed) during the summers of 2002 and 2003. The objective of this research was to (1) summarize the temporal distribution of each mercury specie at each site and compare to other speciation data sets developed by other researchers and (2) provide insight into urban and non-urban mercury speciation effects using various statistical methods. Average specie concentrations were as follows: 4.05 ng m -3 (GEM), 13.6 pg m -3 (RGM), 16.4 pg m -3 (Hg-p) for Tuscaloosa; 3.20 ng m -3 (GEM), 13.6 pg m -3 (RGM), 9.73 pg m -3 (Hg-p) for Cove Mountain. As a result of urban airshed impacts, short periods of high concentration for all mercury species was common in Tuscaloosa. At Cove Mountain a consistent mid-day rise and evening drop for mercury species was found. This pattern was primarily the result of un-impacted physical boundary layer movement, although, other potential impacts were ambient photochemistry and air-surface exchange of mercury. Meteorological parameters that are known to heavily impact mercury speciation were similar for the study period for Tuscaloosa and Cove Mountain except for wind speed (m s -1), which was higher at Cove Mountain. For both sites statistically significant ( p<0.0001), inverse relationships existed between wind speed and Hg 0 concentration. A weaker windspeed-Hg 0 correlation existed for Tuscaloosa. By analyzing Hg concentration—wind speed magnitude change at both sites it was found that wind speed at Cove Mountain had a greater influence on Hg 0 concentration variability than Tuscaloosa by a factor of 3. Using various statistical tests, we concluded that the nature of Tuscaloosa's atmospheric mercury speciation was the result of typical urban airshed impacts. Cove Mountain showed atmospheric mercury speciation characteristics indicative of a non-urban area along with

  17. Enhanced Control of Mercury and other HAPs by Innovative Modifications to Wet FGD Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargrove, O.W.; Carey, T.R.; Richardson, C.F.; Skarupa, R.C.; Meserole, F.B.; Rhudy, R.G.; Brown, Thomas D.

    1997-01-01

    The overall objective of this project was to learn more about controlling emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from coal-fired power plants that are equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project was included by FETC as a Phase I project in its Mega-PRDA program. Phase I of this project focused on three research areas. These areas in order of priority were: (1) Catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury; (2) Enhanced particulate-phase HAPs removal by electrostatic charging of liquid droplets; and (3) Enhanced mercury removal by addition of additives to FGD process liquor. Mercury can exist in two forms in utility flue gas--as elemental mercury and as oxidized mercury (predominant form believed to be HgCl 2 ). Previous test results have shown that wet scrubbers effectively remove the oxidized mercury from the gas but are ineffective in removing elemental mercury. Recent improvements in mercury speciation techniques confirm this finding. Catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury is of interest in cases where a wet scrubber exists or is planned for SO 2 control. If a loW--cost process could be developed to oxidize all of the elemental mercury in the flue gas, then the maximum achievable mercury removal across the existing or planned wet scrubber would increase. Other approaches for improving control of HAPs included a method for improving particulate removal across the FGD process and the use of additives to increase mercury solubility. This paper discusses results related only to catalytic oxidation of elemental mercury

  18. Modeling Radiation Effects on a Triple Junction Solar Cell using Silvaco ATLAS

    OpenAIRE

    Schiavo, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In this research, Silvaco ATLAS, an advanced virtual wafer fabrication tool, was used to model the effects of radiation on a triple junction InGaP/GaAs/Ge solar cell. A Silvaco ATLAS model of a triple junction InGaP/GaAs/Ge cell was created by first creating individual models for solar cells composed of each material. Realistic doping levels were used and thicknesses were varied to produce the design parameters and create reasonably efficient solar cell models for testing. After the individua...

  19. MERCURY IN MARINE LIFE DATABASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the Mercury in Marine Life Project is to organize information on estuarine and marine species so that EPA can better understand both the extent of monitoring for mercury and level of mercury contamination in the biota of coastal environments. This report follows a ...

  20. Disposal strategy of proton irradiated mercury from high power spallation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiriki, Suresh

    2010-01-01

    Large spallation sources are intended to be constructed in Europe (EURISOL: nuclear physics research facility and ESS: European Spallation Source). These facilities would accumulate more than 20 metric tons of irradiated mercury in the target, which has to be treated as highly radioactive and chemo-toxic waste. Liquid waste cannot be tolerated in European repositories. As part of this work on safety/decommissioning of high-power spallation sources, our investigations were focused mainly to study experimentally and theoretically the solidification of liquid mercury waste (selection of an adequate solid mercury form and of an immobilization matrix, chemical engineering process studies on solidification/stabilization and on encapsulating in a matrix). Based on experimental results and supported by literature Hg-chalcogens (HgS, HgSe) will be more stable in repositories than amalgams. Our irradiation experimental studies on mercury waste revealed that mercury sulfide is a reasonable solid for disposal and shows larger stability in possible accidents with water ingress in a repository. Additionally immobilization of mercury in a cement matrix and polysiloxane matrix were tested. HgS formation from liquid target mercury by a wet process is identified as a suitable formation procedure. These investigations reveal that an almost 99.9% elementary Hg conversion can be achieved and that wet process can be reasonably handled under hot cell conditions. (orig.)

  1. Disposal strategy of proton irradiated mercury from high power spallation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiriki, Suresh

    2010-07-01

    Large spallation sources are intended to be constructed in Europe (EURISOL: nuclear physics research facility and ESS: European Spallation Source). These facilities would accumulate more than 20 metric tons of irradiated mercury in the target, which has to be treated as highly radioactive and chemo-toxic waste. Liquid waste cannot be tolerated in European repositories. As part of this work on safety/decommissioning of high-power spallation sources, our investigations were focused mainly to study experimentally and theoretically the solidification of liquid mercury waste (selection of an adequate solid mercury form and of an immobilization matrix, chemical engineering process studies on solidification/stabilization and on encapsulating in a matrix). Based on experimental results and supported by literature Hg-chalcogens (HgS, HgSe) will be more stable in repositories than amalgams. Our irradiation experimental studies on mercury waste revealed that mercury sulfide is a reasonable solid for disposal and shows larger stability in possible accidents with water ingress in a repository. Additionally immobilization of mercury in a cement matrix and polysiloxane matrix were tested. HgS formation from liquid target mercury by a wet process is identified as a suitable formation procedure. These investigations reveal that an almost 99.9% elementary Hg conversion can be achieved and that wet process can be reasonably handled under hot cell conditions. (orig.)

  2. Mercury pollution in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Jinap, S; Ismail, Ahmad; Mahyudin, Nor Ainy

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have been published on levels of mercury contamination of the environment, and of food and human tissues in Peninsular Malaysia, there is a serious dearth of research that has been performed in East Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak). Industry is rapidly developing in East Malaysia, and, hence, there is a need for establishing baseline levels of mercury contamination in environmental media in that part of the country by performing monitoring studies. Residues of total mercury and inorganic in food samples have been determined in nearly all previous studies that have been conducted; however, few researchers have analyzed samples for the presence of methlymercury residues. Because methylmercury is the most toxic form of mercury, and because there is a growing public awareness of the risk posed by methylmercury exposure that is associated with fish and seafood consumption, further monitoring studies on methylmercury in food are also essential. From the results of previous studies, it is obvious that the economic development in Malaysia, in recent years, has affected the aquatic environment of the country. Primary areas of environmental concern are centered on the rivers of the west Peninsular Malaysian coast, and the coastal waters of the Straits of Malacca, wherein industrial activities are rapidly expanding. The sources of existing mercury input to both of these areas of Malaysia should be studied and identified. Considering the high levels of mercury that now exists in human tissues, efforts should be continued, and accelerated in the future, if possible, to monitor mercury contamination levels in the coastal states, and particularly along the west Peninsular Malaysian coast. Most studies that have been carried out on mercury residues in environmental samples are dated, having been conducted 20-30 years ago; therefore, the need to collect much more and more current data is urgent. Furthermore, establishing baseline levels of mercury exposure to

  3. Isolation of Mercury-Resistant Fungi from Mercury-Contaminated Agricultural Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginawanti Hindersah

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Illegal gold mining and the resulting gold mine tailing ponds on Buru Island in Maluku, Indonesia have increased Mercury (Hg levels in agricultural soil and caused massive environmental damage. High levels of Hg in soil lowers plant productivity and threatens the equilibrium of the food web. One possible method of handling Hg-contaminated soils is through bioremediation, which could eliminate Hg from the rhizosphere (root zone. In this study, indigenous fungi isolated from Hg-contaminated soil exhibited Hg-resistance in vitro. Soil samples were collected from the rhizosphere of pioneer plants which grew naturally in areas contaminated with gold mine tailing. The fungi’s capacity for Hg-resistance was confirmed by their better growth in chloramphenicol-boosted potato dextrose agar media which contained various HgCl2 concentrations. Four isolates exhibited resistance of up to 25 mg kg−1 of Hg, and in an experiment with young Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. test plants, two fungi species (including Aspergillus were demonstrated to increase the soil’s availability of Hg. The results suggest that Hg-resistant indigenous fungi can mobilize mercury in the soil and serve as potential bioremediation agents for contaminated agricultural land.

  4. Updated science issues and observation plans of BepiColombo Mercury Magnetosphere Orbiter (MMO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, G.; Fujimoto, M.; Hayakawa, H.

    2017-12-01

    After the successful observation by the first Mercury orbiter MESSENGER ended in 2015, Mercury becomes one of the most curious planets to investigate. MESSENGER raised new science issues, such as the northward offset of planetary dipole magnetic filed, the highly dynamic magnetosphere, and the year-to-year constant exosphere. These outstanding discoveries still remain as open issues due to some limitations of instruments onboard MESSENGER and its extended elliptical orbit with apherm in southern hemisphere. The next Mercury exploration project BepiColombo will address these open issues. BepiColombo is an ESA-JAXA joint mission to Mercury with the aim to understand the process of planetary formation and evolution as well as to understand Mercury's extreme environment in the solar system. Two spacecraft, i.e. the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) and the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO), will be launched in October 2018 by an Ariane-5 launch vehicle and arrive at Mercury in December 2025. The mechanical test in a complete stack configuration has been performed in the ESA test center and successfully finished. MMO is mainly designed for plasma observations and is expected to extract essential elements of space plasma physics that become visible in the Hermean environment. MMO has large constraints on science operations, such as thermal issue and limited telemetry rate. Due to the thermal issue each science instrument cannot always be turned on. In addition, due to the low telemetry rate in average, only a part ( 20-30%) of science mission data with high resolution can be downlinked. Therefore, in order to maximize the scientific results and outcomes to be achieved by MMO, we are now working to optimize the science observation and downlink plans in detail. Here we present the updated science goals for MMO based on the latest MESSENGER results and the current observation plans how to approach these science issues.

  5. Development of a 170Tm source for mercury monitoring studies in humans using XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmaraju, K. Phanisree; Fajurally, Bibi Najah; Armstrong, Andrea F.; Chettle, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The goals of the present study were to develop a 170 Tm radioisotope and generate a K XRF spectrum of mercury. Thulium foil and thulium oxide powder were both tested for impurities and the latter was found to be a better prospect for further studies. The 170 Tm radioisotope was developed from thulium oxide powder following the method of disolution and absorption. A suitable source holder and collimator were also designed based on Monte Carlo simulations. Using the radioisotope thus developed, a mercury XRF spectrum was successfully generated. - Highlights: • We tested the purity of thulium samples by XRF and NAA techniques. • Developed a procedure to generate Tm-170 isotope out of thulium oxide powder. • Designed a collimator and source holder • Generated XRF spectrum of mercury using the Tm-170 isotope. • Compared the highlights in mercury spectra from Tm-170 and Cd-109 isotopes.

  6. Mercury recycling in the United States in 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William E.; Matos, Grecia R.

    2005-01-01

    Reclamation and recycling of mercury from used mercury- containing products and treatment of byproduct mercury from gold mining is vital to the continued, though declining, use of this metal. Mercury is reclaimed from mercury-containing waste by treatment in multistep high-temperature retorts-the mercury is volatized and then condensed for purification and sale. Some mercury-containing waste, however, may be landfilled, and landfilled material represents loss of a recyclable resource and a threat to the environment. Related issues include mercury disposal and waste management, toxicity and human health, and regulation of mercury releases in the environment. End-users of mercury-containing products may face fines and prosecution if these products are improperly recycled or not recycled. Local and State environmental regulations require adherence to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act to regulate generation, treatment, and disposal of mercury-containing products. In the United States, several large companies and a number of smaller companies collect these products from a variety of sources and then reclaim and recycle the mercury. Because mercury has not been mined as a principal product in the United States since 1992, mercury reclamation from fabricated products has become the main source of mercury. Principal product mercury and byproduct mercury from mining operations are considered to be primary materials. Mercury may also be obtained as a byproduct from domestic or foreign gold-processing operations. In the early 1990s, U.S. manufacturers used an annual average that ranged from 500 to 600 metric tons of recycled and imported mercury for fabrication of automobile convenience switches, dental amalgam, fluorescent lamps, medical uses and thermometers, and thermostats. The amount now used for fabrication is estimated to be 200 metric tons per year or less. Much of the data on

  7. Quarter 9 Mercury information clearinghouse final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudal, D.L.; Miller, S.; Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.; Ralston, N.; Dunham, G.; Weber, G.

    2005-12-15

    The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) identified a need and contracted the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to create and maintain an information clearinghouse on global research and development activities related to mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. A total of eight reports were completed and are summarized and updated in this final CEA quarterly report. Selected topics were discussed in detail in each quarterly report. Issues related to mercury from coal-fired utilities include the general areas of measurement, control, policy, and transformations. Specific topics that have been addressed in previous quarterly reports include the following: Quarterly 1 - Sorbent Control Technologies for Mercury Control; Quarterly 2 - Mercury Measurement; Quarterly 3 - Advanced and Developmental Mercury Control Technologies; Quarterly 4 - Prerelease of Mercury from Coal Combustion By-Products; Quarterly 5 - Mercury Fundamentals; Quarterly 6 - Mercury Control Field Demonstrations; Quarterly 7 - Mercury Regulations in the United States: Federal and State; and Quarterly 8 - Commercialization Aspects of Sorbent Injection Technologies in Canada. In this last of nine quarterly reports, an update of these mercury issues is presented that includes a summary of each topic, with recent information pertinent to advances made since the quarterly reports were originally presented. In addition to a comprehensive update of previous mercury-related topics, a review of results from the CEA Mercury Program is provided. 86 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Testing for associations between hematozoa infection and mercury in wading bird nestlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, A Lawrence; Love, Cara N; Mills, Gary L; Borkhataria, Rena R; Lance, Stacey L

    2015-01-01

    Several wading bird species in the southeastern US have a history of infection by hematozoa/avian malaria as well as mercury accumulation through their diet, and thus may be exposed to two, generally sublethal, yet chronic, stressors. We analyzed nestling wading birds (n = 171) of varying size and trophic position from the southeastern US, and a smaller sample (n = 23) of older, free-ranging birds, to look for potential interrelationships between infection by hematozoa and mercury (Hg) uptake. Only one nestling was PCR positive for hematozoa (Plasmodium/Haemoproteus) whereas nine (39%) of the older wading birds were positive. Sequencing indicated that both nestling and adult positives were infected with Plasmodium. Given the low infection rate of the nestlings, there was no association between Hg and malaria. The older birds exhibited a possible malaria/Hg association, but it may be confounded by their greater potential exposure period and large-scale movements.

  9. SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION (SPSS) TREATABILITY OF LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY MERCURY WASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ADAMS, J.W.; KALB, P.D.

