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Sample records for mercury tanks interim

  1. Postconstruction report for the mercury tanks interim action at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voskuil, T.L.

    1993-09-01

    Three underground concrete settling tanks (tanks 2101-U, 2104-U, and 2100-U) at the Y-12 Plant on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, contained contaminated sludges contributing mercury to the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC). These tanks were cleaned out as an interim action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act as part of the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluent subproject. Cleaning out these tanks prevented the sludge that had settled in the bottom from resuspending and carrying mercury into UEFPC. Tanks 2104-U and 2100-U were returned to service and will continue to receive effluent from buildings 9201-4 and 9201-5. Tank 2101-U had been abandoned and its effluent redirected to Tank 2100-U during previous activities. This interim action permanently sealed Tank 2101-U from the storm sewer system. Upon removal of materials and completion of cleanup, inspections determined that the project's cleanup criteria had been met. The structural integrity of the tanks was also inspected, and minor cracks identified in tanks 2101-U and 2104-U were repaired. This project is considered to have been completed successfully because it met its performance objectives as addressed in the Interim Record of Decision and the work plan: to remove the waste from the three storage tanks; to ensure that the tanks were cleaned to the levels specified; to return tanks 2100-U and 2104-U to service; to isolate Tank 2101-U permanently; and to manage the wastes in an appropriate fashion

  2. Postconstruction report for the mercury tanks interim action at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voskuil, T.L.

    1993-09-01

    Three underground concrete settling tanks (tanks 2101-U, 2104-U, and 2100-U) at the Y-12 Plant on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, contained contaminated sludges contributing mercury to the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC). These tanks were cleaned out as an interim action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act as part of the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluent subproject. Cleaning out these tanks prevented the sludge that had settled in the bottom from resuspending and carrying mercury into UEFPC. Tanks 2104-U and 2100-U were returned to service and will continue to receive effluent from buildings 9201-4 and 9201-5. Tank 2101-U had been abandoned and its effluent redirected to Tank 2100-U during previous activities. This interim action permanently sealed Tank 2101-U from the storm sewer system. Upon removal of materials and completion of cleanup, inspections determined that the project`s cleanup criteria had been met. The structural integrity of the tanks was also inspected, and minor cracks identified in tanks 2101-U and 2104-U were repaired. This project is considered to have been completed successfully because it met its performance objectives as addressed in the Interim Record of Decision and the work plan: to remove the waste from the three storage tanks; to ensure that the tanks were cleaned to the levels specified; to return tanks 2100-U and 2104-U to service; to isolate Tank 2101-U permanently; and to manage the wastes in an appropriate fashion.

  3. Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Materials And Runoff Alternatives Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    This report identifies candidate materials and concepts for interim surface barriers in the single-shell tank farms. An analysis of these materials for application to the TY tank farm is also provided.

  4. Single-shell tank interim stabilization project plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, W.E.

    1998-03-27

    Solid and liquid radioactive waste continues to be stored in 149 single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. To date, 119 tanks have had most of the pumpable liquid removed by interim stabilization. Thirty tanks remain to be stabilized. One of these tanks (C-106) will be stabilized by retrieval of the tank contents. The remaining 29 tanks will be interim stabilized by saltwell pumping. In the summer of 1997, the US Department of Energy (DOE) placed a moratorium on the startup of additional saltwell pumping systems because of funding constraints and proposed modifications to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestones to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). In a letter dated February 10, 1998, Final Determination Pursuant to Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in the Matter of the Disapproval of the DOE`s Change Control Form M-41-97-01 (Fitzsimmons 1998), Ecology disapproved the DOE Change Control Form M-41-97-01. In response, Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) directed Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LNMC) to initiate development of a project plan in a letter dated February 25, 1998, Direction for Development of an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan in Support of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In a letter dated March 2, 1998, Request for an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan, the DOE reaffirmed the need for an aggressive SST interim stabilization completion project plan to support a finalized Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-41 recovery plan. This project plan establishes the management framework for conduct of the TWRS Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organizational structure, roles, responsibilities

  5. Single-shell tank interim stabilization project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    Solid and liquid radioactive waste continues to be stored in 149 single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. To date, 119 tanks have had most of the pumpable liquid removed by interim stabilization. Thirty tanks remain to be stabilized. One of these tanks (C-106) will be stabilized by retrieval of the tank contents. The remaining 29 tanks will be interim stabilized by saltwell pumping. In the summer of 1997, the US Department of Energy (DOE) placed a moratorium on the startup of additional saltwell pumping systems because of funding constraints and proposed modifications to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestones to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). In a letter dated February 10, 1998, Final Determination Pursuant to Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in the Matter of the Disapproval of the DOE's Change Control Form M-41-97-01 (Fitzsimmons 1998), Ecology disapproved the DOE Change Control Form M-41-97-01. In response, Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) directed Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LNMC) to initiate development of a project plan in a letter dated February 25, 1998, Direction for Development of an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan in Support of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In a letter dated March 2, 1998, Request for an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan, the DOE reaffirmed the need for an aggressive SST interim stabilization completion project plan to support a finalized Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-41 recovery plan. This project plan establishes the management framework for conduct of the TWRS Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organizational structure, roles, responsibilities

  6. Single-shell tank interim stabilization risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basche, A.D.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Risk Analysis is to provide a cost and schedule risk analysis of HNF-2358, Rev. 1, Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization Project Plan (Project Plan) (Ross et al. 1998). The analysis compares the required cost profile by fiscal year (Section 4.2) and revised schedule completion date (Section 4.5) to the Project Plan. The analysis also evaluates the executability of the Project Plan and recommends a path forward for risk mitigation

  7. Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VLADIMIROFF, D.T.; BOYLES, V.C.

    2000-01-01

    This project plan establishes the management framework for the conduct of the CHG Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organization structure, roles, responsibilities, and interfaces; and operational methods. This plan serves as the project executional baseline

  8. Single-shell tank interim stabilization project plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, W.E.

    1998-05-11

    This project plan establishes the management framework for conduct of the TWRS Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organizational structure, roles, responsibilities, and interfaces; and operational methods. This plan serves as the project executional baseline.

  9. Hanford low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, F.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Interim Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the disposal of the low-level fraction of the Hanford single and double-shell tank waste in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This report was prepared as a good management practice to provide needed information about the relationship between the disposal system design and performance early in the disposal system project cycle. The calculations in this performance assessment show that the disposal of the low-level fraction can meet environmental and health performance objectives

  10. Stabilization of in-tank residuals and external-tank soil contamination: FY 1997 interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    This interim report evaluates various ways to stabilize decommissioned waste tanks and contaminated soils at the AX Tank Farm as part of a preliminary evaluation of end-state options for the Hanford tanks. Five technical areas were considered: (1) emplacement of smart grouts and/or other materials, (2) injection of chemical-getters into contaminated soils surrounding tanks (soil mixing), (3) emplacement of grout barriers under and around the tanks, (4) the use of engineered barriers over the tanks, and (5) the explicit recognition that natural attenuation processes do occur. Research topics are identified in support of key areas of technical uncertainty, in each of the five technical areas. Detailed cost/benefit analyses of the recommended technologies are not provided in this evaluation, performed by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

  11. Sample results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 9 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 9 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H.

  12. 1998 interim 242-A Evaporator tank system integrity assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, C.E.

    1998-07-02

    This Integrity Assessment Report (IAR) is prepared by Fluor Daniel Northwest (FDNW) under contract to Lockheed-Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) for Waste Management Hanford (WMH), the 242-A Evaporator (facility) operations contractor for Fluor Daniel Hanford, and the US Department of Energy, the system owner. The contract specifies that FDNW perform an interim (5 year) integrity assessment of the facility and prepare a written IAR in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-640. The WAC 173-303 defines a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility tank system as the ``dangerous waste storage or treatment tank and its ancillary equipment and containment.`` This integrity assessment evaluates the two tank systems at the facility: the evaporator vessel, C-A-1 (also called the vapor-liquid separator), and the condensate collection tank, TK-C-100. This IAR evaluates the 242-A facility tank systems up to, but not including, the last valve or flanged connection inside the facility perimeter. The initial integrity assessment performed on the facility evaluated certain subsystems not directly in contact with dangerous waste, such as the steam condensate and used raw water subsystems, to provide technical information. These subsystems were not evaluated in this IAR. The last major upgrade to the facility was project B-534. The facility modifications, as a result of project B-534, were evaluated in the 1993 facility interim integrity assessment. Since that time, the following upgrades have occurred in the facility: installation of a process condensate recycle system, and installation of a package steam boiler to provide steam for the facility. The package boiler is not within the scope of the facility TSD.

  13. 1998 interim 242-A Evaporator tank system integrity assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, C.E.

    1998-01-01

    This Integrity Assessment Report (IAR) is prepared by Fluor Daniel Northwest (FDNW) under contract to Lockheed-Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) for Waste Management Hanford (WMH), the 242-A Evaporator (facility) operations contractor for Fluor Daniel Hanford, and the US Department of Energy, the system owner. The contract specifies that FDNW perform an interim (5 year) integrity assessment of the facility and prepare a written IAR in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-640. The WAC 173-303 defines a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility tank system as the ''dangerous waste storage or treatment tank and its ancillary equipment and containment.'' This integrity assessment evaluates the two tank systems at the facility: the evaporator vessel, C-A-1 (also called the vapor-liquid separator), and the condensate collection tank, TK-C-100. This IAR evaluates the 242-A facility tank systems up to, but not including, the last valve or flanged connection inside the facility perimeter. The initial integrity assessment performed on the facility evaluated certain subsystems not directly in contact with dangerous waste, such as the steam condensate and used raw water subsystems, to provide technical information. These subsystems were not evaluated in this IAR. The last major upgrade to the facility was project B-534. The facility modifications, as a result of project B-534, were evaluated in the 1993 facility interim integrity assessment. Since that time, the following upgrades have occurred in the facility: installation of a process condensate recycle system, and installation of a package steam boiler to provide steam for the facility. The package boiler is not within the scope of the facility TSD

  14. T Tank Farm Interim Cover Test - Design Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Keller, Jason M.

    2006-01-01

    The Hanford Site has 149 underground single-shell tanks that store hazardous radioactive waste. Many of these tanks and their associated infrastructure (e.g., pipelines, diversion boxes) have leaked. Some of the leaked waste has entered the groundwater. The largest known leak occurred from the T-106 Tank in 1973. Many of the contaminants from that leak still reside within the vadose zone beneath the T Tank Farm. CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. seeks to minimize movement of this residual contaminant plume by placing an interim cover on the surface. Such a cover is expected to prevent infiltrating water from reaching the plume and moving it further. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has prepared a design plan to monitor and determine the effectiveness of the interim cover. A three-dimensional numerical simulation of water movement beneath a cover was conducted to guide the design of the plan. Soil water content, water pressure, and temperature will be monitored using off-the-shelf equipment that can be installed by the hydraulic hammer technique. In fiscal year 2006, two instrument nests will be installed, one inside and one outside of the proposed cover. In fiscal year 2007, two additional instrument nests, both inside the proposed cover, will be installed. Each instrument nest contains a neutron access tube and a capacitance probe (to measure water content), and four heat-dissipation units (to measure pressure head and temperature). A datalogger and a meteorological station will be installed outside of the fence. Two drain gauges will be installed in locations inside and outside the cover for the purpose of measuring soil water flux.

  15. Safety evaluation of interim stabilization of non-stabilized single-shell watch list tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, S.M.

    1994-12-30

    The report provides a summation of the status of safety issues associated with interim stabilization of Watch List SSTs (organic, ferrocyanide, and flammable gas), as extracted from recent safety analyses, including the Tank Farms Accelerated Safety Analysis efforts.

  16. Safety evaluation of interim stabilization of non-stabilized single-shell watch list tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    The report provides a summation of the status of safety issues associated with interim stabilization of Watch List SSTs (organic, ferrocyanide, and flammable gas), as extracted from recent safety analyses, including the Tank Farms Accelerated Safety Analysis efforts

  17. Safety evaluation for the interim stabilization of Tank 241-C-103

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geschke, G.R.

    1995-03-01

    This document provides the basis for interim stabilization of tank 241-C-103. The document covers the removal of the organic liquid layer and the aqueous supernatant from tank 241-C-103. Hazards are identified, consequences are calculated and controls to mitigate or prevent potential accidents are developed.

  18. Safety evaluation for the interim stabilization of Tank 241-C-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geschke, G.R.

    1995-03-01

    This document provides the basis for interim stabilization of tank 241-C-103. The document covers the removal of the organic liquid layer and the aqueous supernatant from tank 241-C-103. Hazards are identified, consequences are calculated and controls to mitigate or prevent potential accidents are developed

  19. Results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 11 Tank 21H Acceptance Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-13

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of verification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 11 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) for processing. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H and fulfills the requirements of Deliverable 3 of the Technical Task Request (TTR).

  20. Safety evaluation of interim stabilization of non-stabilized single-shell watch list tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides results of a review of recently completed safety analyses related to hazards associated with Interim Stabilization of Single analyses related to hazards included oh the Hanford Site Waste Tank-Watch Shell Tanks (SSTs) that are included on the Hanford List. The purpose of the review was to identify and summarize conclusions regarding the safety of interim stabilization of Watch List SSTs, and to highlight applicable limitations, restrictions, and controls. The scope of this review was restricted to SSTs identified List in the categories of flammable gas ferrocyanide, and organic salts. High heat tanks were not included in the scope. A Watch List tank is defined as an underground storage tank containing waste that requires special safety precautions because it may have a serious potential for release of high level radioactive waste because of uncontrolled increases in temperature or pressure. Special restrictions have been placed on these tanks

  1. Interim criteria for Organic Watch List tanks at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babad, S.; Turner, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    This document establishes interim criteria for identifying single-shell radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site that contain organic chemicals mixed with nitrate/nitrite salts in potentially hazardous concentrations. These tanks are designated as ''organic Watch List tanks.'' Watch List tanks are radioactive waste storage tanks that have the potential for release of high-level waste as a result of uncontrolled increases in temperature or pressure. Organic Watch List tanks are those Watch List tanks that contain relatively high concentrations of organic chemicals. Because of the potential for release of high-level waste resulting from uncontrolled increases in temperature or pressure, the organic Watch List tanks (collectively) constitute a Hanford Site radioactive waste storage tank ''safety issue.''

  2. Flammable gas deflagration consequence calculations for the tank waste remediation system basis for interim operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Vleet, R.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-13

    This paper calculates the radiological dose consequences and the toxic exposures for deflagration accidents at various Tank Waste Remediation System facilities. These will be used in support of the Tank Waste Remediation System Basis for Interim Operation.The attached SD documents the originator`s analysis only. It shall not be used as the final or sole document for effecting changes to an authorization basis or safety basis for a facility or activity.

  3. Engineering report single-shell tank farms interim measures to limit infiltration through the vadose zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAASS, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    Identifies, evaluates and recommends interim measures for reducing or eliminating water sources and preferential pathways within the vadose zone of the single-shell tank farms. Features studied: surface water infiltration and leaking water lines that provide recharge moisture, and wells that could provide pathways for contaminant migration. An extensive data base, maps, recommended mitigations, and rough order of magnitude costs are included

  4. Engineering report single-shell tank farms interim measures to limit infiltration through the vadose zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAASS, C.C.

    1999-10-14

    Identifies, evaluates and recommends interim measures for reducing or eliminating water sources and preferential pathways within the vadose zone of the single-shell tank farms. Features studied: surface water infiltration and leaking water lines that provide recharge moisture, and wells that could provide pathways for contaminant migration. An extensive data base, maps, recommended mitigations, and rough order of magnitude costs are included.

  5. Hanford Tank Farm interim storage phase probabilistic risk assessment outline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-19

    This report is the second in a series examining the risks for the high level waste (HLW) storage facilities at the Hanford Site. The first phase of the HTF PSA effort addressed risks from Tank 101-SY, only. Tank 101-SY was selected as the initial focus of the PSA because of its propensity to periodically release (burp) a mixture of flammable and toxic gases. This report expands the evaluation of Tank 101-SY to all 177 storage tanks. The 177 tanks are arranged into 18 farms and contain the HLW accumulated over 50 years of weapons material production work. A centerpiece of the remediation activity is the effort toward developing a permanent method for disposing of the HLW tank`s highly radioactive contents. One approach to risk based prioritization is to perform a PSA for the whole HLW tank farm complex to identify the highest risk tanks so that remediation planners and managers will have a more rational basis for allocating limited funds to the more critical areas. Section 3 presents the qualitative identification of generic initiators that could threaten to produce releases from one or more tanks. In section 4 a detailed accident sequence model is developed for each initiating event group. Section 5 defines the release categories to which the scenarios are assigned in the accident sequence model and presents analyses of the airborne and liquid source terms resulting from different release scenarios. The conditional consequences measured by worker or public exposure to radionuclides or hazardous chemicals and economic costs of cleanup and repair are analyzed in section 6. The results from all the previous sections are integrated to produce unconditional risk curves in frequency of exceedance format.

  6. Hanford Tank Farm interim storage phase probabilistic risk assessment outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report is the second in a series examining the risks for the high level waste (HLW) storage facilities at the Hanford Site. The first phase of the HTF PSA effort addressed risks from Tank 101-SY, only. Tank 101-SY was selected as the initial focus of the PSA because of its propensity to periodically release (burp) a mixture of flammable and toxic gases. This report expands the evaluation of Tank 101-SY to all 177 storage tanks. The 177 tanks are arranged into 18 farms and contain the HLW accumulated over 50 years of weapons material production work. A centerpiece of the remediation activity is the effort toward developing a permanent method for disposing of the HLW tank's highly radioactive contents. One approach to risk based prioritization is to perform a PSA for the whole HLW tank farm complex to identify the highest risk tanks so that remediation planners and managers will have a more rational basis for allocating limited funds to the more critical areas. Section 3 presents the qualitative identification of generic initiators that could threaten to produce releases from one or more tanks. In section 4 a detailed accident sequence model is developed for each initiating event group. Section 5 defines the release categories to which the scenarios are assigned in the accident sequence model and presents analyses of the airborne and liquid source terms resulting from different release scenarios. The conditional consequences measured by worker or public exposure to radionuclides or hazardous chemicals and economic costs of cleanup and repair are analyzed in section 6. The results from all the previous sections are integrated to produce unconditional risk curves in frequency of exceedance format

  7. Risk-based prioritization for the interim remediation of inactive low-level liquid radioactive waste underground storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidambariah, V.; Travis, C.C.; Trabalka, J.R.; Thomas, J.K.

    1992-09-01

    The paper presents a risk-based approach for rapid prioritization of low-level liquid radioactive waste underground storage tanks (LLLW USTs), for possible interim corrective measures and/or ultimate closure. The ranking of LLLW USTs is needed to ensure that tanks with the greatest potential for adverse impact on the environment and human health receive top priority for further evaluation and remediation. Wastes from the LLLW USTs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were pumped out when the tanks were removed from service. The residual liquids and sludge contain a mixture of radionuclides and chemicals. Contaminants of concern that were identified in the liquid phase of the inactive LLLW USTs include the radionuclides 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and 233 U and the chemicals carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethane, tetrachloroethene, methyl ethyl ketone, mercury, lead, and chromium. The risk-based approach for prioritization of the LLLW USTs is based upon three major criteria: (1) leaking characteristics of the tank, (2) location of the tanks, and (3) toxic potential of the tank contents. Leaking characteristics of LLLW USTs will aid in establishing the potential for the release of contaminants to environmental media. In this study, only the liquid phase was assumed to be released to the environment. Scoring criteria for release potential of LLLW USTs was determined after consideration of the magnitude of any known leaks and the tank type for those that are not known to leak

  8. T-TY Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration - Vadose Zone Monitoring Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Field, Jim G.; Parker, Danny L.

    2010-01-01

    The Hanford Site has 149 underground single-shell tanks that store hazardous radioactive waste. Many of these tanks and their associated infrastructure (e.g., pipelines, diversion boxes) have leaked. Some of the leaked waste has entered the groundwater. The largest known leak occurred from the T-106 Tank of the 241-T Tank Farm in 1973. Five tanks are assumed to have leaked in the TY Farm. Many of the contaminants from those leaks still reside within the vadose zone within the T and TY Tank Farms. The Department of Energy's Office of River Protection seeks to minimize the movement of these contaminant plumes by placing interim barriers on the ground surface. Such barriers are expected to prevent infiltrating water from reaching the plumes and moving them further. The soil water regime is monitored to determine the effectiveness of the interim surface barriers. Soil-water content and water pressure are monitored using off-the-shelf equipment that can be installed by the hydraulic hammer technique. Four instrument nests were installed in the T Farm in fiscal year (FY) 2006 and FY2007; two nests were installed in the TY Farm in FY2010. Each instrument nest contains a neutron probe access tube, a capacitance probe, and four heat-dissipation units. A meteorological station has been installed at the north side of the fence of the T Farm. This document summarizes the monitoring methods, the instrument calibration and installation, and the vadose zone monitoring plan for interim barriers in T farm and TY Farm.

  9. Safe interim storage of Hanford tank wastes, draft environmental impact statement, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This Draft EIS is prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Washington State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA). DOE and Ecology have identified the need to resolve near-term tank safety issues associated with Watchlist tanks as identified pursuant to Public Law (P.L.) 101-510, Section 3137, ''Safety Measures for Waste Tanks at Hanford Nuclear Reservation,'' of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991, while continuing to provide safe storage for other Hanford wastes. This would be an interim action pending other actions that could be taken to convert waste to a more stable form based on decisions resulting from the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) EIS. The purpose for this action is to resolve safety issues concerning the generation of unacceptable levels of hydrogen in two Watchlist tanks, 101-SY and 103-SY. Retrieving waste in dilute form from Tanks 101-SY and 103-SY, hydrogen-generating Watchlist double shell tanks (DSTs) in the 200 West Area, and storage in new tanks is the preferred alternative for resolution of the hydrogen safety issues

  10. Safe interim storage of Hanford tank wastes, draft environmental impact statement, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This Draft EIS is prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Washington State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA). DOE and Ecology have identified the need to resolve near-term tank safety issues associated with Watchlist tanks as identified pursuant to Public Law (P.L.) 101-510, Section 3137, ``Safety Measures for Waste Tanks at Hanford Nuclear Reservation,`` of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991, while continuing to provide safe storage for other Hanford wastes. This would be an interim action pending other actions that could be taken to convert waste to a more stable form based on decisions resulting from the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) EIS. The purpose for this action is to resolve safety issues concerning the generation of unacceptable levels of hydrogen in two Watchlist tanks, 101-SY and 103-SY. Retrieving waste in dilute form from Tanks 101-SY and 103-SY, hydrogen-generating Watchlist double shell tanks (DSTs) in the 200 West Area, and storage in new tanks is the preferred alternative for resolution of the hydrogen safety issues.

  11. T Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration--Vadose Zone Monitoring Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Keller, Jason M.; Strickland, Christopher E.

    2007-01-01

    The Hanford Site has 149 underground single-shell tanks that store hazardous radioactive waste. Many of these tanks and their associated infrastructure (e.g., pipelines, diversion boxes) have leaked. Some of the leaked waste has entered the groundwater. The largest known leak occurred from the T-106 Tank in 1973. Many of the contaminants from that leak still reside within the vadose zone beneath the T Tank Farm. CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. seeks to minimize movement of this residual contaminant plume by placing an interim barrier on the surface. Such a barrier is expected to prevent infiltrating water from reaching the plume and moving it further. A plan has been prepared to monitor and determine the effectiveness of the interim surface barrier. Soil water content and water pressure will be monitored using off-the-shelf equipment that can be installed by the hydraulic hammer technique. In fiscal year 2006, two instrument nests were installed. Each instrument nest contains a neutron probe access tube, a capacitance probe, four heat-dissipation units, and a drain gauge to measure soil water flux. A meteorological station has been installed outside of the fence. In fiscal year 2007, two additional instrument nests are planned to be installed beneath the proposed barrier.

  12. 2006 Annual Operations Report for INTEC Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. E. Shanklin

    2007-01-01

    This annual operations report describes the requirements followed and activities conducted to inspect, monitor, and maintain the items installed during performance of the Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action, at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This report covers the time period from January 1 through December 31, 2006, and describes inspection and monitoring activities for the surface-sealed areas within the tank farm, concrete-lined ditches and culverts in and around the tank farm, the lift station, and the lined evaporation pond. These activities are intended to assure that the interim action is functioning adequately to meet the objectives stated in the Operable Unit 3-13, Record of Decision for the Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action (DOE/ID-10660) as described in the Group 1 Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan (DOE/ID-10772)

  13. 2005 Annual Operations Report for INTEC Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Shanklin

    2006-01-01

    This annual operations report describes the requirements followed and activities conducted to inspect, monitor, and maintain the items installed during performance of the Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action, at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This report describes inspection and monitoring activities for the surface-sealed areas within the tank farm, concrete-lined ditches and culverts in and around the tank farm, the lift station, and the lined evaporation pond. These activities are intended to assure that the interim action is functioning adequately to meet the objectives stated in the Operable Unit 3-13, Record of Decision for the Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action, (DOE/ID-10660) and as amended by the agreement to resolve dispute, which was effective in February 2003

  14. 1998 242-A interim evaporator tank system integrity assessment plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, C.E.

    1998-03-31

    Portions of the 242-A Evaporator on the Hanford Site must be assessed to meet the requirements of the Washington State Department of Ecology`s Dangerous Waste Regulation, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303. The assessment is limited to the provisions of Section 173-303-640. This Integrity Assessment Plan (IAP) identifies tasks which will be performed during the assessment phase and describes the intended assessment techniques. The 242-A Evaporator facility processes waste solutions from most of the operating laboratories and plants of the Hanford Site. The waste solutions are concentrated in the evaporator to a slurry of liquid and crystallized salts. This concentrated slurry is returned to the Tank Farms at a significantly reduce volume. The water vapor from the evaporation process is condensed, filtered, and can be pumped through an ion exchange bed before transfer to a retention basin. The non-condensable portion of the vapor is filtered and continuously monitored before venting to the atmosphere. The 242-A Evaporator will be assessed as seven subsystems. Four of the subsystems store, transport or treat Washington State Dangerous wastes, the other three subsystems are integral parts of the process, however, they do not directly store, transfer, or treat listed dangerous wastes. The facility will be inspected, tested, and analyzed through this assessment. The seven subsystems, defined in detail in Appendix B, are: Evaporator Process and Slurry Subsystem; Vapor Condenser Subsystem; Vessel Vent Subsystem; Process Condensate Subsystem; Steam Condensate Subsystem; Raw Water Disposal Subsystem; and Building and Secondary Containment Subsystem.

  15. 1998 242-A interim evaporator tank system integrity assessment plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, C.E.

    1998-01-01

    Portions of the 242-A Evaporator on the Hanford Site must be assessed to meet the requirements of the Washington State Department of Ecology's Dangerous Waste Regulation, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303. The assessment is limited to the provisions of Section 173-303-640. This Integrity Assessment Plan (IAP) identifies tasks which will be performed during the assessment phase and describes the intended assessment techniques. The 242-A Evaporator facility processes waste solutions from most of the operating laboratories and plants of the Hanford Site. The waste solutions are concentrated in the evaporator to a slurry of liquid and crystallized salts. This concentrated slurry is returned to the Tank Farms at a significantly reduce volume. The water vapor from the evaporation process is condensed, filtered, and can be pumped through an ion exchange bed before transfer to a retention basin. The non-condensable portion of the vapor is filtered and continuously monitored before venting to the atmosphere. The 242-A Evaporator will be assessed as seven subsystems. Four of the subsystems store, transport or treat Washington State Dangerous wastes, the other three subsystems are integral parts of the process, however, they do not directly store, transfer, or treat listed dangerous wastes. The facility will be inspected, tested, and analyzed through this assessment. The seven subsystems, defined in detail in Appendix B, are: Evaporator Process and Slurry Subsystem; Vapor Condenser Subsystem; Vessel Vent Subsystem; Process Condensate Subsystem; Steam Condensate Subsystem; Raw Water Disposal Subsystem; and Building and Secondary Containment Subsystem

  16. Mercury Dispersion Modeling And Purge Ventilation Stack Height Determination For Tank 40H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Giboyeaux, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-05-19

    The SRNL Atmospheric Technologies Group performed an analysis for mercury emissions from H-Tank Farm - Tank 40 ventilation system exhaust in order to assess whether the Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL), or Threshold Limit Value (TLV) levels for mercury will be exceeded during bulk sludge slurry mixing and sludge removal operations. The American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) was used as the main dispersion modelling tool for this analysis. The results indicated that a 45-foot stack is sufficient to raise the plume centerline from the Tank 40 release to prevent mercury exposure problems for any of the stack discharge scenarios provided. However, a 42-foot stack at Tank 40 is sufficient to prevent mercury exposure concerns in all emission scenarios except the 50 mg/m3 release. At a 42-foot stack height, values exceeding the exposure standards are only measured on receptors located above 34 feet.

  17. Unit cell modeling in support of interim performance assessment for low level tank waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, N.W.

    1996-01-01

    A unit cell model is used to simulate the base analysis case and related sensitivity cases for the interim performance assessment of low level tank waste disposal. Simulation case results are summarized in terms of fractional contaminant release rates to the vadose zone and to the water table at the unconfined aquifer. Results suggest that the crushed glass water conditioning layer at the top of the facility and the chemical retardation pad at the bottom of the facility can be important components of the facility. Results also suggest that the release rates to the water table are dominated by the release rate from the waste form

  18. Assuring safe interim storage of Hanford high-level tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacon, R.F.; Babad, H.; Lerch, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    The federal government established the Hanford Site in South-Eastern Washington near the City of Richland in 1943 to produce plutonium for national defense purposes. The Hanford Site occupies approximately 1,450 square kilometers (560 square miles) of land North of the City of Richland. The production mission ended in 1988, transforming the Hanford Site mission to waste management, environmental restoration, and waste disposal. Thus the primary site mission has shifted from production to the management and disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste that exist at the Hanford Site. This paper describes the focus and challenges facing the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program related to the dual and parallel missions of interim safe storage and disposal of the tank associated waste. These wastes are presently stored in 2.08E+05 liters (55,000) to 4.16E+06 liters (1,100,000) gallon low-carbon steel tanks. There are 149 single- and 28 double-shell radioactive underground storage tanks, as well as approximately 40 inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks. In addition, the TWRS mission includes the storage and disposal of the inventory of 1,929 cesium and strontium capsules created as part of waste management efforts. Tank waste was a by-product of producing plutonium and other defense related materials. From 1944 through 1990, four (4) different major chemical processing facilities at the Hanford Site processed irradiated (spent) fuel from defense reactors to separate and recover plutonium for weapons production. As new and improved processes were developed over the last 50 years, the processing efficiency improved and the waste compositions sent to the tanks for storage changed both chemically and radiologically. The earliest separation processes (e.g., bismuth phosphate coprecipitation) carried out in T Plant (1944-1956) and B Plant (1945-1952) recovered only plutonium

  19. Results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 10 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-02-23

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 10 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H and fulfills the requirements of Deliverable 3 of the Technical Task Request (TTR). Further work will report the results of the Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) testing (Task 5 of the TTR) using the Tank 21H material. Task 4 of the TTR (MST Strike) will not be completed for Salt Batch 10.

  20. Sample Results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 8 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, A. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 8 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). An Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and several Extraction-Scrub- Strip (ESS) tests were also performed. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H as well as simulated performance of ARP and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). No issues with the projected Salt Batch 8 strategy are identified. A demonstration of the monosodium titanate (MST) (0.2 g/L) removal of strontium and actinides provided acceptable average decontamination factors for plutonium of 2.62 (4 hour) and 2.90 (8 hour); and average strontium decontamination factors of 21.7 (4 hour) and 21.3 (8 hour). These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ARP tests. The two ESS tests also showed acceptable performance with extraction distribution ratios (D(Cs)) values of 52.5 and 50.4 for the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) blend (from MCU) and NGS (lab prepared), respectively. These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests. Even though the performance is acceptable, SRNL recommends that a model for predicting extraction behavior for cesium removal for the blended solvent and NGS be developed in order to improve our predictive capabilities for the ESS tests.

  1. Sample results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 8 Tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, A. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-13

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 8 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). An Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and several Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests were also performed. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H as well as simulated performance of ARP and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). No issues with the projected Salt Batch 8 strategy are identified. A demonstration of the monosodium titanate (MST) (0.2 g/L) removal of strontium and actinides provided acceptable average decontamination factors for plutonium of 2.62 (4 hour) and 2.90 (8 hour); and average strontium decontamination factors of 21.7 (4 hour) and 21.3 (8 hour). These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ARP tests. The two ESS tests also showed acceptable performance with extraction distribution ratios (D(Cs)) values of 52.5 and 50.4 for the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) blend (from MCU) and NGS (lab prepared), respectively. These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests. Even though the performance is acceptable, SRNL recommends that a model for predicting extraction behavior for cesium removal for the blended solvent and NGS be developed in order to improve our predictive capabilities for the ESS tests.

  2. Sample Results From The Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 7 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B.; Washington, A. L. II

    2013-08-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 7 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). An ARP and several ESS tests were also performed. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H as well as simulated performance of ARP/MCU. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 7 strategy are identified, other than the presence of visible quantities of dark colored solids. A demonstration of the monosodium titanate (0.2 g/L) removal of strontium and actinides provided acceptable 4 hour average decontamination factors for Pu and Sr of 3.22 and 18.4, respectively. The Four ESS tests also showed acceptable behavior with distribution ratios (D(Cs)) values of 15.96, 57.1, 58.6, and 65.6 for the MCU, cold blend, hot blend, and Next Generation Solvent (NGS), respectively. The predicted value for the MCU solvent was 13.2. Currently, there are no models that would allow a prediction of extraction behavior for the other three solvents. SRNL recommends that a model for predicting extraction behavior for cesium removal for the blended solvent and NGS be developed. While no outstanding issues were noted, the presence of solids in the samples should be investigated in future work. It is possible that the solids may represent a potential reservoir of material (such as potassium) that could have an impact on MCU performance if they were to dissolve back into the feed solution. This salt batch is intended to be the first batch to be processed through MCU entirely using the new NGS-MCU solvent.

  3. T Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration -- Vadose Zone Monitoring FY07 Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Keller, Jason M.; Wittreich, Curtis D.; Sydnor, Harold A.

    2008-01-01

    CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. is currently in the process of constructing a temporary surface barrier over a portion of the T Tank Farm as part of the T farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration Project. The surface barrier is designed to prevent the infiltration of precipitation into the contaminated soil zone created by the Tank T-106 leak and minimize movement of the contamination. As part of the demonstration effort, vadose zone moisture monitoring is being performed to assess the effectiveness of the barrier at reducing soil moisture. A solar-powered and remotely-controlled system was installed to continuously monitor soil water conditions in four instrument nests (i.e., A, B, C, and D) and the site meteorological condition. Each instrument nest was composed of a capacitance probe with multiple sensors, multiple heat-dissipation units, a neutron probe access tube and a datalogger. Nests A and B also contained a drain gauge each. The principle variables monitored for this purpose are soil-water content, soil-water pressure, and soil-water flux. In addition to these, soil temperature, precipitation, and air temperature are measured. Data from each of the dataloggers were transmitted remotely to the receiving computer. The neutron probe access tube was used to perform quarterly manual measurements of soil-water content using a neutron probe. This monitoring system was used to assess the soil water conditions in the soil outside and within the footprint of the surface barrier to be emplaced in the Hanford T Tank Farm. Data to date is baseline under the condition without the interim surface barrier in place. All the instruments except the two drain gauges were functional in FY07. The capacitance-probe measurements showed that the soil-moisture content at relatively shallow depths (e.g., 0.6 and 0.9 m) was increasing since October 2006 and reached the highest in early January 2007 followed by a slight decrease. Soil-moisture contents at the depths of 1.3 m and

  4. Data management implementation plan for interim action at the Gunite and Associated Tanks, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    The Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Project is currently conducting a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Interim Remedial Action to reduce uncertainties on the potential cost and effectiveness of remote tank cleaning equipment being produced jointly between the US Department of Energy (DOE); Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc.; and associated subcontractors with the DOE EM-50 Program. The goal of this document is to ensure that all procedures have been followed to provide reliable, verifiable data that are technically defensible. The data collected will be used to support closure of the tanks, compare the expected versus actual waste volume and curies to aid in conducting operations, and verify the performance of developmental equipment

  5. Behavior of mercury in the formic acid vent condenser. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamecnik, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    (This report relates to the Defense Waste Processing Facility.) The concentrations of mercury at the FAFC inlet and exit were measured during the BL1 and PX6 runs of the Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) with the HEME bypassed and without the ammonia scrubber. The results show that mercury concentrations of approximately 2.6-12.7 (mean = 6.2) times saturation occur at the FAFC exit. The concentration of mercury at the SRAT condenser exit was found to be 10 times the saturation value. FAVC exit mercury concentrations of 6.2 times saturation would result in DWPF emitting up to 438 lb/yr of mercury at 100 percent attainments, which is in excess of the permit limit of 175 lb/yr. However, operation of the FAVC with the HEME should reduce the mercury emissions. The addition of the ammonia scrubbers should also reduce the mercury emissions since the nitric acid used to scrub ammonia should also scrub mercury

  6. Extraction, -scrub, -strip test results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 10 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-26

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 10 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). The Salt Batch 10 characterization results were previously reported.ii,iii An Extraction, -Scrub, -Strip (ESS) test was performed to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)) and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams; this data will be used by Tank Farm Engineering to project a cesium decontamination factor (DF). This test used actual Tank 21H material, and a sample of the NGS Blend solvent currently being used at the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The ESS test showed acceptable performance with an extraction D(Cs) value of 110. This value is consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. This is better than the predicted value of 39.8 from a recently created D(Cs) model.

  7. Interim storage of sodium in ferritic steel tanks at ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, L.D.

    1994-01-01

    Sodium tanks originally fabricated for elevated temperature service in the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) will be used to store sodium removed from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) in the Sodium Storage Facility (SSF) at ambient temperature. This report presents an engineering review to confirm that protection against brittle fracture of the ferritic steel tanks is adequate for the intended service

  8. Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilas, F.; Chapman, C.R.; Matthews, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Papers are presented on future observations of and missions to Mercury, the photometry and polarimetry of Mercury, the surface composition of Mercury from reflectance spectrophotometry, the Goldstone radar observations of Mercury, the radar observations of Mercury, the stratigraphy and geologic history of Mercury, the geomorphology of impact craters on Mercury, and the cratering record on Mercury and the origin of impacting objects. Consideration is also given to the tectonics of Mercury, the tectonic history of Mercury, Mercury's thermal history and the generation of its magnetic field, the rotational dynamics of Mercury and the state of its core, Mercury's magnetic field and interior, the magnetosphere of Mercury, and the Mercury atmosphere. Other papers are on the present bounds on the bulk composition of Mercury and the implications for planetary formation processes, the building stones of the planets, the origin and composition of Mercury, the formation of Mercury from planetesimals, and theoretical considerations on the strange density of Mercury

  9. Interim salt disposition program macrobatch 6 tank 21H qualification monosodium titanate and cesium mass transfer tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, A. L. II; Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

    2013-02-25

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed experiments on qualification material for use in the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) Batch 6 processing. This qualification material was a set of six samples from Tank 21H in October 2012. This sample was used as a real waste demonstration of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests process. The Tank 21H sample was contacted with a reduced amount (0.2 g/L) of MST and characterized for strontium and actinide removal at 0 and 8 hour time intervals in this salt batch. {sup 237}Np and {sup 243}Am were both observed to be below detection limits in the source material, and so these results are not reported in this report. The plutonium and uranium samples had decontamination factor (DF) values that were on par or slightly better than we expected from Batch 5. The strontium DF values are slightly lower than expected but still in an acceptable range. The Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) testing demonstrated cesium removal, stripping and scrubbing within the acceptable range. Overall, the testing indicated that cesium removal is comparable to prior batches at MCU.

  10. CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: INTERIM REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides additional information on mercury (Hg) emissions control following the release of "Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units--Final Report to Congress" in February 1998. Chapters 1-3 describe EPA's December 2000 de...

  11. Cesium uptake capacity of simulated ferrocyanide tank waste. Interim report FY 1994, Ferrocyanide Safety Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgeson, I.E.; Bryan, S.A.; Burger, L.E.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the capacity for 137 CS uptake by mixed metal ferrocyanides present in Hanford waste tanks, and to assess the potential for aggregation of these 137 CS exchanged materials to form tank ''hot-spots.'' This research, performed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), stems from concerns of possible localized radiolytic heating within the tanks. If radioactive cesium is exchanged and concentrated by the remaining nickel ferrocyanide present in the tanks, this heating could cause temperatures to rise above the safety limits specified for the ferrocyanide tanks. For the purposes of this study, two simulants, In-Farm-2 and U-Plant-2, were chosen to represent the wastes generated by the scavenging processes. These simulants were formulated using protocols from the original cesium scavenging campaign. Later additions of cesium-rich wastes from various processes also were considered. The simulants were prepared and centrifuged to obtain a moist ferrocyanide sludge. The centrifuged sludges were treated with the original supernate spiked with a known amount of cesium nitrate. After analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry, distribution coefficients (K d ) were calculated. The capacity of solid waste simulants to exchange radioactive cesium from solution was examined. Initial results showed that the greater the molar ratio of cesium to cesium nickel ferrocyanide, the less effective the exchange of cesium from solution. The theoretical capacity of 2 mol cesium per mol of nickel ferrocyanide was not observed. The maximum capacity under experimental conditions was 0.35 mol cesium per mol nickel ferrocyanide. Future work on this project will examine the layering tendency of the cesium nickel ferrocyanide species

  12. Sampling and analysis plan for the gunite and associated tanks interim remedial action, wall coring and scraping at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan documents the procedures for collecting and analyzing wall core and wall scraping samples from the Gunite and Associated Tanks. These activities are being conducted to support the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act at the gunite and associated tanks interim remedial action at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The sampling and analysis activities will be performed in concert with sludge retrieval and sluicing of the tanks. Wall scraping and/or wall core samples will be collected from each quadrant in each tank by using a scraping sampler and/or a coring drill deployed by the Houdini robot vehicle. Each sample will be labeled, transported to the Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory, and analyzed for physical and radiological characteristics, including total activity, gross alpha, gross beta, radioactive strontium and cesium, and other alpha- and gamma-emitting radionuclides. The data quality objectives process, based on US Environmental Protection Agency guidance, was applied to identify the objectives of this sampling and analysis. The results of the analysis will be used to (1) validate predictions of a strontium concrete diffusion model, (2) estimate the amount of radioactivity remaining in the tank shells, (3) provide information to correlate with measurements taken by the Gunite Tank Isotope Mapping Probe and the Characterization End Effector, and (4) estimate the performance of the wall cleaning system. This revision eliminates wall-scraping samples from all tanks, except Tank W-3. The Tank W-3 experience indicated that the wall scrapper does not collect sufficient material for analysis

  13. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury is an element that is found in air, water and soil. It has several forms. Metallic mercury is a shiny, silver-white, odorless liquid. If ... with other elements to form powders or crystals. Mercury is in many products. Metallic mercury is used ...

  14. Interim report: Study of benzene release from Savannah River in-tank precipitation process slurry simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappe, K.G.; Gauglitz, P.A.

