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Sample records for mercury nickel copper

  1. Gold, nickel and copper mining and processing.

    Lightfoot, Nancy E; Pacey, Michael A; Darling, Shelley

    2010-01-01

    Ore mining occurs in all Canadian provinces and territories except Prince Edward Island. Ores include bauxite, copper, gold, iron, lead and zinc. Workers in metal mining and processing are exposed, not only to the metal of interest, but also to various other substances prevalent in the industry, such as diesel emissions, oil mists, blasting agents, silica, radon, and arsenic. This chapter examines cancer risk related to the mining of gold, nickel and copper. The human carcinogenicity of nickel depends upon the species of nickel, its concentration and the route of exposure. Exposure to nickel or nickel compounds via routes other than inhalation has not been shown to increase cancer risk in humans. As such, cancer sites of concern include the lung, and the nasal sinus. Evidence comes from studies of nickel refinery and leaching, calcining, and sintering workers in the early half of the 20th century. There appears to be little or no detectable risk in most sectors of the nickel industry at current exposure levels. The general population risk from the extremely small concentrations detectable in ambient air are negligible. Nevertheless, animal carcinogenesis studies, studies of nickel carcinogenesis mechanisms, and epidemiological studies with quantitative exposure assessment of various nickel species would enhance our understanding of human health risks associated with nickel. Definitive conclusions linking cancer to exposures in gold and copper mining and processing are not possible at this time. The available results appear to demand additional study of a variety of potential occupational and non-occupational risk factors.

  2. Mercury and nickel contents in fish meat

    Tomas Toth

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of our work was to identify the content of mercury and nickel in selected fish species. Consumers today are increasingly aware of the association between diet and health, and thus in Europe consume more and more fish. Fish is a valuable source of high quality protein, minerals and vitamins, and fatty fish are also rich in omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are normally considered to be beneficial to health. In our work we determined content of mercury and nickel harvested fish in particular were the following species: Common goldfish (Carassius auratus, L., Common roach (Rutilus rutilus, L. and Common bream (Abramis brama, L. Concentrations of mercury and nickel was analyzed and results evaluated according to current standards and compared to the values ​​established by the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic and the EU Commission Regulation no. 1881/2006, as well as in the EU Commission Regulation no. 420/2011 and no. 269/2008. In our research area we analysed 19 samples of fish muscle. Samples were taken from two water reservoirs – Golianovo and Vráble.  The highest mercury content was in sample Rutilus 1 - 0.052632 mg/kg. Lowest mercury content was in sample Abramis 2  - 0.010431 mg/kg. Largest nickel content was in meat of Abramis  - sample 2  - 0.78 mg/kg. Minimum content of nickel was in sample Carassius 1  - 0.11 mg/kg. We got out of the limit values ​​specified: Codex Alimentarius SR - Mercury 0.5 mg/kg and  Regulation of the EU Commission no. 1881/2006, no. 420/2011 and no. 629/2008. To optimize the protection of the population, it is necessary to continue to monitor the concentration of mercury in fish and fish products. Risk management strategy must focus on reducing potential exposure derived from consumption of fish. In particular, the definition of maximum levels for methylmercury, advising consumers and environmental activities oriented to reduce contamination.

  3. Copper and copper-nickel-alloys - An overview

    Klassert, Anton; Tikana, Ladji [Deutsches Kupferinstitut e.V. Am Bonneshof 5, 40474 Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    With the increasing level of industrialization the demand for and the number of copper alloys rose in an uninterrupted way. Today, the copper alloys take an important position amongst metallic materials due to the large variety of their technological properties and applications. Nowadays there exist over 3.000 standardized alloys. Copper takes the third place of all metals with a worldwide consumption of over 15 millions tons per year, following only to steel and aluminum. In a modern industrial society we meet copper in all ranges of the life (electro-technology, building and construction industry, mechanical engineering, automotive, chemistry, offshore, marine engineering, medical applications and others.). Copper is the first metal customized by humanity. Its name is attributed to the island Cyprus, which supplied in the antiquity copper to Greece, Rome and the other Mediterranean countries. The Romans called it 'ore from Cyprus' (aes cyprium), later cuprum. Copper deposited occasionally also dapper and could be processed in the recent stone age simply by hammering. Already in early historical time copper alloys with 20 to 50 percent tin was used for the production of mirrors because of their high reflecting power. Although the elementary nickel is an element discovered only recently from a historical perspective, its application in alloys - without any knowledge of the alloy composition - occurred at least throughout the last 2.000 years. The oldest copper-nickel coin originates from the time around 235 B.C.. Only around 1800 AD nickel was isolated as a metallic element. In particular in the sea and offshore technology copper nickel alloys found a broad field of applications in piping systems and for valves and armatures. The excellent combination of characteristics like corrosion resistance, erosion stability and bio-fouling resistance with excellent mechanical strength are at the basis of this success. An experience of many decades supports the use

  4. Nickel, copper and cobalt coalescence in copper cliff converter slag

    Wolf A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to assess the effect of various additives on coalescence of nickel, copper and cobalt from slags generated during nickel extraction. The analyzed fluxes were silica and lime while examined reductants were pig iron, ferrosilicon and copper-silicon compound. Slag was settled at the different holding temperatures for various times in conditions that simulated the industrial environment. The newly formed matte and slag were characterized by their chemical composition and morphology. Silica flux generated higher partition coefficients for nickel and copper than the addition of lime. Additives used as reducing agents had higher valuable metal recovery rates and corresponding partition coefficients than fluxes. Microstructural studies showed that slag formed after adding reductants consisted of primarily fayalite, with some minute traces of magnetite as the secondary phase. Addition of 5 wt% of pig iron, ferrosilicon and copper-silicon alloys favored the formation of a metallized matte which increased Cu, Ni and Co recoveries. Addition of copper-silicon alloys with low silicon content was efficient in copper recovery but coalescence of the other metals was low. Slag treated with the ferrosilicon facilitated the highest cobalt recovery while copper-silicon alloys with silicon content above 10 wt% resulted in high coalescence of nickel and copper, 87 % and 72 % respectively.

  5. Copper and copper-nickel alloys as zebra mussel antifoulants

    Dormon, J.M.; Cottrell, C.M.; Allen, D.G.; Ackerman, J.D.; Spelt, J.K. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-04-01

    Copper has been used in the marine environment for decades as cladding on ships and pipes to prevent biofouling by marine mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). This motivated the present investigation into the possibility of using copper to prevent biofouling in freshwater by both zebra mussels and quagga mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis collectively referred to as zebra mussels). Copper and copper alloy sheet proved to be highly effective in preventing biofouling by zebra mussels over a three-year period. Further studies were conducted with copper and copper-nickel mesh (lattice of expanded metal) and screen (woven wire with a smaller hole size), which reduced the amount of copper used. Copper screen was also found to be strongly biofouling-resistant with respect to zebra mussels, while copper mesh reduced zebra mussel biofouling in comparison to controls, but did not prevent it entirely. Preliminary investigations into the mechanism of copper antifouling, using galvanic couples, indicated that the release of copper ions from the surface of the exposed metal into the surrounding water is directly or indirectly responsible for the biofouling resistance of copper.

  6. Carbon formation on nickel and nickel-copper alloy catalysts

    Alstrup, I.; Soerensen, O.; Rostrup-Nielsen, J.R. [Haldor Topsoe Research Labs., Lyngby (Denmark); Tavares, M.T.; Bernardo, C.A.

    1998-05-01

    Equilibrium, kinetic and morphological studies of carbon formation in CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2}, CO, and CO + H{sub 2} gases on silica supported nickel and nickel-copper catalysts are reviewed. The equilibrium deviates in all cases from graphite equilibrium and more so in CO + CO{sub 2} than in CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2}. A kinetic model based on information from surface science results with chemisorption of CH{sub 4} and possibly also the first dehydrogenation step as rate controlling describes carbon formation on nickel catalyst in CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2} well. The kinetics of carbon formation in CO and CO + H{sub 2} gases are in agreement with CO disproportionation as rate determining step. The presence of hydrogen influences strongly the chemisorption of CO. Carbon filaments are formed when hydrogen is present in the gas while encapsulating carbon dominates in pure CO. Small amounts of Cu alloying promotes while larger amounts (Cu : Ni {>=} 0.1) inhibits carbon formation and changes the morphology of the filaments (``octopus`` carbon formation). Adsorption induced nickel segregation changes the kinetics of the alloy catalysts at high carbon activities. Modifications suggested in some very recent papers on the basis of new results are also briefly discussed. (orig.) 31 refs.

  7. Recovery of aluminium, nickel-copper alloys and salts from spent fluorescent lamps.

    Rabah, Mahmoud A

    2004-01-01

    This study explores a combined pyro-hydrometallurgical method to recover pure aluminium, nickel-copper alloy(s), and some valuable salts from spent fluorescent lamps (SFLs). It also examines the safe recycling of clean glass tubes for the fluorescent lamp industry. Spent lamps were decapped under water containing 35% acetone to achieve safe capture of mercury vapour. Cleaned glass tubes, if broken, were cut using a rotating diamond disc to a standard shorter length. Aluminium and copper-nickel alloys in the separated metallic parts were recovered using suitable flux to decrease metal losses going to slag. Operation variables affecting the quality of the products and the extent of recovery with the suggested method were investigated. Results revealed that total loss in the glass tube recycling operation was 2% of the SFLs. Pure aluminium meeting standard specification DIN 1712 was recovered by melting at 800 degrees C under sodium chloride/carbon flux for 20 min. Standard nickel-copper alloys with less than 0.1% tin were prepared by melting at 1250 degrees C using a sodium borate/carbon flux. De-tinning of the molten nickel-copper alloy was carried out using oxygen gas. Tin in the slag as oxide was recovered by reduction using carbon or hydrogen gas at 650-700 degrees C. Different valuable chloride salts were also obtained in good quality. Further research is recommended on the thermodynamics of nickel-copper recovery, yttrium and europium recovery, and process economics.

  8. Recovery of aluminium, nickel-copper alloys and salts from spent fluorescent lamps

    Rabah, Mahmoud A.

    2004-01-01

    This study explores a combined pyro-hydrometallurgical method to recover pure aluminium, nickel-copper alloy(s), and some valuable salts from spent fluorescent lamps (SFLs). It also examines the safe recycling of clean glass tubes for the fluorescent lamp industry. Spent lamps were decapped under water containing 35% acetone to achieve safe capture of mercury vapour. Cleaned glass tubes, if broken, were cut using a rotating diamond disc to a standard shorter length. Aluminium and copper-nickel alloys in the separated metallic parts were recovered using suitable flux to decrease metal losses going to slag. Operation variables affecting the quality of the products and the extent of recovery with the suggested method were investigated. Results revealed that total loss in the glass tube recycling operation was 2% of the SFLs. Pure aluminium meeting standard specification DIN 1712 was recovered by melting at 800 deg. C under sodium chloride/carbon flux for 20 min. Standard nickel-copper alloys with less than 0.1% tin were prepared by melting at 1250 deg. C using a sodium borate/carbon flux. De-tinning of the molten nickel-copper alloy was carried out using oxygen gas. Tin in the slag as oxide was recovered by reduction using carbon or hydrogen gas at 650-700 deg. C. Different valuable chloride salts were also obtained in good quality. Further research is recommended on the thermodynamics of nickel-copper recovery, yttrium and europium recovery, and process economics

  9. Comparison of inorganic inhibitors of copper, nickel and copper-nickels in aqueous lithium bromide solution

    Munoz, A. Igual; Anton, J. Garcia; Guin-tilde on, J.L.; Herranz, V. Perez

    2004-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of copper, nickel and two copper-nickel (Cu90/Ni10 and Cu70/Ni30) alloys in 850 g/L LiBr solution in the absence and presence of three different inorganic inhibitors (chromate CrO 4 2- , molybdate MoO 4 2- , and tetraborate B 4 O 7 2- ) has been studied. Differences in inhibition efficiency are discussed in terms of potentiodynamic and cyclic measurements. The best protection is obtained by adding chromate to the 850 g/L LiBr solution while the inhibition efficiencies of molybdate and tetraborate ions were not markedly high. Very aggressive anions, such as bromides, in the present experimental conditions, notably reduce the action of the less efficient molecules (molybdate and tetraborate), but not that of the most efficient ones (chromate). The results of the investigation show that the inhibiting properties depend on the nickel content in the alloy; this element improves the general corrosion resistance of the material in the sense that it shifts free corrosion potential towards more noble values and density corrosion currents towards lower levels. The nickel content in the alloy also enlarges the passivating region of the materials in chromate and molybdate-containing solution; furthermore it decreases the current passivating values to lower values. Nickel addition improves the localized corrosion resistance in the bromide media

  10. Investigation of interdiffusion in copper-nickel bilayer thin films

    Abdul-Lettif, Ahmed M. [Physics Department, College of Science, Babylon University, Hilla (Iraq)]. E-mail: abdullettif@yahoo.com

    2007-01-15

    Auger depth profiling technique and X-ray diffraction analysis have been employed to study the interdiffusion in vacuum-deposited copper-nickel bilayer thin films. An adaptation of the Whipple model was used to determine the diffusion coefficients of both nickel in copper and copper in nickel. The calculated diffusion coefficient is (2.0x10{sup -7} cm{sup 2}/s)exp(-1.0 eV/kT) for nickel in copper, and (6x10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}/s)exp(-0.98 eV/kT) for copper in nickel. The difference between the diffusion parameters obtained in the present work and those extracted by other investigators is attributed essentially to the difference in the films microstructure and to the annealing ambient. It is concluded that interdiffusion in the investigated films is described by type-B kinetics in which rapid grain-boundary diffusion is coupled to defect-enhanced diffusion into the grain interior. The present data raise a question about the effectiveness of nickel as a diffusion barrier between copper and the silicon substrate.

  11. Copper and nickel alloys and titanium for seawater applications

    Richter, H.

    1977-01-01

    Copper and nickel alloys and titanium have been successfully used for heat exchangers on ships, in power plants and for chemical apparatus and piping systems because of their resistance against corrosion in sea water. Aluminium brass and copper nickel alloys, the standard materials for condensers and coolers, however, may be attacked, the corrosion depending on water quality, water velocity, and structural conditions. The mechanisms of corrosion are discussed. Under severe conditions the use of titanium may be indicated. The use of nickel base alloys is advantageous at elevated temperatures, e.g. for chemical reactions and for evaporation processes. Examples are given for application and for prevention of corrosion. (orig.) [de

  12. Syntheses and spectroscopic properties of mercury(II) and nickel(II ...

    Mercury(II) complex, [Hg2(BPTU-2H)Cl2] and nickel(II) complex, [Ni(BPTU-H)2] were prepared by reacting Bis(N-phenylthiourea), BPTU, with mercury(II) chloride and nickel(II) acetate respectively. The complexes were characterized by IR, diffuse reflectance, 1H NMR spectra and elemental analysis. BPTU acts as ...

  13. Comparative effects of cobalt, nickel and copper on plant growth

    Brenchley, W E

    1938-11-01

    An account is given of the present position of our knowledge with regard to the distribution and the physiological importance of nickel and cobalt, in relation to plants and animals. Experiments on barley and broad beans were carried out in water cultures with the sulfates and chlorides of cobalt, nickel and copper. In every case a range of low concentrations did little or no damage, but toxic action occurred abruptly above a concentration which varied with the species and with the compound. With barley, copper was the most poisonous element in either compound, but the differences were not striking. Low concentrations of the sulfate were innocuous, but parallel low strengths of the chloride caused a slight, significant depression in growth. With broad beans, cobalt was much more poisonous than either nickel or copper, particularly with the sulfate. No slight depression with low concentrations of the chloride was noticeable with this species. The morphological response to toxicity varied with the element concerned. Copper, in poisonous strengths, caused shortening and bunching of barley roots, whereas nickel and cobalt permitted the growth of elongated roots of a very attenuated nature. The individuality of plant response to poison was frequently shown by the great variation in growth in the borderline concentrations just below those which caused marked depression of growth.

  14. Mineralogy of Tailings Dump around Selebi Phikwe Nickel-Copper ...

    This study aimed at mineralogically characterizing the tailings dump emanating from the mining and smelting of nickel-copper (Ni-Cu) at Selebi Phikwe, Botswana, Southern Africa. Samples of tailings dump around the Selebi Phikwe Ni-Cu plant were studied using petrographic microscopy and X-ray Powder Diffraction ...

  15. Chelation therapy in intoxications with mercury, lead and copper

    Cao, yang; Skaug, Marit Aralt; Andersen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    In the present review we provide an update of the appropriate use of chelating agents in the treatment of intoxications with compounds of mercury, lead and copper. The relatively new chelators meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and 2,3-dimercapto-propanesulphonate (DMPS) can effectively...... mobilize deposits of mercury as well as of lead into the urine. These drugs can be administered orally and have relatively low toxicity compared to the classical antidote dimercaptopropanol (BAL). d-Penicillamine has been widely used in copper overload, although 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid...

  16. Melt refining of uranium contaminated copper, nickel, and mild steel

    Ren Xinwen; Liu Wencang; Zhang Yuan

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the experiment results on melt refining of uranium contaminated metallic discards such as copper, nickel, and mild steel. Based on recommended processes, uranium contents in ingots shall decrease below 1 ppm; metal recovery is higher than 96%; and slag production is below 5% in weight of the metal to be refined. The uranium in the slag is homogeneously distributed. The slag seems to be hard ceramics, insoluble in water, and can be directly disposed of after proper packaging

  17. Syntheses and spectroscopic properties of mercury(II) and nickel(II ...

    Syntheses and spectroscopic properties of mercury(II) and nickel(II) ... The complexes were characterized by IR, diffuse reflectance, 1H NMR spectra and elemental ... coordinating through thiolato sulphur and hydrazinic nitrogen atoms.

  18. Effects of copper, organic mercury and a mixture of the two on glycerol lysis of erythrocytes.

    宮地,芳之

    1987-01-01

    The effects of copper, organic mercury and a mixture of the two on glycerol lysis of erythrocytes were examined. Copper ion and organic mercury (EMP; ethylmercury phosphate, and PCMB; sodium p-chloromercuricbenzoate) inhibited glycerol lysis of erythrocytes. The inhibitory effects was dependent on the incubation period. An equimolor solution of copper ion and EMP showed between copper ion and EMP. Similar results were obtained with copper and PCMB.

  19. Copper, Aluminum and Nickel: A New Monocrystalline Orthodontic Alloy

    Wierenga, Mark

    Introduction: This study was designed to evaluate, via tensile and bend testing, the mechanical properties of a newly-developed monocrystalline orthodontic archwire comprised of a blend of copper, aluminum, and nickel (CuAlNi). Methods: The sample was comprised of three shape memory alloys; CuAlNi, copper nickel titanium (CuNiTi), and nickel titanium (NiTi); from various orthodontic manufacturers in both 0.018" round and 0.019" x 0.025" rectangular dimensions. Additional data was gathered for similarly sized stainless steel and beta-titanium archwires as a point of reference for drawing conclusions about the relative properties of the archwires. Measurements of loading and unloading forces were recorded in both tension and deflection testing. Repeated-measure ANOVA (alpha= 0.05) was used to compare loading and unloading forces across wires and one-way ANOVA (alpha= 0.05) was used to compare elastic moduli and hysteresis. To identify significant differences, Tukey post-hoc comparisons were performed. Results: The modulus of elasticity, deflection forces, and hysteresis profiles of CuAlNi were significantly different than the other superelastic wires tested. In all tests, CuAlNi had a statistically significant lower modulus of elasticity compared to the CuNiTi and NiTi wires (P orthodontic metallurgy.

  20. Gastrointestinal and in vitro release of copper, cadmium, indium, mercury and zinc from conventional and copper-rich amalgams

    Brune, D.; Gjerdet, N.; Paulsen, G.

    1983-01-01

    Particles of a conventional lathe-cut, a spherical non-gamma 2 and a copper amalgam have been gastrointestinally administered to rats for the purpose of evaluation of the dissolution resistance. The animals were sacrificed after 20 hrs. The contents of copper, cadmium, indium, mercury and zinc in kidney, liver, lung or blood were measured using nuclear tracer techniques. From a copper amalgam an extreme release of copper was demonstrated. This study simulates the clinical conditions of elemental release from swallowed amalgam particles after amalgam insertion or after removal of old amalgam fillings. Specimens of the same types of amalgams were also exposed to artificial saliva for a period of 10 days. The amounts of copper and mercury released were measured with flame and flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry respectively. The levels of copper and mercury released from the copper amalgam were approximately 50 times those of the two other amalgam types studied. (author)

  1. Solution-processed copper-nickel nanowire anodes for organic solar cells

    Stewart, Ian E.; Rathmell, Aaron R.; Yan, Liang; Ye, Shengrong; Flowers, Patrick F.; You, Wei; Wiley, Benjamin J.

    2014-05-01

    This work describes a process to make anodes for organic solar cells from copper-nickel nanowires with solution-phase processing. Copper nanowire films were coated from solution onto glass and made conductive by dipping them in acetic acid. Acetic acid removes the passivating oxide from the surface of copper nanowires, thereby reducing the contact resistance between nanowires to nearly the same extent as hydrogen annealing. Films of copper nanowires were made as oxidation resistant as silver nanowires under dry and humid conditions by dipping them in an electroless nickel plating solution. Organic solar cells utilizing these completely solution-processed copper-nickel nanowire films exhibited efficiencies of 4.9%.This work describes a process to make anodes for organic solar cells from copper-nickel nanowires with solution-phase processing. Copper nanowire films were coated from solution onto glass and made conductive by dipping them in acetic acid. Acetic acid removes the passivating oxide from the surface of copper nanowires, thereby reducing the contact resistance between nanowires to nearly the same extent as hydrogen annealing. Films of copper nanowires were made as oxidation resistant as silver nanowires under dry and humid conditions by dipping them in an electroless nickel plating solution. Organic solar cells utilizing these completely solution-processed copper-nickel nanowire films exhibited efficiencies of 4.9%. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01024h

  2. Chitosan doped with nanoparticles of copper, nickel and cobalt.

    Cárdenas-Triviño, Galo; Elgueta, Carolina; Vergara, Luis; Ojeda, Javier; Valenzuela, Ariel; Cruzat, Christian

    2017-11-01

    Metal colloids in 2 propanol using nanoparticles (NPs) of copper, nickel and cobalt were prepared by Chemical Liquid Deposition (CLD) method. The resulting colloidal dispersions were characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The colloids were supported in chitosan. Then, microbiological assays were performed using E. coli and S. aureus in order to determine the bactericide/bacteriostatic activity of nanoparticles (NPs) trapped or chelated with chitosan. Finally, the toxicity of the metal colloids Cu, Ni and Co was tested. Bio-assays were conducted in three different animal species. First of all on earth warms (Eisenia foetida) to evaluate the toxicity and the biocompatibility of chitosan in lactic acid (1% and 0.5%). Secondly bio-assay done in fishes (rainbow trout), the liver toxicity of NPs in vivo was evaluated. Finally, a bio-assay was conducted in Sprange-Dawley rats of 100g weight, which were injected intraperitoneally with different solutions of chitosan metal colloids. Then, the minimum and maximum concentration were determined for copper, nickel and cobalt. The purpose of the use of chitosan was acting as a carrier for some magnetic NPs, which toxicity would allow to obtain new polymeric materials with potential applications as magnet future drugs carrier. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Defect structure in proton-irradiated copper and nickel

    Tsukuda, Noboru; Ehrhart, P.; Jaeger, W.; Schilling, W.; Dworschak, F.; Gadalla, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    This single crystals of copper or nickel with a thickness of about 10 μm are irradiated with 3 MeV protons at room temperature and the structures of resultant defects are investigated based on measurements of the effects of irradiation on the electrical resistivity, length, lattice constants, x-ray diffraction line profile and electron microscopic observations. The measurements show that the electrical resistivity increases with irradiation dose, while leveling off at high dose due to overlapping of irradiation cascades. The lattice constants decreases, indicating that many vacancies still remain while most of the interstitial stoms are eliminated, absorbed or consumed for dislocation loop formation. The x-ray line profile undergoes broadening, which is the result of dislocation loops, dislocation networks and SFT's introduced by the proton irradiation. Various defects have different effects though they cannot be identified separately from the profile alone. A satellite peak appears at a low angle, which seems to arise from periodic defect structures that are found in electron microscopic observations. In both copper and nickel, such periodic defect structures are seen over a wide range from high to low dose. Defect-free and defect-rich domains (defect walls), 0.5 to several μm in size, are alingned parallel to the {001} plane at intervals of 60 nm. The defect walls, which consist of dislocations, dislocation loops and SFT's, is 20 - 40 nm thick. (Nogami, K.)

  4. Elimination of copper and nickel from wastewater by electrooxidation method

    Kazeminezhad, Iraj, E-mail: I.Kazeminezhad@scu.ac.ir [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mosivand, Saba [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Lorestan University, Khorram-Abad, Lorestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Electrooxidation method was used to remove copper and nickel from water by iron sacrificial sheets in an electrolytic cell. The effect of various voltages, electrooxidation time, and the initial pH of water has been studied on removal efficiency. The concentration of heavy metals before and after treatment was determined by an AAS instrument. The sludge obtained after treatment has been characterized using XRD, FESEM, and VSM. Our results show that the operational parameters play an important role on removal process. AAS results confirmed that the concentration of heavy metal pollutants in the water effectively decreases by increasing the applied voltage, electrochemical reaction time, or the initial pH of water. Based on these results it is possible to highly decrease the concentration of Ni or Cu from water at pH ∼4.5 by applying ∼28 V for 60 min. The FESEM images showed the nano-size of synthesized particles during water treatment. The element maps confirmed the presence of iron, oxygen, and heavy metal pollutants in precipitate after water treatment. The XRD patterns of powder sample obtained after removal of Ni or Cu show the reflections of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and some small peaks which are correspond to different compound of metal pollutants. VSM results showed that the sludge samples are magnetically soft and their specific magnetization depends on removal conditions. The magnetic property of the sludge samples helps to separate them easily from water using magnetic field. - Highlights: • Electrooxidation method was used to remove copper and nickel from water. • By applying a potential between two electrodes the nanosorbents are generated in situ. • The operational parameters play an important role on removal process. • The concentration of metal in water decreases by increasing voltage, time, or pH of water. • The magnetic property of the sludge helps the magnetic separation.

  5. Evaluation of copper, aluminum bronze, and copper-nickel container material for the Yucca mountain project

    Kass, J.

    1990-01-01

    Copper, 70 percent aluminum bronze, and 70/30 copper-nickel were evaluated as potential waste-packaging materials as part of the Yucca Mountain Project. The proposed waste repository site is under a desert mountain in southern Nevada. The expected temperatures at the container surface are higher than at other sites, about 250C at the beginning of the containment period; they could fall below the boiling point of water during this period, but will be exposed to very little water, probably less than 5 l/a. Initial gamma flux will be 10 4 rad/h, and no significant hydrostatic or lithostatic pressure is expected. Packages will contain PWR or BWR fuel, or processed-glass waste. Three copper alloys are being considered for containers: oxygen-free copper (CDA 102); 7 percent aluminum bronze (CDA 613); and 70/30 copper-nickel (CDA 715). Phase separation due to prolonged thermal exposure could be a problem for the two alloys, causing embrittlement. The reduction of internal oxides present in pure copper by hydrogen could cause mechanical degradation. Corrosion and oxidation rates measured for the three materials in well water with and without gamma irradiation at flux rates about ten times higher than those expected were all quite small. The corrosion/oxidation rates for CDA715 show a marked increase under irradiation, but are still acceptable. In the presence of ammonia and other nitrogen-bearing species stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is a concern. Welded U-bend specimens of all three materials have been tested for up to 10000 h in highly irradiated environments, showing no SCC. There was some alloy segregation in the Al bronze specimens. The investigators believe that corrosion and mechanical properties will not present problems for these materials at this site. Further work is needed in the areas of weld inspection, welding techniques, embrittlement of weld metal, the effects of dropping the containers during emplacement, and stress corrosion cracking. Other materials

  6. Evaluation of copper, aluminum bronze, and copper-nickel for YMP [Yucca Mountain Project] container material

    Kass, J.N.

    1989-05-01

    In this presentation, I will discuss our evaluation of the materials copper, 7% aluminum bronze, and 70/30 copper-nickel. These are three of the six materials currently under consideration as potential waste-packaging materials. I should mention that we are also considering alternatives to these six materials. This work is part of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), formerly known as the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. The expected-case environment in our proposed vault is quite different from that encountered at the WIPP site or that expected in a Canadian vault. Our proposed site is under a desert mountain, Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada. The repository itself will be located approximately 700 feet above the water table and 300 to 1200 feet below the surface of the mountain. The variations in these numbers are due to the variations in mountain topography

  7. Adsorption studies of water on copper, nickel, and iron: assessment of the polarization model

    Lee, S.; Staehle, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    In the atmospheric corrosion of copper, nickel, and iron, the adsorption of water affects the corrosion rates. Knowledge of water adsorption and metal oxyhydroxide formation is important in understanding the atmospheric corrosion process. The purposes of the present research were (i) to measure the adsorption of water on metal surfaces as a function of temperature and relative humidity (RH) and (ii) to assess Bradley's polarization model of adsorption. In the present research, the quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) technique was used to measure the mass changes of copper, nickel, and iron at 0 to 100% relative humidity and 7 to 90 C under nitrogen and air environments. Less water was adsorbed on copper, nickel, and iron which form oxides than on gold. The amount of water adsorption was similar on copper, nickel, and iron under N 2 and air carrier gases. Functional relationship was first proposed as a way to include dipole/induced dipole interactions between the adsorbents and water layers. (orig.)

  8. The determination of sulphur in copper, nickel and aluminium alloys by proton activation analysis

    Vandecasteele, C.; Dewaele, J.; Esprit, M.; Goethals, P.

    1981-01-01

    The 34 S(p,n) 34 sup(m)Cl reaction, induced by 13 MeV protons is used for the determination of sulphur in copper, nickel and aluminium alloys. The 34 sup(m)Cl is separated by repeated precipitation as silver chloride. The results obtained were resp. 3.08 +- 0.47, 1.47 +- 0.17 and -1 for copper, nickel and aluminium alloys. (orig.)

  9. Bioleaching of a low-grade nickel-copper sulfide by mixture of four thermophiles.

    Li, Shuzhen; Zhong, Hui; Hu, Yuehua; Zhao, Jiancun; He, Zhiguo; Gu, Guohua

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated thermophilic bioleaching of a low grade nickel-copper sulfide using mixture of four acidophilic thermophiles. Effects of 0.2g/L l-cysteine on the bioleaching process were further evaluated. It aimed at offering new alternatives for enhancing metal recoveries from nickel-copper sulfide. Results showed a recovery of 80.4% nickel and 68.2% copper in 16-day bioleaching without l-cysteine; while 83.7% nickel and 81.4% copper were recovered in the presence of l-cysteine. Moreover, nickel recovery was always higher than copper recovery. l-Cysteine was found contributing to lower pH value, faster microbial growth, higher Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP), higher zeta potential and absorbing on the sulfide surfaces through amino, carboxyl and sulfhydryl groups. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns of leached residues showed generation of S, jarosite and ammoniojarosite. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) results revealed that l-cysteine could have variant impacts on different microorganisms and changed the microbial community composition dramatically during nickel-copper sulfide bioleaching. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of air quality for arsenic, cadmium, mercury and nickel in the Netherlands

    Buijsman E; LLO

    The presence of arsenic, cadmium, mercury and nickel in air in the Netherlands has been investigated. Using measurement data, a limited supplemental monitoring effort and the results of modelling calculations, it has been possible to obtain a realistic picture of air quality in the Netherlands with

  11. Comparison of galvanic corrosion potential of metal injection molded brackets to that of conventional metal brackets with nickel-titanium and copper nickel-titanium archwire combinations.

    Varma, D Praveen Kumar; Chidambaram, S; Reddy, K Baburam; Vijay, M; Ravindranath, D; Prasad, M Rajendra

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the galvanic corrosion potential of metal injection molding (MIM) brackets to that of conventional brackets under similar in vitro conditions with nickel-titanium and copper nickel-titanium archwires. Twenty-five maxillary premolar MIM stainless steel brackets and 25 conventional stainless steel brackets and archwires, 0.16 inch, each 10 mm length, 25 nickeltitanium wires, 25 copper nickel-titanium wires were used. They were divided into four groups which had five samples each. Combination of MIM bracket with copper nickel-titanium wire, MIM bracket with nickel-titanium wire and conventional stainless steel brackets with copper nickel-titanium wire and conventional stainless steel brackets with nickel-titanium wires which later were suspended in 350 ml of 1 M lactic acid solution media. Galvanic corrosion potential of four groups were analyzed under similar in vitro conditions. Precorrosion and postcorrosion elemental composition of MIM and conventional stainless steel bracket by scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS) was done. MIM bracket showed decreased corrosion susceptibility than conventional bracket with copper nickeltitanium wire. Both MIM and conventional bracket showed similar corrosion resistance potential in association with nickel-titanium archwires. It seems that both brackets are more compatible with copper nickel-titanium archwires regarding the decrease in the consequences of galvanic reaction. The EDS analysis showed that the MIM brackets with copper nickel-titanium wires released less metal ions than conventional bracket with copper nickeltitanium wires. MIM brackets showed decreased corrosion susceptibility, copper nickel-titanium archwires are compatible with both the brackets than nickel-titanium archwires. Clinically MIM and conventional brackets behaved more or less similarly in terms of corrosion resistance. In order to decrease the corrosion potential of MIM

  12. Long-Term Effects of Soldering By-Products on Nickel-Coated Copper Wire

    Rolin, T. D.; Hodge, R. E.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of thirty-year-old, down graded flight cables was conducted to determine the makeup of a green material on the surface of the shielded wire near soldered areas and to ascertain if the green material had corroded the nickel-coated copper wire. Two likely candidates were possible due to the handling and environments to which these cables were exposed. The flux used to solder the cables is known to contain abietic acid, a carboxylic acid found in many pine rosins used for the soldering process. The resulting material copper abietate is green in color and is formed during the application of heat during soldering operations. Copper (II) chloride, which is also green in color is known to contaminate flight parts and is corrosive. Data is presented that shows the material is copper abietate, not copper (II) chloride, and more importantly that the abietate does not aggressively attack nickel-plated copper wire.

  13. Copper removal and nickel for exchange cationic with a natural zeolite

    Estupinan, Arnoldy; Sarmiento, Diego; Belalcazar de Galvis, Ana Maria

    1998-01-01

    Natural zeolite clinoptilolite, was used to remove copper and nickel from waste waters of a galvanotechnical company. Exchange capacity determined for the zeolite after its transformation to homoionic sodium form, was 0.794 meq/g for copper and 0.447 meq/g for nickel. There were made batch and column experiments, reaching the last one a better approach to the equilibrium. From the degeneration essays, the sodical zeolite concentrates the copper in the waste waters to 23.5 up times the level found for the acid rinsing waters; it shows its potential use in treatment of these waste, because its effectiveness and low cost

  14. Chemistry of nickel and copper production from sulphide ores | Love ...

    Nickel is one of Zimbabwe's principle metallurgical exports. It is processed to a very high level of purity and hence has a high value. The economics of nickel production can be difficult, as the selling value of nickel varies tremendously with time, from a low of US$ 3 900 per ton in late 1998 to US$ 10 100 per ton in May 2000, ...

  15. Geochemical prospecting for copper and nickel in the Wulgai and Tor Tangi areas southeast of Hindubagh, Quetta Division, Pakistan

    Stanin, S. Anthony; Wahid, M.A.; Khan, Shamsher

    1975-01-01

    Showings of magnetite, copper, and possible nickel mineralization in the Hindubagh chromite mining district are near Wulgai and Tor Tangi. Several hundred samples of clastic material from dry streambeds in these areas were sieved for the minus-80-mesh fraction and analyzed for copper using 2, 2'-biquinoline and for nickel using alpha-furildioxime. The copper threshold is 75 ppm, and the nickel threshold is 400 ppm. A geochemical map has been prepared that shows nine areas of anomalously high copper and six areas of high nickel. The nickel anomalies may represent secondary dispersion patterns derived from the erosion of nickeliferous ultramafic rocks of the Hindubagh intrusive complex. Copper showings in and near four of the anomalous copper areas indicate that detailed geological investigation and detailed geochemical sampling of rocks, soil, and unconsolidated clastic material are required to determine the source of the anomalies.