    2001-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory's Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process was used to treat approximately 90kg of elemental mercury mixed waste from Los Alamos National Laboratory. Treatment was carried out in a series of eight batches using a 1 ft(sup 3) pilot-scale mixer, where mercury loading in each batch was 33.3 weight percent. Although leach performance is currently not regulated for amalgamated elemental mercury (Hg) mixed waste, Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) testing of SPSS treated elemental mercury waste indicates that leachability is readily reduced to below the TCLP limit of 200 ppb (regulatory requirement following treatment by retort for wastes containingandgt; 260 ppb Hg), and with process optimization, to levels less than the stringent Universal Treatment Standard (UTS) limit of 25 ppb that is applied to waste containingandlt; 260 ppm Hg. In addition, mercury-contaminated debris, consisting of primary glass and plastic containers, as well as assorted mercury thermometers, switches, and labware, was first reacted with SPSS components to stabilize the mercury contamination, then macroencapsulated in the molten SPSS product. This treatment was done by vigorous agitation of the sulfur polymer powder and the comminuted debris. Larger plastic and metal containers were reacted to stabilize internal mercury contamination, and then filled with molten sulfur polymer to encapsulate the treated product

  10. The time domain triple probe method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, M.A.; Hallock, G.A.; Tsui, H.Y.W.; Bengtson, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    A new Langmuir probe technique based on the triple probe method is being developed to provide simultaneous measurement of plasma temperature, potential, and density with the temporal and spatial resolution required to accurately characterize plasma turbulence. When the conventional triple probe method is used in an inhomogeneous plasma, local differences in the plasma measured at each probe introduce significant error in the estimation of turbulence parameters. The Time Domain Triple Probe method (TDTP) uses high speed switching of Langmuir probe potential, rather than spatially separated probes, to gather the triple probe information thus avoiding these errors. Analysis indicates that plasma response times and recent electronics technology meet the requirements to implement the TDTP method. Data reduction techniques of TDTP data are to include linear and higher order correlation analysis to estimate fluctuation induced particle and thermal transport, as well as energy relationships between temperature, density, and potential fluctuations

  11. Robust Modeling of Stellar Triples in PHOEBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Kyle E.; Prsa, Andrej; Horvat, Martin; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2017-01-01

    The number of known mutually-eclipsing stellar triple and multiple systems has increased greatly during the Kepler era. These systems provide significant opportunities to both determine fundamental stellar parameters of benchmark systems to unprecedented precision as well as to study the dynamical interaction and formation mechanisms of stellar and planetary systems. Modeling these systems to their full potential, however, has not been feasible until recently. Most existing available codes are restricted to the two-body binary case and those that do provide N-body support for more components make sacrifices in precision by assuming no stellar surface distortion. We have completely redesigned and rewritten the PHOEBE binary modeling code to incorporate support for triple and higher-order systems while also robustly modeling data with Kepler precision. Here we present our approach, demonstrate several test cases based on real data, and discuss the current status of PHOEBE's support for modeling these types of systems. PHOEBE is funded in part by NSF grant #1517474.

  12. Evaluation of mercury speciation and removal through air pollution control devices of a 190 MW boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chengli; Cao, Yan; Dong, Zhongbing; Cheng, Chinmin; Li, Hanxu; Pan, Weiping

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution control devices (APCDs) are installed at coal-fired power plants for air pollutant regulation. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems have the co-benefits of air pollutant and mercury removal. Configuration and operational conditions of APCDs and mercury speciation affect mercury removal efficiently at coal-fired utilities. The Ontario Hydro Method (OHM) recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was used to determine mercury speciation simultaneously at five sampling locations through SCR-ESP-FGD at a 190 MW unit. Chlorine in coal had been suggested as a factor affecting the mercury speciation in flue gas; and low-chlorine coal was purported to produce less oxidized mercury (Hg2+) and more elemental mercury (Hg0) at the SCR inlet compared to higher chlorine coal. SCR could oxidize elemental mercury into oxidized mercury when SCR was in service, and oxidation efficiency reached 71.0%. Therefore, oxidized mercury removal efficiency was enhanced through a wet FGD system. In the non-ozone season, about 89.5%-96.8% of oxidized mercury was controlled, but only 54.9%-68.8% of the total mercury was captured through wet FGD. Oxidized mercury removal efficiency was 95.9%-98.0%, and there was a big difference in the total mercury removal efficiencies from 78.0% to 90.2% in the ozone season. Mercury mass balance was evaluated to validate reliability of OHM testing data, and the ratio of mercury input in the coal to mercury output at the stack was from 0.84 to 1.08.

  13. Minamata Convention on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    On November 6, 2013 the United States signed the Minamata Convention on Mercury, a new multilateral environmental agreement that addresses specific human activities which are contributing to widespread mercury pollution

  14. Intake of mercury through fish consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmani, S.B.; Kiprawi, A.Z.; Ismail, R.B.; Hassan, R.B.; Wood, A.K.; Rahman, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Fish has been known as a source of non-occupational mercury exposure to fish consuming population groups, and this is shown by the high hair mercury levels. In this study, hair samples collected from fishermen and their families, and commercial marine fishes were analyzed for mercury and methylmercury by neutron activation and gas chromatography. The results showed a correlation between hair mercury levels and fish consumption patterns. The levels of mercury found in this study were similar to those reported by other workers for fish consuming population groups worldwide. (author)

  15. Aqueous mercury treatment technology review for NPDES Outfall 49 Y-12 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanning, J.M.

    1993-04-01

    During 1950 to 1955, Building 9201-2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was used to house development facilities for processes that employed elemental mercury to separate lithium isotopes as part of the thermonuclear weapons production operations. As a result of several spills, this building area and several other areas associated with the separation process were contaminated with mercury and became a source of continuing contamination of the Y-12 Plant discharge water to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). Mercury concentrations in the outfalls south of Building 9201-2 have ranged up to 80 ppb, with the highest concentrations being experienced at Outfall 49. As a result, this outfall was chosen as a test site for future mercury treatment technology evaluation and development at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. A literature review and vendor survey has identified several promising materials and technologies that may be applicable to mercury removal at the Outfall 49 site. This document summarizes those findings.

  16. Total Mercury content of skin toning creams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2008-04-01

    Apr 1, 2008 ... used it for cosmetics (Silberberg, 1995). Mercury- ... Cosmetic preparations containing mercury com- pounds are .... mercury determination by a modified version of an open .... level mercury exposure, which could lead to a.

  17. Theoretical investigation of compounds with triple bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devarajan, Deepa

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, compounds with potential triple-bonding character involving the heavier main-group elements, Group 4 transition metals, and the actinides uranium and thorium were studied by using molecular quantum mechanics. The triple bonds are described in terms of the individual orbital contributions (σ, π parallel , and π perpendicular to ), involving electron-sharing covalent or donor-acceptor interactions between the orbitals of two atoms or fragments. Energy decomposition, natural bond orbital, and atoms in molecules analyses were used for the bonding analysis of the triple bonds. The results of this thesis suggest that the triple-bonding character between the heavier elements of the periodic table is important and worth further study and exploration.

  18. Adsorption of mercury by activated carbon prepared from dried sewage sludge in simulated flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongmin; Lee, Sang-Sup

    2018-04-25

    Conversion of sewage sludge to activated carbon is attractive as an alternative method to ocean dumping for the disposal of sewage sludge. Injection of activated carbon upstream of particulate matter control devices has been suggested as a method to remove elemental mercury from flue gas. Activated carbon was prepared using various activation temperatures and times and was tested for their mercury adsorption efficiency using lab-scale systems. To understand the effect of the physical property of the activated carbon, its mercury adsorption efficiency was investigated as a function of their Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area. Two simulated flue gas conditions: (1) without hydrogen chloride (HCl) and (2) with 20 ppm HCl, were used to investigate the effect of flue gas composition on the mercury adsorption capacity of activated carbon. Despite very low BET surface area of the prepared sewage sludge activated carbons, their mercury adsorption efficiencies were comparable under both simulated flue gas conditions to those of pinewood and coal activated carbons. After injecting HCl into the simulated flue gas, all sewage sludge activated carbons demonstrated high adsorption efficiencies, i.e., more than 87%, regardless of their BET surface area. IMPLICATIONS We tested activated carbons prepared from dried sewage sludge to investigate the effect of their physical properties on their mercury adsorption efficiency. Using two simulated flue gas conditions, we conducted mercury speciation for the outlet gas. We found that the sewage sludge activated carbon had comparable mercury adsorption efficiency to pinewood and coal activated carbons, and the presence of HCl minimized the effect of physical property of the activated carbon on its mercury adsorption efficiency.

  19. Triple products of Eisenstein series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Anil

    In this thesis, we construct a Massey triple product on the Deligne cohomology of the modular curve with coefficients in symmetric powers of the standard representation of the modular group. This result is obtained by constructing a Massey triple product on the extension groups in the category of admissible variations of mixed Hodge structure over the modular curve, which induces the desired construction on Deligne cohomology. The result extends Brown's construction of the cup product on Deligne cohomology to a higher cohomological product. Massey triple products on Deligne cohomology have been previously investigated by Deninger, who considered Deligne cohomology with trivial real coefficients. By working over the reals, Deninger was able to compute cohomology exclusively with differential forms. In this work, Deligne cohomology is studied over the rationals, which introduces an obstruction to applying Deninger's results. The obstruction arises from the fact that the integration map from the de Rham complex to the Eilenberg-MacLane complex of the modular group is not an algebra homomorphism. We compute the correction terms of the integration map as regularized iterated integrals of Eisenstein series, and show that these integrals arise in the cup product and Massey triple product on Deligne cohomology.

  20. Determination of mercury in plant material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickard, J A; Martin, J T

    1960-07-01

    An analytical procedure used for the determination of traces of mercury in plant material is described. The conditions of combustion of organic matter are controlled to avoid loss of mercury and EDTA is used to reduce the values for apparent mercury on uncontaminated samples. Satisfactory recoveries of mercury added to apples, tomatoes and coffee are obtained. 10 references, 1 table.

  1. [Mercury Distribution Characteristics and Atmospheric Mercury Emission Factors of Typical Waste Incineration Plants in Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhen-ya; Su, Hai-tao; Wang, Feng-yang; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shu-xiao; Yu, Bin

    2016-02-15

    Waste incineration is one of the important atmospheric mercury emission sources. The aim of this article is to explore the atmospheric mercury pollution level of waste incineration industry from Chongqing. This study investigated the mercury emissions from a municipal solid waste incineration plant and a medical waste incineration plant in Chongqing. The exhaust gas samples in these two incineration plants were obtained using USA EPA 30B method. The mercury concentrations in the fly ash and bottom ash samples were analyzed. The results indicated that the mercury concentrations of the municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plant in Chongqing were (26.4 +/- 22.7) microg x m(-3) and (3.1 +/- 0.8) microg x m(-3) in exhaust gas respectively, (5279.2 +/- 798.0) microg x kg(-1) and (11,709.5 +/- 460.5) microg x kg(-1) in fly ash respectively. Besides, the distribution proportions of the mercury content from municipal solid waste and medical waste in exhaust gas, fly ash, and bottom ash were 34.0%, 65.3%, 0.7% and 32.3%, 67.5%, 0.2% respectively; The mercury removal efficiencies of municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plants were 66.0% and 67.7% respectively. The atmospheric mercury emission factors of municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plants were (126.7 +/- 109.0) microg x kg(-1) and (46.5 +/- 12.0) microg x kg(-1) respectively. Compared with domestic municipal solid waste incineration plants in the Pearl River Delta region, the atmospheric mercury emission factor of municipal solid waste incineration plant in Chongqing was lower.

  2. Emission and speciation of mercury from waste incinerators with mass distribution investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Yong-Chil; Kim, Jeong-Hun; Pudasainee, Deepak; Yoon, Young-Sik; Jung, Seung Jae; Bhatta, Dhruba

    2010-01-01

    In this paper mercury emission and removal characteristics in municipal wastes incinerators (MWIs), hazardous waste incinerators (HWIs) and hospital medical and infectious waste incinerators (HMIWIs) with mercury mass distribution within the system are presented. Mercury speciation in flue gas at inlet and outlet of each air pollution control devices (APCDs) were sampled and analyzed by Ontario Hydro Method. Solid and liquid samples were analyzed by U.S. EPA method 7470A and 7471A, respectively. Cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy was used for analysis. On an average, Hg emission concentrations in flue gas from MWIs ranged 173.9 to 15.3 μg Sm -3 at inlet and 10.5 to 3.8 μg Sm -3 at outlet of APCDs respectively. Mercury removal efficiency ranged 50 to 95% in MWIs, 7.2 to 59.9% in HWIs as co-beneficial results of APCDs for removing other air pollutants like particulate matter, dioxin and acidic gases. In general, mercury in incineration facilities was mainly distributed in fly ash followed by flue gas and bottom ash. In MWIs 94.4 to 74% of Hg were distributed in fly ash. In HWIs with dry type APCDs, Hg removal was less and 70.6% of mercury was distributed in flue gas. The variation of Hg concentration, speciation and finally the distribution in the tested facilities was related to the non-uniform distribution of Hg in waste combined with variation in waste composition (especially Cl, S content), operating parameters, flue gas components, fly ash properties, operating conditions, APCDs configuration. Long term data incorporating more number of tests are required to better understand mercury behavior in such sources and to apply effective control measures. (author)

  3. The mixed waste focus area mercury working group: an integrated approach for mercury treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I.; Holmes-Burns, H.; Petersell, J.; Schwendiman, L.

    1997-01-01

    In May 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) initiated the Mercury Work Group (HgWG), which was established to address and resolve the issues associated with mercury- contaminated mixed wastes. Three of the first four technology deficiencies identified during the MWFA technical baseline development process were related to mercury amalgamation, stabilization, and separation/removal. The HgWG will assist the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing all the efforts required to address these deficiencies. The focus of the HgWG is to better establish the mercury-related treatment needs at the DOE sites, refine the MWFA technical baseline as it relates to mercury treatment, and make recommendations to the MWFA on how to most effectively address these needs. The team will initially focus on the sites with the most mercury-contaminated mixed wastes, whose representatives comprise the HgWG. However, the group will also work with the sites with less inventory to maximize the effectiveness of these efforts in addressing the mercury- related needs throughout the entire complex

  4. Atmospheric mercury footprints of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Wang, Yafei; Cinnirella, Sergio; Pirrone, Nicola

    2015-03-17

    The Minamata Convention was established to protect humans and the natural environment from the adverse effects of mercury emissions. A cogent assessment of mercury emissions is required to help implement the Minamata Convention. Here, we use an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output model to calculate atmospheric mercury footprints of nations based on upstream production (meaning direct emissions from the production activities of a nation), downstream production (meaning both direct and indirect emissions caused by the production activities of a nation), and consumption (meaning both direct and indirect emissions caused by final consumption of goods and services in a nation). Results show that nations function differently within global supply chains. Developed nations usually have larger consumption-based emissions than up- and downstream production-based emissions. India, South Korea, and Taiwan have larger downstream production-based emissions than their upstream production- and consumption-based emissions. Developed nations (e.g., United States, Japan, and Germany) are in part responsible for mercury emissions of developing nations (e.g., China, India, and Indonesia). Our findings indicate that global mercury abatement should focus on multiple stages of global supply chains. We propose three initiatives for global mercury abatement, comprising the establishment of mercury control technologies of upstream producers, productivity improvement of downstream producers, and behavior optimization of final consumers.

  5. Mercury bioaccumulation and risk to three waterbird foraging guilds is influenced by foraging ecology and breeding stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; De La Cruz, Susan E.W.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated mercury (Hg) in five waterbird species representing three foraging guilds in San Francisco Bay, CA. Fish-eating birds (Forster's and Caspian terns) had the highest Hg concentrations in thier tissues, but concentrations in an invertebrate-foraging shorebird (black-necked stilt) were also elevated. Foraging habitat was important for Hg exposure as illustrated by within-guild differences, where species more associated with marshes and salt ponds had higher concentrations than those more associated with open-bay and tidal mudflats. Importantly, Hg concentrations increased with time spent in the estuary. Surf scoter concentrations tripled over six months, whereas Forster's terns showed an up to 5-fold increase between estuary arrival and breeding. Breeding waterbirds were at elevated risk of Hg-induced reproductive impairment, particularly Forster's terns, in which 48% of breeding birds were at high risk due to their Hg levels. Our results highlight the importance of habitat and exposure timing, in addition to trophic position, on waterbird Hg bioaccumulation and risk. - The influence of foraging habitat, trophic position, and exposure timing on mercury bioaccumulation and risk to reproduction is evaluated in three waterbird guilds.