    1997-09-01

    At the Savannah River Site, the in-tank precipitation (ITP) process uses sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) to precipitate radioactive cesium from alkaline wastes. During this process, potassium is also precipitated to form a 4-wt% KTPB/CsTPB slurry. Residual NaTPB decomposes to form benzene, which is retained by the waste slurry. The retained benzene is also readily released from the waste during subsequent waste processing. While the release of benzene certainly poses both flammability and toxicological safety concerns, the magnitude of the hazard depends on the rate of release. Currently, the mechanisms controlling the benzene release rates are not well understood, and predictive models for estimating benzene release rates are not available. The overall purpose of this study is to obtain quantitative measurements of benzene release rates from a series of ITP slurry stimulants. This information will become a basis for developing a quantitative mechanistic model of benzene release rates. The transient benzene release rate was measured from the surface of various ITP slurry (solution) samples mixed with benzene. The benzene release rate was determined by continuously purging the headspace of a sealed sample vessel with an inert gas (nitrogen) and analyzing that purged headspace vapor for benzene every 3 minutes. The following 75-mL samples were measured for release rates: KTPB slurry with 15,000 ppm freshly added benzene that was gently mixed with the slurry, KTPB slurry homogenized (energetically mixed) with 15,000 ppm and 5,000 ppm benzene, clear and filtered KTPB salt solution saturated with benzene (with and without a pure benzene layer on top of the solution), and a slurry sample from a large demonstration experiment (DEMO slurry) containing-benzene generated in situ

  15. Interim Results from a Study of the Impacts of Tin (II) Based Mercury Treatment in a Small Stream Ecosystem: Tims Branch, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, Brian [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); BryanJr., Larry [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory; Mathews, Teresa J [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Roy, W Kelly [ORNL; Jett, Robert T [ORNL; Smith, John G [ORNL

    2012-03-01

    A research team is assessing the impacts of an innovative mercury treatment system in Tims Branch, a small southeastern stream. The treatment system, installed in 2007, reduces and removes inorganic mercury from water using tin(II) (stannous) chloride addition followed by air stripping. The system results in discharge of inorganic tin to the ecosystem. This screening study is based on historical information combined with measurements of contaminant concentrations in water, fish, sediment, biofilms and invertebrates. Initial mercury data indicate that first few years of mercury treatment resulted in a significant decrease in mercury concentration in an upper trophic level fish, redfin pickerel, at all sampling locations in the impacted reach. For example, the whole body mercury concentration in redfin pickerel collected from the most impacted pond decreased approximately 72% between 2006 (pre-treatment) and 2010 (post-treatment). Over this same period, mercury concentrations in the fillet of redfin pickerel in this pond were estimated to have decreased from approximately 1.45 {micro}g/g (wet weight basis) to 0.45 {micro}g/g - a decrease from 4.8x to 1.5x the current EPA guideline concentration for mercury in fillet (0.3 {micro}g/g). Thermodynamic modeling, scanning electron microscopy, and other sampling data for tin suggest that particulate tin (IV) oxides are a significant geochemical species entering the ecosystem with elevated levels of tin measured in surficial sediments and biofilms. Detectable increases in tin in sediments and biofilms extended approximately 3km from the discharge location. Tin oxides are recalcitrant solids that are relatively non-toxic and resistant to dissolution. Work continues to develop and validate methods to analyze total tin in the collected biota samples. In general, the interim results of this screening study suggest that the treatment process has performed as predicted and that the concentration of mercury in upper trophic level

  16. Nuclear criticality safety evaluation of the passage of decontaminated salt solution from the ITP filters into tank 50H for interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D.T.; Davis, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    This report assesses the nuclear criticality safety associated with the decontaminated salt solution after passing through the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) filters, through the stripper columns and into Tank 50H for interim storage until transfer to the Saltstone facility. The criticality safety basis for the ITP process is documented. Criticality safety in the ITP filtrate has been analyzed under normal and process upset conditions. This report evaluates the potential for criticality due to the precipitation or crystallization of fissionable material from solution and an ITP process filter failure in which insoluble material carryover from salt dissolution is present. It is concluded that no single inadvertent error will cause criticality and that the process will remain subcritical under normal and credible abnormal conditions

  17. Mercury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Irma

    2017-01-01

    Mercury is a naturally occurring metal that exists in several physical and chemical forms. Inorganic mercury refers to compounds formed after the combining of mercury with elements such as chlorine, sulfur, or oxygen. After combining with carbon by covalent linkage, the compounds formed are called

  18. ALARACT Demonstration for Primary Ventilation Systems at the DST Tank Farms for the Interim Stabilization Project (Saltwell Pumping) [SEC 1 Thru 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAM, E.C.

    2002-01-01

    A demonstration of As Low As Reasonably Achievable Control Technology (ALARACT) was performed for the existing Double Shell Tank (DST) farm primary ventilation systems in support of the Single Shell Tanks (SSTs) Interim Stabilization Project. The primary ventilation systems evaluated in this ALARACT are located at the 241-AW, AN, AP, and SY tank farms. Of these farms, only the AP and SY farms are scheduled to receive SST waste prior to new ventilation systems being installed at the farms. As a result, full evaluations were performed for the 241-AP and SY systems, whereas only partial evaluations were performed for the 241-AN and AW systems. The full evaluation included the evaluation of the stack sampling system, whereas the partial evaluation did not. Also, 241-AY and AZ are not scheduled to receive SST waste so they were both excluded completely from the evaluation. This ALARACT demonstration evaluated the ability of the abatement and control technologies in the DST ventilation systems identified above to function during SST waste transfers as part of the SST Interim Stabilization Project. Where available, field data (waste temperatures) gathered during actual saltwell pumping activities, were used to support this demonstration. Also used were other process data and equipment capacities associated with the system evaluation. Where actual field data were not available, conservative assumptions, based upon process knowledge and standard engineering calculation methodologies, were used. The DST ventilation systems were also evaluated for compliance against the technology standards identified in Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, Radioactive Air Emissions, as well as other governing codes and standards

  19. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that mercuric chloride and methylmercury are possible human carcinogens. top How does mercury affect children? Very young ... billion parts of drinking water (2 ppb). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has set a maximum ...

  20. Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Mahoney, T J

    2014-01-01

    This gazetteer and atlas on Mercury lists, defines and illustrates every named (as opposed to merely catalogued) object and term as related to Mercury within a single reference work. It contains a glossary of terminology used, an index of all the headwords in the gazetteer, an atlas comprising maps and images with coordinate grids and labels identifying features listed in the gazetteer, and appendix material on the IAU nomenclature system and the transcription systems used for non-roman alphabets. This book is useful for the general reader, writers and editors dealing with astronomical themes, and those astronomers concerned with any aspect of astronomical nomenclature.

  1. Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, André; Steiger, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Mercury, the planet closest to the Sun, is different in several respects from the other three terrestrial planets. In appearance, it resembles the heavily cratered surface of the Moon, but its density is high, it has a magnetic field and magnetosphere, but no atmosphere or ionosphere. This book reviews the progress made in Mercury studies since the flybys by Mariner 10 in 1974-75, based on the continued research using the Mariner 10 archive, on observations from Earth, and on increasingly realistic models of its interior evolution.

  2. Computational analysis of coupled fluid, heat, and mass transport in ferrocyanide single-shell tanks: FY 1994 interim report. Ferrocyanide Tank Safety Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrail, B.P.

    1994-11-01

    A computer modeling study was conducted to determine whether natural convection processes in single-shell tanks containing ferrocyanide wastes could generate localized precipitation zones that significantly concentrate the major heat-generating radionuclide, 137 Cs. A computer code was developed that simulates coupled fluid, heat, and single-species mass transport on a regular, orthogonal finite-difference grid. The analysis showed that development of a ''hot spot'' is critically dependent on the temperature dependence for the solubility of Cs 2 NiFe(CN) 6 or CsNaNiFe(CN) 6 . For the normal case, where solubility increases with increasing temperature, the net effect of fluid flow, heat, and mass transport is to disperse any local zones of high heat generation rate. As a result, hot spots cannot physically develop for this case. However, assuming a retrograde solubility dependence, the simulations indicate the formation of localized deposition zones that concentrate the 137 Cs near the bottom center of the tank where the temperatures are highest. Recent experimental studies suggest that Cs 2 NiFe(CN) 6 (c) does not exhibit retrograde solubility over the temperature range 25 degree C to 90 degree C and NaOH concentrations to 5 M. Assuming these preliminary results are confirmed, no natural mass transport process exists for generating a hot spot in the ferrocyanide single-shell tanks

  3. Technical basis for selecting radionuclide concentrations for use in Hanford tank basis for interim operation source term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a radiological source term for waste tanks at the Hanford Site Nuclear Reservation. It describes the methodology used to identify the most important radionuclides, determine appropriate concentrations, and define unit liter doses. An example of how unit liter doses are used is given

  4. DOE UST interim subsurface barrier technologies workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This document contains information which was presented at a workshop regarding interim subsurface barrier technologies that could be used for underground storage tanks, particularly the tank 241-C-106 at the Hanford Reservation

  5. Incorporating uncertainty into mercury-offset decisions with a probabilistic network for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit holders: an interim report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    This interim report describes an alternative approach for evaluating the efficacy of using mercury (Hg) offsets to improve water quality. Hg-offset programs may allow dischargers facing higher-pollution control costs to meet their regulatory obligations by making more cost effective pollutant-reduction decisions. Efficient Hg management requires methods to translate that science and economics into a regulatory decision framework. This report documents the work in progress by the U.S. Geological Surveys Western Geographic Science Center in collaboration with Stanford University toward developing this decision framework to help managers, regulators, and other stakeholders decide whether offsets can cost effectively meet the Hg total maximum daily load (TMDL) requirements in the Sacramento River watershed. Two key approaches being considered are: (1) a probabilistic approach that explicitly incorporates scientific uncertainty, cost information, and value judgments; and (2) a quantitative approach that captures uncertainty in testing the feasibility of Hg offsets. Current fate and transport-process models commonly attempt to predict chemical transformations and transport pathways deterministically. However, the physical, chemical, and biologic processes controlling the fate and transport of Hg in aquatic environments are complex and poorly understood. Deterministic models of Hg environmental behavior contain large uncertainties, reflecting this lack of understanding. The uncertainty in these underlying physical processes may produce similarly large uncertainties in the decisionmaking process. However, decisions about control strategies are still being made despite the large uncertainties in current Hg loadings, the relations between total Hg (HgT) loading and methylmercury (MeHg) formation, and the relations between control efforts and Hg content in fish. The research presented here focuses on an alternative analytical approach to the current use of safety factors and

  6. Mercury Phase II Study - Mercury Behavior in Salt Processing Flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, V.; Shah, H.; Wilmarth, W. R.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) in the Savannah River Site Liquid Waste System (LWS) originated from decades of canyon processing where it was used as a catalyst for dissolving the aluminum cladding of reactor fuel. Approximately 60 metric tons of mercury is currently present throughout the LWS. Mercury has long been a consideration in the LWS, from both hazard and processing perspectives. In February 2015, a Mercury Program Team was established at the request of the Department of Energy to develop a comprehensive action plan for long-term management and removal of mercury. Evaluation was focused in two Phases. Phase I activities assessed the Liquid Waste inventory and chemical processing behavior using a system-by-system review methodology, and determined the speciation of the different mercury forms (Hg+, Hg++, elemental Hg, organomercury, and soluble versus insoluble mercury) within the LWS. Phase II activities are building on the Phase I activities, and results of the LWS flowsheet evaluations will be summarized in three reports: Mercury Behavior in the Salt Processing Flowsheet (i.e. this report); Mercury Behavior in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Flowsheet; and Mercury behavior in the Tank Farm Flowsheet (Evaporator Operations). The evaluation of the mercury behavior in the salt processing flowsheet indicates, inter alia, the following: (1) In the assembled Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 in Tank 21, the total mercury is mostly soluble with methylmercury (MHg) contributing over 50% of the total mercury. Based on the analyses of samples from 2H Evaporator feed and drop tanks (Tanks 38/43), the source of MHg in Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 can be attributed to the 2H evaporator concentrate used in assembling the salt batches. The 2H Evaporator is used to evaporate DWPF recycle water. (2) Comparison of data between Tank 21/49, Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), and Tank 50 samples suggests that the total mercury as well as speciated

  7. Interim restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, David G; Aquilino, Steven A

    2004-04-01

    Interim restorations are a critical component of fixed prosthodontic treatment, biologically and biomechanically. Interim restoration serves an important diagnostic role as a functional and esthetic try-in and as a blueprint for the design of the definitive prosthesis. When selecting materials for any interim restoration, clinicians must consider physical properties, handling properties, patient acceptance, and material cost. Although no single material meets all the requirements and material classification alone of a given product is not a predictor of clinical performance, bis-acryl materials are typically best suited to single-unit restorations, and poly(methylmethacrylate) interim materials are generally ideal for multi-unit, complex, long-term, interim fixed prostheses. As with most dental procedures, the technique used for fabrication has a greater effect on the final result than the specific material chosen.

  8. Science and technology needs: Integrated research and development, the path to gaining a defensible understanding on ''watch list'' tank risk and interim stabilization needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.M.; Mellinger, G.; Strachan, D.; Hallen, R.

    1991-09-01

    The ''watch list'' waste tanks at the Hanford Site in Washington state are those that the Secretary of the Department of Energy reports upon to the Congress because of the unresolved safety question. As such, they are subject to intense surveillance and an enhanced list of controls and safety procedures. The objective of the Waste Tank Safety Program is to mitigate the safety concerns with respect to these tanks, thereby removing them from the ''watch list.'' The essential step in this process is the development of a defensible position that reduce the risk of these tanks to an acceptable level. An integrated research and development (R ampersand D) program is believed to be the most cost-effective means of achieving the information required to mitigate the safety concern and to resolve the safety issues. This program uses chemical and physical modeling studies of synthetic waste, is substantiated with limited field data and radioactive samples from a tank, and uses numerical modeling to extrapolate results to actual tank-scale operations. 3 refs., 4 figs

  9. A risk-based approach to prioritize underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidambariah, V.; Travis, C.C.; Trabalka, J.R.; Thomas, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a risk-based approach for rapid prioritization of low level liquid radioactive waste underground storage tanks (LLLW USTs) for possible interim corrective measures and/or ultimate closure. The ranking of LLLW USTs is needed to ensure that tanks with the greatest potential for adverse impact on the environment and human health receive top priority for further evaluation and remediation. Wastes from the LLLW USTs at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) were pumped out at the time the tanks were removed from service. The residual liquids and sludge contain a mixture of radionuclides and chemicals. Contaminants of concern that were identified in the liquid phase of the inactive LLLW USTs include, the radionuclides, 9O Sr, 137 Cs and 233 U and the chemicals, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, methyl ethyl ketone, mercury, lead and chromium. The risk-based approach for prioritization of the LLLW USTs is based upon three major criteria: (1) leaking characteristics of the tank; (2) location of the tanks; and (3) toxic potential of the tank contents

  10. INTERIM RESULTS FROM A STUDY OF THE IMPACTS OF TIN(II) BASED MERCURY TREATMENT IN A SMALL STREAM ECOSYSTEM: TIMS BRANCH, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B.; Bryan, L.; Mathews, T.

    2012-03-30

    Mercury (Hg) has been identified as a 'persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic' pollutant with widespread impacts throughout North America and the world (EPA. 1997a, 1997b, 1998a, 1998b, 2000). Although most of the mercury in the environment is inorganic Hg, a small proportion of total Hg is transformed through the actions of aquatic microbes into methylmercury (MeHg). In contrast to virtually all other metals, MeHg biomagnifies or becomes increasingly concentrated as it is transferred through aquatic food chains so that the consumption of mercury contaminated fish is the primary route of this toxin to humans. For this reason, the ambient water quality criterion (AWQC) for mercury is based on a fish tissue endpoint rather than an aqueous Hg concentration, as the tissue concentration (e.g., < 0.3 {mu}g/g fillet) is considered to be a more consistent indicator of exposure and risk (EPA, 2001). Effective mercury remediation at point-source contaminated sites requires an understanding of the nature and magnitude of mercury inputs, and also knowledge of how these inputs must be controlled in order to achieve the desired reduction of mercury contamination in biota necessary for compliance with AWQC targets. One of the challenges to remediation is that mercury body burdens in fish are more closely linked to aqueous MeHg than to inorganic Hg concentrations (Sveinsdottir and Mason 2005), but MeHg production is not easily predicted or controlled. At point-source contaminated sites, mercury methylation is not only affected by the absolute mercury load, but also by the form of mercury loaded. In addition, once MeHg is formed, the hydrology, trophic structure, and water chemistry of a given system affect how it is transformed and transferred through the food chain to fish. Decreasing inorganic Hg concentrations and loading may often therefore be a more achievable remediation goal, but has led to mixed results in terms of responses in fish bioaccumulation. A number of

  11. Tank 241-BY-108 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    The sampling and analytical needs associated with the 51 Hanford Site underground storage tanks classified on one or more of the four Watch Lists (ferrocyanide, organic, flammable gas, and high heat), and the safety screening of all 177 tanks have been identified through the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process. DQOs identity information needed by a program group in the Tank Waste Remediation System concerned with safety issues, regulatory requirements, or the transporting and processing of tank waste. This Tank Characterization Plan will identify characterization objectives for tank BY-108 pertaining to sample collection, sample preparation and analysis, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements. In addition, an estimate of the current contents and status of the tank is given. Single-shell tank BY-108 is classified as a Ferrocyanide Watch List tank. The tank was declared an assumed leaker and removed from service in 1972; interim stabilized was completed in February 1985. Although not officially an Organic Watch List tank, restrictions have been placed on intrusive operations by Standing Order number-sign 94-16 (dated 09/08/94) since the tank is suspected to contain or to have contained a floating organic layer

  12. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 3. Alternatives for interim storage and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-05-01

    Volume III of the five-volume report contains information on alternatives for interim storage and transportation. Section titles are: interim storage of spent fuel elements; interim storage of chop-leach fuel bundle residues; tank storage of high-level liquid waste; interim storage of solid non-high-level wastes; interim storage of solidified high-level waste; and, transportation alternatives

  13. Interim overdentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, A H

    1976-07-01

    The construction of an interim overdenture using existing removable partial dentures with natural tooth crowns and artificial teeth can be a simple and economical method of providing patients with dentures while tissues heal and teeth are prepared and restored. A more definite prognosis for both the patient and his remaining dentition can be established before the final overdenture is completed. The procedures necessary to provide three types of interim overdentures have been outlined. Patients tolerate this method of changing their dentitions extremely well.

  14. PROJECT W-551 INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM PRECONCEPTUAL CANDIDATE TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY TH

    2008-08-12

    The Office of River Protection (ORP) has authorized a study to recommend and select options for interim pretreatment of tank waste and support Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) low activity waste (LAW) operations prior to startup of all the WTP facilities. The Interim Pretreatment System (IPS) is to be a moderately sized system which separates entrained solids and 137Cs from tank waste for an interim time period while WTP high level waste vitrification and pretreatment facilities are completed. This study's objective is to prepare pre-conceptual technology descriptions that expand the technical detail for selected solid and cesium separation technologies. This revision includes information on additional feed tanks.

  15. Tank 244A tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The Double-Shell Tank (DST) System currently receives waste from the Single-Shell Tank (SST) System in support of SST stabilization efforts or from other on-site facilities which generate or store waste. Waste is also transferred between individual DSTs. The mixing or commingling of potentially incompatible waste types at the Hanford Site must be addressed prior to any waste transfers into the DSTs. The primary goal of the Waste Compatibility Program is to prevent the formation of an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) as a result of improper waste management. Tank 244A is a Double Contained Receiver Tank (DCRT) which serves as any overflow tank for the East Area Farms. Waste material is able to flow freely between the underground storage tanks and tank 244A. Therefore, it is necessary to test the waste in tank 244A for compatibility purposes. Two issues related to the overall problem of waste compatibility must be evaluated: Assurance of continued operability during waste transfer and waste concentration and Assurance that safety problems are not created as a result of commingling wastes under interim storage. The results of the grab sampling activity prescribed by this Tank Characterization Plan shall help determine the potential for four kinds of safety problems: criticality, flammable gas accumulation, energetics, and corrosion and leakage

  16. Tank 241-B-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) has advised the US Department of Energy (DOE) to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify sampling and analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement or TPA) milestone M-44-00 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users (e.g., Hanford Facility user groups, regulators) to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information.'' This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-B-103 (B-103) sampling activities. Tank B-103 was placed on the Organic Watch List in January 1991 due to review of TRAC data that predicts a TOC content of 3.3 dry weight percent. The tank was classified as an assumed leaker of approximately 30,280 liters (8,000 gallons) in 1978 and declared inactive. Tank B-103 is passively ventilated with interim stabilization and intrusion prevention measures completed in 1985

  17. Gamma radiation stability studies of mercury fulminate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fondeur, F.F.

    2000-01-01

    Mercury fulminate completely decomposed in a gamma source (0.86 Mrad/h) after a dose of 208 Mrad. This exposure equates to approximately 2.4 years in Tank 15H and 4 years in Tank 12H, one of the vessels of concern. Since the tanks lost the supernatant cover layer more than a decade ago, this study suggests that any mercury fulminate or closely related energetic species decomposed long ago if ever formed

  18. 216-T-4 interim stabilization final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides a general description of the activities performed for the interim stabilization of the 216-T-4-1 ditch, 216-T-4-2 ditch, and 216-T-4-2 pond. Interim stabilization was required to reduce the amount of surface-contaminated acres and to minimize the migration of radioactive contamination. Work associated with the 216-T4-1 ditch and 216-T-4-2 pond was performed by the Radiation Area Remedial Action (RARA) Project. Work associated with the 216-T-4-2 ditch was done concurrently but was funded by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS)

  19. Ferrocyanide Safety Program rationale for removing six tanks from the safety watch list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsheim, G.L.

    1993-09-01

    This report documents an in-depth study of single-shell tanks containing ferrocyanide wastes. Topics include: safety assessments, tank histories, supportive documentation about interim stabilization and planned remedial activities

  20. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-06-01

    This Interim Report summarizes the research and development activities of the Superconducting Super Collider project carried out from the completion of the Reference Designs Study (May 1984) to June 1985. It was prepared by the SSC Central Design Group in draft form on the occasion of the DOE Annual Review, June 19--21, 1985. Now largely organized by CDG Divisions, the bulk of each chapter documents the progress and accomplishments to date, while the final section(s) describe plans for future work. Chapter 1, Introduction, provides a basic brief description of the SSC, its physics justification, its origins, and the R&D organization set up to carry out the work. Chapter 2 gives a summary of the main results of the R&D program, the tasks assigned to the four magnet R&D centers, and an overview of the future plans. The reader wishing a quick look at the SSC Phase I effort can skim Chapter 1 and read Chapter 2. Subsequent chapters discuss in more detail the activities on accelerator physics, accelerator systems, magnets and cryostats, injector, detector R&D, conventional facilities, and project planning and management. The magnet chapter (5) documents in text and photographs the impressive progress in successful construction of many model magnets, the development of cryostats with low heat leaks, and the improvement in current-carrying capacity of superconducting strand. Chapter 9 contains the budgets and schedules of the COG Divisions, the overall R&D program, including the laboratories, and also preliminary projections for construction. Appendices provide information on the various panels, task forces and workshops held by the CDG in FY 1985, a bibliography of COG and Laboratory reports on SSC and SSC-related work, and on private industrial involvement in the project.

  1. Disposal facility data for the interim performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiholzer, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify and provide information on the waste package and disposal facility concepts to be used for the low-level waste tank interim performance assessment. Current concepts for the low-level waste form, canister, and the disposal facility will be used for the interim performance assessment. The concept for the waste form consists of vitrified glass cullet in a sulfur polymer cement matrix material. The waste form will be contained in a 2 x 2 x 8 meter carbon steel container. Two disposal facility concepts will be used for the interim performance assessment. These facility concepts are based on a preliminary disposal facility concept developed for estimating costs for a disposal options configuration study. These disposal concepts are based on vault type structures. None of the concepts given in this report have been approved by a Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) decision board. These concepts will only be used in th interim performance assessment. Future performance assessments will be based on approved designs

  2. Tank characterization report for Single-Shell Tank B-111

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remund, K.M.; Tingey, J.M.; Heasler, P.G.; Toth, J.J.; Ryan, F.M.; Hartley, S.A.; Simpson, D.B.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-01

    Tank 241-B-111 (hereafter referred to as B-111) is a 2,006,300 liter (530,000 gallon) single-shell waste tank located in the 200 East B tank farm at Hanford. Two cores were taken from this tank in 1991 and analysis of the cores was conducted by Battelle's 325-A Laboratory in 1993. Characterization of the waste in this tank is being done to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-44-05. Tank B-111 was constructed in 1943 and put into service in 1945; it is the second tank in a cascade system with Tanks B-110 and B-112. During its process history, B-111 received mostly second-decontamination-cycle waste and fission products waste via the cascade from Tank B-110. This tank was retired from service in 1976, and in 1978 the tank was assumed to have leaked 30,300 liters (8,000 gallons). The tank was interim stabilized and interim isolated in 1985. The tank presently contains approximately 893,400 liters (236,000 gallons) of sludge-like waste and approximately 3,800 liters (1,000 gallons) of supernate. Historically, there are no unreviewed safety issues associated with this tank and none were revealed after reviewing the data from the latest core sampling event in 1991. An extensive set of analytical measurements was performed on the core composites. The major constituents (> 0.5 wt%) measured in the waste are water, sodium, nitrate, phosphate, nitrite, bismuth, iron, sulfate and silicon, ordered from largest concentration to the smallest. The concentrations and inventories of these and other constituents are given. Since Tanks B-110 and B-111 have similar process histories, their sampling results were compared. The results of the chemical analyses have been compared to the dangerous waste codes in the Washington Dangerous Waste Regulations (WAC 173-303). This assessment was conducted by comparing tank analyses against dangerous waste characteristics 'D' waste codes; and against state waste codes

  3. Immobilized high-level waste interim storage alternatives generation and analysis and decision report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CALMUS, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents a study of alternative system architectures to provide onsite interim storage for the immobilized high-level waste produced by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) privatization vendor. It examines the contract and program changes that have occurred and evaluates their impacts on the baseline immobilized high-level waste (IHLW) interim storage strategy. In addition, this report documents the recommended initial interim storage architecture and implementation path forward

  4. PROJECT W-551 INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY SELECTION SUMMARY DECISION REPORT AND RECOMMENDATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CONRAD EA

    2008-01-01

    This report provides the conclusions of the tank farm interim pretreatment technology decision process. It documents the methodology, data, and results of the selection of cross-flow filtration and ion exchange technologies for implementation in project W-551, Interim Pretreatment System. This selection resulted from the evaluation of specific scope criteria using quantitative and qualitative analyses, group workshops, and technical expert personnel

  5. Tank waste remediation system baseline tank waste inventory estimates for fiscal year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, L.W.

    1996-01-01

    A set of tank-by-tank waste inventories is derived from historical waste models, flowsheet records, and analytical data to support the Tank Waste Remediation System flowsheet and retrieval sequence studies. Enabling assumptions and methodologies used to develop the inventories are discussed. These provisional inventories conform to previously established baseline inventories and are meant to serve as an interim basis until standardized inventory estimates are made available

  6. Mercury CEM Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Schabron; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson

    2008-02-29

    Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks. The power industry desires to conduct at least a full year of monitoring before the formal monitoring and reporting requirement begins on January 1, 2009. It is important for the industry to have available reliable, turnkey equipment from CEM vendors. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The generators are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 requires that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards (Federal Register 2007). Traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued an interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury generators (EPA 2007). The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of generators by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the generator models that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD. The

  7. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION TESTING WITH INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM FEEDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HERTING DL

    2008-01-01

    The fractional crystallization process was developed as a pretreatment method for saltcake waste retrieved from Hanford single-shell tanks (SST). The process separates the retrieved SST waste into a high-level waste stream containing the bulk of the radionuclides and a low-activity waste stream containing the bulk of the nonradioactive sodium salts. The Interim Pretreatment System project shifted the focus on pretreatment planning from SST waste to double-shell tank waste

  8. Mercury Continuous Emmission Monitor Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster; Joseph Rovani

    2009-03-12

    Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMs) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks throughput the U.S. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor calibrators/generators. These devices are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 and vacated by a Federal appeals court in early 2008 required that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Despite the vacature, mercury emissions regulations in the future will require NIST traceable calibration standards, and EPA does not want to interrupt the effort towards developing NIST traceability protocols. The traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued a conceptual interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The EPA traceability protocol document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of calibrator models by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the calibrators that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma

  9. Tank waste concentration mechanism study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, L.C.; Johnson, L.J.

    1994-09-01

    This study determines whether the existing 242-A Evaporator should continue to be used to concentrate the Hanford Site radioactive liquid tank wastes or be replaced by an alternative waste concentration process. Using the same philosophy, the study also determines what the waste concentration mechanism should be for the future TWRS program. Excess water from liquid DST waste should be removed to reduce the volume of waste feed for pretreatment, immobilization, and to free up storage capacity in existing tanks to support interim stabilization of SSTS, terminal cleanout of excess facilities, and other site remediation activities

  10. Engineering Task Plan for Hose-In-Hose Transfer Lines for the Interim Stabilization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RUNG, M.P.

    2000-01-01

    This document is the Engineering Task Plan for the engineering, design services, planning, project integration and management support for the design, modification, installation and testing of an over ground transfer (OGT) system to support the interim stabilization of nine tanks in the 241-S/SX Tank Farms

  11. Mercury and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Risk of Exposure to Mercury Learn About Mercury What is Mercury What is Metallic mercury? Toxicological Profile ToxFAQs Mercury Resources CDC’s National Biomonitoring Program Factsheet on Mercury ...

  12. Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 10's first image of Mercury acquired on March 24, 1974. During its flight, Mariner 10's trajectory brought it behind the lighted hemisphere of Mercury, where this image was taken, in order to acquire important measurements with other instruments.This picture was acquired from a distance of 3,340,000 miles (5,380,000 km) from the surface of Mercury. The diameter of Mercury (3,031 miles; 4,878 km) is about 1/3 that of Earth.Images of Mercury were acquired in two steps, an inbound leg (images acquired before passing into Mercury's shadow) and an outbound leg (after exiting from Mercury's shadow). More than 2300 useful images of Mercury were taken, both moderate resolution (3-20 km/pixel) color and high resolution (better than 1 km/pixel) black and white coverage.

  13. Waste tank characterization sampling limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusler, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a result of the Plant Implementation Team Investigation into delayed reporting of the exotherm in Tank 241-T-111 waste samples. The corrective actions identified are to have immediate notification of appropriate Tank Farm Operations Shift Management if analyses with potential safety impact exceed established levels. A procedure, WHC-IP-0842 Section 12.18, ''TWRS Approved Sampling and Data Analysis by Designated Laboratories'' (WHC 1994), has been established to require all tank waste sampling (including core, auger and supernate) and tank vapor samples be performed using this document. This document establishes levels for specified analysis that require notification of the appropriate shift manager. The following categories provide numerical values for analysis that may indicate that a tank is either outside the operating specification or should be evaluated for inclusion on a Watch List. The information given is intended to translate an operating limit such as heat load, expressed in Btu/hour, to an analysis related limit, in this case cesium-137 and strontium-90 concentrations. By using the values provided as safety flags, the analytical laboratory personnel can notify a shift manager that a tank is in potential violation of an operating limit or that a tank should be considered for inclusion on a Watch List. The shift manager can then take appropriate interim measures until a final determination is made by engineering personnel

  14. Alternatives Generation and Analysis for Heat Removal from High Level Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIS, W.L.

    2000-06-15

    This document addresses the preferred combination of design and operational configurations to provide heat removal from high-level waste tanks during Phase 1 waste feed delivery to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding tank safety requirement limits. An interim decision for the preferred method to remove the heat from the high-level waste tanks during waste feed delivery operations is presented herein.

  15. Alternatives Generation and Analysis for Heat Removal from High Level Waste Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WILLIS, W.L.

    2000-01-01

    This document addresses the preferred combination of design and operational configurations to provide heat removal from high-level waste tanks during Phase 1 waste feed delivery to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding tank safety requirement limits. An interim decision for the preferred method to remove the heat from the high-level waste tanks during waste feed delivery operations is presented herein

  16. Mercurial poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorton, B

    1924-01-01

    Cats which had been kept in a thermometer factory to catch rats were afflicted with mercury poisoning. So were the rats they were supposed to eat. The symptoms of mercury poisoning were the same in both species. The source of mercury for these animals is a fine film of the metal which coats floors, a result of accidental spills during the manufacturing process.

  17. Mercury absorption in aqueous hypochlorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, L.L.; Rochelle, G.T.

    1999-01-01

    The absorption of elemental Hg vapor into aqueous hypochlorite was measured in a stirred tank reactor at 25 and 55C. NaOCl strongly absorbs Hg even at high pH. Low pH, high Cl - and high-temperature favor mercury absorption. Aqueous free Cl 2 was the active species that reacted with mercury. However, chlorine desorption was evident at high Cl - and pH 15 M -1 s -1 at 25C and 1.4x10 17 M -1 s -1 at 55C. Gas-phase reaction was observed between Hg and Cl 2 on apparatus surfaces. Strong mercury absorption in water was also detected with Cl 2 present. Results indicate that the chlorine concentration, moisture, and surface area contribute positively to mercury removal. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. Permitting plan for the high-level waste interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deffenbaugh, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    This document addresses the environmental permitting requirements for the transportation and interim storage of solidified high-level waste (HLW) produced during Phase 1 of the Hanford Site privatization effort. Solidified HLW consists of canisters containing vitrified HLW (glass) and containers that hold cesium separated during low-level waste pretreatment. The glass canisters and cesium containers will be transported to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-provided transportation cask via diesel-powered tractor trailer. Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Milestone M-90 establishes a new major milestone, and associated interim milestones and target dates, governing acquisition and/or modification of facilities necessary for: (1) interim storage of Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) immobilized HLW (IHLW) and other canistered high-level waste forms; and (2) interim storage and disposal of TWRS immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW). An environmental requirements checklist and narrative was developed to identify the permitting path forward for the HLW interim storage (HLWIS) project (See Appendix B). This permitting plan will follow the permitting logic developed in that checklist

  19. Got Mercury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Valerie E.; McCoy, J. Torin; Garcia, Hector D.; James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Many of the operational and payload lighting units used in various spacecraft contain elemental mercury. If these devices were damaged on-orbit, elemental mercury could be released into the cabin. Although there are plans to replace operational units with alternate light sources, such as LEDs, that do not contain mercury, mercury-containing lamps efficiently produce high quality illumination and may never be completely replaced on orbit. Therefore, exposure to elemental mercury during spaceflight will remain possible and represents a toxicological hazard. Elemental mercury is a liquid metal that vaporizes slowly at room temperature. However, it may be completely vaporized at the elevated operating temperatures of lamps. Although liquid mercury is not readily absorbed through the skin or digestive tract, mercury vapors are efficiently absorbed through the respiratory tract. Therefore, the amount of mercury in the vapor form must be estimated. For mercury releases from lamps that are not being operated, we utilized a study conducted by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Quality to calculate the amount of mercury vapor expected to form over a 2-week period. For longer missions and for mercury releases occurring when lamps are operating, we conservatively assumed complete volatilization of the available mercury. Because current spacecraft environmental control systems are unable to remove mercury vapors, both short-term and long-term exposures to mercury vapors are possible. Acute exposure to high concentrations of mercury vapors can cause irritation of the respiratory tract and behavioral symptoms, such as irritability and hyperactivity. Chronic exposure can result in damage to the nervous system (tremors, memory loss, insomnia, etc.) and kidneys (proteinurea). Therefore, the JSC Toxicology Group recommends that stringent safety controls and verifications (vibrational testing, etc.) be applied to any hardware that contains elemental mercury that could yield

  20. Analysis of the dependence of sludge digestion efficiency on the mixing process in the digestion tank. Interim report. Untersuchung der Abhaengigkeit des Wirkungsgrades der Schlammfaulung von der Durchmischung im Faulbehaelter. Zwischenbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-01

    The results of previously studied septic tanks show that the flow conditions in these reactors deviate from those of the ideal stirring reactor. This is at first apparent through the short-time analyses, in which different time periods were determined for the tracer merging by the different circulation systems. It was furthermore found that flow anomalies occur, i.e. dead or stagnation zones, and short-circuit flows. The comparison of different circulation systems leads to the hypothesis that mixing by means of external sludge pumps alone cannot suffice to counteract the formation of flow anomalies. (orig.).

  1. Conceptual models for waste tank mechanistic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allemann, R.T.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Eyler, L.L.; Liljegren, L.M.; Roberts, J.S.

    1992-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting a study for Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford), a contractor for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of the work is to study possible mechanisms and fluid dynamics contributing to the periodic release of gases from double-shell waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. This interim report emphasizing the modeling work follows two other interim reports, Mechanistic Analysis of Double-Shell Tank Gas Release Progress Report -- November 1990 and Collection and Analysis of Existing Data for Waste Tank Mechanistic Analysis Progress Report -- December 1990, that emphasized data correlation and mechanisms. The approach in this study has been to assemble and compile data that are pertinent to the mechanisms, analyze the data, evaluate physical properties and parameters, evaluate hypothetical mechanisms, and develop mathematical models of mechanisms

  2. Polymers for subterranean containment barriers for underground storage tanks (USTs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, J.H.; Colombo, P.; Clinton, J.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) set up the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration Program (USTID) to demonstrate technologies for the retrieval and treatment of tank waste, and closure of underground storage tanks (USTs). There are more than 250 underground storage tanks throughout the DOE complex. These tanks contain a wide variety of wastes including high level, low level, transuranic, mixed and hazardous wastes. Many of the tanks have performed beyond the designed lifetime resulting in leakage and contamination of the local geologic media and groundwater. To mitigate this problem it has been proposed that an interim subterranean containment barrier be placed around the tanks. This would minimize or prevent future contamination of soil and groundwater in the event that further tank leakages occur before or during remediation. Use of interim subterranean barriers can also provide sufficient time to evaluate and select appropriate remediation alternatives. The DOE Hanford site was chosen as the demonstration site for containment barrier technologies. A panel of experts for the USTID was convened in February, 1992, to identify technologies for placement of subterranean barriers. The selection was based on the ability of candidate grouts to withstand high radiation doses, high temperatures and aggressive tank waste leachates. The group identified and ranked nine grouting technologies that have potential to place vertical barriers and five for horizontal barriers around the tank. The panel also endorsed placement technologies that require minimal excavation of soil surrounding the tanks

  3. Tank design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that aboveground tanks can be designed with innovative changes to complement the environment. Tanks can be constructed to eliminate the vapor and odor emanating from their contents. Aboveground tanks are sometimes considered eyesores, and in some areas the landscaping has to be improved before they are tolerated. A more universal concern, however, is the vapor or odor that emanates from the tanks as a result of the materials being sorted. The assertive posture some segments of the public now take may eventually force legislatures to classify certain vapors as hazardous pollutants or simply health risks. In any case, responsibility will be leveled at the corporation and subsequent remedy could increase cost beyond preventive measures. The new approach to design and construction of aboveground tanks will forestall any panic which might be induced or perceived by environmentalists. Recently, actions by local authorities and complaining residents were sufficient to cause a corporation to curtail odorous emissions through a change in tank design. The tank design change eliminated the odor from fuel oil vapor thus removing the threat to the environment that the residents perceived. The design includes reinforcement to the tank structure and the addition of an adsorption section. This section allows the tanks to function without any limitation and their contents do not foul the environment. The vapor and odor control was completed successfully on 6,000,000 gallon capacity tanks

  4. Analysis of consequences of postulated solvent fires in Hanford site waste tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, W.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-12

    This document contains the calculations that support the accident analyses for accidents involving organic solvents. This work was performed to support the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) and the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS).

  5. Interim Hanford Waste Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    The September 1985 Interim Hanford Waste Management Plan (HWMP) is the third revision of this document. In the future, the HWMP will be updated on an annual basis or as major changes in disposal planning at Hanford Site require. The most significant changes in the program since the last release of this document in December 1984 include: (1) Based on studies done in support of the Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement (HDW-EIS), the size of the protective barriers covering contaminated soil sites, solid waste burial sites, and single-shell tanks has been increased to provide a barrier that extends 30 m beyond the waste zone. (2) As a result of extensive laboratory development and plant testing, removal of transuranic (TRU) elements from PUREX cladding removal waste (CRW) has been initiated in PUREX. (3) The level of capital support in years beyond those for which specific budget projections have been prepared (i.e., fiscal year 1992 and later) has been increased to maintain Hanford Site capability to support potential future missions, such as the extension of N Reactor/PUREX operations. The costs for disposal of Hanford Site defense wastes are identified in four major areas in the HWMP: waste storage and surveillance, technology development, disposal operations, and capital expenditures

  6. Decay tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Seiichi; Tagishi, Akinori; Sakata, Yuji; Kontani, Koji; Sudo, Yukio; Kaminaga, Masanori; Kameyama, Iwao; Ando, Koei; Ishiki, Masahiko.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns an decay tank for decaying a radioactivity concentration of a fluid containing radioactive material. The inside of an decay tank body is partitioned by partitioning plates to form a flow channel. A porous plate is attached at the portion above the end of the partitioning plate, that is, a portion where the flow is just turned. A part of the porous plate has a slit-like opening on the side close to the partitioning plate, that is, the inner side of the flow at the turning portion thereof. Accordingly, the primary coolants passed through the pool type nuclear reactor and flown into the decay tank are flow caused to uniformly over the entire part of the tank without causing swirling. Since a distribution in a staying time is thus decreased, the effect of decaying 16 N as radioactive nuclides in the primary coolants is increased even in a limited volume of the tank. (I.N.)

  7. Interim Basis for PCB Sampling and Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BANNING, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    This document was developed as an interim basis for sampling and analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and will be used until a formal data quality objective (DQO) document is prepared and approved. On August 31, 2000, the Framework Agreement for Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Hanford Tank Waste was signed by the US. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) (Ecology et al. 2000). This agreement outlines the management of double shell tank (DST) waste as Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) PCB remediation waste based on a risk-based disposal approval option per Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations 761.61 (c). The agreement calls for ''Quantification of PCBs in DSTs, single shell tanks (SSTs), and incoming waste to ensure that the vitrification plant and other ancillary facilities PCB waste acceptance limits and the requirements of the anticipated risk-based disposal approval are met.'' Waste samples will be analyzed for PCBs to satisfy this requirement. This document describes the DQO process undertaken to assure appropriate data will be collected to support management of PCBs and is presented in a DQO format. The DQO process was implemented in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA QAlG4, Guidance for the Data Quality Objectives Process (EPA 1994) and the Data Quality Objectives for Sampling and Analyses, HNF-IP-0842/Rev.1 A, Vol. IV, Section 4.16 (Banning 1999)

  8. Engineering study: disposition of terminal liquors for interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, W.P.; Ogren, W.E.

    1975-02-01

    Eight alternative processes were chosen as being technologically feasible within the time frame dictated by budgeting procedures and terminal liquor availability. Solidified waste products acceptable for single-shell tank storage were assumed to be placed in available single-shell tanks. Double-shell tanks were used only for the more mobile terminal liquors or semi-solid mush products. The mush, chemical neutralization, and clay in-tank processes offer potential savings of tens of millions of dollars over double-shell tank storage of terminal liquors. In order to achieve this cost savings, the process development and demonstration must be completed prior to the beginning of double-shell tank construction (Dec. 1976) expected to be funded from a fiscal year 1977 line item. Budgeting for these additional double-shell tanks must proceed since the processing options discussed here are not yet available and may not prove to be available at the required time. This study indicates the following topics for additional study: Process technology development to achieve interim storage of terminal liquor products receives the greatest emphasis as a means of reducing capital expenditures. Interim storage product criteria, waste inventory, and conversion to final form require definition to allow comparison of the alternatives for disposition of terminal liquors. The pseudotechnical nature of product acceptability criteria is important to the evaluation of the partial neutralization and aluminum removal alternatives. More accurate estimates of terminal liquor quantity and composition are required to give a sound technical basis for choosing the appropriate processing alternative. Retrieval and reprocessing operations may affect the comparisons presented by this study

  9. CMM Interim Check (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-23

    Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) are widely used in industry, throughout the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to verify part conformance to design definition. Calibration cycles for CMMs at LANL are predominantly one year in length. Unfortunately, several nonconformance reports have been generated to document the discovery of a certified machine found out of tolerance during a calibration closeout. In an effort to reduce risk to product quality two solutions were proposed – shorten the calibration cycle which could be costly, or perform an interim check to monitor the machine’s performance between cycles. The CMM interim check discussed makes use of Renishaw’s Machine Checking Gauge. This off-the-shelf product simulates a large sphere within a CMM’s measurement volume and allows for error estimation. Data was gathered, analyzed, and simulated from seven machines in seventeen different configurations to create statistical process control run charts for on-the-floor monitoring.