  16. High emittance black nickel coating on copper substrate for space applications

    Somasundaram, Soniya, E-mail: jrf0013@isac.gov.in; Pillai, Anju M., E-mail: anjum@isac.gov.in; Rajendra, A., E-mail: rajendra@isac.gov.in; Sharma, A.K., E-mail: aks@isac.gov.in

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • High emittance black nickel coating is obtained on copper substrate. • The effect of various process parameters on IR emittance is studied systematically. • Process parameters are optimized to develop a high emittance black nickel coating. • Coating obtained using the finalized parameters exhibited an emittance of 0.83. • SEM and EDAX are used for coating characterization. - Abstract: Black nickel, an alloy coating of zinc and nickel, is obtained on copper substrate by pulse electrodeposition from a modified Fishlock bath containing nickel sulphate, nickel ammonium sulphate, zinc sulphate and ammonium thiocyanate. A nickel undercoat of 4–5 μm thickness is obtained using Watts bath to increase the corrosion resistance and adhesion of the black nickel coating. The effect of bath composition, temperature, solution pH, current density and plating time on the coating appearance and corresponding infra-red emittance of the coating is investigated systematically. Process parameters are optimized to develop a high emittance space worthy black nickel coating to improve the heat radiation characteristics. The effect of the chemistry of the plating bath on the coating composition was studied using energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) of the coatings. The 5–6 μm thick uniform jet black zinc–nickel alloy coating obtained with optimized process exhibited an emittance of 0.83 and an absorbance of 0.92. The zinc to nickel ratio of black nickel coatings showing high emittance and appealing appearance was found to be in the range 2.3–2.4.

  17. Combined action of radiation, salts of copper and nickel on cell viability in vitro

    D. D. Gapeenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental study of the combined action of heavy metals and ionizing radiation on the viability of cells in culture was made. We established a significant toxic effect of copper and nickel in the proliferative and mitotic activity of cells in vitro. Under the combined effects of radiation and copper ions on cells we observed the mor-phological changes in morphologically-functional properties of cells that were determined by or radiation dose or by concentration of copper ions. While incubation of irradiated cells with nickel ions we observed sensitiza-tion of cells by nickel ions under the irradiation dose of 0.5 and 5.0 Gy, and the resistance of cells to exposure to sublethal dose of 10.0 Gy.

  18. Inhibition in fertilisation of coral gametes following exposure to nickel and copper.

    Gissi, Francesca; Stauber, Jenny; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda; Harrison, Peter L; Jolley, Dianne F

    2017-11-01

    The mining and production of nickel in tropical regions have the potential to impact on ecologically valuable tropical marine ecosystems. Currently, few data exist to assess the risks of nickel exposure to tropical ecosystems and to derive ecologically relevant water quality guidelines. In particular, data are lacking for keystone species such as scleractinian corals, which create the complex structural reef habitats that support many other marine species. As part of a larger study developing risk assessment tools for nickel in the tropical Asia-Pacific region, we investigated the toxicity of nickel on fertilisation success in three species of scleractinian corals: Acropora aspera, Acropora digitifera and Platygyra daedalea. In the literature, more data are available on the effects of copper on coral fertilisation, so to allow for comparisons with past studies, the toxicity of copper to A. aspera and P. daedalea was also determined. Overall, copper was more toxic than nickel to the fertilisation success of the species tested. Acropora aspera was the most sensitive species to nickel (NOEC 4610µg Ni/L). Acropora aspera was also the more sensitive species to copper with an EC10 of 5.8µg Cu/L. The EC10 for P. daedalea was 16µg Cu/L, similar to previous studies. This is the first time that the toxicity of nickel on fertilisation success in Acropora species has been reported, and thus provides valuable data that can contribute to the development of reliable water quality guidelines for nickel in tropical marine waters. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Effect of zinc, copper and mercury on Channa marulius (Hamilton)

    Khangarot, B.S.

    1981-01-01

    Static bioassay acute toxicity tests of zinc, copper and mercury were conducted to determine the median lethal concentrations (LC/sub 50/S) of a freshwater telcost Channa marulius (HAM.) The 96 h LC/sub 50/ for Zn/sup 2 +/ were 25.61 mg/l; 0.90 mg/l for Cu/sup 2 +/ and 0.314 mg/l for Hg/sup 2 +/. However, these values decreased at 240 h of exposure and were: 21.09 mg Zn/sup 2 +//l; 0.66 mg Cu/sup 2 +//l; and 0.31 mg Hg/sup 2 +//l. The relative potency ratio of Zn/Hg, Zn/Cu and Cu/Hg suggests that fish were most sensitive to Hg, followed by Cu and Zn ions. The acute toxicities of mixtures of Zn/sup 2 +/-Cu/sup 2 +/; Zn/sup 2 +/-Hg/sup 2 +/; Cu/sup 2 +/-Hg/sup 2 +/ and Zu/sup 2 +/-Cu/sup 2 +/-Hg/sup 2 +/ up to 48 h of exposure were also investigated. The additive index and ranges for Zn/sup 2 +/-Cu/sup 2 +/ were -0.241 for Zn-Hg; 0.285 for Cu-Hg; and -0.542 for Zn-Cu-Hg. All the mixtures tested showed a greater than additive toxicity because index ranges overlapped zero.

  20. Generation of copper, nickel, and CuNi alloy nanoparticles by spark discharge

    Muntean, Alex; Wagner, Moritz; Meyer, Jörg; Seipenbusch, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The generation of copper, nickel, and copper-nickel alloy nanoparticles by spark discharge was studied, using different bespoke alloy feedstocks. Roughly spherical particles with a primary particle Feret diameter of 2–10 nm were produced and collected in agglomerate form. The copper-to-nickel ratios determined by Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and therefore averaged over a large number of particles, matched the nominal copper content quite well. Further investigations showed that the electrode compositions influenced the evaporation rate and the primary particle size. The evaporation rate decreased with increasing copper content, which was found to be in good accordance with the Llewellyn-Jones model. However, the particle diameter was increasing with an increasing copper content, caused by a decrease in melting temperature due to the lower melting point of copper. Furthermore, the alloy compositions on the nanoscale were investigated via EDX. The nanoparticles exhibited almost the same composition as the used alloy feedstock, with a deviation of less than 7 percentage points. Therefore, no segregation could be detected, indicating the presence of a true alloy even on the nanoscale.

  1. Development of technique for air coating and nickel and copper metalization of solar cells

    1982-01-01

    Solar cells were made with a variety of base metal screen printing inks applied over silicon nitride AR coating and copper electroplated. Fritted and fritless nickel and fritless tin base printing inks were evaluated. Conversion efficiencies as high as 9% were observed with fritted nickel ink contacts, however, curve shapes were generally poor, reflecting high series resistance. Problems encountered in addition to high series reistance included loss of adhesion of the nickel contacts during plating and poor adhesion, oxidation and inferior curve shapes with the tin base contacts.

  2. Evaluation of nickel and copper catalysts in biogas reforming for hydrogen production in SOFC

    Silva, Leonardo Alves; Martins, Andre Rosa; Rangel, Maria do Carmo, E-mail: mcarmov@ufba.br [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos em Cinetica e Catalise; Ballarini, Adriana; Maina, Silvia [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catalisis Y Petroquimica Ing. Jose Miguel Parera (INCAPE), Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2017-01-15

    The solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) enable the efficient generation of clean energy, fitting the current requirements of the growing demand for electricity and for the environment preservation. When powered with biogas (from digesters of municipal wastes), the SOFCs also contribute to reduce the environmental impact of these wastes. The most suitable route to produce hydrogen inside SOFC from biogas is through dry reforming but the catalyst is easily deactivated by coke, because of the high amounts of carbon in the stream. A promising way to overcome this drawback is by adding a second metal to nickel-based catalysts. Aiming to obtain active, selective and stable catalysts for biogas dry reforming, solids based on nickel (15%) and copper (5%) supported on aluminum and magnesium oxide were studied in this work. Samples were prepared by impregnating the support with nickel and copper nitrate, followed by calcination at 500, 600 and 800 deg C. It was noted that all solids were made of nickel oxide, nickel aluminate and magnesium aluminate but no copper compound was found. The specific surface areas did not changed with calcination temperature but the nickel oxide average particles size increased. The solids reducibility decreased with increasing temperature. All catalysts were active in methane dry reforming, leading to similar conversions but different selectivities to hydrogen and different activities in water gas shift reaction (WGSR). This behavior was assigned to different interactions between nickel and copper, at different calcination temperatures. All catalysts were active in WGSR, decreasing the hydrogen to carbon monoxide molar ratio and producing water. The catalyst calcined at 500 deg C was the most promising one, leading to the highest hydrogen yield, besides the advantage of being produced at the lowest calcination temperature, requiring less energy in its preparation. (author)

  3. Evaluation of nickel and copper catalysts in biogas reforming for hydrogen production in SOFC

    Silva, Leonardo Alves; Martins, Andre Rosa; Rangel, Maria do Carmo

    2017-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) enable the efficient generation of clean energy, fitting the current requirements of the growing demand for electricity and for the environment preservation. When powered with biogas (from digesters of municipal wastes), the SOFCs also contribute to reduce the environmental impact of these wastes. The most suitable route to produce hydrogen inside SOFC from biogas is through dry reforming but the catalyst is easily deactivated by coke, because of the high amounts of carbon in the stream. A promising way to overcome this drawback is by adding a second metal to nickel-based catalysts. Aiming to obtain active, selective and stable catalysts for biogas dry reforming, solids based on nickel (15%) and copper (5%) supported on aluminum and magnesium oxide were studied in this work. Samples were prepared by impregnating the support with nickel and copper nitrate, followed by calcination at 500, 600 and 800 deg C. It was noted that all solids were made of nickel oxide, nickel aluminate and magnesium aluminate but no copper compound was found. The specific surface areas did not changed with calcination temperature but the nickel oxide average particles size increased. The solids reducibility decreased with increasing temperature. All catalysts were active in methane dry reforming, leading to similar conversions but different selectivities to hydrogen and different activities in water gas shift reaction (WGSR). This behavior was assigned to different interactions between nickel and copper, at different calcination temperatures. All catalysts were active in WGSR, decreasing the hydrogen to carbon monoxide molar ratio and producing water. The catalyst calcined at 500 deg C was the most promising one, leading to the highest hydrogen yield, besides the advantage of being produced at the lowest calcination temperature, requiring less energy in its preparation. (author)

  4. Corrosion and biofouling resistance evaluation of 90-10 copper-nickel

    Powell, Carol [Consultant to Copper Development Association, UK, Square Covert, Caynham, Ludlow, Shropshire (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Copper-nickel alloys for marine use were developed for naval applications in the early part of the 20. century with a view to improving the corrosion resistance of condenser tubes and seawater piping. They still enjoy widespread use today not only for many navies but also in commercial shipping, floating production, storage and off loading vessels (FPSOs), and in multistage flash desalination. The two popular alloys contain 90% or 70% copper and differ in strength and maximum sea water velocity levels they can handle but it is the 90-10 copper-nickel (CuNi10Fe1Mn) which is the more economic and extensively used. An additional benefit of this alloy is its high resistance to biofouling: in recent years this has led to sheathing developments particularly for structures and boat hulls. This paper provides a review of the corrosion and biofouling resistance of 90-10 copper-nickel based on laboratory test data and documented experience of the alloy in marine environments. Particular attention is given to exposure trials over 8 years in Langstone Harbour, UK, which have recently been completed by Portsmouth University on behalf of the Nickel Institute. These examined four sheathing products; plate and foil as well as two composite products with rubber backing. The latter involved copper-nickel granules and slit sheet. The trial results are consistent with the behaviour of the alloy in the overall review. There is an inherent high resistance to marine biofouling when freely exposed. Prolonged exposure to quiet conditions can result in some growth of marine organisms but this is loosely attached and can readily be removed by wiping or a light scraping. The good corrosion resistance of 90-10 copper-nickel in sea water is also confirmed and associated with the formation of a thin, complex, protective and predominantly cuprous oxide surface film, which forms and matures naturally on exposure to seawater. Sound initial oxide film formation is also known to help protect against

  5. Swelling of copper-aluminum and copper-nickel alloys in FFTF-MOTA at approximately 4500C

    Garner, F.A.; Brager, H.R.

    1986-06-01

    Pure copper appears to swell with an S-shaped behavior at 450 0 C, tending to saturate at higher fluence levels. The addition of solutes such as aluminum and nickel at 5 wt % leads to an extended transient regime and thereby a reduction in swelling at low to moderate fast neutron exposures. The addition of these elements also leads to an increase in the saturation level of swelling, however, resulting in an increase in swelling relative to that of pure copper at high fluence

  6. Atomistic simulations of screw dislocation cross slip in copper and nickel

    Vegge, Tejs

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents calculations of screw dislocation cross slip in copper and nickel systems, using the nudged elastic band method and interatomic potentials based on the effective-medium theory. The validity of recent attempts to predict cross slip activation energies by ‘elastic scaling’ between...

  7. Hydrology and water quality of the copper-nickel study region, northeastern Minnesota

    Siegel, Donald I.; Ericson, Donald W.

    1980-01-01

    Data were collected on the hydrology of the Copper-Nickel study region to identify the location and nature of groundwater resources, determine the flow characteristics and general quality of the major streams, and determine the potential effects of mining copper and nickel on the hydrologic stream. Groundwater generally occurs in local flow systems within surficial deposits and in fractures in the upper few hundred feet of bedrock. Yields commonly range from 1 to 5 gallons per minute from wells in surficial materials and bedrock, but can be as much as 1,000 gallons per minute from wells in the sand and gravel aquifer underlying the Embarrass River valley. Groundwater generally is calcium-magnesium bicarbonate types. Over a mineralized zone, groundwater has concentrations of copper and nickel greater than 5 micrograms per liter. The average annual runoff from streams in the study area is about 10 inches. About 60% of the annual runoff occurs during snowmelt in spring. Flood peaks are reduced in streams that have surface storage available in on-channel lakes and wetlands. Specific conductance in streams can exceed 250 micromhos per centimeter at 25 Celsius where mine dewatering supplements natural discharge. Estimated groundwater discharge to projected copper-nickel mines ranges from less than 25 to about 2,000 gallons per minute. The introduction of trace metals from future mining activities to the groundwater system can be reduced if tailings basins and stockpiles are located on material which has low permeability, such as till, peat, or bedrock. (USGS)

  8. Glucose sensing on graphite screen-printed electrode modified by sparking of copper nickel alloys.

    Riman, Daniel; Spyrou, Konstantinos; Karantzalis, Alexandros E; Hrbac, Jan; Prodromidis, Mamas I

    2017-04-01

    Electric spark discharge was employed as a green, fast and extremely facile method to modify disposable graphite screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) with copper, nickel and mixed copper/nickel nanoparticles (NPs) in order to be used as nonenzymatic glucose sensors. Direct SPEs-to-metal (copper, nickel or copper/nickel alloys with 25/75, 50/50 and 75/25wt% compositions) sparking at 1.2kV was conducted in the absence of any solutions under ambient conditions. Morphological characterization of the sparked surfaces was performed by scanning electron microscopy, while the chemical composition of the sparked NPs was evaluated with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The performance of the various sparked SPEs towards the electro oxidation of glucose in alkaline media and the critical role of hydroxyl ions were evaluated with cyclic voltammetry and kinetic studies. Results indicated a mixed charge transfer- and hyroxyl ion transport-limited process. Best performing sensors fabricated by Cu/Ni 50/50wt% alloy showed linear response over the concentration range 2-400μM glucose and they were successfully applied to the amperometric determination of glucose in blood. The detection limit (S/N 3) and the relative standard deviation of the method were 0.6µM and green methods in sensor's development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of interaction mechanisms of copper phthalocyanine and nickel phthalocyanine thin films with chemical vapours

    Ridhi, R.; Singh, Sukhdeep; Saini, G. S. S.; Tripathi, S. K.

    2018-04-01

    The present study deals with comparing interaction mechanisms of copper phthalocyanine and nickel phthalocyanine with versatile chemical vapours: reducing, stable aromatic and oxidizing vapours namely; diethylamine, benzene and bromine. The variation in electrical current of phthalocyanines with exposure of chemical vapours is used as the detection parameter for studying interaction behaviour. Nickel phthalocyanine is found to exhibit anomalous behaviour after exposure of reducing vapour diethylamine due to alteration in its spectroscopic transitions and magnetic states. The observed sensitivities of copper phthalocyanine and nickel phthalcyanine films are different in spite of their similar bond numbers, indicating significant role of central metal atom in interaction mechanism. The variations in electronic transition levels after vapours exposure, studied using UV-Visible spectroscopy confirmed our electrical sensing results. Bromine exposure leads to significant changes in vibrational bands of metal phthalocyanines as compared to other vapours.

  10. Heavy metal pollution among autoworkers. II. Cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese, and nickel

    Clausen, J.; Rastogi, S.C.

    1977-08-01

    Garages and auto-repair workshops may be polluted with other heavy metals besides lead. Blood of autoworkers with high lead content was analyzed for cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel, ALAD activity and carboxyhaemoglobin level. Cadmium and copper levels in blood of autoworkers were comparable with those of the control subjects while chromium and nickel levels were significantly higher (P < 0.01 for both metals), and scattered raised values of manganese were found. There was no significant mutual correlation between levels of various heavy metals determined in whole blood. High copper levels were slightly related to decreasing ALAD activity (P < 0.1). Nineteen percent of autoworkers were found to have an abnormally high blood level of carboxyhemoglobin. The amount of particulate heavy metal in autoworkshop air was not related to biochemical abnormalities found in the autoworkers. Various sources of pollution of these heavy metals in autoworkshops are discussed.

  11. Influence of nickel and beryllium content on swelling behavior of copper irradiated with fast neutrons

    Singh, B.N.; Garner, F.A.; Edwards, D.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Evans, J.H.

    1996-10-01

    In the 1970`s, the effects of nickel content on the evolution of dislocation microstructures and the formation and growth of voids in Cu-Ni alloys were studied using 1 MeV electrons in a high voltage electron microscope. The swelling rate was found to decrease rapidly with increasing nickel content. The decrease in the swelling rate was associated with a decreasing void growth rate with increasing nickel content at irradiation temperatures up to 450{degrees}C. At 500{degrees}C, both void size and swelling rate were found to peak at 1 and 2% Ni, respectively, and then to decrease rapidly with increasing nickel content. However, recent work has demonstrated that the swelling behavior of Cu-5%Ni irradiated with fission neutrons is very similar for that of pure copper. The present experiments were designed to investigate this apparent discrepancy.

  12. Acute toxicity and bio-accumulation of mercury and copper in ...

    The acute toxicity of Mercury and Copper on C. africanus and T. fuscatus and the bio-accumulation potentials of the metals were investigated in laboratory experiments employing standard bio–assay techniques. On the basis of LC50 values, both metals had similar magnitudes of toxicity against C. africanus. However ...

  13. Decarbonylative Silylation of Esters by Combined Nickel and Copper Catalysis for the Synthesis of Arylsilanes and Heteroarylsilanes

    Guo, Lin

    2016-08-25

    An efficient nickel/copper-catalyzed decarbonylative silylation reaction of carboxylic acid esters with silylboranes is described. This reaction provides access to structurally diverse silanes with high efficiency and excellent functional-group tolerance starting from readily available esters.

  14. Decarbonylative Silylation of Esters by Combined Nickel and Copper Catalysis for the Synthesis of Arylsilanes and Heteroarylsilanes

    Guo, Lin; Chatupheeraphat, Adisak; Rueping, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    An efficient nickel/copper-catalyzed decarbonylative silylation reaction of carboxylic acid esters with silylboranes is described. This reaction provides access to structurally diverse silanes with high efficiency and excellent functional-group tolerance starting from readily available esters.

  15. Removal of lead, mercury and nickel using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Cherlys Infante J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. In this study the biomass of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to remove lead, mercury and nickel in the form of ions dissolved in water. Materials and methods. Synthetic solutions were prepared containing the three heavy metals, which were put in contact with viable microorganisms at different conditions of pH, temperature, aeration and agitation. Results. Both individual variables and the interaction effects influenced the biosorption process. Throughout the experimental framework it was observed that the biomass of Saccharomyces cerevisiae removed a higher percentage of lead (86.4% as compared to mercury and nickel (69.7 and 47.8% respectively. When the pH was set at a value of 5 the effect was positive for all three metals. Conclusions. pH was the variable that had a greater influence on the biosorption of lead on the biomass of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The affinity of the heavy metals for the biomass followed the order Pb>Hg>Ni.

  16. Adsorption of copper, nickel and lead ions from synthetic semiconductor industrial wastewater by palm shell activated carbon

    Onundi, Y. B.; Mamun, A. A.; Al Khatib, M. F.; Ahmad, Y. M.

    2010-01-01

    Granular activated carbon produced from palm kernel shell was used as adsorbent to remove copper, nickel and lead ions from a synthesized industrial wastewater. Laboratory experimental investigation was carried out to identify the effect of p H and contact time on adsorption of lead, copper and nickel from the mixed metals solution. Equilibrium adsorption experiments at ambient room temperature were carried out and fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich models. Results showed that p H 5 was the most suitable, while the maximum adsorbent capacity was at a dosage of 1 g/L, recording a sorption capacity of 1.337 mg/g for lead, 1.581 mg/g for copper and 0.130 mg/g for nickel. The percentage metal removal approached equilibrium within 30 minutes for lead, 75 minutes for copper and nickel, with lead recording 100 p ercent , copper 97 p ercent a nd nickel 55 p ercent r emoval, having a trend of Pb 2+ > Cu 2+ > Ni 2+ . Langmuir model had higher R 2 values of 0.977, 0.817 and 0.978 for copper, nickel and lead respectively, which fitted the equilibrium adsorption process more than Freundlich model for the three metals.

  17. Magnetic Properties of Copper Doped Nickel Ferrite Nanoparticles Synthesized by Co Precipitation Method

    Anjana, V.; John, Sara; Prakash, Pooja; Nair, Amritha M.; Nair, Aravind R.; Sambhudevan, Sreedha; Shankar, Balakrishnan

    2018-02-01

    Nickel ferrite nanoparticles with copper atoms as dopant have been prepared using co-precipitation method with general formula Ni1-xCuxFe2O4 (x=0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1) and are sintered at quite ambient temperature. Structural and magnetic properties were examined using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction method (XRD) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) to study the influence of copper doping in nickel ferrite magnetic nanoparticles. X-ray studies proves that the particles are possessing single phase spinel structure with an average particle size calculated using Debye Scherer formula. Magnetic measurements reveal that saturation magnetization value (Ms) decreases while magnetic coercivity (Hc) increases upon doping.

  18. Monoliths of activated carbon from coconut shell and impregnation with nickel and copper

    Giraldo, Liliana; Moreno, Juan

    2008-01-01

    A series of different monoliths of activated carbon were prepared from coconut shell By means of chemical activation with phosphoric acid at different concentrations Without using binders or plastics. The monolith that developed the biggest surface area was impregnated by humidic route with solutions of Ni and Cu at different molar relations. The structures were characterized by N2 adsorption at 77 K, and the morphology was explored by means of scanning electron microscopy. The carbonaceous materials obtained, Nickel-Copper-Monolith, were analyzed by Thermal Programmed Reduction (TPR). The experimental results indicated that the activation with the acid generated a micro porosity, with micropores volume between 0.40 and 0.81 cm 3 g-1 and surface areas between 703 and 1450 m 2 g-1, and a good mechanical properties. It shows that, both the copper and the nickel, are fixed to the monolith and TPR's results are interpreted when these molar relation are modified.

  19. Determination of the gaseous hydrogen ductile-brittle transition in copper-nickel alloys

    Parr, R. A.; Johnston, M. H.; Davis, J. H.; Oh, T. K.

    1985-01-01

    A series of copper-nickel alloys were fabricated, notched tensile specimens machined for each alloy, and the specimens tested in 34.5 MPa hydrogen and in air. A notched tensile ratio was determined for each alloy and the hydrogen environment embrittlement (HEE) determined for the alloys of 47.7 weight percent nickel to 73.5 weight percent nickel. Stacking fault probability and stacking fault energies were determined for each alloy using the x ray diffraction line shift and line profiles technique. Hydrogen environment embrittlement was determined to be influenced by stacking fault energies; however, the correlation is believed to be indirect and only partially responsible for the HEE behavior of these alloys.

  20. Addressing Geographic Variability in the Comparative Toxicity Potential of Copper and Nickel in Soils

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Huijbregts, Mark A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Comparative toxicity potentials (CTP), in life cycle impact assessment also known as characterization factors (CF), of copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) were calculated for a global set of 760 soils. An accessibility factor (ACF) that takes into account the role of the reactive, solid-phase metal pool...... findings stress the importance of dealing with geographic variability in the calculation of CTPs for terrestrial ecotoxicity of metals....

  1. Investigation of possibility of recovery nonferrous metals and producing building materials from copper-nickel smelterslag

    Svetlov A.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pelletized slag of copper-nickel smelter ("Pechenganikel" combine, "Kola MMC" JSC has been investigated as a potential technogenic deposit. It has been shown that nonferrous metals can be re-extracted from slag using flotation. The work presents the results of laboratory simulation of heap leaching of non-ferrous metals. Ceramic building materials from slag-based feed have been produced and their main properties have been studied

  2. Nickel toxicity on seed germination and growth in radish (Raphanus sativus) and its recovery using copper and boron.

    Yadav, Shiv Shankar; Shukla, Rajni; Sharma, Y K

    2009-05-01

    Effect of various concentrations of nickel (100, 200, 500 and 1000 microM) and recovery treatments of boron (50 and 100 microM) and copper (15 and 75 microM) each with 200 microM and 500 microM of nickel on germination, growth, biomass, chlorophyll, carotenoids, pheophytin, amylase, protein, sugar as well as activity of catalase and peroxidase were studied in radish (Raphanus sativus cv. Early menu) seedlings. Nickel treatments caused a considerable reduction in germination percentage, growth and biomass. The different pigments were also decreased with nickel treatments. However boron addition with nickel recovered the negative effect on pigment contents. Among biochemical estimations, amylase activity and total proteins were found to be reduced in nickel treatments. Peroxidase and catalase activity were induced other than higher total sugar with nickel treatments. The combination of nickel with boron resulted into increased protein contents. This combination also reduced the catalase and peroxidase activity. The influence of nickel with copper failed to produce significant recovery except 200 microM nickel in combination with 15 microM copper with regard to catalase and peroxidase activity. The effect of nickel on hydrolyzing enzyme amylase was observed to be inhibitory resulting into poor germination followed by poor seedlings growth. The stress protecting enzymes peroxidase and catalase seem to be induced under the influence of nickel, and providing protection to the seedlings. The application of boron with nickel showed improved germination and growth. The level of catalase and peroxidase were found to be significantly reduced showing normal growth and biomass of seedlings.

  3. III. Co-electrodeposition/removal of copper and nickel in a spouted electrochemical reactor.

    Grimshaw, Pengpeng; Calo, Joseph M; Hradil, George

    2011-07-11

    Results are presented of an investigation of co-electrodeposition of copper and nickel from acidic solution mixtures in a cylindrical spouted electrochemical reactor. The effects of solution pH, temperature, and applied current on metal removal/recovery rate, current efficiency, and corrosion of the deposited metals from the cathodic particles were examined under galvanostatic operation. The quantitative and qualitative behavior of co-electrodeposition of the two metals from their mixtures differs significantly from that of the individual single metal solutions. This is primarily attributed to the metal displacement reaction between Ni(0) and Cu(2+). This reaction effectively reduces copper corrosion, and amplifies that for nickel (at least at high concentrations). It also amplifies the separation of the deposition regimes of the two metals in time, which indicates that the recovery of each metal as a relatively pure deposit from the mixture is possible. It was also shown that nitrogen sparging considerably increases the observed net electrodeposition rates for both metals - considerably more so than from solutions with just the single metals alone. A numerical model of co-electrodeposition, corrosion, metal displacement, and mass transfer in the cylindrical spouted electrochemical reactor is presented that describes the behavior of the experimental copper and nickel removal data quite well.

  4. Microwave enhanced recovery of nickel-copper ore: communition and floatability aspects.

    Henda, R; Hermas, A; Gedye, R; Islam, M R

    2005-01-01

    A study describing the effect of microwave radiation, at a frequency of 2450 MHz, on the processes of communication and flotation of a complex sulphide nickel-copper ore is presented. Ore communication has been investigated under standard radiation-free conditions and after ore treatment in a radiated environment as a function of ore size, exposure time to radiation, and microwave power. The findings show that communication is tremendously improved by microwave radiation with values of the relative work index as low as 23% at a microwave power of 1.406 kW and after 10 s of exposure time. Communication is affected by exposure time and microwave power in a nontrivial manner. In terms of ore floatability, the experimental tests have been carried out on a sample of 75 microm in size under different exposure times. The results show that both ore concentrate recoveries and grades of nickel and copper are significantly enhanced after microwave treatment of the ore with relative increases in recovered concentrate, grade of nickel, and grade of copper of 26 wt%, 15 wt%, and 27%, respectively, at a microwave power of 1330 kW and after 30 s of exposure time.

  5. Development of a cloud-point extraction method for copper and nickel determination in food samples

    Azevedo Lemos, Valfredo; Selis Santos, Moacy; Teixeira David, Graciete; Vasconcelos Maciel, Mardson; Almeida Bezerra, Marcos de

    2008-01-01

    A new, simple and versatile cloud-point extraction (CPE) methodology has been developed for the separation and preconcentration of copper and nickel. The metals in the initial aqueous solution were complexed with 2-(2'-benzothiazolylazo)-5-(N,N-diethyl)aminophenol (BDAP) and Triton X-114 was added as surfactant. Dilution of the surfactant-rich phase with acidified methanol was performed after phase separation, and the copper and nickel contents were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The variables affecting the cloud-point extraction were optimized using a Box-Behnken design. Under the optimum experimental conditions, enrichment factors of 29 and 25 were achieved for copper and nickel, respectively. The accuracy of the method was evaluated and confirmed by analysis of the followings certified reference materials: Apple Leaves, Spinach Leaves and Tomato Leaves. The limits of detection expressed to solid sample analysis were 0.1 μg g -1 (Cu) and 0.4 μg g -1 (Ni). The precision for 10 replicate measurements of 75 μg L -1 Cu or Ni was 6.4 and 1.0, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of food samples

  6. Experimental Study of Nonequilibrium Electrodeposition of Nanostructures on Copper and Nickel for Photochemical Fuel Cell Application

    Rajesh K. Shanmugam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To increase the performance of photochemical fuel cells, nonequilibrium electrodeposition has been performed on Cu and Ni to make photosensitive anodes. Processing parameters including electrolyte concentration, and electrode potential were studied using cyclic voltammetry. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS were performed to understand the formation of the nanostructures during the nonequilibrium deposition of copper fractals. An increase in the deposition rate was observed with the increase in electrolyte concentration (from 0.05 M to 1.0 M. Similar trend was found when the cathode potential was decreased from −0.5 V to −4.5 V. The effect of substrate material was also examined. Porous fractal structures on copper were achieved, while the deposited material showed high density of surface cracks on nickel. The fractal structures deposited on copper electrode with the increased surface area were converted into copper oxide by oxidation in air. Such oxide samples were made into anodes for photochemical fuel cell application. We demonstrated that an increase in the magnitude of open circuit output voltage is associated with the increase in the fractal surface area under the ultraviolet irradiation test conditions. However, the electrodeposited fractals on nickel showed very limited increase in the magnitude of open circuit voltage.

  7. Magnetic characterization of the nickel layer protecting the copper wires in harsh applications

    Roger Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High Temperature (HT° motor coils open new perspectives for extending the applications of electrical motors or generators to very harsh environments or for designing very high power density machines working with high internal temperature gradients. Over a temperature of 300°C, the classic enameled wire cannot work permanently, the turn-to-turn insulation must be inorganic and made with high temperature textiles or vitro-ceramic compounds. For both cases, a diffusion barrier must protect the copper wire against oxidation. The usual solution consists of adding a nickel layer that yields an excellent chemical protection. Unfortunately, the nickel has ferromagnetic properties that change a lot the skin effect in the HT wire at high frequencies. For many applications such as aeronautics, electrical machines are always associated with PWM inverters for their control. The windings must resist to high voltage short spikes caused by the fast fronted pulses imposed by the feeding inverter. The nickel protection layer of the HT° inorganic wire has a large influence on the high frequency behavior of coils and, consequently, on the magnitude of the voltage spikes. A good knowledge of the non-linear magnetic characteristics of this nickel layer is helpful for designing reliable HT inorganic coils. The paper presents a method able to characterize non-linear electromagnetic properties of this nickel layer up to 500°C.

  8. Removal of copper and nickel contaminants from Si surface by use of cyanide solutions

    Fujiwara, N.; Liu, Y.-L.; Nakamura, T.; Maida, O.; Takahashi, M.; Kobayashi, H.

    2004-01-01

    The cleaning method using cyanide solutions has been developed to remove heavy metals such as copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) from Si surfaces. Immersion of Si wafers with both Cu and Ni contaminants in potassium cyanide (KCN) solutions of methanol at room temperature decreases these surface concentrations below the detection limit of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy of ∼3x10 9 atoms/cm 2 . UV spectra of the KCN solutions after cleaning of the Cu-contaminated Si surface show that stable copper-cyanide complexes are formed in the solution, leading to the prevention of the re-adsorption of copper in the solutions. From the complex stability constants, it is concluded that the Cu(CN) 4 3- is the most dominant species in the KCN solutions

  9. Determination of mercury in discharge water from plastic manufactory by neutron activation analysis and copper powder adsorption

    Houng-Huei, L [National Tsing Hua University Hsinchu, Taiwan (Republic of China)

    1979-02-28

    Through copper powder adsorption, neutron activation analysis was used to determine the mercury in discharge water from a plastic manufactory where the water samples were taken from various discharge ditches. The experimental results showed that waste water from mercury cells contained 1.7x10/sup -9/ approximately 8.19x10/sup -6/ g Hg/ml while water samples taken from other areas did not show significant mercury level and were below the limit of detection.

  10. Mercury

    Vilas, F.; Chapman, C.R.; Matthews, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Papers are presented on future observations of and missions to Mercury, the photometry and polarimetry of Mercury, the surface composition of Mercury from reflectance spectrophotometry, the Goldstone radar observations of Mercury, the radar observations of Mercury, the stratigraphy and geologic history of Mercury, the geomorphology of impact craters on Mercury, and the cratering record on Mercury and the origin of impacting objects. Consideration is also given to the tectonics of Mercury, the tectonic history of Mercury, Mercury's thermal history and the generation of its magnetic field, the rotational dynamics of Mercury and the state of its core, Mercury's magnetic field and interior, the magnetosphere of Mercury, and the Mercury atmosphere. Other papers are on the present bounds on the bulk composition of Mercury and the implications for planetary formation processes, the building stones of the planets, the origin and composition of Mercury, the formation of Mercury from planetesimals, and theoretical considerations on the strange density of Mercury

  11. Properties of Copper Doped Neodymium Nickelate Oxide as Cathode Material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Lee Kyoung-Jin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mixed ionic and electronic conducting K2NiF4-type oxide, Nd2Ni1-xCuxO4+δ (x=0~1 powders were synthesized by solid state reaction technique and solid oxide fuel cells consisting of a Nd2Ni1-xCuxO4+δ cathode, a Ni-YSZ anode and ScSZ as an electrolyte were fabricated. The effect of copper substitution for nickel on the electrical and electrochemical properties was examined. Small amount of copper doping (x=0.2 resulted in the increased electrical conductivity and decreased polarization resistance. It appears that this phenomenon was associated with the high mean valence of nickel and copper and the resulting excess oxygen (δ. It was found that power densities of the cell with the Nd2Ni1-xCuxO4+δ (x=0.1 and 0.2 cathode were higher than that of the cell with the Nd2NiO4+δ cathode.