  6. Does mercury vapor exposure increase urinary selenium excretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongo, T; Suzuki, T; Himeno, S; Watanabe, C; Satoh, H; Shimada, Y

    1985-01-01

    It has been reported that an increase of urinary selenium excretion may occur as a result of mercury vapor exposure. However, experimental data regarding the interaction between mercury vapor and selenium have yielded ambiguous results about the retention and elimination of selenium due to mercury vapor exposure and the decrease of selenium excretion due to mercury in the form of mercuric mercury (Hg/sup 2 +/). In this study, the authors measured urinary mercury and selenium in workers with or without exposure to mercury vapor to determine whether or not urinary selenium excretion was increased as a result of mercury vapor exposure. Urine samples were collected from 141 workers, 71 men and 70 women, whose extent of exposure to mercury vapor varied according to their job sites. Workers were divided into five groups according to their urinary mercury levels. The mercury level in group I was less than 2.8 nmol/mmol creatinine which means that this group was mostly free from mercury exposure. The average age was almost identical among the groups. For both sexes, group V (with the highest urinary mercury level) had the lowest urinary selenium level, but one-way variance analysis (ANOVA) did not reveal any significant variations of urinary selenium with urinary mercury levels; however, a weak but significant negative correlation between mercury and selenium was found in men.

  7. Design and construction of a triple-axis crystal neutron spectrometer and performance testing by means of measurements of dispersion relations in copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrmann, C.

    1979-01-01

    The Triple-Axis Crystal Neutron Spectrometer is the best instrument for the study of lattice dynamics, when the neutron inelastic scattering technique is used. Design, construction and operation of a triple-axis crystal neutron spectrometer, whose construction was recently finished at IEA are described. The design principles employed are directed to mechanical simplicity, facility of construction and flexibility in operation, with no adapted components to industrial applications were used in the construction. The operational characteristics of the spectrometer, such as the neutron wavelenght of the incoming beam and the resolution have been determined. With the purpose to check the performance of IEA Triple-Axis Crystal Neutron Spectrometer, dispersion relation curves for copper, at room temperature, have been measured. The frequency of phonons propagating along three major symmetry directions have been determined. The measurements were carried out operating the Triple-Axis Spectrometer in the 'sup(→)Q-constant' mode. An excelent agreement could be observed between the results obtained in the present experiment and the data for copper presented in the literature. This comparison indicates that the IEA Triple-Axis Crystal Neutron Spectrometer is in good operational conditions and is able to perform original experiments. Details on the experimental procedures for the case of a Triple-Axis Spectrometer operating in 'sup(→)Q-constant' mode are also presented. (Author) [pt

  8. Occupational Metallic Mercury Poisoning in Gilders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Vahabzadeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to elemental mercury vapor usually occurs through inhalation during its utilizations. This leads to a variety of adverse health effects. In some Islamic cities, this type of poisoning may occur during gilding of shrines using elemental mercury with gold. Herein, we report on three male patients aged 20–53 years, who were diagnosed with occupational metallic mercury poisoning due to gilding of a shrine. All patients presented with neuro-psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, loss of memory and concentration, and sleep disorders with high urinary mercury concentrations of 326–760 μg/L upon referring, 3–10 days after cessation of elemental mercury exposure. Following chelating therapy, the patients recovered clinically and their mercury concentrations declined to non-toxic level (<25 μg/L. Health, environmental and labor authorities, as well as the gilders should be aware of the toxicity risk of exposure to metalic mercury during gilding in closed environments and act accordingly.

  9. A Comparison of Urinary Mercury between Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Control Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Barry; Pearce, Helen; Allgar, Victoria; Miles, Jeremy; Whitton, Clare; Leon, Irene; Jardine, Jenny; McCaffrey, Nicola; Smith, Rob; Holbrook, Ian; Lewis, John; Goodall, David; Alderson-Day, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Background Urinary mercury concentrations are used in research exploring mercury exposure. Some theorists have proposed that autism is caused by mercury toxicity. We set out to test whether mercury concentrations in the urine of children with autism were significantly increased or decreased compared to controls or siblings. Methods Blinded cohort analyses were carried out on the urine of 56 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) compared to their siblings (n = 42) and a control sample of children without ASD in mainstream (n = 121) and special schools (n = 34). Results There were no statistically significant differences in creatinine levels, in uncorrected urinary mercury levels or in levels of mercury corrected for creatinine, whether or not the analysis is controlled for age, gender and amalgam fillings. Conclusions This study lends no support for the hypothesis of differences in urinary mercury excretion in children with autism compared to other groups. Some of the results, however, do suggest further research in the area may be warranted to replicate this in a larger group and with clear measurement of potential confounding factors. PMID:22355303

  10. A comparison of urinary mercury between children with autism spectrum disorders and control children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Wright

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Urinary mercury concentrations are used in research exploring mercury exposure. Some theorists have proposed that autism is caused by mercury toxicity. We set out to test whether mercury concentrations in the urine of children with autism were significantly increased or decreased compared to controls or siblings. METHODS: Blinded cohort analyses were carried out on the urine of 56 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD compared to their siblings (n = 42 and a control sample of children without ASD in mainstream (n = 121 and special schools (n = 34. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in creatinine levels, in uncorrected urinary mercury levels or in levels of mercury corrected for creatinine, whether or not the analysis is controlled for age, gender and amalgam fillings. CONCLUSIONS: This study lends no support for the hypothesis of differences in urinary mercury excretion in children with autism compared to other groups. Some of the results, however, do suggest further research in the area may be warranted to replicate this in a larger group and with clear measurement of potential confounding factors.

  11. Sexual differences in the distribution and retention of organic and inorganic mercury in methyl mercury-treated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.J.; Fisher, H.L.; Sumler, M.R.; Marcus, A.H.; Mushak, P.; Hall, L.L.

    1986-01-01

    At 56 days of age, male and female Long-Evans rats received 1 μmole of 203 Hg-labeled mercuric chloride per kilogram sc and total, organic, and inorganic mercury contents and concentrations in tissues were determined for up to 98 days postdosing. When expressed on a concentration basis, the only significant sexual difference was in the higher average concentration of organic mercury in the kidneys of females. When expressed on a tissue content basis, significant male-female differences in the kinetics (sex x time interactions) of organic mercury retention were found in kidney, brain, skeletal muscle, pelt, and whole body. Significant sex x time interactions in the concentrations of organic mercury were found in kidney, skeletal muscle, and whole body. Kinetics of retention and concentration of inorganic Hg in the pelt differed significantly for males and females. Discordance of degree of statistical significance of differences in mercury contents and concentrations reflected in part differences in relative body composition of males and females. Differences in integrated exposure were estimated by the female-to-male ratio of areas under retention curves. Reconstruction of whole body organic and inorganic mercury burdens from constituent tissues indicated that integrated exposures of males and females to inorganic mercury were equal but females had a lower integrated exposure to organic mercury. Integrated exposure of liver to either form of mercury was about equal in males and females. However, the integrated exposure of the brain of females to inorganic mercury was 2.19 times that of males suggest'ing a sexual difference in accumulation or retention of inorganic mercury in the nervous system

  12. Effects of cadmium, zinc, lead, and mercury on respiration and fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafl, H J; Schwantes, H O

    1983-01-01

    Zinc and lead did not affect the rate of respiration and fermentation. Concentrations of cadmium higher than 10/sup -7/ M and concentrations of mercury higher than 5 x 10/sup -5/ M significantly reduced the O/sub 2/ consumption and the CO/sub 2/ production. 10/sup -2/ M cadmium and 10/sup -3/ M mercury completely inhibited respiration and fermentation. Low concentrations of mercury inhibited respiration irreversibly and fermentation reversibly. High concentrations of zinc reduced the toxicity of low concentrations of cadmium but they enhanced the effects of high concentrations of cadmium and mercury. No interactions between lead and the other tested heavy metals were observed.

  13. Can environmental purchasing reduce mercury in U.S. health care?

    OpenAIRE

    Eagan, Patrick D; Kaiser, Barb

    2002-01-01

    Environmental purchasing represents an innovative approach to mercury control for the health care sector in the United States. The U.S. health care sector creates significant environmental impacts, including the release of toxic substances such as mercury. Our goal in this study was to provide the health care industry with a method of identifying the environmental impacts associated with the products they use. The Health Care Environmental Purchasing Tool (HCEPT) was developed and tested at n...

  14. Mercury cycling in a wastewater treatment plant treating waters with high mercury contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Noguero, Eva M.; García-Noguero, Carolina; Higueras, Pablo; Reyes-Bozo, Lorenzo; Esbrí, José M.

    2015-04-01

    The Almadén mercury mining district has been historically the most important producer of this element since Romans times to 2004, when both mining and metallurgic activities ceased as a consequence both of reserves exhaustion and persistent low prices for this metal. The reclamation of the main dump of the mine in 2007-2008 reduced drastically the atmospheric presence of the gaseous mercury pollutant in the local atmosphere. But still many areas, and in particular in the Almadén town area, can be considered as contaminated, and produce mercury releases that affect the urban residual waters. Two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) where built in the area in year 2002, but in their design the projects did not considered the question of high mercury concentrations received as input from the town area. This communication presents data of mercury cycling in one of the WWTP, the Almadén-Chillón one, being the larger and receiving the higher Hg concentrations, due to the fact that it treats the waters coming from the West part of the town, in the immediate proximity to the mine area. Data were collected during a number of moments of activity of the plant, since April 2004 to nowadays. Analyses were carried out by means of cold vapor-atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (CV-AFS), using a PSA Millennium Merlin analytical device with gold trap. The detection limit is 0.1 ng/l. The calibration standards are prepared using the Panreac ICP Standard Mercury Solution (1,000±0,002 g/l Hg in HNO3 2-5%). Results of the surveys indicate that mercury concentrations in input and output waters in this plant has suffered an important descent since the cessation of mining and metallurgical activities, and minor reduction also after the reclamation of the main mine's dump. Since 2009, some minor seasonal variations are detected, in particular apparently related to accumulation during summer of mercury salts and particles, which are washed to the plant with the autumn's rains. Further

  15. Laboratory-scale evaluation of various sampling and analytical methods for determining mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agbede, R.O.; Bochan, A.J.; Clements, J.L. [Advanced Technology Systems, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Comparative bench-scale mercury sampling method tests were performed at the Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS) laboratories for EPA Method 101A, EPA Method 29 and the Ontario Hydro Method. Both blank and impinger spiking experiments were performed. The experimental results show that the ambient level of mercury in the ATS laboratory is at or below the detection limit (10 ng Hg) as measured by a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer (CVAAS) which was used to analyze the mercury samples. From the mercury spike studies, the following observations and findings were made. (a) The recovery of mercury spikes using EPA Method 101A was 104%. (b) The Ontario Hydro Method retains about 90% of mercury spikes in the first absorbing solution but has a total spike retention of 106%. As a result, the test data shows possible migration of spiked mercury from the first impinger solution (KCI) to the permanganate impingers. (c) For the EPA Method 29 solutions, when only the peroxide impingers were spiked, mercury recoveries were 65.6% for the peroxide impingers, 0.1% for the knockout impinger and 32.8% for the permanganate impingers with an average total mercury recovery of 98.4%. At press time, data was still being obtained for both the peroxide and permanganate impinger solution spikes. This and other data will be available at the presentation.

  16. Cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) system for measuring atmospheric mercury using differential absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, A.; Obrist, D.; Moosmuller, H.; Moore, C.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric elemental mercury (Hg0) is a globally pervasive element that can be transported and deposited to remote ecosystems where it poses — particularly in its methylated form — harm to many organisms including humans. Current techniques for measurement of atmospheric Hg0 require several liters of sample air and several minutes for each analysis. Fast-response (i.e., 1 second or faster) measurements would improve our ability to understand and track chemical cycling of mercury in the atmosphere, including high frequency Hg0 fluctuations, sources and sinks, and chemical transformation processes. We present theory, design, challenges, and current results of our new prototype sensor based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) for fast-response measurement of Hg0 mass concentrations. CRDS is a direct absorption technique that implements path-lengths of multiple kilometers in a compact absorption cell using high-reflectivity mirrors, thereby improving sensitivity and reducing sample volume compared to conventional absorption spectroscopy. Our sensor includes a frequency-doubled, dye-laser emitting laser pulses tunable from 215 to 280 nm, pumped by a Q-switched, frequency tripled Nd:YAG laser with a pulse repetition rate of 50 Hz. We present how we successfully perform automated wavelength locking and stabilization of the laser to the peak Hg0 absorption line at 253.65 nm using an external isotopically-enriched mercury (202Hg0) cell. An emphasis of this presentation will be on the implementation of differential absorption measurement whereby measurements are alternated between the peak Hg0 absorption wavelength and a nearby wavelength "off" the absorption line. This can be achieved using a piezo electric tuning element that allows for pulse-by-pulse tuning and detuning of the laser "online" and "offline" of the Hg absorption line, and thereby allows for continuous correction of baseline extinction losses. Unexpected challenges with this approach included

  17. Maternal transfer of mercury to songbird eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Hartman, C Alex; Herzog, Mark P

    2017-11-01

    We evaluated the maternal transfer of mercury to eggs in songbirds, determined whether this relationship differed between songbird species, and developed equations for predicting mercury concentrations in eggs from maternal blood. We sampled blood and feathers from 44 house wren (Troglodytes aedon) and 34 tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) mothers and collected their full clutches (n = 476 eggs) within 3 days of clutch completion. Additionally, we sampled blood and feathers from 53 tree swallow mothers and randomly collected one egg from their clutches (n = 53 eggs) during mid to late incubation (6-10 days incubated) to evaluate whether the relationship varied with the timing of sampling the mother's blood. Mercury concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with mercury concentrations in maternal blood sampled at (1) the time of clutch completion for both house wrens (R 2  = 0.97) and tree swallows (R 2  = 0.97) and (2) during mid to late incubation for tree swallows (R 2  = 0.71). The relationship between mercury concentrations in eggs and maternal blood did not differ with the stage of incubation when maternal blood was sampled. Importantly, the proportion of mercury transferred from mothers to their eggs decreased substantially with increasing blood mercury concentrations in tree swallows, but increased slightly with increasing blood mercury concentrations in house wrens. Additionally, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs at the same maternal blood mercury concentration differed between species. Specifically, tree swallow mothers transferred 17%-107% more mercury to their eggs than house wren mothers over the observed mercury concentrations in maternal blood (0.15-1.92 μg/g ww). In contrast, mercury concentrations in eggs were not correlated with those in maternal feathers and, likewise, mercury concentrations in maternal blood were not correlated with those in feathers (all R 2  mercury concentrations from maternal blood to eggs

  18. Mercury in the environment : a primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourie, B; Glenn, W [ed.; Ogilvie, K; Everhardus, E; Friesen, K; Rae, S

    2003-06-01

    This report provides an overview of the occurrence and effects of mercury in the environment and its impacts on human health. Low levels of mercury occur naturally everywhere in the environment in plants, animals, rocks and air. Incidental emissions occur when natural mercury is released to the environment through human activity. In Canada, coal burning and metal processing are the two largest point sources of atmospheric mercury emissions. Energy facilities have the option to invest in expensive control technologies for coal plants, or they can generate electricity from alternative energy sources. Energy conservation, however, offers the greatest overall benefits for the environment and the public. Mercury can also be released when products containing mercury (such as electrical switches, thermostats, dental amalgam, and thermometers) are broken while in use, or when they are crushed in garbage trucks and dumped in landfills. Source separation is the best way to reduce waste-related emissions. Once mercury is released to the natural environment, it can be transported long distances through air or watercourses. It is volatile, therefore evaporates readily to the atmosphere where it may do one of three things: it may fall out near the point where it was emitted; it may be transported long distances to some point downwind; or, it may enter the global atmospheric mercury pool where it will circle the globe for a year or more within the Earth's major weather systems before being deposited. Data from Canada's National Pollutant Release Inventory indicates that mercury releases and transfers total 28,674 kg per year. The most critical component of the mercury cycle is the conversion of inorganic forms of mercury to the organic compound methylmercury which is more toxic to humans. Most concern about mercury focuses on lakes and other aquatic ecosystems. Fish in hydroelectric reservoirs have been found to contain elevated methylmercury levels because natural mercury in the

  19. Torque Analysis of a Triple Acid-Etched Titanium Implant Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Emília Farias Pontes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the removal torque of titanium implants treated with triple acid etching. Twenty-one rats were used in this study. For all animals, the tibia was prepared with a 2 mm drill, and a titanium implant (2 × 4 mm was inserted after treatment using the subtraction method of triple acid etching. The flaps were sutured. Seven animals were killed 14, 28, and 63 days after implant installation, and the load necessary for removing the implant from the bone was evaluated by using a torque meter. The torque values were as follows: 3.3 ± 1.7 Ncm (14 days, 2.2 ± 1.3 Ncm (28 days, and 6.7 ± 1.4 Ncm (63 days. The torque value at the final healing period (63 days was statistically significantly different from that at other time points tested (ANOVA, p=0.0002. This preliminary study revealed that treatment with triple acid etching can create a promising and efficient surface for the process of osseointegration.