  10. Mercury speciation comparison. BrooksApplied Laboratories and Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Wilmarth, W. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-12-16

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with preparing and shipping samples for Hg speciation by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences (FGS), Inc. in Bothell, WA on behalf of the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Mercury Program Team. These samples were analyzed for seven species including: total mercury, dissolved mercury, inorganic mercury ((Hg(I) and Hg(II)), elemental mercury, methylmercury, ethylmercury, and dimethylmercury, with an eighth species, particulate mercury, calculated from the difference between total and dissolved mercury after subtracting the elemental mercury. The species fraction of total mercury measured has ranged broadly from a low of 32% to a high of 146%, though the vast majority of samples have been <100%. This can be expected since one is summing multiple values that each have at least a ± 20% measurement uncertainty. Two liquid waste tanks particularly important to understanding the distribution of mercury species in the Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank Farm were selected for a round robin analysis by Eurofins FGS and BrooksApplied Laboratories (BAL). The analyses conducted by BAL on the Tank 22 and 38 samples and their agreement with those obtained from Eurofins FGS for total mercury, dissolved mercury, methylmercury, ethylmercury, and dimethylmercury provide a strong degree of confidence in these species measurements

  11. Mercury speciation comparison. BrooksApplied Laboratories and Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannochie, C. J.; Wilmarth, W. R.

    2016-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with preparing and shipping samples for Hg speciation by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences (FGS), Inc. in Bothell, WA on behalf of the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Mercury Program Team. These samples were analyzed for seven species including: total mercury, dissolved mercury, inorganic mercury ((Hg(I) and Hg(II)), elemental mercury, methylmercury, ethylmercury, and dimethylmercury, with an eighth species, particulate mercury, calculated from the difference between total and dissolved mercury after subtracting the elemental mercury. The species fraction of total mercury measured has ranged broadly from a low of 32% to a high of 146%, though the vast majority of samples have been <100%. This can be expected since one is summing multiple values that each have at least a ± 20% measurement uncertainty. Two liquid waste tanks particularly important to understanding the distribution of mercury species in the Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank Farm were selected for a round robin analysis by Eurofins FGS and BrooksApplied Laboratories (BAL). The analyses conducted by BAL on the Tank 22 and 38 samples and their agreement with those obtained from Eurofins FGS for total mercury, dissolved mercury, methylmercury, ethylmercury, and dimethylmercury provide a strong degree of confidence in these species measurements

  12. The Nord interim store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leushacke, D.F.; Rittscher, D.

    1996-01-01

    In line with the decision taken in 1990 to shut down and decommission the Greifswald and Rheinsberg Nuclear Power Stations, the waste management concept of the Energiewerke Nord is based on direct and complete decommissioning of the six shut down reactor units within the next fifteen years. One key element of this concept is the construction and use of the Zwischenlager Nord (Nord Interim Store, ZLN) for holding the existing nuclear fuels and for interim and decay storage of the radioactive materials arising in decommissioning and demolition. The owner and operator of the store is Energiewerke Nord GmbH. The interim store has the functions of a processing and Energiewerke Nord GmbH. The interim store has the functions of a processing and treatment station and buffer store for the flows of residues arising. As a radioactive waste management station, it accommodates nuclear fuels, radioactive waste or residues which are not treated any further. It is used as a buffer store to allow the materials accumulating in disassembly to be stored temporarily before or after treatment in order to ensure continuous loading of the treatment plants. When operated as a processing station, the ZLN is able to handle nearly all types of radioactive waste and residues arising, except for nuclear fuels. These installations allow the treatment of radioactive residues to be separated from the demolition work both physically and in time. The possibilities of interium storage and buffer storage of untreated waste and waste packages make for high flexibility in logistics and waste management strategy. (orig.) [de

  13. Nitrogen tank

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Wanted The technical file about the pressure vessel RP-270 It concerns the Nitrogen tank, 60m3, 22 bars, built in 1979, and installed at Point-2 for the former L3 experiment. If you are in possession of this file, or have any files about an equivalent tank (probably between registered No. RP-260 and -272), please contact Marc Tavlet, the ALICE Glimos.

  14. 241-AY/AZ waste storage tanks: Supplemental gravity load analysis. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baliga, R.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis of the 241SY tanks performed by ADVENT(1994b) to resolve dome overload issues indicated that the tank can sustain the dome loads resulting from additional soil overburden depth, increased soil density, and increased concentrated load. Similar issues exist for the 241AY/AZ tanks and therefore, an interim analysis of the 241AY/AZ tanks is presented herein. The scope of this effort is to review and compare all design drawings pertaining to the 241AY and 241AZ tanks with those pertaining to the 241SY tanks; to modify the axisymmetric model of the 241SY tanks to represent the 241AY/AZ tanks; and to evaluate the effect of additional dome load on the 241AY/AZ tanks by performing a structural analysis for gravity loads (dead load + live load). ADVENTS's additional scope of work is to perform a qualitative evaluation of the 241AY/AZ tanks for seismic and thermal loadings (Vollert 1982 and Blume 1971). This qualitative evaluation does not include any detailed finite element analysis of the tanks. The following design-based gravity loading conditions are used in this interim analysis of the 241AY/AZ tanks to determine a baseline for the tank stresses or section loads

  15. Interim Hanford Waste Management Technology Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    The Interim Hanford Waste Management Technology Plan (HWMTP) is a companion document to the Interim Hanford Waste Management Plan (HWMP). A reference plan for management and disposal of all existing and certain projected future radioactive Hanford Site Defense Wastes (HSDW) is described and discussed in the HWMP. Implementation of the reference plan requires that various open technical issues be satisfactorily resolved. The principal purpose of the HWMTP is to present detailed descriptions of the technology which must be developed to close each of the technical issues associated with the reference plan identified in the HWMP. If alternative plans are followed, however, technology development efforts including costs and schedules must be changed accordingly. Technical issues addressed in the HWMTP and HWMP are those which relate to disposal of single-shell tank wastes, contaminated soil sites, solid waste burial sites, double-shell tank wastes, encapsulated 137 CsCl and 90 SrF 2 , stored and new solid transuranic (TRU) wastes, and miscellaneous wastes such as contaminated sodium metal. Among the high priority issues to be resolved are characterization of various wastes including early determination of the TRU content of future cladding removal wastes; completion of development of vitrification (Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant) and grout technology; control of subsidence in buried waste sites; and development of criteria and standards including performance assessments of systems proposed for disposal of HSDW. Estimates of the technology costs shown in this report are made on the basis that all identified tasks for all issues associated with the reference disposal plan must be performed. Elimination of, consolidation of, or reduction in the scope of individual tasks will, of course, be reflected in corresponding reduction of overall technology costs

  16. Systems engineering study: tank 241-C-103 organic skimming,storage, treatment and disposal options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klem, M.J.

    1996-10-23

    This report evaluates alternatives for pumping, storing, treating and disposing of the separable phase organic layer in Hanford Site Tank 241-C-103. The report provides safety and technology based preferences and recommendations. Two major options and several varations of these options were identified. The major options were: 1) transfer both the organic and pumpable aqueous layers to a double-shell tank as part of interim stabilization using existing salt well pumping equipment or 2) skim the organic to an above ground before interim stabilization of Tank 241-C-103. Other options to remove the organic were considered but rejected following preliminary evaluation.

  17. Interim data quality objectives for waste pretreatment and vitrification. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupfer, M.J.; Conner, J.M.; Kirkbride, R.A.; Mobley, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is responsible for storing, processing, and immobilizing the Hanford Site tank wastes. Characterization information on the tank wastes is needed so that safety concerns can be addressed, and retrieval, pretreatment, and immobilization processes can be designed, permitted, and implemented. This document describes the near-term tank waste sampling and characterization needs of the Pretreatment, High-Level Waste (HLW) Disposal, and Low-Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Programs to support the TWRS disposal mission. The final DQO (Data Quality Objective) will define specific waste tanks to be sampled, sample timing requirements, an appropriate analytical scheme, and a list of required analytes. This interim DQO, however, focuses primarily on the required analytes since the tanks to be sampled in FY 1994 and early FY 1995 are being driven most heavily by other considerations, particularly safety. The major objective of this Interim DQO is to provide guidance for tank waste characterization requirements for samples taken before completion of the final DQO. The characterization data needs defined herein will support the final DQO to help perform the following: Support the TWRS technical strategy by identification of the chemical and physical composition of the waste in the tanks and Guide development efforts to define waste pretreatment processes, which will in turn define HLW and LLW feed to vitrification processes

  18. Engineering Task Plan for Hose-In-Hose Transfer Lines for the Interim Stabilization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TORRES, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    The document is the Engineering Task Plan for the engineering, design services, planning, project integration and management support for the design, modification, installation and testing of an over ground transfer (OGT) system to support the interim stabilization of S/SX and U Tank Farms

  19. Features and safety aspects of Additional Waste Tank Farm, Tarapur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, Sanjay; Dubey, K.; Qureshi, F.T.; Lokeswar, S.P.

    2017-01-01

    Additional Waste Tank Farm (AWTF) at Tarapur is designed to store High and Intermediate Level Liquid wastes generated on an interim basis prior to treatment at TWMP for final disposal. Defence-in-depth philosophy is adopted in the design of AWTF

  20. Interim storage study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlins, J.K.

    1998-02-01

    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in the form of calcine and liquid and liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) will be processed to provide a stable waste form and prepare the waste to be transported to a permanent repository. Because a permanent repository will not be available when the waste is processed, the waste must be stored at ICPP in an Interim Storage Facility (ISF). This report documents consideration of an ISF for each of the waste processing options under consideration.

  1. Interim storage report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawlins, J.K.

    1998-02-01

    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in the form of calcine and liquid and liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) will be processed to provide a stable waste form and prepare the waste to be transported to a permanent repository. Because a permanent repository will not be available when the waste is processed, the waste must be stored at ICPP in an Interim Storage Facility (ISF). This report documents consideration of an ISF for each of the waste processing options under consideration

  2. Tank characterization report for Single-Shell Tank 241-BX-107

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphael, G.F.

    1994-09-01

    This study examined and assessed the status, safety issues, composition, and distribution of the wastes contained in the tank 241-BX-107. Historical and most recent information, ranging from engineering structural assessment experiments, process history, monitoring and remediation activities, to analytical core sample data, were compiled and interpreted in an effort to develop a realistic, contemporary profile for the tank BX-107 contents. The results of this is study revealed that tank BX-107, a 2,006,050 L (530,000 gal) cylindrical single-shell, dished-bottom carbon-steel tank in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site, was classified as sound. It has been interim stabilized and thus contains less than 189,250 L (50,000 gal) of interstitial liquid, and less than 18,925 L (5,000 gal) of supernatant. It has also been partially interim isolated, whereby all inlets to the tank are sealed to prevent inadvertent addition of liquid. At a residual waste level of ∼3.07 m (120.7 ± 2 in. from sidewall bottom or ∼132.9 in. from center bottom), it is estimated that the tank BX-107 contents are equivalent to 1,305,825 L (345,000 gal). The vapor space pressure is at atmospheric. The latest temperature readings, which were taken in July 1994, show a moderate temperature value of 19 degrees C (66 degrees F). Two supernatant samples were collected in 1974 and 1990, prior to interim stabilization. Sludge core samples were obtained in 1979 and 1992

  3. Underground Storage Tanks - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  4. Assessment of chemical vulnerabilities in the Hanford high-level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meacham, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize results of relevant data (tank farm and laboratory) and analysis related to potential chemical vulnerabilities of the Hanford Site waste tanks. Potential chemical safety vulnerabilities examined include spontaneous runaway reactions, condensed phase waste combustibility, and tank headspace flammability. The major conclusions of the report are the following: Spontaneous runaway reactions are not credible; condensed phase combustion is not likely; and periodic releases of flammable gas can be mitigated by interim stabilization

  5. Dual Tank Fuel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard William; Burkhard, James Frank; Dauer, Kenneth John

    1999-11-16

    A dual tank fuel system has primary and secondary fuel tanks, with the primary tank including a filler pipe to receive fuel and a discharge line to deliver fuel to an engine, and with a balance pipe interconnecting the primary tank and the secondary tank. The balance pipe opens close to the bottom of each tank to direct fuel from the primary tank to the secondary tank as the primary tank is filled, and to direct fuel from the secondary tank to the primary tank as fuel is discharged from the primary tank through the discharge line. A vent line has branches connected to each tank to direct fuel vapor from the tanks as the tanks are filled, and to admit air to the tanks as fuel is delivered to the engine.

  6. Spent fuel interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilegan, Iosif C.

    2003-01-01

    The official inauguration of the spent fuel interim storage took place on Monday July 28, 2003 at Cernavoda NNP. The inaugural event was attended by local and central public authority representatives, a Canadian Government delegation as well as newsmen from local and central mass media and numerous specialists from Cernavoda NPP compound. Mr Andrei Grigorescu, State Secretary with the Economy and Commerce Ministry, underlined in his talk the importance of this objective for the continuous development of nuclear power in Romania as well as for Romania's complying with the EU practice in this field. Also the excellent collaboration between the Canadian contractor AECL and the Romanian partners Nuclear Montaj, CITON, UTI, General Concret in the accomplishment of this unit at the planned terms and costs. On behalf of Canadian delegation, spoke Minister Don Boudria. He underlined the importance which the Canadian Government affords to the cooperation with Romania aiming at specific objectives in the field of nuclear power such as the Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 and spent fuel interim storage. After traditional cutting of the inaugural ribbon by the two Ministers the festivities continued on the Cernavoda NPP Compound with undersigning the documents regarding the project completion and a press conference

  7. Tank farms hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    Hanford contractors are writing new facility specific emergency procedures in response to new and revised US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders on emergency preparedness. Emergency procedures are required for each Hanford facility that has the potential to exceed the criteria for the lowest level emergency, an Alert. The set includes: (1) a facility specific procedure on Recognition and Classification of Emergencies, (2) area procedures on Initial Emergency Response and, (3) an area procedure on Protective Action Guidance. The first steps in developing these procedures are to identify the hazards at each facility, identify the conditions that could release the hazardous material, and calculate the consequences of the releases. These steps are called a Hazards Assessment. The final product is a document that is similar in some respects to a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The document could br produced in a month for a simple facility but could take much longer for a complex facility. Hanford has both types of facilities. A strategy has been adopted to permit completion of the first version of the new emergency procedures before all the facility hazards Assessments are complete. The procedures will initially be based on input from a task group for each facility. This strategy will but improved emergency procedures in place sooner and therefore enhance Hanford emergency preparedness. The purpose of this document is to summarize the applicable information contained within the Waste Tank Facility ''Interim Safety Basis Document, WHC-SD-WM-ISB-001'' as a resource, since the SARs covering Waste Tank Operations are not current in all cases. This hazards assessment serves to collect, organize, document and present the information utilized during the determination process

  8. Mercury's Messenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Clark R.

    2004-01-01

    Forty years after Mariner 2, planetary exploration has still only just begun, and many more missions are on drawing boards, nearing the launch pad, or even en route across interplanetary space to their targets. One of the most challenging missions that will be conducted this decade is sending the MESSENGER spacecraft to orbit the planet Mercury.…

  9. Mercury Report-Children's exposure to elemental mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov . Mercury Background Mercury Report Additional Resources Mercury Report - Children's Exposure to Elemental Mercury Recommend on Facebook ... I limit exposure to mercury? Why was the report written? Children attending a daycare in New Jersey ...

  10. Progress and future direction for the interim safe storage and disposal of Hanford high level waste (HLW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wodrich, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the progress made at the largest environmental cleanup program in the United States. Substantial advances in methods to start interim safe storage of Hanford Site high-level wastes, waste characterization to support both safety- and disposal-related information needs, and proceeding with cost-effective disposal by the US DOE and its Hanford Site contractors, have been realized. Challenges facing the Tank Waste Remediation System Program, which is charged with the dual and parallel missions of interim safe storage and disposal of the high-level tank waste stored at the Hanford Site, are described

  11. ETF interim design review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, D.; Rutherford, P.H.

    1980-01-01

    A three-day ETF Interim Design Review was conducted on July 23-25, 1980, at the Sheraton Potomac Inn in Rockville, Maryland. The intent of the review was to provide a forum for an in-depth assessment and critique of all facets of the ETF design by members of the fusion community. The review began with an opening plenary session at which an overview of the ETF design was presented by D. Steiner, manager of the ETF Design Center, complemented by a physics overview by P.H. Rutherford, chairman of the ETF/INTOR Physics Committee. This was followed by six concurrent review sessions over the next day and a half. The review closed with a plenary session at which the Design Review Board presented its findings. This document consists of the viewgraphs for the opening plenary session and an edited version of the presentations made by Steiner and Rutherford

  12. Interim geotechnical data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This issue, the Interim Geotechnical Field Data Report, presents information obtained from the geotechnical activities at the WIPP site underground facilities since the last quarterly report. It also includes cumulative plots which contain all previous data. Finally, it continues the geotechnical analyses and interpretations of the data. The GFDR is organized into two principal parts. The first part, Geotechnical Field Data, presents in graphical form all the data collected since April 1982 from the geomechanical instruments. Presented in the second part, Evaluation and Analyses, are preliminary interpretations and analyses of the data. In this report, continuing geotechnical assessment of all the facility features is presented. Also included in the second part are separate sections on evaluation and interpretation of the instrumentation measurements, and an updated description and evaluation of observed behavior of the underground openings

  13. Federal Interim Storage program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.R.; McBride, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The DOE has developed a program for providing Federal Interim Storage servies for spent nuclear fuel which complies with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Although very little constructive activity in providing storage facilities can be undertaken by DOE until fuel has been certified by NRC as eligible for FIS, DOE planning and background information is such as to provide reasonable assurance that its obligations can be fulfilled when the required certifications have been issued. A fee structure providing fuel recovery of all costs associated with the FIS program, as required by the Act, has been developed. It provides for an equitable distribution of costs among users, based on the quantity of fuel requiring storage

  14. Self-Assembled Mercaptan on Mesoporous Silica (SAMMS) technology of mercury removal and stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Xiangdong; Liu, Jun; Fryxell, G.E.

    1997-09-01

    This paper explains the technology developed to produce Self-Assembled Mercaptan on Mesoporous Silica (SAMMS) for mercury removal from aqueous wastewater and from organic wastes. The characteristics of SAMMS materials, including physical characteristics and mercury loading, and its application for mercury removal and stabilization are discussed. Binding kinetics and binding speciations are reported. Preliminary cost estimates are provided for producing SAMMS materials and for mercury removal from wastewater. The characteristics of SAMMS in mercury separation were studied at PNNL using simulated aqueous tank wastes and actual tritiated pump oil wastes from Savannah River Site; preliminary results are outlined. 47 refs., 16 figs., 16 tabs

  15. Self-Assembled Mercaptan on Mesoporous Silica (SAMMS) technology of mercury removal and stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xiangdong; Liu, Jun; Fryxell, G.E. [and others

    1997-09-01

    This paper explains the technology developed to produce Self-Assembled Mercaptan on Mesoporous Silica (SAMMS) for mercury removal from aqueous wastewater and from organic wastes. The characteristics of SAMMS materials, including physical characteristics and mercury loading, and its application for mercury removal and stabilization are discussed. Binding kinetics and binding speciations are reported. Preliminary cost estimates are provided for producing SAMMS materials and for mercury removal from wastewater. The characteristics of SAMMS in mercury separation were studied at PNNL using simulated aqueous tank wastes and actual tritiated pump oil wastes from Savannah River Site; preliminary results are outlined. 47 refs., 16 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. Tank Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    For NASA's Apollo program, McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company, Huntington Beach, California, developed and built the S-IVB, uppermost stage of the three-stage Saturn V moonbooster. An important part of the development task was fabrication of a tank to contain liquid hydrogen fuel for the stage's rocket engine. The liquid hydrogen had to be contained at the supercold temperature of 423 degrees below zero Fahrenheit. The tank had to be perfectly insulated to keep engine or solar heat from reaching the fuel; if the hydrogen were permitted to warm up, it would have boiled off, or converted to gaseous form, reducing the amount of fuel available to the engine. McDonnell Douglas' answer was a supereffective insulation called 3D, which consisted of a one-inch thickness of polyurethane foam reinforced in three dimensions with fiberglass threads. Over a 13-year development and construction period, the company built 30 tanks and never experienced a failure. Now, after years of additional development, an advanced version of 3D is finding application as part of a containment system for transporting Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) by ship.

  17. FFTF vertical sodium storage tank preliminary thermal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    In the FFTF Shutdown Program, sodium from the primary and secondary heat transport loops, Interim Decay Storage (IDS), and Fuel Storage Facility (FSF) will be transferred to four large storage tanks for temporary storage. Three of the storage tanks will be cylindrical vertical tanks having a diameter of 28 feet, height of 22 feet and fabricated from carbon steel. The fourth tank is a horizontal cylindrical tank but is not the subject of this report. The storage tanks will be located near the FFTF in the 400 Area and rest on a steel-lined concrete slab in an enclosed building. The purpose of this work is to document the thermal analyses that were performed to ensure that the vertical FFTF sodium storage tank design is feasible from a thermal standpoint. The key criterion for this analysis is the time to heat up the storage tank containing frozen sodium at ambient temperature to 400 F. Normal operating conditions include an ambient temperature range of 32 F to 120 F. A key parameter in the evaluation of the sodium storage tank is the type of insulation. The baseline case assumed six inches of calcium silicate insulation. An alternate case assumed refractory fiber (Cerablanket) insulation also with a thickness of six inches. Both cases assumed a total electrical trace heat load of 60 kW, with 24 kW evenly distributed on the bottom head and 36 kW evenly distributed on the tank side wall

  18. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented

  19. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

  20. Safety analysis of exothermic reaction hazards associated with the organic liquid layer in tank 241-C-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postma, A.K.; Bechtold, D.B.; Borsheim, G.L.; Grisby, J.M.; Guthrie, R.L.; Kummerer, M.; Turner, D.A.; Plys, M.G.

    1994-03-01

    Safety hazards associated with the interim storage of a potentially flammable organic liquid in waste Tank C-103 are identified and evaluated. The technical basis for closing the unreviewed safety question (USQ) associated with the floating liquid organic layer in this tank is presented

  1. Safety analysis of exothermic reaction hazards associated with the organic liquid layer in tank 241-C-103

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postma, A.K.; Bechtold, D.B.; Borsheim, G.L.; Grisby, J.M.; Guthrie, R.L.; Kummerer, M.; Turner, D.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Plys, M.G. [Fauske and Associates, Inc., Burr Ridge, IL (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Safety hazards associated with the interim storage of a potentially flammable organic liquid in waste Tank C-103 are identified and evaluated. The technical basis for closing the unreviewed safety question (USQ) associated with the floating liquid organic layer in this tank is presented.

  2. Urgent recommendation. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Masayuki

    2000-01-01

    The Investigation Committee for Critical Accident at Uranium Processing Plant was founded immediately after the accident to investigate the cause of the accident and to establish measures to prevent the similar accident. On September 30, 1999 around 10:35, the Japan's first criticality accident occurred at JCO Co. Ltd. Uranium processing plant (auxiliary conversion plant) located at Tokai-mura Ibaraki-ken. The criticality continued on and off for approximately 20 hours after the first instantaneous criticality. The accident led the recommendation of tentative evacuation and sheltering indoors for residents living in the neighborhood. The serious exposure to neutrons happened to three workers. The dominant effect is dose due to neutrons and gamma rays from the precipitation tank. When the accident took place, three workers dissolved sequentially about 2.4 kg uranium powder with 18.8 % enrichment in the 10-litter bucket with nitric acid. The procedure of homogenization of uranium nitrate was supposed to be controlled using the shape-limited narrow storage column. Actually, however, the thick and large precipitation tank was used. As a result, about 16.6 kg of uranium was fed into the tank, which presumably caused criticality. The first notification by JCO was delayed and the following communication was not smooth. This led to the delay of correct understanding of the situation and made the initial proper response difficult, then followed by insufficient communication between the nation, prefecture, and local authority. Urgent recommendations were made on the following items; (1) Safety measures to be taken at the accident site, (2) health cares for residents and others, (3) Comprehensive safety securing at nuclear operators such as Establishment of the effective audit system, Safety education for employees and Qualification and licensing system, Safety related documents, etc. (4) Reconstruction of the government's safety regulations such as How safety regulation

  3. Interim Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Choubey, S.; Goswami, S.; Berg, J.S.; Fernow, R.; Gallardo, J.C.; Gupta, R.; Kirk, H.; Simos, N.; Souchlas, N.; Ellis, M.; Kyberd, P.; Benedetto, E.; Fernandez-Martinez, E.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoni, S.; Martini, M.; Prior, G.; Ballett, P.; Pascoli, S.; Bross, A.; Geer, S.; Johnstone, C.; Kopp, J.; Mokhov, N.; Morfin, J.; Neuffer, D.; Parke, S.; Popovic, M.; Strait, J.; Striganov, S.; Blondel, A.; Dufour, F.; Laing, A.; Soler, F.J.P; Lindner, M.; Schwetz, T.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Aslaninejad, M.; Bontoiu, C.; Dornan, P.; Eccleston, R.; Kurup, A.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Pozimski, J.; Bogacz, A.; Morozov, V.; Roblin, Y.; Bhattacharya, S.; Majumdar, D.; Mori, Y.; Planche, T.; Zisman, M.; Cline, D.; Stratakis, D.; Ding, X.; Coloma, P.; Donini, A.; Gavela, B.; Lopez Pavon, J.; Maltoni, M.; Bromberg, C.; Bonesini, M.; Hart, T.; Kudenko, Y.; Mondal, N.; Antusch, S.; Blennow, M.; Ota, T.; Abrams, R.J.; Ankenbrandt, C.M.; Beard, K.B.; Cummings, M.A.C.; Flanagan, G.; Johnson, R.P.; Roberts, T.J.; Yoshikawa, C.Y.; Migliozzi, P.; Palladino, V.; de Gouvea, A.; Graves, V.B.; Kuno, Y.; Peltoniemi, J.; Blackmore, V.; Cobb, J.; Witte, H.; Mezzetto, M.; Rigolin, S.; McDonald, K.T.; Coney, L.; Hanson, G.; Snopok, P.; Tortora, L.; Andreopoulos, C.; Bennett, J.R.J.; Brooks, S.; Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; Densham, C.; Edgecock, R.; Kelliher, D.; Loveridge, P.; McFarland, A.; Machida, S.; Prior, C.; Rees, G.; Rogers, C.; Thomason, J.W.G.; Booth, C.; Skoro, G.; Karadzhov, Y.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Samulyak, R.; Mishra, S.R.; Petti, R.; Dracos, M.; Yasuda, O.; Agarwalla, S.K.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Hernandez, P.; Li, T.; Martin-Albo, J.; Huber, P.; Back, J.; Barker, G.; Harrison, P.; Meloni, D.; Tang, J.; Winter, W.

    2011-01-01

    The International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) was established by the community at the ninth "International Workshop on Neutrino Factories, super-beams, and beta- beams" which was held in Okayama in August 2007. The IDS-NF mandate is to deliver the Reference Design Report (RDR) for the facility on the timescale of 2012/13. In addition, the mandate for the study [3] requires an Interim Design Report to be delivered midway through the project as a step on the way to the RDR. This document, the IDR, has two functions: it marks the point in the IDS-NF at which the emphasis turns to the engineering studies required to deliver the RDR and it documents baseline concepts for the accelerator complex, the neutrino detectors, and the instrumentation systems. The IDS-NF is, in essence, a site-independent study. Example sites, CERN, FNAL, and RAL, have been identified to allow site-specific issues to be addressed in the cost analysis that will be presented in the RDR. The choice of example sites shou...

  4. 49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331 Section 172.331 Transportation Other Regulations... packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) Each person...

  5. Mercury and Silver in Clinic Wastewater Goodfellow AFB, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    SE(JrTY CLASSIFICATION 1b RESTRICTIVE MARINGSuncfassi I ed N/A 2a SCRITY CLASSIFICATION AUTHORITY 3 DISTRIBUTION / AVAiLABILIT OF REPORT N/A Approved...Material suctioned from teeth restoration are collected in a central separator/collection tank. The tank is automatically cleaned by rinsing it with water ...insoluble or sparingly soluble in water . In neutral or alkaline solutions, mercury is oxidized directly to the mercuric state with the formatin of

  6. Engineering study of 50 miscellaneous inactive underground radioactive waste tanks located at the Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    This engineering study addresses 50 inactive underground radioactive waste tanks. The tanks were formerly used for the following functions associated with plutonium and uranium separations and waste management activities in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Site: settling solids prior to disposal of supernatant in cribs and a reverse well; neutralizing acidic process wastes prior to crib disposal; receipt and processing of single-shell tank (SST) waste for uranium recovery operations; catch tanks to collect water that intruded into diversion boxes and transfer pipeline encasements and any leakage that occurred during waste transfer operations; and waste handling and process experimentation. Most of these tanks have not been in use for many years. Several projects have, been planned and implemented since the 1970's and through 1985 to remove waste and interim isolate or interim stabilize many of the tanks. Some tanks have been filled with grout within the past several years. Responsibility for final closure and/or remediation of these tanks is currently assigned to several programs including Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS), Environmental Restoration and Remedial Action (ERRA), and Decommissioning and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure (D ampersand RCP). Some are under facility landlord responsibility for maintenance and surveillance (i.e. Plutonium Uranium Extraction [PUREX]). However, most of the tanks are not currently included in any active monitoring or surveillance program

  7. Environmental Assessment: Waste Tank Safety Program, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) needs to take action in the near-term, to accelerate resolution of waste tank safety issues at the Hanford Site near the City of Richland, Washington, and reduce the risks associated with operations and management of the waste tanks. The DOE has conducted nuclear waste management operations at the Hanford Site for nearly 50 years. Operations have included storage of high-level nuclear waste in 177 underground storage tanks (UST), both in single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank configurations. Many of the tanks, and the equipment needed to operate them, are deteriorated. Sixty-seven SSTs are presumed to have leaked a total approximately 3,800,000 liters (1 million gallons) of radioactive waste to the soil. Safety issues associated with the waste have been identified, and include (1) flammable gas generation and episodic release; (2) ferrocyanide-containing wastes; (3) a floating organic solvent layer in Tank 241-C-103; (4) nuclear criticality; (5) toxic vapors; (6) infrastructure upgrades; and (7) interim stabilization of SSTs. Initial actions have been taken in all of these areas; however, much work remains before a full understanding of the tank waste behavior is achieved. The DOE needs to accelerate the resolution of tank safety concerns to reduce the risk of an unanticipated radioactive or chemical release to the environment, while continuing to manage the wastes safely

  8. Mercury contamination extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Mark [Silver Spring, MD; Heiser, John [Bayport, NY; Kalb, Paul [Wading River, NY

    2009-09-15

    Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

  9. Urgent recommendation. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Masayuki [International Affairs and Safeguards Division, Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    The Investigation Committee for Critical Accident at Uranium Processing Plant was founded immediately after the accident to investigate the cause of the accident and to establish measures to prevent the similar accident. On September 30, 1999 around 10:35, the Japan's first criticality accident occurred at JCO Co. Ltd. Uranium processing plant (auxiliary conversion plant) located at Tokai-mura Ibaraki-ken. The criticality continued on and off for approximately 20 hours after the first instantaneous criticality. The accident led the recommendation of tentative evacuation and sheltering indoors for residents living in the neighborhood. The serious exposure to neutrons happened to three workers. The dominant effect is dose due to neutrons and gamma rays from the precipitation tank. When the accident took place, three workers dissolved sequentially about 2.4 kg uranium powder with 18.8 % enrichment in the 10-litter bucket with nitric acid. The procedure of homogenization of uranium nitrate was supposed to be controlled using the shape-limited narrow storage column. Actually, however, the thick and large precipitation tank was used. As a result, about 16.6 kg of uranium was fed into the tank, which presumably caused criticality. The first notification by JCO was delayed and the following communication was not smooth. This led to the delay of correct understanding of the situation and made the initial proper response difficult, then followed by insufficient communication between the nation, prefecture, and local authority. Urgent recommendations were made on the following items; (1) Safety measures to be taken at the accident site, (2) health cares for residents and others, (3) Comprehensive safety securing at nuclear operators such as Establishment of the effective audit system, Safety education for employees and Qualification and licensing system, Safety related documents, etc. (4) Reconstruction of the government's safety regulations such as How safety

  10. Evaluation of ISDP Batch 2 Qualification Compliance to 512-S, DWPF, Tank Farm, and Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, A.

    2010-05-05

    The purpose of this report is to document the acceptability of the second macrobatch (Salt Batch 2) of Tank 49H waste to H Tank Farm, DWPF, and Saltstone for operation of the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP). Tank 49 feed meets the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) requirements specified by References 11, 12, and 13. Salt Batch 2 material is qualified and ready to be processed through ARP/MCU to the final disposal facilities.

  11. Tank waste compositions and atmospheric dispersion coefficients for use in accelerated safety analysis consequence assessments. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savino, A.V.

    1995-11-01

    This topical report contains technical support information used to determine accident consequences for the Tank Farms Accelerated Safety Analysis (ASA) Interim Chapter 3, Hazard and Accident Analysis: Potential for Releases and Required Mitigation and Prevention and the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) environmental impact statement (EIS) accident consequence report. It does not determine accident consequences or describe specific accident scenarios, but instead provides generic information used to calculate radiological and toxic chemical consequences for postulated tank farms accident releases

  12. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-02-24

    This report examines the feasibility of remediating ancillary equipment associated with the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. Ancillary equipment includes surface structures and equipment, process waste piping, ventilation components, wells, and pits, boxes, sumps, and tanks used to make waste transfers to/from the AX tanks and adjoining tank farms. Two remedial alternatives are considered: (1) excavation and removal of all ancillary equipment items, and (2) in-situ stabilization by grout filling, the 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a strawman in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tanks. This is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  13. 24 CFR 35.1330 - Interim controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Lead-Paint Hazard Evaluation and Hazard Reduction Activities § 35.1330 Interim controls. Interim..., cleanable covering or coating, such as metal coil stock, plastic, polyurethane, or linoleum. (3) Surfaces...

  14. Tank 241-U-203: Tank Characterization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyanarayana, P.

    1995-01-01

    The revised Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order states that a tank characterization plan will be developed for each double-shell tank and single-shell tank using the data quality objective process. The plans are intended to allow users and regulators to ensure their needs will be met and resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information. This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-U-203 sampling activities

  15. Radioactive waste interim storage in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    The short summary on the radioactive waste interim storage in Germany covers the following issues: importance of interim storage in the frame of radioactive waste management, responsibilities and regulations, waste forms, storage containers, transport of vitrified high-level radioactive wastes from the reprocessing plants, central interim storage facilities (Gorleben, Ahaus, Nord/Lubmin), local interim storage facilities at nuclear power plant sites, federal state collecting facilities, safety, radiation exposure in Germany.

  16. 7 CFR 1735.75 - Interim financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim financing. 1735.75 Section 1735.75... Involving Loan Funds § 1735.75 Interim financing. (a) A borrower may submit a written request for RUS approval of interim financing if it is necessary to close an acquisition before the loan to finance the...

  17. 7 CFR 1738.21 - Interim financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim financing. 1738.21 Section 1738.21... Interim financing. (a) Upon notification by RUS that an applicant's application is considered complete, the applicant may enter into an interim financing agreement with a lender other than RUS or use its...

  18. 340 Waste Handling Facility interim safety basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendixsen, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    This document establishes the interim safety basis (ISB) for the 340 Waste Handling Facility (340 Facility). An ISB is a documented safety basis that provides a justification for the continued operation of the facility until an upgraded final safety analysis report is prepared that complies with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports. The ISB for the 340 Facility documents the current design and operation of the facility. The 340 Facility ISB (ISB-003) is based on a facility walkdown and review of the design and operation of the facility, as described in the existing safety documentation. The safety documents reviewed, to develop ISB-003, include the following: OSD-SW-153-0001, Operating Specification Document for the 340 Waste Handling Facility (WHC 1990); OSR-SW-152-00003, Operating Limits for the 340 Waste Handling Facility (WHC 1989); SD-RE-SAP-013, Safety Analysis Report for Packaging, Railroad Liquid Waste Tank Cars (Mercado 1993); SD-WM-TM-001, Safety Assessment Document for the 340 Waste Handling Facility (Berneski 1994a); SD-WM-SEL-016, 340 Facility Safety Equipment List (Berneski 1992); and 340 Complex Fire Hazard Analysis, Draft (Hughes Assoc. Inc. 1994)

  19. 49 CFR 172.330 - Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.330..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.330 Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a... material— (1) In a tank car unless the following conditions are met: (i) The tank car must be marked on...

  20. Immobilized low-activity waste interim storage facility, Project W-465 conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, W.W.

    1997-12-30

    This report outlines the design and Total Estimated Cost to modify the four unused grout vaults for the remote handling and interim storage of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). The grout vault facilities in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site were constructed in the 1980s to support Tank Waste disposal activities. The facilities were to serve project B-714 which was intended to store grouted low-activity waste. The existing 4 unused grout vaults, with modifications for remote handling capability, will provide sufficient capacity for approximately three years of immobilized low activity waste (ILAW) production from the Tank Waste Remediation System-Privatization Vendors (TWRS-PV). These retrofit modifications to the grout vaults will result in an ILAW interim storage facility (Project W465) that will comply with applicable DOE directives, and state and federal regulations.

  1. Immobilized low-activity waste interim storage facility, Project W-465 conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, W.W.

    1997-01-01

    This report outlines the design and Total Estimated Cost to modify the four unused grout vaults for the remote handling and interim storage of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). The grout vault facilities in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site were constructed in the 1980s to support Tank Waste disposal activities. The facilities were to serve project B-714 which was intended to store grouted low-activity waste. The existing 4 unused grout vaults, with modifications for remote handling capability, will provide sufficient capacity for approximately three years of immobilized low activity waste (ILAW) production from the Tank Waste Remediation System-Privatization Vendors (TWRS-PV). These retrofit modifications to the grout vaults will result in an ILAW interim storage facility (Project W465) that will comply with applicable DOE directives, and state and federal regulations

  2. Tank 241-BY-111 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    The sampling and analytical needs associated with the 51 Hanford Site underground storage tanks classified on one or more of the four Watch Lists (ferrocyanide, organic, flammable gas, and high heat), and the safety screening of all 177 tanks have been identified through the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process. DQO's identify information needed by a program group in the Tank Waste Remediation System concerned with safety issues, regulatory requirements, or the transporting and processing of tank waste. This Tank Characterization Plan will identify characterization objectives for Tank BY-111 pertaining to sample collection, sample preparation and analysis, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements. In addition, an estimate of the current contents and status of the tank is given

  3. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    This report considers the feasibility of exposing, demolishing, and removing underground storage tanks from the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. For the study, it was assumed that the tanks would each contain 360 ft 3 of residual waste (corresponding to the one percent residual Inventory target cited in the Tri-Party Agreement) at the time of demolition. The 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a ''strawman'' in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tank farms. The report is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms

  4. Cross flow filtration of aqueous radioactive tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, D.J.; Reynolds, B.A.; Todd, T.A.; Wilson, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    The Tank Focus Area (TFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology addresses remediation of radioactive waste currently stored in underground tanks. Baseline technologies for treatment of tank waste can be categorized into three types of solid liquid separation: (a) removal of radioactive species that have been absorbed or precipitated, (b) pretreatment, and (c) volume reduction of sludge and wash water. Solids formed from precipitation or absorption of radioactive ions require separation from the liquid phase to permit treatment of the liquid as Low Level Waste. This basic process is used for decontamination of tank waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Ion exchange of radioactive ions has been proposed for other tank wastes, requiring removal of insoluble solids to prevent bed fouling and downstream contamination. Additionally, volume reduction of washed sludge solids would reduce the tank space required for interim storage of High Level Wastes. The scope of this multi-site task is to evaluate the solid/liquid separations needed to permit treatment of tank wastes to accomplish these goals. Testing has emphasized cross now filtration with metal filters to pretreat tank wastes, due to tolerance of radiation and caustic

  5. Maximum surface level and temperature histories for Hanford waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, B.D.; Ha, N.D.; Huisingh, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive defense waste resulting from the chemical processing of spent nuclear fuel has been accumulating at the Hanford Site since 1944. This waste is stored in underground waste-storage tanks. The Hanford Site Tank Farm Facilities Interim Safety Basis (ISB) provides a ready reference to the safety envelope for applicable tank farm facilities and installations. During preparation of the ISB, tank structural integrity concerns were identified as a key element in defining the safety envelope. These concerns, along with several deficiencies in the technical bases associated with the structural integrity issues and the corresponding operational limits/controls specified for conduct of normal tank farm operations are documented in the ISB. Consequently, a plan was initiated to upgrade the safety envelope technical bases by conducting Accelerated Safety Analyses-Phase 1 (ASA-Phase 1) sensitivity studies and additional structural evaluations. The purpose of this report is to facilitate the ASA-Phase 1 studies and future analyses of the single-shell tanks (SSTs) and double-shell tanks (DSTs) by compiling a quantitative summary of some of the past operating conditions the tanks have experienced during their existence. This report documents the available summaries of recorded maximum surface levels and maximum waste temperatures and references other sources for more specific data

  6. Hanford Tank Cleanup Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriochoa, M.V.

    2011-01-01

    Access to Hanford's single-shell radioactive waste storage tank C-107 was significantly improved when workers completed the cut of a 55-inch diameter hole in the top of the tank. The core and its associated cutting equipment were removed from the tank and encased in a plastic sleeve to prevent any potential spread of contamination. The larger tank opening allows use of a new more efficient robotic arm to complete tank retrieval.

  7. Tank 241-C-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify the sampling analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. A Tank Characterization Plant (TCP) will be developed for each double shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process. There are four Watch list tank classifications (ferrocyanide, organic salts, hydrogen/flammable gas, and high heat load). These classifications cover the six safety issues related to public and worker health that have been associated with the Hanford Site underground storage tanks. These safety issues are as follows: ferrocyanide, flammable gas, organic, criticality, high heat, and vapor safety issues. Tank C-103 is one of the twenty tanks currently on the Organic Salts Watch List. This TCP will identify characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, hot cell sample isolation, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements in accordance with the appropriate DQO documents. In addition, the current contents and status of the tank are projected from historical information. The relevant safety issues that are of concern for tanks on the Organic Salts Watch List are: the potential for an exothermic reaction occurring from the flammable mixture of organic materials and nitrate/nitrite salts that could result in a release of radioactive material and the possibility that other safety issues may exist for the tank

  8. Tank 241-AW-101 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyanarayana, P.

    1994-01-01

    The first section gives a summary of the available information for Tank AW-101. Included in the discussion are the process history and recent sampling events for the tank, as well as general information about the tank such as its age and the risers to be used for sampling. Tank 241-AW-101 is one of the 25 tanks on the Flammable Gas Watch List. To resolve the Flammable Gas safety issue, characterization of the tanks, including intrusive tank sampling, must be performed. Prior to sampling, however, the potential for the following scenarios must be evaluated: the potential for ignition of flammable gases such as hydrogen-air and/or hydrogen-nitrous oxide; and the potential for secondary ignition of organic-nitrate/nitrate mixtures in crust layer initiated by the burning of flammable gases or by a mechanical in-tank energy source. The characterization effort applicable to this Tank Characterization Plan is focused on the resolution of the crust burn flammable gas safety issue of Tank AW-101. To evaluate the potential for a crust burn of the waste material, calorimetry tests will be performed on the waste. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) will be used to determine whether an exothermic reaction exists

  9. Assessment of mercury in the Savannah River Site environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvartek, E.J.; Carlton, W.H.; Denham, M.; Eldridge, L.; Newman, M.C.