  12. Voltammetric study of adenine complex with copper on mercury electrode

    Jelen, František; Kouřilová, Alena; Hasoň, Stanislav; Kizek, R.; Trnková, L.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 21, 3-5 (2009), s. 439-444 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100040602; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400040804; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN200040651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : cyclic voltammetry * elimination voltammetry * copper-adenine complex Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.630, year: 2009

  13. On the system of provision of ojsc "MMC 'Norilsk Nickel'" with interstate and State certified reference materials for quality control of cobalt, nickel, copper and promproducts

    T. V. Shabelnikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to manage the quality of OJSC "MMC "Norilsk Nickel" products the Centre of Certified Reference Material Development has developed and is currently successfully implementing a system of operations provision with interstate and state certified reference materials of nickel, cobalt and copper composition. The system wholly corresponds to modern metrological requirements. The Centre of Reference Materials Development, fulfilling leading function in the field of state certified reference material production and supply to the Company's operations, aims its activity both at the development of new types of certified reference materials in the form of metals and at widening the range of synthetic oxide certified reference materials. Developed for the first time, metallic state certified reference materials of nickel, cobalt composition with certified mass fractions of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and carbon were put into practice of the Company's analytical services work. Certified reference material use provides the possibility to take into account requirements of some consumers to the quality of nickel and produce by OJSC "MMC "Norilsk Nickel" and also helps to raise competitive ability of the products on the world metals market. Over recent years the Centre fulfilled the work on the development, certification in established order, approval and entering into the State Register twenty five types of state certified reference materials. Certified reference materials are intended for fulfillment of the analysis of chemical composition of nickel, cobalt and copper in terms of their conformity with both national and international standards.

  14. Theoretical study of magnetic layers of nickel on copper; dead or alive?

    Ernst, A.; Lueders, M.; Temmerman, W. M.; Szotek, Z.; van der Laan, G.

    2000-07-01

    We studied the persistence of magnetism in ultrathin nickel films on copper. Layer-dependent magnetic moments in Ni films on the (001), (110) and (111) surfaces of Cu have been calculated using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green's function method. The results show that, at temperature T = 0, a single nickel monolayer is ferromagnetic on Cu(001) and Cu(110) but magnetically `dead' on the more closely packed Cu(111) surface. Films of two and more layers of Ni are always ferromagnetic, with the magnetic moment enhanced in the surface layer but strongly reduced in the interface layer. Due to the short screening length, both the effect of the interface and that of the surface are confined to only a few atomic layers.

  15. Interlot variations of transition temperature range and force delivery in copper-nickel-titanium orthodontic wires.

    Pompei-Reynolds, Renée C; Kanavakis, Georgios

    2014-08-01

    The manufacturing process for copper-nickel-titanium archwires is technique sensitive. The primary aim of this investigation was to examine the interlot consistency of the mechanical properties of copper-nickel-titanium wires from 2 manufacturers. Wires of 2 sizes (0.016 and 0.016 × 0.022 in) and 3 advertised austenite finish temperatures (27°C, 35°C, and 40°C) from 2 manufacturers were tested for transition temperature ranges and force delivery using differential scanning calorimetry and the 3-point bend test, respectively. Variations of these properties were analyzed for statistical significance by calculating the F statistic for equality of variances for transition temperature and force delivery in each group of wires. All statistical analyses were performed at the 0.05 level of significance. Statistically significant interlot variations in austenite finish were found for the 0.016 in/27°C (P = 0.041) and 0.016 × 0.022 in/35°C (P = 0.048) wire categories, and in austenite start for the 0.016 × 0.022 in/35°C wire category (P = 0.01). In addition, significant variations in force delivery were found between the 2 manufacturers for the 0.016 in/27°C (P = 0.002), 0.016 in/35.0°C (P = 0.049), and 0.016 × 0.022 in/35°C (P = 0.031) wires. Orthodontic wires of the same material, dimension, and manufacturer but from different production lots do not always have similar mechanical properties. Clinicians should be aware that copper-nickel-titanium wires might not always deliver the expected force, even when they come from the same manufacturer, because of interlot variations in the performance of the material. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Properties of experimental copper-aluminium-nickel alloys for dental post-and-core applications.

    Rittapai, Apiwat; Urapepon, Somchai; Kajornchaiyakul, Julathep; Harniratisai, Choltacha

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to develop a copper-aluminium-nickel alloy which has properties comparable to that of dental alloys used for dental post and core applications with the reasonable cost. Sixteen groups of experimental copper alloys with variants of 3, 6, 9, 12 wt% Al and 0, 2, 4, 6 wt% Ni were prepared and casted. Their properties were tested and evaluated. The data of thermal, physical, and mechanical properties were analyzed using the two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). The alloy toxicity was evaluated according to the ISO standard. The solidus and liquidus points of experimental alloys ranged from 1023℃ to 1113℃ and increased as the nickel content increased. The highest ultimate tensile strength (595.9 ± 14.2 MPa) was shown in the Cu-12Al-4Ni alloy. The tensile strength was increased as the both elements increased. Alloys with 3-6 wt% Al exhibited a small amount of 0.2% proof strength. Accordingly, the Cu-9Al-2Ni and Cu-9Al-4Ni alloys not only demonstrated an appropriate modulus of elasticity (113.9 ± 8.0 and 122.8 ± 11.3 GPa, respectively), but also had a value of 0.2% proof strength (190.8 ± 4.8 and 198.2 ± 3.4 MPa, respectively), which complied with the ISO standard requirement (>180 MPa). Alloys with the highest contents of nickel (6 wt% Ni) revealed a widespread decolourisation zone (5.0-5.9 mm), which correspondingly produced the largest cell response, equating positive control. The copper alloys fused with 9 wt% Al and 2-4 wt% Ni can be considered for a potential use as dental post and core applications.

  17. Radiometric sampling of bucked copper-nickel ores for determining chemical composition

    Komlev, V.N.; Eliseev, G.I.

    1978-01-01

    Presented are the results and the technique of experimental-methodical works on radiometric sampling of bucked copper-nickel ores for determining chemical composition with their selection and analysis by the neutron-gamma method and by the gamma-gamma method. The error is estimated according to the chosen conditions of sampling. It is found that the gamma-gamma method being more rapid but less accurate is applied for rapid control of ore current, whereas the neutron-gamma method is applied for quality control of ores extracted

  18. Determination of copper, manganese, nickel and zinc in different cigarette brands available in pakistan

    Siddiqui, I.; Hashmi, D.R.; Khan, F.A.

    2008-01-01

    Mean values of copper, manganese, nickel and zinc in different cigarette brands sold in Pakistan were found to be in the range of 8.61 to 94.67 macro g/g, 26.40 to 98.20 macro g/g, 0.61 to 8.58 macro g/g and 16.92 to 99.60 macro g/g, respectively, through Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The results are discussed with reference to and in comparison with the mean average concentration of these elements reported in the cigarettes of other countries. (author)

  19. Analysis of copper-nickel ores by gamma-gamma method in ore enrichment works

    Bol'shakov, A.Yu.; Tovstenko, Yu.G.; Chinskij, E.B.; Eliseev, G.I.

    1973-01-01

    The paper presents experimental data on continuous gamma-gamma assay of copper-nickel ores on conveyor belts and of dry discrete samples of classifier overflow at the enrichment plants of the Pechenganikel' group. The relative errors are given of the results of comparison of two-hour rapid analyses and shift and 24-hour chemical analyses of classifier overflow samples with the figures for gamma-gamma assay. The factors affecting the accuracy of the latter technique are elucidated. Practical recommendations are given on the use of this technique at the above enrichment plants. (author)

  20. Nickel extraction from nickel matte

    Subagja, R.

    2018-01-01

    In present work, the results of research activities to make nickel metal from nickel matte are presented. The research activities were covering a) nickel matte characterization using Inductively Couple plasma (ICP), Electron Probe Micro Analyzer (EPMA) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), b) nickel matte dissolution process to dissolve nickel from nickel matte into the spent electrolyte solutions that contains hydrochloric acid, c) purification of nickel chloride leach solution by copper cementation process to remove copper using nickel matte, selective precipitation process to remove iron, solvent extraction using Tri normal octyl amine to separate cobalt from nickel chloride solutions and d) Nickel electro winning process to precipitate nickel into the cathode surface from purified nickel chloride solution by using direct current. The research activities created 99, 72 % pure nickel metal as the final product of the process.

  1. Factors that Affect the Content of Cadmium, Nickel, Copper and Zinc in Tissues of the Knee Joint.

    Roczniak, Wojciech; Brodziak-Dopierała, Barbara; Cipora, Elżbieta; Jakóbik-Kolon, Agata; Kluczka, Joanna; Babuśka-Roczniak, Magdalena

    2017-08-01

    Osteoarthritis causes the degradation of the articular cartilage and periarticular bones. Trace elements influence the growth, development and condition of the bone tissue. Changes to the mineral composition of the bone tissue can cause degenerative changes and fractures. The aim of the research was to determine the content of cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in the tibia, the femur and the meniscus in men and women who underwent a knee replacement surgery. Samples were collected from 50 patients, including 36 women and 14 men. The determination of trace elements content were performed by ICP-AES method, using Varian 710-ES. Average concentration in the tissues of the knee joint teeth amounted for cadmium 0.015, nickel 0.60, copper 0.89 and zinc 80.81 mg/kg wet weight. There were statistically significant differences in the content of cadmium, copper and zinc in different parts of the knee joint. There were no statistically significant differences in the content of cadmium, nickel, copper and zinc in women and men in the examined parts of the knee joint. Among the elements tested, copper and nickel showed a high content in the connective tissue (the meniscus) compared to the bone tissue (the tibia and the femur).

  2. Study of a nickel-copper filter for the future conditioning of insoluble residues

    Massoni, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.massoni@cea.fr

    2016-10-15

    This paper deals with the feasibility of a separate conditioning for insoluble residues coming from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. The two possible conditioning routes considered for insoluble residues were (i) added with cladding hulls with the considered filter (route #1) or (ii) melted with a nickel copper alloy already studied (route #2). Only route #2 was dealt with in this study. In France, the current practice is to store insoluble residues in a water suspension. For the two conditioning routes described here, dry insoluble residues are required for safety with melted metals. A nickel-copper filter was developed that can serve for the two types of conditioning. A filtration test performed with molybdenum particles as insoluble residue surrogates was done. The particle-charged filter was sintered, and Mo particles were kept inside the filter. Thus an integrated flowsheet for the filtration and immobilization of insoluble residues was demonstrated. - Highlights: • The basics for an integrated flowsheet for the filtration and immobilization of insoluble residues were demonstrated. • The filter can serve as an immobilization matrix or can be added in another metal waste. • A theoretical calculation has shown that the conception of the filter should be done to avoid an excessive heat-up.

  3. Experimental Investigation of Laser Ablation Characteristics on Nickel-Coated Beryllium Copper

    Dongkyoung Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As electronic products are miniaturized, the components of the spring contact probe are made very fine. Current mechanical processing may make it difficult to perform micro-machining with a high degree of precision. A laser is often used for the high precision micro-machining due to its advantages such as a contact-free process, high energy concentration, fast processing time, and applicability to almost every material. The production of micro-electronics using nickel-coated copper is rapidly increasing and laser material processing is becoming a key processing technology owing to high precision requirements. Before applying laser material processing, it is necessary to understand the ablation characteristics of the materials. Therefore, this study systematically investigates the ablation characteristics of nickel-coated beryllium copper. Key laser parameters are pulse duration (4~200 ns and the total accumulated energy (1~1000 mJ. The processed workpiece is evaluated by analyzing the heat affected zone (HAZ, material removal zone (MRZ, and roundness. Moreover, the surface characteristics such as a burr, spatter, and roundness shapes are analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM.

  4. Heat Removal from Bipolar Transistor by Loop Heat Pipe with Nickel and Copper Porous Structures

    Patrik Nemec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Loop heat pipes (LHPs are used in many branches of industry, mainly for cooling of electrical elements and systems. The loop heat pipe is a vapour-liquid phase-change device that transfers heat from evaporator to condenser. One of the most important parts of the LHP is the porous wick structure. The wick structure provides capillary force to circulate the working fluid. To achieve good thermal performance of LHP, capillary wicks with high permeability and porosity and fine pore radius are expected. The aim of this work was to develop porous structures from copper and nickel powder with different grain sizes. For experiment copper powder with grain size of 50 and 100 μm and nickel powder with grain size of 10 and 25 μm were used. Analysis of these porous structures and LHP design are described in the paper. And the measurements’ influences of porous structures in LHP on heat removal from the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT have been made.

  5. Heat Removal from Bipolar Transistor by Loop Heat Pipe with Nickel and Copper Porous Structures

    Smitka, Martin; Malcho, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Loop heat pipes (LHPs) are used in many branches of industry, mainly for cooling of electrical elements and systems. The loop heat pipe is a vapour-liquid phase-change device that transfers heat from evaporator to condenser. One of the most important parts of the LHP is the porous wick structure. The wick structure provides capillary force to circulate the working fluid. To achieve good thermal performance of LHP, capillary wicks with high permeability and porosity and fine pore radius are expected. The aim of this work was to develop porous structures from copper and nickel powder with different grain sizes. For experiment copper powder with grain size of 50 and 100 μm and nickel powder with grain size of 10 and 25 μm were used. Analysis of these porous structures and LHP design are described in the paper. And the measurements' influences of porous structures in LHP on heat removal from the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) have been made. PMID:24959622

  6. D-penicillamine-templated copper nanoparticles via ascorbic acid reduction as a mercury ion sensor.

    Lin, Shu Min; Geng, Shuo; Li, Na; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun

    2016-05-01

    Mercury ion is one of the most hazardous metal pollutants that can cause deleterious effects on human health and the environment even at low concentrations. It is necessary to develop new mercury detection methods with high sensitivity, specificity and rapidity. In this study, a novel and green strategy for synthesizing D-penicillamine-capped copper nanoparticles (DPA-CuNPs) was successfully established by a chemical reduction method, in which D-penicillamine and ascorbic acid were used as stabilizing agent and reducing agent, respectively. The as-prepared DPA-CuNPs showed strong red fluorescence and had a large Stoke's shift (270nm). Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry were utilized to elucidate the possible fluorescence mechanism, which could be aggregation-induced emission effect. Based on the phenomenon that trace mercury ion can disperse the aggregated DPA-CuNPs, resulting in great fluorescence quench of the system, a sensitive and selective assay for mercury ion in aqueous solution with the DPA-CuNPs was developed. Under optimum conditions, this assay can be applied to the quantification of Hg(2+) in the 1.0-30μM concentration range and the detection limit (3σ/slope) is 32nM. The method was successfully applied to determine Hg(2+) in real water samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Selective extraction of copper, mercury, silver and palladium ionsfrom water using hydrophobic ionic liquids.

    Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Lee, Jong-Min; Salminen, Justin; VonStosch, Moritz; Prausnitz, John M.

    2007-06-25

    Extraction of dilute metal ions from water was performed near room temperature with a variety of ionic liquids. Distribution coefficients are reported for fourteen metal ions extracted with ionic liquids containing cations 1-octyl-4-methylpyridinium [4MOPYR]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-octylpyrrolidinium [MOPYRRO]{sup +} or 1-methyl-1-octylpiperidinium [MOPIP]{sup +}, and anions tetrafluoroborate [BF{sub 4}]{sup +}, trifluoromethyl sulfonate [TfO]{sup +} or nonafluorobutyl sulfonate [NfO]{sup +}. Ionic liquids containing octylpyridinium cations are very good for extracting mercury ions. However, other metal ions were not significantly extracted by any of these ionic liquids. Extractions were also performed with four new task-specific ionic liquids. Such liquids containing a disulfide functional group are efficient and selective for mercury and copper, whereas those containing a nitrile functional group are efficient and selective for silver and palladium.

  8. Functional activity of microorganisms in mining and processing of copper-nickel ores in the Murmansk Region

    Fokina N. V.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative indices and structure of the microbial community in flotation samples of sulfide copper-nickel ores at concentration plant of Kola Mining and Metallurgical Company have been determined. The smallest number of saprotrophic and oligotrophic bacteria has been observed in samples of ore and recycled water, which can be explained by the low temperature of samples and the lack of nutrients. It has been found out that the bacteria contained in the ore and recycling water flowing from the tailings increased their number during the flotation process due to coming of the organic compounds with the flotation reagents, aeration and increased temperature. Dominating strains have been isolated from recycled water and basic flotation products and classified as Pseudomonas. It has been shown that with an increase in the number of bacteria, the flotation time of copper-nickel ores increases. There is also a tendency to change the extraction of copper and nickel, which can be caused by both the increase in the flotation time for operations and the change in the number of bacteria in the circulating water. The thionic bacteria have been distinguished from the flow tailings of the Allarechensk deposit. The heap leaching experiments have proved the bacterial leaching to give good results on the ore samples passed through magnetic separation, having shown high content of the nickel and copper in filters. When leaching low-grade ore of the Nude Terrasa, the advantage of bacterial leaching use in comparison with the sulphuric-acid leaching only to copper has been revealed. The nickel content in the filtrates for bacterial leaching is 275 mg/l, and for sulfuric acid – 310 mg/l. The average copper content in the filtrates is 19 and 15 mg/l.

  9. Indirect potentiometric titration of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical preparations using copper based mercury film electrode.

    Abdul Kamal Nazer, Meeran Mohideen; Hameed, Abdul Rahman Shahul; Riyazuddin, Patel

    2004-01-01

    A simple and rapid potentiometric method for the estimation of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical dosage forms has been developed. The method is based on treating ascorbic acid with iodine and titration of the iodide produced equivalent to ascorbic acid with silver nitrate using Copper Based Mercury Film Electrode (CBMFE) as an indicator electrode. Interference study was carried to check possible interference of usual excipients and other vitamins. The precision and accuracy of the method was assessed by the application of lack-of-fit test and other statistical methods. The results of the proposed method and British Pharmacopoeia method were compared using F and t-statistical tests of significance.

  10. Observations of a fcc helium gas-bubble superlattice in copper, nickel, and stainless steel

    Johnson, P.B.; Mazey, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy is used to investigate the spatial arrangement of the small gas bubbles produced in several fcc metals by 30 keV helium ion irradiation to high dose at 300 K. In what is a new result for this important class of metals it is found that the helium gas bubbles lie on a superlattice having an fcc structure with principal axes aligned with those of the metal matrix. The bubble lattice constant asub(i), is measured for a helium fluence just below the critical dose for radiation blistering of the metal surface (approximately 4 x 10 17 He/cm 2 ). Implantation rates are typically approximately 10 14 He ions cm -2 sec -1 . The values of asub(i) obtained for copper, nickel and stainless steel are (7.6 +- 0.3)nm, (6.6 +- 0.5)nm and (6.4 +- 0.5)nm respectively. Above the critical dose the bubble lattice is seen to survive in some blister caps as well as in the region between blisters. Bubble alignment is also observed in the case of hydrogen bubbles produced in copper by low energy proton irradiation to high fluence at 300 K. The presentation of this data was accompanied by a cine film illustrating the behaviour of the gas bubble lattice in copper during post-irradiation annealing in the electron microscope. A summary of the film is given in the appendix. (author)

  11. Co-reduction of Copper Smelting Slag and Nickel Laterite to Prepare Fe-Ni-Cu Alloy for Weathering Steel

    Guo, Zhengqi; Pan, Jian; Zhu, Deqing; Zhang, Feng

    2018-02-01

    In this study, a new technique was proposed for the economical and environmentally friendly recovery of valuable metals from copper smelting slag while simultaneously upgrading nickel laterite through a co-reduction followed by wet magnetic separation process. Copper slag with a high FeO content can decrease the liquidus temperature of the SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO system and facilitate formation of liquid phase in a co-reduction process with nickel laterite, which is beneficial for metallic particle growth. As a result, the recovery of Ni, Cu, and Fe was notably increased. A crude Fe-Ni-Cu alloy with 2.5% Ni, 1.1% Cu, and 87.9% Fe was produced, which can replace part of scrap steel, electrolytic copper, and nickel as the burden in the production of weathering steel by an electric arc furnace. The study further found that an appropriate proportion of copper slag and nickel laterite in the mixture is essential to enhance the reduction, acquire appropriate amounts of the liquid phase, and improve the growth of the metallic alloy grains. As a result, the liberation of alloy particles in the grinding process was effectively promoted and the metal recovery was increased significantly in the subsequent magnetic separation process.

  12. A preconcentration system for determination of copper and nickel in water and food samples employing flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa; Citak, Demirhan; Ferreira, Hadla S; Korn, Maria G A; Bezerra, Marcos A

    2009-03-15

    A separation/preconcentration procedure using solid phase extraction has been proposed for the flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper and nickel at trace level in food samples. The solid phase is Dowex Optipore SD-2 resin contained on a minicolumn, where analyte ions are sorbed as 5-methyl-4-(2-thiazolylazo) resorcinol chelates. After elution using 1 mol L(-1) nitric acid solution, the analytes are determinate employing flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimization step was performed using a full two-level factorial design and the variables studied were: pH, reagent concentration (RC) and amount of resin on the column (AR). Under the experimental conditions established in the optimization step, the procedure allows the determination of copper and nickel with limit of detection of 1.03 and 1.90 microg L(-1), respectively and precision of 7 and 8%, for concentrations of copper and nickel of 200 microg L(-1). The effect of matrix ions was also evaluated. The accuracy was confirmed by analyzing of the followings certified reference materials: NIST SRM 1515 Apple leaves and GBW 07603 Aquatic and Terrestrial Biological Products. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of copper and nickel in real samples including human hair, chicken meat, black tea and canned fish.

  13. A preconcentration system for determination of copper and nickel in water and food samples employing flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa; Citak, Demirhan; Ferreira, Hadla S.; Korn, Maria G.A.; Bezerra, Marcos A.

    2009-01-01

    A separation/preconcentration procedure using solid phase extraction has been proposed for the flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper and nickel at trace level in food samples. The solid phase is Dowex Optipore SD-2 resin contained on a minicolumn, where analyte ions are sorbed as 5-methyl-4-(2-thiazolylazo) resorcinol chelates. After elution using 1 mol L -1 nitric acid solution, the analytes are determinate employing flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimization step was performed using a full two-level factorial design and the variables studied were: pH, reagent concentration (RC) and amount of resin on the column (AR). Under the experimental conditions established in the optimization step, the procedure allows the determination of copper and nickel with limit of detection of 1.03 and 1.90 μg L -1 , respectively and precision of 7 and 8%, for concentrations of copper and nickel of 200 μg L -1 . The effect of matrix ions was also evaluated. The accuracy was confirmed by analyzing of the followings certified reference materials: NIST SRM 1515 Apple leaves and GBW 07603 Aquatic and Terrestrial Biological Products. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of copper and nickel in real samples including human hair, chicken meat, black tea and canned fish

  14. A preconcentration system for determination of copper and nickel in water and food samples employing flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Tuzen, Mustafa [Department of Chemistry, Gaziosmanpasa University, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Department of Chemistry, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: soylak@erciyes.edu.tr; Citak, Demirhan [Department of Chemistry, Gaziosmanpasa University, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Ferreira, Hadla S.; Korn, Maria G.A. [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Instituto de Quimica, 40170-290 Salvador (Brazil); Bezerra, Marcos A. [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, 45200-190 Jequie (Brazil)

    2009-03-15

    A separation/preconcentration procedure using solid phase extraction has been proposed for the flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper and nickel at trace level in food samples. The solid phase is Dowex Optipore SD-2 resin contained on a minicolumn, where analyte ions are sorbed as 5-methyl-4-(2-thiazolylazo) resorcinol chelates. After elution using 1 mol L{sup -1} nitric acid solution, the analytes are determinate employing flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimization step was performed using a full two-level factorial design and the variables studied were: pH, reagent concentration (RC) and amount of resin on the column (AR). Under the experimental conditions established in the optimization step, the procedure allows the determination of copper and nickel with limit of detection of 1.03 and 1.90 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively and precision of 7 and 8%, for concentrations of copper and nickel of 200 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The effect of matrix ions was also evaluated. The accuracy was confirmed by analyzing of the followings certified reference materials: NIST SRM 1515 Apple leaves and GBW 07603 Aquatic and Terrestrial Biological Products. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of copper and nickel in real samples including human hair, chicken meat, black tea and canned fish.

  15. The determination of copper and nickel in iron- and chromium-bearing materials by a pressed-powder technique and x-ray-fluorescence spectrometry

    Balaes, A.M.E.; Dixon, K.

    1984-01-01

    A method was developed that is suitable for the determination of copper and nickel in ores such as those from the Merensky and UG-2 Reefs. The sample was ground finely and diluted with river sand so that matrix variations were avoided as much as possible. After the addition of a wax-polystyrene binder, the material was pelletized. The matrix effects of iron and chromium, and the effects of their mutual interferences on the determination of copper and nickel, were then investigated. Equations were derived for the corrected copper and nickel Kα intensities, and were applied to the analyses of head, concentrate, middling, and tailing samples. Comparative values obtained by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry were found to be in reasonable agreement with the X-ray values; the average deviation was +0,3 per cent for copper and -1,6 per cent for nickel relative to the AAS values. The limits of detection of the method for copper and nickel are 31 and 40μg/g respectively; the limit of determination for copper is 92μg/g and for nickel is 119μg/g. The relative standard deviation at 900 and 2400μg of copper and nickel per gram is 0,02

  16. Heavy metals (copper, cadmium, lead, mercury) in mute swans from Denmark

    Elvestad, K.; Karlog, O.; Clausen, B.

    1982-03-01

    During the severe winter of 1978-79, large numbers of mute swans died in coastal areas of Denmark. Of these, 2111 were collected for examination. The analyses confirm previous findings of relatively high copper levels in mute swans (mean for 178 livers was 2680 mg/kg dry weight (Dw) and for 110 kidneys 34 mg/kg Dw) (Table I, Fig. 1). The copper content was not related to sex or age (Table II). The highest liver levels of copper were found in swans from Western Jutland. Cadmium was found at the same relatively low levels as recorded for waterfowl elsewhere (mean for 178 livers was 12 mg/kg Dw, for 110 kidneys 24 mg/kg Dw) (Table I, Fig. 2). The cadmium content was not sex-related, but it increased with age (Table II). The mean mercury content (liver) was 1.4 mg/kg Dw in the 10 birds analysed (Table I). The mean lead content was 15 mg/kg Dw in the 178 livers analysed and 31 mg/kg Dw in 110 sternum (Table I and Fig. 3). The lead content was not sex-related. In sternum, but not in livers, it was related to age (Table II). One third of the swans were found lead-contaminated probably after ingestion of lead pellets. None of the swans carried high levels of both copper, cadmium, and lead (Table III).

  17. Development of technique for AR coating and nickel and copper metallization of solar cells. FPS Project: Product development

    Taylor, W.

    1982-01-01

    Printed nickel overplated with copper and applied on top of a predeposited silicon nitride antireflective coating system for metallizing solar cells was analyzed. The ESL D and E paste formulations, and the new formulations F, G, H, and D-1 were evaluated. The nickel thick films were tested after firing for stability in the cleaning and plating solutions used in the Vanguard-Pacific brush plating process. It was found that the films are very sensitive to the leaning and alkaline copper solutions. Less sensitivity was displayed to the neutral copper solution. Microscopic and SEM observations show segregation of frit at the silicon nitride thick film interface with loose frit residues after lifting off plated grid lines.

  18. Flaking behavior and microstructure evolution of nickel and copper powder during mechanical milling in liquid environment

    Xiao Xiao; Zeng Zigao; Zhao Zhongwei; Xiao Songwen

    2008-01-01

    To prepare metal flakes with a high flaking level and investigate the microstructure of metal flakes, nickel and copper powder were mechanically milled in liquid environment and the microstructure of powders was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The milling process can be divided into flaking and broken stages. At the flaking stage, milled metal powders exhibited high flaking level and flaky microshape, and became preferred orientation. While at the broken stage, the milled powders presented a low flaking level and irregular microshape, and was not preferred orientation any longer. The grain size, microstrain and dislocation density along direction varied with milling time differently from that along direction. The flaking level of the milled powders was related to the preferred orientation, and more closely to the deformation mechanism. We can strengthen the formation of preferred orientation to obtain metal powders with a high flaking level

  19. Flaking behavior and microstructure evolution of nickel and copper powder during mechanical milling in liquid environment

    Xiao Xiao [College of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan (China); Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Changsha 410012, Hunan (China); Zeng Zigao [Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Changsha 410012, Hunan (China); Zhao Zhongwei [College of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan (China); Xiao Songwen [Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Changsha 410012, Hunan (China)], E-mail: swinxiao@yahoo.com.cn

    2008-02-25

    To prepare metal flakes with a high flaking level and investigate the microstructure of metal flakes, nickel and copper powder were mechanically milled in liquid environment and the microstructure of powders was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The milling process can be divided into flaking and broken stages. At the flaking stage, milled metal powders exhibited high flaking level and flaky microshape, and <2 0 0> became preferred orientation. While at the broken stage, the milled powders presented a low flaking level and irregular microshape, and <2 0 0> was not preferred orientation any longer. The grain size, microstrain and dislocation density along <2 0 0> direction varied with milling time differently from that along <1 1 1> direction. The flaking level of the milled powders was related to the <2 0 0> preferred orientation, and more closely to the deformation mechanism. We can strengthen the formation of <2 0 0> preferred orientation to obtain metal powders with a high flaking level.

  20. [Features of health disorders in miners employed at northern copper-nickel mines].

    Siurin, S V; Shilov, V V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the influence of different working conditions on the health of 1523 copper-nickel miners of the Kola High North. The low degree of mechanization of mining operations was established to be related to more higher levels of vibration, noise and physical overloads. The working in such conditions, when compared with high mining mechanization, leads to a decrease in the number of conditionally healthy workers (12% and 20.7%, p mining operations the greatest risk of occupational diseases in noted in drifters (OR = 5.68), at that it was higher at hand mining than at mechanized mining (RR = 1.44). There was made a conclusion about the need to improve the complex of measures for the preservation of health in this group of workers, especially engaged in the performance of tunnel works.

  1. [Bronchopulmonary diseases in workers engaged in deep-mined extraction of copper-nickel ore].

    Siurin, S A; Derevoedov, A A; Nikanov, A N

    2008-01-01

    Examinations were made in 220 male workers exposed to dust-gas (low-silicon dioxide, nitric oxides, and carbon oxide) mixture, physical exercises, and cooling microclimate on deep-mined output of copper-nickel ore. Twenty-eight per cent of the workers were found to have evolving chronic bronchitis that did not substantially affect the patients' working capacity; 3.2% had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 1.4% had asthma that had developed before the onset of professional activity. 32.3% of the examinees were ascertained to have individual clinicofunctional disorders that permit their identification as a bronchopulmonary disease risk group to carry out early preventive and rehabilitative measures.

  2. Corrosion Inhibition of Copper-nickel Alloy: Experimental and Theoretical Studies

    Khadom, Anees A. [Univ. of Daiyla, Baquba (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yaro, Aprael S. [Univ. of Baghdad, Aljadreaa (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Musa, Ahmed Y.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H. [UniversitiKebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi (Malaysia)

    2012-08-15

    The corrosion inhibition of copper-nickel alloy by Ethylenediamine (EDA) and Diethylenetriamine (DETA) in 1.5M HCl has been investigated by weight loss technique at different temperatures. Maximum value of inhibitor efficiency was 75% at 35 .deg. C and 0.2 M inhibitor concentration EDA, while the lower value was 4% at 35 .deg. C and 0.01 M inhibitor concentration DETA. Two mathematical models were used to represent the corrosion rate data, second order polynomial model and exponential model respectively. Nonlinear regression analysis showed that the first model was better than the second model with high correlation coefficient. The reactivity of studied inhibitors was analyzed through theoretical calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). The results showed that the reactive sites were located on the nitrogen (N1, N2 and N4) atoms.

  3. Structural and electrical properties of copper-nickel-aluminum alloys obtained by conventional powder metallurgy method

    Monteiro, Waldemar A.; Carrio, Juan A.G.; Silveira, C.R. da; Pertile, H.K.S.

    2009-01-01

    This work looked for to search out systematically, in scale of laboratory, copper-nickel-aluminum alloys (Cu-Ni-Al) with conventional powder metallurgy processing, in view of the maintenance of the electric and mechanical properties with the intention of getting electric connectors of high performance or high mechanical damping. After cold uniaxial pressing (1000 kPa), sintering (780 deg C) and convenient homogenization treatments (500 deg C for different times) under vacuum (powder metallurgy), the obtained Cu-Ni-Al alloys were characterized by optical microscopy, electrical conductivity, Vickers hardness. X rays powder diffraction data were collected for the sintered samples in order to a structural and microstructural analysis. The comparative analysis is based on the sintered density, hardness, macrostructures and microstructures of the samples. (author)

  4. Synthesis, characterisation and anion exchange properties of copper, magnesium, zinc and nickel hydroxy nitrates

    Biswick, Timothy; Jones, William; Pacuła, Aleksandra; Serwicka, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    Anion exchange reactions of four structurally related hydroxy salts, Cu 2(OH) 3NO 3, Mg 2(OH) 3NO 3, Ni 2(OH) 3NO 3 and Zn 3(OH) 4(NO 3) 2 are compared and trends rationalised in terms of the strength of the covalent bond between the nitrate group and the matrix cation. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and elemental analysis are used to characterise the materials. Replacement of the nitrate anions in the zinc and copper salts with benzoate anions is possible although exchange of the zinc salt is accompanied by modification of the layer structure from one where zinc is exclusively six-fold coordinated to a structure where there is both six- and four-fold zinc coordination. Magnesium and nickel hydroxy nitrates, on the other hand, hydrolyse to their respective metal hydroxides.

  5. Sensitive detection of mercury and copper ions by fluorescent DNA/Ag nanoclusters in guanine-rich DNA hybridization.

    Peng, Jun; Ling, Jian; Zhang, Xiu-Qing; Bai, Hui-Ping; Zheng, Liyan; Cao, Qiu-E; Ding, Zhong-Tao

    2015-02-25

    In this work, we designed a new fluorescent oligonucleotides-stabilized silver nanoclusters (DNA/AgNCs) probe for sensitive detection of mercury and copper ions. This probe contains two tailored DNA sequence. One is a signal probe contains a cytosine-rich sequence template for AgNCs synthesis and link sequence at both ends. The other is a guanine-rich sequence for signal enhancement and link sequence complementary to the link sequence of the signal probe. After hybridization, the fluorescence of hybridized double-strand DNA/AgNCs is 200-fold enhanced based on the fluorescence enhancement effect of DNA/AgNCs in proximity of guanine-rich DNA sequence. The double-strand DNA/AgNCs probe is brighter and stable than that of single-strand DNA/AgNCs, and more importantly, can be used as novel fluorescent probes for detecting mercury and copper ions. Mercury and copper ions in the range of 6.0-160.0 and 6-240 nM, can be linearly detected with the detection limits of 2.1 and 3.4 nM, respectively. Our results indicated that the analytical parameters of the method for mercury and copper ions detection are much better than which using a single-strand DNA/AgNCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ultrathin nickel hydroxide on carbon coated 3D-porous copper structures for high performance supercapacitors.