  20. Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products Share Tweet Linkedin ... and, in some situations, criminal prosecution. Dangers of Mercury Exposure to mercury can have serious health consequences. ...

  1. Basic Information about Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or metallic mercury is a shiny, silver-white metal and is liquid at room temperature. It is ... releases can happen naturally. Both volcanoes and forest fires send mercury into the atmosphere. Human activities, however, ...

  2. Hermitian (ϵ,δ)-Freudenthal-Kantor Triple Systems and Certain Applications of *-Generalized Jordan Triple Systems to Field Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Noriaki; Sato, Matsuo

    2014-01-01

    We define Hermitian (ϵ,δ)-Freudenthal-Kantor triple systems and prove a structure theorem. We also give some examples of triple systems that are generalizations of the u(N)⊕u(M) and sp(2N)⊕u(1) Hermitian 3-algebras. We apply a *-generalized Jordan triple system to a field theory and obtain a Chern-Simons gauge theory. We find that the novel Higgs mechanism works, where the Chern-Simons gauge theory reduces to a Yang-Mills theory in a certain limit

  3. The fate of Mercury in Arctic regions: New understanding of atmospheric chemical processes and mercury stability in snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, A.; Ferrari, C.; Dommergue, A.; Scherz, T.; Lawson, G.; Leiatch, R.

    2006-12-01

    Mercury is a known toxic pollutant in the Arctic environment. Atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs) have been studied in the Arctic since 1995. While advances in understanding this newly discovered cycling of mercury in the atmosphere have been made, much of the chemistry and the impact of this annually reoccurring event to the Arctic ecosystem are not well understood. Four years of continuous measurements at Alert, Canada of so-called reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and mercury associated to particles (PHg) coupled with ongoing snow sampling have produced new information on the atmospheric chemistry and deposition of these mercury species to the Arctic. A distinct pattern during the springtime period in the distribution of these atmospheric mercury species has emerged. This pattern is characterized by the predominance of PHg concentration at the onset of the AMDEs. During the latter part of the AMDE season, there is an obvious swicth in the speciation of mercury to RGM as the main component during AMDEs. This swicth from PHg to RGM is clearly linked to a significant increase of mercury in the snow. In addition, concentrations of PHg are clearly linked with particles in the air that are primarily associated with Arctic haze. Recently, similar results have also been observed in Ny-Alesund (Svalbard). Further observations indicate that once deposited, the deposited mercury appears to evolve chemically in the snow. This change in mercury may impact the transfer of mercury to the environment during snow melt. These first time observed links between atmospheric conditions and subsequent deposition of mercury may help to ascertain the conditions throughout the Arctic as to when significant deposition of mercury will occur. It is proposed that should the concentration of atmospheric particles increase in the Arctic due to long range transport from emission sources, an increase in the deposition of mercury to this environment will increase during the springtime

  4. Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Mahoney, T J

    2014-01-01

    This gazetteer and atlas on Mercury lists, defines and illustrates every named (as opposed to merely catalogued) object and term as related to Mercury within a single reference work. It contains a glossary of terminology used, an index of all the headwords in the gazetteer, an atlas comprising maps and images with coordinate grids and labels identifying features listed in the gazetteer, and appendix material on the IAU nomenclature system and the transcription systems used for non-roman alphabets. This book is useful for the general reader, writers and editors dealing with astronomical themes, and those astronomers concerned with any aspect of astronomical nomenclature.

  5. Mercury analysis in hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteban, Marta; Schindler, Birgit K; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A

    2015-01-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an effective tool for assessing actual exposure to chemicals that takes into account all routes of intake. Although hair analysis is considered to be an optimal biomarker for assessing mercury exposure, the lack of harmonization as regards sampling and analytical...... assurance program (QAP) for assessing mercury levels in hair samples from more than 1800 mother-child pairs recruited in 17 European countries. To ensure the comparability of the results, standard operating procedures (SOPs) for sampling and for mercury analysis were drafted and distributed to participating...... laboratories. Training sessions were organized for field workers and four external quality-assessment exercises (ICI/EQUAS), followed by the corresponding web conferences, were organized between March 2011 and February 2012. ICI/EQUAS used native hair samples at two mercury concentration ranges (0...

  6. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  7. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo [Shanghai Univ. of Electric Power (China); Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  8. Warps, grids and curvature in triple vector bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flari, Magdalini K.; Mackenzie, Kirill

    2018-06-01

    A triple vector bundle is a cube of vector bundle structures which commute in the (strict) categorical sense. A grid in a triple vector bundle is a collection of sections of each bundle structure with certain linearity properties. A grid provides two routes around each face of the triple vector bundle, and six routes from the base manifold to the total manifold; the warps measure the lack of commutativity of these routes. In this paper we first prove that the sum of the warps in a triple vector bundle is zero. The proof we give is intrinsic and, we believe, clearer than the proof using decompositions given earlier by one of us. We apply this result to the triple tangent bundle T^3M of a manifold and deduce (as earlier) the Jacobi identity. We further apply the result to the triple vector bundle T^2A for a vector bundle A using a connection in A to define a grid in T^2A . In this case the curvature emerges from the warp theorem.

  9. Total mercury and methyl-mercury contents and accumulation in polar microbial mats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Antonio; Rochera, Carlos; Hennebelle, Raphaëlle; Ferrari, Christophe; Quesada, Antonio

    2015-03-15

    Although polar regions are considered isolated and pristine areas, the organisms that inhabit these zones are exposed to global pollution. Heavy metals, such as mercury, are global pollutants and can reach almost any location on Earth. Mercury may come from natural, volcanic or geological sources, or result from anthropogenic sources, in particular industrial or mining activities. In this study, we have investigated one of the most prominent biological non-marine communities in both polar regions, microbial mats, in terms of their Hg and methyl-mercury (MeHg) concentrations and accumulation capacities. The main hypotheses posed argued on the importance of different factors, and to test them, we have measured Hg concentrations in microbial mats that were collected from 6 locations in different ecological situations. For this purpose, the direct anthropogenic impacts, volcanic influences, proximity to the seashore, latitudinal gradients and C contents were investigated. Our results show that, other than the direct anthropogenic influence, none of the other hypotheses alone satisfactorily explains the Hg content in microbial mats. In contrast, the MeHg contents were noticeably different between the investigated locations, with a higher proportion of MeHg on the McMurdo Ice Shelf (Antarctica) and a lower proportion on Ward Hunt Island (High Arctic). Furthermore, our results from in situ experiments indicated that the microbial mats from South Shetland Islands could quickly accumulate (48 h) Hg when Hg dissolved salts were supplied. Over short-term periods, these mats do not transform Hg into MeHg under field conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mercury Spill Responses - Five States, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Ryan J; Hirsch, Anne E; Bush, Christina R; Schmitz, Stuart; Wenzel, Jeff

    2017-03-17

    Despite measures to educate the public about the dangers of elemental mercury, spills continue to occur in homes, schools, health care facilities, and other settings, endangering the public's health and requiring costly cleanup. Mercury is most efficiently absorbed by the lungs, and exposure to high levels of mercury vapor after a release can cause cough, sore throat, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, and visual disturbances (1). Children and fetuses are most susceptible to the adverse effects of mercury vapor exposure. Because their organ systems are still developing, children have increased respiratory rates, and they are closer to the ground where mercury vapors are most highly concentrated (2). To summarize key features of recent mercury spills and lessons learned, five state health departments involved in the cleanup (Iowa, Michigan, Missouri, North Carolina, and Wisconsin) compiled data from various sources on nonthermometer mercury spills from 2012 to 2015. The most common sites of contamination were residences, schools and school buses, health care facilities, and commercial and industrial facilities. Children aged mercury exposure. To protect the public's health after a mercury spill, it is important that local, state, and federal agencies communicate and coordinate effectively to ensure a quick response, and to minimize the spread of contamination. To reduce the number of mercury spills that occur in the United States, public health officials should increase awareness about exchange programs for mercury-containing items and educate school and health care workers about sources of mercury and how to dispose of them properly.

  11. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg-1) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg-1). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark—in pyroclastic wounds—and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg-1) and bark (6.0 μg kg-1) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  12. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg(-1)) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg(-1)). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark-in pyroclastic wounds-and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg(-1)) and bark (6.0 μg kg(-1)) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  13. Dissolved gaseous mercury formation and mercury volatilization in intertidal sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesário, Rute; Poissant, Laurier; Pilote, Martin; O'Driscoll, Nelson J; Mota, Ana M; Canário, João

    2017-12-15

    Intertidal sediments of Tagus estuary regularly experiences complex redistribution due to tidal forcing, which affects the cycling of mercury (Hg) between sediments and the water column. This study quantifies total mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MMHg) concentrations and fluxes in a flooded mudflat as well as the effects on water-level fluctuations on the air-surface exchange of mercury. A fast increase in dissolved Hg and MMHg concentrations was observed in overlying water in the first 10min of inundation and corresponded to a decrease in pore waters, suggesting a rapid export of Hg and MMHg from sediments to the water column. Estimations of daily advective transport exceeded the predicted diffusive fluxes by 5 orders of magnitude. A fast increase in dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) concentration was also observed in the first 20-30min of inundation (maximum of 40pg L -1 ). Suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations were inversely correlated with DGM concentrations. Dissolved Hg variation suggested that biotic DGM production in pore waters is a significant factor in addition to the photochemical reduction of Hg. Mercury volatilization (ranged from 1.1 to 3.3ngm -2 h -1 ; average of 2.1ngm -2 h -1 ) and DGM production exhibited the same pattern with no significant time-lag suggesting a fast release of the produced DGM. These results indicate that Hg sediment/water exchanges in the physical dominated estuaries can be underestimated when the tidal effect is not considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of the variation of mercury isotope concentration based on spectral-phase effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganeev, A.A.; Man', D.D.; Turkin, Yu.I.

    1988-01-01

    A method of isotopic atomic-absorption analysis, based on spectral-phase effects in which there is no need to use several sources of radiation with pure isotopes of the analyte element, was developed. The method made it possible to simplify the analysis and to determine the variation of the concentration of mercury isotopes from one deposit to another with an accuracy several times higher that of traditional methods of spectral isotopic analysis. The method was tested on mercury 198 and mercury 202. The isotopic analyzer is diagramed and described. The mechanism of spectral-phase effects was determined by the difference in effective photon lifetimes, corresponding to different components of the hyperfine structure of the resonance line of mercury at 254 nm

  15. Genetic engineering to enhance mercury phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Oscar N; Daniell, Henry

    2009-04-01

    Most phytoremediation studies utilize merA or merB genes to modify plants via the nuclear or chloroplast genome, expressing organomercurial lyase and/or mercuric ion reductase in the cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum or within plastids. Several plant species including Arabidopsis, tobacco, poplar, rice, Eastern cottonwood, peanut, salt marsh grass and Chlorella have been transformed with these genes. Transgenic plants grew exceedingly well in soil contaminated with organic (approximately 400 microM PMA) or inorganic mercury (approximately 500 microM HgCl(2)), accumulating Hg in roots surpassing the concentration in soil (approximately 2000 microg/g). However, none of these plants were tested in the field to demonstrate real potential of this approach. Availability of metal transporters, translocators, chelators and the ability to express membrane proteins could further enhance mercury phytoremediation capabilities.

  16. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  17. SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION (SPSS) TREATABILITY OF LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY MERCURY WASTE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS,J.W.; KALB,P.D.

    2001-11-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory's Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process was used to treat approximately 90kg of elemental mercury mixed waste from Los Alamos National Laboratory. Treatment was carried out in a series of eight batches using a 1 ft{sup 3} pilot-scale mixer, where mercury loading in each batch was 33.3 weight percent. Although leach performance is currently not regulated for amalgamated elemental mercury (Hg) mixed waste, Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) testing of SPSS treated elemental mercury waste indicates that leachability is readily reduced to below the TCLP limit of 200 ppb (regulatory requirement following treatment by retort for wastes containing > 260 ppb Hg), and with process optimization, to levels less than the stringent Universal Treatment Standard (UTS) limit of 25 ppb that is applied to waste containing < 260 ppm Hg. In addition, mercury-contaminated debris, consisting of primary glass and plastic containers, as well as assorted mercury thermometers, switches, and labware, was first reacted with SPSS components to stabilize the mercury contamination, then macroencapsulated in the molten SPSS product. This treatment was done by vigorous agitation of the sulfur polymer powder and the comminuted debris. Larger plastic and metal containers were reacted to stabilize internal mercury contamination, and then filled with molten sulfur polymer to encapsulate the treated product.

  18. Mercury accumulation in native mammals of the Southeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumbie, P.M.; Jenkins, J.H.

    1974-01-01

    Mercury levels in tissues of mammals collected in Georgia, Florida, and South Carolina were compared using hair mercury concentration as an index of total mercury content. Bobcats (Lynx rufus), raccoons (Procyon lotor), opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) and gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) from the Lower Coastal Plain of Georgia had higher mercury levels than specimens from the Upper Coastal Plain or Piedmont. The highest individual mercury levels in raccoons and bobcats occurred in specimens from the Georgia Lower Coastal Plain flatwoods. Skeletal muscle and liver of individual raccoons and bobcats taken in the coastal flatwoods exceeded the 0.5 ppm limit for mercury in human foodstuffs. No pattern of mercury accumulation was detected in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Hair analysis revealed elevated mercury levels in mammals from a region exposed to mercury pollution. Mercury levels in wildlife exhibit a pattern similar to that of certain fallout radioisotopes such as /sub 137/Cs. These observations indicate that significant biomagnification of mercury may occur in native mammals in certain southeastern habitats. 28 references, 6 tables.

  19. Mercury in a coastal marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, J D; Leatherland, T M

    1971-06-18

    The problem of mercury pollution was investigated in Southampton Water and the English Channel. Mercury was determined in five specimens of the mollusk, Mercenaria mercenaria. The concentrations in whole organisms, without shell, ranged from 0.18 to 0.57 p.p.m. The amounts of mercury in the river and estuarine waters were found to be low. Yet, samples from the surface of the bottom mud in different parts of the estuary had mercury contents ranging from 0.19 to 0.64 p.p.m. The role of sediments in the transport of mercury in food chains could be significant, particularly for bottom living, suspension feeding animals. 14 references, 1 table.