    1994-09-01

    Mercury has been valued by humans for several millennia. Its principal ore, cinnabar, was mined for its distinctive reddish-gold color and high density. Mercury and its salts were used as medicines and aphrodisiacs. At SRS, mercury originated from one of the following: as a processing aid in aluminum dissolution and chloride precipitation; as part of the tritium facilities' gas handling system; from experimental, laboratory, or process support facilities; and as a waste from site operations. Mercury is also found in Par Pond and some SRS streams as the result of discharges from a mercury-cell-type chlor-alkali plant near the city of Augusta, GA. Reactor cooling water, drawn from the Savannah River, transported mercury onto the SRS. Approximately 80,000 kg of mercury is contained in the high level waste tanks and 10,000 kg is located in the SWDF. Additional quantities are located in the various seepage basins. In 1992, 617 wells were monitored for mercury contamination, with 47 indicating contamination in excess of the 0.002-ppm EPA Primary Drinking Water Standard. More than 20 Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) reports and publications pertinent to mercury (Hg) have been generated during the last two decades. They are divided into three groupings: SRS-specific studies, basic studies of bioaccumulation, and basic studies of effect. Many studies have taken place at Par Pond and Upper Three Runs Creek. Mercury has been detected in wells monitoring the groundwater beneath SRS, but not in water supply wells in excess of the Primary Drinking Water Limit of 0.002 ppm. There has been no significant release of mercury from SRS to the Savannah River. While releases to air are likely, based on process knowledge, modeling of the releases indicates concentrations that are well below the SCDHEC ambient standard

  10. Assessment of mercury in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvartek, E.J.; Carlton, W.H.; Denham, M.; Eldridge, L.; Newman, M.C.

    1994-09-01

    Mercury has been valued by humans for several millennia. Its principal ore, cinnabar, was mined for its distinctive reddish-gold color and high density. Mercury and its salts were used as medicines and aphrodisiacs. At SRS, mercury originated from one of the following: as a processing aid in aluminum dissolution and chloride precipitation; as part of the tritium facilities` gas handling system; from experimental, laboratory, or process support facilities; and as a waste from site operations. Mercury is also found in Par Pond and some SRS streams as the result of discharges from a mercury-cell-type chlor-alkali plant near the city of Augusta, GA. Reactor cooling water, drawn from the Savannah River, transported mercury onto the SRS. Approximately 80,000 kg of mercury is contained in the high level waste tanks and 10,000 kg is located in the SWDF. Additional quantities are located in the various seepage basins. In 1992, 617 wells were monitored for mercury contamination, with 47 indicating contamination in excess of the 0.002-ppm EPA Primary Drinking Water Standard. More than 20 Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) reports and publications pertinent to mercury (Hg) have been generated during the last two decades. They are divided into three groupings: SRS-specific studies, basic studies of bioaccumulation, and basic studies of effect. Many studies have taken place at Par Pond and Upper Three Runs Creek. Mercury has been detected in wells monitoring the groundwater beneath SRS, but not in water supply wells in excess of the Primary Drinking Water Limit of 0.002 ppm. There has been no significant release of mercury from SRS to the Savannah River. While releases to air are likely, based on process knowledge, modeling of the releases indicates concentrations that are well below the SCDHEC ambient standard.

  11. Global Trends in Mercury Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyunghee

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Environmental Program Governing Council has regulated mercury as a global pollutant since 2001 and has been preparing the mercury convention, which will have a strongly binding force through Global Mercury Assessment, Global Mercury Partnership Activities, and establishment of the Open-Ended Working Group on Mercury. The European Union maintains an inclusive strategy on risks and contamination of mercury, and has executed the Mercury Export Ban Act since December in 2010. The US Environmental Protection Agency established the Mercury Action Plan (1998) and the Mercury Roadmap (2006) and has proposed systematic mercury management methods to reduce the health risks posed by mercury exposure. Japan, which experienced Minamata disease, aims vigorously at perfection in mercury management in several ways. In Korea, the Ministry of Environment established the Comprehensive Plan and Countermeasures for Mercury Management to prepare for the mercury convention and to reduce risks of mercury to protect public health. PMID:23230466

  12. Hazard evaluation for transfer of waste from tank 241-SY-101 to tank 241-SY-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shultz, M.V.

    1999-01-01

    Tank 241-SY-101 waste level growth is an emergent, high priority issue. The purpose of this document is to record the hazards evaluation process and document potential hazardous conditions that could lead to the release of radiological and toxicological material from the proposed transfer of a limited quantity (approximately 100,000 gallons) of waste from Tank 241-SY-101 to Tank 241-SY-102. The results of the hazards evaluation were compared to the current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Basis for Interim Operation (HNF-SD-WM-BIO-001, 1998, Revision 1) to identify any hazardous conditions where Authorization Basis (AB) controls may not be sufficient or may not exist. Comparison to LA-UR-92-3196, A Safety Assessment for Proposed Pump Mixing Operations to Mitigate Episodic Gas Releases in Tank 241-SY-101, was also made in the case of transfer pump removal activities. Revision 1 of this document deletes hazardous conditions no longer applicable to the current waste transfer design and incorporates hazardous conditions related to the use of an above ground pump pit and overground transfer line. This document is not part of the AB and is not a vehicle for requesting authorization of the activity; it is only intended to provide information about the hazardous conditions associated with this activity. The AB Control Decision process will be used to determine the adequacy of controls and whether the proposed activity is within the AB. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis

  13. The effects of mercury exposure on the surface morphology of gill filaments in Perna perna (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gregory, MA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available each animal were analysed for mercury using an atomic absorption spectrometer. Mercury concentration increased from 0.13 (pre-immersion) to 87 mu g/g after day 24. Surface morphology remained normal for all animals in tank 2 and for those exposed to Hg...

  14. Basic Information about Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or metallic mercury is a shiny, silver-white metal and is liquid at room temperature. It is ... releases can happen naturally. Both volcanoes and forest fires send mercury into the atmosphere. Human activities, however, ...

  15. Minamata Convention on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    On November 6, 2013 the United States signed the Minamata Convention on Mercury, a new multilateral environmental agreement that addresses specific human activities which are contributing to widespread mercury pollution

  16. Performances in Tank Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanel-Viorel Panaitescu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are several operations which must do to maximize the performance of tank cleaning. The new advanced technologies in tank cleaning have raised the standards in marine areas. There are many ways to realise optimal cleaning efficiency for different tanks. The evaluation of tank cleaning options means to start with audit of operations: how many tanks require cleaning, are there obstructions in tanks (e.g. agitators, mixers, what residue needs to be removed, are cleaning agents required or is water sufficient, what methods can used for tank cleaning. After these steps, must be verify the results and ensure that the best cleaning values can be achieved in terms of accuracy and reliability. Technology advancements have made it easier to remove stubborn residues, shorten cleaning cycle times and achieve higher levels of automation. In this paper are presented the performances in tank cleaning in accordance with legislation in force. If tank cleaning technologies are effective, then operating costs are minimal.

  17. Theoretical comparison between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon; Bales, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical investigations have shown that solar combisystems based on bikini tanks for low energy houses perform better than solar domestic hot water systems based on mantle tanks. Tank-in-tank solar combisystems are also attractive from a thermal performance point of view. In this paper......, theoretical comparisons between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems are presented....

  18. Mercury in Your Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic information about mercury, how it gets in the air, how people are exposed to it and health effects associated with exposure; what EPA and other organizations are doing to limit exposures; what citizens should know to minimize exposures and to reduce mercury in the environment; and information about products that contain mercury.

  19. Intoxication with metallic mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichte, B.; Assmann, H.; Ritzau, F.

    1984-01-01

    Intoxications by metallic mercury are extremely rare. Report of a patient, who tried to commit suicide by subcutaneous injection of 500 g of metallic mercury. He died 16 months later in the course of the intoxication. A short review is given of effects and reactions of metallic mercury in the human organism. (orig.) [de

  20. Intoxication with metallic mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichte, B.; Ritzau, F.; Assmann, H.

    1984-02-01

    Intoxications by metallic mercury are extremely rare. Report is given of a patient who tried to commit suicide by subcutaneous injection of 500 g of metallic mercury. He died 16 months later in the course of the intoxication. A short review is given of effects and reactions of metallic mercury in the human organism.

  1. Intoxication with metallic mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichte, B.; Assmann, H.; Ritzau, F.

    1984-02-01

    Intoxications by metallic mercury are extremely rare. Report is given of a patient, who tried to commit suicide by subcutaneous injection of 500 g of metallic mercury. He died 16 months later in the course of the intoxication. A short review is given of effects and reactions of metallic mercury in the human organism.

  2. Safety evaluation for packaging transportation of equipment for tank 241-C-106 waste sluicing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmus, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    A Waste Sluicing System (WSS) is scheduled for installation in nd waste storage tank 241-C-106 (106-C). The WSS will transfer high rating sludge from single shell tank 106-C to double shell waste tank 241-AY-102 (102-AY). Prior to installation of the WSS, a heel pump and a transfer pump will be removed from tank 106-C and an agitator pump will be removed from tank 102-AY. Special flexible receivers will be used to contain the pumps during removal from the tanks. After equipment removal, the flexible receivers will be placed in separate containers (packagings). The packaging and contents (packages) will be transferred from the Tank Farms to the Central Waste Complex (CWC) for interim storage and then to T Plant for evaluation and processing for final disposition. Two sizes of packagings will be provided for transferring the equipment from the Tank Farms to the interim storage facility. The packagings will be designated as the WSSP-1 and WSSP-2 packagings throughout the remainder of this Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP). The WSSP-1 packagings will transport the heel and transfer pumps from 106-C and the WSSP-2 packaging will transport the agitator pump from 102-AY. The WSSP-1 and WSSP-2 packagings are similar except for the length

  3. Engineering evaluation of intrusion prevention strategies for single-shell tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, C.E.

    1994-01-01

    In this study, previously implemented actions to prevent liquid intrusion into out-of-service single-shell tanks (SSTs), i.e., interim isolation or partial interim isolation, are investigated and expanded to identify additional cost-effective intrusion prevention techniques that could be reasonably taken until SSTs are ready for waste retrieval. Possible precipitation, groundwater, and condensation pathways and internal tank connections that could provide possible pathways for liquids are examined. Techniques to block identified potential pathways are developed and costed to determine the potential benefit to costed trade-offs for implementing the techniques. (Note: Surveillance data show increased waste surface levels for several SSTs that indicate possible liquid intrusion despite interim isolation activities.)

  4. Engineering study: disposition of terminal liquors for interim storage. [Eight alternative processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, W.P.; Ogren, W.E.

    1975-02-01

    Eight alternative processes were chosen as being technologically feasible within the time frame dictated by budgeting procedures and terminal liquor availability. Solidified waste products acceptable for single-shell tank storage were assumed to be placed in available single-shell tanks. Double-shell tanks were used only for the more mobile terminal liquors or semi-solid mush products. The mush, chemical neutralization, and clay in-tank processes offer potential savings of tens of millions of dollars over double-shell tank storage of terminal liquors. In order to achieve this cost savings, the process development and demonstration must be completed prior to the beginning of double-shell tank construction (Dec. 1976) expected to be funded from a fiscal year 1977 line item. Budgeting for these additional double-shell tanks must proceed since the processing options discussed here are not yet available and may not prove to be available at the required time. This study indicates the following topics for additional study: Process technology development to achieve interim storage of terminal liquor products receives the greatest emphasis as a means of reducing capital expenditures. Interim storage product criteria, waste inventory, and conversion to final form require definition to allow comparison of the alternatives for disposition of terminal liquors. The pseudotechnical nature of product acceptability criteria is important to the evaluation of the partial neutralization and aluminum removal alternatives. More accurate estimates of terminal liquor quantity and composition are required to give a sound technical basis for choosing the appropriate processing alternative. Retrieval and reprocessing operations may affect the comparisons presented by this study. (DLC)

  5. ITER Conceptual design: Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This interim report describes the results of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Conceptual Design Activities after the first year of design following the selection of the ITER concept in the autumn of 1988. Using the concept definition as the basis for conceptual design, the Design Phase has been underway since October 1988, and will be completed at the end of 1990, at which time a final report will be issued. This interim report includes an executive summary of ITER activities, a description of the ITER device and facility, an operation and research program summary, and a description of the physics and engineering design bases. Included are preliminary cost estimates and schedule for completion of the project

  6. Agenda 21 interim balance, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Vuuren, D.P.; Bakkes, J.A.

    1997-10-01

    Five years after the `United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED)`, an interim balance was drawn up to see what was done to meet the ambitious challenges adopted in Agenda 21 during this conference. Such a balance is presented in this report and the complementary brochure, `Developments in Sustainability 1992-1997`, reflecting societal developments and changes in environmental quality, as well as changes in responses to environmental concerns. 24 figs., 12 tabs., 68 refs.

  7. Tank 241-U-111 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-U-111

  8. Tank 241-T-111 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-T-111

  9. Tank 241-U-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-U-103

  10. Tank 241-TX-118 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TX-118

  11. Tank 241-BX-104 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-BX-104

  12. Tank 241-TY-101 Tank Characterization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TY-101

  13. Tank 241-T-107 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-T-107

  14. Tank 241-TX-105 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TX-105

  15. Tank car leaks gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    On January 27, 1994, a Canadian National (CN) tank car loaded with gasoline began to leak from a crack in the tank shell on the end of the car near the stub sill. The tank car had been damaged from impact switching. A part of the tank car was sent for laboratory analysis which concluded that: (1) the fracture originated in two locations in welds, (2) the cracks propagated in a symmetrical manner and progressed into the tank plate, (3) the fracture surface revealed inadequate weld fusion. A stress analysis of the tank car was conducted to determine the coupling force necessary to cause the crack. It was noted that over the last decade several problems have occurred pertaining to stub sill areas of tank cars that have resulted in hazardous material spills. An advisory was sent to Transport Canada outlining many examples where tank cars containing serious defects had passed CN inspections that were specifically designed to identify such defects. 4 figs

  16. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program: Mercury Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.P.; Redinger, K.W.; Holmes, M.J.

    1997-07-01

    selenium and mercury, the majority of trace elements are well controlled due to their association with the particulate phase of flue gas. Reflecting the current focus of the US EPA and state environmental agencies on mercury as a potential candidate for regulation, the project specifically targets the measurement and control of mercury species. This paper discusses the results of testing on the quantity and species distribution of mercury while firing Ohio high-sulfur coal to assess the mercury emissions control potential of conventional SO 2 and particulate control systems. Results from recent AECDP tests are presented and two alternative mercury speciation methods are compared. The AECDP results clearly show that higher total mercury control efficiency can be achieved with a wet FGD scrubber than recently reported in the interim final US EPA report on HAP emissions from fossil-fired electric utility steam generating units

  17. Engineering task plan for tank farm ventilation strategy document preparation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanderZanden, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    Active and passive systems provide ventilation for single shell tanks (SST), double shell tanks (DST), and doubly contained receiver tanks (DCRT). The systems perform or contribute to one or more of the following functions: maintain structural integrity (prevent overpressurization), confinement, cooling, vapor and gas removal, and leak detection. For certain tanks, ventilation also removes particles, in addition to vapors, to permit visual observation of the tank inner walls and waste surface. The function(s) performed are dependent on tank construction, watchlist classification, and tank contents. The function(s) should be maintained to support the TWRS mission. The tank farm mission is expected to extend to 2028, based on Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestone, M-50-00, for completion of waste pretreatment. Many systems are currently beyond service life expectations and continued operation will result in decreased reliability and increased maintenance. Therefore, the systems must be replaced or upgraded to ensure adequate reliability. Ventilation system upgrades are included in a capital Project W-314, Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations. The ventilation upgrades are expected to be completed by June 2002. The new ventilation systems will satisfy the required function(s) of the tanks and/or tank farms. However, interim component upgrades may be required to guarantee reliability of systems until the capital project is completed. Some upgrades originally identified in the project might more suitably be provided with non-project resources

  18. Burn site groundwater interim measures work plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Jonathan L. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Hall, Kevin A. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-05-01

    This Work Plan identifies and outlines interim measures to address nitrate contamination in groundwater at the Burn Site, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The New Mexico Environment Department has required implementation of interim measures for nitrate-contaminated groundwater at the Burn Site. The purpose of interim measures is to prevent human or environmental exposure to nitrate-contaminated groundwater originating from the Burn Site. This Work Plan details a summary of current information about the Burn Site, interim measures activities for stabilization, and project management responsibilities to accomplish this purpose.

  19. Tank 241-AZ-101 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has advised the DOE to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, A revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process. Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information''. This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-AZ-101 (AZ-101) sampling activities. Tank AZ-101 is currently a non-Watch List tank, so the only DQOs applicable to this tank are the safety screening DQO and the compatibility DQO, as described below. The contents of Tank AZ-101, as of October 31, 1994, consisted of 3,630 kL (960 kgal) of dilute non-complexed waste and aging waste from PUREX (NCAW, neutralized current acid waste). Tank AZ-101 is expected to have two primary layers. The bottom layer is composed of 132 kL of sludge, and the top layer is composed of 3,500 kL of supernatant, with a total tank waste depth of approximately 8.87 meters

  20. Tank 241-AZ-102 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has advised the DOE to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process ... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information''. This document satisfies that requirement for tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102) sampling activities. Tank AZ-102 is currently a non-Watch List tank, so the only DQOs applicable to this tank are the safety screening DQO and the compatibility DQO, as described below. The current contents of Tank AZ-102, as of October 31, 1994, consisted of 3,600 kL (950 kgal) of dilute non-complexed waste and aging waste from PUREX (NCAW, neutralized current acid waste). Tank AZ-102 is expected to have two primary layers. The bottom layer is composed of 360 kL of sludge, and the top layer is composed of 3,240 kL of supernatant, with a total tank waste depth of approximately 8.9 meters

  1. Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    in their national contexts. Questions regarding patterns and differences in think tank organisations and functions across countries have largely been left unanswered. This paper advances a definition and research design that uses different expert roles to categorise think tanks. A sample of 34 think tanks from...

  2. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B

  3. Underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental contamination from leaking underground storage tanks poses a significant threat to human health and the environment. An estimated five to six million underground storage tanks containing hazardous substances or petroleum products are in use in the US. Originally placed underground as a fire prevention measure, these tanks have substantially reduced the damages from stored flammable liquids. However, an estimated 400,000 underground tanks are thought to be leaking now, and many more will begin to leak in the near future. Products released from these leaking tanks can threaten groundwater supplies, damage sewer lines and buried cables, poison crops, and lead to fires and explosions. As required by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA), the EPA has been developing a comprehensive regulatory program for underground storage tanks. The EPA proposed three sets of regulations pertaining to underground tanks. The first addressed technical requirements for petroleum and hazardous substance tanks, including new tank performance standards, release detection, release reporting and investigation, corrective action, and tank closure. The second proposed regulation addresses financial responsibility requirements for underground petroleum tanks. The third addressed standards for approval of state tank programs

  4. Project management plan double-shell tank system specification development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrads, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) members have been tasked by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to support removal of wastes from the Hanford Site 200 Area tanks in two phases. The schedule for these phases allows focusing on requirements for the first phase of providing feed to the privatized vitrification plants. The Tank Waste Retrieval Division near-term goal is to focus on the activities to support Phase 1. These include developing an integrated (technical, schedule, and cost) baseline and, with regard to private contractors, establishing interface agreements, constructing infrastructure systems, retrieving and delivering waste feed, and accepting immobilized waste products for interim onsite storage. This document describes the process for developing an approach to designing a system for retrieving waste from double-shell tanks. It includes a schedule and cost account for the work breakdown structure task

  5. Mercury separation from aqueous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.A.; Klasson, K.T.; Corder, S.L.

    1995-07-01

    This project is providing an assessment of new sorbents for removing mercury from wastes at US Department of Energy sites. Four aqueous wastes were chosen for lab-scale testing; a high-salt, acidic waste currently stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); a high-salt, alkaline waste stored at the Savannah River Site (SRS); a dilute lithium hydroxide solution stored at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant; and a low-salt, neutral groundwater generated at the Y-12 Plant. Eight adsorbents have been identified for testing, covering a wide range of cost and capability. Screening tests have been completed, which identified the most promising adsorbents for each waste stream. Batch isotherm tests have been completed using the most promising adsorbents, and column tests are in progress. Because of the wide range of waste compositions tested, no one adsorbent is effective in all of these waste streams. Based on loading capacity and compatibility with the waste solutions. the most effective adsorbents identified to date are SuperLig 618 for the INEL tank waste stimulant; Mersorb followed by lonac SR-3 for the SRS tank waste stimulant; Durasil 70 and Ionac SR-3) for the LIOH solution; and lonac SR-3 followed by lonac SR-4 and Mersorb for the Y-12 groundwater

  6. Fuel storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peehs, M.; Stehle, H.; Weidinger, H.

    1979-01-01

    The stationary fuel storage tank is immersed below the water level in the spent fuel storage pool. In it there is placed a fuel assembly within a cage. Moreover, the storage tank has got a water filling and a gas buffer. The water in the storage tank is connected with the pool water by means of a filter, a surge tank and a water purification facility, temperature and pressure monitoring being performed. In the buffer compartment there are arranged catalysts a glow plugs for recombination of radiolysis products into water. The supply of water into the storage tank is performed through the gas buffer compartment. (DG) [de

  7. Conceptual models for waste tank mechanistic analysis. Status report, January 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allemann, R. T.; Antoniak, Z. I.; Eyler, L. L.; Liljegren, L. M.; Roberts, J. S.

    1992-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting a study for Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford), a contractor for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of the work is to study possible mechanisms and fluid dynamics contributing to the periodic release of gases from double-shell waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. This interim report emphasizing the modeling work follows two other interim reports, Mechanistic Analysis of Double-Shell Tank Gas Release Progress Report -- November 1990 and Collection and Analysis of Existing Data for Waste Tank Mechanistic Analysis Progress Report -- December 1990, that emphasized data correlation and mechanisms. The approach in this study has been to assemble and compile data that are pertinent to the mechanisms, analyze the data, evaluate physical properties and parameters, evaluate hypothetical mechanisms, and develop mathematical models of mechanisms.

  8. Process control plan for Single Shell Tank (SST) Saltcake Dissolution Proof of Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ESTEY, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    This document describes the process controls for the tank 241-U-107 (U-107) saltcake dissolution proof-of-concept operations. Saltcake dissolution is defined as a method by which water-soluble salts will be retrieved from the Hanford Site radioactive waste tanks utilizing dissolution as the mobilizing mechanism. The proof-of-concept operations will monitor the retrieval process and transfer at least 100 kgal of fluid from tank U-107 to the double-shell tank (DST) system during the performance period. Tank U-107 has been identified as posing the highest long-term risk to the Columbia River of all single shell tanks (SSTs). This is because of the high content of mobile, long-lived radionuclides mostly in the saltcake waste in the tank. To meet current contractual and consent decree commitments, tank U-107 is being prepared for interim stabilization in August 2001. It is currently scheduled for saltcake retrieval in 2023, near the end of the SST retrieval campaign because of a lack of infrastructure in U-Farm. The proof-of-concept test will install a system to dissolve and retrieve a portion of the saltcake as part of, and operating in parallel with, the standard interim stabilization system to be installed on tank U-107. This proof-of-concept should provide key information on spray nozzle selection and effective spray patterns, leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation (LDMM) and in-tank saltcake solubility data that will help in the design of a full-tank retrieval demonstration system

  9. Mercury balance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maag, J.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed assessment of the consumption of mercury, divided into use areas, was carried out. Disposal and emissions to the environment were also qualified. The assessment is mainly based on data from 1992 - 1993. The most important source of emission of mercury to air is solid waste incineration which is assessed in particular to be due to the supply of mercury in batteries (most likely mercury oxide batteries from photo equipment) and to dental fillings. The second most important source of mercury emission to air is coal-fired power plants which are estimated to account for 200-500 kg of mercury emission p.a. Other mercury emissions are mainly related to waste treatment and disposal. The consumption of mercury is generally decreasing. During the period from 1982/83 - 1992-93, the total consumption of mercury in Denmark was about halved. This development is related to the fact that consumption with regard to several important use areas (batteries, dental fillings, thermometers etc.) has been significantly reduced, while for other purposes the use of mercury has completely, or almost disappeared, i.e. (fungicides for seed, tubes etc.). (EG)

  10. Single-Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval Project Plan for Tank 241-C-104 Retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEFIGH PRICE, C.

    2000-01-01

    In support of the SST Interim Closure Project, Project W-523 ''Tank 241-C-104 Waste Retrieval System'' will provide systems for retrieval and transfer of radioactive waste from tank 241-C-104 (C-104) to the DST staging tank 241-AY-101 (AY-101). At the conclusion of Project W-523, a retrieval system will have been designed and tested to meet the requirements for Acceptance of Beneficial Use and been turned over to operations. Completion of construction and operations of the C-104 retrieval system will meet the recently proposed near-term Tri-Party Agreement milestone, M-45-03F (Proposed Tri-Party Agreement change request M-45-00-01A, August, 30 2000) for demonstrating limits of retrieval technologies on sludge and hard heels in SSTs, reduce near-term storage risks associated with aging SSTs, and provide feed for the tank waste treatment plant. This Project Plan documents the methodology for managing Project W-523; formalizes responsibilities; identifies key interfaces required to complete the retrieval action; establishes the technical, cost, and schedule baselines; and identifies project organizational requirements pertaining to the engineering process such as environmental, safety, quality assurance, change control, design verification, testing, and operational turnover

  11. Tank 241-A-104 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of auger samples from tank 241-A-104. This Tank Characterization Plan will identify characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, hot cell sample isolation, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements in addition to reporting the current contents and status of the tank as projected from historical information

  12. WWTP Process Tank Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jesper

    The present thesis considers numerical modeling of activated sludge tanks on municipal wastewater treatment plants. Focus is aimed at integrated modeling where the detailed microbiological model the Activated Sludge Model 3 (ASM3) is combined with a detailed hydrodynamic model based on a numerical...... solution of the Navier-Stokes equations in a multiphase scheme. After a general introduction to the activated sludge tank as a system, the activated sludge tank model is gradually setup in separate stages. The individual sub-processes that are often occurring in activated sludge tanks are initially...... hydrofoil shaped propellers. These two sub-processes deliver the main part of the supplied energy to the activated sludge tank, and for this reason they are important for the mixing conditions in the tank. For other important processes occurring in the activated sludge tank, existing models and measurements...

  13. Process for low mercury coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Norman W.; Grimes, R. William; Tweed, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

  14. Mercury (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in contact with) to mercury is by eating fish or shellfish that have high levels of mercury. You can also get sick from: Touching it Breathing it in Drinking contaminated water How can mercury ...

  15. 76 FR 58790 - Notice of Interim Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... to the customers. Rate Scenario 3--Original Cumberland Marketing Policy The third rate alternative... an interim basis to the customers. Rate Scenario 3--Original Cumberland Marketing Policy The third... allocated on an interim basis to the customers. Rate Scenario 3--Original Cumberland Marketing Policy The...

  16. Addendum to IFMIF-CDA interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Hiroshi; Ida, Mizuho [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; eds.

    1996-08-01

    During the second IFMIF-CDA Design Integration Workshop, the conceptual design and contents of `IFMIF-CDA Interim Report` were examined and discussed at both general and group meetings. Based on these discussion, the final IFMIF-CDA Report will be modified from the `Interim Report`. This report describes the outline of these modification. (author)

  17. Addendum to IFMIF-CDA interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Hiroshi; Ida, Mizuho

    1996-08-01

    During the second IFMIF-CDA Design Integration Workshop, the conceptual design and contents of 'IFMIF-CDA Interim Report' were examined and discussed at both general and group meetings. Based on these discussion, the final IFMIF-CDA Report will be modified from the 'Interim Report'. This report describes the outline of these modification. (author)

  18. Mechanistic analysis of double-shell tank gas release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allemann, R.T.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Friley, J.R.; Haines, C.E.; Liljegren, L.M.; Somasundaram, S.

    1991-12-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is studying possible mechanisms and fluid dynamics contributing to the periodic release of gases from the double-shell waste storage tanks at Hanford. This study is being conducted for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), a contractor for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This interim report discusses the work done through November 1990. Safe management of the wastes at Hanford depends on an understanding of the chemical and physical mechanisms that take place in the waste tanks. An example of the need to understand these mechanisms is tank 101-SY. The waste in this tank is generating and periodically releasing potentially flammable gases into the tank vent system according to observations of the tank. How these gases are generated and become trapped, the causes of periodic release, and the mechanism of the release are not known in detail. In order to develop a safe mitigation strategy, possible physical mechanisms for the periodic release of flammable gases need to be understood.

  19. BEHAVIOR OF MERCURY DURING DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J.; Koopman, D.

    2012-04-09

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility has experienced significant issues with the stripping and recovery of mercury in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The stripping rate has been inconsistent, often resulting in extended processing times to remove mercury to the required endpoint concentration. The recovery of mercury in the Mercury Water Wash Tank has never been high, and has decreased significantly since the Mercury Water Wash Tank was replaced after the seventh batch of Sludge Batch 5. Since this time, essentially no recovery of mercury has been seen. Pertinent literature was reviewed, previous lab-scale data on mercury stripping and recovery was examined, and new lab-scale CPC Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) runs were conducted. For previous lab-scale data, many of the runs with sufficient mercury recovery data were examined to determine what factors affect the stripping and recovery of mercury and to improve closure of the mercury material balance. Ten new lab-scale SRAT runs (HG runs) were performed to examine the effects of acid stoichiometry, sludge solids concentration, antifoam concentration, form of mercury added to simulant, presence of a SRAT heel, operation of the SRAT condenser at higher than prototypic temperature, varying noble metals from none to very high concentrations, and higher agitation rate. Data from simulant runs from SB6, SB7a, glycolic/formic, and the HG tests showed that a significant amount of Hg metal was found on the vessel bottom at the end of tests. Material balance closure improved from 12-71% to 48-93% when this segregated Hg was considered. The amount of Hg segregated as elemental Hg on the vessel bottom was 4-77% of the amount added. The highest recovery of mercury in the offgas system generally correlated with the highest retention of Hg in the slurry. Low retention in the slurry (high segregation on the vessel bottom) resulted in low recovery in the offgas system. High agitation rates appear to result in lower

  20. Fusion Breeder Program interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.; Lee, J.D.; Neef, W.

    1982-01-01

    This interim report for the FY82 Fusion Breeder Program covers work performed during the scoping phase of the study, December, 1981-February 1982. The goals for the FY82 study are the identification and development of a reference blanket concept using the fission suppression concept and the definition of a development plan to further the fusion breeder application. The context of the study is the tandem mirror reactor, but emphasis is placed upon blanket engineering. A tokamak driver and blanket concept will be selected and studied in more detail during FY83

  1. Mercury is Moon's brother

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksanfomalifi, L.V.

    1976-01-01

    The latest information on Mercury planet is presented obtained by studying the planet with the aid of radar and space vehicles. Rotation of Mercury about its axis has been discovered; within 2/3 of its year it executes a complete revolution about its axis. In images obtained by the ''Mariner-10'' Mercurys surface differs little from that of the Moon. The ''Mariner-10'' has also discovered the Mercurys atmosphere, which consists of extremely rarefied helium. The helium is continuously supplied to the planet by the solar wind. The Mercury's magnetic field has been discovered, whose strength is 35 x 10 -4 at the Equator and 70 x 10 -4 E at the poles. The inclination of the dipole axis to the Mercury's rotation axis is 7 deg

  2. Tank 241-AP-104 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-11-01

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Double-Shell Tank (DST) 241-AP-104

  3. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-01-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment

  4. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  5. Tank 241-C-107 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) has advised the US Department of Energy (DOE) to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify sampling and analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement or TPA) milestone M-44-00 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users (e.g., Hanford Facility user groups, regulators) to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information.'' This document satisfies that requirement for the Tank 241-C-107 (C-107) sampling activities. Currently tank C-107 is categorized as a sound, low-heat load tank with partial isolation completed in December 1982. The tank is awaiting stabilization. Tank C-107 is expected to contain three primary layers of waste. The bottom layer should contain a mixture of the following wastes: ion exchange, concentrated phosphate waste from N-Reactor, Hanford Lab Operations, strontium semi-works, Battelle Northwest, 1C, TBP waste, cladding waste, and the hot semi-works. The middle layer should contain strontium recovery supernate. The upper layer should consist of non-complexed waste

  6. Tank Waste Remediation System fiscal year 1996 multi-year program plan WBS 1.1. Revision 1, Appendix A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This document is a compilation of data relating to the Tank Waste Remediation System Multi-Year Program. Topics discussed include: management systems; waste volume, transfer and evaporation management; transition of 200 East and West areas; ferricyanide, volatile organic vapor, and flammable gas management; waste characterization; retrieval from SSTs and DSTs; heat management; interim storage; low-level and high-level radioactive waste management; and tank farm closure

  7. 49 CFR 179.400 - General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... liquid tank car tanks. 179.400 Section 179.400 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and... liquid tank car tanks. ...

  8. Interim and final storage casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpfrock, L.; Kockelmann, H.

    2012-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste is a huge social challenge in Germany and all over the world. As is well known the search for a site for a final repository for high-level waste in Germany is not complete. Therefore, interim storage facilities for radioactive waste were built at plant sites in Germany. The waste is stored in these storage facilities in appropriate storage and transport casks until the transport in a final repository can be carried out. Licensing of the storage and transport casks aimed for use in the public space is done according to the traffic laws and for handling in the storage facility according to nuclear law. Taking into account the activity of the waste to be stored, different containers are in use, so that experience is available from the licensing and operation in interim storage facilities. The large volume of radioactive waste to be disposed of after the shut-down of power generation in nuclear power stations makes it necessary for large quantities of licensed storage and transport casks to be provided soon.

  9. Glass packages in interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet-Francillon, N.

    1994-10-01

    This report summarize the current state of knowledge concerning the behavior of type C waste packages consisting of vitrified high-level solutions produced by reprocessing spent fuel. The composition and the physical and chemical properties of the feed solutions are reviewed, and the vitrification process is described. Sodium alumino-borosilicate glass compositions are generally employed - the glass used at la Hague for LWR fuel solutions, for example, contains 45 % SiO 2 . The major physical, chemical, mechanical and thermal properties of the glass are reviewed. In order to allow their thermal power to diminish, the 3630 glass packages produced (as of January 1993) in the vitrification facilities at Marcoule and La Hague are placed in interim storage for several decades. The actual interim storage period has not been defined, as it is closely related to the concept and organization selected for the final destination of the packages: a geological repository. The glass behavior under irradiation is described. Considerable basic and applied research has been conducted to assess the aqueous leaching behavior of nuclear containment glass. The effects of various repository parameters (temperature, flow rate, nature of the environmental materials) have been investigated. The experimental findings have been used to specify a model describing the kinetics of aqueous corrosion of the glass. More generally all the ''source term'' models developed in France by the CEA or by ANDRA are summarized. (author). 152 refs., 33 figs

  10. Extended tank use analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFigh-Price, C.; Green, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    The single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site were originally designed for open-quotes temporaryclose quotes use. The newer double-shell tanks were designed for 50 years of use. A number of single-shell tanks failed their original design criteria to contain liquid waste soon after they were constructed. These single-shell and double-shell tanks now will be required to contain semi-solid high-activity waste well beyond their design lives. It must be determined that the waste contained in these tanks will remain stable for up to an additional 30 years of storage. This paper describes the challenge of demonstrating that the tanks that have exceeded or will exceed their design lifetime can safely store high-level waste until planned disposal actions are taken. Considerations will include structural and chemical analyses

  11. Think tanks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blach-Ørsten, Mark; Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard

    2016-01-01

    outside the media. The study shows that the two largest and oldest think tanks in Denmark, the liberal think tank CEPOS and the social democratic think tank ECLM, are very active and observable in the media; that the media’s distribution of attention to these think tanks, to some extent, confirms a re......-politicization of Danish newspapers; but also that the news media as an arena of influence is only one part of the equation, since some of the corporatist political networks are still intact and working outside the media...... half of the 2010s, because in this national setting think tanks are still a relatively new phenomenon. Based on theories of mediatization and de-corporatization, we present 1) an analysis of the visibility of selected Danish think tanks in the media and 2) an analysis of their political networks...

  12. 13 CFR 120.890 - Source of interim financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Source of interim financing. 120... Development Company Loan Program (504) Interim Financing § 120.890 Source of interim financing. A Project may use interim financing for all Project costs except the Borrower's contribution. Any source (including...

  13. Modeling Mercury in Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally occurring element that is released into the biosphere both by natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Although its reduced, elemental form Hg(0) is relatively non-toxic, other forms such as Hg2+ and, in particular, its methylated form, methylmercury, are toxic, with deleterious effects on both ecosystems and humans. Microorganisms play important roles in the transformation of mercury in the environment. Inorganic Hg2+ can be methylated by certain bacteria and archaea to form methylmercury. Conversely, bacteria also demethylate methylmercury and reduce Hg2+ to relatively inert Hg(0). Transformations and toxicity occur as a result of mercury interacting with various proteins. Clearly, then, understanding the toxic effects of mercury and its cycling in the environment requires characterization of these interactions. Computational approaches are ideally suited to studies of mercury in proteins because they can provide a detailed picture and circumvent issues associated with toxicity. Here we describe computational methods for investigating and characterizing how mercury binds to proteins, how inter- and intra-protein transfer of mercury is orchestrated in biological systems, and how chemical reactions in proteins transform the metal. We describe quantum chemical analyses of aqueous Hg(II), which reveal critical factors that determine ligand binding propensities. We then provide a perspective on how we used chemical reasoning to discover how microorganisms methylate mercury. We also highlight our combined computational and experimental studies of the proteins and enzymes of the mer operon, a suite of genes that confers mercury resistance in many bacteria. Lastly, we place work on mercury in proteins in the context of what is needed for a comprehensive multi-scale model of environmental mercury cycling.

  14. Interim solidification of SRP waste with silica, bentonite, or phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G.H.

    1976-03-01

    One option for interim waste management at the Savannah River Plant is in-tank solidification of the liquid waste solutions. This would reduce the mobility of these highly radioactive solutions until techniques for their long-term immobilization and storage are developed and implemented. Interim treatments must permit eventual retrieval of waste and subsequent incorporation into a high-integrity form. This study demonstrated the solidification of simulated alkaline waste solutions by reaction with silica, bentonite, and phosphoric acid. Alkaline waste can be solidified by reaction with silica gel, silica flour, or sodium silicate solution. Solidified products containing waste salt can be retrieved by slurrying with water. Alkaline supernate (solution in equilibrium with alkaline sludge in SRP waste tanks) can be solidified by reaction with bentonite to form cancrinite powder. The solidified waste can be retrieved by slurrying with water. Alkaline supernate can be solidified by partial evaporation and reaction with phosphoric acid. Water is incorporated into hydrated complexes of trisodium phosphate. The product is soluble, but actual plant waste would not solidify completely because of decay heat. Reaction of simulated alkaline waste solutions with silica gel, silica flour, or bentonite increases the volume by a factor of approximately 6 over that of evaporated waste; reaction with phosphoric acid results in a volume 1.5 times that of evaporated waste. At present, the best method for in-tank solidification is by evaporation, a method that contributes no additional solids to the waste and does not compromise any waste management options

  15. Hanford tanks initiative plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract: The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) is a five-year project resulting from the technical and financial partnership of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Waste Management (EM-30) and Office of Science and Technology Development (EM-50). The HTI project accelerates activities to gain key technical, cost performance, and regulatory information on two high-level waste tanks. The HTI will provide a basis for design and regulatory decisions affecting the remainder of the Tank Waste Remediation System's tank waste retrieval Program

  16. Fuel tank integrity research : fuel tank analyses and test plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research : and Development is conducting research into fuel tank : crashworthiness. Fuel tank research is being performed to : determine strategies for increasing the fuel tank impact : resistance to ...

  17. Intentional intravenous mercury injection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this case report, intravenous complications, treatment strategies and possible ... Mercury toxicity is commonly associated with vapour inhalation or oral ingestion, for which there exist definite treatment options. Intravenous mercury ... personality, anxiousness, irritability, insomnia, depression and drowsi- ness.[1] However ...

  18. Mercury's shifting, rolling past

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of scalloped-edged cliffs or lobate scarps on Mercury's surface are thrust faults that are consistent with the planet shrinking and cooling with time. However, compression occurred in the planet's early history and Mariner 10 images revealed decades ago that lobate scarps are among the youngest features on Mercury. Why don't we find more evidence of older compressive features?

  19. Global Mercury Assessment 2013

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    mercury pollution. This summary report and the accompanying. Technical Background Report for the Global. Mercury Assessment 2013 are developed in response to Decision 25/5, paragraph ... The use of different pollution control technologies in different ...... vegetation, snow, freshwater, and seawater. One of the largest ...

  20. MESSENGER: Exploring Mercury's Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet's miniature magnetosphere since Mariner 10's brief fly-bys in 1974-5. Mercury's magnetosphere is unique in many respects. The magnetosphere of Mercury is the smallest in the solar system with its magnetic field typically standing off the solar wind only - 1000 to 2000 km above the surface. For this reason there are no closed dri-fi paths for energetic particles and, hence, no radiation belts; the characteristic time scales for wave propagation and convective transport are short possibly coupling kinetic and fluid modes; magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause may erode the subsolar magnetosphere allowing solar wind ions to directly impact the dayside regolith; inductive currents in Mercury's interior should act to modify the solar In addition, Mercury's magnetosphere is the only one with its defining magnetic flux tubes rooted in a planetary regolith as opposed to an atmosphere with a conductive ionosphere. This lack of an ionosphere is thought to be the underlying reason for the brevity of the very intense, but short lived, approx. 1-2 min, substorm-like energetic particle events observed by Mariner 10 in Mercury's magnetic tail. In this seminar, we review what we think we know about Mercury's magnetosphere and describe the MESSENGER science team's strategy for obtaining answers to the outstanding science questions surrounding the interaction of the solar wind with Mercury and its small, but dynamic magnetosphere.