    Kang, Kyeong-Nam; Kim, Ik-Hee; Ramadoss, Ananthakumar; Kim, Sun-I; Yoon, Jong-Chul; Jang, Ji-Hyun

    2018-01-03

    An ultrathin nickel hydroxide layer electrodeposited on a carbon-coated three-dimensional porous copper structure (3D-C/Cu) is suggested as an additive and binder-free conductive electrode with short electron path distances, large electrochemical active sites, and improved structural stability, for high performance supercapacitors. The 3D-porous copper structure (3D-Cu) provides high electrical conductivity and facilitates electron transport between the Ni(OH) 2 active materials and the current collector of the Ni-plate. A carbon coating was applied to the 3D-Cu to prevent the oxidation of Cu, without degrading the electron transport behavior of the 3D-Cu. The 3D-Ni(OH) 2 /C/Cu exhibited a high specific capacitance of 1860 F g -1 at 1 A g -1 , and good cycling performance, with an 86.5% capacitance retention after 10 000 cycles. When tested in a two-electrode system, an asymmetric supercapacitor exhibited an energy density of 147.9 W h kg -1 and a power density of 37.0 kW kg -1 . These results open a new area of ultrahigh-performance supercapacitors, supported by 3D-Cu electrodes.

  7. The observation of helium gas bubble lattices in copper, nickel and stainless steel

    Johnson, P.B.; Mazey, D.J.

    1978-10-01

    Transmission electron microscopy is used to investigate the spatial arrangement of the small gas bubbles produced in several fcc metals by 30 keV helium ion irradiation to high dose at 300K. In what is a new result for this important class of metals it is found that the helium gas bubbles lie on a superlattice having an fcc structure with principal axes aligned with those of the metal matrix. The bubble lattice constant, asub(l), is measured for a helium fluence just below the critical dose for radiation blistering of the metal surface. Implantation rates are typically approximately 10 14 He ions cm -2 sec -1 . The values of asub(l) obtained for copper, nickel and stainless steel are given. Above the critical dose the bubble lattice is seen to survive in some blister caps as well as in the region between blisters. Bubble alignment is also observed in the case of hydrogen bubbles produced in copper by low energy proton irradiation to high fluence at 300K. (author)

  8. In vitro and in vivo corrosion evaluation of nickel-chromium- and copper-aluminum-based alloys.

    Benatti, O F; Miranda, W G; Muench, A

    2000-09-01

    The low resistance to corrosion is the major problem related to the use of copper-aluminum alloys. This in vitro and in vivo study evaluated the corrosion of 2 copper-aluminum alloys (Cu-Al and Cu-Al-Zn) compared with a nickel-chromium alloy. For the in vitro test, specimens were immersed in the following 3 corrosion solutions: artificial saliva, 0.9% sodium chloride, and 1.0% sodium sulfide. For the in vivo test, specimens were embedded in complete dentures, so that one surface was left exposed. The 3 testing sites were (1) close to the oral mucosa (partial self-cleaning site), (2) surface exposed to the oral cavity (self-cleaning site), and (3) specimen bottom surface exposed to the saliva by means of a tunnel-shaped perforation (non-self-cleaning site). Almost no corrosion occurred with the nickel-chromium alloy, for either the in vitro or in vivo test. On the other hand, the 2 copper-aluminum-based alloys exhibited high corrosion in the sulfide solution. These same alloys also underwent high corrosion in non-self-cleaning sites for the in vivo test, although minimal attack was observed in self-cleaning sites. The nickel-chromium alloy presented high resistance to corrosion. Both copper-aluminum alloys showed considerable corrosion in the sulfide solution and clinically in the non-self-cleaning site. However, in self-cleaning sites these 2 alloys did not show substantial corrosion.

  9. Mercury

    Mercury is an element that is found in air, water and soil. It has several forms. Metallic mercury is a shiny, silver-white, odorless liquid. If ... with other elements to form powders or crystals. Mercury is in many products. Metallic mercury is used ...

  10. The effects of a magnetic field on the morphologies of nickel and copper deposits: the concept of “effective overpotential”

    NEBOJSA D. NIKOLIC

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The morphologies of nickel and copper deposits obtained without applied magnetic fields, and with both parallel and perpendicular applied magnetic fields were examined by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM technique. Changes in the morphologies of the metals caused by the effect of the magnetic fields are explained by the concept of “effective overpotential”. The morphologies of the nickel and copper deposits obtained under parallelly oriented magnetic fields were similar to those obtained at some lower cathodic potentials without an applied magnetic field. The magnetic field with a perpendicular orientation to the electrode surface increased the dispersity of the nickel and copper deposits. Nickel and copper deposits obtained under this orientation of the magnetic field were similar to those obtained at some higher cathodic potentials without an applied magnetic field.

  11. Biosorption characteristics of copper (II), chromium (III), nickel (II), and lead (II) from aqueous solutions by Chara sp. and Cladophora sp.

    Elmaci, Ayşe; Yonar, Taner; Ozengin, Nihan

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this research was to expose individual removals of copper, chromium, nickel, and lead from aqueous solutions via biosorption using nonliving algae species, Chara sp. and Cladophora sp. Optimum pH values for biosorption of copper (II), chromium (III), nickel (II), and lead (II) from aqueous solutions were determined to be 6, 7, 7, and 3 for Cladophora sp. and 5, 3, 5, and 4 for Chara sp. respectively. Maximum adsorption capacities of Chara sp. [10.54 for chromium (III) and 61.72 for lead (II)] and Cladophora sp. [6.59 for chromium (III) and 16.75 and 23.25 for lead (II)] for chromium (III) and lead (II) are similar. On the other hand, copper (II) and nickel (II) biosorption capacity of Cladophora sp. [14.28 for copper (II) and 16.75 for nickel (II)] is greater than Chara sp. [6.506 for copper (II) and 11.76 for nickel (II)]. Significantly high correlation coefficients indicated for the Langmuir adsorption isotherm models can be used to describe the equilibrium behavior of copper, chromium, nickel, and lead adsorption onto Cladophora sp. and Chara sp.

  12. Development of technique for AR coating and nickel and copper metallization of solar cells: FPS project, product development

    Rominger, C. G.

    1981-01-01

    Silicon nitride and nickel pastes are investigated in conjunction with a brush copper plating process for the purpose of identifying one or more fabrication sequences which yield at least 10 percent efficient N(+)/P(+) flat plate solar cells. The adhesion of all nickel pastes is reduced significantly when subjected to acidic and alkaline brush copper plating solutions as a result of a combination of thermally induced stress and chemical attack of the frit, which occurs at the interface with the silicon solar cell. The AgF is penetrating the 800 a of Si3N4 and ohmic contact is occurring at all fire-in tempertures. During the brush plating process, fingers and buss bars tend to spread.

  13. Sonochemical fabrication of petal array-like copper/nickel oxide composite foam as a pseudocapacitive material for energy storage

    Karthik, Namachivayam; Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan, E-mail: mgsethu@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Gandhigram Rural Institute – Deemed University, Gandhigram, 624 302, Dindigul District, Tamil Nadu (India); Lee, Yong Rok, E-mail: yrlee@yu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A composite Ni foam textured with Cu particles was fabricated by a sonication method. • The foam can be used as a pseudocapacitive material for energy storage applications. • The foam has a high specific capacitance of 1773 F g{sup −1} at a scan rate of 5 mV s{sup −1}. - Abstract: Copper/nickel oxide composite foam (Cu/Ni) with petal array-like textures were successfully fabricated via a facile sonochemical approach, and its applications as a pseudocapacitive material for energy storage were examined. The nickel foam was immersed into a mixture of copper chloride (CuCl{sub 2}) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) and subsequently sonicated for 30 min at 60 °C. As a result of galvanic replacement, nickel was oxidized while copper was reduced, and the walls of the nickel foam were coated with copper particles. Studies using field emission scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analyses confirmed the morphology and chemical structure of the as-obtained Cu/Ni oxide composite foam. The supercapacitive performance of the as-fabricated Cu/Ni oxide composite foam was evaluated in 2 M KOH by employing cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analyses. Cyclic voltammograms revealed that the Cu/Ni oxide composite foam exhibited pseudocapacitive behavior and delivered a high specific capacitance of 1773 F g{sup −1} at a scan rate of 5 mV s{sup −1}. This improvement may be attributed to the morphology, surface functionalization with heteroatoms, hydrogen evolution, and high conductivity, along with the low resistance due to short path lengths for electron transportation.

  14. A preconcentration system for determination of copper and nickel in water and food samples employing flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa; Citak, Demirhan; Ferreira, Hadla S.; Korn, Maria das Graças Andrade; Bezerra, Marcos de Almeida

    2009-01-01

    Texto completo: acesso restrito. p. 1041-1045 A separation/preconcentration procedure using solid phase extraction has been proposed for the flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper and nickel at trace level in food samples. The solid phase is Dowex Optipore SD-2 resin contained on a minicolumn, where analyte ions are sorbed as 5-methyl-4-(2-thiazolylazo) resorcinol chelates. After elution using 1 mol L−1 nitric acid solution, the analytes are determinate employing fla...

  15. Mercury

    de Vries, Irma

    2017-01-01

    Mercury is a naturally occurring metal that exists in several physical and chemical forms. Inorganic mercury refers to compounds formed after the combining of mercury with elements such as chlorine, sulfur, or oxygen. After combining with carbon by covalent linkage, the compounds formed are called

  16. Removal of copper and nickel from water using nanocomposite of magnetic hydroxyapatite nanorods

    Thanh, Dong Nguyen; Novák, Pavel; Vejpravova, Jana; Vu, Hong Nguyen; Lederer, Jaromír; Munshi, Tasnim

    2018-06-01

    A nanocomposite of magnetic hydroxyapatite was synthesized and tested as an adsorbent for the removal of copper (Cu (II)) and nickel (Ni(II)) from aqueous solution. The adsorbent was investigated using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM/EDS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and the Brunauer-Elmet-Teller nitrogen adsorption technique (BET-N2 adsorption). Batch experiments were carried out to determine and compare the adsorption parameters of Fe3O4 and its composite with hydroxyapatite. It was found that the adsorbent is nanostructured and has a specific surface area of 101.2 m2 g-1. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm was found to be an appropriate model to describe the adsorption processes, showing the adsorption capacities of Cu(II) and Ni(II) of 48.78 mg g-1 and 29.07 mg g-1, respectively. In addition to the high adsorption capacity, the fully-adsorbed material could be easily separated from aqueous media using an external magnetic field. These results suggested that the utilization of new hydroxyapatite - Fe3O4 nanocomposite for the removal of Cu(II) and Ni(II) is a promising method in water technology.

  17. Determination and evaluation of cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc in agricultural soils of western Macedonia, Greece.

    Papadopoulos, A; Prochaska, C; Papadopoulos, F; Gantidis, N; Metaxa, E

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of major phytotoxic metals--including cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn)--in agricultural soils of Western Macedonia, Greece. We also wanted to determine the possible relationships among elements and between soil properties and elemental concentrations. Surface soil samples, n = 570, were collected and analyzed. The results of the elemental analysis showed that the mean metal concentrations were consistent with reported typical concentrations found in Greek agricultural soils in the cases of Zn and Cu. Cd exhibited lower and Ni higher mean concentrations than the typical levels reported in the literature. Metal concentrations in the majority of the examined samples (>69%) were found to be higher than the respective critical plant-deficiency levels. However, only 0.4% and 0.2% of the analyzed soil samples, respectively, exhibited Cd and Ni concentrations higher than the levels that cause plant toxicity, as referenced by other investigators. These results suggest that the soils studied can be considered as unpolluted with respect to the examined food-chain metal contaminants. However, the levels of the metal concentrations in some of the soil samples, and the low correlation of the metals with soil properties, suggest an anthropogenic rather that lithogenic origin.

  18. Removal of Cadmium, Zinc, Lead and Copper by Sorption on Leaching Residue from Nickel Production

    Miroslava Václavíková

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A leaching resudue from the nickel production (LRNi, was used to study the removal of selected bivalent cations (Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn from model aqueous solutions. Batch-type experiments have been performed in solutions with initial concentrations of heavy metals in the range of 20-400 mg.L-1 and the adsorbent dosage 2 g.L-1. All adsorption experiments were carried out at ambient temperature (22+1°C in orbital shaker. The experimental data were modeled with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The relatively high uptake indicated that LRNi can adsorb considerable amounts of cadmium and zinc (maximum uptake capacity for cadmium: 25 mg/g at pH 7.2 and ca. 40 mg/g for zinc at pH 7. A significant uptake was also observed for copper and lead at pH 5.8 and 6 respectively, which was attributed to the precipitation of the respective insoluble hydroxides.

  19. Copper and nickel hexacyanoferrate nanostructures with graphene-coated stainless steel sheets for electrochemical supercapacitors

    Wu, Mao-Sung; Lyu, Li-Jyun; Syu, Jhih-Hao

    2015-11-01

    Copper and nickel hexacyanoferrate (CuHCF and NiHCF) nanostructures featuring three-dimensional open-framework tunnels are prepared using a solution-based coprecipitation process. CuHCF shows superior supercapacitive behavior than the NiHCF, due to the presence of numerous macropores in CuHCF particles for facilitating the transport of electrolyte. Both CuHCF and NiHCF electrodes with stainless steel (SS) substrate tend to lose their electroactivity towards intercalation/deintercalation of hydrated potassium ions owing to the partial corrosion of SS. Formation of a protective and conductive carbon layer in between SS and CuHCF (NiHCF) film is of paramount importance for improving the irreversible loss of electroactivity. Thin and compact graphene (GN) layer without observable holes in its normal plane is the most effective way to suppress the corrosion of SS compared with porous carbon nanotube and activated carbon layers. Specific capacitance of CuHCF electrode with GN layer (CuHCF/GN/SS) reaches 570 F g-1, which is even better than that of CuHCF with Pt substrate (500 F g-1) at 1 A g-1. The CuHCF/GN/SS exhibits high stability with 96% capacitance retention over 1000 cycles, greater than the CuHCF with Pt (75%).

  20. Research of leaching of disseminated copper-nickel ores in their interaction with mine waters

    Svetlov A. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A great amount of mine waste creates serious problems for economy and ecology in mining regions. Keeping of dumps and tailings storages requires huge capital costs and material inputs. Removal of overburden volumes cause ecological disequilibrium, ingress of chemical agents and heavy metals in ground and surface water have an adverse influence on eco-systems and human health. These hazards are particularly high under extreme climatic conditions, when mines create vast desert lands around themselves. Foreign researchers use the terms "acid mine drainage" (AМD and "acid rock drainage" (ARD when speaking on mine water oxidation and contamination of the environment with heavy metals. AMD is induced by underground mine drainage, natural sulfide-bearing rock exposures, etc. The processes occurring in the interaction the mine water with fine dust particles, as well as water filtering through the thick sulfide rocks have been studied. It has been shown that the reduction in potential environmental hazard of mine water of JSC "Kola MMC" is achieved through precipitation of heavy metals by iron hydroxide and magnesium hydrosilicate. Preliminary assessment of the feasibility of hydrometallurgical processing of disseminated copper-nickel ores has been made

  1. Effects of soil copper and nickel on survival and growth of Scots pine.

    Nieminen, Tiina Maileena

    2004-11-01

    The contribution of soil Cu and Ni pollution to the poor vitality and growth rate of Scots pine growing in the vicinity of a Cu-Ni smelter was investigated in two manipulation experiments. In the first manipulation, Cu-Ni smelter-polluted soil cores were transported from a smelter-pollution gradient to unpolluted greenhouse conditions. A 4-year-old pine seedling was planted in each core and cultivated for a 17-month period. In the second manipulation, pine seedlings from the same lot were cultivated for the same 17-month period in a quartz sand medium containing increasing doses of copper sulfate, nickel sulfate, and a combination of both. The variation in the biomass growth of the seedlings grown in the smelter-polluted soil cores was very similar to that of mature pine stands growing along the same smelter-pollution gradient in the field. In addition, the rate of Cu and Ni exposure explained a high proportion of the biomass growth variation, and had an effect on the Ca, K, and Mg status of the seedlings. According to the lethal threshold values determined on the basis of the metal sulfate exposure experiments, both the Cu and Ni content of the 0.5 km smelter-polluted soil cores were high enough to cause the death of most of the seedlings. The presence of Cu seemed to increase Ni toxicity.

  2. Thermochemical study of some inorganic and organic salts of cobalt, nickel and copper

    Le Van, My

    1968-01-01

    Differential enthalpy analysis has been carried out on a certain number of inorganic (halides, halide oxy-acid salts, nitrates and sulfates) and organic (alkanoates, and dicarboxylates) of cobalt, nickel and copper using a Tian-Calvet high-temperature microcalorimeter. Other investigational methods such as thermo-crystallography, thermogravimetry, spectroscopy and gas-phase chromatography have been used to complete this work. An intrinsic study of the microcalorimeter covering thermal leakage, the sensitivity and the aging of the batteries, the deviation of the experimental zero, has been carried out. A satisfactory experimental device has been developed which corresponds to optimum conditions of analysis. We have shown which are the most important factors affecting differential thermal analysis and have detected certain phenomena; we have also demonstrated that intermediate hydrates exist and shown the possibilities of thermal recrystallization. Various enthalpies of transformation have been evaluated. The various possible reaction mechanisms are discussed. The normal formation enthalpies of several series of alkanoates and dicarboxylates have been measured. A graphical method has been devised for evaluating the kinetic parameters of heterogeneous dissociations from the thermograms obtained. Finally, we have developed a simple method for estimating the normal formation enthalpies of carboxylates and oxy-acid salts, both anhydrous and hydrated. The agreement with available experimental data is satisfactory. (author) [fr

  3. Sources of variation in concentrations of nickel and copper in mountain birch foliage near a nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk, north-western Russia: results of long-term monitoring

    Kozlov, Mikhail V.

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of nickel and copper, two principal metal pollutants of the 'Severonikel' smelter at Monchegorsk, NW Russia, were measured in unwashed leaves of mountain birch, Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii, collected in eight study sites along the pollution gradient during 1991-2003. In spite of significant decline in metal emissions, concentrations of foliar metals in most of the study sites did not decrease, indicating that soil contamination remains extremely high. Multiyear mean values peaked at 6.6 km S of the smelter, where they were 20-25 times higher than in the most distant study site. Concentrations of both metals demonstrated pronounced annual variation, which was explained by the meteorological conditions of early summer: higher precipitation in May increased foliar concentrations of both metals, whereas higher precipitation in June resulted in lower foliar concentrations of nickel. These data suggest that ecotoxicological situation in metal-contaminated areas can be modified by the expected climate change. In heavily polluted sites individual birch trees generally retained their ranks in terms of metal contamination during 1995-2003, demonstrating that the use of the same set of trees can significantly increase the accuracy of the monitoring data. - Foliar concentrations of nickel and copper did not reflect emission decline during 1991-2003; annual variation was explained by weather conditions

  4. Template synthesis of poly aza macrocyclic copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes: Spectral characterization and antimicrobial studies

    Gurumoorthy, P.; Ravichandran, J.; Kaliur Rahiman, A. [The New College, Chennai (India); Karthikeyan, N.; Palani, P. [Univ. of Madras, Chennai (India)

    2012-07-15

    The template synthesis of copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes derived from 2,6-diformyl-4-methylphenol with diethylenetriamine or 1,2-bis(3-amino propylamino)ethane produce the 12-membered N{sub 3}O and 17-membered N{sub 4}O macrocyclic complexes, respectively. The geometry of the complexes has been determined with the help of electronic and EPR spectroscopic values and found to be five coordinated square pyramidal and, six coordinated distorted tetragonal for 12-membered and 17-membered macrocyclic complexes, respectively. Electrochemical studies of the mononuclear N{sub 3}O and N{sub 4}O copper(II) complexes show one irreversible one electron reduction wave at E{sup pc} = .1.35 and .1.15 V respectively, and the corresponding nickel(II) complexes show irreversible one-electron reduction wave at E{sup pc} = .1.25 and .1.22 V, respectively. The nickel(II) complexes show irreversible one-electron oxidation wave at Epa = +0.84 and +0.82 V, respectively. All the complexes were evaluated for in vitro antimicrobial activity against the human pathogenic bacteria and fungi.

  5. The effects of applied current on one-dimensional interdiffusion between copper and nickel in spark plasma sintering

    Rudinsky, S.; Gauvin, R.; Brochu, M., E-mail: mathieu.brochu@mcgill.ca [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0C5 (Canada)

    2014-10-21

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is a powder metallurgy technique that employs the use of fast sintering kinetics to produce final consolidated components in a matter of minutes. In order to use blended powders in SPS to obtain fully alloyed parts, diffusion during sintering must be understood. An investigation into the effects of current on the diffusion of copper and nickel was performed using SPS. Bulk specimens were used to generate diffusion couples in SPS in alternating orientations with respect to the direction of the current. Control samples were produced using a horizontal insertion vacuum furnace. Experiments were performed at temperatures between 850°C and 1000°C for 3 h. Concentration profiles were obtained by the use of both energy-dispersive spectroscopy and a Monte Carlo simulated correction curve. Diffusion coefficients and activation energies were calculated for samples produced by SPS and annealing without current. It was shown that, at temperatures near 0.9 T{sub m}, the application of current in SPS inhibits diffusion between copper and nickel due to the re-orientation of electrons caused by the loss of ferromagnetism in nickel. Activation energy for diffusion is, however, decreased due to the temperature gradients arising from the difference in resistivity between the two species.

  6. Accelerated Degradation Test and Predictive Failure Analysis of B10 Copper-Nickel Alloy under Marine Environmental Conditions

    Sun, Bo; Ye, Tianyuan; Feng, Qiang; Yao, Jinghua; Wei, Mumeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the corrosion behavior of B10 copper-nickel alloy in marine environment. Accelerated degradation test under marine environmental conditions was designed and performed based on the accelerated testing principle and the corrosion degradation mechanism. With the prolongation of marine corrosion time, the thickness of Cu2O film increased gradually. Its corrosion product was Cu2(OH)3Cl, which increased in quantity over time. Cl− was the major factor responsible for the marine corrosion of copper and copper alloy. Through the nonlinear fitting of corrosion rate and corrosion quantity (corrosion weight loss), degradation data of different corrosion cycles, the quantitative effects of two major factors, i.e., dissolved oxygen (DO) and corrosion medium temperature, on corrosion behavior of copper alloy were analyzed. The corrosion failure prediction models under different ambient conditions were built. One-day corrosion weight loss under oxygenated stirring conditions was equivalent to 1.31-day weight loss under stationary conditions, and the corrosion rate under oxygenated conditions was 1.31 times higher than that under stationary conditions. In addition, corrosion medium temperature had a significant effect on the corrosion of B10 copper sheet. PMID:28793549

  7. Accelerated Degradation Test and Predictive Failure Analysis of B10 Copper-Nickel Alloy under Marine Environmental Conditions.

    Sun, Bo; Ye, Tianyuan; Feng, Qiang; Yao, Jinghua; Wei, Mumeng

    2015-09-10

    This paper studies the corrosion behavior of B10 copper-nickel alloy in marine environment. Accelerated degradation test under marine environmental conditions was designed and performed based on the accelerated testing principle and the corrosion degradation mechanism. With the prolongation of marine corrosion time, the thickness of Cu₂O film increased gradually. Its corrosion product was Cu₂(OH)₃Cl, which increased in quantity over time. Cl - was the major factor responsible for the marine corrosion of copper and copper alloy. Through the nonlinear fitting of corrosion rate and corrosion quantity (corrosion weight loss), degradation data of different corrosion cycles, the quantitative effects of two major factors, i.e. , dissolved oxygen (DO) and corrosion medium temperature, on corrosion behavior of copper alloy were analyzed. The corrosion failure prediction models under different ambient conditions were built. One-day corrosion weight loss under oxygenated stirring conditions was equivalent to 1.31-day weight loss under stationary conditions, and the corrosion rate under oxygenated conditions was 1.31 times higher than that under stationary conditions. In addition, corrosion medium temperature had a significant effect on the corrosion of B10 copper sheet.

  8. Accelerated Degradation Test and Predictive Failure Analysis of B10 Copper-Nickel Alloy under Marine Environmental Conditions

    Bo Sun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the corrosion behavior of B10 copper-nickel alloy in marine environment. Accelerated degradation test under marine environmental conditions was designed and performed based on the accelerated testing principle and the corrosion degradation mechanism. With the prolongation of marine corrosion time, the thickness of Cu2O film increased gradually. Its corrosion product was Cu2(OH3Cl, which increased in quantity over time. Cl− was the major factor responsible for the marine corrosion of copper and copper alloy. Through the nonlinear fitting of corrosion rate and corrosion quantity (corrosion weight loss, degradation data of different corrosion cycles, the quantitative effects of two major factors, i.e., dissolved oxygen (DO and corrosion medium temperature, on corrosion behavior of copper alloy were analyzed. The corrosion failure prediction models under different ambient conditions were built. One-day corrosion weight loss under oxygenated stirring conditions was equivalent to 1.31-day weight loss under stationary conditions, and the corrosion rate under oxygenated conditions was 1.31 times higher than that under stationary conditions. In addition, corrosion medium temperature had a significant effect on the corrosion of B10 copper sheet.

  9. Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper in nickel-base alloys with various chemical modifiers*1

    Tsai, Suh-Jen Jane; Shiue, Chia-Chann; Chang, Shiow-Ing

    1997-07-01

    The analytical characteristics of copper in nickel-base alloys have been investigated with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Deuterium background correction was employed. The effects of various chemical modifiers on the analysis of copper were investigated. Organic modifiers which included 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-(diethylamino-phenol) (Br-PADAP), ammonium citrate, 1-(2-pyridylazo)-naphthol, 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and Triton X-100 were studied. Inorganic modifiers palladium nitrate, magnesium nitrate, aluminum chloride, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, hydrogen peroxide and potassium nitrate were also applied in this work. In addition, zirconium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide precipitation methods have also been studied. Interference effects were effectively reduced with Br-PADAP modifier. Aqueous standards were used to construct the calibration curves. The detection limit was 1.9 pg. Standard reference materials of nickel-base alloys were used to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed method. The copper contents determined with the proposed method agreed closely with the certified values of the reference materials. The recoveries were within the range 90-100% with relative standard deviation of less than 10%. Good precision was obtained.

  10. Co-sputter deposited nickel-copper bimetallic nanoalloy embedded carbon films for electrocatalytic biomarker detection

    Shiba, Shunsuke; Kato, Dai; Kamata, Tomoyuki; Niwa, Osamu

    2016-06-01

    We report the fabrication of a nickel (Ni)-copper (Cu) bimetallic nanoalloy (~3 nm) embedded carbon film electrode with the unbalanced magnetron (UBM) co-sputtering technique, which requires only a one-step process at room temperature. Most of each nanoalloy body was firmly embedded in a chemically stable carbon matrix with an atomically flat surface (Ra: 0.21 nm), suppressing the aggregation and/or detachment of the nanoalloy from the electrode surface. The nanoalloy size and composition can be controlled simply by individually controlling the target powers of carbon, Ni and Cu, which also makes it possible to localize the nanoalloys near the electrode surface. This electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity for d-mannitol, which should be detected with a low detection limit in urine samples for the diagnosis of severe intestinal diseases. With a Ni/Cu ratio of around 64/36, the electrocatalytic current per metal area was 3.4 times larger than that of an alloy film electrode with a similar composition (~70/30). This improved electrocatalytic activity realized higher stability (n = 60, relative standard deviation (RSD): 4.6%) than the alloy film (RSD: 32.2%) as demonstrated by continuous measurements of d-mannitol.We report the fabrication of a nickel (Ni)-copper (Cu) bimetallic nanoalloy (~3 nm) embedded carbon film electrode with the unbalanced magnetron (UBM) co-sputtering technique, which requires only a one-step process at room temperature. Most of each nanoalloy body was firmly embedded in a chemically stable carbon matrix with an atomically flat surface (Ra: 0.21 nm), suppressing the aggregation and/or detachment of the nanoalloy from the electrode surface. The nanoalloy size and composition can be controlled simply by individually controlling the target powers of carbon, Ni and Cu, which also makes it possible to localize the nanoalloys near the electrode surface. This electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity for d

  11. Lead, Nickel and Copper Concentration and Related Factors in Some Uncooked Vegetables Irrigated by Wastewater

    Dilshad Ganjo Ahmad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Population density of Erbil City, Northern Iraq (where this work was carried out estimated as more than 2 million. The sewage discharge of the city may reach 77760m3/ day during low level and 108000m3/ day during high-level periods. About 225 hectares of scattered farmlands are used by local farmers for production of uncooked vegetables for local need, all of which are irrigated by untreated sewage water. In the present work, about 28 physical and chemical variables those related to sewage water quality were assessed on fortnightly bases for 7 months. Some toxic heavy metals, namely; Pb, Ni and Cu bioaccumulation rates in sewage, soil and some uncooked vegetables in five different locations/ farms were followed up (only bioaccumulation rates of Pb, Ni and Cu in lettuce, cress, dill and radish are given here (Full data can be obtained from both authors. Onset results revealed that Pb, Ni and Cu bioaccumulation rates calculated for lettuce, cress, dill and radish were surpassed maximum permissible levels (MPL. However, the bioaccumulation ranges calculated for lettuce, cress, dill and radish respectively were; lead (3.01-6.72mg/ kg/ dwt, (3.03-6.52mg/ kg/ dwt, (0.48-2.74mg/ kg/ dwt and (0.41-3.00mg/ kg/ dwt; nickel (1.01-3.92mg/ kg/ dwt, (4.03-7.99mg/ kg/ dwt, (0.37-3.98mg/ kg/ dwt and (1.00-3.95mg/ kg/ dwt and copper (8.02-15.26mg/ kg/ dwt, (7.20-13.62mg/ kg/ dwt,(6.35-10.37mg/ kg/ dwt, (2.01-5.94mg/ kg/ dwt. The studied vegetables were showed different modes concerning heavy metal accumulation rates.

  12. Metallurgical and mechanical examinations of steel–copper joints arc welded using bronze and nickel-base superalloy filler materials

    Velu, M.; Bhat, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Optical and scanning electron microscopy show defect free weld interfaces. ► Energy dispersive spectroscopy shows low dilution level of the weld by Fe. ► XRD studies show no brittle intermetallic phases in the weld interfaces. ► Weld interfaces did not fail during tensile, transverse bending and impact tests. ► The joint exhibits superior strength properties than that of bronze filler. - Abstract: The paper presents metallurgical and mechanical examinations of joints between dissimilar metals viz. copper (UNSC11000) and alloy steel (En31) obtained by Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) using two different filler materials, bronze and nickel-base super alloy. The weld bead of the joint with bronze-filler displayed porosity, while that with nickel-filler did not. In tension tests, the weldments with bronze-filler fractured in the centre of the weld, while those with nickel-filler fractured in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of copper. Since the latter exhibited higher strength than the former, all the major tests were undertaken over the joints with nickel-filler alone. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) indicated corrugated weld interfaces and favorable elemental diffusions across them. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies around the weld interfaces did not reveal any detrimental intermetallic compounds. Transverse bending tests showed that flexural strengths of the weldments were higher than the tensile strengths. Transverse side bend tests confirmed good ductility of the joints. Shear strength of the weld-interface (Cu–Ni or Ni–steel) was higher than the yield strength of weaker metal. Microhardness and Charpy impact values were measured at all the important zones across the weldment

  13. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of copper, nickel and bimetallic Cu–Ni nanoparticles for potential use in dental materials

    Liliana Argueta-Figueroa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial effect is a desirable property in dental materials. Development of simple methods for the preparation of nanosized metal particles has attracted significant attention because of their future applications due to unusual size-dependent antibacterial properties. Copper (Cu, Nickel (Ni and bimetallic Cu–Ni nanoparticles were prepared by a simple chemical method and their antibacterial activity was tested against the widely used standard human pathogens Staphylococcus aureus (gram-negative and Escherichia coli (gram-positive. Additionally, these nanoparticles were tested against the dental pathogen Streptococcus mutans. Our results are promising for potential use in dental materials science.

  14. Optimization of microwave assisted digestion procedure for the determination of zinc, copper and nickel in tea samples employing flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Soylak, Mustafa; Tuzen, Mustafa; Souza, Anderson Santos; Korn, Maria das Gracas Andrade; Ferreira, Sergio Luis Costa

    2007-01-01

    The present paper describes the development of a microwave assisted digestion procedure for the determination of zinc, copper and nickel in tea samples employing flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The optimization step was performed using a full factorial design (2 3 ) involving the factors: composition of the acid mixture (CMA), microwave power (MP) and radiation time (RT). The experiments of this factorial were carried out using a certified reference material of tea GBW 07605 furnished by National Research Centre for Certified Reference Materials, China, being the metal recoveries considered as response. The relative standard deviations of the method were found below 8% for the three elements. The procedure proposed was used for the determination of copper, zinc and nickel in several samples of tea from Turkey. For 10 tea samples analyzed, the concentration achieved for copper, zinc and nickel varied at 6.4-13.1, 7.0-16.5 and 3.1-5.7 (μg g -1 ), respectively

  15. The influence of green microstructure and sintering parameters on precipitation process during copper-nickel-zinc ferrites sintering

    Barba, A.; Clausell, C.; Jarque, J. C.; Monzo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Microstructural changes that occur during heat treatment of copper-nickel-zinc ferrites have been studied. The process of precipitation of the two types of crystals that occur during the sintering process has been analyzed. It is found that this process depends on dry relative density of the press specimens and on the following sintering parameters: sintering temperature, sintering time and cooling rate of the thermal cycle. Crystal precipitates characterization have been done by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). These techniques have allowed to determine the nature of these crystals, which in this case correspond to zinc and copper oxides. It has been used two chemical reactions to explain the bulk precipitation and subsequent re-dissolution of these crystal precipitates during sintering. (Author)

  16. Observed transitions in n = 2 ground configurations of copper, nickel, iron, chromium and germanium in tokamak discharges

    Hinnov, E.; Suckewer, S.; Cohen, S.; Sato, K.

    1981-11-01

    A number of spectrum lines of highly ionized copper, nickel, iron, chromium, and germanium have been observed and the corresponding transitions identified. The element under study is introduced into the discharge of the PLT Tokamak by means of rapid ablation by a laser pulse. The ionization state is generally distinguishable from the time behavior of the emitted light. New identifications of transitions are based on predicted wavelengths (from isoelectronic extrapolation and other data) and on approximate expected intensities. All the transitions pertain to the ground configurations of the respective ions, which are the only states strongly populated at tokamak plasma conditions. These lines are expected to be useful for spectroscopic plasma diagnostics in the 1-3 keV temperature range, and they provide direct measurement of intersystem energy separations from chromium through copper in the oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon isoelectronic sequences

  17. TECHNOLOGIES OF DOPING OF CAST IRON THROUGH THE SLAG PHASE WITH USING OF THE SPENT NICKEL- AND COPPER-CONTAINING CATALYSTS

    I. B. Provorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have defined the regularities of the doping of cast iron through the slag phase of nickel and copper due to the waste catalysts using a carbonaceous reducing agent. We have justified the need to use the cast iron chips as a seed in the composition of the slag mixture. We have defined the dependence of the degree of extraction of nickel or copper from spent catalyst on the amount of the catalyst, on the basicity of the slag mixture, on the temperature and time of melting.

  18. Mercury

    ... that mercuric chloride and methylmercury are possible human carcinogens. top How does mercury affect children? Very young ... billion parts of drinking water (2 ppb). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has set a maximum ...

  19. Nested Fermi surfaces and order in the rare earth nickel borocarbides and copper palladium alloys

    Wilkinson, Ian

    2002-01-01

    The electronic structure of two systems, each displaying a different type of order believed to derive from their respective Fermi surface topologies, has been investigated using the two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) technique. A particular topological feature of a generic rare earth nickel borocarbide (general formula RNi 2 B 2 C) Fermi surface is popularly believed to be responsible for a particular modulated arrangement of local moments observed in several magnetic borocarbides. Accordingly, c-axis 2D-ACAR spectra were collected from four representative members of the series, namely the Er, Tm, Yb and Lu compounds. A further a-axis projection from LuNi 2 B 2 C provides an additional comparison with electronic structure calculations performed for this compound. The c-axis projected k-space electron occupancies reveal a fundamentally similar Fermi surface topology across the measured compounds. The a- and c-axis k-space occupancies obtained from LuNi 2 B 2 C showed exceptional qualitative agreement with the corresponding calculated electron occupancy. A number of edge-detection methods were employed to identify the projected Fermi surface, and the existence of the proposed feature was confirmed by direct observation in each of the measured compounds. Calipers of this feature were found to be in good general agreement with those predicted by relevant calculation and expected from indirect experimental evidence. The compositional phase behaviour of copper-palladium solid solutions is believed to be strongly influenced by the shape of their respective Fermi surfaces. In particular, the concentration-dependent positions of diffuse peaks in electron and X-ray diffraction patterns from disordered samples has been associated with the corresponding evolution of flat, parallel areas on the alloy Fermi surface. Electronic structure calculations indicate these areas to be maximal around 40 at. % Pd, and it has been further suggested that

  20. Preconcentration and separation of nickel, copper and cobalt using solid phase extraction and their determination in some real samples.