  20. Mercury risk in poultry in the Wanshan Mercury Mine, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Runsheng; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Guangyi; Feng, Zhaohui; Hurley, James P.; Yang, Liyuan; Shang, Lihai; Feng, Xinbin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in muscles (leg and breast), organs (intestine, heart, stomach, liver) and blood were investigated for backyard chickens, ducks and geese of the Wanshan Mercury Mine, China. THg in poultry meat products range from 7.9 to 3917.1 ng/g, most of which exceeded the Chinese national standard limit for THg in meat (50 ng/g). Elevated MeHg concentrations (0.4–62.8 ng/g) were also observed in meat products, suggesting that poultry meat can be an important human MeHg exposure source. Ducks and geese showed higher Hg levels than chickens. For all poultry species, the highest Hg concentrations were observed in liver (THg: 23.2–3917.1 ng/g; MeHg: 7.1–62.8 ng/g) and blood (THg: 12.3–338.0 ng/g; MeHg: 1.4–17.6 ng/g). We estimated the Hg burdens in chickens (THg: 15.3–238.1 μg; MeHg: 2.2–15.6 μg), ducks (THg: 15.3–238.1 μg; MeHg: 3.5–14.7 μg) and geese (THg: 83.8–93.4 μg; MeHg: 15.4–29.7 μg). To not exceed the daily intake limit for THg (34.2 μg/day) and MeHg (6 μg/day), we suggested that the maximum amount (g) for chicken leg, breast, heart, stomach, intestine, liver, and blood should be 1384, 1498, 2315, 1214, 1081, 257, and 717, respectively; the maximum amount (g) for duck leg, breast, heart, stomach, intestine, liver, and blood should be 750, 1041, 986, 858, 752, 134, and 573, respectively; and the maximum amount (g) for goose leg, breast, heart, stomach, intestine, liver, and blood should be 941, 1051, 1040, 1131, 964, 137, and 562, respectively. - Highlights: • Elevated mercury levels were observed in poultry from Wanshan Mercury Mine, China. • Ducks and geese showed higher mercury levels than chickens. • Liver and blood showed the highest mercury levels. • Poultry can be an important dietary Hg exposure source for local residents. - High levels of Hg associated with poultry surrounding the Wanshan Mercury Mine pose a great risk of Hg exposure to

  1. Sorption of mercury on chemically synthesized polyaniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remya Devi, P.S.; Verma, R.; Sudersanan, M.

    2006-01-01

    Sorption of inorganic mercury (Hg 2+ ) and methyl mercury, on chemically synthesized polyaniline, in 0.1-10N HCl solutions has been studied. Hg 2+ is strongly sorbed at low acidities and the extent of sorption decreases with increase in acidity. The sorption of methyl mercury is very low in the HCl concentration range studied. Sorption of Hg 2+ on polyaniline in 0.1-10N LiCl and H 2 SO 4 solutions has also been studied. The analysis of the data indicates that the sorption of Hg 2+ depends on the degree of protonation of polyaniline and the nature of mercury(II) chloride complexes in solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis (XPS) of polyaniline sorbed with mercury show that mercury is bound as Hg 2+ . Sorbed mercury is quantitatively eluted from polyaniline with 0.5N HNO 3 . Polyaniline can be used for separation and pre-concentration of inorganic mercury from aqueous samples. (author)

  2. Mercury in fish and adverse reproductive outcomes: results from South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Mercury is a metal with widespread distribution in aquatic ecosystems and significant neurodevelopmental toxicity in humans. Fish biomonitoring for total mercury has been conducted in South Carolina (SC) since 1976, and consumption advisories have been posted for many SC waterways. However, there is limited information on the potential reproductive impacts of mercury due to recreational or subsistence fish consumption. Methods To address this issue, geocoded residential locations for live births from the Vital Statistics Registry (1995–2005, N = 362,625) were linked with spatially interpolated total mercury concentrations in fish to estimate potential mercury exposure from consumption of locally caught fish. Generalized estimating equations were used to test the hypothesis that risk of low birth weight (LBW, mercury in fish, after adjustment for confounding. Separate analyses estimated term LBW and PTB risks using residential proximity to rivers with fish consumption advisories to characterize exposure. Results Term LBW was more likely among women residing in areas in the upper quartile of predicted total mercury in fish (odds ratio [OR] = 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00-1.09) or within 8 kilometers of a river with a ‘do not eat’ fish advisory (1.05; 1.00-1.11) compared to the lowest quartile, or rivers without fish consumption restrictions, respectively. When stratified by race, risks for term LBW or PTB were 10-18% more likely among African-American (AA) mothers living in areas with the highest total fish mercury concentrations. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the relationship between fish total mercury concentrations and adverse reproductive outcomes in a large population-based sample that included AA women. The ecologic nature of exposure assessment in this study precludes causal inference. However, the results suggest a need for more detailed investigations to characterize patterns of local

  3. Triple X syndrome and puberty: focus on the hypothalamus-hypophysis-gonad axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagi, Stefano; di Tommaso, Mariarosaria; Scalini, Perla; Lapi, Elisabetta; Losi, Stefania; Bencini, Erica; Masoni, Fabrizio; Dosa, Laura; Becciani, Sabrina; de Martino, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the hypothalamus-hypophysis-gonad axis in a cohort of children and adolescents with nonmosaic triple X syndrome. Cross-sectional study with retrospective analysis. University pediatric hospital. Fifteen prepubertal subjects (median age 9.0 years, range 6.9-11.9 years) with nonmosaic triple X syndrome and age- and pubertal-matched control group (30 girls, median age 9.1 y, range 6.9-11.6 years). None. We evaluated FSH, LH, and E2 levels and performed an autoimmunity screening as well as a pelvic ultrasonography and an LH-releasing hormone stimulation test. All triple X patients (with and without pubertal signs) showed a pubertal LH peak level that was significantly different from controls. Triple X patients showed increased basal and peak FSH and LH values compared with control subjects. However, the mean E2 level was significantly lower than control subjects. However, triple X patients showed reduced DHEAS levels and reduced inhibin levels compared with control subjects. Finally, triple X patients had a significantly reduced ovarian volume compared with control subjects, in both prepubertal and pubertal patients. Triple X patients showed premature activation of the GnRH pulse generator, even without puberty signs. Both basal and peak LH and FSH levels were higher than in control subjects, and E2 and inhibin levels and ovarian volume were reduced, which led to a reduced gonadal function. Other studies and a longitudinal evaluation is necessary to better understand the endocrinologic features of these subjects. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Well Test Analysis of Naturally Fractured Vuggy Reservoirs with an Analytical Triple Porosity – Double Permeability Model and a Global Optimization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Susana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the automatic characterization of Naturally Fractured Vuggy Reservoirs via well test analysis, using a triple porosity-dual permeability model. The inter-porosity flow parameters, the storativity ratios, as well as the permeability ratio, the wellbore storage effect, the skin and the total permeability will be identified as parameters of the model. In this work, we will perform the well test interpretation in Laplace space, using numerical algorithms to transfer the discrete real data given in fully dimensional time to Laplace space. The well test interpretation problem in Laplace space has been posed as a nonlinear least squares optimization problem with box constraints and a linear inequality constraint, which is usually solved using local Newton type methods with a trust region. However, local methods as the one used in our work called TRON or the well-known Levenberg-Marquardt method, are often not able to find an optimal solution with a good fit of the data. Also well test analysis with the triple porosity-double permeability model, like most inverse problems, can yield multiple solutions with good match to the data. To deal with these specific characteristics, we will use a global optimization algorithm called the Tunneling Method (TM. In the design of the algorithm, we take into account issues of the problem like the fact that the parameter estimation has to be done with high precision, the presence of noise in the measurements and the need to solve the problem computationally fast. We demonstrate that the use of the TM in this study, showed to be an efficient and robust alternative to solve the well test characterization, as several optimal solutions, with very good match to the data were obtained.

  5. Global Mercury Pathways in the Arctic Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoutifard, N.; Lean, D.

    2003-12-01

    The sudden depletions of atmospheric mercury which occur during the Arctic spring are believed to involve oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury, Hg(0), rendering it less volatile and more soluble. The Hg(II) oxidation product(s) are more susceptible to deposition, consistent with the observation of dramatic increases in snow mercury levels during depletion events. Temporal correlations with ozone depletion events and the proliferation of BrO radicals support the hypothesis that oxidation of Hg(0) occurs in the gas phase and results in its conversion to RGM (Reactive Gaseous Mercury). The mechanisms of Hg(0) oxidation and particularly Hg(II) reduction are as yet unproven. In order to evaluate the feasibility of proposed chemical processes involving mercury in the Arctic atmosphere and its pathway after deposition on the snow from the air, we investigated mercury speciation in air and snow pack at Resolute, Nunavut, Canada (latitude 75° N) prior to and during snow melt during spring 2003. Quantitative, real-time information on emission, air transport and deposition were combined with experimental studies of the distribution and concentrations of different mercury species, methyl mercury, anions, total organic carbon and total inorganic carbon in snow samples. The effect of solar radiation and photoreductants on mercury in snow samples was also investigated. In this work, we quantify mercury removed from the air, and deposited on the snow and the transformation to inorganic and methyl mercury.

  6. Mercury pOIsonIng

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of mercury poisoning is reported and clinical observations of 6 .... fish ingested and occupational exposure. .... exposed to mercury as a result of inadequate industrial safety standards, and ... WHO Tech Rep Ser 1980; No. 674: 102-115.

  7. Reference Atmosphere for Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Rosemary M.

    2002-01-01

    We propose that Ar-40 measured in the lunar atmosphere and that in Mercury's atmosphere is due to current diffusion into connected pore space within the crust. Higher temperatures at Mercury, along with more rapid loss from the atmosphere will lead to a smaller column abundance of argon at Mercury than at the Moon, given the same crustal abundance of potassium. Because the noble gas abundance in the Hermean atmosphere represents current effusion, it is a direct measure of the crustal potassium abundance. Ar-40 in the atmospheres of the planets is a measure of potassium abundance in the interiors, since Ar-40 is a product of radiogenic decay of K-40 by electron capture with the subsequent emission of a 1.46 eV gamma-ray. Although the Ar-40 in the Earth's atmosphere is expected to have accumulated since the late bombardment, Ar-40 in the atmospheres of Mercury and the Moon is eroded quickly by photoionization and electron impact ionization. Thus, the argon content in the exospheres of the Moon and Mercury is representative of current effusion rather than accumulation over the lifetime of the planet.

  8. Legislation, standards and methods for mercury emissions control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-15

    Mercury is an element of growing global concern. The United Nations Environment Programme plans to finalise and ratify a new global legally-binding convention on mercury by 2013. Canada already has legislation on mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities and the USA has recently released the new Mercury and Air Toxics Standard. Although other countries may not have mercury-specific legislation as such, many have legislation which results in significant co-benefit mercury reduction due to the installation of effective flue-gas cleaning technologies. This report reviews the current situation and trends in mercury emission legislation and, where possible, discusses the actions that will be taken under proposed or impending standards globally and regionally. The report also reviews the methods currently applied for mercury control and for mercury emission measurement with emphasis on the methodologies most appropriate for compliance. Examples of the methods of mercury control currently deployed in the USA, Canada and elsewhere are included.

  9. The tectonics of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melosh, H.J.; Mckinnon, W.B.

    1988-01-01

    The probable tectonic history of Mercury and the relative sequence of events are discussed on the basis of data collected by the Mariner-10 spacecraft. Results indicate that Mercury's tectonic activity was confined to its early history; its endogenic activity was principally due to a small change in the shape of its lithosphere, caused by tidal despinning, and a small change in area caused by shrinkage due to cooling. Exogenic processes, in particular the impact activity, have produced more abundant tectonic features. Many features associated with the Caloris basin are due to loading of Mercury's thick lithosphere by extrusive lavas or subsidence due to magma withdrawal. It is emphasized that tectonic features observed on Mercury yield insight into the earliest tectonic events on planets like Mars and, perhaps, the earth, where subsequent events obscured or erased the most ancient tectonic records

  10. Mercury Toolset for Spatiotemporal Metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Palanisamy, Giri; Green, James; Wilson, Bruce; Rhyne, B. Timothy; Lindsley, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Mercury (http://mercury.ornl.gov) is a set of tools for federated harvesting, searching, and retrieving metadata, particularly spatiotemporal metadata. Version 3.0 of the Mercury toolset provides orders of magnitude improvements in search speed, support for additional metadata formats, integration with Google Maps for spatial queries, facetted type search, support for RSS (Really Simple Syndication) delivery of search results, and enhanced customization to meet the needs of the multiple projects that use Mercury. It provides a single portal to very quickly search for data and information contained in disparate data management systems, each of which may use different metadata formats. Mercury harvests metadata and key data from contributing project servers distributed around the world and builds a centralized index. The search interfaces then allow the users to perform a variety of fielded, spatial, and temporal searches across these metadata sources. This centralized repository of metadata with distributed data sources provides extremely fast search results to the user, while allowing data providers to advertise the availability of their data and maintain complete control and ownership of that data. Mercury periodically (typically daily)harvests metadata sources through a collection of interfaces and re-indexes these metadata to provide extremely rapid search capabilities, even over collections with tens of millions of metadata records. A number of both graphical and application interfaces have been constructed within Mercury, to enable both human users and other computer programs to perform queries. Mercury was also designed to support multiple different projects, so that the particular fields that can be queried and used with search filters are easy to configure for each different project.

  11. Mercury Toolset for Spatiotemporal Metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Bruce E.; Palanisamy, Giri; Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Rhyne, B. Timothy; Lindsley, Chris; Green, James

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (http://mercury.ornl.gov) is a set of tools for federated harvesting, searching, and retrieving metadata, particularly spatiotemporal metadata. Version 3.0 of the Mercury toolset provides orders of magnitude improvements in search speed, support for additional metadata formats, integration with Google Maps for spatial queries, facetted type search, support for RSS (Really Simple Syndication) delivery of search results, and enhanced customization to meet the needs of the multiple projects that use Mercury. It provides a single portal to very quickly search for data and information contained in disparate data management systems, each of which may use different metadata formats. Mercury harvests metadata and key data from contributing project servers distributed around the world and builds a centralized index. The search interfaces then allow the users to perform a variety of fielded, spatial, and temporal searches across these metadata sources. This centralized repository of metadata with distributed data sources provides extremely fast search results to the user, while allowing data providers to advertise the availability of their data and maintain complete control and ownership of that data. Mercury periodically (typically daily) harvests metadata sources through a collection of interfaces and re-indexes these metadata to provide extremely rapid search capabilities, even over collections with tens of millions of metadata records. A number of both graphical and application interfaces have been constructed within Mercury, to enable both human users and other computer programs to perform queries. Mercury was also designed to support multiple different projects, so that the particular fields that can be queried and used with search filters are easy to configure for each different project.

  12. 21 CFR 880.2920 - Clinical mercury thermometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clinical mercury thermometer. 880.2920 Section 880... Devices § 880.2920 Clinical mercury thermometer. (a) Identification. A clinical mercury thermometer is a... mercury. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The device is exempt from the premarket...

  13. Symptomatic burden of COPD for patients receiving dual or triple therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen S

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie Chen,1 Mark Small,2 Leandro Lindner,3 Xiao Xu1,4 1Health Economics and Payer Analytics, AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD, USA; 2Respiratory, Adelphi Real World, Bollington, UK; 3Global Payer Evidence and Pricing, AstraZeneca, Cambridge, UK; 4Global Payer Evidence and Pricing, AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD, USA Background: COPD is associated with a large disease burden. The use of dual (two maintenance treatments and triple (combination of any three treatments therapy has shown efficacy for symptom relief; however, some patients with COPD remain symptomatic despite these therapies. This study assessed the scope and magnitude of the symptomatic burden for patients with COPD receiving dual or triple therapy. Patients and methods: Cross-sectional data from three Adelphi COPD surveys (2013–2016 conducted in the USA, Europe, Japan, and China were analyzed for patients with COPD and forced expiratory volume in 1 second ≤65% receiving dual or triple therapy for ≥3 months. Physicians completed clinical and disease characteristic forms for identified patients. Corresponding patients completed questionnaires that included validated survey instruments to assess adherence and symptom impact. Descriptive statistics are reported. Results: Our analysis included 690 patients (mean age 68.2 years; 73.3% male; 41.4% and 58.6% were receiving dual and triple therapy, respectively. Most patients had dyspnea with substantial disability (modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale rating ≥2, 56.3%; large health status impairment from symptoms, COPD Assessment Test score >20, 64.4%. A large symptom burden was observed, even for patients highly adherent to treatment (Morisky Medication Adherence Scale 8, 30.3% [185/612], of whom 62.1% still had a COPD Assessment Test score >20. Sensitivity analyses of patients regardless of their forced expiratory volume in 1 second status and of those receiving treatment for >6 months both reported similar results

  14. Methyl mercury in terrestrial compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeppler, M.; Burow, M.; Padberg, S.; May, K.