  1. Mercury in Nordic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munthe, John; Waengberg, Ingvar (IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (SE)); Rognerud, Sigurd; Fjeld, Eirik (Norwegian Inst. for Water Research (NIVA), Oslo (Norway)); Verta, Matti; Porvari, Petri (Finnish Environment Inst. (SYKE), Helsinki (Finland)); Meili, Markus (Inst. of Applied Environmental Research (ITM), Stockholm (Sweden))

    2007-12-15

    This report provides a first comprehensive compilation and assessment of available data on mercury in air, precipitation, sediments and fish in the Nordic countries. The main conclusion is that mercury levels in Nordic ecosystems continue to be affected by long-range atmospheric transport. The geographical patterns of mercury concentrations in both sediments and fish are also strongly affected by ecosystem characteristics and in some regions possibly by historical pollution. An evaluation of geographical variations in mercury concentrations in precipitation indicates that the influence from anthropogenic sources from Central European areas is still significant. The annual variability of deposition is large and dependant of precipitation amounts. An evaluation of data from stations around the North Sea has indicated a significant decrease in mercury concentrations in precipitation indicating a continuous decrease of emissions in Europe (Waengberg et al., 2007). For mercury in air (TGM), the geographical pattern is less pronounced indicating the influence of mercury emissions and distribution over a larger geographical area (i.e. hemispherical transport). Comparison of recent (surficial) and historical lake sediments show significantly elevated concentrations of mercury most likely caused by anthropogenic atmospheric deposition over the past century. The highest pollution impact was observed in the coastal areas of southern Norway, in south western Finland and in Sweden from the coastal areas in the southwest across the central parts to the north-east. The general increase in recent versus old sediments was 2-5 fold. Data on mercury in Nordic freshwater fish was assembled and evaluated with respect to geographical variations. The fish data were further compared with temporal and spatial trends in mercury deposition and mercury contamination of lake sediments in order to investigate the coupling between atmospheric transport and deposition of mercury and local mercury

  2. Interim reliability evaluation program (IREP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, D.D.; Murphy, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Interim Reliability Evaluation Program (IREP), sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is currently applying probabilistic risk analysis techniques to two PWR and two BWR type power plants. Emphasis was placed on the systems analysis portion of the risk assessment, as opposed to accident phenomenology or consequence analysis, since the identification of risk significant plant features was of primary interest. Traditional event tree/fault tree modeling was used for the analysis. However, the study involved a more thorough investigation of transient initiators and of support system faults than studies in the past and substantially improved techniques were used to quantify accident sequence frequencies. This study also attempted to quantify the potential for operator recovery actions in the course of each significant accident

  3. Getting Mercury out of Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    This guide was prepared while working with many Massachusetts schools to remove items that contain mercury and to find suitable alternatives. It contains fact sheets on: mercury in science laboratories and classrooms, mercury in school buildings and maintenance areas, mercury in the medical office and in medical technology classrooms in vocational…

  4. Pore Water Extraction Test Near 241-SX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site, Washington, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberlein, Susan J.; Parker, Danny L.; Tabor, Cynthia L.; Holm, Melissa J.

    2013-01-01

    A proof-of-principle test is underway near the Hanford Site 241-SX Tank Farm. The test will evaluate a potential remediation technology that will use tank farm-deployable equipment to remove contaminated pore water from vadose zone soils. The test system was designed and built to address the constraints of working within a tank farm. Due to radioactive soil contamination and limitations in drilling near tanks, small-diameter direct push drilling techniques applicable to tank farms are being utilized for well placement. To address space and weight limitations in working around tanks and obstacles within tank farms, the above ground portions of the test system have been constructed to allow deployment flexibility. The test system utilizes low vacuum over a sealed well screen to establish flow into an extraction well. Extracted pore water is collected in a well sump,and then pumped to the surface using a small-diameter bladder pump.If pore water extraction using this system can be successfully demonstrated, it may be possible to target local contamination in the vadose zone around underground storage tanks. It is anticipated that the results of this proof-of-principle test will support future decision making regarding interim and final actions for soil contamination within the tank farms

  5. Heated Aluminum Tanks Resist Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. E.

    1983-01-01

    Simple expedient of heating foam-insulated aluminum alloy tanks prevents corrosion by salt-laden moisture. Relatively-small temperature difference between such tank and surrounding air will ensure life of tank is extended by many years.

  6. Sludge Batch 7B Qualification Activities With SRS Tank Farm Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Lambert, D.; Reboul, S.

    2011-01-01

    projected noble metals content for SB7b. Characterization was performed on the Tank 51 SB7b samples and SRNL performed DWPF simulations using the Tank 40 SB7b material. This report documents: (1) The preparation and characterization of the Tank 51 SB7b and Tank 40 SB7b samples. (2) The performance of a DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulation using the SB7b Tank 40 sample. The simulation included a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, where acid was added to the sludge to destroy nitrite and reduce mercury, and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, where glass frit was added to the sludge in preparation for vitrification. The SME cycle also included replication of five canister decontamination additions and concentrations. Processing parameters were based on work with a nonradioactive simulant. (3) Vitrification of a portion of the SME product and characterization and durability testing (as measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT)) of the resulting glass. (4) Rheology measurements of the SRAT receipt, SRAT product, and SME product. This program was controlled by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), and analyses were guided by an Analytical Study Plan. This work is Technical Baseline Research and Development (R and D) for the DWPF. It should be noted that much of the data in this document has been published in interoffice memoranda. The intent of this technical report is bring all of the SB7b related data together in a single permanent record and to discuss the overall aspects of SB7b processing.

  7. Tank characterization reference guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-01

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research

  8. Hazard evaluation for transfer of waste from tank 241-SY-101 to tank 241-SY-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHULTZ, M.V.

    1999-01-01

    Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101) waste level growth is an emergent, high priority issue. The purpose of this document is to record the hazards evaluation process and document potential hazardous conditions that could lead to the release of radiological and toxicological material from the proposed transfer of a limited quantity (approximately 100,000 gallons) of waste from SY-101 to 241-SY-102 (SY-102). The results of the hazards evaluation will be compared to the current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Basis for Interim Operation (HNF-SD-WM-BIO-001, 1998, Revision 1) to identify any hazardous conditions where Authorization Basis (AB) controls may not be sufficient or may not exist. Comparison to LA-UR-92-3196, A Safety Assessment for Proposed Pump Mixing Operations to Mitigate Episodic Gas Releases in Tank 241-SY-101, was also made in the case of transfer pump removal activities. This document is not intended to authorize the activity or determine the adequacy of controls; it is only intended to provide information about the hazardous conditions associated with this activity. The Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process will be used to determine the adequacy of controls and whether the proposed activity is within the AB. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis

  9. Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The source of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief passages is due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet's lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute to Mercury's very brief Dungey cycle, approx. 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury's tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

  10. Tank 241-C-105 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-C-105

  11. Tank 241-BY-106 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-BY-106

  12. Tank 241-AX-104 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyanarayana, P.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of auger samples from tank 241-AX-104

  13. Tank 241-AX-102 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of auger samples from tank 241-AX-102

  14. Tank 241-C-101 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-C-101

  15. Tank 241-AP-107 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-AP-107

  16. Tank Space Options Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOYLES, V.C.

    2001-01-01

    A risk-based priority for the retrieval of Hanford Site waste from the 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) has been adopted as a result of changes to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1997) negotiated in 2000. Retrieval of the first three tanks in the retrieval sequence fills available capacity in the double-shell tanks (DSTs) by 2007. As a result, the HFFACO change established a milestone (M-45-12-TO1) requiring the determination of options that could increase waste storage capacity for single-shell tank waste retrieval. The information will be considered in future negotiations. This document fulfills the milestone requirement. This study presents options that were reviewed for the purpose of increasing waste storage capacity. Eight options are identified that have the potential for increasing capacity from 5 to 10 million gallons, thus allowing uninterrupted single-shell tank retrieval until the planned Waste Treatment Plant begins processing substantial volumes of waste from the double-shell tanks in 2009. The cost of implementing these options is estimated to range from less than $1 per gallon to more than $14 per gallon. Construction of new double-shell tanks is estimated to cost about $63 per gallon. Providing 5 to 10 million gallons of available double-shell tank space could enable early retrieval of 5 to 9 high-risk single-shell tanks beyond those identified for retrieval by 2007. These tanks are A-101, AX-101, AX-103, BY-102, C-107, S-105, S-106, S-108, and S-109 (Garfield et al. 2000). This represents a potential to retrieve approximately 14 million total curies, including 3,200 curies of long-lived mobile radionuclides. The results of the study reflect qualitative analyses conducted to identify promising options. The estimated costs are rough-order-of magnitude and, therefore, subject to change. Implementing some of the options would represent a departure from the current baseline and may adversely impact the

  17. 49 CFR 179.201 - Individual specification requirements applicable to non-pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to non-pressure tank car tanks. 179.201 Section 179.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes... car tanks. ...

  18. Retained gas sampler interim safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; Miller, W.O.; Unal, C.; Fujita, R.K.

    1995-01-13

    This safety assessment addresses the proposed action to install, operate, and remove a Retained Gas Sampler (RGS) in Tank 101-SY at Hanford. Purpose of the RGS is to help characterize the gas species retained in the tank waste; the information will be used to refine models that predict the gas-producing behavior of the waste tank. The RGS will take samples of the tank from top to bottom; these samples will be analyzed for gas constituents. The proposed action is required as part of an evaluation of mitigation concepts for eliminating episodic gas releases that result in high hydrogen concentrations in the tank dome space.

  19. Retained gas sampler interim safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; Miller, W.O.; Unal, C.; Fujita, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    This safety assessment addresses the proposed action to install, operate, and remove a Retained Gas Sampler (RGS) in Tank 101-SY at Hanford. Purpose of the RGS is to help characterize the gas species retained in the tank waste; the information will be used to refine models that predict the gas-producing behavior of the waste tank. The RGS will take samples of the tank from top to bottom; these samples will be analyzed for gas constituents. The proposed action is required as part of an evaluation of mitigation concepts for eliminating episodic gas releases that result in high hydrogen concentrations in the tank dome space

  20. TANK FARM ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TIFFT, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Through regulations, permitting or binding negotiations, Regulators establish requirements, limits, permit conditions and Notice of Construction (NOC) conditions with which the Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) must comply. Operating Specifications are technical limits which are set on a process to prevent injury to personnel, or damage to the facility or environment, The main purpose of this document is to provide specification limits and recovery actions for the TFC Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site. Specification limits are given for monitoring frequencies and permissible variation of readings from an established baseline or previous reading. The requirements in this document are driven by environmental considerations and data analysis issues, rather than facility design or personnel safety issues. This document is applicable to all single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank (DST) waste tanks, and the associated catch tanks and receiver tanks, and transfer systems. This Tank Farm Environmental Specifications Document (ESD) implements environmental-regulatory limits on the configuration and operation of the Hanford Tank Farms facility that have been established by Regulators. This ESD contains specific field operational limits and recovery actions for compliance with airborne effluent regulations and agreements, liquid effluents regulations and agreements, and environmental tank system requirements. The scope of this ESD is limited to conditions that have direct impact on Operations/Projects or that Operations Projects have direct impact upon. This document does not supercede or replace any Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, regulatory permits, notices of construction, or Regulatory agency agreements binding on the ORP or the TFC. Refer to the appropriate regulation, permit, or Notice of Construction for an inclusive listing of requirements

  1. Total Mercury content of skin toning creams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2008-04-01

    Apr 1, 2008 ... used it for cosmetics (Silberberg, 1995). Mercury- ... Cosmetic preparations containing mercury com- pounds are .... mercury determination by a modified version of an open .... level mercury exposure, which could lead to a.

  2. Design requirements document for Project W-465, immobilized low-activity waste interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbank, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    The scope of this Design Requirements Document (DRD) is to identify the functions and associated requirements that must be performed to accept, transport, handle, and store immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) produced by the privatized Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) treatment contractors. The functional and performance requirements in this document provide the basis for the conceptual design of the TWRS ILAW Interim Storage facility project and provides traceability from the program level requirements to the project design activity. Technical and programmatic risk associated with the TWRS planning basis are discussed in the Tank Waste Remediation System Decisions and Risk Assessment (Johnson 1994). The design requirements provided in this document will be augmented by additional detailed design data documented by the project

  3. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  4. Reactor pressure tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, H.; Scholz, M.; Jungmann, A.

    1975-01-01

    In a reactor pressure tank for a nuclear reactor, self-locking hooks engage a steel ring disposed over the removable cover of the steel vessel. The hooks exert force upon the cover to maintain the cover in a closed position during operation of the reactor pressure tank. The force upon the removal cover is partly the result of the increasing temperature and thermal expansion of the steel vessel during operation. The steel vessel is surrounded by a reinforced-concrete tank. (U.S.)

  5. Metallic mercury recycling. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, M.A.

    1994-07-01

    Metallic mercury is known to be a hazardous material and is regulated as such. The disposal of mercury, usually by landfill, is expensive and does not remove mercury from the environment. Results from the Metallic Mercury Recycling Project have demonstrated that metallic mercury is a good candidate for reclamation and recycling. Most of the potential contamination of mercury resides in the scum floating on the surface of the mercury. Pinhole filtration was demonstrated to be an inexpensive and easy way of removing residues from mercury. The analysis method is shown to be sufficient for present release practices, and should be sufficient for future release requirements. Data from tests are presented. The consistently higher level of activity of the filter residue versus the bulk mercury is discussed. Recommendations for the recycling procedure are made.

  6. Metallic mercury recycling. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Metallic mercury is known to be a hazardous material and is regulated as such. The disposal of mercury, usually by landfill, is expensive and does not remove mercury from the environment. Results from the Metallic Mercury Recycling Project have demonstrated that metallic mercury is a good candidate for reclamation and recycling. Most of the potential contamination of mercury resides in the scum floating on the surface of the mercury. Pinhole filtration was demonstrated to be an inexpensive and easy way of removing residues from mercury. The analysis method is shown to be sufficient for present release practices, and should be sufficient for future release requirements. Data from tests are presented. The consistently higher level of activity of the filter residue versus the bulk mercury is discussed. Recommendations for the recycling procedure are made

  7. The tectonics of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melosh, H.J.; Mckinnon, W.B.

    1988-01-01

    The probable tectonic history of Mercury and the relative sequence of events are discussed on the basis of data collected by the Mariner-10 spacecraft. Results indicate that Mercury's tectonic activity was confined to its early history; its endogenic activity was principally due to a small change in the shape of its lithosphere, caused by tidal despinning, and a small change in area caused by shrinkage due to cooling. Exogenic processes, in particular the impact activity, have produced more abundant tectonic features. Many features associated with the Caloris basin are due to loading of Mercury's thick lithosphere by extrusive lavas or subsidence due to magma withdrawal. It is emphasized that tectonic features observed on Mercury yield insight into the earliest tectonic events on planets like Mars and, perhaps, the earth, where subsequent events obscured or erased the most ancient tectonic records

  8. Intentional intravenous mercury injection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elemental mercury is the well-known silver liquid and usually causes pulmonary, neurological and ... suicidal ideation or features of major depression. Clinically the patient was .... medically at this stage and consider surgical intervention later.

  9. Mercury's Dynamic Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imber, S. M.

    2018-05-01

    The global dynamics of Mercury's magnetosphere will be discussed, focussing on observed asymmetries in the magnetotail and on the precipitation of particles of magnetospheric origin onto the nightside planetary surface.

  10. Mercury analysis in hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteban, Marta; Schindler, Birgit K; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A

    2015-01-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an effective tool for assessing actual exposure to chemicals that takes into account all routes of intake. Although hair analysis is considered to be an optimal biomarker for assessing mercury exposure, the lack of harmonization as regards sampling and analytical...... assurance program (QAP) for assessing mercury levels in hair samples from more than 1800 mother-child pairs recruited in 17 European countries. To ensure the comparability of the results, standard operating procedures (SOPs) for sampling and for mercury analysis were drafted and distributed to participating...... laboratories. Training sessions were organized for field workers and four external quality-assessment exercises (ICI/EQUAS), followed by the corresponding web conferences, were organized between March 2011 and February 2012. ICI/EQUAS used native hair samples at two mercury concentration ranges (0...

  11. Mercury's Early Geologic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denevi, B. W.; Ernst, C. M.; Klima, R. L.; Robinson, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    A combination of geologic mapping, compositional information, and geochemical models are providing a better understanding of Mercury's early geologic history, and allow us to place it in the context of the Moon and the terrestrial planets.

  12. Methods Data Qualification Interim Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessi, R. Sam; Grimmett, Tami; Vang, Leng; McGrath, Dave

    2010-01-01

    The overall goal of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) is to maintain data provenance for all NGNP data including the Methods component of NGNP data. Multiple means are available to access data stored in NDMAS. A web portal environment allows users to access data, view the results of qualification tests and view graphs and charts of various attributes of the data. NDMAS also has methods for the management of the data output from VHTR simulation models and data generated from experiments designed to verify and validate the simulation codes. These simulation models represent the outcome of mathematical representation of VHTR components and systems. The methods data management approaches described herein will handle data that arise from experiment, simulation, and external sources for the main purpose of facilitating parameter estimation and model verification and validation (V and V). A model integration environment entitled ModelCenter is used to automate the storing of data from simulation model runs to the NDMAS repository. This approach does not adversely change the why computational scientists conduct their work. The method is to be used mainly to store the results of model runs that need to be preserved for auditing purposes or for display to the NDMAS web portal. This interim report demonstrates the currently development of NDMAS for Methods data and discusses data and its qualification that is currently part of NDMAS.

  13. Methods Data Qualification Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Sam Alessi; Tami Grimmett; Leng Vang; Dave McGrath

    2010-09-01

    The overall goal of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) is to maintain data provenance for all NGNP data including the Methods component of NGNP data. Multiple means are available to access data stored in NDMAS. A web portal environment allows users to access data, view the results of qualification tests and view graphs and charts of various attributes of the data. NDMAS also has methods for the management of the data output from VHTR simulation models and data generated from experiments designed to verify and validate the simulation codes. These simulation models represent the outcome of mathematical representation of VHTR components and systems. The methods data management approaches described herein will handle data that arise from experiment, simulation, and external sources for the main purpose of facilitating parameter estimation and model verification and validation (V&V). A model integration environment entitled ModelCenter is used to automate the storing of data from simulation model runs to the NDMAS repository. This approach does not adversely change the why computational scientists conduct their work. The method is to be used mainly to store the results of model runs that need to be preserved for auditing purposes or for display to the NDMAS web portal. This interim report demonstrates the currently development of NDMAS for Methods data and discusses data and its qualification that is currently part of NDMAS.

  14. Mercury CEM Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani; Susan S. Sorini

    2007-03-31

    The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005, requires that calibration of mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The traceability protocol will be written by EPA. Traceability will be based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging from about 2-40 ug/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ID ICP/MS) through a chain of analyses linking the calibration unit in the power plant to the NIST ID ICP/MS. Prior to this project, NIST did not provide a recommended mercury vapor pressure equation or list mercury vapor pressure in its vapor pressure database. The NIST Physical and Chemical Properties Division in Boulder, Colorado was subcontracted under this project to study the issue in detail and to recommend a mercury vapor pressure equation that the vendors of mercury vapor pressure calibration units can use to calculate the elemental mercury vapor concentration in an equilibrium chamber at a particular temperature. As part of this study, a preliminary evaluation of calibration units from five vendors was made. The work was performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD and Joe Rovani from WRI who traveled to NIST as a Visiting Scientist.

  15. Cutaneous mercury granuloma

    OpenAIRE

    Kalpana A Bothale; Sadhana D Mahore; Sushil Pande; Trupti Dongre

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous mercury granuloma is rarely encountered. Clinically it may pose difficulty in diagnosis. Here, we report a 23-year-old male presented with erythematous, nodular lesions over the forearm and anterior aspect of chest wall. Metallic mercury in tissue sections appear as dark black, opaque, spherical globules of varying size and number. They are surrounded by granulomatous foreign-body reaction. It is composed of foreign body giant cells and mixed inflammatory infiltrate composed of hist...

  16. Mercury in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapauan, P.A.; Cruz, C.C.; Verceluz, F.P.

    1980-10-01

    The analysis of mercury (Hg) in scalp hair obtained from individuals residing in five different localities in the Philippines - Metro Manila, Naga City in Bicol, Bataan, Oriental Mindoro, and Palawan is presented. An overall mean of 1.46 ug/g of hair was obtained for all samples excluding those from Palawan and represents a baseline value.'' In terms of the mercury levels found in hair, the Honda Bay area in Palawan is, relatively, a ''contaminated area.'' (author)

  17. Project management plan for Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 sluicing. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, D.R.

    1994-07-01

    A major mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the permanent disposal of Hanford Site defense wastes by utilizing safe, environmentally acceptable, and cost-effective disposal methods that meet applicable regulations. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program was established at the Hanford Site to manage and control activities specific to the remediation of safety watch list tanks, including high-heat-producing tanks, and for the ultimate characterization, retrieval, pretreatment, and disposal of the low- and high-level fractions of the tank waste. Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 Sluicing, provides the methodology, equipment, utilities, and facilities necessary for retrieving the high-heat waste from single-shell tank (SST) 24-C-106. Project W-320 is a fiscal year (FY) 1993 expense-funded major project, and has a design life of 2 years. Retrieval of the waste in tank 241-C-106 will be accomplished through mobilization of the sludge into a pumpable slurry using past-practice sluicing. The waste is then transferred directly to a double-shell tank for interim storage, subsequent pretreatment, and eventual disposal. A detailed description of the management organization and responsibilities of all participants is presented in this document.

  18. Corrective action strategy for single-shell tanks containing organic chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, D.A.

    1993-08-01

    A Waste Tank Organic Safety Program (Program) Plan is to be transmitted to the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) for approval by December 31, 1993. In April 1993 an agreement was reached among cognizant U.S. Department of Energy - Headquarters (HQ), RL and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) staff that the Program Plan would be preceded by a ''Corrective Action Strategy,'' which addressed selected planning elements supporting the Program Plan. The ''Corrective Action Strategy'' would be reviewed and consensus reached regarding the planning elements. A Program Plan reflecting this consensus would then be prepared. A preliminary ''corrective action strategy'' is presented for resolving the organic tanks safety issue based on the work efforts recommended in the ISB (Interim Safety Basis for Hanford Site tank farm facilities). A ''corrective action strategy'' logic was prepared for individual SSTs (single-shell tanks), or a group of SSTs having similar characteristics, as appropriate. Four aspects of the organic tanks safety issue are addressed in the ISB: SSTs with the potential for combustion in the tank's headspace; combustion of a floating organic layer as a pool fire; surface fires in tanks that formerly held floating organic layers; SSTs with the potential for organic-nitrate reactions. A preliminary ''corrective action strategy'' for each aspect of the organic tanks safety issue is presented

  19. Project management plan for Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 sluicing. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.R.

    1994-07-01

    A major mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the permanent disposal of Hanford Site defense wastes by utilizing safe, environmentally acceptable, and cost-effective disposal methods that meet applicable regulations. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program was established at the Hanford Site to manage and control activities specific to the remediation of safety watch list tanks, including high-heat-producing tanks, and for the ultimate characterization, retrieval, pretreatment, and disposal of the low- and high-level fractions of the tank waste. Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 Sluicing, provides the methodology, equipment, utilities, and facilities necessary for retrieving the high-heat waste from single-shell tank (SST) 24-C-106. Project W-320 is a fiscal year (FY) 1993 expense-funded major project, and has a design life of 2 years. Retrieval of the waste in tank 241-C-106 will be accomplished through mobilization of the sludge into a pumpable slurry using past-practice sluicing. The waste is then transferred directly to a double-shell tank for interim storage, subsequent pretreatment, and eventual disposal. A detailed description of the management organization and responsibilities of all participants is presented in this document

  20. Tank farm potential ignition sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaief, C.C. III.

    1996-01-01

    This document identifies equipment, instrumentation, and sensors that are located in-tank as well as ex-tank in areas that may have communication paths with the tank vapor space. For each item, and attempt is made to identify the potential for ignition of flammable vapors using a graded approach. The scope includes all 177 underground storage tanks

  1. Improving the Tank Scout

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burton, R. L

    2006-01-01

    .... While the tank battalions recognize the importance and value of the scout platoon, they are restricted from employing scouts to their full potential due to the platoon's inflexible structure and limited capabilities...

  2. Tank waste treatment science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaFemina, J.P.; Blanchard, D.L.; Bunker, B.C.; Colton, N.G.; Felmy, A.R.; Franz, J.A.; Liu, J.; Virden, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Remediation efforts at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site require that many technical and scientific principles be combined for effectively managing and disposing the variety of wastes currently stored in underground tanks. Based on these principles, pretreatment technologies are being studied and developed to separate waste components and enable the most suitable treatment methods to be selected for final disposal of these wastes. The Tank Waste Treatment Science Task at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is addressing pretreatment technology development by investigating several aspects related to understanding and processing the tank contents. The experimental work includes evaluating the chemical and physical properties of the alkaline wastes, modeling sludge dissolution, and evaluating and designing ion exchange materials. This paper gives some examples of results of this work and shows how these results fit into the overall Hanford waste remediation activities. This work is part of series of projects being conducted for the Tank Waste Remediation System

  3. Ocean Technology Development Tank

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The new SWFSC laboratory in La Jolla incorporates a large sea- and fresh-water Ocean Technology Development Tank. This world-class facility expands NOAA's ability to...

  4. Sonar Tank Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Sonar Tank Facility permits low cost initial 'wet' testing and check out prior to full scale deployment at sea. It can manage controlled conditions calibration...

  5. Improving the Tank Scout

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burton, R. L

    2006-01-01

    Within the Marine Corps' tank battalions is a unique asset that is often improperly employed and not well known within the other components of the Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF): the scout platoon...

  6. Modeling Propellant Tank Dynamics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of my work will be to develop accurate models of self-pressurizing propellant tanks for use in designing hybrid rockets. The first key goal is to...

  7. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Michael D.; Schlager, Richard J.; Sappey, Andrew D.; Sagan, Francis J.; Marmaro, Roger W.; Wilson, Kevin G.

    1997-01-01

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber.

  8. C-106 tank process ventilation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Project W-320 Acceptance Test Report for tank 241-C-106, 296-C-006 Ventilation System Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) HNF-SD-W320-012, C-106 Tank Process Ventilation Test, was an in depth test of the 296-C-006 ventilation system and ventilation support systems required to perform the sluicing of tank C-106. Systems involved included electrical, instrumentation, chiller and HVAC. Tests began at component level, moved to loop level, up to system level and finally to an integrated systems level test. One criteria was to perform the test with the least amount of risk from a radioactive contamination potential stand point. To accomplish this a temporary configuration was designed that would simulate operation of the systems, without being connected directly to the waste tank air space. This was done by blanking off ducting to the tank and connecting temporary ducting and an inlet air filter and housing to the recirculation system. This configuration would eventually become the possible cause of exceptions. During the performance of the test, there were points where the equipment did not function per the directions listed in the ATP. These events fell into several different categories. The first and easiest problems were field configurations that did not match the design documentation. This was corrected by modifying the field configuration to meet design documentation and reperforming the applicable sections of the ATP. A second type of problem encountered was associated with equipment which did not operate correctly, at which point an exception was written against the ATP, to be resolved later. A third type of problem was with equipment that actually operated correctly but the directions in the ATP were in error. These were corrected by generating an Engineering Change Notice (ECN) against the ATP. The ATP with corrected directions was then re-performed. A fourth type of problem was where the directions in the ATP were as the equipment should operate, but the design of

  9. 244-AR Vault Interim Stabilization Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LANEY, T.

    2000-01-01

    The 244-AR Vault Facility, constructed between 1966 and 1968, was designed to provide lag storage and treatment for the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Facility (PUREX) tank farm sludges. Tank farm personnel transferred the waste from the 244-AR Vault Facility to B Plant for recovery of cesium and strontium. B Plant personnel then transferred the treatment residuals back to the tank farms for storage of the sludge and liquids. The last process operations, which transferred waste supporting the cesium/strontium recovery mission, occurred in April 1978. After the final transfer in 1978, the 244-AR facility underwent a cleanout. However, 2,271 L (600 gal) of sludge were left in Tank 004AR from an earlier transfer from Tank 241-AX-104. When the cleanout was completed, the facility was placed in a standby status. The sludge had been transferred to Tank 004AR to support Pacific Northwest National Laboratory [PNNL] vitrification work. Documentation of waste transfers suggests that a portion of the sludge may have been moved from Tank 004AR to Tank 002AR in preparation for transfer back to the AX Tank Farm; however, quantities of the sludge that were moved to Tank 002AR from that transfer must be estimated

  10. Mercury pollution in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Jinap, S; Ismail, Ahmad; Mahyudin, Nor Ainy

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have been published on levels of mercury contamination of the environment, and of food and human tissues in Peninsular Malaysia, there is a serious dearth of research that has been performed in East Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak). Industry is rapidly developing in East Malaysia, and, hence, there is a need for establishing baseline levels of mercury contamination in environmental media in that part of the country by performing monitoring studies. Residues of total mercury and inorganic in food samples have been determined in nearly all previous studies that have been conducted; however, few researchers have analyzed samples for the presence of methlymercury residues. Because methylmercury is the most toxic form of mercury, and because there is a growing public awareness of the risk posed by methylmercury exposure that is associated with fish and seafood consumption, further monitoring studies on methylmercury in food are also essential. From the results of previous studies, it is obvious that the economic development in Malaysia, in recent years, has affected the aquatic environment of the country. Primary areas of environmental concern are centered on the rivers of the west Peninsular Malaysian coast, and the coastal waters of the Straits of Malacca, wherein industrial activities are rapidly expanding. The sources of existing mercury input to both of these areas of Malaysia should be studied and identified. Considering the high levels of mercury that now exists in human tissues, efforts should be continued, and accelerated in the future, if possible, to monitor mercury contamination levels in the coastal states, and particularly along the west Peninsular Malaysian coast. Most studies that have been carried out on mercury residues in environmental samples are dated, having been conducted 20-30 years ago; therefore, the need to collect much more and more current data is urgent. Furthermore, establishing baseline levels of mercury exposure to

  11. EMCS Retrofit Analysis - Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, R.C.; Salsbury, T.I.; Bell, G.C.; Huang, Y.J.; Sezgen, A.O.; Mazzucchi, R.; Romberger, J.

    1999-03-01

    This report presents the interim results of analyses carried out in the Phillip Burton Federal Building in San Francisco from 1996 to 1998. The building is the site of a major demonstration of the BACnet communication protocol. The energy management and control systems (EMCS) in the building were retrofitted with BACnet compatible controllers in order to integrate certain existing systems on one common network. In this respect, the project has been a success. Interoperability of control equipment from different manufacturers has been demonstrated in a real world environment. Besides demonstrating interoperability, the retrofits carried out in the building were also intended to enhance control strategies and capabilities, and to produce energy savings. This report presents analyses of the energy usage of HVAC systems in the building, control performance, and the reaction of the building operators. The report does not present an evaluation of the performance capabilities of the BACnet protocol. A monitoring system was installed in the building that parallels many of the EMCS sensors and data were archived over a three-year period. The authors defined pre-retrofit and post-retrofit periods and analyzed the corresponding data to establish the changes in building performance resulting from the retrofit activities. The authors also used whole-building energy simulation (DOE-2) as a tool for evaluating the effect of the retrofit changes. The results of the simulation were compared with the monitored data. Changes in operator behavior were assessed qualitatively with questionnaires. The report summarizes the findings of the analyses and makes several recommendations as to how to achieve better performance. They maintain that the full potential of the EMCS and associated systems is not being realized. The reasons for this are discussed along with possible ways of addressing this problem. They also describe a number of new technologies that could benefit systems of the type

  12. Mercury Quick Facts: Health Effects of Mercury Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2012 What are the Health Effects of Mercury Exposure? The health effects that can be caused by breathing mercury depend ... they breathe faster and have smaller lungs. Health effects caused by long-term exposure to mercury vapors • • Anxiety • • Excessive shyness • • Anorexia • • Sleeping ...

  13. Nonradioactive air emissions notice of construction, Project W-320, 241-C-106 tank sluicing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, C.B.

    1998-01-01

    This document serves as a Notice of Construction for the Phase 2 activities of Project W-320, 241-C-106 Tank Sluicing, pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Codes (WAC) 173-400 and 173-460. Phased permitting for Project W-320 was discussed with the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) on November 2, 1993. In April 1994, it was deemed unnecessary because the Phase 1 activities did not constitute a new source of emissions and therefore did not require approval from Ecology. The 241-C-106 tank is a 2-million liter capacity, single-shell tank (SST) used for radioactive waste storage since 1947. Between mid-1963 and mid-1969, 241-C-106 tank received high-heat waste, PUREX (plutonium-uranium extraction) Facility high-level waste, and strontium-bearing solids from the strontium and cesium recovery activities. In 1971, temperatures exceeding 99 C were observed in the tank, and therefore, a ventilation system was installed to cool the tank. In addition, approximately 22,712 liters of cooling water are added to the tank each month to prevent the sludge from drying out and overheating. Excessive drying of the sludge could result in possible structural damage. The current radiolytic heat generation rate has been calculated at 32 kilowatts (kW) plus or minus 6 kW. The 241-C-106 tank was withdrawn from service in 1979 and currently is categorized as not leaking. The heat generation in 241-C-106 tank has been identified as a key safety issue on the Hanford Site. The evaporative cooling provided by the added water during operation and/or sluicing maintains the 241-C-106 tank within its specified operating temperature limits. Project W-320, 241-C-106 Tank Sluicing, will mobilize and remove the heat-generating sludge, allowing the water additions to cease. Following sludge removal, the 241-C-106 tank could be placed in a safe, interim stabilized condition. Tank-to-tank sluicing, an existing, proven technology, will provide the earliest possible

  14. Nonradioactive air emissions notice of construction, Project W-320, 241-C-106 tank sluicing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, C.B.

    1998-01-28

    This document serves as a Notice of Construction for the Phase 2 activities of Project W-320, 241-C-106 Tank Sluicing, pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Codes (WAC) 173-400 and 173-460. Phased permitting for Project W-320 was discussed with the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) on November 2, 1993. In April 1994, it was deemed unnecessary because the Phase 1 activities did not constitute a new source of emissions and therefore did not require approval from Ecology. The 241-C-106 tank is a 2-million liter capacity, single-shell tank (SST) used for radioactive waste storage since 1947. Between mid-1963 and mid-1969, 241-C-106 tank received high-heat waste, PUREX (plutonium-uranium extraction) Facility high-level waste, and strontium-bearing solids from the strontium and cesium recovery activities. In 1971, temperatures exceeding 99 C were observed in the tank, and therefore, a ventilation system was installed to cool the tank. In addition, approximately 22,712 liters of cooling water are added to the tank each month to prevent the sludge from drying out and overheating. Excessive drying of the sludge could result in possible structural damage. The current radiolytic heat generation rate has been calculated at 32 kilowatts (kW) plus or minus 6 kW. The 241-C-106 tank was withdrawn from service in 1979 and currently is categorized as not leaking. The heat generation in 241-C-106 tank has been identified as a key safety issue on the Hanford Site. The evaporative cooling provided by the added water during operation and/or sluicing maintains the 241-C-106 tank within its specified operating temperature limits. Project W-320, 241-C-106 Tank Sluicing, will mobilize and remove the heat-generating sludge, allowing the water additions to cease. Following sludge removal, the 241-C-106 tank could be placed in a safe, interim stabilized condition. Tank-to-tank sluicing, an existing, proven technology, will provide the earliest possible

  15. Mercury pOIsonIng

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of mercury poisoning is reported and clinical observations of 6 .... fish ingested and occupational exposure. .... exposed to mercury as a result of inadequate industrial safety standards, and ... WHO Tech Rep Ser 1980; No. 674: 102-115.

  16. Mercury Study Report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Report to Congress on Mercury provides an assessment of the magnitude of U.S. mercury emissions by source, the health and environmental implications of those emissions, and the availability and cost of control technologies.

  17. True Polar Wander of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, J. T.; Matsuyama, I.

    2018-05-01

    We use new MESSENGER gravity data to investigate how impact basins and volcanic provinces alter Mercury's moments of inertia. We find that Mercury has reoriented tens of degrees over its history, affecting tectonics, volatiles, and more.

  18. Mercury Emissions: The Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury emissions are a global problem that knows no national or continental boundaries. Mercury that is emitted to the air can travel thousands of miles in the atmosphere before it is eventually deposited back to the earth.

  19. Design review report FFTF interim storage cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, P.L.

    1995-01-01

    Final Design Review Report for the FFTF Interim Storage Cask. The Interim Storage Cask (ISC) will be used for long term above ground dry storage of FFTF irradiated fuel in Core Component Containers (CCC)s. The CCC has been designed and will house assemblies that have been sodium washed in the IEM Cell. The Solid Waste Cask (SWC) will transfer a full CCC from the IEM Cell to the RSB Cask Loading Station where the ISC will be located to receive it. Once the loaded ISC has been sealed at the RSB Cask Loading Station, it will be transferred by facility crane to the DSWC Transporter. After the ISC has been transferred to the Interim Storage Area (ISA), which is yet to be designed, a mobile crane will be used to place the ISC in its final storage location

  20. CMM Interim Check Design of Experiments (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-29

    Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) are widely used in industry, throughout the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to verify part conformance to design definition. Calibration cycles for CMMs at LANL are predominantly one year in length and include a weekly interim check to reduce risk. The CMM interim check makes use of Renishaw’s Machine Checking Gauge which is an off-the-shelf product simulates a large sphere within a CMM’s measurement volume and allows for error estimation. As verification on the interim check process a design of experiments investigation was proposed to test a couple of key factors (location and inspector). The results from the two-factor factorial experiment proved that location influenced results more than the inspector or interaction.

  1. Choosing a spent fuel interim storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, V.; Hunter, I.

    2001-01-01

    The Transnucleaire Group has developed different modular solutions to address spent fuel interim storage needs of NPP. These solutions, that are present in Europe, USA and Asia are metal casks (dual purpose or storage only) of the TN 24 family and the NUHOMS canister based system. It is not always simple for an operator to sort out relevant choice criteria. After explaining the basic designs involved on the examples of the TN 120 WWER dual purpose cask and the NUHOMS 56 WWER for WWER 440 spent fuel, we shall discuss the criteria that govern the choice of a given spent fuel interim storage system from the stand point of the operator. In conclusion, choosing and implementing an interim storage system is a complex process, whose implications can be far reaching for the long-term success of a spent fuel management policy. (author)

  2. Engineering evaluation of alternatives: Managing the assumed leak from single-shell Tank 241-T-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Jenkins, C.

    1996-02-01

    At mid-year 1992, the liquid level gage for Tank 241-T-101 indicated that 6,000 to 9,000 gal had leaked. Because of the liquid level anomaly, Tank 241-T-101 was declared an assumed leaker on October 4, 1992. SSTs liquid level gages have been historically unreliable. False readings can occur because of instrument failures, floating salt cake, and salt encrustation. Gages frequently self-correct and tanks show no indication of leak. Tank levels cannot be visually inspected and verified because of high radiation fields. The gage in Tank 241-T-101 has largely corrected itself since the mid-year 1992 reading. Therefore, doubt exists that a leak has occurred, or that the magnitude of the leak poses any immediate environmental threat. While reluctance exists to use valuable DST space unnecessarily, there is a large safety and economic incentive to prevent or mitigate release of tank liquid waste into the surrounding environment. During the assessment of the significance of the Tank 241-T-101 liquid level gage readings, Washington State Department of Ecology determined that Westinghouse Hanford Company was not in compliance with regulatory requirements, and directed transfer of the Tank 241-T-101 liquid contents into a DST. Meanwhile, DOE directed WHC to examine reasonable alternatives/options for safe interim management of Tank 241-T-101 wastes before taking action. The five alternatives that could be used to manage waste from a leaking SST are: (1) No-Action, (2) In-Tank Stabilization, (3) External Tank Stabilization, (4) Liquid Retrieval, and (5) Total Retrieval. The findings of these examinations are reported in this study

  3. HIGH LEVEL WASTE MECHANCIAL SLUDGE REMOVAL AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolly, R; Bruce Martin, B

    2008-01-01

    The Savannah River Site F-Tank Farm Closure project has successfully performed Mechanical Sludge Removal (MSR) using the Waste on Wheels (WOW) system for the first time within one of its storage tanks. The WOW system is designed to be relatively mobile with the ability for many components to be redeployed to multiple waste tanks. It is primarily comprised of Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), Submersible Transfer Pumps (STPs), and a mobile control room with a control panel and variable speed drives. In addition, the project is currently preparing another waste tank for MSR utilizing lessons learned from this previous operational activity. These tanks, designated as Tank 6 and Tank 5 respectively, are Type I waste tanks located in F-Tank Farm (FTF) with a capacity of 2,840 cubic meters (750,000 gallons) each. The construction of these tanks was completed in 1953, and they were placed into waste storage service in 1959. The tank's primary shell is 23 meters (75 feet) in diameter, and 7.5 meters (24.5 feet) in height. Type I tanks have 34 vertically oriented cooling coils and two horizontal cooling coil circuits along the tank floor. Both Tank 5 and Tank 6 received and stored F-PUREX waste during their operating service time before sludge removal was performed. DOE intends to remove from service and operationally close (fill with grout) Tank 5 and Tank 6 and other HLW tanks that do not meet current containment standards. Mechanical Sludge Removal, the first step in the tank closure process, will be followed by chemical cleaning. After obtaining regulatory approval, the tanks will be isolated and filled with grout for long-term stabilization. Mechanical Sludge Removal operations within Tank 6 removed approximately 75% of the original 95,000 liters (25,000 gallons). This sludge material was transferred in batches to an interim storage tank to prepare for vitrification. This operation consisted of eleven (11) Submersible Mixer Pump(s) mixing campaigns and multiple intraarea

  4. HIGH LEVEL WASTE MECHANCIAL SLUDGE REMOVAL AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolly, R; Bruce Martin, B

    2008-01-15

    The Savannah River Site F-Tank Farm Closure project has successfully performed Mechanical Sludge Removal (MSR) using the Waste on Wheels (WOW) system for the first time within one of its storage tanks. The WOW system is designed to be relatively mobile with the ability for many components to be redeployed to multiple waste tanks. It is primarily comprised of Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), Submersible Transfer Pumps (STPs), and a mobile control room with a control panel and variable speed drives. In addition, the project is currently preparing another waste tank for MSR utilizing lessons learned from this previous operational activity. These tanks, designated as Tank 6 and Tank 5 respectively, are Type I waste tanks located in F-Tank Farm (FTF) with a capacity of 2,840 cubic meters (750,000 gallons) each. The construction of these tanks was completed in 1953, and they were placed into waste storage service in 1959. The tank's primary shell is 23 meters (75 feet) in diameter, and 7.5 meters (24.5 feet) in height. Type I tanks have 34 vertically oriented cooling coils and two horizontal cooling coil circuits along the tank floor. Both Tank 5 and Tank 6 received and stored F-PUREX waste during their operating service time before sludge removal was performed. DOE intends to remove from service and operationally close (fill with grout) Tank 5 and Tank 6 and other HLW tanks that do not meet current containment standards. Mechanical Sludge Removal, the first step in the tank closure process, will be followed by chemical cleaning. After obtaining regulatory approval, the tanks will be isolated and filled with grout for long-term stabilization. Mechanical Sludge Removal operations within Tank 6 removed approximately 75% of the original 95,000 liters (25,000 gallons). This sludge material was transferred in batches to an interim storage tank to prepare for vitrification. This operation consisted of eleven (11) Submersible Mixer Pump(s) mixing campaigns and multiple

  5. WRPS Meeting The Challenge Of Tank Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    -and-a-half years to modernize the infrastructure in Hanford's tank farms. WRPS issued 850 subcontracts totaling more than $152 million with nearly 76 percent of that total awarded to small businesses. WRPS used the funding to upgrade tank farm infrastructure, develop technologies to retrieve and consolidate tank waste and extend the life of two critical operating facilities needed to feed waste to the WTP. The 222-S Laboratory analyzes waste to support waste retrievals and transfers. The laboratory was upgraded to support future WTP operations with a new computer system, new analytical equipment, a new office building and a new climate-controlled warehouse. The 242-A Evaporator was upgraded with a control-room simulator for operator training and several upgrades to aging equipment. The facility is used to remove liquid from the tank waste, creating additional storage space, necessary for continued waste retrievals and WTP operation. The One System Integrated Project Team is ajoint effort ofWRPS and Bechtel National to identify and resolve common issues associated with commissioning, feeding and operating the Waste Treatment Plant. Two new facilities are being designed to support WTP hot commlsslomng. The Interim Hanford Storage project is planned to store canisters of immobilized high-level radioactive waste glass produced by the vitrification plant. The facility will use open racks to store the 15-foot long, two-foot diameter canisters of waste, which require remote handling. The Secondary Liquid Waste Treatment Project is a major upgrade to the existing Effluent Treatment Facility at Hanford so it can treat about 10 million gallons of liquid radioactive and hazardous effluent a year from the vitrification plant. The One System approach brings the staff of both companies together to identify and resolve WTP safety issues. A questioning attitude is encouraged and an open forum is maintained for employees to raise issues. WRPS is completing its mission safely with record

  6. Mercury's magnetic field and interior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connerney, J.E.P.; Ness, N.F.