    Ghaedi, M; Ahmadi, F; Soylak, M

    2007-08-17

    A solid phase extraction method has been developed to separate and concentrate trace amounts of nickel, cobalt and copper ions from aqueous samples for the measurement by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. By the passage of aqueous samples through activated carbon modified by dithioxamide (rubeanic acid) (DTO), Ni2+, Cu2+ and Co2+ ions adsorb quantitatively. The recoveries of analytes at pH 5.5 with 500 mg solid phase were greater than 95% without interference from alkaline, earth alkaline and some metal ions. The enrichment factor was 330. The detection limits by three sigma were 0.50 microg L(-1) for copper, 0.75 microg L(-1) for nickel and 0.80 microg L(-1) for cobalt. The loading capacity was 0.56 mg g(-1) for Ni2+, 0.50 mg g(-1) for Cu2+ and 0.47 mg g(-1) for Co2+. The presented procedure was applied to the determination of analytes in tap, river and sea waters, vegetable, soil and blood samples with successfully results (recoveries greater than 95%, R.S.D. lower than 2% for n=3).

  1. Atomic-absorption spectrometric determination of cobalt, nickel, and copper in geological materials with matrix masking and chelation-extraction

    Sanzolone, R.F.; Chao, T.T.; Crenshaw, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    An atomic-absorption spectrometric method is reported for the determination of cobalt, nickel, and copper in a variety of geological materials including iron- and manganese-rich, and calcareous samples. The sample is decomposed with HP-HNO3 and the residue is dissolved in hydrochloric acid. Ammonium fluoride is added to mask iron and 'aluminum. After adjustment to pH 6, cobalt, nickel, and copper are chelated with sodium diethyl-dithiocarbamate and extracted into methyl isobutyl ketone. The sample is set aside for 24 h before analysis to remove interferences from manganese. For a 0.200-g sample, the limits of determination are 5-1000 ppm for Co, Ni, and Cu. As much as 50% Fe, 25% Mn or Ca, 20% Al and 10% Na, K, or Mg in the sample either individually or in various combinations do not interfere. Results obtained on five U.S. Geological Survey rock standards are in general agreement with values reported in the literature. ?? 1979.

  2. Preconcentration and separation of nickel, copper and cobalt using solid phase extraction and their determination in some real samples

    Ghaedi, M.; Ahmadi, F.; Soylak, M.

    2007-01-01

    A solid phase extraction method has been developed to separate and concentrate trace amounts of nickel, cobalt and copper ions from aqueous samples for the measurement by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. By the passage of aqueous samples through activated carbon modified by dithioxamide (rubeanic acid) (DTO), Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ and Co 2+ ions adsorb quantitatively. The recoveries of analytes at pH 5.5 with 500 mg solid phase were greater than 95% without interference from alkaline, earth alkaline and some metal ions. The enrichment factor was 330. The detection limits by three sigma were 0.50 μg L -1 for copper, 0.75 μg L -1 for nickel and 0.80 μg L -1 for cobalt. The loading capacity was 0.56 mg g -1 for Ni 2+ , 0.50 mg g -1 for Cu 2+ and 0.47 mg g -1 for Co 2+ . The presented procedure was applied to the determination of analytes in tap, river and sea waters, vegetable, soil and blood samples with successfully results (recoveries greater than 95%, R.S.D. lower than 2% for n = 3)

  3. Preconcentration and separation of nickel, copper and cobalt using solid phase extraction and their determination in some real samples

    Ghaedi, M. [Chemistry Department, University of Yasouj, Yasouj 75914-353 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: m_ghaedi@mail.yu.ac.ir; Ahmadi, F. [Gachsaran Azad University, Gachsaran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soylak, M. [Chemistry Department, University of Erciyes, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2007-08-17

    A solid phase extraction method has been developed to separate and concentrate trace amounts of nickel, cobalt and copper ions from aqueous samples for the measurement by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. By the passage of aqueous samples through activated carbon modified by dithioxamide (rubeanic acid) (DTO), Ni{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+} ions adsorb quantitatively. The recoveries of analytes at pH 5.5 with 500 mg solid phase were greater than 95% without interference from alkaline, earth alkaline and some metal ions. The enrichment factor was 330. The detection limits by three sigma were 0.50 {mu}g L{sup -1} for copper, 0.75 {mu}g L{sup -1} for nickel and 0.80 {mu}g L{sup -1} for cobalt. The loading capacity was 0.56 mg g{sup -1} for Ni{sup 2+}, 0.50 mg g{sup -1} for Cu{sup 2+} and 0.47 mg g{sup -1} for Co{sup 2+}. The presented procedure was applied to the determination of analytes in tap, river and sea waters, vegetable, soil and blood samples with successfully results (recoveries greater than 95%, R.S.D. lower than 2% for n = 3)

  4. High-performance reagent modes for flotation recovery of platiniferous copper and nickel sulfides from hard-to-beneficiate ores

    Matveeva, T. N.; Chanturiya, V. A.

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents the results of the recent research performed in IPKON Russian Academy of Sciences that deals with development and substantiation of new selective reagents for effective flotation recovery of non-ferrous and noble metals from refractory ores. The choice and development of new selective reagents PTTC, OPDTC, modified butylxanthate (BXm) and modified diethyl-dithiocarbamate (DEDTCm) to float platiniferous copper and nickel sulfide minerals from hard-to-beneficiate ores is substantiated. The mechanism of reagents adsorption and regulation of minerals floatability is discussed. The study of reagent modes indicates that by combining PTTC with the modified xanthate results in 6 - 7 % increase in the recovery of copper, nickel and PGM in the flotation of the low-sulfide platiniferous Cu-Ni ore from the Fedorovo-Panskoye deposit. The substitution of OPDTC for BX makes it possible to increase recovery of Pt by 13 %, Pd by 9 % and 2 - 4 times the noble metal content in the flotation concentrate.

  5. Removal of cadmium, copper, nickel, cobalt and mercury from water by Apatite IITM: Column experiments

    Oliva, Josep; De Pablo, Joan; Cortina, Jose-Luis; Cama, Jordi; Ayora, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The efficiency of Apatite II TM increases as the acidity decreases, then the application of apatite-based materials for metal removal treatments should be restricted to slightly acid to neutral waters. → Because of the preferred process of using phosphate ions to form metal-phosphate precipitates, the mixture with other sources of alkalinity, such as limestone, is proposed to extend the duration of Apatite II TM . → Compared with other reactive materials such as limestone and caustic magnesia that exhibit a reduction of porosity Apatite II TM showed stable hydraulic performance. → The extrapolation of the column durabilities to a 1-m-thick passive treatment suggests that the Apatite II TM filling can be active between 5 and 10 years for an inflow pH exceeding 5. - Abstract: Apatite II TM , a biogenic hydroxyapatite, was evaluated as a reactive material for heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Co, Ni and Hg) removal in passive treatments. Apatite II TM reacts with acid water by releasing phosphates that increase the pH up to 6.5-7.5, complexing and inducing metals to precipitate as metal phosphates. The evolution of the solution concentration of calcium, phosphate and metals together with SEM-EDS and XRD examinations were used to identify the retention mechanisms. SEM observation shows low-crystalline precipitate layers composed of P, O and M. Only in the case of Hg and Co were small amounts of crystalline phases detected. Solubility data values were used to predict the measured column experiment values and to support the removal process based on the dissolution of hydroxyapatite, the formation of metal-phosphate species in solution and the precipitation of metal phosphate. Cd 5 (PO 4 ) 3 OH(s), Cu 2 (PO 4 )OH(s), Ni 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (s), Co 3 (PO 4 ) 2 8H 2 O(s) and Hg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (s) are proposed as the possible mineral phases responsible for the removal processes. The results of the column experiments show that Apatite II TM is a suitable filling for permeable reactive barriers.

  6. Cancer incidence among copper smelting and nickel refining workers in Finland.

    Pavela, Markku; Uitti, Jukka; Pukkala, Eero

    2017-01-01

    Among workers employed at a nickel refinery in Harjavalta, Finland an increased risk of lung and sinus cancer has been demonstrated in two previous studies. The current study adds 16 more years of follow-up to these studies. A total of 1,115 persons exposed to nickel and 194 non-exposed workers in the Harjavalta nickel smelter and refinery were followed up for cancer from 1967 to 2011 through the Finnish Cancer Registry. The total number of cancer cases in men was 251 (Standardized incidence ratio (SIR) 1.05) and in women 12 (SIR 1.22). In the most nickel-exposed work site (refinery), there were 14 lung cancers (SIR 2.01) and 3 sinonasal cancers (SIR 26.7, 95%). It is likely that exposure to nickel compounds is the main reason for elevated nasal cancer risk among the nickel refinery employees and may also contribute to the excess risk of lung cancer. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:87-95, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Mercury

    Mahoney, T J

    2014-01-01

    This gazetteer and atlas on Mercury lists, defines and illustrates every named (as opposed to merely catalogued) object and term as related to Mercury within a single reference work. It contains a glossary of terminology used, an index of all the headwords in the gazetteer, an atlas comprising maps and images with coordinate grids and labels identifying features listed in the gazetteer, and appendix material on the IAU nomenclature system and the transcription systems used for non-roman alphabets. This book is useful for the general reader, writers and editors dealing with astronomical themes, and those astronomers concerned with any aspect of astronomical nomenclature.

  8. Mercury

    Balogh, André; Steiger, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Mercury, the planet closest to the Sun, is different in several respects from the other three terrestrial planets. In appearance, it resembles the heavily cratered surface of the Moon, but its density is high, it has a magnetic field and magnetosphere, but no atmosphere or ionosphere. This book reviews the progress made in Mercury studies since the flybys by Mariner 10 in 1974-75, based on the continued research using the Mariner 10 archive, on observations from Earth, and on increasingly realistic models of its interior evolution.

  9. Microstructure Evolution During Stainless Steel-Copper Vacuum Brazing with a Ag/Cu/Pd Filler Alloy: Effect of Nickel Plating

    Choudhary, R. K.; Laik, A.; Mishra, P.

    2017-03-01

    Vacuum brazing of stainless steel and copper plates was done using a silver-based filler alloy. In one set of experiments, around 30-µm-thick nickel coatings were electrochemically applied on stainless steel plates before carrying out the brazing runs and its effect in making changes in the braze-zone microstructure was studied. For brazing temperature of 830 °C, scanning electron microscopy examination of the braze-zone revealed that relatively sound joints were obtained when brazing was done with nickel-coated stainless steel than with uncoated one. However, when brazing of nickel-coated stainless steel and copper plates was done at 860 °C, a wide crack appeared in the braze-zone adjacent to copper side. Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis and electron microprobe analysis confirmed that at higher temperature, the diffusion of Cu atoms from copper plate towards the braze-zone was faster than that of Ni atoms from nickel coating. Helium leak rate of the order 10-11 Pa m3/s was obtained for the crack-free joint, whereas this value was higher than 10-4 Pa m3/s for the joint having crack. The shear strength of the joint was found to decrease considerably due to the presence of crack.

  10. [CHEMICAL AIR POLLUTION OF THE OCCUPATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AS A FACTOR FOR PROFESSIONAL RISK FOR WORKERS OF MAIN OCCUPATIONS IN THE COPPER AND NICKEL METALLURGY].

    Lipatov, G Ia; Adrianovskiĭ, V I; Gogoleva, O I

    2015-01-01

    There are presented the results of hygienic researches of the harmful substances content in the air of the working area ofthe copper and nickel metallurgy. Sulfur-containing gases (primarily sulfur dioxide), to the effects of which there are exposed workers of drying, smelting, converter conversion, are shown to play a leading role among professional factors.

  11. Simultaneous determination of trace-levels of alloying zinc and copper by semi-mercury-free potentiometric stripping analysis with chemometric data treatment

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Hansen, Elo Harald

    1998-01-01

    Assays of copper and zinc in brass samples were performed by Semi-Mercury Free Potentiometric Stripping Analysis (S-MF PSA) using a thin-film mercury covered glassy-carbon working electrode and dissolved oxygen as oxidizing agent during the stripping step. The stripping peak transients were...... resolved by chemometrics which enabled simultaneous determination of both the copper and the zinc concentrations, thereby eliminating the conventional necessary pretreatment of the sample solution, such as initial addition of Ga(III) or solvent extraction of copper. The brass samples were diluted...... by factors in the range 2.104 - 5.105 which resulted in quantification of the copper and of zinc contents comparable to the specified values within 10%. On the basis of the chemometric treatment, an empirical expression is deduced relating the stripping time to the recorded potential....

  12. Adhesion strength of nickel and zinc coatings with copper base electroplated in conditions of external stimulation by laser irradiance

    V. V. Dudkina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The investigation of laser irradiance influence on the adhesion strength of nickel and zinc coatings with copper base and the research of initial stages of crystallization for nickel and zinc films. Methodology. Electrodeposition of nickel and zinc films from the standard sulphate electrolyte solutions was carried out on the laser-electrolytic installations, built on the basis of gas discharge CO2-laser and solid ruby laser KVANT-12. The adhesion strength of metal coatings with copper base are defined not only qualitatively using the method of meshing and by means of multiple bending, but also quantitatively by means of indention of diamond pyramid into the border line between coating and base of the side section. Spectrum microanalysis of the element composition of the border line “film and base” is carried out using the electronic microscope REMMA-102-02. Findings. Laser irradiance application of the cathode region in the process of electroplating of metal coatings enables the adhesion strength improvement of coating with the base. Experimental results of adhesive strength of the films and the spectrum analysis of the element composition for the border line between film and base showed that during laser-assisted electroplating the diffusion interaction between coating elements and the base metal surface takes place. As a result of this interaction the coating metal diffuses into the base metal, forming transition diffused layer, which enhances the improvement of adhesion strength of the coatings with the base. Originality. It is found out that ion energy increase in the double electric layer during interaction with laser irradiance affects cathode supersaturation at the stage of crystallization. Hence, it also affects the penetration depth of electroplated material ions into the base metal, which leads to the adhesion strength enhancement. Practical value. On the basis of research results obtained during the laser

  13. Alleviation of mandibular anterior crowding with copper-nickel-titanium vs nickel-titanium wires: a double-blind randomized control trial.

    Pandis, Nikolaos; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Eliades, Theodore

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of copper-nickel-titanium (CuNiTi) vs nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwires in resolving crowding of the anterior mandibular dentition. Sixty patients were included in this single-center, single-operator, double-blind randomized trial. All patients were bonded with the In Ovation-R self-ligating bracket (GAC, Central Islip, NY) with a 0.022-in slot, and the amount of crowding of the mandibular anterior dentition was assessed by using the irregularity index. The patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups of 30 patients, each receiving a 0.016-in CuNiTi 35 degrees C (Ormco, Glendora, Calif) or a 0.016-in NiTi (ModernArch, Wyomissing, Pa) wire. The type of wire selected for each patient was not disclosed to the provider or the patient. The date that each patient received a wire was recorded, and all patients were followed monthly for a maximum of 6 months. Demographic and clinical characteristics between the 2 wire groups were compared with the t test or the chi-square test and the Fisher exact test. Time to resolve crowding was explored with statistical methods for survival analysis, and alignment rate ratios for wire type and crowding level were calculated with Cox proportional hazards multivariate modeling. The type of wire (CuNiTi vs NiTi) had no significant effect on crowding alleviation (129.4 vs 121.4 days; hazard ratio, 1.3; P >0.05). Severe crowding (>5 on the irregularity index) showed a significantly higher probability of crowding alleviation duration relative to dental arches with a score of wires in laboratory and clinical conditions might effectively eliminate the laboratory-derived advantage of CuNiTi wires.

  14. Syntheses, structures and characterizations of three novel vanadium selenites with organically bonded copper/nickel complex

    Qian, Cheng; Kong, Fang; Mao, Jiang-Gao

    2016-01-01

    A series of vanadium selenites covalently bonded with metal-organic complex, namely, Ni(2,2-bipy) 2 V 2 O 4 (SeO 3 ) 2 (1), Cu(2,2-bipy)V 2 O 4 (SeO 3 ) 2 ·0.5H 2 O (2) and Cu 2 (2,2-bipy) 2 V 5 O 12 (SeO 3 ) 2 (3) (2,2-bipy=2,2-bipyridine) have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. They exhibit three different structural dimensions, from 0D cluster, 1D chain to 2D layer. Compound 1 features a 0D {Ni(2,2-bipy) 2 V 2 O 4 (SeO 3 ) 2 } 2 dimeric cluster composed of two {Ni(2,2-bipy) 2 } 2+ moieties connected by the {V 4 O 8 (SeO 3 ) 4 } 4- cluster. Compound 2 shows a 1D {Cu(2,2-bipy)V 2 O 4 (SeO 3 ) 2 } n chain in which the {Cu 2 (2,2-bipy) 2 } 4+ moieties are bridged by the {V 4 O 8 (SeO 3 ) 4 } 4− clusters. Compound 3 displays a 2D structure consisted of mixed valence vanadium selenites layers {V IV V V 4 Se IV 2 O 18 } n 4− and {Cu(2,2-bipy)} 2+ complex moieties. The adjacent layers are further interconnected via π-π interactions between the 2,2-bipy ligands exhibiting an interesting 3D supramolecular architecture. Both compound 1 and 2 contain a new {V 4 O 8 (SeO 3 ) 4 } 4− cluster and compound 3 exhibits the first 2D vanadate polyhedral layer in vanadium selenites/tellurites with organic moieties. - Graphical abstract: We got three new vanadium selenites with organically linked copper/nickel complex, namely, Ni(2,2-bipy) 2 V 2 O 4 (SeO 3 ) 2 (1), Cu(2,2-bipy)V 2 O 4 (SeO 3 ) 2 ·0.5H 2 O (2) and Cu 2 (2,2-bipy) 2 V 5 O 12 (SeO 3 ) 2 (3) by hydrothermally syntheses. They display three different structural dimensions, from 0D cluster, to 1D chain and 2D layer. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Three new compounds display three different structural dimensions, from 0D cluster, to 1D chain and 2D layer. • The Tetranuclear {V 4 O 8 (SeO 3 ) 4 } 4− cluster and the vanadate {V 5 O 17 } n 2D layer are observed firstly. • Optical Properties and Magnetic Properties of three compounds are reported.

  15. Syntheses, structures and characterizations of three novel vanadium selenites with organically bonded copper/nickel complex

    Qian, Cheng [College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Kong, Fang [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Mao, Jiang-Gao, E-mail: mjg@fjirsm.ac.cn [College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002 (China)

    2016-06-15

    A series of vanadium selenites covalently bonded with metal-organic complex, namely, Ni(2,2-bipy){sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 4}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2} (1), Cu(2,2-bipy)V{sub 2}O{sub 4}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2}·0.5H{sub 2}O (2) and Cu{sub 2}(2,2-bipy){sub 2}V{sub 5}O{sub 12}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2} (3) (2,2-bipy=2,2-bipyridine) have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. They exhibit three different structural dimensions, from 0D cluster, 1D chain to 2D layer. Compound 1 features a 0D {Ni(2,2-bipy)_2V_2O_4(SeO_3)_2}{sub 2} dimeric cluster composed of two {Ni(2,2-bipy)_2}{sup 2+} moieties connected by the {V_4O_8(SeO_3)_4}{sup 4-} cluster. Compound 2 shows a 1D {Cu(2,2-bipy)V_2O_4(SeO_3)_2}{sub n} chain in which the {Cu_2(2,2-bipy)_2}{sup 4+} moieties are bridged by the {V_4O_8(SeO_3)_4}{sup 4−} clusters. Compound 3 displays a 2D structure consisted of mixed valence vanadium selenites layers {V"I"VV"V_4Se"I"V_2O_1_8}{sub n}{sup 4−} and {Cu(2,2-bipy)}{sup 2+} complex moieties. The adjacent layers are further interconnected via π-π interactions between the 2,2-bipy ligands exhibiting an interesting 3D supramolecular architecture. Both compound 1 and 2 contain a new {V_4O_8(SeO_3)_4}{sup 4−} cluster and compound 3 exhibits the first 2D vanadate polyhedral layer in vanadium selenites/tellurites with organic moieties. - Graphical abstract: We got three new vanadium selenites with organically linked copper/nickel complex, namely, Ni(2,2-bipy){sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 4}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2} (1), Cu(2,2-bipy)V{sub 2}O{sub 4}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2}·0.5H{sub 2}O (2) and Cu{sub 2}(2,2-bipy){sub 2}V{sub 5}O{sub 12}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2} (3) by hydrothermally syntheses. They display three different structural dimensions, from 0D cluster, to 1D chain and 2D layer. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Three new compounds display three different structural dimensions, from 0D cluster, to 1D chain and 2D layer. • The Tetranuclear {V_4O_8(SeO_3)_4}{sup 4−} cluster and the vanadate {V

  16. Adsorption characteristics of Copper (Ⅱ), Zinc (Ⅱ) and Mercury (Ⅱ) by four kinds of immobilized fungi residues.

    Li, Xia; Zhang, Dan; Sheng, Fei; Qing, Hui

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the adsorption characteristics of Copper (Ⅱ), Zinc (Ⅱ) and Mercury (Ⅱ) by immobilized Flammulina velutipes, Auricularia polytricha, Pleurotus eryngii and Pleurotus ostreatus residues. Lagergren model, elovich and intraparticle diffusion model were used to present the adsorption kinetics, and it was proved that Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second order kinetics are the best suitable model with high correlation coefficient to characterize the adsorption process of Copper (Ⅱ), Zinc (Ⅱ) and Mercury (Ⅱ). The results showed that adsorption process finished in 120min at pH 6.0. The adsorption rate of Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ and Hg 2+ were reached to 53.8-84.1% of total in the initial 60min, and finished in 120min. Ion exchange and complexation of F. velutipes were the main mechanisms for adsorption of metal ions by characterizations of Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). In addition the functional group of cell walls such as hydroxyl, amide, carbonyl, phosphoric played a critical role in ions adsorption of edible mushroom residues. Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ and Hg 2+ in wastewater could be efficiently removed by F. velutipes residue with removal ratio of 73.11%, 66.67% and 69.35%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Synchronous determination of mercury (II) and copper (II) based on quantum dots-multilayer film

    Ma Qiang; Ha Enna; Yang Fengping; Su Xingguang

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: We developed a sensitive sensor for synchronous detection of Hg (II) and Cu (II) based on the quenchedand recovered PL intensity of QDs-multilayer films. Solutions containing Hg (II) or Cu (II) were used to quench the fluorescence of the QDs-multilayer films firstly. Then, glutathione (GSH) was used to remove Hg (II) or Cu (II) from the QDs-multilayer films due to stronger affinity of GSH-metal ions than that of QDs metal ions. Thus, the fluorescence of QDs-multilayer films was recovered. Highlights: → QDs-multilayer films were developed for synchronous detection of Hg (II) and Cu (II). → Hg (II) and Cu (II) could quench the photoluminescence of the QDs-multilayer films. → Glutathione was used to remove metal ions and recovery photoluminescence of QDs-multilayer films. - Abstract: A sensitive sensor for mercury (II) and copper (II) synchronous detection was established via the changed photoluminescence of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) multilayer films in this work. QDs were deposited on the quartz slides to form QDs-multilayer films by electrostatic interactions with poly(dimethyldiallyl ammonium chloride) (PDDA). Hg 2+ or Cu 2+ could quench the photoluminescence of the QDs-multilayer films, and glutathione (GSH) was used to remove Hg 2+ or Cu 2+ from QDs-multilayer films due to strong affinity of GSH-metal ions, which resulted in the recovered photoluminescence of QDs-multilayer films. There are good linear relationships between the metal ions concentration and the photoluminescence intensity of QDs in the quenched and recovered process. It was found that the Stern-Volmer constants for Hg 2+ are higher than that for Cu 2+ . Based on different quenching and recovery constant between Hg 2+ and Cu 2+ , the synchronous detection of Hg 2+ and Cu 2+ can be achieved. The linear ranges of this assay were obtained from 0.005 to 0.5 μM for Hg 2+ and from 0.01 to 1 μM for Cu 2+ , respectively. And the artificial water samples were determined by this

  18. Catalytic reduction of NOx in gasoline engine exhaust over copper- and nickel-exchanged X-zeolite catalysts

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Das, R.K.

    2001-01-01

    Catalytic removal of NO x in engine exhaust gases can be accomplished by non-selective reduction, selective reduction and decomposition. Noble metals are extensively used for non-selective reduction of NO x and up to 90% of engine NO x emissions can be reduced in a stoichiometric exhaust. This requirement of having the stoichiometric fuel-air ratio acts against efficiency improvement of engines. Selective NO x reduction in the presence of different reductants such as, NH 3 , urea or hydrocarbons, requires close control of the amount of reductant being injected which otherwise may be emitted as a pollutant. Catalytic decomposition is the best option for NO x removal. Nevertheless, catalysts which are durable, economic and active for NO x reduction at normal engine exhaust temperature ranges are still being investigated. Three catalysts based on X-zeolite have been developed by exchanging the Na+ ion with copper, nickel and copper-nickel metal ions and applied to the exhaust of a stationary gasoline engine to explore their potential for catalytic reduction of NO x under a wide range of engine and exhaust conditions. Some encouraging results have been obtained. The catalyst Cu-X exhibits much better NO x reduction performance at any temperature in comparison to Cu-Ni-X and Ni-X; while Cu-Ni-X catalyst exhibits slightly better performance than Ni-X catalyst. Maximum NO x efficiency achieved with Cu-X catalyst is 59.2% at a space velocity (sv) of 31 000 h -1 ; while for Cu-Ni-X and Ni-X catalysts the equivalent numbers are 60.4% and 56% respectively at a sv of 22 000 h -1 . Unlike noble metals, the doped X-zeolite catalysts exhibit significant NO x reduction capability for a wide range of air/fuel ratio and with a slower rate of decline as well with increase in air/fuel ratio. (author)

  19. New excitation functions for proton induced reactions on natural titanium, nickel and copper up to 70 MeV

    Garrido, E. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Université de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, Nantes (France); Duchemin, C., E-mail: Charlotte.Duchemin@subatech.in2p3.fr [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Université de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, Nantes (France); Guertin, A. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Université de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, Nantes (France); Haddad, F.; Michel, N. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Université de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, Nantes (France); GIP Arronax, 1 rue Aronnax, 44817 Saint-Herblain (France); Métivier, V. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Université de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, Nantes (France)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Natural titanium, nickel and copper targets. • 70 MeV ARRONAX cyclotron proton beam. • Stacked-foil technique and monitor reactions. • Experimental cross section values. • TALYS code version 1.6. - Abstract: New excitation functions for proton induced nuclear reactions on natural titanium, nickel and copper were measured, using the stacked-foil technique and gamma spectrometry, up to 70 MeV. The experimental cross sections were measured using the Ti-nat(p,x) V-48, Ni-nat(p,x) Ni-57 and Cu-nat(p,x) Zn-62,Co-56 monitor reactions recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), depending on the investigated energy range. Data have been extracted for the Ti-nat(p,x) Sc-43,44m,46,47,48, V-48, K-42,43, Ni-nat(p,x) Ni-56,57, Co-55,56,57,58, Mn-52,54, Cu-nat(p,x) Cu-61,64, Ni-57, Co-56,57,58,60, Zn-62,65, Mn-54 reactions. Our results are discussed and compared to the existing ones as well as with the TALYS code version 1.6 calculations using default models. Our experimental data are in overall good agreement with the literature. TALYS is able to reproduce, in most cases, the experimental trend. Our new experimental results allow to expand our knowledge on these excitation functions, to confirm the existing trends and to give additional values on a large energy range. This work is in line with the new Coordinated Research Project (CRP) launched by the IAEA to expand the database of monitor reactions.

  20. Preparation, characterization, and kinetics of thermolysis of nickel and copper nitrate complexes with 2,2 Prime -bipyridine ligand

    Kumar, Dinesh; Kapoor, I.P.S. [Department of Chemistry, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273 009 (India); Singh, Gurdip, E-mail: gsingh4us@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273 009 (India); Froehlich, Roland [Institut fuer Organische Chemie, Universitaet Muenster, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)

    2012-10-10

    Graphical abstract: Nickel and copper nitrate complexes with 2,2 Prime -bipyridine, nitrate and water ligands have been prepared and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR and CHN analyses. Thermolysis was performed by using TG, DTA and ignition delay measurements. The kinetics of thermolysis were also evaluated. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preparation and characterization of Ni and Cu nitrate complexes have been reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermolysis has been carried out using TG-DTA and ignition delay measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Their thermal decomposition pathways have been proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxides residues as end product of thermolysis were revealed by XRD patterns. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kinetics of their isothermal decomposition was evaluated. - Abstract: Nickel and copper nitrate complexes with 2,2 Prime -bipyridine (bipy) as a N donor and nitrate and water as oxygen donor ligands of the general formula [M(NO{sub 3})(C{sub 10}H{sub 8}N{sub 2})(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}](NO{sub 3}), where M = Ni and Cu, have been obtained from the corresponding metal nitrate salts. These complexes were characterized by X-ray crystallography, FT-IR, and CHN analysis. Both the complexes have been found to be six coordinated. Their thermal decomposition behaviour was investigated by TG, DTA, and ignition delay measurements. TG-DTA examinations of these complexes revealed multistep thermal decomposition. The corresponding metal oxide residues obtained after thermolysis were identified from their X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD). Kinetics of isothermal decomposition of the complexes was established from both the model-fitting as well as isoconversional methods.

  1. Characterization of laser doped silicon and overcoming adhesion challenges of solar cells with nickel-copper plated contacts

    Geisler, Christian

    2015-07-01

    The combination of localized laser patterning and metal plating allows to replace conventional silver screen printing with nickel-copper plating to form inexpensive front contacts for crystalline silicon solar cells. In this work, a focus is put on effects that could cause inhomogeneous metal deposition and low metal contact adhesion. A descriptive model of the silicon nitride ablation mechanism is derived from SEM imaging and a precise recombination analysis using QSSPC measurements. Surface sensitive XPS measurements are conducted to prove the existence of a parasitic surface layer, identified as SiO{sub x}N{sub y}. The dense SiO{sub x}N{sub y} layer is an effective diffusion barrier, hindering the formation of a nickel silicide interlayer. After removal of the SiO{sub x}N{sub y} layer, cells show severe degradation caused by metal-induced shunting. These shunts are imaged using reverse biased electroluminescence imaging. A shunting mechanism is proposed and experimentally verified. New laser process sequences are devised and proven to produce cells with adhering Ni-Cu contacts. Conclusively the developed processes are assessed based on their industrial feasibility as well as on their efficiency potential.

  2. Secondary poisoning of cadmium, copper and mercury: implications for the Maximum Permissible Concentrations and Negligible Concentrations in water, sediment and soil

    Smit CE; Wezel AP van; Jager T; Traas TP; CSR

    2000-01-01

    The impact of secondary poisoning on the Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPCs) and Negligible Concentrations (NCs) of cadmium, copper and mercury in water, sediment and soil have been evaluated. Field data on accumulation of these elements by fish, mussels and earthworms were used to derive

  3. Effect of Reaction Temperature on Carbon Yield and Morphology of CNTs on Copper Loaded Nickel Nanoparticles

    Hu Ming

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was attempted to introduce carbon nanotubes (CNTs onto surface of copper powders in order to improve heat transfer performance of copper matrix for engineering application of electrical packaging materials. The Ni/MgO catalyst was formed on the copper powders surface by means of codeposition method. CVD technique was executed to fabricate uniform CNTs on copper powders and effect of reaction temperature on the morphology of CNTs was surveyed. The results showed that CNTs products on the copper powder surface were distributed uniformly even if reaction temperature was different. The diameter dimension of CNTs was within the scope of 30~60 nm. Growth behaviors of CNTs by CVD method were considered to be “tip-growth” mechanism. Raman spectra of CNTs proved that intensity ratio of D-band to G-band (ID/IG increased as deposition reaction temperature increased, which implied that order degree of graphitic structure in synthesized CNTs improved.

  4. Evaluation of heavy metals level (arsenic, nickel, mercury and lead effecting on health in drinking water resource of Kohgiluyeh county using geographic information system (GIS

    Abdolazim Alinejad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the amount of heavy metals (Arsenic, Nickel, Mercury, and Lead in drinking water resource of Kohgiluyeh County using Geographic Information System (GIS. This cross-sectional study was conducted on drinking water resource of Kohgiluyeh County (33 water supplies and 4 heavy metals in 2013. 264 samples were analyzed in this study. The experiments were performed at the laboratory of Water and Wastewater Company based on Standard Method. The Atomic Adsorption was used to evaluate the amount of heavy metals. The results were mapping by Geographic Information System software (GIS 9.3 after processing of parameters. Finally, the data were analyzed by SPSS 16 and Excel 2007. The maximum amount of each heavy metal and its resource were shown as follow: Nickel or Ni (Source of w12, 124ppb, Arsenic or As (w33, 42 ppb, Mercury or Hg (w22 and w30, 96ppb, Lead or Pb (w21, 1553ppb. Also, the GIS maps showed that Lead in the central region was very high, Mercury and Arsenic in the northern region were high and Nickel in the eastern and western regions was high. The Kriging method and Gauss model were introduced as best method for interpolation of these metals. Since the concentration of these heavy metals was higher than standard levels in most drinking water supplies in Kohgiluyeh County and these high levels of heavy metals can cause the adverse effects on human health; therefore, the environmental and geological studies are necessary to identify the pollution resource and elimination and removal of heavy metals

  5. SYNTHESIS AND ANTITUMOR ACTIVITY OF COPPER, NICKEL AND COBALT COORDINATION COMPOUNDS WITH 1-(2-HYDROXYPHENYL)ETHANONE N(4)-ALLYL-3-THIOSEMICARBAZONE

    Vasilii GRAUR; Serghei SAVCIN; Victor TSAPKOV; Aurelian GULEA

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the synthesis of the ligand 1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)ethanone N(4)-allyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (H2L) and six coordination compounds of copper, nickel and cobalt with this ligand. The structure of thiosemicarbazone H2L was studied using 1H and 13С NMR spectroscopy. The synthesized coordination compounds were studied using elemental analysis, gravimetric analysis of water content, molar conductivity, and magnetochemistry. For H2L the antitumor activity towards human leukemia HL-60 ce...

  6. The target preparation of "2"3"2Th plated on the nickel with copper as substrate and "2"3"0Pa generation

    Shen Hua; Geng Junxia; Gao Size; Zhang Guoxin; Zhang Lan; Li Wenxin; Li Qingnuan; Wu Guozhong

    2014-01-01

    The electrochemical parameters on nickel plating on the copper have been studied using aqueous electroplating technique. And thorium is plated on the nickel flake using molecular plating technique. The better experimental parameters are obtained. According to these optimized parameters, the "2"3"2Th target which is suitable for Cyclone-30 accelerator is prepared. The proton beam with energy of 21 MeV bombed the "2"3"2Th target (total beam time 20 μAh). The results showed that the better range of plating current density of nickel plated on copper is l.30∼1.68 A/dm"2. The thickness of nickel plating layer can reach more than 10 μm. The current density is 3∼5 mA/cm"2, and the thickness of plated thorium layer is up to micrometer scale. The binding force of as-prepared "2"3"2Th target is very well. There is "2"3"0Pa appeared after the target is bombed by the proton beam. (authors)

  7. Novel Microbial Assemblages Dominate Weathered Sulfide-Bearing Rock from Copper-Nickel Deposits in the Duluth Complex, Minnesota, USA.