    1993-09-01

    On the basis of the analytical methodology available at present the state of the art for the determination of total mercury and of various organometallic compounds of mercury in air, precipitation, limnic systems, soils, plants and biota is reviewed. This is followed by the presentation and discussion of examples for the data obtained hitherto for trace and ultratrace levels of total mercury and mainly methyl mercury in terrestrial and limnic environments as well as in biota. The data discussed stem predominantly from the past decade in which, due to significant methodological progress, many new aspects were elucidated. They include the most important results in this area achieved by the Research Centre (KFA) Juelich within the project 'Origin and Fate of Methyl Mercury' (contracts EV4V-0138-D and STEP-CT90-0057) supported by the Commission of the European Communities, Brussels. (orig.) [de

  15. Cytochemical demonstration of mercury deposits in trout liver and kidney following methyl mercury intoxication: differentiation of two mercury pools by selenium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, E; Danscher, G

    1988-01-01

    and the selected organs were determined by measuring the uptake of 203Hg-labeled MeHg. Spleen, liver, and kidney had the highest concentrations after both experimental periods, while the largest relative increases were found in brain, muscle, and kidney. The subcellular distribution of mercury accumulations...... was demonstrated cytochemically in liver and kidney using the silver enhancement method by which accumulations of mercury-sulfides and/or mercury-selenides are made visible for light and electron microscopy. When sections prepared from the liver and kidney from fish, injected with selenium 2 hr prior to being...... pronounced in the kidney. The HgSe pool, supposed to represent methyl mercury, was shown by the presence of silver deposits at new locations as well as by an increase in the amount of deposits within lysosomes. The new locations included (1) secretory-like vesicles and the bile canaliculi of the liver...

  16. Intentional intravenous mercury injection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this case report, intravenous complications, treatment strategies and possible ... Mercury toxicity is commonly associated with vapour inhalation or oral ingestion, for which there exist definite treatment options. Intravenous mercury ... personality, anxiousness, irritability, insomnia, depression and drowsi- ness.[1] However ...

  17. Human accumulation of mercury in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Poul; Mulvad, Gert; Pedersen, Henning Sloth

    2007-01-01

    In the Arctic, the traditional diet exposes its people to a high intake of mercury especially from marine mammals. To determine whether the mercury is accumulated in humans, we analyzed autopsy samples of liver, kidney and spleen from adult ethnic Greenlanders who died between 1990 and 1994 from...... a wide range of causes, natural and violent. Liver, kidney and spleen samples from between 33 and 71 case subjects were analyzed for total mercury and methylmercury, and liver samples also for selenium. Metal levels in men and women did not differ and were not related to age except in one case, i.......e. for total mercury in liver, where a significant declining concentration with age was observed. The highest total mercury levels were found in kidney followed by liver and spleen. Methylmercury followed the same pattern, but levels were much lower, constituting only 19% of the total mercury concentration...

  18. Human accumulation of mercury in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, P.; Mulvad, G.; Pedersen, H. S.

    2007-01-01

    a wide range of causes, natural and violent. Liver, kidney and spleen samples from between 33 and 71 case subjects were analyzed for total mercury and methylmercury, and liver samples also for selenium. Metal levels in men and women did not differ and were not related to age except in one case, i......In the Arctic, the traditional diet exposes its people to a high intake of mercury especially from marine mammals. To determine whether the mercury is accumulated in humans, we analyzed autopsy samples of liver, kidney and spleen from adult ethnic Greenlanders who died between 1990 and 1994 from.......e. for total mercury in liver, where a significant declining concentration with age was observed. The highest total mercury levels were found in kidney followed by liver and spleen. Methylmercury followed the same pattern, but levels were much lower, constituting only 19% of the total mercury concentration...

  19. New Mechanisms of Mercury Binding to Peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, K. L.; Manceau, A.; Gasper, J. D.; Ryan, J. N.; Aiken, G. R.

    2007-12-01

    Mercury can be immobilized in the aquatic environment by binding to peat, a solid form of natural organic matter. Binding mechanisms can vary in strength and reversibility, and therefore will control concentrations of bioreactive mercury, may explain rates of mercury methylation, and are important for designing approaches to improve water quality using natural wetlands or engineered phytoremediation schemes. In addition, strong binding between mercury and peat is likely to result in the fixation of mercury that ultimately resides in coal. The mechanisms by which aqueous mercury at low concentrations reacts with both dissolved and solid natural organic matter remain incompletely understood, despite recent efforts. We have identified three distinct binding mechanisms of divalent cationic mercury to solid peats from the Florida Everglades using EXAFS spectroscopic data (FAME beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF)) obtained on experimental samples as compared to relevant references including mercury-bearing solids and mercury bound to various organic molecules. The proportions of the three molecular configurations vary with Hg concentration, and two new configurations that involve sulfur ligands occur at Hg concentrations up to about 4000 ppm. The binding mechanism at the lowest experimental Hg concentration (60-80 ppm) elucidates published reports on the inhibition of metacinnabar formation in the presence of Hg-bearing solutions and dissolved natural organic matter, and also, the differences in extent of mercury methylation in distinct areas of the Florida Everglades.

  20. A preliminary study on health effects in villagers exposed to mercury in a small-scale artisanal gold mining area in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan; Schierl, Rudolf; Nowak, Dennis; Siebert, Uwe; William, Jossep Frederick; Owi, Fradico Teorgi; Ir, Yuyun Ismawati

    2016-08-01

    Cisitu is a small-scale gold mining village in Indonesia. Mercury (Hg) is used to extract gold from ore, heavily polluting air, soil, fish and rice paddy fields with Hg. Rice in Cisitu is burdened with mercury. The main staple food of the inhabitants of Cisitu is this polluted rice. Villagers were concerned that the severe diseases they observed in the community might be related to their mining activities, including high mercury exposure. Case report of the medical examinations and the mercury levels in urine and hair of 18 people with neurological symptoms. Typical signs and symptoms of chronic mercury intoxication were found (excessive salivation, sleep disturbances, tremor, ataxia, dysdiadochokinesia, pathological coordination tests, gray to bluish discoloration of the oral cavity and proteinuria). Mercury levels in urine were increased in eight patients (>7µg Hg/L urine). All 18 people had increased hair levels (>1µg Hg/g hair). 15 patients exhibited several, and sometimes numerous, symptoms in addition to having moderately to highly elevated levels of mercury in their specimens. These patients were classified as intoxicated. The situation in Cisitu is special, with rice paddy fields being irrigated with mercury-contaminated water and villagers consuming only local food, especially mercury-contaminated rice. Severe neurological symptoms and increased levels of mercury in urine and hair support are possibly caused by exposure to inorganic mercury in air, and the consumption of mercury-contaminated fish and rice. The mercury exposure needs to be reduced and treatment provided. Further research is needed to test the hypothesis that mercury-contaminated rice from small-scale gold mining areas might cause mercury intoxication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Uptake of mercury from water by the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes vulgaris (Say)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, G.L.; Tripp, M.R.

    1976-01-01

    In order to assess the toxicity of mercury to the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes vulgaris [Say]), the lethal concentration for 50 percent (LC 50 ) of the tested population in a 24-hour period for HgCl 2 and MeHgCl were determined. The LC 50 values were approximately 400 parts per billion (ppB) Hg for HgCl 2 and 125 ppB Hg for MeHgCl. When shrimp were held in mercury solutions at sublethal concentrations (1.5 ppB Hg as HgCl 2 ) for 15 days, a maximum of 500 ppB Hg was accumulated in the animal's tissues after 3 days. The average tissue concentration of mercury for the remaining 12 days was 450 ppB Hg. The actual tissue distribution of mercury was determined by exposure of shrimp to radioactively labeled HgCl 2 and MeHgCl. No difference could be found in the tissue distribution of the two compounds. A significant difference is tissue mercury distribution occurred between the 24-hour and 72-hour exposures

  2. Carbon Bed Mercury Emissions Control For Mixed Waste Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soelberg, Nick; Enneking, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (both radioactive and hazardous according to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) wastes. Depending on regulatory requirements, the mercury in the off-gas must be controlled with sometimes very high efficiencies. Compliance to the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards can require off-gas mercury removal efficiencies up to 99.999% for thermally treating some mixed waste streams. Several test programs have demonstrated this level of off-gas mercury control using fixed beds of granular sulfur-impregnated activated carbon. Other results of these tests include: (a) The depth of the mercury control mass transfer zone was less than 15-30 cm for the operating conditions of these tests, (b) MERSORB(reg s ign) carbon can sorb Hg up to 19 wt% of the carbon mass, and (c) the spent carbon retained almost all (98-99.99%) of the Hg; but when even a small fraction of the total Hg dissolves, the spent carbon can fail the TCLP test when the spent carbon contains high Hg concentrations. Localized areas in a carbon bed that become heated through heat of adsorption, to temperatures where oxidation occurs, are referred to as 'bed hot spots.' Carbon bed hot spots must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Key to carbon bed hot spot mitigation are (a) designing for sufficient gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) monitoring and control of inlet gas flowrate, temperature, and composition, (c) monitoring and control of in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (d) most important, monitoring of bed outlet CO concentrations. An increase of CO levels in the off-gas downstream of the carbon bed to levels about 50-100 ppm higher than the inlet CO concentration indicate CO formation in the bed, caused by carbon bed

  3. Adsorption of mercury (II from liquid solutions using modified activated carbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Soé Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is one of the most toxic metals present in the environment. Adsorption has been proposed among the technologies for mercury abatement. Activated carbons are universal adsorbents which have been found to be a very effective alternative for mercury removal from water. The effectiveness with which a contaminant is adsorbed by the solid surface depends, among other factors, on the charge of the chemical species in which the contaminant is in solution and on the net charge of the adsorbent surface which depend on the pH of the adsorption system. In this work, activated carbon from carbonized eucalyptus wood was used as adsorbent. Two sulphurization treatments by impregnation with sulphuric acid and with carbon disulphide, have been carried out to improve the adsorption capacity for mercury entrapment. Batch adsorption tests at different temperatures and pH of the solution were carried out. The influence of the textural properties, surface chemistry and operation conditions on the adsorption capacity, is discussed.

  4. Mercury in mussels of Bellingham Bay, Washington, (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesijadi, G.; Drum, A.S.; Bridge, J.R.

    1978-11-01

    Laboratory experiments demonstrated the existence of metallothionein-like, low molecular weight, mercury-binding proteins in the marine mussel Mytilus edulis. Relatively large quantities of mercury were associated with such proteins in gills and digestive gland, the organs of interest in the present study. /sup 14/C-incorporation indicated induction of the protein in gills, but not in digestive gland. Mercury in digestive gland may have bound to existing metal-binding proteins. Short-term incorporation of mercury occurred primarily in gills. The induction of mercury-binding proteins in gills may have facilitated detoxification of mercury at the site of uptake. Mercury in mussels of Bellingham Bay were shown to have decreased from 1970 to 1978, the collection date for the present study. Mercury levels were low but approximately three times higher than those from uncontaminated areas. Mercury associated with the mercury-binding protein of gills and digestive glands of Bellingham Bay mussels were low and reflected the concentrations measured in the whole tissues. However, the highest concentration of mercury was associated with the low molecular pool components, the identity of which is not presently known.

  5. Worldwide trend of atmospheric mercury since 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Slemr

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Concern about the adverse effects of mercury on human health and ecosystems has led to tightening emission controls since the mid 1980s. But the resulting mercury emissions reductions in many parts of the world are believed to be offset or even surpassed by the increasing emissions in rapidly industrializing countries. Consequently, concentrations of atmospheric mercury are expected to remain roughly constant. Here we show that the worldwide atmospheric mercury concentrations have decreased by about 20 to 38 % since 1996 as indicated by long-term monitoring at stations in the Southern and Northern Hemispheres combined with intermittent measurements of latitudinal distribution over the Atlantic Ocean. The total reduction of the atmospheric mercury burden of this magnitude within 14 years is unusually large among most atmospheric trace gases and is at odds with the current mercury emission inventories with nearly constant anthropogenic emissions over this period. This suggests a major shift in the biogeochemical cycle of mercury including oceans and soil reservoirs. Decreasing reemissions from the legacy of historical mercury emissions are the most likely explanation for this decline since the hypothesis of an accelerated oxidation rate of elemental mercury in the atmosphere is not supported by the observed trends of other trace gases. Acidification of oceans, climate change, excess nutrient input and pollution may also contribute by their impact on the biogeochemistry of ocean and soils. Consequently, models of the atmospheric mercury cycle have to include soil and ocean mercury pools and their dynamics to be able to make projections of future trends.

  6. Identification of Mercury in Tembang Fish (Sardinella gibbosa and Shellfish (Marcia hiantina in Losari Coastal Beach, Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlani Erlani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury was one of heavy metals that became pollutant. High level of mercury in aquatic environment could cause adverse effects on living organisms in that environment, even endanger human health in using the water and consuming the organism. This reasearch was a descriptive survey that was supported by laboratory test result in order to know mercury (Hg level in Tembang fish (Sardinella gibbosa and Shellfish (Marcia hiantina in Losari coastal beach, Makassar. The result of mercury examination at Center Health Laboratory Makasar was obtained that mercury levels in Tembang Fish were 0.0150 mg/kg, 0.0133 mg/kg and 0.0126 mg/kg. Thus, the average of mercury level in Tembang fish was 0.0409 mg/kg. Meanwhile, based on examination results of mercury level in Shellfish at Center Health Laboratory, Makasar, were obtained 0.0228 mg/kg, 0.0266 mg/kg, and 0.1105 mg/kg. Thus, the average of mercury level in Shellfish was 0.1599 mg/kg. Moreover, mercury level in either Tembang fish or Shellfish in ​​Losari coastal beach Makassar had fulfilled the requirement based on SNI 7387/2009 regarding Maximum Limit of Heavy Metal of Mercury.

  7. Mercury distribution in Douro estuary (Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalhosa, E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pereira, E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)]. E-mail: eduper@dq.ua.pt; Vale, C. [National Institute for Agronomy and Fishery Research, IPIMAR, Avenida Brasilia, 1449-006 Lisboa (Portugal); Valega, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Monterroso, P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Duarte, A.C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2005-11-15

    Determinations of dissolved reactive and total dissolved mercury, particulate and sedimentary mercury, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) have been made in the estuary of river Douro, in northern Portugal. The estuary was stratified by salinity along most of its length, it had low concentrations of SPM, typically <20 mg dm{sup -3}, and concentrations of DOC in the range <1.0-1.8 mg dm{sup -3}. The surface waters had a maximum dissolved concentration of reactive mercury of about 10 ng dm{sup -3}, whereas for the more saline bottom waters it was about 65 ng dm{sup -3}. The surface waters had maximum concentrations of total suspended particulate mercury of {approx}7 {mu}g g{sup -1} and the bottom waters were always <1 {mu}g g{sup -1}. Concentrations of mercury in sediments was low and in the range from 0.06 to 0.18 {mu}g g{sup -1}. The transport of mercury in surface waters was mainly associated with organic-rich particulate matter, while in bottom waters the dissolved phase transport of mercury is more important. Lower particulate organic matter, formation of chlorocomplexes in more saline waters and eventually the presence of colloids appear to explain the difference of mercury partitioning in Douro estuarine waters.

  8. Mixed Waste Focus Area Mercury Working Group: An integrated approach to mercury waste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.