    1988-01-01

    The magnetic-field data collected on Mercury by the Mariner-10 spacecraft present substantial evidence for an intrinsic global magnetic field. However, studies of Mercury's thermal evolution show that it is most likely that the inner core region of Mercury solidified or froze early in the planet's history. Thus, the explanation of Mercury's magnetic field in the framework of the traditional planetary dynamo is less than certain

  7. Interim Administrators in Higher Education: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Marie Thielke; Neubrander, Judy

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the roles and experiences of interim administrators in higher education. A survey was given to current and recent interim administrators in four-year public universities and colleges across the United States. The goals were to identify the advantages and disadvantages of using and serving as interims, and to solicit…

  8. An Approach for Evaluating the Technical Quality of Interim Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Marion, Scott; Perie, Marianne; Gong, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Increasing numbers of schools and districts have expressed interest in interim assessment systems to prepare for summative assessments and to improve teaching and learning. However, with so many commercial interim assessments available, schools and districts are struggling to determine which interim assessment is most appropriate to their needs.…

  9. Lessons for outsourcing and interim management relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macko, W; Kostyack, P T

    1999-01-01

    Few decisions can affect an organization more than the selection of an outsourcing or interim management partner. More and more health care organizations face such decisions in today's competitive market in order to face new business needs. Making these relationships successful can be important for health care organizations seeking competitive advantages or seeking immediately accessible management support. These relationships, however, require careful partner selection and development. Success in outsourcing and interim management relationships is contingent upon a thorough selection process, a strong contract that has clearly and explicitly detailed responsibilities and a culture-sensitive business rapport between the client and selected partner.

  10. MERCURY IN MARINE LIFE DATABASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the Mercury in Marine Life Project is to organize information on estuarine and marine species so that EPA can better understand both the extent of monitoring for mercury and level of mercury contamination in the biota of coastal environments. This report follows a ...

  11. Reference Atmosphere for Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Rosemary M.

    2002-01-01

    We propose that Ar-40 measured in the lunar atmosphere and that in Mercury's atmosphere is due to current diffusion into connected pore space within the crust. Higher temperatures at Mercury, along with more rapid loss from the atmosphere will lead to a smaller column abundance of argon at Mercury than at the Moon, given the same crustal abundance of potassium. Because the noble gas abundance in the Hermean atmosphere represents current effusion, it is a direct measure of the crustal potassium abundance. Ar-40 in the atmospheres of the planets is a measure of potassium abundance in the interiors, since Ar-40 is a product of radiogenic decay of K-40 by electron capture with the subsequent emission of a 1.46 eV gamma-ray. Although the Ar-40 in the Earth's atmosphere is expected to have accumulated since the late bombardment, Ar-40 in the atmospheres of Mercury and the Moon is eroded quickly by photoionization and electron impact ionization. Thus, the argon content in the exospheres of the Moon and Mercury is representative of current effusion rather than accumulation over the lifetime of the planet.

  12. Fuel tank tourism; Tanktourismus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, M.; Banfi, S.; Haan, P. de

    2000-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made of the extent of so-called 'tank tourism' in Switzerland. The report attempts to how much motor fuel is purchased in border-near filling stations by persons from the other side of the border as a result of price differences in the different countries. The two methods used to estimate the extent of tank tourism, an ex-post analysis and the analysis of filling station turnover, are explained. Only road-traffic is considered; tank tourism in the aviation area is not looked at in this study. The extent of tank tourism is estimated for petrol and diesel fuels. The individual figures produced by the two methods are compared and the difference between them discussed. The report also investigates the effect of changing prices on tank tourism and discusses the problem of estimating the figures for 'off-road' consumers such as tractors and construction machines.

  13. Ferrocyanide tank waste stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    Ferrocyanide wastes were generated at the Hanford Site during the mid to late 1950s as a result of efforts to create more tank space for the storage of high-level nuclear waste. The ferrocyanide process was developed to remove 137 CS from existing waste and newly generated waste that resulted from the recovery of valuable uranium in Hanford Site waste tanks. During the course of research associated with the ferrocyanide process, it was recognized that ferrocyanide materials, when mixed with sodium nitrate and/or sodium nitrite, were capable of violent exothermic reaction. This chemical reactivity became an issue in the 1980s, when safety issues associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes in Hanford Site tanks became prominent. These safety issues heightened in the late 1980s and led to the current scrutiny of the safety issues associated with these wastes, as well as current research and waste management programs. Testing to provide information on the nature of possible tank reactions is ongoing. This document supplements the information presented in Summary of Single-Shell Tank Waste Stability, WHC-EP-0347, March 1991 (Borsheim and Kirch 1991), which evaluated several issues. This supplement only considers information particular to ferrocyanide wastes

  14. Underground tank remediation by use of in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, L.E.

    1991-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a remedial action technology for underground storage tanks through the adaptation of the in situ vitrification (ISV) process. The ISV process is a thermal treatment processes that was originally developed for the stabilization of contaminated soil contaminated with transuranic waste at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington for the Department of Energy (DOE). The application of ISV to underground storage tanks represents an entirely new application of the ISV technology and is being performed in support of the DOE primarily for the Hanford site and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A field scale test was conducted in September 1990 at Hanford on a small cement and stainless steel tank (1-m dia.) that contained a simulated refractory sludge representing a worst-case sludge composition. The tank design and sludge composition was based on conditions present at the ORNL. The sludge contained high concentrations of heavy metals including lead, mercury, and cadmium, and also contained high levels of stable cesium and strontium to represent the predominant radionuclide species present in the tank wastes. The test was highly successful in that the entire tank and surrounding soil was transformed into a highly leach resistant glass and crystalline block with a mass of approximately 30 tons. During the process, the metal shell of the tank forms a metal pool at the base of the molten soil. Upon cooling, the glass and metal phases were subjected to TCLP (toxic characteristic leach procedure) testing and passed the TCLP criteria. Additional sampling and analyses are ongoing to determine the bulk composition of the waste forms, the fraction of volatile or semi-volatile species released to the off-gas treatment system, and to determine whether any soil surrounding the monolith was contaminated as a result of the ISV process. 4 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Water displacement mercury pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1984-04-20

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  16. Inerting ballast tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, Gabriel L.; Bronneberg, Jos [SBM Offshore, AA Schiedam (Netherlands); Barros, Maria A.S.D. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This report expands upon the work conducted by SBM Offshore to develop a tank preservation treatment, which is intended to achieve a service life of 30 years. This work focuses on the corrosion problems, in the ballast tanks, based on new built hulls, both for the Gas Exploration Market, the FLNG - Floating Liquefied Natural Gas, and for the Oil Exploration market - FPSO's - Floating Production Storage and offloading Units. Herein, the corrosion rate input comes from the various references related to the process of nitrogen injection, which is expected to extend the vessel's time life. The essential elements of this solution comprise the deoxygenation process, corrosion models, coating effects, tests from laboratory, shipboard tests, corrosion institutes and regulations applicable to the operation. The best corrosion protection system for ballast tanks area combines a coating system and an inert gas system. The condition of the tanks will be dependent upon the level of protection applied to the steel structure, including, but not limited to coating, cathodic protection, etc. There is a need for products which extend the life time. It is not sufficient, only have good theoretical base for the corrosion and an excellent treatment system. In addition, the design of the ships structure must also eliminate the presence of local stress concentrations which can result in fatigue cracking and rupture of the protective coating barrier starting the corrosion. As a direct result of this, more problems in corrosion can be mitigated, vessels can have a better corrosion performance with less maintenance and repairs to coating systems in ballast tanks. Furthermore ships will be positively impacted operationally due to less frequent dry docking. There is a huge potential in the application of inert gas to combat the corrosion rate inside the ballast tanks, one of the most corrosive environments on earth. This application can have a direct impact on vessel structure

  17. Effectiveness of interim remedial actions at a radioactive waste facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.; Beskid, N.J.; Peterson, J.M.; Seay, W.M.; McNamee, E.

    1989-01-01

    Over the past eight years, several interim remedial actions have been taken at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS), primarily to reduce radon and gamma radiation exposures and to consolidate radioactive waste into a waste containment facility. Interim remedial actions have included capping of vents, sealing of pipes, relocation of the perimeter fence (to limit radon risk), transfer and consolidation of waste, upgrading of storage buildings, construction of a clay cutoff wall (to limit the potential groundwater transport of contaminants), treatment and release of contaminated water, interim use of a synthetic liner, and emplacement of an interim clay cap. An interim waste containment facility was completed in 1986. 6 refs., 3 figs

  18. The Effects of Mercury Exposure on the Surface Morphology of Gill Filaments in Perna perna (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, M.A.; George, R.C.; Marshall, D.J.; Anandraj, A.; McClurg, T.P.

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility that changes in the surface morphology of mussel (Perna perna) gill filaments may be used to indicate the relative toxicity of pollutants in the marine environment. Healthy, adult P. perna were collected and immersed in 2 free-flow tanks. Mercury was added to seawater as it entered tank 1 to achieve a constant level of 50 μg/l -1 over 24 days. Uncontaminated seawater was circulated over the mussels in tank 2 (control) for the same period. A 25 mm 2 area of gill filament was removed from each of the 5 specimens before and after 24 days immersion in tank 2, and after immersion for 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24 days in tank 1. These were examined using a scanning electron microscope. The remaining soft tissues from each animal were analysed for mercury using an atomic absorption spectrometer. Mercury concentration increased from 0.13 (pre-immersion) to 87 μg/g after day 24. Surface morphology remained normal for all animals in tank 2 and for those exposed to Hg for up to 8 days. However, from 16 to 24 days exposure there was a gradual increase in the diameters of microvilli, a depletion of abfrontal cilia, an increase in abnormal, perhaps necrotic cells and an unusual increase in the number of cilia on the lateral surfaces. These results confirm that P. perna is an efficient bio-accumulator and suggest that their gill pathomorphology may be a useful indicator of toxicity

  19. Failure analysis of buried tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    Failure of a buried tank can be hazardous. Failure may be a leak through which product is lost from the tank; but also through which contamination can occur. Failures are epidemic -- because buried tanks are out of sight, but also because designers of buried tanks have adopted analyses developed for pressure tanks. So why do pressure tanks fail when they are buried? Most failures of buried tanks are really soil failures. Soil compresses, or slips, or liquefies. Soil is not only a load, it is a support without which the tank deforms. A high water table adds to the load on the tank. It also reduces the strength of the soil. Based on tests, structural analyses are proposed for empty tanks buried in soils of various quality, with the water table at various levels, and with internal vacuum. Failure may be collapse tank. Such collapse is a sudden, audible inversion of the cylinder when the sidefill soil slips. Failure may be flotation. Failure may be a leak. Most leaks are fractures in the welds in overlap seams at flat spots. Flat spots are caused by a hard bedding or a heavy surface wheel load. Because the tank wall is double thick at the overlap, shearing stress in the weld is increased. Other weld failures occur when an end plate shears down past a cylinder; or when the tank is supported only at its ends like a beam. These, and other, failures can be analyzed with justifiable accuracy using basic principles of mechanics of materials. 10 figs

  20. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.L.; Ahrendt, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  1. Mercury exposure in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cullen, Elizabeth; Evans, David S; Davidson, Fred

    2014-01-01

    of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES) pilot biomonitoring study. METHODS: Hair mercury concentrations were determined from a convenience sample of 120 mother/child pairs. Mothers also completed a questionnaire. Rigorous quality assurance within DEMOCOPHES...... guaranteed the accuracy and international comparability of results. RESULTS: Mercury was detected in 79.2% of the samples from mothers, and 62.5% of children's samples. Arithmetic mean levels in mothers (0.262 µg/g hair) and children (0.149 µg /g hair) did not exceed the US EPA guidance value. Levels were...

  2. Use of Multiple Innovative Technologies for Retrieval and Handling of Low-Level Radioactive Tank Wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble-Dial, J.; Riner, G.; Robinson, S.; Lewis, B.; Bolling, D.; Ganapathi, G.; Harper, M.; Billingsley, K.; Burks, B.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) successfully implemented an integrated tank waste management plan at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (1), which resulted in the cleanup, removal, or stabilization of 37 inactive underground storage tanks (USTs) since 1998, and the reduction of risk to human health and the environment. The integrated plan helped accelerate the development and deployment of innovative technologies for the retrieval of radioactive sludge and liquid waste from inactive USTs. It also accelerated the pretreatment of the retrieved waste and newly generated waste from ORNL research and development activities to provide for volume and contamination reduction of the liquid waste. The integrated plan included: retrieval of radioactive sludge, contaminated material, and other debris from USTs at ORNL using a variety of robotic and remotely operated equipment; waste conditioning and transfer of retrieved waste to pretreatment facilities and interim, double contained storage tanks; the development and deployment of technologies for pretreating newly generated and retrieved waste transferred to interim storage tanks; waste treatment and packaging for final off-site disposal; stabilization of the inactive USTs that did not meet the regulatory requirements of the Federal Facilities Agreement between the DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC); and the continued monitoring of the active USTs that remain in long-term service. This paper summarizes the successful waste retrieval and tank stabilization operations conducted during two ORNL tank remediation projects (The Gunite Tanks Remediation Project and the Old Hydrofracture Facility Tanks Remediation Project), the sludge retrieval operations from the active Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tanks, and pretreatment operations conducted for the tank waste. This paper also provides the status of ongoing activities conducted in preparation

  3. Interim storage of radioactive waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report covers all the principal aspects of production and interim storage of radioactive waste packages. The latest design solutions of waste storage facilities and the operational experiences of developed countries are described and evaluated in order to assist developing Member States in decision making and design and construction of their own storage facilities. This report is applicable to any category of radioactive waste package prepared for interim storage, including conditioned spent fuel, high level waste and sealed radiation sources. This report addresses the following issues: safety principles and requirements for storage of waste packages; treatment and conditioning methods for the main categories of radioactive waste; examples of existing interim storage facilities for LILW, spent fuel and high level waste; operational experience of Member States in waste storage operations including control of storage conditions, surveillance of waste packages and observation of the behaviour of waste packages during storage; retrieval of waste packages from storage facilities; technical and administrative measures that will ensure optimal performance of waste packages subject to various periods of interim storage

  4. 33 CFR 385.38 - Interim goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., monitoring and assessment; (ii) Be provided to the independent scientific review panel established in.... The interim goals shall be developed through the use of appropriate models and tools and shall provide... to be required to meet long-term hydrological and ecological restoration goals, based on best...

  5. Interim Storage Facility decommissioning. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.P.; Speed, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Decontamination and decommissioning of the Interim Storage Facility were completed. Activities included performing a detailed radiation survey of the facility, removing surface and imbedded contamination, excavating and removing the fuel storage cells, restoring the site to natural conditions, and shipping waste to Hanford, Washington, for burial. The project was accomplished on schedule and 30% under budget with no measurable exposure to decommissioning personnel

  6. 19 CFR 354.8 - Interim sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reconsider imposition of interim sanctions on the basis of new and material evidence or other good cause... Secretary may petition a presiding official to impose such sanctions. (b) The presiding official may impose... person to return material previously provided by the Department and all other materials containing the...

  7. Automotive Mechanics Occupational Performance Survey. Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcher, Sidney D.; Leiter, Paul B.

    The purpose of this federally-funded interim report is to present the results of a task inventory analysis survey of automotive mechanics completed by project staff within the Instructional Systems Design Program at the Center for Vocational and Technical Education. Intended for use in curriculum development for vocational education programs in…

  8. A Non-Traditional Interim Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Diane; Ward, Dorothy

    1980-01-01

    Describes a project initiated by the Foreign Language Department of Birmingham-Southern College for their Interim term and discusses an interdisciplinary course focusing on Medieval Europe. The course included presentations on German and French language and literature, as well as lectures on the arts, philosophy, and family life of the period.…

  9. 340 waste handling facility interim safety basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VAIL, T.S.

    1999-04-01

    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people.

  10. ITER interim design report package documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This publication contains the Excerpt from the ITER Council (IC-8), the ITER Interim Design Report, Cost Review and Safety Analysis, ITER Site Requirements and ITER Site Design Assumptions and the Excerpt from the ITER Council (IC-9). 8 figs, 2 tabs

  11. LANDFILL BIOREACTOR PERFORMANCE, SECOND INTERIM REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

  12. 340 waste handling facility interim safety basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VAIL, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people

  13. Risks from Past, Current, and Potential Hanford Single Shell Tank Leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triplett, Mark B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Watson, David J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wellman, Dawn M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Due to significant delays in constructing and operating the Waste Treatment Plant, which is needed to support retrieval of waste from Hanford’s single shell tanks (SSTs), SSTs may now be required to store tank waste for two to three more decades into the future. Many SSTs were built almost 70 years ago, and all SSTs are well beyond their design lives. Recent examination of monitoring data suggests several of the tanks, which underwent interim stabilization a decade or more ago, may be leaking small amounts (perhaps 150–300 gallons per year) to the subsurface environment. A potential leak from tank T-111 is estimated to have released approximately 2,000 gallons into the subsurface. Observations of past leak events, recently published simulation results, and new simulations all suggest that recent leaks are unlikely to affect underlying groundwater above regulatory limits. However, these recent observations remind us that much larger source terms are still contained in the tanks and are also present in the vadose zone from historical intentional and unintentional releases. Recently there have been significant improvements in methods for detecting and characterizing soil moisture and contaminant releases, understanding and controlling mass-flux, and remediating deep vadose zone and groundwater plumes. To ensure extended safe storage of tank waste in SSTs, the following actions are recommended: 1) Improve capabilities for intrusion and leak detection. 2) Develop defensible conceptual models of intrusion and leak mechanisms. 3) Apply enhanced subsurface characterization methods to improve detection and quantification of moisture changes beneath tanks. 4) Maintain a flux-based assessment of past, present, and potential tank leaks to assess risks and to maintain priorities for applying mitigation actions. 5) Implement and maintain effective mitigation and remediation actions to protect groundwater resources. These actions will enable limited resources to be applied to

  14. Fuel tank crashworthiness : loading scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    The Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research and Development is conducting research into fuel tank crashworthiness. The breaching of fuel tanks during passenger : rail collisions and derailments increases the potential of serious injury...

  15. Method and apparatus for sampling atmospheric mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Patricio E.; Campbell, Evan E.; Eutsler, Bernard C.

    1976-01-20

    A method of simultaneously sampling particulate mercury, organic mercurial vapors, and metallic mercury vapor in the working and occupational environment and determining the amount of mercury derived from each such source in the sampled air. A known volume of air is passed through a sampling tube containing a filter for particulate mercury collection, a first adsorber for the selective adsorption of organic mercurial vapors, and a second adsorber for the adsorption of metallic mercury vapor. Carbon black molecular sieves are particularly useful as the selective adsorber for organic mercurial vapors. The amount of mercury adsorbed or collected in each section of the sampling tube is readily quantitatively determined by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  16. INITIAL SINGLE-SHELL TANK (SST) SYSTEM PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF THE HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JARAYSI, M.N.

    2007-01-01

    to ''reference'' cases to judge how the proposed closure system performs when changes to important assumptions are made to the hydrogeologic and engineered systems. The estimated impacts from these cases are generally consistent with ''reference'' case results (i.e., performance objectives are exceeded by contaminants from past releases but not tank residuals). This document and its future iterations will play a critical role in the decision making process for the closure of the Hanford Tank Farms. It will support interim decisions related to tank retrievals and interim corrective measures, in addition to supporting the major closure decisions of tanks and tank farms. Hence, it is imperative that the review process of this document is inclusive of the decision makers as well as the Hanford Stakeholders

  17. AN EVALUATION OF HANFORD SITE TANK FARM SUBSURFACE CONTAMINATION FY2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MANN, F.M.

    2007-07-10

    The Tank Farm Vadose Zone (TFVZ) Project conducts activities to characterize and analyze the long-term environmental and human health impacts from tank waste releases to the vadose zone. The project also implements interim measures to mitigate impacts, and plans the remediation of waste releases from tank farms and associated facilities. The scope of this document is to report data needs that are important to estimating long-term human health and environmental risks. The scope does not include technologies needed to remediate contaminated soils and facilities, technologies needed to close tank farms, or management and regulatory decisions that will impact remediation and closure. This document is an update of ''A Summary and Evaluation of Hanford Site Tank Farm Subsurface Contamination''. That 1998 document summarized knowledge of subsurface contamination beneath the tank farms at the time. It included a preliminary conceptual model for migration of tank wastes through the vadose zone and an assessment of data and analysis gaps needed to update the conceptual model. This document provides a status of the data and analysis gaps previously defined and discussion of the gaps and needs that currently exist to support the stated mission of the TFVZ Project. The first data-gaps document provided the basis for TFVZ Project activities over the previous eight years. Fourteen of the nineteen knowledge gaps identified in the previous document have been investigated to the point that the project defines the current status as acceptable. In the process of filling these gaps, significant accomplishments were made in field work and characterization, laboratory investigations, modeling, and implementation of interim measures. The current data gaps are organized in groups that reflect Components of the tank farm vadose zone conceptual model: inventory, release, recharge, geohydrology, geochemistry, and modeling. The inventory and release components address

  18. AN EVALUATION OF HANFORD SITE TANK FARM SUBSURFACE CONTAMINATION FY 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MANN, F.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Tank Farm Vadose Zone (TFVZ) Project conducts activities to characterize and analyze the long-term environmental and human health impacts from tank waste releases to the vadose zone. The project also implements interim measures to mitigate impacts, and plans the remediation of waste releases from tank farms and associated facilities. The scope of this document is to report data needs that are important to estimating long-term human health and environmental risks. The scope does not include technologies needed to remediate contaminated soils and facilities, technologies needed to close tank farms, or management and regulatory decisions that will impact remediation and closure. This document is an update of ''A Summary and Evaluation of Hanford Site Tank Farm Subsurface Contamination''. That 1998 document summarized knowledge of subsurface contamination beneath the tank farms at the time. It included a preliminary conceptual model for migration of tank wastes through the vadose zone and an assessment of data and analysis gaps needed to update the conceptual model. This document provides a status of the data and analysis gaps previously defined and discussion of the gaps and needs that currently exist to support the stated mission of the TFVZ Project. The first data-gaps document provided the basis for TFVZ Project activities over the previous eight years. Fourteen of the nineteen knowledge gaps identified in the previous document have been investigated to the point that the project defines the current status as acceptable. In the process of filling these gaps, significant accomplishments were made in field work and characterization, laboratory investigations, modeling, and implementation of interim measures. The current data gaps are organized in groups that reflect Components of the tank farm vadose zone conceptual model: inventory, release, recharge, geohydrology, geochemistry, and modeling. The inventory and release components address residual wastes that will

  19. Aboveground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    With the 1988 promulgation of the comprehensive Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations for underground storage of petroleum and hazardous substances, many existing underground storage tank (UST) owners have been considering making the move to aboveground storage. While on the surface, this may appear to be the cure-all to avoiding the underground leakage dilemma, there are many other new and different issues to consider with aboveground storage. The greatest misconception is that by storing materials above ground, there is no risk of subsurface environmental problems. it should be noted that with the aboveground storage tank (AGST) systems, there is still considerable risk of environmental contamination, either by the failure of onground tank bottoms or the spillage of product onto the ground surface where it subsequently finds its way to the ground water. In addition, there are added safety concerns that must be addressed. So what are the other specific areas of concern besides environmental to be addressed when making the decision between underground and aboveground tanks? The primary issues that will be addressed in this paper are: Safety, Product Losses, Cost Comparison of USTs vs AGSTs, Space Availability/Accessibility, Precipitation Handling, Aesthetics and Security, Pending and Existing Regulations

  20. Underground storage tank program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    Underground storage tanks, UST'S, have become a major component of the Louisville District's Environmental Support Program. The District's Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering Branch has spear-headed an innovative effort to streamline the time, effort and expense for removal, replacement, upgrade and associated cleanup of USTs at military and civil work installations. This program, called Yank-A-Tank, creates generic state-wide contracts for removal, remediation, installation and upgrade of storage tanks for which individual delivery orders are written under the basic contract. The idea is to create a ''JOC type'' contract containing all the components of work necessary to remove, reinstall or upgrade an underground or above ground tank. The contract documents contain a set of generic specifications and unit price books in addition to the standard ''boiler plate'' information. Each contract requires conformance to the specific regulations for the state in which it is issued. The contractor's bid consists of a bid factor which in the multiplier used with the prices in the unit price book. The solicitation is issued as a Request for Proposal (RPP) which allows the government to select a contractor based on technical qualification an well as bid factor. Once the basic contract is awarded individual delivery orders addressing specific areas of work are scoped, negotiated and awarded an modifications to the original contract. The delivery orders utilize the prepriced components and the contractor's factor to determine the value of the work

  1. Task 7c: Worm tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Worm tank has a unique shape. In the seismic design of a worm tank, it is desirable to clear the behavior of the worm tank under the seismic loading. We assumed that there are two phenomena in the seismic behavior of the worm tank same as the behavior of the cylindrical and rectangular tanks. One is a sloshing behavior of the water and another is the dynamic response of the worm tank. In this study, we investigate the dynamic characteristics of the worm tank during the strong earthquakes. We conducted the vibration tests to clarify the seismic behaviors of the worm tanks and obtained the valuable data to verify the analytical method. It was found that the natural frequency can be calculated using the eigenvalue formula of the cylindrical and rectangular tanks. Lower modes of the worm tank are identical with that of the rectangular tank. We can estimate the surface behavior and the impact mode using the data of the rectangular tank. (author)

  2. SRS Tank Structural Integrity Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maryak, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The mission of the Structural Integrity Program is to ensure continued safe management and operation of the waste tanks for whatever period of time these tanks are required. Matthew Maryak provides an overview of the Structural Integrity Program to open Session 5 (Waste Storage and Tank Inspection) of the 2010 EM Waste Processing Technical Exchange.

  3. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanfords Interim Stabilization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TORRES, T.D.

    2001-01-01

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program (Torres, 2000a), defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of waste transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program (Torres, 2000b), has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications associated with Interim Stabilization. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning, RPP-6028 Section 3.2.7. Performance Incentive Number ORP-05 requires that all the Single Shell Tanks be Interim Stabilized by September 30, 2003. The Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestone M-41-00, enforced by a federal consent decree, requires all the Single Shell Tanks to be Interim stabilized by September 30, 2004. By meeting the Performance Incentive the TPA milestone is met. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment used to transfer waste have a life in excess of the forecasted operational time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer, published literature and calculations. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are the hose material's resistance to the harmful effects of process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, exposure to ionizing radiation and the

  4. Mercury Information Clearinghouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chad A. Wocken; Michael J. Holmes; Dennis L. Laudal; Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett; Greg F. Weber; Nicholas V. C. Ralston; Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Edwin S. Olson; Laura J. Raymond; John H. Pavlish; Everett A. Sondreal; Steven A. Benson

    2006-03-31

    The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) identified a need and contracted the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to create and maintain an information clearinghouse on global research and development activities related to mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. With the support of CEA, the Center for Air Toxic Metals{reg_sign} (CATM{reg_sign}) Affiliates, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the EERC developed comprehensive quarterly information updates that provide a detailed assessment of developments in the various areas of mercury monitoring, control, policy, and research. A total of eight topical reports were completed and are summarized and updated in this final CEA quarterly report. The original quarterly reports can be viewed at the CEA Web site (www.ceamercuryprogram.ca). In addition to a comprehensive update of previous mercury-related topics, a review of results from the CEA Mercury Program is provided. Members of Canada's coal-fired electricity generation sector (ATCO Power, EPCOR, Manitoba Hydro, New Brunswick Power, Nova Scotia Power Inc., Ontario Power Generation, SaskPower, and TransAlta) and CEA, have compiled an extensive database of information from stack-, coal-, and ash-sampling activities. Data from this effort are also available at the CEA Web site and have provided critical information for establishing and reviewing a mercury standard for Canada that is protective of environment and public health and is cost-effective. Specific goals outlined for the CEA mercury program included the following: (1) Improve emission inventories and develop management options through an intensive 2-year coal-, ash-, and stack-sampling program; (2) Promote effective stack testing through the development of guidance material and the support of on-site training on the Ontario Hydro method for employees, government representatives, and contractors on an as-needed basis; (3) Strengthen laboratory analytical capabilities through

  5. Mercury removal at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's New Waste Calcining Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. C. Ashworth

    2000-02-27

    Technologies were investigated to determine viable processes for removing mercury from the calciner (NWCF) offgas system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Technologies for gas phase and aqueous phase treatment were evaluated. The technologies determined are intended to meet EPA Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) requirements under the Clean Air Act and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Currently, mercury accumulation in the calciner off-gas scrubbing system is transferred to the tank farm. These transfers lead to accumulation in the liquid heels of the tanks. The principal objective for aqueous phase mercury removal is heel mercury reduction. The system presents a challenge to traditional methods because of the presence of nitrogen oxides in the gas phase and high nitric acid in the aqueous scrubbing solution. Many old and new technologies were evaluated including sorbents and absorption in the gas phase and ion exchange, membranes/sorption, galvanic methods, and UV reduction in the aqueous phase. Process modifications and feed pre-treatment were also evaluated. Various properties of mercury and its compounds were summarized and speciation was predicted based on thermodynamics. Three systems (process modification, NOxidizer combustor, and electrochemical aqueous phase treatment) and additional technology testing were recommended.

  6. Mercury Removal at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's New Waste Calcining Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, Samuel Clay; Wood, R. A.; Taylor, D. D.; Sieme, D. D.

    2000-03-01

    Technologies were investigated to determine viable processes for removing mercury from the calciner (NWCF) offgas system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Technologies for gas phase and aqueous phase treatment were evaluated. The technologies determined are intended to meet EPA Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) requirements under the Clean Air Act and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Currently, mercury accumulation in the calciner off-gas scrubbing system is transferred to the tank farm. These transfers lead to accumulation in the liquid heels of the tanks. The principal objective for aqueous phase mercury removal is heel mercury reduction. The system presents a challenge to traditional methods because of the presence of nitrogen oxides in the gas phase and high nitric acid in the aqueous scrubbing solution. Many old and new technologies were evaluated including sorbents and absorption in the gas phase and ion exchange, membranes/sorption, galvanic methods, and UV reduction in the aqueous phase. Process modifications and feed pre-treatment were also evaluated. Various properties of mercury and its compounds were summarized and speciation was predicted based on thermodynamics. Three systems (process modification, NOxidizer combustor, and electrochemical aqueous phase treatment) and additional technology testing were recommended.

  7. Mercury removal at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's New Waste Calciner Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashworth, S.C.

    2000-01-01

    Technologies were investigated to determine viable processes for removing mercury from the calciner (NWCF) offgas system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Technologies for gas phase and aqueous phase treatment were evaluated. The technologies determined are intended to meet EPA Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) requirements under the Clean Air Act and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Currently, mercury accumulation in the calciner off-gas scrubbing system is transferred to the tank farm. These transfers lead to accumulation in the liquid heels of the tanks. The principal objective for aqueous phase mercury removal is heel mercury reduction. The system presents a challenge to traditional methods because of the presence of nitrogen oxides in the gas phase and high nitric acid in the aqueous scrubbing solution. Many old and new technologies were evaluated including sorbents and absorption in the gas phase and ion exchange, membranes/sorption, galvanic methods, and UV reduction in the aqueous phase. Process modifications and feed pre-treatment were also evaluated. Various properties of mercury and its compounds were summarized and speciation was predicted based on thermodynamics. Three systems (process modification, NOxidizer combustor, and electrochemical aqueous phase treatment) and additional technology testing were recommended

  8. Storage Tanks - Selection Of Type, Design Code And Tank Sizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatla, M.N; El Hady, M.

    2004-01-01

    The present work gives an insight into the proper selection of type, design code and sizing of storage tanks used in the Petroleum and Process industries. In this work, storage tanks are classified based on their design conditions. Suitable design codes and their limitations are discussed for each tank type. The option of storage under high pressure and ambient temperature, in spherical and cigar tanks, is compared to the option of storage under low temperature and slight pressure (close to ambient) in low temperature and cryogenic tanks. The discussion is extended to the types of low temperature and cryogenic tanks and recommendations are given to select their types. A study of pressurized tanks designed according to ASME code, conducted in the present work, reveals that tanks designed according to ASME Section VIII DIV 2 provides cost savings over tanks designed according to ASME Section VIII DlV 1. The present work is extended to discuss the parameters that affect sizing of flat bottom cylindrical tanks. The analysis shows the effect of height-to-diameter ratio on tank instability and foundation loads

  9. Tank drive : ZCL takes its composite tank technology worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byfield, M.

    2010-06-15

    Edmonton-based ZCL Composites Inc. is North America's largest manufacturer and supplier of fibreglass reinforced plastic (FRP) underground storage tanks. The company has aggressively pursued new markets in the oil sands, shale gas gas, and other upstream petroleum industries. The manufacturer also targets water and sewage applications, and provides customized corrosion solutions for a variety of industries. The company developed its double-walled FRP tanks in response to Canadian Environmental Protection Act rules requiring cathodic protection for steel tanks, leak detection, and secondary containment. ZCL supplies approximately 90 per cent of the new tanks installed by gasoline retailers in Canada. Future growth is expected to be strong, as many old tanks will soon need to be replaced. The company has also developed a method of transforming underground single wall tanks into secondarily contained systems without digging them out. The company has also recently signed licence agreements with tank manufacturers in China. 3 figs.

  10. Material selection for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    This report briefly summarizes the history of the materials selection for the US Department of Energy's high-level waste carbon steel storage tanks. It also provide an evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. The evaluation included a materials matrix that summarized the critical design, fabrication, construction, and corrosion resistance requirements; assessed each requirement; and cataloged the advantages and disadvantages of each material. This evaluation is based on the mission of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. On the basis of the compositions of the wastes stored in Hanford waste tanks, it is recommended that tanks for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility be constructed of normalized ASME SA 516, Grade 70, carbon steel

  11. A mercury transport and fate model (LM2-mercury) for mass budget assessment of mercury cycling in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    LM2-Mercury, a mercury mass balance model, was developed to simulate and evaluate the transport, fate, and biogeochemical transformations of mercury in Lake Michigan. The model simulates total suspended solids (TSS), disolved organic carbon (DOC), and total, elemental, divalent, ...

  12. Sampling and analysis of the inactive waste tanks TH-2, WC-1, and WC-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autrey, J.W.; Keller, J.M.; Griest, W.H.; Botts, J.L.; Schenley, R.L.; Sipe, M.A.

    1992-02-01

    Thirty-eight inactive liquid low-level radioactive waste tanks are currently managed by the Environmental Restoration Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The contents of these tanks are to be characterized in preparation for future corrective actions and remediation activities as part of compliance with the pending Federal Facility Agreement for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Twenty-nine of these tanks were sampled and analyzed in 1989. Three of the tanks (TH-2, WC-1, and WC-15) were not accessible from the surface and thus were not sampled until 1990. This report presents the sampling and analytical results of that campaign. All three tanks in this report had negligible regulatory organic compounds in the samples that were collected. There were no US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Target Compound List (TCL) constituents for volatile organics detected in any of the aqueous samples. The only semivolatile organics detected were 2-chlorophenol (52 μg/L) in tank TH-2 and dichloroethane (14--15 μg/L) and diethyl either (15--17 μg/L) in tank WC-15. A thin oil layer was discovered floating on top of the aqueous contents in tank WC-15. The analysis of the oil layer detected no volatile organics and showed only one EPA TCL constituent, di-n-butylphthalate, at 1900 μg/L. Low levels of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals were observed in the samples from tank TH-2, but only the mercury level exceeded the RCRA limit. Samples from tank WC-1 had elevated levels of the RCRA metals barium, chromium, and lead. There were also finely suspended particles in one of the samples from tank WC-1, which was filtered and analyzed separately. This solid fines have levels of transuranium elements 238 Pu and 241 Am high enough to classified as transuranic waste

  13. Ferrocyanide safety program: FY 1995 report on Mossbauer spectroscopy tank activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, F.R.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes FY 1995 activities on the Mossbauer Spectroscopy task. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has developed a miniaturized Mossbauer spectrometer that is small enough to perform elevation scans in the Hanford Site waste tank liquid observation wells. Mossbauer spectroscopy is a sensitive and selective method that can detect and distinguish between different iron-based compounds in many types of chemical environments. Iron is major constituent of ferrocyanide waste and information about its location and composition in the tanks supports interim safe storage of the waste and final resolution of the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue. Results obtained from studies of ferrocyanide waste simulants and those from the first test in a hot cell environment using radioactive tank waste are presented

  14. Results of initial analyses of the salt (macro) batch 11 Tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-23

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 11 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 11 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics or observations, such as floating solids, the presence of large amounts of solids, or unusual colors. Further sample results will be reported in a future document. This memo satisfies part of Deliverable 3 of the Technical Task Request (TTR).

  15. Mercury Exposure and Heart Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genchi, Giuseppe; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Carocci, Alessia; Lauria, Graziantonio; Catalano, Alessia

    2017-01-01

    Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. It has been determined that mercury is not only harmful to the health of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children, but is also toxic to ordinary adults in various ways. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities. Nowadays, the exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Recent studies suggest that chronic exposure, even to low concentration levels of mercury, can cause cardiovascular, reproductive, and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Possible biological effects of mercury, including the relationship between mercury toxicity and diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction, are being studied. As heart rhythm and function are under autonomic nervous system control, it has been hypothesized that the neurotoxic effects of mercury might also impact cardiac autonomic function. Mercury exposure could have a long-lasting effect on cardiac parasympathetic activity and some evidence has shown that mercury exposure might affect heart rate variability, particularly early exposures in children. The mechanism by which mercury produces toxic effects on the cardiovascular system is not fully elucidated, but this mechanism is believed to involve an increase in oxidative stress. The exposure to mercury increases the production of free radicals, potentially because of the role of mercury in the Fenton reaction and a reduction in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase. In this review we report an overview on the toxicity of mercury and focus our attention on the toxic effects on the cardiovascular system. PMID:28085104

  16. Mercury Exposure and Heart Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genchi, Giuseppe; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Carocci, Alessia; Lauria, Graziantonio; Catalano, Alessia

    2017-01-12

    Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. It has been determined that mercury is not only harmful to the health of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children, but is also toxic to ordinary adults in various ways. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities. Nowadays, the exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Recent studies suggest that chronic exposure, even to low concentration levels of mercury, can cause cardiovascular, reproductive, and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Possible biological effects of mercury, including the relationship between mercury toxicity and diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction, are being studied. As heart rhythm and function are under autonomic nervous system control, it has been hypothesized that the neurotoxic effects of mercury might also impact cardiac autonomic function. Mercury exposure could have a long-lasting effect on cardiac parasympathetic activity and some evidence has shown that mercury exposure might affect heart rate variability, particularly early exposures in children. The mechanism by which mercury produces toxic effects on the cardiovascular system is not fully elucidated, but this mechanism is believed to involve an increase in oxidative stress. The exposure to mercury increases the production of free radicals, potentially because of the role of mercury in the Fenton reaction and a reduction in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase. In this review we report an overview on the toxicity of mercury and focus our attention on the toxic effects on the cardiovascular system.

  17. Mercury Exposure and Heart Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Genchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. It has been determined that mercury is not only harmful to the health of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children, but is also toxic to ordinary adults in various ways. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities. Nowadays, the exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Recent studies suggest that chronic exposure, even to low concentration levels of mercury, can cause cardiovascular, reproductive, and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Possible biological effects of mercury, including the relationship between mercury toxicity and diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction, are being studied. As heart rhythm and function are under autonomic nervous system control, it has been hypothesized that the neurotoxic effects of mercury might also impact cardiac autonomic function. Mercury exposure could have a long-lasting effect on cardiac parasympathetic activity and some evidence has shown that mercury exposure might affect heart rate variability, particularly early exposures in children. The mechanism by which mercury produces toxic effects on the cardiovascular system is not fully elucidated, but this mechanism is believed to involve an increase in oxidative stress. The exposure to mercury increases the production of free radicals, potentially because of the role of mercury in the Fenton reaction and a reduction in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase. In this review we report an overview on the toxicity of mercury and focus our attention on the toxic effects on the cardiovascular system.

  18. Tank farm nuclear criticality review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratzel, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The technical basis for the nuclear criticality safety of stored wastes at the Hanford Site Tank Farm Complex was reviewed by a team of senior technical personnel whose expertise covered all appropriate aspects of fissile materials chemistry and physics. The team concluded that the detailed and documented nucleonics-related studies underlying the waste tanks criticality safety basis were sound. The team concluded that, under current plutonium inventories and operating conditions, a nuclear criticality accident is incredible in any of the Hanford single-shell tanks (SST), double-shell tanks (DST), or double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTS) on the Hanford Site

  19. MERCURY USAGE AND ALTERNATIVES IN THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many industries have already found alternatives for mercury or have greatly decreased mercury use. However, the unique electromechanical and photoelectric properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some applications. This study was i...

  20. Mercury's exosphere: observations during MESSENGER's First Mercury flyby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, William E; Bradley, E Todd; Vervack, Ronald J; Killen, Rosemary M; Sprague, Ann L; Izenberg, Noam R; Solomon, Sean C

    2008-07-04

    During MESSENGER's first Mercury flyby, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer measured Mercury's exospheric emissions, including those from the antisunward sodium tail, calcium and sodium close to the planet, and hydrogen at high altitudes on the dayside. Spatial variations indicate that multiple source and loss processes generate and maintain the exosphere. Energetic processes connected to the solar wind and magnetospheric interaction with the planet likely played an important role in determining the distributions of exospheric species during the flyby.

  1. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1989-12-05

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

  2. Health Effects of Exposures to Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IRIS database Top of Page Elemental (Metallic) Mercury Effects Exposures to metallic mercury most often occur when metallic ... poor performance on tests of mental function Higher exposures may also cause kidney effects, respiratory failure and death. Note that metallic mercury ...

  3. Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products Share Tweet Linkedin ... and, in some situations, criminal prosecution. Dangers of Mercury Exposure to mercury can have serious health consequences. ...

  4. Descriptive display of total alpha, energetics, TOC, oxlate as TOC, and H2O sample data from Hanford waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SIMPSON, B.C.

    1999-01-01

    In March 1999, staff at Lockheed Makn Hanford Company (LMHC) were asked to make a presentation to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) about the safety of the waste tanks at the Hanford Site and the necessity for further tank sampling. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory provided a statistical analysis of available tank data to help determine whether additional sampling would in fact be required. The analytes examined were total alpha, energetics, total organic carbon (TOC), oxalate as TOC and moisture. These analytes serve as indicators of the stability of tank contents; if any of them fall above or below certain values, further investigation is warranted (Dukelow et al. 1995). PNNL performed an analysis of the data collected on these safety screening analytes with respect to empirical distributions and the established Safety Screening Data Quality Objectives (SS DQO) thresholds and Basis for Interim Operations (BIO) limits. Both univariate and bivariate analyses were performed. Summary statistics and graphical representations of the data were generated

  5. Do Fish Enhance Tank Mixing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Laursen, Jesper; Craig, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    The design of fish rearing tanks represents a critical stage in the development of optimal aquaculture systems, especially in the context of recirculating systems. Poor hydrodynamics can compromise water quality, waste management and the physiology and behaviour of fish, and thence, production...... potential and operational profitability. The hydrodynamic performance of tanks, therefore, represents an important parameter during the tank design process. Because there are significant complexities in combining the rigid principles of hydrodynamics with the stochastic behaviour of fish, however, most data...... upon tank hydrokinetics has been derived using tanks void of fish. Clearly, the presence of randomly moving objects, such as fish, in a water column will influence not only tank volumes by displacing water, but due to their activity, water dynamics and associated in-tank processes. In order...