    Jones, Daniel S; Lapakko, Kim A; Wenz, Zachary J; Olson, Michael C; Roepke, Elizabeth W; Sadowsky, Michael J; Novak, Paige J; Bailey, Jake V

    2017-08-15

    The Duluth Complex in northeastern Minnesota hosts economically significant deposits of copper, nickel, and platinum group elements (PGEs). The primary sulfide mineralogy of these deposits includes the minerals pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, pentlandite, and cubanite, and weathering experiments show that most sulfide-bearing rock from the Duluth Complex generates moderately acidic leachate (pH 4 to 6). Microorganisms are important catalysts for metal sulfide oxidation and could influence the quality of water from mines in the Duluth Complex. Nevertheless, compared with that of extremely acidic environments, much less is known about the microbial ecology of moderately acidic sulfide-bearing mine waste, and so existing information may have little relevance to those microorganisms catalyzing oxidation reactions in the Duluth Complex. Here, we characterized the microbial communities in decade-long weathering experiments (kinetic tests) conducted on crushed rock and tailings from the Duluth Complex. Analyses of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts showed that differences among microbial communities correspond to pH, rock type, and experimental treatment. Moreover, microbial communities from the weathered Duluth Complex rock were dominated by taxa that are not typically associated with acidic mine waste. The most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were from the genera Meiothermus and Sulfuriferula , as well as from diverse clades of uncultivated Chloroflexi , Acidobacteria , and Betaproteobacteria Specific taxa, including putative sulfur-oxidizing Sulfuriferula spp., appeared to be primarily associated with Duluth Complex rock, but not pyrite-bearing rocks subjected to the same experimental treatment. We discuss the implications of these results for the microbial ecology of moderately acidic mine waste with low sulfide content, as well as for kinetic testing of mine waste. IMPORTANCE Economic sulfide mineral deposits in the Duluth Complex may represent the largest

  8. Effect of Microstructures on Working Properties of Nickel-Manganese-Copper Cast Iron

    Daniel Medyński

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the effects, on basic usable properties (abrasive wear and corrosion resistance, of solidification (acc. to the stable and non-stable equilibrium system and transformations occurring in the matrix during the cooling of castings of Ni-Mn-Cu cast iron were determined. Abrasive wear resistance was mainly determined by the types and arrangements of high-carbon phases (indicated by eutectic saturation degree, and the kinds of matrices (indicated by the nickel equivalent value, calculated from chemical composition. The highest abrasive wear resistance was found for white cast iron, with the highest degree of austenite to martensite transformation occurring in its matrix. Irrespective of solidification, a decrease of the equivalent value below a limit value resulted in increased austenite transformation, and thus, to a significant rise in hardness and abrasive wear resistance for the castings. At the same time, corrosion resistance of the alloy was slightly reduced. The examinations showed that corrosion resistance of Ni-Mn-Cu cast iron is, too a much lesser degree, decided by the means of solidification of the castings, rather than transformations occurring in the matrix, as controlled by nickel equivalent value (especially elements with high electrochemical potential.

  9. Visibility and oxidation stability of hybrid-type copper mesh electrodes with combined nickel-carbon nanotube coating

    Kim, Bu-Jong; Hwang, Young-Jin; Park, Jin-Seok

    2017-04-01

    Hybrid-type transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) were fabricated by coating copper (Cu) meshes with carbon nanotube (CNT) via electrophoretic deposition, and with nickel (Ni) via electroplating. For the fabricated electrodes, the effects of the coating with CNT and Ni on their transmittance and reflectance in the visible-light range, electrical sheet resistance, and chromatic parameters (e.g., redness and yellowness) were characterized. Also, an oxidation stability test was performed by exposing the electrodes to air for 20 d at 85 °C and 85% temperature and humidity conditions, respectively. It was discovered that the CNT coating considerably reduced the reflectance of the Cu meshes, and that the Ni coating effectively protected the Cu meshes against oxidation. Furthermore, after the coating with CNT, both the redness and yellowness of the Cu mesh regardless of the Ni coating approached almost zero, indicating a natural color. The experiment results confirmed that the hybrid-type Cu meshes with combined Ni-CNT coating improved characteristics in terms of reflectance, sheet resistance, oxidation stability, and color, superior to those of the primitive Cu mesh, and also simultaneously satisfied most of the requirements for TCEs.

  10. Sintering behavior and thermal conductivity of nickel-coated graphite flake/copper composites fabricated by spark plasma sintering

    Xu, Hui; Chen, Jian-hao; Ren, Shu-bin; He, Xin-bo; Qu, Xuan-hui

    2018-04-01

    Nickel-coated graphite flakes/copper (GN/Cu) composites were fabricated by spark plasma sintering with the surface of graphite flakes (GFs) being modified by Ni-P electroless plating. The effects of the phase transition of the amorphous Ni-P plating and of Ni diffusion into the Cu matrix on the densification behavior, interfacial microstructure, and thermal conductivity (TC) of the GN/Cu composites were systematically investigated. The introduction of Ni-P electroless plating efficiently reduced the densification temperature of uncoated GF/Cu composites from 850 to 650°C and slightly increased the TC of the X-Y basal plane of the GF/Cu composites with 20vol%-30vol% graphite flakes. However, when the graphite flake content was greater than 30vol%, the TC of the GF/Cu composites decreased with the introduction of Ni-P plating as a result of the combined effect of the improved heat-transfer interface with the transition layer, P generated at the interface, and the diffusion of Ni into the matrix. Given the effect of the Ni content on the TC of the Cu matrix and on the interface thermal resistance, a modified effective medium approximation model was used to predict the TC of the prepared GF/Cu composites.

  11. Pyruvic oxime nitrification and copper and nickel resistance by a Cupriavidus pauculus, an active heterotrophic nitrifier-denitrifier.

    Ramirez, Miguel; Obrzydowski, Jennifer; Ayers, Mary; Virparia, Sonia; Wang, Meijing; Stefan, Kurtis; Linchangco, Richard; Castignetti, Domenic

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrophic nitrifiers synthesize nitrogenous gasses when nitrifying ammonium ion. A Cupriavidus pauculus, previously thought an Alcaligenes sp. and noted as an active heterotrophic nitrifier-denitrifier, was examined for its ability to produce nitrogen gas (N2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) while heterotrophically nitrifying the organic substrate pyruvic oxime [CH3-C(NOH)-COOH]. Neither N2 nor N2O were produced. Nucleotide and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the organism is a member of a genus (Cupriavidus) known for its resistance to metals and its metabolism of xenobiotics. The microbe (a Cupriavidus pauculus designated as C. pauculus strain UM1) was examined for its ability to perform heterotrophic nitrification in the presence of Cu(2+) and Ni(2+) and to metabolize the xenobiotic phenol. The bacterium heterotrophically nitrified well when either 1 mM Cu(2+) or 0.5 mM Ni(2+) was present in either enriched or minimal medium. The organism also used phenol as a sole carbon source in either the presence or absence of 1 mM Cu(2+) or 0.5 mM Ni(2+). The ability of this isolate to perform a number of different metabolisms, its noteworthy resistance to copper and nickel, and its potential use as a bioremediation agent are discussed.

  12. Nanoparticles of zinc sulfide doped with manganese, nickel and copper as nanophotocatalyst in the degradation of organic dyes

    Pouretedal, Hamid Reza; Norozi, Abbas; Keshavarz, Mohammad Hossein; Semnani, Abolfazl

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticles of zinc sulfide as undoped and doped with manganese, nickel and copper were used as photocatalyst in the photodegradation of methylene blue and safranin as color pollutants. Photoreactivity of doped zinc sulfide was varied with dopant, mole fraction of dopant to zinc ion, pH of solution, dosage of photocatalyst and concentration of dye. The characterization of nanoparticles was studied using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) patterns and UV-vis spectra. The maximum degradation efficiency was obtained in the presence of Zn 0.98 Mn 0.02 S, Zn 0.94 Ni 0.06 S and Zn 0.90 Cu 0.10 S as nanophotocatalyst. The effect of dosage of photocatalyst was studied in the range of 20-250 mg/L. It was seen that 150.0 mg/L of photocatacyst is an optimum value for the dosage of photocatalyst. The most degradation efficiency was obtained in alkaline pH of 11.0 with study of photodegradation in pH amplitude of 2-12. The degradation efficiency was decreased in dye concentrations above of 5.0 mg/L for methylene blue and safranin dyes. In the best conditions, the degradation efficiency was obtained 87.3-95.6 and 85.4-93.2 for methylene blue and safranin, respectively

  13. Bioleaching of gold, copper and nickel from waste cellular phone PCBs and computer goldfinger motherboards by two Aspergillus nigerstrains

    Jorge Enrique Madrigal-Arias

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to develop alternate techniques to recover metals from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE, this research evaluated the bioleaching efficiency of gold (Au, copper (Cu and nickel (Ni by two strains of Aspergillus niger in the presence of gold-plated finger integrated circuits found in computer motherboards (GFICMs and cellular phone printed circuit boards (PCBs. These three metals were analyzed for their commercial value and their diverse applications in the industry. Au-bioleaching ranged from 42 to 1% for Aspergillus niger strain MXPE6; with the combination of Aspergillus niger MXPE6 + Aspergillus niger MX7, the Au-bioleaching was 87 and 28% for PCBs and GFICMs, respectively. In contrast, the bioleaching of Cu by Aspergillus niger MXPE6 was 24 and 5%; using the combination of both strains, the values were 0.2 and 29% for PCBs and GFICMs, respectively. Fungal Ni-leaching was only found for PCBs, but with no significant differences among treatments. Improvement of the metal recovery efficiency by means of fungal metabolism is also discussed.

  14. Bioleaching of gold, copper and nickel from waste cellular phone PCBs and computer goldfinger motherboards by two Aspergillus nigerstrains.

    Madrigal-Arias, Jorge Enrique; Argumedo-Delira, Rosalba; Alarcón, Alejandro; Mendoza-López, Ma Remedios; García-Barradas, Oscar; Cruz-Sánchez, Jesús Samuel; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Jiménez-Fernández, Maribel

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to develop alternate techniques to recover metals from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), this research evaluated the bioleaching efficiency of gold (Au), copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) by two strains of Aspergillus niger in the presence of gold-plated finger integrated circuits found in computer motherboards (GFICMs) and cellular phone printed circuit boards (PCBs). These three metals were analyzed for their commercial value and their diverse applications in the industry. Au-bioleaching ranged from 42 to 1% for Aspergillus niger strain MXPE6; with the combination of Aspergillus niger MXPE6 + Aspergillus niger MX7, the Au-bioleaching was 87 and 28% for PCBs and GFICMs, respectively. In contrast, the bioleaching of Cu by Aspergillus niger MXPE6 was 24 and 5%; using the combination of both strains, the values were 0.2 and 29% for PCBs and GFICMs, respectively. Fungal Ni-leaching was only found for PCBs, but with no significant differences among treatments. Improvement of the metal recovery efficiency by means of fungal metabolism is also discussed.

  15. Relationships between soil properties and toxicity of copper and nickel to bok choy and tomato in Chinese soils.

    Li, Bo; Zhang, Hongtao; Ma, Yibing; McLaughlin, Mike J

    2013-10-01

    The toxicity of copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) to bok choy and tomato shoot growth was investigated in a wide range of Chinese soils with and without leaching with artificial rainwater. The results showed that the variations of Ni toxicity induced by soil properties were wider than those of Cu toxicity to both tomato and bok choy plant growth. Leaching generally decreased the toxicity of Cu and Ni added to soils, which also depended on soils, metals, and test plant species. Soil factors controlling metal phytotoxicity were found to be soil pH and soil organic carbon content for Cu, and soil pH for Ni. It was also found that soil pH had stronger effects on Ni toxicity than on Cu toxicity. Predictive toxicity models based on these soil factors were developed. These toxicity models for Cu and Ni toxicity to tomato plant growth were validated using an independent data set for European soils. These models could be applied to predict the Cu and Ni phytotoxicity in not only Chinese soils but also European soils. © 2013 SETAC.

  16. Extreme pollution of soils by emissions of the copper-nickel industrial complex in the Kola Peninsula

    Kashulina, G. M.

    2017-07-01

    The distribution of the total Ni, Cu, Co, Cd, Pb, and Zn contents was studied in the soil profiles of six catenas in the zone subjected to emissions of the copper-nickel industrial complex, which is the largest source of SO2 and heavy metals in northern Europe. The results show that, at present, the concentrations of Ni and Cu in the upper organic soil horizons in the impact zone reach extreme levels of 9000 and 6000 mg/kg, respectively. Under conditions of the long-term intense multi-element industrial emissions, the modern levels of the accumulation of polluting substances in soils greatly depend on the indirect factors, such as the degree of the technogenic degradation of soils with the loss of a significant part of soil organic matter, the reaching of threshold saturation of the topsoil with polluting metals, and competitive relationships between chemical elements. The state of the ecosystems in the impact zone varied greatly and did not always agree with the contents of the main metals-pollutants in the soils. The moisture conditions determined by the landscape position affected significantly the resistance of the ecosystems to emissions.

  17. Changes in the concentrations of phenolics and photosynthates in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings exposed to nickel and copper

    Roitto, M. [MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Environmental Research, Karilantie 2A, FIN-50600 Mikkeli (Finland) and Department of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Niemenkatu 73, FIN-15140 Lahti (Finland)]. E-mail: marja.roitto@mtt.fi; Rautio, P. [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Research Station, Kaironiementie 54, FIN-39700 Parkano (Finland); Julkunen-Tiitto, R. [Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, PO Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Kukkola, E. [University of Helsinki, Department of Biosciences, Division of Plant Physiology, PO Box 56, FIN-00014, Helsinki (Finland); Huttunen, S. [Department of Biology, University of Oulu, PO Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland)

    2005-10-15

    Studies were done on the effects of elevated soil concentrations of copper (Cu) and (Ni) on foliar carbohydrates and phenolics in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Four year-old seedlings were planted in pots filled with metal-treated mineral forest soil in early June. The experimental design included all combinations of four levels of Cu (0, 25, 40 and 50 mg kg{sup -1} soil dw) and Ni (0, 5, 15 and 25 mg kg{sup -1} soil dw). Current year needles were sampled for soluble sugar, starch and phenolics at the end of September. Ni increased sucrose concentration in the needles, indicating disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism. Trees exposed to Ni had higher concentrations of condensed tannins compared with controls. In contrast, concentrations of several other phenolic compounds decreased when seedlings were exposed to high levels of Cu or to a combination of Ni and Cu. The results suggest that concentrations of phenolics in Scots pine needles vary in their responses to Ni and Cu in the forest soil. - Excess nickel in soil interferes with carbohydrate metabolism and induces an increase in concentration of condensed tannins in Scots pine needles.

  18. Nickel electroplating on copper pre-activated Al alloy in the electrolyte containing PEG1000 as an additive

    Guan, Jie; Wang, Jinwei; Zhang, Dawei

    2018-06-01

    Ni coatings are prepared on Cu-pretreated anodic Al alloy by electroplating technique in environment-friendly electrolytes with PEG1000 as an additive. Some defects like pores, cracks and even uncovered areas are observed for the sample of the Cu-pretreated anodic Al alloy, and these defects seem to be remedied with the following Ni electroplating as observed from their SEM images; while the covering effect of Ni onto the Cu layer is rather limited as judged by their corrosion current data of polarization test. After adding PEG1000 in the Ni electroplating electrolyte, the obtained coating surfaces are seen smoother and thicker; and most of the tiny particles are seen closely packed together with some bigger particles on them. The diffusion of nickel particles into copper layer are confirmed by the line and mapping mode of EDS element analysis for the Ni-Cu composite coating. Their much lower corrosion current density ( I corr) and higher micro-hardness support the fact that the addition of PEG1000 in Ni plating electrolyte has a function of promoting the refinement of Ni particles and the formation of more compacter, thicker and smoother Ni-Cu composite coating.

  19. Assessment of in situ and ex situ phytorestoration with grass mixtures in soils polluted with nickel, copper, and arsenic

    Zacarías Salinas, Montserrat; Beltrán Villavicencio, Margarita; Bustillos, Luis Gilberto Torres; González Aragón, Abelardo

    This work shows a study of in situ and ex situ phytoextraction as a polishing step in the treatment of an industrial urban soil polluted with nickel, arsenic and copper. The soil was previously washed, and phytoextraction was performed by application of a mixture of grass (Festuca rubra, Cynodon dactylon, Lolium multiforum, Pennisetum). The soil had initial heavy metals concentrations of 131 ppm for Ni, 717 for As and 2734 for Cu (mg of metal/kg of dry soil). After seeding and emerging of grass, vegetal and soil samples were taken monthly during 4 months. Biomass generation, and concentration of Ni, As and Cu in vegetal tissue and soil were determined for every sample. Plants biomass growth in ex situ process was inhibited by 37% when compared with blank soil. Grass showed remarkable phytoextraction capability in situ, it produced 38 g of biomass every 15 days (wet weight) during a period of 3 months, but then declined in the fourth month. Concentrations of metals in grass biomass were up to 83 mg Ni/kg, 649 mg As/kg and 305 mg Cu/kg dry weight. Metal reduction of 49% for Ni, and 35% for Cu and As was observed at rhizospheric soil.

  20. Changes in the concentrations of phenolics and photosynthates in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings exposed to nickel and copper

    Roitto, M.; Rautio, P.; Julkunen-Tiitto, R.; Kukkola, E.; Huttunen, S.

    2005-01-01

    Studies were done on the effects of elevated soil concentrations of copper (Cu) and (Ni) on foliar carbohydrates and phenolics in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Four year-old seedlings were planted in pots filled with metal-treated mineral forest soil in early June. The experimental design included all combinations of four levels of Cu (0, 25, 40 and 50 mg kg -1 soil dw) and Ni (0, 5, 15 and 25 mg kg -1 soil dw). Current year needles were sampled for soluble sugar, starch and phenolics at the end of September. Ni increased sucrose concentration in the needles, indicating disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism. Trees exposed to Ni had higher concentrations of condensed tannins compared with controls. In contrast, concentrations of several other phenolic compounds decreased when seedlings were exposed to high levels of Cu or to a combination of Ni and Cu. The results suggest that concentrations of phenolics in Scots pine needles vary in their responses to Ni and Cu in the forest soil. - Excess nickel in soil interferes with carbohydrate metabolism and induces an increase in concentration of condensed tannins in Scots pine needles

  1. Synthesis, characterization and thermal studies of nickel (II), copper (II), zinc (II) and cadmium (II) complexes with some mixed ligands

    Mitra, Samiran; Kundu, Parimal; Singh, Rajkumar Bhubon

    1998-01-01

    Dichloro-(DCA) and trichloroacetate(TCA) -cyclic ligand morpholine (Morph)/thiomorpholine (Tmorph)/methylmorpholine (Mmorph)/dimethyl-piperazine (DMP) complexes of nickel (II), copper (II), zinc (II) and cadmium (II) with the compositions [Ni(tmorph) 2 (DCA) 2 ], [Ni(tmorph) 2 (TCA) 2 ].2H 2 O, [Cu(DMP) 2 (TCA) 2 ],[ML 2 X 2 ].nH 2 O where M=Zn II or Cd II , L=Morph, DMP or tmorph and X=DCA or TCA and n=O except in case of [Cd (Morph) 2 (TCA) 2 ] where n=1 have been synthesised. Some intermediate complexes have been isolated by temperature arrest technique (pyrolysis) and characterised. Configurational and conformational changes have been studied by elemental analyses, IR and electronic spectra, magnetic moment data (in the case of Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes) and thermal analysis. E a * , ΔH, and ΔS for the decomposition reaction of these complexes are evaluated and the stability of the complexes with respect to activation energy has also been compared. The linear correlation has been found between E a * and ΔS for the decomposition of the complexes. (author)

  2. Pyruvic Oxime Nitrification and Copper and Nickel Resistance by a Cupriavidus pauculus, an Active Heterotrophic Nitrifier-Denitrifier

    Miguel Ramirez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterotrophic nitrifiers synthesize nitrogenous gasses when nitrifying ammonium ion. A Cupriavidus pauculus, previously thought an Alcaligenes sp. and noted as an active heterotrophic nitrifier-denitrifier, was examined for its ability to produce nitrogen gas (N2 and nitrous oxide (N2O while heterotrophically nitrifying the organic substrate pyruvic oxime [CH3–C(NOH–COOH]. Neither N2 nor N2O were produced. Nucleotide and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the organism is a member of a genus (Cupriavidus known for its resistance to metals and its metabolism of xenobiotics. The microbe (a Cupriavidus pauculus designated as C. pauculus strain UM1 was examined for its ability to perform heterotrophic nitrification in the presence of Cu2+ and Ni2+ and to metabolize the xenobiotic phenol. The bacterium heterotrophically nitrified well when either 1 mM Cu2+ or 0.5 mM Ni2+ was present in either enriched or minimal medium. The organism also used phenol as a sole carbon source in either the presence or absence of 1 mM Cu2+ or 0.5 mM Ni2+. The ability of this isolate to perform a number of different metabolisms, its noteworthy resistance to copper and nickel, and its potential use as a bioremediation agent are discussed.

  3. Nickel, Cobalt, Chromium and Copper in agricultural and grazing land soils of Europe

    Albanese, Stefano; Sadeghi, Martiya; De Vivo, Benedetto; Lima, Annamaria; Cicchella, Domenico; Dinelli, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    In the framework of the GEMAS (Geochemical Mapping of Agricultural and Grazing Land Soils) project, concentrations of Ni, Co, Cu and Cr were determined for the whole available dataset (2218 samples of agricultural soil and 2127 samples of grazing land soil) covering a total area of 5.6 million sq km all over Europe. The distribution pattern of Ni in the European soils (both agricultural and grazing land soils) shows the highest concentrations in correspondence with the Mediterranean area (especially in Greece, the Balcan Peninsula and NW Italy) with average values generally ranging between 40 mg/kg and 140 mg/kg and anomalous areas characterized by peaks higher than 2400 mg/kg. Concentrations between 10 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg characterize Continental Europe north of Alps and, partly, the Scandinavian countries. Lower concentrations (agricultural and grazing land soils. The maximum concentration peaks of Cobalt and Cr rise up to respectively 126 mg/kg and 696 mg/kg in agricultural soils and up to 255 mg/kg and 577 mg/kg in grazing land soils. Copper distribution in the soils collected across Europe, although has a general correspondence with the patterns of Ni, Co, Cr, shows some peculiarities. Specifically, Cu is characterized by high concentration values (up to 395 mg/kg in agricultural soils and 373 mg/kg in Grazing land soils) also in correspondence with the Roman Comagmatic Province and the south western coast of France characterized by a wide spread of vineyards.

  4. Binding of copper and nickel to cavities in silicon formed by helium ion implantation

    Myers, S.M.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Bishop, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    Cavities formed in Si by He ion implantation and annealing are shown to be strong traps for Cu and Ni impurities. Experiments utilizing ion-beam analysis and transmission electron microscopy indicate that Cu is trapped at the internal surfaces of cavities up to ∼1 monolayer coverage with a binding energy of 2.2±0.2 eV relative to solution. This is greater than the heat of solution from the precipitated Cu 3 Si phase, determined to be 1.7 eV in agreement with earlier work. Copper at cavity-wall sites is reversibly replaced by H during heating in H 2 gas, indicating the relative stability of the two surface terminations. Initial results for Ni impurities indicate that trapping at cavities is again energetically preferred to silicide formation. The saturation coverage of Ni on the internal surfaces, however, is an order of magnitude smaller for Ni than Cu, consistent with published studies of external-surface adsorption. These results suggest that cavity trapping may getter metallic impurities in Si more effectively than methods based on silicide precipitation

  5. The influence of green microstructure and sintering parameters on precipitation process during copper-nickel-zinc ferrites sintering

    Barba, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Microstructural changes that occur during heat treatment of copper-nickel-zinc ferrites have been studied. The process of precipitation of the two types of crystals that occur during the sintering process has been analyzed. It is found that this process depends on dry relative density of the press specimens and on the following sintering parameters: sintering temperature, sintering time and cooling rate of the thermal cycle. Crystal precipitates characterization have been done by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. These techniques have allowed to determine the nature of these crystals, which in this case correspond to zinc and copper oxides. It has been used two chemical reactions to explain the bulk precipitation and subsequent re-dissolution of these crystal precipitates during sintering.En este trabajo se han estudiado los cambios microestructurales que se producen durante el tratamiento térmico de las ferritas de cobre-níquel-cinc y se ha analizado el proceso de precipitación de los dos tipos de cristales que aparecen durante el proceso de sinterización. Se ha encontrado que este proceso depende de la densidad relativa en seco de las muestras compactadas y de las siguientes variables de la etapa de sinterización: temperatura y tiempo de sinterización y velocidad de enfriamiento. La caracterización de los cristales precipitados se ha realizado por microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB, microanálisis por dispersión de energía de rayos X (EDX, difracción de rayos X (DRX, y espectroscopía de fotoelectrones de rayos X (XPS. Estas técnicas han permitido determinar la naturaleza de estos cristales, que en este caso corresponden a los óxidos de cinc y de cobre. Se han propuesto dos reacciones químicas que permiten explicar el proceso de precipitación y la posterior re-disolución de estos cristales precipitados durante la

  6. Redistribution of fractions of zinc, cadmium, nickel, copper, and lead in contaminated calcareous soils treated with EDTA.

    Jalali, Mohsen; Khanlari, Zahra V

    2007-11-01

    Effect of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the fractionation of zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) in contaminated calcareous soils was investigated. Soil samples containing variable levels of contamination, from 105.9 to 5803 mg/kg Zn, from 2.2 to 1361 mg/kg Cd, from 31 to 64.0 mg/kg Ni, from 24 to 84 mg/kg Cu, and from 109 to 24,850 mg/kg Pb, were subjected to EDTA treatment at different dosages of 0, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg. Metals in the incubated soils were fractionated after 5 months by a sequential extraction procedure, in which the metal fractions were experimentally defined as exchangeable (EXCH), carbonate (CARB), Mn oxide (MNO), Fe oxide (FEO), organic matter (OM), and residual (RES) fractions. In contaminated soils without EDTA addition, Zn, Ni, Cu, and Pb were predominately present in the RES fraction, up to 60.0%, 32.3%, 41.1%, and 36.8%, respectively. In general, with the EDTA addition, the EXCH and CARB fractions of these metals increased dramatically while the OM fraction decreased. The Zn, Ni, Cu, and Pb were distributed mostly in RES, OM, FEO, and CARB fractions in contaminated soils, but Cd was found predominately in the CARB, MNO, and RES fractions. The OM fraction decreased with increasing amounts of EDTA. In the contaminated soils, EDTA removed some Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni from MNO, FEO, and OM fractions and redistributed them into CARB and EXCH fractions. Based on the relative percent in the EXCH and CARB fractions, the order of solubility was Cd > Pb > Ni > Cu > Zn for contaminated soils, before adding of EDTA, and after adding of EDTA, the order of solubility was Pb > Cd > Zn > Ni > Cu. The risk of groundwater contamination will increase after applying EDTA and it needed to be used very carefully.

  7. Determination of mercury and copper in water samples by activation analysis using preconcentration on emission spectroscopic carbon powder

    Nagatsuka, Sumiko; Tanizaki, Yoshiyuki

    1978-01-01

    A simple preconcentration procedure for mercury and copper was examined in the activation analysis of water samples. The preconcentration using pure activated carbon has been reported in several papers. The authors found that the carbon powder for emission spectroscopic analysis showed the high purity equivalent to pure activated carbon. The influence of various parameters in adsorption conditions was studied by radioactive tracers 197 Hg and 64 Cu. It was confirmed that 100% of these elements were adsorbed on carbon powders as pyrrolidine dithiocarbonate complexes at an acidity of pH 6 - 8, the temperature of 50 0 C and the stirring time of 30 minutes. This method was applied to the activation analysis of the river water samples taken from the upper stream area of the Arakawa river and the ground water samples taken from the wells of the environs of Tokyo Megalopolis. The carbon powders which adsorbed these elements were filtered, dried and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The Hg concentrations of 0.01 - 0.1 ppb in river water and 0.03 - 1.4 ppb in ground water were obtained as well as the Cu concentrations of 0.3 - 3.0 ppb in ground water. The limits of determination of this method are 0.01 ppb Hg and 0.2 ppb Cu in the case of 1.1 sample of fresh water. (auth.)

  8. Mercury contamination in vicinity of secondary copper smelters in Fuyang, Zhejiang Province, China: Levels and contamination in topsoils

    Yin Xuebin; Yao Chunxia; Song Jing; Li Zhibo; Zhang Changbo; Qian Wei; Bi De; Li Chenxi; Teng Ying; Wu Longhua; Wan Hongdong; Luo Yongming

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we aim to investigate the extent of soil contamination by Hg, particularly by anthropogenic Hg, and tentatively estimate the total Hg (Hg T ) accumulation in topsoils (0-15 cm) in Fuyang, Zhejiang Province-a secondary Cu smelter of China. The results show that the levels of soil Hg in the vicinity of the smelters have been substantially elevated following local smelting activities. The spatial distribution of soil Hg in this area reveals a rapid decrease as the distance from the smelter reaches 1.5 km, which is probably due to the quick deposition process of particulate Hg and reactive gaseous Hg emitted from the smelters. The total accumulation of Hg T in the topsoils of the study area of 10.9 km 2 is approximately 365-561 kg and of which 346-543 kg might be contributed by anthropogenic emission alone with an annual emission of 17.3-27.2 kg Hg to the topsoils. - Secondary copper smelters in Fuyang release a considerable amount of mercury into topsoils.

  9. Quantitative determination of iron, copper, lead, chromium and nickel in electronic waste samples using total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    Elaseer, A. S.; Musbah, A. S; Ammar, M. M. G.; Salah, M. A.; Aisha, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    Total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy in conjunction with microwave assisted extraction technique was used for the analysis of twenty electronic waste samples. The analysis was limited to the printed circuit boards of electronic devices. Iron, copper, lead, chromium and nickel were quantitatively determined in the samples. The samples were carefully milled to fine powder and 50mg was digested by acid using microwave digestion procedure. The digested samples solution was spread together with gallium as internal standard on the reflection disk and analyzed. The results showed that the cassette recorder boards contain the highest concentration of iron, lead and nickel. The average concentrations of these metals were 78, 73 and 71g/Kg respectively. Computer boards contained the highest copper average concentration 39g/Kg. the highest chromium average concentration 3.6 g/Kg was in mobile phone boards. Measurements were made using PicoTAX portable x-ray device. the instrument was used for quantitative multi-element analysis. An air cooled x-ray tube (40KV, 1 mA) with Mo target and Be window was used as x-ray source. The optics of the device was a multilayer Ni/C, 17.5 keV, 80% reflectivity provides analysis of elements from Si to Zr (K series) and Rh to U (L series). A Si PIN-diode detector (7mm"2, 195eV) was used for the elements detection. In this study heavy metals average concentration in electronic circuit boards in the in the order of iron (35.25g/kg), copper (21.14g/Kg), lead (16.59g/Kg), nickel (16.01g/Kg) and chromium (1.07g/Kg).(author)

  10. Structural characterization of natural nickel and copper binding ligands along the US GEOTRACES Eastern Pacific Zonal transect

    Rene M Boiteau

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Organic ligands form strong complexes with many trace elements in seawater. Various metals can compete for the same ligand chelation sites, and the final speciation of bound metals is determined by relative binding affinities, concentrations of binding sites, uncomplexed metal concentrations, and association/dissociation kinetics. Different ligands have a wide range of metal affinities and specificities. However, the chemical composition of these ligands in the marine environment remains poorly constrained, which has hindered progress in modeling marine metal speciation. In this study, we detected and characterized natural ligands that bind copper (Cu and nickel (Ni in the eastern South Pacific Ocean with liquid chromatography tandem inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICPMS, and high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS. Dissolved Cu, Ni, and ligand concentrations were highest near the coast. Chromatographically unresolved polar compounds dominated ligands isolated near the coast by solid phase extraction. Offshore, metal and ligand concentrations decreased, but several new ligands appeared. One major ligand was detected that bound both Cu2+ and Ni2+. Based on accurate mass and fragmentation measurements, this compound has a molecular formula of C20H21N4O8S2 + M+ (M = metal isotope and contains several azole-like metal binding groups. Additional lipophilic Ni complexes were also present only in oligotrophic waters, with masses of 649, 698, and 712 m/z (corresponding to the 58Ni metal complex. Molecular formulae of C32H54N3O6S2Ni+ and C33H56N3O6S2Ni+ were determined for two of these compounds. Addition of Cu and Ni to the samples also revealed the presence of additional compounds that can bind both Ni and Cu. Although these specific compounds represent a small fraction of the total dissolved Cu and Ni pool, they highlight the compositional diversity and spatial heterogeneity of marine Ni and Cu ligands, as

  11. Influence of Matrix Composition on the Bioaccessibility of Copper, Zinc and Nickel in Urban Residential Dust and Soil

    Rasmussen, P.; Beauchemin, S.; Nugent, M.; Dugandzic, R.; Lanouette, M.; Chenier, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines factors affecting oral bioaccessibility of metals in household dust, in particular metal speciation, organic carbon content, and particle size, with the goal of addressing risk assessment information requirements. Investigation of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) speciation in two size fractions of dust (< 36 μ m and 80-150 μ m) using synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) indicates that the two metals are bound to different components of the dust: Cu is predominately associated with the organic phase of the dust, while Zn is predominately associated with the mineral fraction. Total and bioaccessible Cu, nickel (Ni), and Zn were determined (on dry weight basis) in the < 150 μ m size fraction of a set of archived indoor dust samples (n = 63) and corresponding garden soil samples (n = 66) from the City of Ottawa, Canada. The median bioaccessible Cu content is 66 μ g g-1 in dust compared to 5 μ g g-1 in soil; the median bioaccessible Ni content is 16 μ g g-1 in dust compared to 2 μ g g-1 in soil; and the median bioaccessible Zn content is 410 μ g g-1 in dust compared to 18 μ g g-1 in soil. For the same data set, the median total Cu content is 152 μ g g-1 in dust compared to 17 μ g g-1 in soil; the median total Ni content is 41 μ g g-1 in dust compared to 13 μ g g-1 in soil; and the median total Zn content is 626 μ g g-1 in dust compared to 84 μ g g-1 in soil. Organic carbon is elevated in indoor dust (median 28%) compared to soil (median 5%), and is a key factor controlling metal partitioning and therefore bioaccessibility. The results show that house dust and soil have distinct geochemical signatures and should not be treated as identical media in exposure and risk assessments. Separate measurements of the indoor and outdoor environment are essential to improve the accuracy of residential risk assessments.

  12. Effect of molybdenum on the severity of toxicity symptoms in flax induced by an excess of either manganese, zinc, copper, nickel or cobalt in the nutrient solution

    Millikan, C R

    1947-01-01

    The addition of molybdenum to solutions containing an excess of either manganese, zinc, copper, nickel or cobalt respectively, resulted in decreases in the severity of iron deficiency symptoms which normally occurred when flax was grown in solutions containing the same concentrations of any of these elements, but without molybdenum. The efficacy of molybdenum in this regard increased with increasing concentration up to 25 parts per million. However, concentrations of 0.5 to 2 parts per million of molybdenum had little effect on the severity of iron deficiency symptoms at the concentrations of heavy metals used. Molybdenum 5, 10 or 25 parts per million also retarded the date of appearance and reduced the severity of lower leaf necrosis which is another characteristic symptom of the presence of excess manganese (25 to 100 parts per million) in the nutrient solution. It is concluded that an essential function of molybdenum is intimately associated with the regulation of the deleterious effect of manganese, zinc, copper, nickel or cobalt on the physiological availability of iron to the plant. 46 references, 3 figures.