    1998-03-01

    In May 1996, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) initiated the Mercury Working Group (HgWG). The HgWG was established to address and resolve the issues associated with mercury contaminated mixed wastes. During the MWFA's initial technical baseline development process, three of the top four technology deficiencies identified were related to the need for amalgamation, stabilization, and separation removal technologies for the treatment of mercury and mercury contaminated mixed waste. The HgWG is assisting the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing efforts to address these areas. The focus of the HgWG is to better establish the mercury related treatment technologies at the DOE sites, refine the MWFA technical baseline as it relates to mercury treatment, and make recommendations to the MWFA on how to most effectively address these needs. Based on the scope and magnitude of the mercury mixed waste problem, as defined by HgWG, solicitations and contract awards have been made to the private sector to demonstrate both the amalgamation and stabilization processes using actual mixed wastes. Development efforts are currently being funded that will address DOE's needs for separation removal processes. This paper discusses the technology selection process, development activities, and the accomplishments of the HgWG to date through these various activities

  9. 40 CFR Appendix Xiii to Part 266 - Mercury Bearing Wastes That May Be Processed in Exempt Mercury Recovery Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mercury Bearing Wastes That May Be Processed in Exempt Mercury Recovery Units XIII Appendix XIII to Part 266 Protection of Environment... XIII to Part 266—Mercury Bearing Wastes That May Be Processed in Exempt Mercury Recovery Units These...

  10. In-Flight performance of MESSENGER's Mercury dual imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, S.E.; Murchie, S.L.; Becker, K.J.; Selby, C.M.; Turner, F.S.; Noble, M.W.; Chabot, N.L.; Choo, T.H.; Darlington, E.H.; Denevi, B.W.; Domingue, D.L.; Ernst, C.M.; Holsclaw, G.M.; Laslo, N.R.; Mcclintock, W.E.; Prockter, L.M.; Robinson, M.S.; Solomon, S.C.; Sterner, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Mercury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, launched in August 2004 and planned for insertion into orbit around Mercury in 2011, has already completed two flybys of the innermost planet. The Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) acquired nearly 2500 images from the first two flybys and viewed portions of Mercury's surface not viewed by Mariner 10 in 1974-1975. Mercury's proximity to the Sun and its slow rotation present challenges to the thermal design for a camera on an orbital mission around Mercury. In addition, strict limitations on spacecraft pointing and the highly elliptical orbit create challenges in attaining coverage at desired geometries and relatively uniform spatial resolution. The instrument designed to meet these challenges consists of dual imagers, a monochrome narrow-angle camera (NAC) with a 1.5?? field of view (FOV) and a multispectral wide-angle camera (WAC) with a 10.5?? FOV, co-aligned on a pivoting platform. The focal-plane electronics of each camera are identical and use a 1024??1024 charge-coupled device detector. The cameras are passively cooled but use diode heat pipes and phase-change-material thermal reservoirs to maintain the thermal configuration during the hot portions of the orbit. Here we present an overview of the instrument design and how the design meets its technical challenges. We also review results from the first two flybys, discuss the quality of MDIS data from the initial periods of data acquisition and how that compares with requirements, and summarize how in-flight tests are being used to improve the quality of the instrument calibration. ?? 2009 SPIE.

  11. Mercury in terrestrial forested systems with highly elevated mercury deposition in southwestern China: The risk to insects and potential release from wildfires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jun; Wang, Zhangwei; Sun, Ting; Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Xiaoshan

    2016-01-01

    Forests are considered a pool of mercury in the global mercury cycle. However, few studies have investigated the distribution of mercury in the forested systems in China. Tieshanping forest catchment in southwest China was impacted by mercury emissions from industrial activities and coal combustions. Our work studied mercury content in atmosphere, soil, vegetation and insect with a view to estimating the potential for mercury release during forest fires. Results of the present study showed that total gaseous mercury (TGM) was highly elevated and the annual mean concentration was 3.51 ± 1.39 ng m"−"2. Of the vegetation tissues, the mercury concentration follows the order of leaf/needle > root > bark > branch > bole wood for each species. Total ecosystem mercury pool was 103.5 mg m"−"2 and about 99.4% of the mercury resides in soil layers (0–40 cm). The remaining 0.6% (0.50 mg m"−"2) of mercury was stored in biomass. The large mercury stocks in the forest ecosystem pose a serious threat for large pluses to the atmospheric mercury during potential wildfires and additional ecological stress to forest insect: dung beetles, cicada and longicorn, with mercury concentration of 1983 ± 446, 49 ± 38 and 7 ± 5 ng g"−"1, respectively. Hence, the results obtained in the present study has implications for global estimates of mercury storage in forests, risks to forest insect and potential release to the atmosphere during wildfires. - Highlights: • Mercury in air, soil, biomass and insect were studied at a subtropical forest. • 99.4% of the total ecosystem mercury pools was resided in soil layers. • High mercury pools were large pulses to the atmosphere during potential wildfires. • High mercury deposition in forest pose an ecological stress to insect. - Large mercury pools in forest pose a serious threat for large pluses to the atmospheric mercury during potential wildfires and ecological stress to insect.

  12. Localized surface plasmon resonance mercury detection system and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jay; Lucas, Donald; Crosby, Jeffrey Scott; Koshland, Catherine P.

    2016-03-22

    A mercury detection system that includes a flow cell having a mercury sensor, a light source and a light detector is provided. The mercury sensor includes a transparent substrate and a submonolayer of mercury absorbing nanoparticles, e.g., gold nanoparticles, on a surface of the substrate. Methods of determining whether mercury is present in a sample using the mercury sensors are also provided. The subject mercury detection systems and methods find use in a variety of different applications, including mercury detecting applications.

  13. Mercury concentration in coal - Unraveling the puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toole-O'Neil, B.; Tewalt, S.J.; Finkelman, R.B.; Akers, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    Based on data from the US Geological Survey's COALQUAL database, the mean concentration of mercury in coal is approximately 0.2 ??gg-1. Assuming the database reflects in-ground US coal resources, values for conterminous US coal areas range from 0.08 ??gg-1 for coal in the San Juan and Uinta regions to 0.22 ??gg-1 for the Gulf Coast lignites. Recalculating the COALQUAL data to an equal energy basis unadjusted for moisture differences, the Gulf Coast lignites have the highest values (36.4 lb of Hg/1012 Btu) and the Hams Fork region coal has the lowest value (4.8 lb of Hg/1012Btu). Strong indirect geochemical evidence indicates that a substantial proportion of the mercury in coal is associated with pyrite occurrence. This association of mercury and pyrite probably accounts for the removal of mercury with the pyrite by physical coal cleaning procedures. Data from the literature indicate that conventional coal cleaning removes approximately 37% of the mercury on an equal energy basis, with a range of 0% to 78%. When the average mercury reduction value is applied to in-ground mercury values from the COALQUAL database, the resulting 'cleaned' mercury values are very close to mercury in 'as-shipped' coal from the same coal bed in the same county. Applying the reduction fact or for coal cleaning to eastern US bituminous coal, reduces the mercury input load compared to lower-rank non-deaned western US coal. In the absence of analytical data on as-shipped coal, the mercury data in the COALQUAL database, adjusted for deanability where appropriate, may be used as an estimator of mercury contents of as-shipped coal. ?? 1998 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Control of mercury emissions: policies, technologies, and future trends

    OpenAIRE

    Rhee, Seung-Whee

    2015-01-01

    Seung-Whee Rhee Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyonggi University, Suwon, Republic of Korea Abstract: Owing to the Minamata Convention on Mercury and the Global Mercury Partnership, policies and regulations on mercury management in advanced countries were intensified by a mercury phaseout program in the mercury control strategy. In developing countries, the legislative or regulatory frameworks on mercury emissions are not established specifically, but mercury management is designed...

  15. Recent Advances in Atmospheric Chemistry of Mercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Si

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is one of the most toxic metals and has global importance due to the biomagnification and bioaccumulation of organomercury via the aquatic food web. The physical and chemical transformations of various mercury species in the atmosphere strongly influence their composition, phase, transport characteristics and deposition rate back to the ground. Modeling efforts to assess global cycling of mercury require an accurate understanding of atmospheric mercury chemistry. Yet, there are several key uncertainties precluding accurate modeling of physical and chemical transformations. We focus this article on recent studies (since 2015 on improving our understanding of the atmospheric chemistry of mercury. We discuss recent advances in determining the dominant atmospheric oxidant of elemental mercury (Hg0 and understanding the oxidation reactions of Hg0 by halogen atoms and by nitrate radical (NO3—in the aqueous reduction of oxidized mercury compounds (HgII as well as in the heterogeneous reactions of Hg on atmospheric-relevant surfaces. The need for future research to improve understanding of the fate and transformation of mercury in the atmosphere is also discussed.

  16. Urban artisanal gold shops and mercury emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordy, P.; Veiga, M.; Carrasco, V.H.G.

    2008-01-01

    Artisanal miners in developing countries use mercury amalgamation processes to extract gold. The amalgams are then refined before being sold on to urban gold shops. The amalgams can often contain between 2 to 40 per cent mercury. Unburned amalgams are also often sold directly to gold shops. There are serious health risks for shop employees and nearby populations when the gold is melted and further purified. Studies have shown that mercury concentrations in the ambient air of gold shops often exceeds World Health Organization (WHO) limits by an order of magnitude or more. This study examined the practices and technologies used to refine gold in Latin America and Indonesia. The study compared and contrasted various refining methods and their resulting mercury emissions. Methods of reducing mercury emissions were also investigated, including a filtration system designed to capture 80 per cent of mercury emissions. Barriers to implementing mercury emissions reduction plans were also investigated. It was concluded that the design of urban gold shops must include condensers, fume hoods, and efficient mercury capture systems. 15 refs

  17. Anthropogenic mercury deposition to arctic lake sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanson, M.H. [Westchester University, Westchester, PA (United States). Dept. of Health

    1998-01-01

    The history of atmospheric mercury inputs to remote arctic regions can be measured in lake sediment cores using lead-210 chronology. In the investigation, total mercury deposition is measured in sediments from Imitavik and Annak Lakes on the Belcher Islands in southeastern Hudson Bay, an area in the southern Canadian Arctic with no history of local industrial or agricultural sources of contamination. Both lakes received background and atmospheric inputs of mercury while Annak also received mercury from raw domestic sewage from the Hamlet of Sanikiluaq, a growing Inuit community of about 550 established in the late 1960s. Results from Imitavik show that anthropogenic mercury inputs, apparently transported through the atmosphere, began to appear in the mid-eighteenth century, and continued to the 1990s. Annak had a similar mercury history until the late 1960s when disposal of domestic sewage led to increased sediment and contaminant accumulation. The high input of mercury to Annak confirms that Sanikiluaq residents are exposed to mercury through native food sources. 39 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Recovering the triple coincidence of non-pure positron emitters in preclinical PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsin-Hon; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Chen, Szu-Yu; Jan, Meei-Ling

    2016-03-01

    Non-pure positron emitters, with their long half-lives, allow for the tracing of slow biochemical processes which cannot be adequately examined by the commonly used short-lived positron emitters. Most of these isotopes emit high-energy cascade gamma rays in addition to positron decay that can be detected and create a triple coincidence with annihilation photons. Triple coincidence is discarded in most scanners, however, the majority of the triple coincidence contains true photon pairs that can be recovered. In this study, we propose a strategy for recovering triple coincidence events to raise the sensitivity of PET imaging for non-pure positron emitters. To identify the true line of response (LOR) from a triple coincidence, a framework utilizing geometrical, energy and temporal information is proposed. The geometrical criterion is based on the assumption that the LOR with the largest radial offset among the three sub pairs of triple coincidences is least likely to be a true LOR. Then, a confidence time window is used to test the valid LOR among those within triple coincidence. Finally, a likelihood ratio discriminant rule based on the energy probability density distribution of cascade and annihilation gammas is established to identify the true LOR. An Inveon preclinical PET scanner was modeled with GATE (GEANT4 application for tomographic emission) Monte Carlo software. We evaluated the performance of the proposed method in terms of identification fraction, noise equivalent count rates (NECR), and image quality on various phantoms. With the inclusion of triple coincidence events using the proposed method, the NECR was found to increase from 11% to 26% and 19% to 29% for I-124 and Br-76, respectively, when 7.4-185 MBq of activity was used. Compared to the reconstructed images using double coincidence, this technique increased the SNR by 5.1-7.3% for I-124 and 9.3-10.3% for Br-76 within the activity range of 9.25-74 MBq, without compromising the spatial resolution or

  19. Nottingham Prognostic Index in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: a reliable prognostic tool?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albergaria, André; Ricardo, Sara; Milanezi, Fernanda; Carneiro, Vítor; Amendoeira, Isabel; Vieira, Daniella; Cameselle-Teijeiro, Jorge; Schmitt, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    A breast cancer prognostic tool should ideally be applicable to all types of invasive breast lesions. A number of studies have shown histopathological grade to be an independent prognostic factor in breast cancer, adding prognostic power to nodal stage and tumour size. The Nottingham Prognostic Index has been shown to accurately predict patient outcome in stratified groups with a follow-up period of 15 years after primary diagnosis of breast cancer. Clinically, breast tumours that lack the expression of Oestrogen Receptor, Progesterone Receptor and Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor 2 (HER2) are identified as presenting a 'triple-negative' phenotype or as triple-negative breast cancers. These poor outcome tumours represent an easily recognisable prognostic group of breast cancer with aggressive behaviour that currently lack the benefit of available systemic therapy. There are conflicting results on the prevalence of lymph node metastasis at the time of diagnosis in triple-negative breast cancer patients but it is currently accepted that triple-negative breast cancer does not metastasize to axillary nodes and bones as frequently as the non-triple-negative carcinomas, favouring instead, a preferentially haematogenous spread. Hypothetically, this particular tumour dissemination pattern would impair the reliability of using Nottingham Prognostic Index as a tool for triple-negative breast cancer prognostication. The present study tested the effectiveness of the Nottingham Prognostic Index in stratifying breast cancer patients of different subtypes with special emphasis in a triple-negative breast cancer patient subset versus non- triple-negative breast cancer. We demonstrated that besides the fact that TNBC disseminate to axillary lymph nodes as frequently as luminal or HER2 tumours, we also showed that TNBC are larger in size compared with other subtypes and almost all grade 3. Additionally, survival curves demonstrated that these prognostic factors are

  20. Pilot plant experiments for the denitration and mercury separation from the HEWC solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humblet, L.; Hendrickx, J.P.; Geel, J. van.

    1984-06-01

    A process development for the elimination of mercury and nitrates from the HEWC (high-enriched waste concentrates) solutions has been achieved. This process is based on the reduction of mercury to metal with formaldehyde. The pilot plant which has enabled to test the developed process is described as well as the experiments. The residual mercury concentration is of 25 mg/1 but the mechanism of the reduction is not yet known. During the denitration the nitrous vapors production calls for an oversized absorption column. The control instruments and the analytical methods are also described. (AF)β

  1. Analysis of mercury adsorption at the gibbsite-water interface using the CD-MUSIC model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang Min

    2018-05-22

    Mercury (Hg), one of the most toxic substances in nature, has long been released during the anthropogenic activity. A correct description of the adsorptive behavior of mercury is important to gain a better insight into its fate and transport in natural mineral surfaces, which will be a prerequisite for the development of surface complexation model for the adsorption processes. In the present study, simulation experiments on macroscopic Hg(II) sorption by gibbsite (α-Al(OH) 3 ), a representative aluminum (hydr)oxide mineral, were performed using the charge distribution and multi-site complexation (CD-MUSIC) approach with 1-pK triple plane model (TPM). For this purpose, several data sets which had already been reported in the literature were employed to analyze the effect of pH, ionic strength, and co-exisiting ions (NO 3 - and Cl - ) on the Hg(II) adsorption onto gibbsite. Sequential optimization approach was used to determine the acidity and asymmetric binding constants for electrolyte ions and the affinity constants of the surface species through the model simulation using FITEQLC (a modified code of FITEQL 4.0). The model successfully incorporated the presence of inorganic ligands at the dominant edge (100) face of gibbsite with consistent surface species, which was evidenced by molecular scale analysis. The model was verified with an independent set of Hg(II) adsorption data incorporating carbonate binding species in an open gibbsite-water system.