  6. Summary of tank information relating salt well pumping to flammable gas safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caley, S.M.; Mahoney, L.A.; Gauglitz, P.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Hanford Site has 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing radioactive wastes that are complex mixes of radioactive and chemical products. Active use of these SSTs was phased out completely by November 1980, and the first step toward final disposal of the waste in the SSTs is interim stabilization, which involves removing essentially all of the drainable liquid from the tank. Stabilization can be achieved administratively, by jet pumping to remove drainable interstitial liquid, or by supernatant pumping. To date, 116 tanks have been declared interim stabilized; 44 SSTs have had drainable liquid removed by salt well jet pumping. Of the 149 SSTs, 19 are on the Flammable Gas Watch List (FGWL) because the waste in these tanks is known or suspected, in all but one case, to generate and retain mixtures of flammable gases, including; hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and ammonia. Salt well pumping to remove the drainable interstitial liquid from these SSTs is expected to cause the release of much of the retained gas, posing a number of safety concerns. The scope of this work is to collect and summarize information, primarily tank data and observations, that relate salt well pumping to flammable gas safety issues. While the waste within FGWL SSTs is suspected offering flammable gases, the effect of salt well pumping on the waste behavior is not well understood. This study is being conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company as part of the Flammable Gas Project at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Understanding the historical tank behavior during and following salt well pumping will help to resolve the associated safety issues

  7. 49 CFR 179.101 - Individual specification requirements applicable to pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to pressure tank car tanks. 179.101 Section 179.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT... tank car tanks. Editorial Note: At 66 FR 45186, Aug. 28, 2001, an amendment published amending a table...

  8. 49 CFR 179.301 - Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-unit tank car tanks. 179.301 Section 179.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.301 Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) In...

  9. 49 CFR 179.500 - Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.500 Section 179.500 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500 Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks. ...

  10. Prediction of mercury bioavailability to common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using the diffusive gradient in thin film technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelcová, Pavlína; Vičarová, Petra; Ridošková, Andrea; Dočekalová, Hana; Kopp, Radovan; Mareš, Jan; Poštulková, Eva

    2017-11-01

    The mercury bioaccumulation by common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) tissues (gills, skin, eyes, scales, muscle, brain, kidneys, liver, and spleen) and the capability of the diffusive gradient in thin film (DGT) technique to predict bioavailability of mercury for individual carp's tissues were evaluated. Carp and DGT units were exposed to increasing concentrations of mercury (Hg 2+ : 0 μg L -1 , 0.5 μg L -1 , 1.5 μg L -1 and 3.0 μg L -1 ) in fish tanks for 14 days. In the uncontaminated fish group, the highest mercury concentration was determined in the muscle tissues and, in fish groups exposed to mercury, the highest mercury concentration was determined in the detoxification (kidneys) and input (gills) organs. A strong and positive correlation between the rate of mercury uptake by the DGT technique and the rate of mercury accumulation by fish tissues (gills, skin, scales, and eyes) was observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mercury content in Hot Springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, R

    1974-01-01

    A method of determination of mercury in hot spring waters by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry is described. Further, the mercury content and the chemical behavior of the elementary mercury in hot springs are described. Sulfide and iodide ions interfered with the determination of mercury by the reduction-vapor phase technique. These interferences could, however, be minimized by the addition of potassium permanganate. Waters collected from 55 hot springs were found to contain up to 26.0 ppb mercury. High concentrations of mercury have been found in waters from Shimoburo Springs, Aomori (10.0 ppb), Osorezan Springs, Aomori (1.3 approximately 18.8 ppb), Gosyogake Springs, Akita (26.0 ppb), Manza Springs, Gunma (0.30 approximately 19.5 ppb) and Kusatu Springs, Gunma (1.70 approximately 4.50 ppb). These hot springs were acid waters containing a relatively high quantity of chloride or sulfate.

  12. Processing results of 1,800 gallons of mercury and radioactively contaminated mixed waste rinse solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiesen, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    The mercury-contaminated rinse solution (INEL waste ID number-sign 123; File 8 waste) was successfully treated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This waste was generated during the decontamination of the Heat Transfer Reactor Experiment 3 (HTRE-3) reactor shield tank. Approximately 1,800 gal of waste was generated and was placed into 33 drums. Each drum contained precipitated sludge material ranging from 1--10 in. in depth, with the average depth of about 2.5 in. The pH of each drum varied from 3--11. The bulk liquid waste had a mercury level of 7.0 mg/l, which exceeded the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) limit of 0.2 mg/l. The average liquid bulk radioactivity was about 2.1 pCi/ml, while the average sludge contamination was about 13,800 pci/g. Treatment of the waste required separation of the liquid from the sludge, filtration, pH adjustment, and ion exchange. Because of difficulties in processing, three trials were required to reduce the mercury levels to below the RCRA limit. In the first trial, insufficient filtration of the waste allowed solid particulate produced during pH adjustment to enter into the ion exchange columns and ultimately the waste storage tank. In the second trial, the waste was filtered down to 0.1 μ to remove all solid mercury compounds. However, before filtration could take place, a solid mercury complex dissolved and mercury levels exceeded the RCRA limit after filtration. In the third trial, the waste was filtered through 0.3-A filters and then passed through the S-920 resin to remove the dissolved mercury. The resulting solut

  13. Characterization of Direct Push Vadose Zone Sediments from the 241-U Single-Shell Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Christopher F.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Iovin, Cristian; Clayton, Ray E.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Clayton, Eric T.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Orr, Robert D.

    2007-12-20

    The overall goals of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., are 1) to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities, 2) to identify and evaluate the efficacy of interim measures, and 3) to aid, via collection of geochemical information and data, the future decisions that must be made by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regarding the near-term operations, future waste retrieval, and final closure activities for the single-shell tank Waste Management Areas (WMAs). For a more complete discussion of the goals of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, see the overall work plan, Phase 1 RCRA Facility Investigation/Corrective Measures Study Work Plan for the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas (DOE 1999). Specific details on the rationale for activities performed at WMA U are found in Crumpler (2003). To meet these goals, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to perform detailed analyses of vadose zone sediment collected within the U Single-Shell Tank Farm. Specifically, this report contains all the geochemical and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from ten direct push characterization holes emplaced to investigate vadose zone contamination associated with potential leaks within the 241-U Single-Shell Tank Farm. Specific tanks targeted during this characterization campaign included tanks 241-U-104/241-U-105, 241-U-110, and 241-U-112. Additionally, this report compiles data from direct push samples collected north of tank 241-U-201, as well as sediment collected from the background borehole (C3393). After evaluating all the characterization and analytical data, there is no question that the vadose zone in the vicinity of tanks 241-U-104 and 241-U-105 has been contaminated by tank-related waste. This observation is not new, as gamma logging of drywells in the area has identified uranium contamination at the

  14. Contingency plan for deployment of the void fraction instrument in Tank 241-AY-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CONNER, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    High-heat producing sludge from tank 241-C-106 will be sluiced and transferred to tank 241-AY-102 beginning in October 1998. Safety analyses have postulated that after retrieval, the waste in 241-AY-102 may generate and retain unsafe levels of flammable gases (Noorani 1998, Pasamebmetoglu etal. 1997). Unsafe levels of retained gas are not expected, but cannot be ruled out because of the large uncertainty in the gas generation and retention rates. The Tank Waste Remediation System Basis for Interim Operation (Noorani 1998) identifies the need for a contingency plan to add void fraction monitoring to tank 241-AY-102 within 2 weeks of the identification of flammable gas buildup that would warrant monitoring. The Tank 241-C-106 Waste Retrieval Sluicing System Process Control Plan (Carothers et al. 1998) committed to providing a contingency plan for deployment of the void fraction instrument (VFI) in tank 241-AY-102. The VFI determines the local void fraction of the waste by compressing a waste sample captured in a gas-tight test chamber. The sample chamber is mounted on the end of a 76-cm (2.5-ft) arm that can be rotated from vertical to horizontal when the instrument is deployed. Once in the waste, the arm can be positioned horizontally and rotated to sample in different areas below the riser. The VFI is deployed using a crane. The VFI has been deployed previously in 241-AW, 241-AN, and 241-SY tank farms, most recently in tank 241-SY-101 in June and July 1998. An additional test in tank 241-SY-101 is planned in September 1998. Operating instructions for the VFI are included in the Void Fraction Instrument Operation and Maintenance Manual (Pearce 1994)

  15. IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF EXISTING VADOSE ZONE CONTAMINATION AT THE HANFORD SITE SX TANK FARM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KHALEEL R

    2007-01-01

    The USDOE has initiated an impact assessment of existing vadose zone contamination at the Hanford Site SX tank farm in southeastern Washington State. The assessment followed the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Corrective Action process to address the impacts of past tank waste releases to the vadose zone at the single-shell tank farm. Numerical models were developed that consider the extent of contamination presently within the vadose zone and predict contaminant movement through the vadose zone to groundwater. The transport of representative mobile (technetium-99) and immobile (cesium-137) constituents was evaluated in modeling. The model considered the accelerated movement of moisture around and beneath single-shell tanks that is attributed to bare, gravel surfaces resulting from the construction of the underground storage tanks. Infiltration, possibly nearing 100 mm yr -1 , is further amplified in the tank farm because of the umbrella effect created by percolating moisture being diverted by the impermeable, sloping surface of the large, 24-m-diameter, buried tank domes. For both the base case (no-action alternative) simulation and a simulation that considered placement of an interim surface barrier to minimize infiltration, predicted, groundwater concentrations for technetium-99 at the SX tank farm boundary were exceedingly high, on the order of 10 6 pCi L -1 . The predicted concentrations are, however, somewhat conservative because of our use of two-dimensional modeling for a three-dimensional problem. A series of simulations were performed, using recharge rates of 50, 30, and 10 mm yr -1 , and compared to the basecase(100 mm yr -1 ) results. As expected, lowering meteoric recharge delayed peak arrival times and reduced peak concentrations at the tank farm boundary

  16. Impact Assessment of Existing Vadose Zone Contamination at the Hanford Site SX Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaleel, Raziuddin; White, Mark D.; Oostrom, Martinus; Wood, Marcus I.; Mann, Frederick M.; Kristofzski, John G.

    2007-01-01

    The USDOE has initiated an impact assessment of existing vadose zone contamination at the Hanford Site SX tank farm in southeastern Washington State. The assessment followed the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Corrective Action process to address the impacts of past tank waste releases to the vadose zone at the single-shell tank farm. Numerical models were developed that consider the extent of contamination presently within the vadose zone and predict contaminant movement through the vadose zone to groundwater. The transport of representative mobile (technetium-99) and immobile (cesium-137) constituents was evaluated in modeling. The model considered the accelerated movement of moisture around and beneath single-shell tanks that is attributed to bare, gravel surfaces resulting from the construction of the underground storage tanks. Infiltration, possibly nearing 100 mm yr -1 , is further amplified in the tank farm because of the umbrella effect created by percolating moisture being diverted by the impermeable, sloping surface of the large, 24-m-diameter, buried tank domes. For both the base case (no-action alternative) simulation and a simulation that considered placement of an interim surface barrier to minimize infiltration, predicted groundwater concentrations for technetium-99 at the SX tank farm boundary were exceedingly high, on the order of 106 pCi L-1. The predicted concentrations are, however, somewhat conservative because of our use of two-dimensional modeling for a three-dimensional problem. A series of simulations were performed, using recharge rates of 50, 30, and 10 mm yr -1 , and compared to the base case (100 mm yr -1 ) results. As expected, lowering meteoric recharge delayed peak arrival times and reduced peak concentrations at the tank farm boundary.

  17. Tank farms backlog soil sample and analysis results supporting a contained-in determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, C.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-27

    Soil waste is generated from Tank Farms and associated Tank Farms facilities operations. The soil is a mixed waste because it is an environmental media which contains tank waste, a listed mixed waste. The soil is designated with the listed waste codes (FOO1 through F005) which have been applied to all tank wastes. The scope of this report includes Tank Farms soil managed under the Backlog program. The Backlog Tank Farm soil in storage consists of drums and 5 boxes (originally 828 drums). The Backlog Waste Program dealt with 2276 containers of solid waste generated by Tank Farms operations during the time period from 1989 through early 1993. The containers were mismanaged by being left in the field for an extended period of time without being placed into permitted storage. As a corrective action for this situation, these containers were placed in interim storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC) pending additional characterization. The Backlog Waste Analysis Plan (BWAP) (RL 1993) was written to define how Backlog wastes would be evaluated for proper designation and storage. The BWAP was approved in August 1993 and all work required by the BWAP was completed by July 1994. This document presents results of testing performed in 1992 & 1996 that supports the attainment of a Contained-In Determination for Tank Farm Backlog soils. The analytical data contained in this report is evaluated against a prescribed decision rule. If the decision rule is satisfied then the Washington State Department of ecology (Ecology) may grant a Contained-In Determination. A Contained-In Determination for disposal to an unlined burial trench will be requested from Ecology . The decision rule and testing requirements provided by Ecology are described in the Tank Farms Backlog Soil Sample Analysis Plan (SAP) (WHC 1996).

  18. Mechanistic analysis of double-shell tank gas release. Progress report, November 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allemann, R.T.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Friley, J.R.; Haines, C.E.; Liljegren, L.M.; Somasundaram, S.

    1991-12-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is studying possible mechanisms and fluid dynamics contributing to the periodic release of gases from the double-shell waste storage tanks at Hanford. This study is being conducted for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), a contractor for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This interim report discusses the work done through November 1990. Safe management of the wastes at Hanford depends on an understanding of the chemical and physical mechanisms that take place in the waste tanks. An example of the need to understand these mechanisms is tank 101-SY. The waste in this tank is generating and periodically releasing potentially flammable gases into the tank vent system according to observations of the tank. How these gases are generated and become trapped, the causes of periodic release, and the mechanism of the release are not known in detail. In order to develop a safe mitigation strategy, possible physical mechanisms for the periodic release of flammable gases need to be understood.

  19. Spent fuel interim management: 1995 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.K.

    1995-01-01

    The problems of interim away-from-reactor spent fuel storage and storage in spent fuel pools at the reactor site are discussed. An overview of the state-of-the-art in the USA, Europe, and Japan is presented. The technical facilities for away-from-reactor storage are briefly described, including wet storage pools, interactive concrete systems, metallic containers, and passive concrete systems. Reprocessing technologies are mostly at the design stage only. It is predicted that during the 20 years to come, about 50 000 tonnes of spent fuel will be stored at reactor sites regardless of the advance of spent fuel reprocessing or interim storage projects. (J.B.). 4 tabs., 2 figs

  20. Pathways to deep decarbonization - Interim 2014 Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The interim 2014 report by the Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project (DDPP), coordinated and published by IDDRI and the Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN), presents preliminary findings of the pathways developed by the DDPP Country Research Teams with the objective of achieving emission reductions consistent with limiting global warming to less than 2 deg. C. The DDPP is a knowledge network comprising 15 Country Research Teams and several Partner Organizations who develop and share methods, assumptions, and findings related to deep decarbonization. Each DDPP Country Research Team has developed an illustrative road-map for the transition to a low-carbon economy, with the intent of taking into account national socio-economic conditions, development aspirations, infrastructure stocks, resource endowments, and other relevant factors. The interim 2014 report focuses on technically feasible pathways to deep decarbonization

  1. A science think tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, F [The Australian, (Australia)

    1999-07-01

    A journalist views on public perceptions on nuclear issues in Australia and Japan is presented. It is also emphasised that by not offering an undergraduate course in nuclear engineering, Australia have closed the door to the nuclear energy development in Australia and costed the country some depth of specialized knowledges. A scientific think tank with active participation of the nuclear scientists is thought to benefit Australia and be in the position to influence private industrial and governmental planning.

  2. A science think tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, F.

    1999-01-01

    A journalist views on public perceptions on nuclear issues in Australia and Japan is presented. It is also emphasised that by not offering an undergraduate course in nuclear engineering, Australia have closed the door to the nuclear energy development in Australia and costed the country some depth of specialized knowledges. A scientific think tank with active participation of the nuclear scientists is thought to benefit Australia and be in the position to influence private industrial and governmental planning

  3. Tank type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Fumio.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention concerns a tank type reactor capable of securing reactor core integrity by preventing incorporation of gases to an intermediate heat exchanger, thgereby improving the reliability. In a conventional tank type reactor, since vortex flows are easily caused near the inlet of an intermediate heat exchanger, there is a fear that cover gases are involved into the coolant main streams to induce fetal accidents. In the present invention, a reactor core is suspended by way of a suspending body to the inside of a reactor vessel and an intermediate heat exchanger and a pump are disposed between the suspending body and the reactor vessel, in which a vortex current preventive plate is attached at the outside near the coolant inlet on the primary circuit of the intermediate heat exchanger. In this way vortex or turbulence near the inlet of the intermediate heata exchanger or near the surface of coolants can be prevented. Accordingly, the cover gases are no more involved, to insure the reactor core integrity and obtain a tank type nuclear reactor of high reliability. (I.S.)

  4. Gaz de France interim financial report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This financial report contains the unaudited condensed financial statements of Gaz de France Group for the first half ended June 30, 2007, which were reviewed by the audit committee on August 27, 2007 and by the board of directors at its meeting on August 28, 2007. It includes forward-looking statements concerning the objectives, strategies, financial position, future operating results and the operations of Gaz de France Group. These statements reflect the Group's current perception of its activities and the markets in which it operates, as well as various estimates and assumptions considered to be reasonable. Content: interim management report (highlights of the first half of 2007, revenues and results for the period, financial structure, data on outstanding stock, outlook); interim consolidated financial statements (consolidated statements of income, consolidated balance sheets, consolidated statements of cash flows, recognized income and expenses, statements of changes in shareholders' equity, note to the consolidated financial statements); statement by the person responsible for the interim financial report; statutory auditors' report. (J.S.)

  5. Tribal child welfare. Interim final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    The Administration for Children and Families (ACF) is issuing this interim final rule to implement statutory provisions related to the Tribal title IV-E program. Effective October 1, 2009, section 479B(b) of the Social Security Act (the Act) authorizes direct Federal funding of Indian Tribes, Tribal organizations, and Tribal consortia that choose to operate a foster care, adoption assistance and, at Tribal option, a kinship guardianship assistance program under title IV-E of the Act. The Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008 requires that ACF issue interim final regulations which address procedures to ensure that a transfer of responsibility for the placement and care of a child under a State title IV-E plan to a Tribal title IV-E plan occurs in a manner that does not affect the child's eligibility for title IV-E benefits or medical assistance under title XIX of the Act (Medicaid) and such services or payments; in-kind expenditures from third-party sources for the Tribal share of administration and training expenditures under title IV-E; and other provisions to carry out the Tribal-related amendments to title IV-E. This interim final rule includes these provisions and technical amendments necessary to implement a Tribal title IV-E program.

  6. Theoretical study of solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    . Originality/value - Many different Solar Combisystem designs have been commercialized over the years. In the IEA-SHC Task 26, twenty one solar combisystems have been described and analyzed. Maybe the mantle tank approach also for solar combisystems can be used with advantage? This might be possible...... if the solar heating system is based on a so called bikini tank. Therefore the new developed solar combisystems based on bikini tanks is compared to the tank-in-tank solar combisystems to elucidate which one is suitable for three different houses with low energy heating demand, medium and high heating demand.......Purpose - Low flow bikini solar combisystems and high flow tank-in-tank solar combisystems have been studied theoretically. The aim of the paper is to study which of these two solar combisystem designs is suitable for different houses. The thermal performance of solar combisystems based on the two...

  7. Interior Volatile Reservoirs in Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzures, B. A.; Parman, S. W.; Milliken, R. E.; Head, J. W.

    2018-05-01

    More measurements of 1) surface volatiles, and 2) pyroclastic deposits paired with experimental volatile analyses in silicate minerals can constrain conditions of melting and subsequent eruption on Mercury.

  8. Mercury in Canadian crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollebone, B.P.

    2005-01-01

    Estimates for average mercury concentrations in crude oil range widely from 10 ng/g of oil to 3,500 ng/g of oil. With such a broad range of estimates, it is difficult to determine the contributions of the petroleum sector to the total budget of mercury emissions. In response to concerns that the combustion of petroleum products may be a major source of air-borne mercury pollution, Environment Canada and the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute has undertaken a survey of the average total mercury concentration in crude oil processed in Canadian refineries. In order to calculate the potential upper limit of total mercury in all refined products, samples of more than 30 different types of crude oil collected from refineries were measured for their concentration of mercury as it enters into a refinery before processing. High temperature combustion, cold vapour atomic absorption and cold vapour atomic fluorescence were the techniques used to quantify mercury in the samples. The results of the study provide information on the total mass of mercury present in crude oil processed in Canada each year. Results can be used to determine the impact of vehicle exhaust emissions to the overall Canadian mercury emission budget. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  9. Mercury in bryophytes (moss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeaple, D S

    1972-01-28

    Recent reports in the literature, concerning the ability of certain mosses and lichens to concentrate heavy metals, have led to an investigation of the potential application of mosses as indicators of the transport of mercury through the atmosphere. A number of moss samples were collected to provide information regarding the level of mercury in moss around several types of populated areas. The results reported are from moss collected within an 80 mile radius of Boston, Massachusetts, along the Maine coast, near the tops of Mount Katahdin in Maine and Mount Washington in New Hampshire, and from Walden, New York, a small town located about 60 miles north of New York City. The data are admittedly limited, but provide sufficient insight into the usefulness of moss as an indicator to warrant the pursuit of a more detailed investigation. 6 references, 1 table.

  10. Integrated criteria document mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloof, W.; Beelan, P. van; Annema, J.A.; Janus, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The document contains a systematic review and a critical evaluation of the most relevant data on the priority substance mercury for the purpose of effect-oriented environmental policy. Chapter headings are: properties and existing standards; production, application, sources and emissions (natural sources, industry, energy, households, agriculture, dental use, waste); distribution and transformation (cinnabar; Hg 2+ , Hg 2 2+ , elemental mercury, methylmercury, behavior in soil, water, air, biota); concentrations and fluxes in the environment and exposure levels (sampling and measuring methods, occurrence in soil, water, air etc.); effects (toxicity to humans and aquatic and terrestrial systems); emissions reduction (from industrial sources, energy, waste processing etc.); and evaluation (risks, standards, emission reduction objectives, measuring strategies). 395 refs

  11. Method for mercury refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-04-09

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the [sup 196]Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures.

  12. Apparatus for mercury refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-07-16

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the [sup 196]Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures.

  13. The planet Mercury (1971)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The physical properties of the planet Mercury, its surface, and atmosphere are presented for space vehicle design criteria. The mass, dimensions, mean density, and orbital and rotational motions are described. The gravity field, magnetic field, electromagnetic radiation, and charged particles in the planet's orbit are discussed. Atmospheric pressure, temperature, and composition data are given along with the surface composition, soil mechanical properties, and topography, and the surface electromagnetic and temperature properties.

  14. Magnetic field of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.J.; Beard, D.B.

    1977-01-01

    The geomagnetic field, suitably scaled down and parameterized, is shown to give a very good fit to the magnetic field measurements taken on the first and third passes of the Mariner 10 space probe past Mercury. The excellence of the fit to a reliable planetary magnetospheric model is good evidence that the Mercury magnetosphere is formed by a simple, permanent, intrinsic planetary magnetic field distorted by the effects of the solar wind. The parameters used for a best fit to all the data are (depending slightly on the choice of data) 2.44--2.55 for the ratio of Mercury's magnetic field strength at the subsolar point to that of the earth's subsolar point field (this results in a dipole moment of 170 γR/sub M/ 3 (R/sub M/ is Mercury Radius), i.e., 2.41 x 10 22 G cm 3 in the same direction as the earth's dipole), approx.-113 γR/sub M/ 4 for the planetary quadrupole moment parallel to the dipole moment, 10degree--17degree for the tilt of the planet dipole toward the sun, 4.5degree for the tilt of the dipole toward dawn, and 2.5degree--7.6degree aberration angle for the shift in the tail axis from the planet-sun direction because of the planet's orbital velocity. The rms deviation overall for the entire data set compared with the theoretical fitted model for the magnetic field strength was 17 γ (approx.4% of the maximum field measured). If the data from the first pass that show presumed strong time variations are excluded, the overall rms deviation for the field magnitude is only 10 γ

  15. Method for scavenging mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-ger [El Cerrito, CA; Liu, Shou-heng [Kaohsiung, TW; Liu, Zhao-rong [Beijing, CN; Yan, Naiqiang [Berkeley, CA

    2009-01-20

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  16. Apparatus for mercury refinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-01-01

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the 196 Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg 2 Cl 2 . The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg 2 Cl 2 contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures

  17. Method for mercury refinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-01-01

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the 196 Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg 2 Cl 2 . The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg 2 Cl 2 contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures

  18. The Interim Financial Statements: The Case of Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Rogdaki, E.I.; Kazantzis, Ch.

    1999-01-01

    The following paper refers to the accounting and auditing issues which emerge in the preparation of the interim financial statements of the companies: Firstly, the interim financial statements are defined as being the financial statements that provide useful information about the financial position and the financial results of a company which are realized and accrued during the fiscal year. The interim financial statements can be prepared on a monthly basis, on a quarterly basis or covering a...

  19. Mercury's Densely Cratered Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 10 took this picture (FDS 27465) of the densely cratered surface of Mercury when the spacecraft was 18,200 kilometers (8085 miles) from the planet on March 29. The dark line across top of picture is a 'dropout' of a few TV lines of data. At lower left, a portion of a 61 kilometer (38 mile) crater shows a flow front extending across the crater floor and filling more than half of the crater. The smaller, fresh crater at center is about 25 kilometers (15 miles) in diameter. Craters as small as one kilometer (about one-half mile) across are visible in the picture.The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Northwestern University

  20. Mercury removal sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2016-03-29

    Sorbents and methods of using them for removing mercury from flue gases over a wide range of temperatures are disclosed. Sorbent materials of this invention comprise oxy- or hydroxyl-halogen (chlorides and bromides) of manganese, copper and calcium as the active phase for Hg.sup.0 oxidation, and are dispersed on a high surface porous supports. In addition to the powder activated carbons (PACs), this support material can be comprised of commercial ceramic supports such as silica (SiO.sub.2), alumina (Al.sub.2O.sub.3), zeolites and clays. The support material may also comprise of oxides of various metals such as iron, manganese, and calcium. The non-carbon sorbents of the invention can be easily injected into the flue gas and recovered in the Particulate Control Device (PCD) along with the fly ash without altering the properties of the by-product fly ash enabling its use as a cement additive. Sorbent materials of this invention effectively remove both elemental and oxidized forms of mercury from flue gases and can be used at elevated temperatures. The sorbent combines an oxidation catalyst and a sorbent in the same particle to both oxidize the mercury and then immobilize it.

  1. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit No. 456: Underground storage tank release site 23-111-1, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The underground storage tank (UST) release site 23-111-1 is located in Mercury, Nevada. The site is in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site, (NTS) located on the north side of Building 111. The tank associated with the release was closed in place using cement grout on September 6, 1990. The tank was not closed by removal due to numerous active underground utilities, a high-voltage transformer pad, and overhead power lines. Soil samples collected below the tank bottom at the time of tank closure activities exceeded the Nevada Administrative Code Action Level of 100 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) for petroleum hydrocarbons. Maximum concentrations detected were 119 mg/kg. Two passive venting wells were subsequently installed at the tank ends to monitor the progress of biodegradation at the site. Quarterly air sampling from the wells was completed for approximately one year, but was discontinued since data indicated that considerable biodegradation was not occurring at the site

  2. Compilation of interim technical research memoranda. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanahan, W.R.

    1984-04-01

    Four interim technical research memoranda are presented that describe the results of numerical simulations designed to investigate the dynamics of energetic plasma beams propagating across magnetic fields

  3. Nonradioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction use of a portable exhauster on 241-A-101 tank during salt well pumping and other routine activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, C.B.

    1996-01-01

    The 241-A-101 tank, a 22.9 meter 3,785,400 liter capacity SST, was constructed from the fourth generation of tank designs, which were capable of holding boiling or self-concentrating waste. Construction features a reinforced concrete shell, dome, and base with a mild steel liner covering the bottom and sidewalls. The tank has a flat bottom with a usable waste depth of approximately 9.4 meters. The tank was put into service in 1956 to store plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) high-level waste and organic wash waste. The waste was allowed to self-concentrate up until 1968. Tank sluicing was performed in 1969 and again in 1976 to reduce the amount of strontium and cesium, the two isotopes found to be the main heat generating sources in the tank. In 1978, the tank was reassigned for saltcake storage. The tank was taken out of service in November 1980 and partially isolated in 1982. Salt well pumping is a method used to interim stabilize SSTS. Interim stabilization is commenced once all the liquid above the solids has been removed (primary stabilization). Interim stabilization removes the gravity drainable liquid and the interstitial liquid between the solids from the SST and transfers the liquid to a double-shell tank (DST) or to a staging double-contained receiver tank (DCRT), which is subsequently transferred to a DST. Pumping is accomplished at very low flow rates, 15.1 liters per minute or less. Normally, salt well pumping is performed without the need of an exhauster. However, recent safety evaluations concluded that a minimum exhaust flow rate of 7.1 cubic meters per minute would be required to enhance the safety of the tank. Therefore, active ventilation will be part of this process for the 241-A-101 tank. This document details the Nonradioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction for the use of a portable exhauster on Tank 241-A-101 during salt well pumping and other routine activities

  4. Tank characterization data report: Tank 241-C-112

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, B.C.; Borsheim, G.L.; Jensen, L.

    1993-09-01

    Tank 241-C-112 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in March 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-112 were conducted to support the resolution of the Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. Analysis of core samples obtained from tank 241-C-112 strongly indicates that the fuel concentration in the tank waste will not support a propagating exothermic reaction. Analysis of the process history of the tank as well as studies of simulants provided valuable information about the physical and chemical condition of the waste. This information, in combination with the analysis of the tank waste, sup ports the conclusion that an exothermic reaction in tank 241-C-112 is not plausible. Therefore, the contents of tank 241-C-112 present no imminent threat to the workers at the Hanford Site, the public, or the environment from its forrocyanide inventory. Because an exothermic reaction is not credible, the consequences of this accident scenario, as promulgated by the General Accounting Office, are not applicable

  5. Tank characterization data report: Tank 241-C-112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.C.; Borsheim, G.L.; Jensen, L.

    1993-09-01

    Tank 241-C-112 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in March 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-112 were conducted to support the resolution of the Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. Analysis of core samples obtained from tank 241-C-112 strongly indicates that the fuel concentration in the tank waste will not support a propagating exothermic reaction. Analysis of the process history of the tank as well as studies of simulants provided valuable information about the physical and chemical condition of the waste. This information, in combination with the analysis of the tank waste, sup ports the conclusion that an exothermic reaction in tank 241-C-112 is not plausible. Therefore, the contents of tank 241-C-112 present no imminent threat to the workers at the Hanford Site, the public, or the environment from its forrocyanide inventory. Because an exothermic reaction is not credible, the consequences of this accident scenario, as promulgated by the General Accounting Office, are not applicable.

  6. Interim-status groundwater monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, M.D.

    1995-06-13

    This document outlines the groundwater monitoring plan for interim-status detection-level monitoring of the 216-B-63 Trench. This is a revision of the initial groundwater monitoring plan prepared for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by Bjornstad and Dudziak (1989). The 216-B-63 Trench, located at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State, is an open, unlined, earthern trench approximately 1.2 m (4 ft) wide at the bottom, 427 m (1400 ft) long, and 3 m (10 ft) deep that received wastewater containing hazardous waste and radioactive materials from B Plant, located in the 200 East Area. Liquid effluent discharge to the 216-B-63 Trench began in March 1970 and ceased in February 1992. The trench is now managed by Waste Tank Operations.

  7. Interim-status groundwater monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    This document outlines the groundwater monitoring plan for interim-status detection-level monitoring of the 216-B-63 Trench. This is a revision of the initial groundwater monitoring plan prepared for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by Bjornstad and Dudziak (1989). The 216-B-63 Trench, located at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State, is an open, unlined, earthern trench approximately 1.2 m (4 ft) wide at the bottom, 427 m (1400 ft) long, and 3 m (10 ft) deep that received wastewater containing hazardous waste and radioactive materials from B Plant, located in the 200 East Area. Liquid effluent discharge to the 216-B-63 Trench began in March 1970 and ceased in February 1992. The trench is now managed by Waste Tank Operations

  8. Software Verification and Validation Report for the 244-AR Vault Interim Stabilization Ventilation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YEH, T.

    2002-01-01

    This document reports on the analysis, testing and conclusions of the software verification and validation for the 244-AR Vault Interim Stabilization ventilation system. Automation control system will use the Allen-Bradley software tools for programming and programmable logic controller (PLC) configuration. The 244-AR Interim Stabilization Ventilation System will be used to control the release of radioactive particles to the environment in the containment tent, located inside the canyon of the 244-AR facility, and to assist the waste stabilization efforts. The HVAC equipment, ducts, instruments, PLC hardware, the ladder logic executable software (documented code), and message display terminal are considered part of the temporary ventilation system. The system consists of a supply air skid, temporary ductwork (to distribute airflow), and two skid-mounted, 500-cfm exhausters connected to the east filter building and the vessel vent system. The Interim Stabilization Ventilation System is a temporary, portable ventilation system consisting of supply side and exhaust side. Air is supplied to the containment tent from an air supply skid. This skid contains a constant speed fan, a pre-filter, an electric heating coil, a cooling coil, and a constant flow device (CFD). The CFD uses a passive component that allows a constant flow of air to pass through the device. Air is drawn out of the containment tent, cells, and tanks by two 500-cfm exhauster skids running in parallel. These skids are equipped with fans, filters, stack, stack monitoring instrumentation, and a PLC for control. The 500CFM exhaust skids were fabricated and tested previously for saltwell pumping activities. The objective of the temporary ventilation system is to maintain a higher pressure to the containment tent, relative to the canyon and cell areas, to prevent contaminants from reaching the containment tent

  9. Management plan -- Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    This Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) Management Plan provides guidance for execution WHC MWTF Project activities related to design, procurement, construction, testing, and turnover. This Management Plan provides a discussion of organizational responsibilities, work planning, project management systems, quality assurance (QA), regulatory compliance, personnel qualifications and training, and testing and evaluations. Classified by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as a major systems acquisition (MSA), the MWTF mission is to provide a safe, cost-effective, and environmentally sound method for interim storage of Hanford Site high-level wastes. This Management Plan provides policy guidance and direction to the Project Office for execution of the project activities

  10. Management plan -- Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, R.L.

    1995-01-11

    This Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) Management Plan provides guidance for execution WHC MWTF Project activities related to design, procurement, construction, testing, and turnover. This Management Plan provides a discussion of organizational responsibilities, work planning, project management systems, quality assurance (QA), regulatory compliance, personnel qualifications and training, and testing and evaluations. Classified by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as a major systems acquisition (MSA), the MWTF mission is to provide a safe, cost-effective, and environmentally sound method for interim storage of Hanford Site high-level wastes. This Management Plan provides policy guidance and direction to the Project Office for execution of the project activities.

  11. 324 Building REC and HLV Tank Closure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker-Khaleel, B.; Schlick, K.

    1995-12-01

    This closure plan describes the activities necessary to close the 324 Radiochemical Engineering Cells (REC) and High-Level Vault (HLV) in accordance with the Washington State Dangerous Waste regulations. To provide a complete description of the activities required, the closure plan relies on information contained in the 324 Building B-Cell Safety Cleanout Project (BCCP) plans, the 324 Building REC HLV Interim Waste Management Plan (IWMP), the Project Management Plan for Nuclear Facilities Management 300 Area Compliance Program, and the 324 High Level Vault Interim Removal Action Project (project management plan [PMP]). The IWMP addresses the management of mixed waste in accordance with state and federal hazardous waste regulations. It provides a strategy for managing high-activity mixed waste in compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements or provides for an alternative management approach for the waste. The BCCP outlines the past, present, and future activities necessary for removing from B-Cell the solid waste, including mixed waste generated as a result of historical research and development (R ampersand D) activities conducted in the cell. The BCCP also includes all records and project files associated with the B-Cell cleanout. This information is referenced throughout the closure plan. The PMP sets forth the plans, organization, and systems that Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) will use to direct and control the 324 High-Level Vault Interim Removal Action Project. This project will develop and implement a treatment strategy that will remove and stabilize the inventory of liquid waste from the 324 HLV tanks. The PMP also provides for flushing and sampling the flush solution

  12. 27 CFR 24.229 - Tank car and tank truck requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.229 Tank car and tank truck requirements. Railroad tank cars and tank trucks used to transport spirits for use in wine production will be constructed...

  13. Tank Characterization Report for Double-Shell Tank (DST) 241-AN-107

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ADAMS, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    This report interprets information about the tank answering a series of six questions covering areas such as information drivers, tank history, tank comparisons, disposal implications, data quality and quantity, and unique aspects of the tank

  14. Tank Characterization Report for Single-Shell Tank 241-C-104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ADAMS, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    Interprets information about the tank answering a series of six questions covering areas such as information drivers, tank history, tank comparisons, disposal implications, data quality and quantity, and unique aspects of the tank

  15. Development of smart solar tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the project is to develop smart solar tanks. A smart solar tank is a tank in which the domestic water can bee heated both by solar collectors and by an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system heats up the hot-water tank from the top and the water volume heated...... by the auxiliary energy supply system is fitted to the hot water consumption and consumption pattern. In periods with a large hot-water demand the volume is large, in periods with a small hot-water demand the volume is small. Based on measurements and calculations the advantage of smart SDHW systems is visualised....

  16. Rotation of the planet mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferys, W H

    1966-04-08

    The equations of motion for the rotation of Mercury are solved for the general case by an asymptotic expansion. The findings of Liu and O'Keefe, obtained by numerical integration of a special case, that it is possible for Mercury's rotation to be locked into a 2:3 resonance with its revolution, are confirmed in detail. The general solution has further applications.

  17. Mercury: Exploration of a Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The flight of the Mariner 10 spacecraft to Venus and Mercury is detailed in animation and photography. Views of Mercury are featured. Also included is animation on the origin of the solar system. Dr. Bruce C. Murray, director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, comments on the mission.

  18. 46 CFR 154.420 - Tank design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank design. 154.420 Section 154.420 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.420 Tank design. (a) The structure of an integral tank must meet the deep tank scantling standards...

  19. 46 CFR 154.439 - Tank design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank design. 154.439 Section 154.439 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Independent Tank Type A § 154.439 Tank design. An independent tank type A must meet the deep tank standard of the...

  20. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel tanks. 238.423 Section 238.423 Transportation....423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety upon a showing that the fuel tank provides a level of safety at least...

  1. 49 CFR 229.217 - Fuel tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel tank. 229.217 Section 229.217 Transportation... tank. (a) External fuel tanks. Locomotives equipped with external fuel tanks shall, at a minimum... to the fuel tank safety requirements of § 238.223 or § 238.423 of this chapter. The Director of the...

  2. 49 CFR 173.164 - Mercury (metallic and articles containing mercury).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ounces) of mercury per package; (iv) Tubes which are completely jacketed in sealed leakproof metal cases... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mercury (metallic and articles containing mercury... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.164 Mercury (metallic and articles containing mercury). (a) For...

  3. TANK WASTE RETRIEVAL LESSONS LEARNED AT THE HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DODD, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    One of the environmental remediation challenges facing the nation is the retrieval and permanent disposal of approximately 90 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State and stores roughly 60% of this waste. An estimated 53 million gallons of high-level, transuranic, and low-level radioactive waste is stored underground in 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 28 newer double-shell tanks (DSTs) at the Hanford Site. These SSTs range in size from 55,000 gallons to 1,000,000 gallon capacity. Approximately 30 million gallons of this waste is stored in SSTs. The SSTs were constructed between 1943 and 1964 and all have exceeded the nominal 20-year design life. Sixty-seven SSTs are known or suspected to have leaked an estimated 1,000,000 gallons of waste. The risk of additional SST leakage has been greatly reduced by removing more than 3 million gallons of interstitial liquids and supernatant and transferring the waste to the DST system since 1997 as part of the interim stabilization program. Retrieval of SST saltcake and sludge waste is underway to further reduce risks and stage feed materials for the Hanford Site Waste Treatment Plant. This paper presents lessons learned from retrieval of tank waste at the Hanford Site and discusses how this information is used to optimize retrieval system efficiency, improve overall cost effectiveness of retrieval operations, and ensure that HFFACO requirements are met

  4. Tal en tanke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernfelt, Frederik; Hendricks, Vincent

    Den svenske biskop og poet Esais Tegnèr har engang sagt: "Menneskers ord og tanker fødes sammen, at tale uklart er at tænke uklart." Denne lærebog er et lynkursus i at tænke og tale klart - og i at være på vagt over for uklar tænkning og tale, hvor den end optræder.Tal en tanke er hurtigt læst og...

  5. Tank closure reducing grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-01-01

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr 90 , the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel

  6. Regulated underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This guidance package is designed to assist DOE Field operations by providing thorough guidance on the underground storage tank (UST) regulations. [40 CFR 280]. The guidance uses tables, flowcharts, and checklists to provide a ''roadmap'' for DOE staff who are responsible for supervising UST operations. This package is tailored to address the issues facing DOE facilities. DOE staff should use this guidance as: An overview of the regulations for UST installation and operation; a comprehensive step-by-step guidance for the process of owning and operating an UST, from installation to closure; and a quick, ready-reference guide for any specific topic concerning UST ownership or operation

  7. Characterization and Potential Remediation Approaches for Vadose Zone Contamination at Hanford 241-SX Tank Farm - 13235

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberlein, Susan J.; Sydnor, Harold A.; Parker, Danny L.; Glaser, Danney R. [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, WA, 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Unplanned releases of radioactive and hazardous wastes have occurred at the 241-SX Tank Farm on the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. Interim and long-term mitigation efforts are currently under evaluation for 241-SX Tank Farm. Two contiguous interim surface barriers have been designed for deployment at 241-SX Tank Farm to reduce future moisture infiltration; however, construction of the surface barriers has been deferred to allow testing of alternative technologies for soil moisture reduction and possibly contaminant source term reduction. Previous tests performed by other organizations at the Hanford Site have demonstrated that: vadose zone desiccation using large diameter (greater than 4 inch) boreholes is feasible; under certain circumstances, mobile contaminants may be removed in addition to water vapor; and small diameter (approximately 2 inch) boreholes (such as those placed by the direct push hydraulic hammer) can be used to perform vapor extractions. Evaluation of the previous work combined with laboratory test results have led to the design of a field proof-of-principle test to remove water and possibly mobile contaminants at greater depths, using small boreholes placed with the direct push unit. (authors)

  8. Characterization and Potential Remediation Approaches for Vadose Zone Contamination at Hanford 241-SX Tank Farm-13235

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberlein, Susan J.; Sydnor, Harold A.; Parker, Danny L.; Glaser, Danney R.

    2013-01-01

    Unplanned releases of radioactive and hazardous wastes have occurred at the 241-SX Tank Farm on the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. Interim and long-term mitigation efforts are currently under evaluation for 241-SX Tank Farm. Two contiguous interim surface barriers have been designed for deployment at 241-SX Tank Farm to reduce future moisture infiltration; however, construction of the surface barriers has been deferred to allow testing of alternative technologies for soil moisture reduction and possibly contaminant source term reduction. Previous tests performed by other organizations at the Hanford Site have demonstrated that: vadose zone desiccation using large diameter (greater than 4 inch) boreholes is feasible; under certain circumstances, mobile contaminants may be removed in addition to water vapor; and small diameter (approximately 2 inch) boreholes (such as those placed by the direct push hydraulic hammer) can be used to perform vapor extractions. Evaluation of the previous work combined with laboratory test results have led to the design of a field proof-of-principle test to remove water and possibly mobile contaminants at greater depths, using small boreholes placed with the direct push unit

  9. Methyl mercury in terrestrial compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeppler, M.; Burow, M.; Padberg, S.; May, K.