  13. Flotation-separation and ICP-AES determination of ultra trace amounts of copper, cadmium, nickel and cobalt using 2-aminocyclopentene-1-dithiocarboxylic acid.

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Hashemi, Omid Reza; Safavi, Afsaneh

    2005-09-01

    A rapid flotation method for separation and enrichment of ultra trace amounts of copper(II), cadmium(II), nickel(II) and cobalt(II) ions from water samples is established. At pH 6.5 and with sodium dodecylsulfate used as a foaming reagent, Cu2+, Cd2+, Ni2+ and Co2+ were separated simultaneously with 2-aminocyclopentene-1-dithiocarboxylic acid (ACDA) added to 1 l of aqueous solution. The proposed procedure of preconcentration is applied prior to the determination of these four analytes using inductivity coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The effects of pH, concentration of ACDA, applicability of different surfactants and foreign ions on the separation efficiency were investigated. The preconcentration factor of the method is 1000 and the detection limits of copper(II), cadmium(II), nickel(II) and cobalt(II) ions are 0.078, 0.075, 0.072 and 0.080 ng ml(-1), respectively.

  14. The concentration of heavy metals: zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, mercury, iron and calcium in head hair of a randomly selected sample of Kenyan people

    Wandiga, S.O.; Jumba, I.O.

    1982-01-01

    An intercomparative analysis of the concentration of heavy metals:zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, mercury, iron and calcium in head hair of a randomly selected sample of Kenyan people using the techniques of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPAS) has been undertaken. The percent relative standard deviation for each sample analysed using either of the techniques show good sensitivity and correlation between the techniques. The DPAS was found to be slightly sensitive than the AAs instrument used. The recalculated body burden rations of Cd to Zn, Pb to Fe reveal no unusual health impairement symptoms and suggest a relatively clean environment in Kenya.(author)

  15. The direct determination, by differential pulse anodic-stripping voltammetry at the thin mercury-film electrode, of cadmium, lead and copper

    Lee, A.F.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the development and application of a voltammetric procedure for the direct, simultaneous determination of cadmium, lead, and copper in three SAROC reference materials (carbonatite, magnesite, and quartz). The electrolyte was a mixture of 1 M ammonium chloride, 0,1 M citric acid, and 0,025 M ascorbic acid. No interferences were encountered from Fe(III), As(III), Sb(V), Tl(I), or In(III) at the concentrations present in the samples. Intermetallic interferences were eliminated by the use of thin mercury-film electrodes not less than 80nm thick. Limits of detection were determined by the degree to which the supporting electrolyte could be purified, and were estimated to be 10ng/g, 250ng/g, and 150ng/g for cadmium, lead, and copper respectively

  16. Removal of cadmium, copper, nickel, cobalt and mercury from water by Apatite II{sup TM}: Column experiments

    Oliva, Josep [Department of Mining Engineering and Natural Resou-rces, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Bases de Manresa 61-73, 08242 Manresa, Catalonia (Spain); De Pablo, Joan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Cortina, Jose-Luis, E-mail: jose.luis.cortina@upc.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Water Technology Center, CETaqua, Paseo de los Tilos 3, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Cama, Jordi; Ayora, Carlos [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, IDAEA, CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} The efficiency of Apatite II{sup TM} increases as the acidity decreases, then the application of apatite-based materials for metal removal treatments should be restricted to slightly acid to neutral waters. {yields} Because of the preferred process of using phosphate ions to form metal-phosphate precipitates, the mixture with other sources of alkalinity, such as limestone, is proposed to extend the duration of Apatite II{sup TM}. {yields} Compared with other reactive materials such as limestone and caustic magnesia that exhibit a reduction of porosity Apatite II{sup TM} showed stable hydraulic performance. {yields} The extrapolation of the column durabilities to a 1-m-thick passive treatment suggests that the Apatite II{sup TM} filling can be active between 5 and 10 years for an inflow pH exceeding 5. - Abstract: Apatite II{sup TM}, a biogenic hydroxyapatite, was evaluated as a reactive material for heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Co, Ni and Hg) removal in passive treatments. Apatite II{sup TM} reacts with acid water by releasing phosphates that increase the pH up to 6.5-7.5, complexing and inducing metals to precipitate as metal phosphates. The evolution of the solution concentration of calcium, phosphate and metals together with SEM-EDS and XRD examinations were used to identify the retention mechanisms. SEM observation shows low-crystalline precipitate layers composed of P, O and M. Only in the case of Hg and Co were small amounts of crystalline phases detected. Solubility data values were used to predict the measured column experiment values and to support the removal process based on the dissolution of hydroxyapatite, the formation of metal-phosphate species in solution and the precipitation of metal phosphate. Cd{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}OH(s), Cu{sub 2}(PO{sub 4})OH(s), Ni{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(s), Co{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}8H{sub 2}O(s) and Hg{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(s) are proposed as the possible mineral phases responsible for the removal processes. The results of the column experiments show that Apatite II{sup TM} is a suitable filling for permeable reactive barriers.

  17. Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Copper, Nickel, and Zinc Using 1-(2-Thiazolylazo)-2-Naphthol in the Presence of Triton X-100 Using Chemometric Methods

    Low, Kah Hin; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Abas, Mhd. Radzi; Misran, Misni; Mohd, Mustafa Ali

    2009-01-01

    Multivariate models were developed for the simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of copper (II), nickel (II) and zinc (II) in water with 1-(2-thiazolylazo)-2-naphthol as chromogenic reagent in the presence of Triton X-100. To overcome the drawback of spectral interferences, principal component regression (PCR) and partial least square (PLS) multivariate calibration approaches were applied. Performances were validated with several test sets, and their results were then compared. In general, no significant difference in analytical performance between PLS and PCR models. The root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) using three components for Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ and Zn 2+ were 0.018, 0.010, 0.011 ppm, respectively. Figures of merit such as sensitivity, analytical sensitivity, limit of detection (LOD) were also estimated. High reliability was achieved when the proposed procedure was applied to simultaneous determination of Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ and Zn 2+ in synthetic mixture and tap water

  18. Corrosion resisting properties of 90/10 copper-nickel-iron alloy with particular reference to offshore oil and gas applications

    Gilbert, P T

    1979-01-01

    The use of a copper-nickel-iron alloy for seawater pipeline systems and various other applications on offshore oil and gas platforms is now proving attractive, according to the UK's Yorkshire Imperial Metals Ltd. The alloy has already proved a useful and reliable material in many applications: It has given good results in seawater-cooled condensers and heat exchangers and seawater piping systems, in power stations, ships, desalination plant, and refrigeration service. Its antifouling and corrosion-resistant properties are valuable in these applications. The main limitations that have to be observed in its use are (1) the design, construction, and operation of systems within prescribed velocity and turbulence limits, to avoid the occurrence of impingement attack, and (2) problems that may arise because of badly polluted seawater.

  19. Study to determine the content of vanadium, aluminum, nickel, sodium, iron and copper in a catalytic cracking catalyst, by using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    Gomez, J.; Alonso, A.; Tumbarell, O.; Bustanmete, E.

    2003-01-01

    Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS), has the advantage of its simplicity, speed and low cost. All this, together with its high sensibility and selectivity, makes the AAS one the most widely used analytic techniques. The present work shows, the study to determine the content of vanadium, aluminum, nickel, sodium, iron and copper in a catalytic cracking catalyst of a refinery, by using this technique. The results are compared to those of two laboratories which use the ICP-AES and AAS techniques and shows the processing of the statistics with the use of the t of Student and the F of Snedecor. The results using different methods are also shown as well as the recommended application of this results in the chemical characterization of this type of catalysts

  20. Development of a selective and sensitive flotation method for determination of trace amounts of cobalt, nickel, copper and iron in environmental samples.

    Karimi, H; Ghaedi, M; Shokrollahi, A; Rajabi, H R; Soylak, M; Karami, B

    2008-02-28

    A simple, selective and rapid flotation method for the separation-preconcentration of trace amounts of cobalt, nickel, iron and copper ions using phenyl 2-pyridyl ketone oxime (PPKO) has been developed prior to their flame atomic absorption spectrometric determinations. The influence of pH, amount of PPKO as collector, type and amount of eluting agent, type and amount of surfactant as floating agent and ionic strength was evaluated on the recoveries of analytes. The influences of the concomitant ions on the recoveries of the analyte ions were also examined. The enrichment factor was 93. The detection limits based on 3 sigma for Cu, Ni, Co and Fe were 0.7, 0.7, 0.8, and 0.7 ng mL(-1), respectively. The method has been successfully applied for determination of trace amounts of ions in various real samples.

  1. Development of a selective and sensitive flotation method for determination of trace amounts of cobalt, nickel, copper and iron in environmental samples

    Karimi, H.; Ghaedi, M.; Shokrollahi, A.; Rajabi, H.R.; Soylak, M.; Karami, B.

    2008-01-01

    A simple, selective and rapid flotation method for the separation-preconcentration of trace amounts of cobalt, nickel, iron and copper ions using phenyl 2-pyridyl ketone oxime (PPKO) has been developed prior to their flame atomic absorption spectrometric determinations. The influence of pH, amount of PPKO as collector, type and amount of eluting agent, type and amount of surfactant as floating agent and ionic strength was evaluated on the recoveries of analytes. The influences of the concomitant ions on the recoveries of the analyte ions were also examined. The enrichment factor was 93. The detection limits based on 3 sigma for Cu, Ni, Co and Fe were 0.7, 0.7, 0.8, and 0.7 ng mL -1 , respectively. The method has been successfully applied for determination of trace amounts of ions in various real samples

  2. Microplasticity and dislocation mobility in copper-nickel single crystals evaluated from strain-amplitude-dependent internal friction. [CuNi

    Nishino, Y.; Okada, Y.; Asano, S. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Nagoya Inst. of Tech. (Japan))

    1992-02-16

    Internal friction in copper-0.4 to 7.6 at% nickel single crystals is measured as a function of strain amplitude at various temperatures. Analysis of the data on the amplitude-dependent internal friction yields the relation of effective stress and microplastic strain of the order of 10{sup -9}. The stress-strain responses thus obtained exhibit that the microplastic flow stress increases more rapidly on alloying than the macroscopic yield stress. The mean dislocation velocity is also evaluated from the internal-friction data, which corresponds well to the etch-pit data. It is shown that the dislocation motion is impeded by friction due to dispersed solute atoms. (orig.).

  3. Preconcentration and atomic absorption spectrometric determination of cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc in water samples using 6-methyl-2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone

    Khuhawar, M.Y.; Das, P.; Dewani, V.K.

    2005-01-01

    The reagent 6-methyl-2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (MPAPT) has been examined for the pre-concentration of metal ions and determination using air acetylene flame atomic absorption spectrometer. The method is based on the complexation and extraction of cadmium (II), cobalt(III), copper(II), lead(II), nickel(II), iron(II), iron(II), manganese(II) and zinc(II) in chloroform. The metal iron are back extracted in nitric acid (1:1) or after evaporation of solvent the residue is digested in nitric acid. After necessary adjustment of volume the metal ions were determined in aqueous solution. Pre-concentration is obtained 10-25 times. Metal ions recovery was 95.4-100.8% with coefficient of variation 0.2-7.5%. The method used for the determination of metals in canal and sewerage waters, within 2-6433 mu g/L with C. V 0.-5.2%. (author)

  4. Synthesis and properties of complexes of copper(II), nickel(II), cobalt(II) and uranyl ions with 3-(p-tolylsulphonamido)rhodamine

    El-Bindary, A.A.; El-Sonbati, A.Z.

    2000-01-01

    Metal complexes of copper(II), nickel(II), cobalt(II) and uranyl ions with 3-(p-tolylsulphonamido)rhodamine (HL) have been prepared and characterized by chemical and thermal analyses, molar conductivity , magnetic susceptibility measurements, and infrared, electronic and EPR spectra. The visible and EPR spectra indicated that the Cu(II) complex has a tetragonal geometry. From EPR spectrum of the Cu(II) complex,various parameters were calculated. The crystal field parameters of Ni(II) complex were calculated and were found to agree fairly well with the values reported for known square pyramidal complexes. The infrared spectral studies showed a monobasic bidentate behaviour with the oxygen and nitrogen donor system. Thermal stabilities of the complexes are also reported. (author)

  5. Synthesis, physico-chemical characterization and biological activity of copper(ii and nickel(ii complexes with l-benzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole derivatives

    Podunavac-Kuzmanović Sanja O.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorides of copper(II and nickel(ll react with 1-benzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole or 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole to give complexes of the type [M(LnCln(H20∙Cln (M = Cu or Ni; L = (1-benzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole or 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole; n=O, 1 or 2. The complexes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity magnetic susceptibility measurements and IR spectra. These studies suggest that all the complexes possess an octahedral stereochemistry. The antibacterial activity of (1-benzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole or 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole and their complexes was evaluated against Escherichia coli and Bacillus sp.

  6. Determination of sub-parts per billion levels of copper in complex matrices by adsorptive string voltammetry on a mercury electrode

    Shahbaazi, H.R.; Shahbaazi, H.R.; Safavi, A.; Maleki, N.

    2008-01-01

    The voltammetric characteristics of Cu(II)-SSA complex at the mercury electrode were investigated. An analytical method that based on the adsorptive accumulation of Cu(II)-SSA complex followed by the reduction of the complexed copper was developed for the copper determination in complex matrices in presence of the large amount of foreign ions. Adsorptive voltammetry determination showed that the Cu(II)-SSA complex behaves irreversibly exchanging two electrons on the hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE). Factor affecting on the complextion, accumulation and stripping steps were studied and a procedure was developed. The instrumental parameters in the measurement step were also tested. The optimum conditions of pH, SSA concentration, accumulation potential and accumulation time were studied. Under optimal conditions (pH=12.9 glycin Buffer, 7 x 10 - '3 M SSA and accumulation potential -100 mV vs. Ag/ AgCl), a linear calibration graph in the range 1.25 μg L -1 to 42.5 μg L'- 1 and a detection limit of 0.8 μ L -1 were obtained. The average relative standard deviation (RSD) for seven determinations was calculated as 7 %, 5.5 % and 3 % for the concentrations between 3, 15 and 23 μg L'- 1 . The effect of foreign ions and surfactants on the peak height of Cu(II)-SSA complex was evaluated. The method was applied for the determination of the copper in different real samples such as crude oil, crude oil tank button sludge, waste water and tap water samples. The accuracy of the results was checked by ICP. (author)

  7. Development and functioning of microorganisms in concentration cycles of sulfide copper-nickel and non-sulfide apatite-nepheline ores

    Fokina N. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The number and trophic diversity of bacteria in flotation samples of apatite-nepheline and sulfide copper-nickel ores at the concentration plants of JSC "Apatite" and Kola Mining and Metallurgical Company have been determined. The study of the size and diversity of the microbiota has been conducted by culture on selective nutrient media. The total number and biomass of bacteria have been considered by fluorescence microscopy using Cyclopore polycarbonate membrane filters. Bacteria have been identified by molecular genetic methods. The least amount of both saprotrophic and other trophic groups of bacteria has been observed in the samples of ore and recycled water as at the concentrating factory of Apatit JSC, and also at the plant "Pechenganikel". It has been found out that the bacteria contained in the ore and recycling water flowing from the tailings increased their number during the flotation process due to coming of the nutrients with the flotation reagents, aeration and increased temperature. Strains which occurrence is more than 60 % have been extracted from recycled water and basic flotation products and classified as Pseudomonas. Two strains with occurrence of more than 60 % have been discovered at Apatit JSC and classified as Stenotrophomonas and Acinetobacter. The number of fungi in the cycle of apatite-nepheline ore enrichment at the factories is very low (1 to 24 CFU / 1 ml or 1 g of ore. Fungi of the genus Penicillium have been dominated, fungi of the genera Acremonium, Aureobasidium, Alternaria, Chaetomium have also been detected. At the plant "Pechenganikel" species Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium aurantiogriseum and P. glabrum have been extracted. It has been shown that the bacteria deteriorate the apatite flotation as a result of their interaction with active centers of calcium-containing minerals and intensive flocculation decreasing the floatation selectivity. Also some trend of copper and nickel recovery change has been

  8. Determination of Pb (Lead, Cd (Cadmium, Cr (Chromium, Cu (Copper, and Ni (Nickel in Chinese tea with high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Wen-Si Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The contents of lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, and nickel were determined in 25 tea samples from China, including green, yellow, white, oolong, black, Pu'er, and jasmine tea products, using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The methods used for sample preparation, digestion, and quantificational analysis were established, generating satisfactory analytical precisions (represented by relative standard deviations ranging from 0.6% to 2.5% and recoveries (98.91–101.32%. The lead contents in tea leaves were 0.48–10.57 mg/kg, and 80% of these values were below the maximum values stated by the guidelines in China. The contents of cadmium and chromium ranged from 0.01 mg/kg to 0.39 mg/kg and from 0.27 mg/kg to 2.45 mg/kg, respectively, remaining in compliance with the limits stipulated by China's Ministry of Agriculture. The copper contents were 7.73–63.71 mg/kg; only 64% of these values complied with the standards stipulated by the Ministry of Agriculture. The nickel contents ranged from 2.70 mg/kg to 13.41 mg/kg. Consequently, more attention must be paid to the risks of heavy metal contamination in tea. The quantitative method established in this work lays a foundation for preventing heavy metal toxicity in human from drinking tea and will help establish regulations to control the contents of heavy metals in tea.

  9. Development of technique for AR coating nickel and copper metallization of solar cells FPS project product development

    Taylor, W.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental matrices were conducted to determine a suitable firing schedule for fritless tin printing ink. considerable difficulties were encountered with oxidation. Best results were obtained with a firing cycle consisting of 400 C for 20 minutes in nitrogen followed by 5 minutes in air at 500 C. Elimination of oxidizing conditions impaired the adhesion of both tin and copper fritless printing inks, although adhesion of fritless copper inks was obtained when fired in nitrogen with slight oxidation.

  10. A comparison of torque expression between stainless steel, titanium molybdenum alloy, and copper nickel titanium wires in metallic self-ligating brackets.

    Archambault, Amy; Major, Thomas W; Carey, Jason P; Heo, Giseon; Badawi, Hisham; Major, Paul W

    2010-09-01

    The force moment providing rotation of the tooth around the x-axis (buccal-lingual) is referred to as torque expression in orthodontic literature. Many factors affect torque expression, including the wire material characteristics. This investigation aims to provide an experimental study into and comparison of the torque expression between wire types. With a worm-gear-driven torquing apparatus, wire was torqued while a bracket mounted on a six-axis load cell was engaged. Three 0.019 x 0.0195 inch wire (stainless steel, titanium molybdenum alloy [TMA], copper nickel titanium [CuNiTi]), and three 0.022 inch slot bracket combinations (Damon 3MX, In-Ovation-R, SPEED) were compared. At low twist angles (wires were not statistically significant. At twist angles over 24 degrees, stainless steel wire yielded 1.5 to 2 times the torque expression of TMA and 2.5 to 3 times that of nickel titanium (NiTi). At high angles of torsion (over 40 degrees) with a stiff wire material, loss of linear torque expression sometimes occurred. Stainless steel has the largest torque expression, followed by TMA and then NiTi.

  11. Design of a Nickel-Based Bond-Coat Alloy for Thermal Barrier Coatings on Copper Substrates

    Torben Fiedler

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To increase the lifetime of rocket combustion chambers, thermal barrier coatings (TBC may be applied on the copper chamber wall. Since standard TBC systems used in gas turbines are not suitable for rocket-engine application and fail at the interface between the substrate and bond coat, a new bond-coat material has to be designed. This bond-coat material has to be chemically compatible to the copper substrate to improve the adhesion and needs a coefficient of thermal expansion close to that of copper to reduce thermal stresses. One approach to achieve this is to modify the standard NiCrAlY alloy used in gas turbines by adding copper. In this work, the influence of copper on the microstructure of NiCrAlY-alloys is investigated with thermodynamical calculations, optical microscopy, SEM, EDX and calorimetry. Adding copper leads to the formation of a significant amount of \\(\\beta\\ and \\(\\alpha\\ Reducing the aluminum and chromium content leads furthermore to a two-phase fcc microstructure.

  12. Amide to Alkyne Interconversion via a Nickel/Copper-Catalyzed Deamidative Cross-Coupling of Aryl and Alkenyl Amides

    Srimontree, Watchara

    2017-06-05

    A nickel-catalyzed deamidative cross-coupling reaction of amides with terminal alkynes as coupling partners was disclosed. This newly developed methodology allows the direct interconversion of amides to alkynes and enables a facile route for C(sp2)-C(sp) bond formation in a straightforward and mild fashion.

  13. Amide to Alkyne Interconversion via a Nickel/Copper-Catalyzed Deamidative Cross-Coupling of Aryl and Alkenyl Amides.

    Srimontree, Watchara; Chatupheeraphat, Adisak; Liao, Hsuan-Hung; Rueping, Magnus

    2017-06-16

    A nickel-catalyzed deamidative cross-coupling reaction of amides with terminal alkynes as coupling partners was disclosed. This newly developed methodology allows the direct interconversion of amides to alkynes and enables a facile route for C(sp2)-C(sp) bond formation in a straightforward and mild fashion.

  14. Amide to Alkyne Interconversion via a Nickel/Copper-Catalyzed Deamidative Cross-Coupling of Aryl and Alkenyl Amides

    Srimontree, Watchara; Chatupheeraphat, Adisak; Liao, Hsuan-Hung; Rueping, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    A nickel-catalyzed deamidative cross-coupling reaction of amides with terminal alkynes as coupling partners was disclosed. This newly developed methodology allows the direct interconversion of amides to alkynes and enables a facile route for C(sp2)-C(sp) bond formation in a straightforward and mild fashion.

  15. Occurrence model for magmatic sulfide-rich nickel-copper-(platinum-group element) deposits related to mafic and ultramafic dike-sill complexes: Chapter I in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Schulz, Klaus J.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Nicholson, Suzanne W.; Seal, Robert R.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Chandler, Val W.; Mars, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Magmatic sulfide deposits containing nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu), with or without (±) platinum-group elements (PGE), account for approximately 60 percent of the world’s nickel production. Most of the remainder of the Ni production is derived from lateritic deposits, which form by weathering of ultramafic rocks in humid tropical conditions. Magmatic Ni-Cu±PGE sulfide deposits are spatially and genetically related to bodies of mafic and/or ultramafic rocks. The sulfide deposits form when the mantle-derived mafic and/or ultramafic magmas become sulfide-saturated and segregate immiscible sulfide liquid, commonly following interaction with continental crustal rocks.

  16. Design of a rotary reactor for chemical-looping combustion. Part 2: Comparison of copper-, nickel-, and iron-based oxygen carriers

    Zhao, Zhenlong

    2014-04-01

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel and promising option for several applications including carbon capture (CC), fuel reforming, H 2 generation, etc. Previous studies demonstrated the feasibility of performing CLC in a novel rotary design with micro-channel structures. Part 1 of this series studied the fundamentals of the reactor design and proposed a comprehensive design procedure, enabling a systematic methodology of designing and evaluating the rotary CLC reactor with different OCs and operating conditions. This paper presents the application of the methodology to the designs with three commonly used OCs, i.e., copper, nickel, and iron. The physical properties and the reactivities of the three OCs are compared at operating conditions suitable for the rotary CLC. Nickel has the highest reduction rate, but relatively slow oxidation reactivity while the iron reduction rate is most sensitive to the fuel concentration. The design parameters and the operating conditions for the three OCs are selected, following the strategies proposed in Part 1, and the performances are evaluated using a one-dimensional plug-flow model developed previously. The simulations show that for all OCs, complete fuel conversion and high carbon separation efficiency can be achieved at periodic stationary state with reasonable operational stabilities. The nickel-based design includes the smallest dimensions because of its fast reduction rate. The operation of nickel case is mainly limited to the slow oxidation rate, and hence a relatively large share of air sector is used. The iron-based design has the largest size, due to its slow reduction reactivity near the exit or in the fuel purge sector where the fuel concentration is low. The gas flow temperature increases monotonically for all the cases, and is mainly determined by the solid temperature. In the periodic state, the local temperature variation is within 40 K and the thermal distortion is limited. The design of the rotary CLC is

  17. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop for simultaneous separation/preconcentration of nickel, cobalt and copper prior to determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Mooud Amirkavei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop for simultaneous extraction of trace amounts of nickel, cobalt and copper followed by their determination with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was developed. 300 µL of acetone and 1-undecanol was injected into an aqueous sample containing diethyldithiocarbamate complexes of metal ions. For a sample volume of 10 mL, enrichment factors of 277, 270 and 300 and detection limits of 1.2, 1.1 and 1 ng L-1 for nickel, cobalt and copper were obtained, respectively. The method was applied to the extraction and determination of these metals in different water samples.

  18. Carbon thin films deposited by the magnetron sputtering technique using cobalt, copper and nickel as buffer-layers

    Costa e Silva, Danilo Lopes

    2015-01-01

    In this work, carbon thin films were produced by the magnetron sputtering technique using single crystal substrates of alumina c-plane (0001) and Si (111) and Si (100) substrates, employing Co, Ni and Cu as intermediate films (buffer-layers). The depositions were conducted in three stages, first with cobalt buffer-layers where only after the production of a large number of samples, the depositions using cooper buffer-layers were carried out on Si substrates. Then, depositions were performed with nickel buffer layers using single-crystal alumina substrates. The crystallinity of the carbon films was evaluated by using the technique of Raman spectroscopy and, then, by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphological characterization of the films was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and FEG-SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The XRD peaks related to the carbon films were observed only in the results of the samples with cobalt and nickel buffer-layers. The Raman spectroscopy showed that the carbon films with the best degree of crystallinity were the ones produced with Si (111) substrates, for the Cu buffers, and sapphire substrates for the Ni and Co buffers, where the latter resulted in a sample with the best crystallinity of all the ones produced in this work. It was observed that the cobalt has low recovering over the alumina substrates when compared to the nickel. Sorption tests of Ce ions by the carbon films were conducted in two samples and it was observed that the sorption did not occur probably because of the low crystallinity of the carbon films in both samples. (author)

  19. THERMOLYSIS OF FOAM PRODUCTS FORMED AT THE FLOTATION EXTRACTION OF COPPER AND NICKEL IONS BY HELP OF WAX PEAT

    V. F. Sazonova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There thermogravimetric study of foam product at the flotation extraction of cop­per and nickel ions by wax peat results are described. It shown that oxidizing roasting of foam products (i.e. hydrated soaps of polyvalent metals proceeds in several steps. At the first step (t<100 °С dehydration takes place. At the next ones (t=160^665 °С The thermic destruction and burning of organic compounds occurs. The residue is the of metal oxides.

  20. Catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} in gasoline engine exhaust over copper- and nickel-exchanged X-zeolite catalysts

    Bhattacharyya, S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Kharagpur (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Das, R.K. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Dept. of Engineering and Mining Machinery

    2001-10-11

    Catalytic removal of NO{sub x} in engine exhaust gases can be accomplished by non-selective reduction, selective reduction and decomposition. Noble metals are extensively used for non-selective reduction of NO{sub x} and up to 90% of engine NO{sub x} emissions can be reduced in a stoichiometric exhaust. This requirement of having the stoichiometric fuel-air ratio acts against efficiency improvement of engines. Selective NO{sub x} reduction in the presence of different reductants such as, NH{sub 3}, urea or hydrocarbons, requires close control of the amount of reductant being injected which otherwise may be emitted as a pollutant. Catalytic decomposition is the best option for NO{sub x} removal. Nevertheless, catalysts which are durable, economic and active for NO{sub x} reduction at normal engine exhaust temperature ranges are still being investigated. Three catalysts based on X-zeolite have been developed by exchanging the Na+ ion with copper, nickel and copper-nickel metal ions and applied to the exhaust of a stationary gasoline engine to explore their potential for catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} under a wide range of engine and exhaust conditions. Some encouraging results have been obtained. The catalyst Cu-X exhibits much better NO{sub x} reduction performance at any temperature in comparison to Cu-Ni-X and Ni-X; while Cu-Ni-X catalyst exhibits slightly better performance than Ni-X catalyst. Maximum NO{sub x} efficiency achieved with Cu-X catalyst is 59.2% at a space velocity (sv) of 31 000 h{sup -1}; while for Cu-Ni-X and Ni-X catalysts the equivalent numbers are 60.4% and 56% respectively at a sv of 22 000 h{sup -1}. Unlike noble metals, the doped X-zeolite catalysts exhibit significant NO{sub x} reduction capability for a wide range of air/fuel ratio and with a slower rate of decline as well with increase in air/fuel ratio. (author)

  1. Solid phase extraction method for the determination of lead, nickel, copper and manganese by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using sodium bispiperdine-1,1'-carbotetrathioate (Na-BPCTT) in water samples

    Rekha, D.; Suvardhan, K.; Kumar, J. Dilip; Subramanyam, P.; Prasad, P. Reddy; Lingappa, Y.; Chiranjeevi, P.

    2007-01-01

    A novel column solid phase extraction procedure was developed for the determination of lead, nickel, copper and manganese in various water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) after preconcentration on sodium bispiperdine-1,1'-carbotetrathioate (Na-BPCTT) supported by Amberlite XAD-7. The sorbed element was subsequently eluted with 1 M nitric acid and the acid eluates are analysed by Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Various parameters such as pH, amount of adsorbent, eluent type and volume, flow-rate of the sample solution, volume of the sample solution and matrix interference effect on the retention of the metal ions have been studied. The optimum pH for the sorption of above mentioned metal ions was about 6.0 ± 0.2. The loading capacity of adsorbent for Pb, Cu, Ni and Mn were found to 28, 26, 22 and 20 x 10 -6 g/mL, respectively. The recoveries of lead, copper, nickel and manganese under optimum conditions were found to be 96.7-99.2 at the 95% confident level. The limit of detection was 3.0, 3.2, 2.8 and 3.6 x 10 -6 g/mL for lead, copper, nickel and manganese, respectively by applying a preconcentration factor 50. The proposed enrichment method was applied for metal ions in various water samples. The results were obtained are good agreement with reported method

  2. Urea increased nickel and copper accumulation in the leaves of Egeria densa (Planch.) Casp. and Ceratophyllum demersum L. during short-term exposure.

    Maleva, Maria; Borisova, Galina; Chukina, Nadezhda; Kumar, Adarsh

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, two fresh water plant species Egeria densa (Planch.) Casp. and Ceratophyllum demersum L. were subjected to separate and combined action of urea (2mМ) and metals (Ni and Cu, 10μM) to investigate the phytoremediation potential of these two submerged macrophytes during short-term experiments (48h). Both submerged macrophytes demonstrated high accumulative potential for Ni and Cu (average bioconcentration factors were 2505 for Ni and 3778 for Cu). The urea (2 mM) was not significantly toxic for studied plant species. Futhermore, urea worked as an additional source of nitrogen and stimulated some metabolic processes such as the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments, soluble proteins, non-enzymatic antioxidants, and activated some enzymes. Adding urea to the metals increased their accumulation in both macrophytes (on average by 35% for Ni and 15% for Cu). Combined action of urea and Ni did not have a significant effect on antioxidant response, but caused a sharp increase of urease activity (4 folds on an average) in both plants. The copper exerted a stronger toxic effect on both studied macrophytes compared to nickel. Adding urea to copper in some cases diminished the toxic action of this metal. Study concludes that the responses of E. densa and C. demersum to urea and metal action (separate and combined) were depended on the type of pollutant and the activity of antioxidant defence system. Therefore, the studied aquatic macrophytes found to be potential phytoremediators of water bodies, the addition of an organic nitrogen source in the form of urea in environmentally relevant concentration will increase the efficiency of phytoextraction of metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nickel and Copper-Free Sintered Structural Steels Containing Mn, Cr, Si, and Mo Developed for High Performance Applications

    Cias A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to study the sinterability of potential high-strength nickel-free sintered structural steels containing Mn, Cr, Si and Mo compacts were prepared based on sponge and water atomised iron powders and on Astaloy prealloyed powders. To these were admixed ferromanganese, ferroslicon, and graphite. The samples were sintered at temperatures 1120 and 1250°C in laboratory tube furnaces in hydrogen, hydrogen-nitrogen atmospheres with dew points better than -60°C or in nitrogen in a semiclosed container in a local microatmosphere. After sintering the samples were slowly cooled or sinterhardened. Generally resultant microstructures were inhomogeneous, consisted of pearlite/ bainite/martensite, but were characterised by an absence of oxide networks. Sintering studies performed over a range of compositions have shown that superior strength, ranging beyond 900 MPa, along with reasonable tensile elongation, can be achieved with these new steels.

  4. Synthesis, characterization, spectroscopic and theoretical studies of new zinc(II), copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes based on imine ligand containing 2-aminothiophenol moiety

    Shafaatian, Bita; Mousavi, S. Sedighe; Afshari, Sadegh

    2016-11-01

    New dimer complexes of zinc(II), copper(II) and nickel(II) were synthesized using the Schiff base ligand which was formed by the condensation of 2-aminothiophenol and 2-hydroxy-5-methyl benzaldehyde. This tridentate Schiff base ligand was coordinated to the metal ions through the NSO donor atoms. In order to prevent the oxidation of the thiole group during the formation of Schiff base and its complexes, all of the reactions were carried out under an inert atmosphere of argon. The X-ray structure of the Schiff base ligand showed that in the crystalline form the SH groups were oxidized to produce a disulfide Schiff base as a new double Schiff base ligand. The molar conductivity values of the complexes in dichloromethane implied the presence of non-electrolyte species. The fluorescence properties of the Schiff base ligand and its complexes were also studied in dichloromethane. The products were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, UV/Vis spectroscopies, elemental analysis, and conductometry. The crystal structure of the double Schiff base was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, the density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory for the determination of the optimized structures of Schiff base complexes.

  5. Evaluation of the Pulmonary Toxicity of a Fume Generated from a Nickel-, Copper-Based Electrode to be Used as a Substitute in Stainless Steel Welding

    Antonini, James M; Badding, Melissa A; Meighan, Terence G; Keane, Michael; Leonard, Stephen S; Roberts, Jenny R

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology has indicated a possible increase in lung cancer among stainless steel welders. Chromium (Cr) is a primary component of stainless steel welding fume. There is an initiative to develop alternative welding consumables [nickel (Ni)- and copper (Cu)-based alloys] that do not contain Cr. No study has been performed to evaluate the toxicity of fumes generated from Ni- and Cu-based consumables. Dose–response and time-course effects on lung toxicity of a Ni- and Cu-based welding fume (Ni–Cu WF) were examined using an in vivo and in vitro bioassay, and compared with two other well-characterized welding fumes. Even though only trace amounts of Cr were present, a persistent increase in lung injury and inflammation was observed for the Ni–Cu WF compared to the other fumes. The difference in response appears to be due to a direct cytotoxic effect by the Ni–Cu WF sample on lung macrophages as opposed to an elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). PMID:25392698

  6. Spectrophotometric determination of cobalt(II), nickel(II) and copper (II) with 1-(2 pyridylazo)-2-naphthol in micellar medium

    Shar, G.A.; Soomro, G.A.