  2. An empirical understanding of triple collocation evaluation measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scipal, Klaus; Doubkova, Marcela; Hegyova, Alena; Dorigo, Wouter; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    Triple collocation method is an advanced evaluation method that has been used in the soil moisture field for only about half a decade. The method requires three datasets with an independent error structure that represent an identical phenomenon. The main advantages of the method are that it a) doesn't require a reference dataset that has to be considered to represent the truth, b) limits the effect of random and systematic errors of other two datasets, and c) simultaneously assesses the error of three datasets. The objective of this presentation is to assess the triple collocation error (Tc) of the ASAR Global Mode Surface Soil Moisture (GM SSM 1) km dataset and highlight problems of the method related to its ability to cancel the effect of error of ancillary datasets. In particular, the goal is to a) investigate trends in Tc related to the change in spatial resolution from 5 to 25 km, b) to investigate trends in Tc related to the choice of a hydrological model, and c) to study the relationship between Tc and other absolute evaluation methods (namely RMSE and Error Propagation EP). The triple collocation method is implemented using ASAR GM, AMSR-E, and a model (either AWRA-L, GLDAS-NOAH, or ERA-Interim). First, the significance of the relationship between the three soil moisture datasets was tested that is a prerequisite for the triple collocation method. Second, the trends in Tc related to the choice of the third reference dataset and scale were assessed. For this purpose the triple collocation is repeated replacing AWRA-L with two different globally available model reanalysis dataset operating at different spatial resolution (ERA-Interim and GLDAS-NOAH). Finally, the retrieved results were compared to the results of the RMSE and EP evaluation measures. Our results demonstrate that the Tc method does not eliminate the random and time-variant systematic errors of the second and the third dataset used in the Tc. The possible reasons include the fact a) that the TC

  3. 21 CFR 872.3700 - Dental mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental mercury. 872.3700 Section 872.3700 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3700 Dental mercury. (a) Identification. Dental mercury is a... dental cavity or a broken tooth. (b) Classification. Class I. ...

  4. Blood Mercury Level and Its Determinants among Dental Practitioners in Hamadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vahedi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Exposure to mercury can occur in occupational and environmental settings.During clinical work with dental amalgam, the dental personnel are exposed to both metallic mercury and mercury vapor. The aim of the present study was to investigate bloodmercury level (BML and its determinants among dentists practicing in Hamadan city,Iran.Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was done on all dental practitioners of Hamadan (n=43. Dentists were asked to complete a questionnaire, and then 5 ml bloodsamples were obtained from them. After preparation, mercury concentration of each sample was measured by cold vapor atomic absorption device. Pearson correlation test and regression models served for statistical analysis.Results: The mean blood concentration of mercury was 6.3 μg/l (SD=1.31 range 4.15-8.93. BML was positively associated with age, years in practice, working hours per day,number of amalgam restorations per day, number of amalgam removal per week, sea foodconsumption, working years in present office, using amalgam powder, using diamond bur for amalgam removal, dry sterilization of amalgam contaminated instruments, and deficient air ventilation.Conclusion: BML of dentists in Hamadan was higher than standards. Working hours and number of amalgam restorations per day were significantly correlated with blood mercury.

  5. Partitioning of Mercury from Actinides in the TRUEX Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Rapko, Brian M.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2000-01-01

    A mercury complexant, L-cysteine hydrochloride, was tested for use in separating Hg from actinides during TRUEX processing of wastes at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Mercury, americium, plutonium and uranyl distributions from TRUEX solvent were characterized over a nitric acid concentration range of 0.01 to 2 M. The applicability of cysteine was also evaluated for selective Hg complexation in an INEEL sodium-bearing waste simulant. A test was also conducted to evaluate the applicability of cysteine to separate Hg from Sr in the SREX process with Sr Resin used as a stand-in for the SREX process solvent. In all cases, the use of L-cysteine HCl retained Hg in the aqueous phase while causing no or little perturbation in the actinide and Sr distribution behavior

  6. Origin and composition of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The predictions of the expected range of composition of Mercury at the time of its formation made on the basis of a suite of condensation-accretion models of Mercury spanning a range of condensation temperature and accretion sampling functions appropriate to Mercury are examined. It is concluded that these compositonal models can, if modified to take into account the nonselective loss of most of the silicate component of the planet during accretion, provide compositional predictions for the Weidenschilling (1978, 1980) mechanism for the accretion of a metal-rich Mercury. The silicate portion would, in this case, contain 3.6 to 4.5 percent alumina, roughly 1 percent of alkali oxides, and between 0.5 and 6 percent FeO

  7. Mercury migration into ground water, a literature study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.; Carden, J.L.; Kury, R.; Eichholz, G.G.

    1994-11-01

    This report presents a broad review of the technical literature dealing with mercury migration in the soil. The approach followed was to identify relevant articles by searching bibliographic data bases, obtaining the promising articles and searching these articles for any additional relevant citations. Eight catagories were used to organize the literature, with a review and summary of each paper. Catagories used were the following: chemical states of mercury under environmental conditions; diffusion of mercury vapor through soil; solubility and stability of mercury in environmental waters; transport of mercury on colloids; models for mercury migration through the environment; analytical techniques; retention of mercury by soil components; formation of organomecurials.

  8. Global Mercury Assessment 2013

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    mercury pollution. This summary report and the accompanying. Technical Background Report for the Global. Mercury Assessment 2013 are developed in response to Decision 25/5, paragraph ... The use of different pollution control technologies in different ...... vegetation, snow, freshwater, and seawater. One of the largest ...

  9. Design and Performance Measurement of the Mercury Laser Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Li; Cavanaugh, John F.; Smith, James C.; Bartels, Arlin E.

    2004-01-01

    We report the design and test results of the Mercury Laser Altimeter on MESSENGER mission to be launched in May 2004. The altimeter will provide planet surface topography measurements via laser pulse time of flight.

  10. Non-carbon sorbents for mercury removal from flue gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alptekin, G.O.; Dubovik, M.; Cesario, M. [TDA Research Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO (United States)

    2005-07-01

    TDA Research Inc. is developing a new sorbent that can effectively remove mercury from flue gases. It is made of non-carbon based materials and will therefore not alter the properties of the fly ash. The sorbent can be produced as an injectable powder. The paper summarises the initial testing results of the new sorbent. The sorbent exhibited 7.5 to 11.0 mg/g mercury absorption capacity under representative flue gas streams depending on the operating temperature and gas hourly space velocity. The sorbent also showed resistance to sulfur poisoning by sulfur dioxide. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Mercury removal from solid mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.D.; Morrissey, M.; Chava, K.K.; Chao, K.

    1994-01-01

    The removal of mercury from mixed wastes is an essential step in eliminating the temporary storage of large inventories of mixed waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Currently thermal treatment has been identified as a baseline technology and is being developed as part of the DOE Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Since thermal treatment will not be applicable to all mercury containing mixed waste and the removal of mercury prior to thermal treatment may be desirable, laboratory studies have been initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop alternative remediation technologies capable of removing mercury from certain mixed waste. This paper describes laboratory investigations of the KI/I 2 leaching processes to determine the applicability of this process to mercury containing solid mixed waste

  12. Targeting Histone Abnormality in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    κB pathway in triple negative breast cancer . 8th International Nitric Oxide Conference & 6th International Nitrite/ Nitrate Conference, Cleveland, OH...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0237 TITLE: Targeting Histone Abnormality in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yi...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Histone Abnormality in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0237 5c

  13. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of

  14. Origin of oxidized mercury in the summertime free troposphere over the southeastern US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We collected mercury observations as part of the Nitrogen, Oxidants, Mercury, and Aerosol Distributions, Sources, and Sinks (NOMADSS aircraft campaign over the southeastern US between 1 June and 15 July 2013. We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to interpret these observations and place new constraints on bromine radical initiated mercury oxidation chemistry in the free troposphere. We find that the model reproduces the observed mean concentration of total atmospheric mercury (THg (observations: 1.49 ± 0.16 ng m−3, model: 1.51 ± 0.08 ng m−3, as well as the vertical profile of THg. The majority (65 % of observations of oxidized mercury (Hg(II were below the instrument's detection limit (detection limit per flight: 58–228 pg m−3, consistent with model-calculated Hg(II concentrations of 0–196 pg m−3. However, for observations above the detection limit we find that modeled Hg(II concentrations are a factor of 3 too low (observations: 212 ± 112 pg m−3, model: 67 ± 44 pg m−3. The highest Hg(II concentrations, 300–680 pg m−3, were observed in dry (RH  <  35 % and clean air masses during two flights over Texas at 5–7 km altitude and off the North Carolina coast at 1–3 km. The GEOS-Chem model, back trajectories and observed chemical tracers for these air masses indicate subsidence and transport from the upper and middle troposphere of the subtropical anticyclones, where fast oxidation of elemental mercury (Hg(0 to Hg(II and lack of Hg(II removal lead to efficient accumulation of Hg(II. We hypothesize that the most likely explanation for the model bias is a systematic underestimate of the Hg(0 + Br reaction rate. We find that sensitivity simulations with tripled bromine radical concentrations or a faster oxidation rate constant for Hg(0 + Br, result in 1.5–2 times higher modeled Hg(II concentrations and improved agreement with the observations. The modeled

  15. EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Withum; S.C. Tseng; J.E. Locke

    2005-11-01

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dryer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the seventh in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on a 1,300 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing three percent sulfur. The unit was equipped with an ESP and a limestone-based wet FGD to control particulate and SO2 emissions, respectively. At the time of sampling an SCR was not installed on this unit. Four sampling tests were performed in September 2003. Flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process stream samples for a mercury balance were collected to coincide with the flue gas measurements. The results show that the FGD inlet flue gas oxidized:elemental mercury ratio was roughly 2:1, with 66% oxidized mercury and 34% elemental mercury. Mercury removal, on a coal

  16. The geography of mercury and PCBs in North Carolina’s local seafood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitag, Amy; Sohn, Nari; Hooper, Mark; Rittschof, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Mercury and PCBs are used by non-governmental organizations and federal agencies to inform seafood safety recommendations. Pollution dynamics suggest recommendations on the national scale may be too large to be accurate. We tested softshell and hardshell blue crab, white and pink shrimp, oysters, clams, spot, and mullet from fishers in each of the three North Carolina fishery districts. We measured mercury using EPA method 7473 and PCBs using a commercially available ELISA kit. Over 97% of samples were below the Environmental Protection Agency levels of concern for both mercury and PCBs. Mercury and PCBs have different spatial dynamics, but both differ significantly by water body, suggesting that seafood safety recommendations should occur by water body instead of at the national scale. This finding supports previous research suggesting that differences in water chemistry, terrestrial influence, and flushing time in a particular water body control the contaminant load in locally resident species.

  17. Perturbative triples correction for local pair natural orbital based explicitly correlated CCSD(F12*) using Laplace transformation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Gunnar; Hättig, Christof

    2016-12-21

    We present an implementation of pair natural orbital coupled cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples, PNO-CCSD(T), which avoids the quasi-canonical triples approximation (T0) where couplings due to off-diagonal Fock matrix elements are neglected. A numerical Laplace transformation of the canonical expression for the perturbative (T) triples correction is used to avoid an I/O and storage bottleneck for the triples amplitudes. Results for a test set of reaction energies show that only very few Laplace grid points are needed to obtain converged energy differences and that PNO-CCSD(T) is a more robust approximation than PNO-CCSD(T0) with a reduced mean absolute deviation from canonical CCSD(T) results. We combine the PNO-based (T) triples correction with the explicitly correlated PNO-CCSD(F12*) method and investigate the use of specialized F12-PNOs in the conventional triples correction. We find that no significant additional errors are introduced and that PNO-CCSD(F12*)(T) can be applied in a black box manner.

  18. Technical report: mercury in the environment: implications for pediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, L R; Shannon, M W

    2001-07-01

    Mercury is a ubiquitous environmental toxin that causes a wide range of adverse health effects in humans. Three forms of mercury (elemental, inorganic, and organic) exist, and each has its own profile of toxicity. Exposure to mercury typically occurs by inhalation or ingestion. Readily absorbed after its inhalation, mercury can be an indoor air pollutant, for example, after spills of elemental mercury in the home; however, industry emissions with resulting ambient air pollution remain the most important source of inhaled mercury. Because fresh-water and ocean fish may contain large amounts of mercury, children and pregnant women can have significant exposure if they consume excessive amounts of fish. The developing fetus and young children are thought to be disproportionately affected by mercury exposure, because many aspects of development, particularly brain maturation, can be disturbed by the presence of mercury. Minimizing mercury exposure is, therefore, essential to optimal child health. This review provides pediatricians with current information on mercury, including environmental sources, toxicity, and treatment and prevention of mercury exposure.

  19. Testing and modeling the influence of reclamation and control methods for reducing nonpoint mercury emissions associated with industrial open pit gold mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthieu B; Gustin, Mae S

    2013-06-01

    Industrial gold mining is a significant source of mercury (Hg) emission to the atmosphere. To investigate ways to reduce these emissions, reclamation and dust and mercury control methods used at open pit gold mining operations in Nevada were studied in a laboratory setting. Using this information along with field data, and building off previous work, total annual Hg emissions were estimated for two active gold mines in northern Nevada. Results showed that capping mining waste materials with a low-Hg substrate can reduce Hg emissions from 50 to nearly 100%. The spraying of typical dust control solutions often results in higher Hg emissions, especially as materials dry after application. The concentrated application of a dithiocarbamate Hg control reagent appears to reduce Hg emissions, but further testing mimicking the actual distribution of this chemical within an active leach solution is needed to make a more definitive assessment.

  20. Action of mercury as a soil fungicide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booer, J R

    1951-01-01

    Metallic mercury and mercury compounds in the soil retard the growth of plants. The development of mosses and lichens is inhibited, and experimental evidence shows that the growth of toadstools on turf and the activity of ascomycetes is retarded by mercury. In vitro, mercury has no fungicidal action but the rate of growth of hyphae is reduced by mercury vapour. The lack of fungicial properties of mercury and its good performance in controlling certain soil-borne diseases are reconciled by assuming that a differential retardation disturbs the relationships necessary for infection. This assumption is supported by diagrams which treat the rates of growth of the parasite and the host as population characteristics normally distributed. 21 references, 10 figures, 5 tables.

  1. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Ah Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS 2012–2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM I value (5 μg/L among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p < 0.001. The odds ratios for blood mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.79–5.95 and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77–5.79 times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure.

  2. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Ah; Kwon, YoungMin; Kim, Suejin; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-01-01

    From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012–2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM) I value (5 μg/L) among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.79–5.95) and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77–5.79) times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure. PMID:27598185

  3. Human Exposure and Health Effects of Inorganic and Elemental Mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jung-Duck; Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic and non-essential metal in the human body. Mercury is ubiquitously distributed in the environment, present in natural products, and exists extensively in items encountered in daily life. There are three forms of mercury, i.e., elemental (or metallic) mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury compounds. This review examines the toxicity of elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds. Inorganic mercury compounds are water soluble with a bioavailability o...

  4. Human Exposure and Health Effects of Inorganic and Elemental Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic and non-essential metal in the human body. Mercury is ubiquitously distributed in the environment, present in natural products, and exists extensively in items encountered in daily life. There are three forms of mercury, i.e., elemental (or metallic) mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury compounds. This review examines the toxicity of elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds. Inorganic mercury compounds are water soluble with a bioavailability of 7% to 15% after ingestion; they are also irritants and cause gastrointestinal symptoms. Upon entering the body, inorganic mercury compounds are accumulated mainly in the kidneys and produce kidney damage. In contrast, human exposure to elemental mercury is mainly by inhalation, followed by rapid absorption and distribution in all major organs. Elemental mercury from ingestion is poorly absorbed with a bioavailability of less than 0.01%. The primary target organs of elemental mercury are the brain and kidney. Elemental mercury is lipid soluble and can cross the blood-brain barrier, while inorganic mercury compounds are not lipid soluble, rendering them unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. Elemental mercury may also enter the brain from the nasal cavity through the olfactory pathway. The blood mercury is a useful biomarke