    1993-09-01

    On the basis of the analytical methodology available at present the state of the art for the determination of total mercury and of various organometallic compounds of mercury in air, precipitation, limnic systems, soils, plants and biota is reviewed. This is followed by the presentation and discussion of examples for the data obtained hitherto for trace and ultratrace levels of total mercury and mainly methyl mercury in terrestrial and limnic environments as well as in biota. The data discussed stem predominantly from the past decade in which, due to significant methodological progress, many new aspects were elucidated. They include the most important results in this area achieved by the Research Centre (KFA) Juelich within the project 'Origin and Fate of Methyl Mercury' (contracts EV4V-0138-D and STEP-CT90-0057) supported by the Commission of the European Communities, Brussels. (orig.) [de

  10. Human Exposure and Health Effects of Inorganic and Elemental Mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jung-Duck; Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic and non-essential metal in the human body. Mercury is ubiquitously distributed in the environment, present in natural products, and exists extensively in items encountered in daily life. There are three forms of mercury, i.e., elemental (or metallic) mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury compounds. This review examines the toxicity of elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds. Inorganic mercury compounds are water soluble with a bioavailability o...

  11. Tank Waste Remediation System Tank Waste Analysis Plan. FY 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, C.S.; Dove, T.H.

    1994-01-01

    This documents lays the groundwork for preparing the implementing the TWRS tank waste analysis planning and reporting for Fiscal Year 1995. This Tank Waste Characterization Plan meets the requirements specified in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, better known as the Tri-Party Agreement

  12. PROGRESS & CHALLENGES IN CLEANUP OF HANFORDS TANK WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEWITT, W.M.; SCHEPENS, R.

    2006-01-23

    The River Protection Project (RPP), which is managed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP), is highly complex from technical, regulatory, legal, political, and logistical perspectives and is the largest ongoing environmental cleanup project in the world. Over the past three years, ORP has made significant advances in its planning and execution of the cleanup of the Hartford tank wastes. The 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs), 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs), and 60 miscellaneous underground storage tanks (MUSTs) at Hanford contain approximately 200,000 m{sup 3} (53 million gallons) of mixed radioactive wastes, some of which dates back to the first days of the Manhattan Project. The plan for treating and disposing of the waste stored in large underground tanks is to: (1) retrieve the waste, (2) treat the waste to separate it into high-level (sludge) and low-activity (supernatant) fractions, (3) remove key radionuclides (e.g., Cs-137, Sr-90, actinides) from the low-activity fraction to the maximum extent technically and economically practical, (4) immobilize both the high-level and low-activity waste fractions by vitrification, (5) interim store the high-level waste fraction for ultimate disposal off-site at the federal HLW repository, (6) dispose the low-activity fraction on-site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF), and (7) close the waste management areas consisting of tanks, ancillary equipment, soils, and facilities. Design and construction of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), the cornerstone of the RPP, has progressed substantially despite challenges arising from new seismic information for the WTP site. We have looked closely at the waste and aligned our treatment and disposal approaches with the waste characteristics. For example, approximately 11,000 m{sup 3} (2-3 million gallons) of metal sludges in twenty tanks were not created during spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and have low fission product concentrations. We

  13. PROGRESS and CHALLENGES IN CLEANUP OF HANFORDS TANK WASTES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEWITT, W.M.; SCHEPENS, R.

    2006-01-01

    The River Protection Project (RPP), which is managed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP), is highly complex from technical, regulatory, legal, political, and logistical perspectives and is the largest ongoing environmental cleanup project in the world. Over the past three years, ORP has made significant advances in its planning and execution of the cleanup of the Hartford tank wastes. The 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs), 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs), and 60 miscellaneous underground storage tanks (MUSTs) at Hanford contain approximately 200,000 m 3 (53 million gallons) of mixed radioactive wastes, some of which dates back to the first days of the Manhattan Project. The plan for treating and disposing of the waste stored in large underground tanks is to: (1) retrieve the waste, (2) treat the waste to separate it into high-level (sludge) and low-activity (supernatant) fractions, (3) remove key radionuclides (e.g., Cs-137, Sr-90, actinides) from the low-activity fraction to the maximum extent technically and economically practical, (4) immobilize both the high-level and low-activity waste fractions by vitrification, (5) interim store the high-level waste fraction for ultimate disposal off-site at the federal HLW repository, (6) dispose the low-activity fraction on-site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF), and (7) close the waste management areas consisting of tanks, ancillary equipment, soils, and facilities. Design and construction of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), the cornerstone of the RPP, has progressed substantially despite challenges arising from new seismic information for the WTP site. We have looked closely at the waste and aligned our treatment and disposal approaches with the waste characteristics. For example, approximately 11,000 m 3 (2-3 million gallons) of metal sludges in twenty tanks were not created during spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and have low fission product concentrations. We plan to

  14. Methods for dispensing mercury into devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1987-04-28

    A process for dispensing mercury into devices which requires mercury. Mercury is first electrolytically separated from either HgO or Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 and plated onto a cathode wire. The cathode wire is then placed into a device requiring mercury.

  15. Determination of mercury in plant material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickard, J A; Martin, J T

    1960-07-01

    An analytical procedure used for the determination of traces of mercury in plant material is described. The conditions of combustion of organic matter are controlled to avoid loss of mercury and EDTA is used to reduce the values for apparent mercury on uncontaminated samples. Satisfactory recoveries of mercury added to apples, tomatoes and coffee are obtained. 10 references, 1 table.

  16. 49 CFR 179.100 - General specifications applicable to pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.100 Section 179.100 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.100 General specifications applicable to pressure tank car tanks. ...

  17. 49 CFR 179.102 - Special commodity requirements for pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.102 Section 179.102 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.102 Special commodity requirements for pressure tank car tanks. (a) In addition to...

  18. 49 CFR 179.103 - Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.103 Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car tanks. (a) In addition to the applicable...

  19. Hanford waste tank cone penetrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seda, R.Y.

    1995-12-01

    A new tool is being developed to characterize tank waste at the Hanford Reservation. This tool, known as the cone penetrometer, is capable of obtaining chemical and physical properties in situ. For the past 50 years, this tool has been used extensively in soil applications and now has been modified for usage in Hanford Underground Storage tanks. These modifications include development of new ''waste'' data models as well as hardware design changes to accommodate the hazardous and radioactive environment of the tanks. The modified cone penetrometer is scheduled to be deployed at Hanford by Fall 1996. At Hanford, the cone penetrometer will be used as an instrumented pipe which measures chemical and physical properties as it pushes through tank waste. Physical data, such as tank waste stratification and mechanical properties, is obtained through three sensors measuring tip pressure, sleeve friction and pore pressure. Chemical data, such as chemical speciation, is measured using a Raman spectroscopy sensor. The sensor package contains other instrumentation as well, including a tip and side temperature sensor, tank bottom detection and an inclinometer. Once the cone penetrometer has reached the bottom of the tank, a moisture probe will be inserted into the pipe. This probe is used to measure waste moisture content, water level, waste surface moisture and tank temperature. This paper discusses the development of this new measurement system. Data from the cone penetrometer will aid in the selection of sampling tools, waste tank retrieval process, and addressing various tank safety issues. This paper will explore various waste models as well as the challenges associated with tank environment

  20. The Homestake Interim Laboratory and Homestake DUSEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesko, Kevin T.

    2011-12-01

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead South Dakota is proposed for the National Science Foundation's Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). The gold mine provides expedient access to depths in excess of 8000 feet below the surface (>7000 mwe). Homestake's long history of promoting scientific endeavours includes the Davis Solar Neutrino Experiment, a chlorine-based experiment that was hosted at the 4850 Level for more than 30 years. As DUSEL, Homestake would be uncompromised by competition with mining interests or other shared uses. The facility's 600-km of drifts would be available for conversion for scientific and educational uses. The State of South Dakota, under Governor Rounds' leadership, has demonstrated exceptionally strong support for Homestake and the creation of DUSEL. The State has provided funding totalling $46M for the preservation of the site for DUSEL and for the conversion and operation of the Homestake Interim Laboratory. Motivated by the strong educational and outreach potential of Homestake, the State contracted a Conversion Plan by world-recognized mine-engineering contractor to define the process of rehabilitating the facility, establishing the appropriate safety program, and regaining access to the facility. The State of South Dakota has established the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority to oversee the transfer of the Homestake property to the State and the rehabilitation and preservation of the facility. The Homestake Scientific Collaboration and the State of South Dakota's Science and Technology Authority has called for Letters of Interest from scientific, educational and engineering collaborations and institutions that are interested in hosting experiments and uses in the Homestake Interim Facility in advance of the NSF's DUSEL, to define experiments starting as early as 2007. The Homestake Program Advisory Committee has reviewed these Letters and their initial report has been released. Options for

  1. The Homestake Interim Laboratory and Homestake DUSEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesko, Kevin T.

    2011-01-01

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead South Dakota is proposed for the National Science Foundation's Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). The gold mine provides expedient access to depths in excess of 8000 feet below the surface (>7000 mwe). Homestake's long history of promoting scientific endeavours includes the Davis Solar Neutrino Experiment, a chlorine-based experiment that was hosted at the 4850 Level for more than 30 years. As DUSEL, Homestake would be uncompromised by competition with mining interests or other shared uses. The facility's 600-km of drifts would be available for conversion for scientific and educational uses. The State of South Dakota, under Governor Rounds' leadership, has demonstrated exceptionally strong support for Homestake and the creation of DUSEL. The State has provided funding totalling $46M for the preservation of the site for DUSEL and for the conversion and operation of the Homestake Interim Laboratory. Motivated by the strong educational and outreach potential of Homestake, the State contracted a Conversion Plan by world-recognized mine-engineering contractor to define the process of rehabilitating the facility, establishing the appropriate safety program, and regaining access to the facility. The State of South Dakota has established the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority to oversee the transfer of the Homestake property to the State and the rehabilitation and preservation of the facility. The Homestake Scientific Collaboration and the State of South Dakota's Science and Technology Authority has called for Letters of Interest from scientific, educational and engineering collaborations and institutions that are interested in hosting experiments and uses in the Homestake Interim Facility in advance of the NSF's DUSEL, to define experiments starting as early as 2007. The Homestake Program Advisory Committee has reviewed these Letters and their initial report has been released. Options for

  2. Mercury's Lithospheric Magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C.; Phillips, R. J.; Philpott, L. C.; Al Asad, M.; Plattner, A.; Mast, S.; Kinczyk, M. J.; Prockter, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic field data obtained by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft have been used to demonstrate the presence of lithospheric magnetization on Mercury. Larger amplitude fields resulting from the core dynamo and the strongly time-varying magnetospheric current systems are first estimated and subtracted from the magnetic field data to isolate lithospheric signals with wavelengths less than 500 km. These signals (hereafter referred to as data) are only observed at spacecraft altitudes less than 120 km, and are typically a few to 10 nT in amplitude. We present and compare equivalent source dipole magnetization models for latitudes 35°N to 75°N obtained from two distinct approaches to constrain the distribution and origin of lithospheric magnetization. First, models that fit either the data or the surface field predicted from a regional spherical harmonic representation of the data (see Plattner & Johnson abstract) and that minimize the root mean square (RMS) value of the magnetization are derived. Second, models in which the spatial distribution of magnetization required to fit the data is minimized are derived using the approach of Parker (1991). As seen previously, the largest amplitudes of lithospheric magnetization are concentrated around the Caloris basin. With this exception, across the northern hemisphere there are no overall correlations of magnetization with surface geology, although higher magnetizations are found in regions with darker surfaces. Similarly, there is no systematic correlation of magnetization signatures with crater materials, although there are specific instances of craters with interiors or ejecta that have magnetizations distinct from the surrounding region. For the latter case, we observe no correlation of the occurrence of these signatures with crater degradation state (a proxy for age). At the lowest spacecraft altitudes (source depths less than O(10 km) are unlikely in most regions

  3. 40 CFR 80.141 - Interim detergent gasoline program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim detergent gasoline program. 80... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.141 Interim detergent gasoline... apply to: (i) All gasoline sold or transferred to a party who sells or transfers gasoline to the...

  4. 50 CFR 660.720 - Interim protection for sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim protection for sea turtles. 660.720 Section 660.720 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Migratory Fisheries § 660.720 Interim protection for sea turtles. (a) Until the effective date of §§ 660.707...

  5. 12 CFR 541.18 - Interim Federal savings association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... an existing savings and loan holding company or to facilitate any other transaction the Office may... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim Federal savings association. 541.18... REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.18 Interim Federal savings association. The term...

  6. Transuranic waste storage and assay facility (TRUSAF) interim safety basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, K.D.

    1995-09-01

    The TRUSAF ISB is based upon current facility configuration and procedures. The purpose of the document is to provide the basis for interim operation or restrictions on interim operations and the authorization basis for the TRUSAF at the Hanford Site. The previous safety analysis document TRUSAF hazards Identification and Evaluation (WHC 1977) is superseded by this document

  7. Presidential Transition: The Experience of Two Community College Interim Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to understand the experiences of two community college interim presidents, their characteristics, and how they led institutions following an abrupt presidential departure. There were two fundamental questions framing this research study, 1. How do two interim community college presidents lead…

  8. Decision on performing interim analysis for comparative clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Kyongsun; Jacobus, Susanna; Uno, Hajime

    2017-09-01

    In randomized-controlled trials, interim analyses are often planned for possible early trial termination to claim superiority or futility of a new therapy. While unblinding is necessary to conduct the formal interim analysis in blinded studies, blinded data also have information about the potential treatment difference between the groups. We developed a blinded data monitoring tool that enables investigators to predict whether they observe such an unblinded interim analysis results that supports early termination of the trial. Investigators may skip some of the planned interim analyses if an early termination is unlikely. We specifically focused on blinded, randomized-controlled studies to compare binary endpoints of a new treatment with a control. Assuming one interim analysis is planned for early termination for superiority or futility, we conducted extensive simulation studies to assess the impact of the implementation of our tool on the size, power, expected number of interim analyses, and bias in the treatment effect. The numerical study showed the proposed monitoring tool does not affect size or power, but dramatically reduces the expected number of interim analyses when the effect of the treatment difference is small. The tool serves as a useful reference when interpreting the summary of the blinded data throughout the course of the trial, without losing integrity of the study. This tool could potentially save the study resources and budget by avoiding unnecessary interim analyses.

  9. General certification procedure of enterprises and interim job enterprises

    CERN Document Server

    Int. At. Energy Agency, Wien

    2002-01-01

    This procedure defines the certification global process of enterprises employing workers of A or B category for nuclear facilities and interim job enterprises proposing workers of A or B category for nuclear facilities. This certification proves the enterprises ability to satisfy the specification ''E'' of the CEFRI and the interim job enterprises to satisfy the specification ''I'' of the CEFRI. (A.L.B.)

  10. 47 CFR 51.715 - Interim transport and termination pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim transport and termination pricing. 51.715 Section 51.715 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER... Telecommunications Traffic § 51.715 Interim transport and termination pricing. (a) Upon request from a...

  11. Do Interim Assessments Reduce the Race and SES Achievement Gaps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Li, Wei; Miller, Shazia R.; van der Ploeg, Arie

    2017-01-01

    The authors examined differential effects of interim assessments on minority and low socioeconomic status students' achievement in Grades K-6. They conducted a large-scale cluster randomized experiment in 2009-2010 to evaluate the impact of Indiana's policy initiative introducing interim assessments statewide. The authors used 2-level models to…

  12. 78 FR 49782 - Interim Staff Guidance on Changes During Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... Construction AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft interim staff guidance; request for comment... During Construction.'' This ISG provides guidance to the NRC staff on the Preliminary Amendment Request...-ISG-025 ``Interim Staff Guidance on Changes during Construction under 10 CFR Part 52'' is available...

  13. Radar observations of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, J.K.; Campbell, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Some of the radar altimetry profiles of Mercury obtained on the basis of data from the Arecibo Observatory are presented. In these measurements, the delay-Doppler method was used to measure altitudes along the Doppler equator, rather than to map radar reflectivity. The profiles, derived from observations made over a 6-yr period, provide extensive coverage over a restricted equatorial band and permit the identification of radar signatures for features as small as 50-km diameter craters and 1-km-high arcuate scarps. The data allowed identification of large-scale topographic features such as smooth plains subsidence zones and major highland regions

  14. Fluorescent sensor for mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zidong [Urbana, IL; Lee, Jung Heon [Evanston, IL; Lu, Yi [Champaign, IL

    2011-11-22

    The present invention provides a sensor for detecting mercury, comprising: a first polynucleotide, comprising a first region, and a second region, a second polynucleotide, a third polynucleotide, a fluorophore, and a quencher, wherein the third polynucleotide is optionally linked to the second region; the fluorophore is linked to the first polynucleotide and the quencher is linked to the second polynucleotide, or the fluorophore is linked to the second polynucleotide and the quencher is linked to the first polynucleotide; the first region and the second region hybridize to the second polynucleotide; and the second region binds to the third polynucleotide in the presence of Hg.sup.2+ ions.

  15. Central waste complex interim safety basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, F.G.

    1995-01-01

    This interim safety basis provides the necessary information to conclude that hazards at the Central Waste Complex are controlled and that current and planned activities at the CWC can be conducted safely. CWC is a multi-facility complex within the Solid Waste Management Complex that receives and stores most of the solid wastes generated and received at the Hanford Site. The solid wastes that will be handled at CWC include both currently stored and newly generated low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, contact-handled transuranic, and contact-handled TRU mixed waste

  16. Interim supply in the electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strassburg, W

    1977-06-01

    The interim supply or the so-called 'condition without a contract' can occur within the framework of energy supply in the relationship between 1) public utility and tariff customer, 2) public utility and the special last-in-line consumer, 3) supplying and distributing public utility, 4) public utility and territorial administrative body. The present contribution deals with the cases named under (3) and (4). Cases (1) and (2) were dealt with in a previous article. Relevant contract clauses and laws and their effects on contracting partners are discussed.

  17. Interim supply in the electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strassburg, W

    1977-05-01

    The interim supply or the so-called 'condition without a contract' can occur within the framework of energy supply in the relationship between: 1) public utility and tariff customer, 2) public utility and the special last-in-line consumer, 3) supplying and distributing public utility, 4) public utility and territorial administrative body. The contribution at hand deals with the cases under 1) and 2); cases 3) and 4) are dealt with in an article to be published. Relevant contract clauses and laws and their effects on contracting partners are discussed. 41 references.

  18. Interim Reliability Evaluation Program procedures guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, D.D.; Gallup, D.R.; Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Kolb, G.J.; Stack, D.W.; Lofgren, E.; Horton, W.H.; Lobner, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    This document presents procedures for conducting analyses of a scope similar to those performed in Phase II of the Interim Reliability Evaluation Program (IREP). It documents the current state of the art in performing the plant systems analysis portion of a probabilistic risk assessment. Insights gained into managing such an analysis are discussed. Step-by-step procedures and methodological guidance constitute the major portion of the document. While not to be viewed as a cookbook, the procedures set forth the principal steps in performing an IREP analysis. Guidance for resolving the problems encountered in previous analyses is offered. Numerous examples and representative products from previous analyses clarify the discussion

  19. National NIF Diagnostic Program Interim Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, B

    2002-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) has the mission of supporting Stockpile Stewardship and Basic Science research in high-energy-density plasmas. To execute those missions, the facility must provide diagnostic instrumentation capable of observing and resolving in time events and radiation emissions characteristic of the plasmas of interest. The diagnostic instrumentation must conform to high standards of operability and reliability within the NIF environment. These exacting standards, together with the facility mission of supporting a diverse user base, has led to the need for a central organization charged with delivering diagnostic capability to the NIF. The National NIF Diagnostics Program (NNDP) has been set up under the aegis of the NIF Director to provide that organization authority and accountability to the wide user community for NIF. The funds necessary to perform the work of developing diagnostics for NIF will be allocated from the National NIF Diagnostics Program to the participating laboratories and organizations. The participating laboratories and organizations will design, build, and commission the diagnostics for NIF. Restricted availability of funding has had an adverse impact, unforeseen at the time of the original decision to projectize NIF Core Diagnostics Systems and Cryogenic Target Handing Systems, on the planning and initiation of these efforts. The purpose of this document is to provide an interim project management plan describing the organizational structure and management processes currently in place for NIF Core Diagnostics Systems. Preparation of a Program Execution Plan for NIF Core Diagnostics Systems has been initiated and a current draft is provided as Attachment 1 to this document. The National NIF Diagnostics Program Interim Management Plan provides a summary of primary design criteria and functional requirements, current organizational structure, tracking and reporting procedures, and current planning estimates of project scope

  20. Cleaning Validation of Fermentation Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Satu; Friis, Alan; Wirtanen, Gun

    2008-01-01

    Reliable test methods for checking cleanliness are needed to evaluate and validate the cleaning process of fermentation tanks. Pilot scale tanks were used to test the applicability of various methods for this purpose. The methods found to be suitable for validation of the clenlinees were visula...

  1. Modelling of baffled stirred tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstedt, H.; Lahtinen, M. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The three-dimensional flow field of a baffled stirred tank has been calculated using four different turbulence models. The tank is driven by a Rushton-type impeller. The boundary condition for the impeller region has been given as a source term or by calculating the impeller using the sliding mesh technique. Calculated values have been compared with measured data. (author)

  2. Surplus yeast tank failing catastrophically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2016-01-01

    GOOD REASON FOR CAUTION I A large surplus yeast tank shot into the air leaving the floor plate and the contents behind. Although not designed for overpressure, the tank was kept at “very slight overpressure” to suppress nuisance foaming. The brewery was unaware of the hazards of compressed air...

  3. Solitons in a wave tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, M.; Smith, H.; Scott, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    A wave tank experiment (first described by the nineteenth-century engineer and naval architect John Scott Russell) relates a linear eigenvalue problem from elementary quantum mechanics to a striking feature of modern nonlinear wave theory: multiple generation of solitons. The tank experiment is intended for lecture demonstrations. 19 references, 6 figures

  4. Modelling of baffled stirred tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstedt, H; Lahtinen, M [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1997-12-31

    The three-dimensional flow field of a baffled stirred tank has been calculated using four different turbulence models. The tank is driven by a Rushton-type impeller. The boundary condition for the impeller region has been given as a source term or by calculating the impeller using the sliding mesh technique. Calculated values have been compared with measured data. (author)

  5. 1990 waste tank inspection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNatt, F.G.

    1990-01-01

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Tank conditions are evaluated by inspection using periscopes, still photography, and video systems for visual imagery. Inspections made in 1990 are the subject of this report

  6. Enhanced Waste Tank Level Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.

    1999-06-24

    'With the increased sensitivity of waste-level measurements in the H-Area Tanks and with periods of isolation, when no mass transfer occurred for certain tanks, waste-level changes have been recorded with are unexplained.'

  7. Evaluation and ranking of the tank focus area solid liquid separation needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, D.J.

    1995-08-17

    The Tank Focus Area (TFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) addresses remediation of liquid waste currently stored in underground tanks. Several baseline technologies for treatment of tank waste can be categorized into three types of solid liquid separation: (a) removal of radioactive species that have been absorbed or precipitated, (b) pretreatment for ion exchange, and (c) volume reduction of sludge and wash water. The solids formed from precipitation or absorption of radioactive ions require separation from the liquid phase to permit treatment of the liquid as Low Level Waste. Prior to ion exchange of radioactive ions, removal of insoluble solids is needed to prevent bed fouling and downstream contamination. Volume reduction of washed sludge solids would reduce the tank space required for interim storage. The scope of this document is to evaluate the solid/liquid separations needed to permit treatment of tank wastes to accomplish these goals. The document summarizes previous alkaline waste testing, with an emphasis on crossflow filtration, to-obtain a general understanding of the behavior of radioactive wastes on available equipment. The document also provides general information about filtration and a path forward for testing.

  8. Project Delivery Acquisition and Contracting Plan for the Tank Farm Contractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MERCADO, L.C.

    2000-01-01

    This document is a plan presenting the process, strategies and approaches for vendor contracting by the Tank Farm Contractor. The plan focuses on contracting structures, practices, methods, and desired approaches in contracting. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) has contracted with the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG), as the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC), to support vitrification of Hanford Site tank waste by the Privatization Contractor. During Waste Feed Delivery Phase 1, waste will be retrieved from certain double-shell tanks and delivered to the Privatization Contractor to meet contract feed delivery requirements. Near-term project goals include upgrading infrastructure systems; retrieving and delivering the waste; and accepting the waste packages for interim onsite storage and disposal. Project Delivery includes individual projects assigned to provide the infrastructure and systems responsible to provide engineering, design, procurement, installation/construction, and testing/turnover of systems for retrieval of waste from Hanford double-shell tanks. This plan sets the requirements for projects work scope, contracting practices, structures, methods, and performance measurements. The plan is designed to integrate Life-Cycle Projects acquisitions and provide a consistent contracting approach. This effort will serve as a step improvement in contract reform implementing commercial practices into DOE projects

  9. Evaluation and ranking of the tank focus area solid liquid separation needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCadbe, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Tank Focus Area (TFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) addresses remediation of liquid waste currently stored in underground tanks. Several baseline technologies for treatment of tank waste can be categorized into three types of solid liquid separation: (a) removal of radioactive species that have been absorbed or precipitated, (b) pretreatment for ion exchange, and (c) volume reduction of sludge and wash water. The solids formed from precipitation or absorption of radioactive ions require separation from the liquid phase to permit treatment of the liquid as Low Level Waste. Prior to ion exchange of radioactive ions, removal of insoluble solids is needed to prevent bed fouling and downstream contamination. Volume reduction of washed sludge solids would reduce the tank space required for interim storage. The scope of this document is to evaluate the solid/liquid separations needed to permit treatment of tank wastes to accomplish these goals. The document summarizes previous alkaline waste testing, with an emphasis on crossflow filtration, to-obtain a general understanding of the behavior of radioactive wastes on available equipment. The document also provides general information about filtration and a path forward for testing

  10. In-tank photo analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorvick, C.A.; Baird, D.B.; Heasler, P.G.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents an analysis performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) of photographs showing the interior of a single shell tank (SST) at the Hanford site. This report shows that in-tank photos can be used to create a plan-view map of the waste surface inside a tank, and that measuring the elevation of the waste surface from the photos is possible, but not accurate enough to be useful at this time. In-tank photos were acquired for Tanks BX111 and T111. The BX111 photos were used to create the waste surface map and to measure the waste surface elevation. T111 photos were used to measure the waste surface elevation. Uncertainty analyses of the mapping and surface elevation are included to show the accuracy of the calculations for both methods

  11. Hanford site waste tank characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-08-01

    This paper describes the on-going work in the characterization of the Hanford-Site high-level waste tanks. The waste in these tanks was produced as part of the nuclear weapons materials processing mission that occupied the Hanford Site for the first 40 years of its existence. Detailed and defensible characterization of the tank wastes is required to guide retrieval, pretreatment, and disposal technology development, to address waste stability and reactivity concerns, and to satisfy the compliance criteria for the various regulatory agencies overseeing activities at the Hanford Site. The resulting Tank Characterization Reports fulfill these needs, as well as satisfy the tank waste characterization milestones in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order

  12. Mercury kinetics in marine zooplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.; Heyraud, M.; LaRosa, J.

    1976-01-01

    Mercury, like many other heavy metals, is potentially available to marine animals by uptake directly from water and/or through the organisms food. Furthermore, bioavailability, assimilation and subsequent retention in biota may be affected by the chemical species of the element in sea water. While mercury is known to exist in the inorganic form in sea water, recent work has indicated that, in certain coastal areas, a good portion of the total mercury appears to be organically bound; however, the exact chemical nature of the organic fraction has yet to be determined. Methyl mercury may be one constituent of the natural organically bound fraction since microbial mechanisms for in situ methylation of mercury have been demonstrated in the aquatic environment. Despite the fact that naturally produced methyl mercury probably comprises only a small fraction of an aquatic ecosystem, the well-documented toxic effects of this organo-mercurial, caused by man-made introductions into marine food chains, make it an important compound to study

  13. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg-1) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg-1). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark—in pyroclastic wounds—and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg-1) and bark (6.0 μg kg-1) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  14. Atmospheric mercury footprints of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Wang, Yafei; Cinnirella, Sergio; Pirrone, Nicola

    2015-03-17

    The Minamata Convention was established to protect humans and the natural environment from the adverse effects of mercury emissions. A cogent assessment of mercury emissions is required to help implement the Minamata Convention. Here, we use an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output model to calculate atmospheric mercury footprints of nations based on upstream production (meaning direct emissions from the production activities of a nation), downstream production (meaning both direct and indirect emissions caused by the production activities of a nation), and consumption (meaning both direct and indirect emissions caused by final consumption of goods and services in a nation). Results show that nations function differently within global supply chains. Developed nations usually have larger consumption-based emissions than up- and downstream production-based emissions. India, South Korea, and Taiwan have larger downstream production-based emissions than their upstream production- and consumption-based emissions. Developed nations (e.g., United States, Japan, and Germany) are in part responsible for mercury emissions of developing nations (e.g., China, India, and Indonesia). Our findings indicate that global mercury abatement should focus on multiple stages of global supply chains. We propose three initiatives for global mercury abatement, comprising the establishment of mercury control technologies of upstream producers, productivity improvement of downstream producers, and behavior optimization of final consumers.

  15. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg(-1)) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg(-1)). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark-in pyroclastic wounds-and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg(-1)) and bark (6.0 μg kg(-1)) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  16. Method for removal and stabilization of mercury in mercury-containing gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Thomas E.

    2005-09-13

    The present invention is directed to a process and apparatus for removing and stabilizing mercury from mercury-containing gas streams. A gas stream containing vapor phase elemental and/or speciated mercury is contacted with reagent, such as an oxygen-containing oxidant, in a liquid environment to form a mercury-containing precipitate. The mercury-containing precipitate is kept or placed in solution and reacts with one or more additional reagents to form a solid, stable mercury-containing compound.

  17. Suspending Zeolite Particles In Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is in the process of removing waste (sludge and salt cake) from million gallon waste tanks. The current practice for removing waste from the tanks is adding water, agitating the tanks with long shaft vertical centrifugal pumps, and pumping the sludge/salt solution from the tank to downstream treatment processes. This practice has left sludge heels (tilde 30,000 gallons) in the bottom of the tanks. SRS is evaluating shrouded axial impeller mixers for removing the sludge heels in the waste tanks. The authors conducted a test program to determine mixer requirements for suspending sludge heels using the shrouded axial impeller mixers. The tests were performed with zeolite in scaled tanks which have diameters of 1.5, 6.0, and 18.75 feet. The mixer speeds required to suspend zeolite particles were measured at each scale. The data were analyzed with various scaling methods to compare their ability to describe the suspension of insoluble solids with the mixers and to apply the data to a full-scale waste tank. The impact of changes in particle properties and operating parameters was also evaluated. The conclusions of the work are: Scaling of the suspension of fast settling zeolite particles was best described by the constant power per unit volume method. Increasing the zeolite particle concentration increased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. Decreasing the zeolite particle size from 0.7 mm 0.3 mm decreased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. Increasing the number of mixers in the tank decreased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. A velocity of 1.6 ft/sec two inches above the tank bottom is needed to suspend zeolite particles

  18. Tank-automotive robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Gerald R.

    1999-07-01

    To provide an overview of Tank-Automotive Robotics. The briefing will contain program overviews & inter-relationships and technology challenges of TARDEC managed unmanned and robotic ground vehicle programs. Specific emphasis will focus on technology developments/approaches to achieve semi- autonomous operation and inherent chassis mobility features. Programs to be discussed include: DemoIII Experimental Unmanned Vehicle (XUV), Tactical Mobile Robotics (TMR), Intelligent Mobility, Commanders Driver Testbed, Collision Avoidance, International Ground Robotics Competition (ICGRC). Specifically, the paper will discuss unique exterior/outdoor challenges facing the IGRC competing teams and the synergy created between the IGRC and ongoing DoD semi-autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicle and DoT Intelligent Transportation System programs. Sensor and chassis approaches to meet the IGRC challenges and obstacles will be shown and discussed. Shortfalls in performance to meet the IGRC challenges will be identified.

  19. Flammable gas tank waste level reconciliation tank 241-SX-105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddie, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Fluor Daniel Northwest was authorized to address flammable gas issues by reconciling the unexplained surface level increases in Tank 241-SX-105 (SX-105, typical). The trapped gas evaluation document states that Tank SX-105 exceeds the 25% of the lower flammable limit criterion, based on a surface level rise evaluation. The Waste Storage Tank Status and Leak Detection Criteria document, commonly referred to as the Welty Report is the basis for this letter report. The Welty Report is also a part of the trapped gas evaluation document criteria. The Welty Report contains various tank information, including: physical information, status, levels, and dry wells. The unexplained waste level rises were attributed to the production and retention of gas in the column of waste corresponding to the unaccounted for surface level rise. From 1973 through 1980, the Welty Report tracked Tank SX-105 transfers and reported a net cumulative change of 20.75 in. This surface level increase is from an unknown source or is unaccounted for. Duke Engineering and Services Hanford and Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation are interested in determining the validity of unexplained surface level changes reported in the Welty Report based upon other corroborative sources of data. The purpose of this letter report is to assemble detailed surface level and waste addition data from daily tank records, logbooks, and other corroborative data that indicate surface levels, and to reconcile the cumulative unaccounted for surface level changes as shown in the Welty Report from 1973 through 1980. Tank SX-105 initially received waste from REDOX starting the second quarter of 1955. After June 1975, the tank primarily received processed waste (slurry) from the 242-S Evaporator/Crystallizer and transferred supernate waste to Tanks S-102 and SX-102. The Welty Report shows a cumulative change of 20.75 in. from June 1973 through December 1980

  20. Exploring Mercury: The Iron Planet

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Planet Mercury is both difficult to observe and difficult to reach by spacecraft. Just one spacecraft, Mariner 10, flew by the planet 30 years ago. An upcoming NASA mission, MESSENGER, will be launched this year and will go into orbit around Mercury at the end of this decade. A European mission is planned for the following decade. It's worth going there because Mercury is a strange body and the history of planetary exploration has taught us that strangeness gives us insight into planetary ori...

  1. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role of chelating agents against mercury poisoning, which provides a promising research direction for broader application of chelation therapy in prevention and treatment of mercury poisoning.

  2. MESSENGER'S First Flyby of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet's miniature magnetosphere since Mariner 10's brief fly-bys in 1974-5. The magnetosphere of Mercury is the smallest in the solar system with its magnetic field typically standing off the solar wind only - 1000 to 2000 km above the surface. An overview of the MESSENGER mission and its January 14th close flyby of Mercury will be provided. Primary science objectives and the science instrumentation will be described. Initial results from MESSENGER'S first flyby on January 14th, 2008 will be discussed with an emphasis on the magnetic field and charged particle measurements.

  3. Distribution and retention of organic and inorganic mercury in methyl mercury-treated neonatal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.J.; Fisher, H.L.; Sumler, M.R.; Hall, L.L.; Mushak, P.

    1988-01-01

    Seven-day-old Long Evans rats received one mumol of 203 Hg-labeled methyl mercury/kg sc and whole body retention and tissue distribution of organic and inorganic mercury were examined for 32 days postdosing. Neonates cleared mercury slowly until 10 days postdosing when the clearance rate abruptly increased. During the interval when whole body clearance of mercury was extremely slow, methyl mercury was metabolized to inorganic mercury. Peak concentration of mercury in kidney occurred at 2 days postdosing. At 32 days postdosing, 8% of mercury in kidney was in an organic from. Liver mercury concentration peaked at 2 days postdosing and organic mercury accounted for 38% at 32 days postdosing. Brain concentrations of mercury peaked at 2 days postdosing. At 10 days postdosing, organic mercury accounted for 86% of the brain mercury burden, and, at 32 days postdosing, for 60%. The percentage of mercury body burden in pelt rose from 30 to 70% between 1 and 10 days postdosing. At 32 days postdosing pelt contained 85% of the body burden of mercury. At all time points, about 95% of mercury in pelt was in an organic form. Compartmental analysis of these data permitted development of a model to describe the distribution and excretion of organic and inorganic mercury in methyl mercury-treated neonatal rats

  4. Supporting document for the Southeast Quadrant historical tank content estimate report for SY-tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Consort, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    Historical Tank Content Estimate of the Southeast Quadrant provides historical evaluations on a tank by tank basis of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the underground double-shell tanks of the Hanford 200 East and West Areas. This report summarizes historical information such as waste history, temperature profiles, psychrometric data, tank integrity, inventory estimates and tank level history on a tank by tank basis. Tank Farm aerial photos and in-tank photos of each tank are provided. A brief description of instrumentation methods used for waste tank surveillance are included. Components of the data management effort, such as Waste Status and Transaction Record Summary, Tank Layer Model, Supernatant Mixing Model, Defined Waste Types, and Inventory Estimates which generate these tank content estimates, are also given in this report

  5. The Use of Bacteria for Remediation of Mercury Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many processes of mercury transformation in the environment are bacteria mediated. Mercury properties cause some difficulties of remediation of mercury contaminated environment. Despite the significance of the problem of mercury pollution, methods of large scale bioremediation ...

  6. Sloshing impact in roofed tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uras, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A large number of high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks exists in various tank farms. Seismic activities at those locations may cause significant sloshing in HLW tanks. These tanks are covered to avoid any spilling during large amplitude earthquakes. However, large amplitude sloshing may result in impact on the cover or the roof of the tank. Hence, a better understanding of the impact phenomenon is necessary to assess the safety of the tanks currently in existence, and to establish design guidelines for future designs. A pressure based formulation is derived to model sloshing impact in roared tanks. It is incorporated into Argonne's in-house finite element code FLUSTR-ANL. A numerical test case with a harmonic input excitation is studied. The simulation results indicate that linear behavior is preserved beyond the first impact, and some mesh distortion is observed following a stronger second impact. During the impact, the displacement of the contacting surface nodes remains constant, and the velocities are reduced to zero. An identification of impacting nodes is possible from the dynamic pressures induced in surface elements

  7. Sloshing impact in roofed tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uras, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A large number of high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks exists in various tank farms. Seismic activities at those locations may cause significant sloshing in HLW tanks. These tanks are covered to avoid any spilling during large amplitude earthquakes. However, large amplitude sloshing may result in impact on the cover or the roof of the tank. Hence, a better understanding of the impact phenomenon is necessary to assess the safety of the tanks currently in existence, and to establish design guidelines for future designs. A pressure based formulation is derived to model sloshing impact in roofed tanks. It is incorporated into Argonne's in-house finite element code FLUSTR-ANL. A numerical test case with a harmonic input excitation is studied. The simulation results indicate that linear behavior is preserved beyond the first impact, and some mesh distortion is observed following a stronger second impact. During the impact, the displacement of the contacting surface nodes remains constant, and the velocities are reduced to zero. An identification of impacting nodes is possible from the dynamic pressures induced in surface elements

  8. Inactive Tanks Remediation Program strategy and plans for Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The overall objective of the Inactive Tank Remediation Program is to remediate all LLLW tanks that have been removed fimn service to the extent practicable in accordance with the FFA and CERCLA requirements. Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) will be addressed in choosing a remediation alternative. Preference will be given to remedies that are highly reliable and provide long-term protection. Efforts will be directed toward permanently and significantly reducing the volume, toxicity, or mobility of hazardous substances, pollutants, and contaminants associated with the tank systems. Where indicated by operational or other restraints, interim measures short of full and complete remediation may be taken to maintain human health and ecological risks at acceptable levels until full remediation can be accomplished

  9. Elimination of mercury in health care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Mercury is a persistent, bioaccumulative toxin that has been linked to numerous health effects in humans and wildlife. It is a potent neurotoxin that may also harm the brain, kidneys, and lungs. Unborn children and young infants are at particular risk for brain damage from mercury exposure. Hospitals' use of mercury in chemical solutions, thermometers, blood pressure gauges, batteries, and fluorescent lamps makes these facilities large contributors to the overall emission of mercury into the environment. Most hospitals recognize the dangers of mercury. In a recent survey, four out of five hospitals stated that they have policies in place to eliminate the use of mercury-containing products. Sixty-two percent of them require vendors to disclose the presence of mercury in chemicals that the hospitals purchase. Only 12 percent distribute mercury-containing thermometers to new parents. Ninety-two percent teach their employees about the health and environmental effects of mercury, and 46 percent teach all employees how to clean up mercury spills. However, the same study showed that many hospitals have not implemented their policies. Forty-two percent were not aware whether they still purchased items containing mercury. In addition, 49 percent still purchase mercury thermometers, 44 percent purchase mercury gastrointestinal diagnostic equipment, and 64 percent still purchase mercury lab thermometers.

  10. Mercury pollution: a transdisciplinary treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zuber, Sharon L; Newman, Michael C

    2012-01-01

    .... Also included are smaller case studies, such as the Minamata tragedy, fish consumption, and international treaties"-- "Mercury is the gravest chemical pollutant problem of our time, and this is...

  11. Mercury contamination in the Amazon

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nancy Minogue

    contamination is mainly caused by deforestation upstream. ... The team expected to find that the mercury levels in the water, sediment, and soil decreased as they ... Methylmercury poisoning — known as Minamata Disease after the Japanese ...

  12. Origin and composition of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The predictions of the expected range of composition of Mercury at the time of its formation made on the basis of a suite of condensation-accretion models of Mercury spanning a range of condensation temperature and accretion sampling functions appropriate to Mercury are examined. It is concluded that these compositonal models can, if modified to take into account the nonselective loss of most of the silicate component of the planet during accretion, provide compositional predictions for the Weidenschilling (1978, 1980) mechanism for the accretion of a metal-rich Mercury. The silicate portion would, in this case, contain 3.6 to 4.5 percent alumina, roughly 1 percent of alkali oxides, and between 0.5 and 6 percent FeO

  13. Tank 241-BY-110 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Single-Shell Tank (SST) 241-BY-110

  14. Tank characterization report for single shell tank 241-SX-108

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggers, R.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-11

    This document summarizes the information on the historical uses, present status, and the sampling and analysis results of waste stored in tank 241-SX-108. This report supports the requirements of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-44-09.

  15. Tank 241-S-107 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Single-Shell Tank (SST) 241-S-107

  16. Tank vapor mitigation requirements for Hanford Tank Farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakestraw, L.D.

    1994-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company has contracted Los Alamos Technical Associates to listing of vapors and aerosols that are or may be emitted from the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at Hanford. Mitigation requirements under Federal and State law, as well as DOE Orders, are included in the listing. The lists will be used to support permitting activities relative to tank farm ventilation system up-grades. This task is designated Task 108 under MJB-SWV-312057 and is an extension of efforts begun under Task 53 of Purchase Order MPB-SVV-03291 5 for Mechanical Engineering Support. The results of that task, which covered only thirty-nine tanks, are repeated here to provide a single source document for vapor mitigation requirements for all 177 HLW tanks

  17. Tank vapor mitigation requirements for Hanford Tank Farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakestraw, L.D.

    1994-11-15

    Westinghouse Hanford Company has contracted Los Alamos Technical Associates to listing of vapors and aerosols that are or may be emitted from the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at Hanford. Mitigation requirements under Federal and State law, as well as DOE Orders, are included in the listing. The lists will be used to support permitting activities relative to tank farm ventilation system up-grades. This task is designated Task 108 under MJB-SWV-312057 and is an extension of efforts begun under Task 53 of Purchase Order MPB-SVV-03291 5 for Mechanical Engineering Support. The results of that task, which covered only thirty-nine tanks, are repeated here to provide a single source document for vapor mitigation requirements for all 177 HLW tanks.

  18. Tank 241-AN-102 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Single-Shell Tank (SST) 241-AN-102

  19. Tank 241-U-111 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Single-Shell Tank (SST) 241-U-111

  20. Tank 241-B-106 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Single-Shell Tank (SST) 241-B-106