    2004-01-01

    Spectrophotometric determination of cobalt(II), nickel(II) and copper(II) is carried out with 1-(2 pyridylazo)-2-naphthol as a complexing reagent in aqueous phase using non-ionic surfactant Tween 80. Beer's law is obeyed for Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) over the range 0.5 - 4.0, 0.5 - 4.0 and 0.5 - 3.0 ngmL/sup -1/ with detection limit (2 σ) of 6.7, 3.2 and 3.9 ngmL/sup -1/. The max molar absorption, molar absorptivity, Sandell's sensitivity of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) are 580 nm, 570 nm and 555 nm; max (104 mol/sup -1/ cm /sup -1/) is 0.87, 1.8 and 1.6 and 6.8, 3.3 and 3.9 ng cm-2 respectively. The pH at which complex is formed for Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) is 5, 5.5 and 6.5 respectively. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of Tween 80 is 5%. The present method is compared with that of atomic absorption spectroscopy and no significant difference is noted between the two methods at 95% confidence level. The method has been applied to the determination of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) in industrial waste water and pharmaceutical samples. (author)

  7. Risks of using membrane filtration for trace metal analysis and assessing the dissolved metal fraction of aqueous media - A study on zinc, copper and nickel

    Hedberg, Yolanda; Herting, Gunilla; Wallinder, Inger Odnevall

    2011-01-01

    Membrane filtration is commonly performed for solid-liquid separation of aqueous solutions prior to trace metal analysis and when assessing 'dissolved' metal fractions. Potential artifacts induced by filtration such as contamination and/or adsorption of metals within the membrane have been investigated for different membrane materials, metals, applied pressures and pre-cleaning steps. Measurements have been conducted on aqueous solutions including well-defined metal standards, ultrapure water, and on runoff water from corroded samples. Filtration using both non-cleaned and pre-cleaned filters revealed contamination and adsorption effects, in particular pronounced for zinc, evident for copper but non-significant for nickel. The results clearly show these artifacts to be non-systematic both for non-cleaned and pre-cleaned membranes. The applied pressure was of minor importance. Measurements of the labile fraction by means of stripping voltammetry clearly elucidate that membrane filtration followed by total metal analysis cannot accurately assess the labile or the dissolved metal fraction. - Highlights: → Membrane filtration for trace metal analysis can introduce significant artifacts. → The dissolved metal fraction cannot be assessed by membrane filtration. → Non-specified filtration procedures are inadequate for scientific studies. → Artifacts caused by membrane filtration need to be addressed by regulators. - Membrane filtration cannot be used to assess the dissolved metal fraction of aqueous media and needs to be defined in detail in standard tests.

  8. Separation and Pre-concentration of Cadmium, Copper, Lead, Nickel and Zinc by Solid-Liquid Extraction of their Cocrystallized Naphthalene Dithizone Chelate in Saline Matrices

    Costa Antônio C. Spínola

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A procedure for separation and pre-concentration of trace amounts of cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc in brine samples has been proposed. It is based on the adsorption of metal ions onto dithizone co-crystallized with microcrystalline naphthalene, in the pH range 8.5-9.1. Nitric acid is used to back-extract the cations from the solid phase, which are measured by ICP-OES. Various parameters, such as the effect of pH, stirring time, and amounts of solid phase, have been studied in detail, to optimize the conditions for the determination of trace amounts of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn in synthetic brine samples. The limits of detection values expressed in mug L-1 are 44 (Zn, 11 (Ni, 30 (Cd, 47 (Pb and 11 (Cu. The precision of the procedure was determined by running 10 replicate samples, each one containing 250 mug L-1 of each element and the relative standard deviations were 2.71 % (Cd, 2.15 % (Cu, 1.53 % (Pb, 2.47 % (Ni, and 2.78 % (Zn. The accuracy of the procedure was confirmed by applying the analyte additions method and the results indicated that quantitative recoveries (superscript three 95 % were obtained.

  9. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of trace copper, nickel, and cobalt ions in water samples using solid phase extraction coupled with partial least squares approaches

    Guo, Yugao; Zhao, He; Han, Yelin; Liu, Xia; Guan, Shan; Zhang, Qingyin; Bian, Xihui

    2017-02-01

    A simultaneous spectrophotometric determination method for trace heavy metal ions based on solid-phase extraction coupled with partial least squares approaches was developed. In the proposed method, trace metal ions in aqueous samples were adsorbed by cation exchange fibers and desorbed by acidic solution from the fibers. After the ion preconcentration process, the enriched solution was detected by ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer (UV-Vis). Then, the concentration of heavy metal ions were quantified by analyzing ultraviolet and visible spectrum with the help of partial least squares (PLS) approaches. Under the optimal conditions of operation time, flow rate and detection parameters, the overlapped absorption peaks of mixed ions were obtained. The experimental data showed that the concentration, which can be calculated through chemometrics method, of each metal ion increased significantly. The heavy metal ions can be enriched more than 80-fold. The limits of detection (LOD) for the target analytes of copper ions (Cu2 +), cobalt ions (Co2 +) and nickel ions (Ni2 +) mixture was 0.10 μg L- 1, 0.15 μg L- 1 and 0.13 μg L- 1, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD) were less than 5%. The performance of the solid-phase extraction can enrich the ions efficiently and the combined method of spectrophotometric detection and PLS can evaluate the ions concentration accurately. The work proposed here is an interesting and promising attempt for the trace ions determination in water samples and will have much more applied field.

  10. Nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes of N,N-dialkyl-N‧-3-chlorobenzoylthiourea: Synthesis, characterization, crystal structures, Hirshfeld surfaces and antimicrobial activity

    Binzet, Gun; Gumus, Ilkay; Dogen, Aylin; Flörke, Ulrich; Kulcu, Nevzat; Arslan, Hakan

    2018-06-01

    We synthesized four new N,N-dialkyl-N‧-3-chlorobenzoylthiourea ligands (Alkyl: Dimethyl, diethyl, di-n-propyl and di-n-butyl) and their metal complexes with copper and nickel atoms. The structure of all synthesized compounds was fully characterized by physicochemical, spectroscopic and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis techniques. The physical, spectral and analytical data of the newly synthesized metal complexes have shown the formation of 1:2 (metal:ligand) ratio. The benzoylthiourea ligands coordinate with metal atoms through oxygen and sulphur atoms. The metal atoms are in slightly distorted square-planar coordination geometry in Ni(II) or Cu(II) complex. Two oxygen and two sulphur atoms are mutually cis to each other in Ni(II) or Cu(II) complex. The intermolecular contacts in the compounds, which are HL1 and HL3, were examined by Hirshfeld surfaces and fingerprint plots using the data obtained from X-ray single crystal diffraction measurement. Besides these, their antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and anti-yeast activity (Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans) were investigated. This exhibited some promising results towards testing organism. Among all the compounds, Ni(L1)2 complex showed high activity against Bacillus subtilis with MIC values at 7.81 μg/mL.

  11. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles supported copper(II) and nickel(II) Schiff base complexes: Synthesis, characterization, antibacterial activity and enzyme immobilization

    Tahmasbi, Leila; Sedaghat, Tahereh; Motamedi, Hossein; Kooti, Mohammad

    2018-02-01

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were prepared by sol-gel method and functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. Schiff base grafted mesoporous silica nanoparticle was synthesized by the condensation of 2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde and amine-functionalized MSNs. The latter material was then treated with Cu(II) and Ni(II) salts separately to obtain copper and nickel complexes anchored mesoporous composites. The newly prepared hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposites have been characterized by several techniques such as FT-IR, LA-XRD, FE-SEM, TEM, EDS, BET and TGA. The results showed all samples have MCM-41 type ordered mesoporous structure and functionalization occurs mainly inside the mesopore channel. The presence of all elements in synthesized nanocomposites and the coordination of Schiff base via imine nitrogen and phenolate oxygen were confirmed. MSNs and all functionalized MSNs have uniform spherical nanoparticles with a mean diameter less than 100 nm. The as-synthesized mesoporous nanocomposites were investigated for antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (B. subtilis and S. aureus) and Gram-negative (E. coli and P. aeruginosa) bacteria, as carrier for gentamicin and also for immobilization of DNase, coagulase and amylase enzymes. MSN-SB-Ni indicated bacteriocidal effect against S.aureus and all compounds were found to be good carrier for gentamicin. Results of enzyme immobilization for DNase and coagulase and α-amylase revealed that supported metal complexes efficiently immobilized enzymes.

  12. Mixed complex combinations with a new schiff base used as membranes ion-selective for copper and nickel ions, analytical applications)

    Mitu, L.; Tigae, C.

    2009-01-01

    Four electrodes with liquid membrane, Cu/sup 2+/ -selective and Ni/sup 2+/ -selective, not previously described in the literature, were prepared and characterized. Electrodes 1 and 2 are based on mixed complexes of Cu(II) and Ni(II) with isonicotinoylhydrazone-2-aldehyde pyrrole (INH2AP= HL/sup 1/) as ligand and electrodes 3 and 4 are based on the mixed complexes with isonicotinoyl- hydrazone-2-hydroxy-l-naphthaldehyde (INH2HNA = H/sub 2/L/sup 2/ ) Cu/sup 2+/. selective and Ni/sup 2+/ -selective electrodes have been used to determine the copper and nickel ions in aqueous solutions, by both direct potentiometric and potentiometric titration with EDTA. They have also been used for determining the Cu/sup 2+/ and Ni/sup 2+/ ions in industrial waters by direct potentiometry. The analytical results obtained have been checked by the standard addition method and by comparison with determinations through atomic absorption spectrometry. (author)

  13. Role of oxygen-containing functional groups in forest fire-generated and pyrolytic chars for immobilization of copper and nickel.

    Esfandbod, Maryam; Merritt, Christopher R; Rashti, Mehran Rezaei; Singh, Balwant; Boyd, Sue E; Srivastava, Prashant; Brown, Christopher L; Butler, Orpheus M; Kookana, Rai S; Chen, Chengrong

    2017-01-01

    Char as a carbon-rich material, can be produced under pyrolytic conditions, wildfires or prescribed burn offs for fire management. The objective of this study was to elucidate mechanistic interactions of copper (Cu 2+ ) and nickel (Ni 2+ ) with different chars produced by pyrolysis (green waste, GW; blue-Mallee, BM) and forest fires (fresh-burnt by prescribed fire, FC; aged char produced by wild fire, AC). The pyrolytic chars were more effective sorbents of Cu 2+ (∼11 times) and Ni 2+ (∼5 times) compared with the forest fire chars. Both cross-polarization (CPMAS-NMR) and Bloch decay (BDMAS-NMR) 13 C NMR spectroscopies showed that forest fire chars have higher woody components (aromatic functional groups) and lower polar groups (e.g. O-alkyl C) compared with the pyrolytic chars. The polarity index was greater in the pyrolytic chars (0.99-1.34) than in the fire-generated chars (0.98-1.15), while aromaticity was lower in the former than in the latter. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopies indicated the binding of carbonate and phosphate with both Cu 2+ and Ni 2+ in all chars, but with a greater extent in pyrolytic than forest fire-generated chars. These findings have demonstrated the key role of char's oxygen-containing functional groups in determining their sorption capacity for the Cu 2+ and Ni 2+ in contaminated lands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nickel Dermatitis - Nickel Excretion

    Menné, T.; Thorboe, A.

    1976-01-01

    Nickel excretion in urine in four females -sensitive to nickel with an intermittent dyshidrotic eruption was measured with flameless atomic absorption. Excretion of nickel was found to be increased in association with outbreaks of vesicles. The results support the idea that the chronic condition ...

  15. Void formation and growth in copper-nickel alloys during irradiation in the high voltage electron microscope

    Leffers, T.; Singh, B.N.; Barlow, P.

    1977-05-01

    The formation and growth of voids during irradiation in a high-voltage electron microscope were studied in copper and Cu-Ni alloys. For each composition, the range of irradiation temperatures from 250 deg C to 550 deg C was covered. The development of the irradiation-induced dislocation structure was also studied. At irradiation temperatures up to 450 deg C, the void swelling decreased rapidly with increasing Ni content and became practically zero for Cu-10%Ni. The decrease in swelling was produced mainly by decreased void growth (and not by decreased void number density). At 550 deg C the void swelling increased with increasing Ni content up to 5%, whereas for Cu-10%Ni the swelling became practically zero; again the changes in swelling with Ni content were mainly determined by changes in void growth. The reduction in void swelling and growth due to alloying is ascribed to vacancy or interstitial trapping at submicroscopic Ni precipitates, i.e. to the precipitates acting as recombination centres. The increase in void swelling and growth with increasing Ni content, on the other hand, is ascribed to dislocation climb sources that emit loops, and hence produce a fairly high dislocation density at a temperature where there are only few dislocations in pure copper or Cu-Ni with lower Ni content. (author)

  16. Determination of copper and mercury in phosphate fertilizers employing direct solid sampling analysis and high resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    de Oliveira Souza, Sidnei; François, Luciane Luiza; Borges, Aline Rocha; Vale, Maria Goreti Rodrigues; Araujo, Rennan Geovanny Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    The present study proposes the determination of copper and mercury in phosphate fertilizers by direct solid sampling analysis (SS) employing high resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GF AAS). For Cu determination, two analytical lines were used: 327.3960 nm and 249.2146 nm. Hg determination was carried out on the line 253.6521 nm and 100 μg KMnO4 was used as chemical modifier. The optimal pyrolysis temperature for Cu determination was 1300 °C. Atomization temperatures for Cu and Hg were 2400 and 1100 °C, respectively. External calibration with aqueous standard solutions was adopted for both elements. The limits of quantification (LoQs) and characteristic mass (m0) obtained for Cu determination were 0.4 μg g- 1 and 1.12 ng, respectively, on line 249.2146 nm, and 64 μg g- 1 and 25 pg on 327.3960 nm. For mercury, LoQ and m0 were 4.8 ng g- 1 and 39 pg, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed methods was confirmed by the analysis of standard reference material (SRM) of Trace Elements in Multi-Nutrient Fertilizer (SRM NIST 695). The precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), was better than 8.2% for Hg and 7.7% for the Cu (n = 5), considered satisfactory for microanalysis in solid sample. Four fertilizer samples acquired in commercial establishments in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, were analyzed. The optimized analytical methods were simple, fast, accurate, precise and free of spectral interferences for the determination of Cu and Hg in phosphate fertilizer samples by SS-HR-CS GF AAS, avoiding the dissolution of the sample, the use of harmful reagents and the generation of residues.

  17. X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies of the active sites of nickel- and copper-containing metalloproteins

    Tan, G.O.

    1993-06-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a useful tool for obtaining structural and chemical information about the active sites of metalloproteins and metalloenzymes. Information may be obtained from both the edge region and the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) or post-edge region of the K-edge X-ray absorption spectrum of a metal center in a compound. The edge contains information about the valence electronic structure of the atom that absorbs the X-rays. It is possible in some systems to infer the redox state of the metal atom in question, as well as the geometry and nature of ligands connected to it, from the features in the edge in a straightforward manner. The EXAFS modulations, being produced by the backscattering of the ejected photoelectron from the atoms surrounding the metal atom, provide, when analyzed, information about the number and type of neighbouring atoms, and the distances at which they occur. In this thesis, analysis of both the edge and EXAFS regions has been used to gain information about the active sites of various metalloproteins. The metalloproteins studied were plastocyanin (Pc), laccase and nickel carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (Ni CODH). Studies of Cu(I)-imidazole compounds, related to the protein hemocyanin, are also reported here

  18. Electrochemical behavior of copper metal core/oxide shell ultra-fine particles on mercury electrodes in aqueous dispersions

    Korshunov, A.; Heyrovský, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 629, 1-2 (2009), s. 23-29 ISSN 0022-0728 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/1195; GA AV ČR IAA400400806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : ultrafine copper powders * surface oxide layers * aqueous dispersions * voltammetry * Hg electrodes Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.580, year: 2007

  19. Electrochemical study of the interaction between dsDNA and copper(I) using carbon paste and hanging mercury drop electrode.

    Stanić, Z; Girousi, S

    2008-06-30

    The interaction of copper(I) with double-stranded (ds) calf thymus DNA was studied in solution and at the electrode surface by means of transfer voltammetry using a carbon paste electrode (CPE) as working electrode in 0.2 M acetate buffer solution (pH 5.0). As a result of the interaction of Cu(I) between the base pairs of the dsDNA, the characteristic peaks of dsDNA, due to the oxidation of guanine and adenine, increased and after a certain concentration of Cu(I) a new peak at +1.37 V appeared, probably due to the formation of a purine-Cu(I) complex (dsDNA-Cu(I) complex). Accordingly, the interaction of copper(I) with calf thymus dsDNA was studied in solution as well as at the electrode surface using hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) by means of alternating current voltammetry (AC voltammetry) in 0.3 M NaCl and 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 8.5) as supporting electrolyte. Its interaction with DNA is shown to be time dependent. Significant changes in the characteristic peaks of dsDNA were observed after addition of higher concentration of Cu(I) to a solution containing dsDNA, as a result of the interaction between Cu(I) and dsDNA. All the experimental results indicate that Cu(I) can bind to DNA by electrostatic binding and form an association complex.

  20. Evaluation of the Content of Lead, Cadmium, Mercury, Arsenic, Tin, Copper and Zinc during the Production Process Flow of Tomato Broth

    Corina Andrei

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are among the largest contaminants of food products. Once metals are present in vegetables, their concentrations are rarely modified by industrial processing techniques, although in some cases washing may decrease the metal content. The main objective of this study was to quantify the effect of industrial processing on the content of lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, tin, copper and zinc in tomatoes and products resulting on flow technology of tomato broth. For the determination of essential elements and/or potentially toxic was use atomic absorption spectrometry. The analytical results for quantitative evaluation the concentrations of the investigated elements on the samples of tomatoes taken from the technological process of the production of tomato broth indicated the presence of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn but with a level of concentration that significantly decreased in the finished product and the absence of metals Hg and As in all investigated samples. Effect of industrial processing on the content of tin in tomato samples analyzed was characterized by fluctuations in the residual content that led to a significant increase in concentration of 0.100 ± 0.041 mg kg-1 (tomatoes - unprocessed to 0.200 ± 0.041 mg kg-1 (tomato broth.

  1. Effects of chronic exposure to waterborne copper and nickel in binary mixture on tissue-specific metal accumulation and reproduction in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    Driessnack, Melissa K; Jamwal, Ankur; Niyogi, Som

    2017-10-01

    The current study evaluated the interactive effects of chronic waterborne copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) exposure on tissue-specific metal accumulation and reproductive performance in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Fish trios (1 male: 2 female; n = 5-6) were exposed for 21 days to: (i) control (no added Cu or Ni), (ii) waterborne Cu (45 μg/L), (iii) waterborne Ni (270 μg/L), and (iv) binary mixture of waterborne Cu and Ni (45 and 270 μg/L, respectively). Fish fecundity (cumulative egg production) was found to be the most sensitive reproductive endpoint, and the interaction of Cu and Ni elicited an additive effect on egg production. Tissue-specific accumulation of both metals was not influenced by the interaction of Cu and Ni, except an increased Cu and Ni burden in the carcass and ovary, respectively, were recorded. The expressions of hepatic estrogen receptor genes (ER-α and ER-β) and the circulating estradiol level in females were also not affected by the metal-mixture treatment. However, co-exposure to waterborne Cu and Ni resulted in a significant downregulation of the hepatic vitellogenin gene in females, which was associated with the maximum upregulation of the hepatic metallothionein gene. In addition, a significant alteration of ovarian histopathology (decreased abundance of post-vitellogenic follicles, and increased follicular atresia) was also observed only in females exposed to Cu and Ni in mixture. Collectively, these observations suggest that chronic waterborne exposure to Cu and Ni in binary mixture may impair fish reproductive capacity by inducing histopathological damage in ovarian tissue, and disrupting of energy homeostasis in fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Field dependent transition to the non-linear regime in magnetic hyperthermia experiments: Comparison between maghemite, copper, zinc, nickel and cobalt ferrite nanoparticles of similar sizes

    E. L. Verde

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Further advances in magnetic hyperthermia might be limited by biological constraints, such as using sufficiently low frequencies and low field amplitudes to inhibit harmful eddy currents inside the patient's body. These incite the need to optimize the heating efficiency of the nanoparticles, referred to as the specific absorption rate (SAR. Among the several properties currently under research, one of particular importance is the transition from the linear to the non-linear regime that takes place as the field amplitude is increased, an aspect where the magnetic anisotropy is expected to play a fundamental role. In this paper we investigate the heating properties of cobalt ferrite and maghemite nanoparticles under the influence of a 500 kHz sinusoidal magnetic field with varying amplitude, up to 134 Oe. The particles were characterized by TEM, XRD, FMR and VSM, from which most relevant morphological, structural and magnetic properties were inferred. Both materials have similar size distributions and saturation magnetization, but strikingly different magnetic anisotropies. From magnetic hyperthermia experiments we found that, while at low fields maghemite is the best nanomaterial for hyperthermia applications, above a critical field, close to the transition from the linear to the non-linear regime, cobalt ferrite becomes more efficient. The results were also analyzed with respect to the energy conversion efficiency and compared with dynamic hysteresis simulations. Additional analysis with nickel, zinc and copper-ferrite nanoparticles of similar sizes confirmed the importance of the magnetic anisotropy and the damping factor. Further, the analysis of the characterization parameters suggested core-shell nanostructures, probably due to a surface passivation process during the nanoparticle synthesis. Finally, we discussed the effect of particle-particle interactions and its consequences, in particular regarding discrepancies between estimated

  3. The impact of industrial emissions of copper-nickel smelter complex on the status of populations and communities of small mammals in the Kola Peninsula

    Gennadiy D. Kataev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The population status of the small mammals, Micromammalia, was studied in the central mountain and taiga part of the Kola Peninsula in the Lapland Biosphere Reserve and its buffer zone. For this purpose, control groups of animals were selected at a different distance from the Severonikel' industrial complex which is considered as the largest metallurgical company in Europe. It produces nickel, copper and other non-ferrous metals. The study sites were located at 4–30 km from the local source of industrial pollution. The analysis of population dynamics, faunistic structure and biological parameters of mass species of Soricidae, Myomorpha has revealed the differences in habitats depending on the distance to the industrial complex. The results of the chemical analysis of organs and tissue samples of small rodents, their morpho-physiological and genetic characteristics within emission plume were analysed. The abundance of the studied Mammalia species was the lowest at 5 km north and 7 km south of the metallurgical industrial complex. According to our results, animals in a zone of increased industrial emission (sulfur dioxide, compounds of heavy metals concentrations had more deviations from the biological norms in comparison with the same species from less polluted areas. Long-term (1936–2014 abundance dynamics of Clethrionomys glareolus was presented due to the new ecological situation in the region and reduction of the volume of sulfur dioxide emission by the Severonikel' industrial complex. This biotesting method using mammals as study objects may be applied for the definition of ecologically safe level criteria of heavy metal production and it may be used in studies of similar ecological situations.

  4. SYNTHESIS AND ANTITUMOR ACTIVITY OF COPPER, NICKEL AND COBALT COORDINATION COMPOUNDS WITH 1-(2-HYDROXYPHENYLETHANONE N(4-ALLYL-3-THIOSEMICARBAZONE

    Vasilii GRAUR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the synthesis of the ligand 1-(2-hydroxyphenylethanone N(4-allyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (H2L and six coordination compounds of copper, nickel and cobalt with this ligand. The structure of thiosemicarbazone H2L was studied using 1H and 13С NMR spectroscopy. The synthesized coordination compounds were studied using elemental analysis, gravimetric analysis of water content, molar conductivity, and magnetochemistry. For H2L the antitumor activity towards human leukemia HL-60 cells and cervical cancer HeLa cells was determined. It was established that the substitution of hydrogen atom with methyl group in the azomethinic fragment leads to the growth of antitumor activity.SINTEZA ŞI ACTIVITATEA ANTITUMORALĂ A COMPUŞILOR COMPLECŞI AI CUPRULUI, NICHELULUI ŞI COBALTULUI CU N(4-ALIL-3-TIOSEMICARBAZONA 1-(2-HIDROXIFENILETANONEILucrarea conţine descrierea sintezei N(4-alil-3-tiosemicarbazonei 1-(2-hidroxifeniletanonei (H2L şi a şase compuşi coordinativi ai cuprului, nichelului şi cobaltului cu acest ligand. Structura tiosemicarbazonei H2L a fost stabilită în baza datelor spectroscopiei RMN 1H şi 13C. Compuşi coordinativi au fost studiaţi cu ajutorul analizei elementale, analizei gravimetrice a conţinutului de apă, conductivitaţii molare şi magnetochimiei. Pentru H2L a fost determinată activitatea antitumorală faţă de celulele leucemiei umane HL-60 şi ale cancerului cervical HeLa. S-a stabilit că înlocuirea atomului de hidrogen cu o grupare metil în fragmentul azomethinic conduce la creşterea activitaţii antitumorale.

  5. Opacity of iron, nickel, and copper plasmas in the x-ray wavelength range: Theoretical interpretation of 2p-3d absorption spectra

    Blenski, T.; Loisel, G.; Poirier, M.; Thais, F.; Arnault, P.; Caillaud, T.; Fariaut, J.; Gilleron, F.; Pain, J.-C.; Porcherot, Q.; Reverdin, C.; Silvert, V.; Villette, B.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Turck-Chieze, S.; Foelsner, W.; Gaufridy de Dortan, F. de

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with theoretical studies on the 2p-3d absorption in iron, nickel, and copper plasmas related to LULI2000 (Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, 2000J facility) measurements in which target temperatures were of the order of 20 eV and plasma densities were in the range 0.004-0.01 g/cm 3 . The radiatively heated targets were close to local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The structure of 2p-3d transitions has been studied with the help of the statistical superconfiguration opacity code sco and with the fine-structure atomic physics codes hullac and fac. A new mixed version of the sco code allowing one to treat part of the configurations by detailed calculation based on the Cowan's code rcg has been also used in these comparisons. Special attention was paid to comparisons between theory and experiment concerning the term features which cannot be reproduced by sco. The differences in the spin-orbit splitting and the statistical (thermal) broadening of the 2p-3d transitions have been investigated as a function of the atomic number Z. It appears that at the conditions of the experiment the role of the term and configuration broadening was different in the three analyzed elements, this broadening being sensitive to the atomic number. Some effects of the temperature gradients and possible non-LTE effects have been studied with the help of the radiative-collisional code scric. The sensitivity of the 2p-3d structures with respect to temperature and density in medium-Z plasmas may be helpful for diagnostics of LTE plasmas especially in future experiments on the Δn=0 absorption in medium-Z plasmas for astrophysical applications.

  6. Nickel: makes stainless steel strong

    Boland, Maeve A.

    2012-01-01

    Nickel is a silvery-white metal that is used mainly to make stainless steel and other alloys stronger and better able to withstand extreme temperatures and corrosive environments. Nickel was first identified as a unique element in 1751 by Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, a Swedish mineralogist and chemist. He originally called the element kupfernickel because it was found in rock that looked like copper (kupfer) ore and because miners thought that "bad spirits" (nickel) in the rock were making it difficult for them to extract copper from it. Approximately 80 percent of the primary (not recycled) nickel consumed in the United States in 2011 was used in alloys, such as stainless steel and superalloys. Because nickel increases an alloy's resistance to corrosion and its ability to withstand extreme temperatures, equipment and parts made of nickel-bearing alloys are often used in harsh environments, such as those in chemical plants, petroleum refineries, jet engines, power generation facilities, and offshore installations. Medical equipment, cookware, and cutlery are often made of stainless steel because it is easy to clean and sterilize. All U.S. circulating coins except the penny are made of alloys that contain nickel. Nickel alloys are increasingly being used in making rechargeable batteries for portable computers, power tools, and hybrid and electric vehicles. Nickel is also plated onto such items as bathroom fixtures to reduce corrosion and provide an attractive finish.

  7. [A comparative study of cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, selenium, manganese, copper and zinc in brown rice and fish by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry].

    Oshima, Harumi; Ueno, Eiji; Saito, Isao; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    2004-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the applicability of ICP-MS techniques for determination of metals in brown rice and fish. Cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, selenium, manganese, copper and zinc were determined by this method. An open digestion with nitric acid (Method A) and a rapid open digestion with nitric acid and hydrochloric acid (Method B) were used to solubilize analytes in samples, and these procedures were followed by ICP-MS analysis. Recovery of certified elements from standard reference materials by Method A and Method B ranged from 92 to 110% except for mercury (70 to 100%). Analytical results of brown rice and fish samples obtained by this ICP-MS agreed with those obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The results of this study demonstrate that quadrupole ICP-MS provides precise and accurate measurements of the elements tested in brown rice and fish samples.

  8. Regional-scale fluxes of zinc, copper, and nickel into and out of the agricultural soils of the Kermanshah province in western Iran.

    Ahmadi Doabi, Shahab; Karami, Mahin; Afyuni, Majid

    2016-04-01

    It is important to study the status and trend of soil contamination with trace elements to make sustainable management strategies for agricultural soils. This study was conducted in order to model zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and nickel (Ni) accumulation rates in agricultural soils of Kermanshah province using input and output fluxes mass balance and to evaluate the associated uncertainties. The input and output fluxes of Zn, Cu, and Ni into (from) the agricultural soils of Kermanshah province via livestock manure, mineral fertilizers, municipal waste compost, pesticides, atmospheric deposition, and crop removal were assessed for the period 2000-2014. The data were collected to compute the fluxes at both township and regional scales from available databases such as regional agricultural statistics. The basic units of the balance were 9 townships of Kermanshah province. Averaged over the entire study region, the estimated net fluxes of Zn, Cu, and Ni into agricultural soils were 341, 84, and131 g ha year(-1), with a range of 211 to 1621, 61 to 463, and 114 to 679 among the townships. The livestock manure was responsible for 55, 56, and 67 % of the total Zn, Cu, and Ni inputs at regional scale, while municipal waste compost and mineral fertilizers accounted for approximately 19, 38, and 15 % and 24, 4, and 14 % of the total Zn, Cu, and Ni inputs, respectively. Atmospheric deposition was a considerable source only for Ni and at township scale (7-29 % of total Ni input). For Zn, Cu, and Ni, the input-to-output ratio of the fluxes ranged from 1.8 to 48.9, 2 to 48.2, and 4 to 303 among townships and averaged 2.8, 3, and 9 for the entire study area, respectively. Considering that outputs other than with crop harvests are minor, this means that Zn, Cu, and Ni (in particular Ni) stocks are rapidly building up in soils of some parts of the study region. Uncertainties in the livestock manure and crop removal data were the main sources of estimation uncertainty in this study

  9. Canadian House Dust Study: Population-based concentrations, loads and loading rates of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc inside urban homes

    Rasmussen, Pat E. [Exposure and Biomonitoring Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Colombine Driveway, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 140 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Levesque, Christine [Exposure and Biomonitoring Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Colombine Driveway, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada); Chénier, Marc; Gardner, H. David [Exposure and Biomonitoring Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Colombine Driveway, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 140 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Jones-Otazo, Heather [Regions and Programs Branch, Health Canada, 180 Queen Street West, Toronto, ON, Canada M5V 3L7 (Canada); Petrovic, Sanya [Contaminated Sites Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 269 Laurier Ave West, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    The Canadian House Dust Study was designed to obtain nationally representative urban house dust metal concentrations (μg g{sup −1}) and metal loadings (μg m{sup −2}) for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). Consistent sampling of active dust of known age and provenance (area sampled) also permitted the calculation of indoor loading rates (mg m{sup −2} day{sup −1} for dust and μg m{sup −2} day{sup −1} for metals) for the winter season (from 2007 to 2010) when houses are most tightly sealed. Geomean/median indoor dust loading rates in homes located more than 2 km away from industry of any kind (9.6/9.1 mg m{sup −2} day{sup −1}; n = 580) were significantly lower (p < .001) than geomean (median) dust loading rates in homes located within 2 km of industry (13.5/13.4 mg m{sup −2} day{sup −1}; n = 421). Proximity to industry was characterized by higher indoor metal loading rates (p < .003), but no difference in dust metal concentrations (.29 ≥ p ≤ .97). Comparisons of non-smokers' and smokers' homes in non-industrial zones showed higher metal loading rates (.005 ≥ p ≤ .038) in smokers' homes, but no difference in dust metal concentrations (.15 ≥ p ≤ .97). Relationships between house age and dust metal concentrations were significant for Pb, Cd and Zn (p < .001) but not for the other four metals (.14 ≥ p ≤ .87). All seven metals, however, displayed a significant increase in metal loading rates with house age (p < .001) due to the influence of higher dust loading rates in older homes (p < .001). Relationships between three measures of metals in house dust – concentration, load, and loading rate – in the context of house age, smoking behavior and urban setting consistently show that concentration data is a useful indicator of the presence of metal sources in the home, whereas dust mass is the overriding influence on metal loadings and loading rates

  10. A study of the composition and microstructure of nanodispersed Cu-Ni alloys obtained by different routes from copper and nickel oxides

    Cangiano, Maria de los A; Ojeda, Manuel W., E-mail: mojeda@unsl.edu.ar; Carreras, Alejo C.; Gonzalez, Jorge A.; Ruiz, Maria del C

    2010-11-15

    Mixtures of CuO and NiO were prepared by two different techniques, and then the oxides were reduced with H{sub 2}. Method A involved the preparation of mechanical mixtures of CuO and NiO using different milling and pelletizing processes. Method B involved the chemical synthesis of the mixture of CuO and NiO. The route used to prepare the copper and nickel oxide mixture was found to have great influence on the characteristics of bimetallic Cu-Ni particles obtained. Observations performed using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique showed that although both methods led to the Cu-Ni solid solution, the diffractogram of the alloy obtained with method A revealed the presence of NiO together with the alloy. The temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) experiments indicated that the alloy is formed at lower temperatures when using method B. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies revealed notable differences in the morphology and size distribution of the bimetallic particles synthesized by different routes. The results of the electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) studies evidenced the existence of a small amount of oxygen in both cases and demonstrated that the alloy synthesized using method B presented a homogeneous composition with a Cu-Ni ratio close to 1:1. On the contrary, the alloy obtained using method A was not homogeneous in all the volume of the solid. The homogeneity depended on the mechanical treatment undergone by the mixture of the oxides. - Research Highlights: {yields}Study of the properties of Cu-Ni alloys synthesized by two different routes. {yields}Mixtures of Cu and Ni oxides prepared by two techniques were reduced with H{sub 2}. {yields}Mixtures of oxides were obtained by a mechanical process and the citrate-gel route. {yields}The characterizations were carried out by TPR, XRD, SEM and EPMA. {yields}The route used to prepare oxide mixtures influences on the Cu-Ni alloy obtained.

  11. A study of the composition and microstructure of nanodispersed Cu-Ni alloys obtained by different routes from copper and nickel oxides

    Cangiano, Maria de los A; Ojeda, Manuel W.; Carreras, Alejo C.; Gonzalez, Jorge A.; Ruiz, Maria del C

    2010-01-01

    Mixtures of CuO and NiO were prepared by two different techniques, and then the oxides were reduced with H 2 . Method A involved the preparation of mechanical mixtures of CuO and NiO using different milling and pelletizing processes. Method B involved the chemical synthesis of the mixture of CuO and NiO. The route used to prepare the copper and nickel oxide mixture was found to have great influence on the characteristics of bimetallic Cu-Ni particles obtained. Observations performed using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique showed that although both methods led to the Cu-Ni solid solution, the diffractogram of the alloy obtained with method A revealed the presence of NiO together with the alloy. The temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) experiments indicated that the alloy is formed at lower temperatures when using method B. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies revealed notable differences in the morphology and size distribution of the bimetallic particles synthesized by different routes. The results of the electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) studies evidenced the existence of a small amount of oxygen in both cases and demonstrated that the alloy synthesized using method B presented a homogeneous composition with a Cu-Ni ratio close to 1:1. On the contrary, the alloy obtained using method A was not homogeneous in all the volume of the solid. The homogeneity depended on the mechanical treatment undergone by the mixture of the oxides. - Research Highlights: →Study of the properties of Cu-Ni alloys synthesized by two different routes. →Mixtures of Cu and Ni oxides prepared by two techniques were reduced with H 2 . →Mixtures of oxides were obtained by a mechanical process and the citrate-gel route. →The characterizations were carried out by TPR, XRD, SEM and EPMA. →The route used to prepare oxide mixtures influences on the Cu-Ni alloy obtained.

  12. Simultaneous preconcentration of copper, zinc, cadmium, and nickel in water samples by cloud point extraction using 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol and their determination by inductively coupled plasma optic emission spectrometry

    Silva, Edson Luiz; Santos Roldan, Paulo dos; Gine, Maria Fernanda

    2009-01-01

    A procedure for simultaneous separation/preconcentration of copper, zinc, cadmium, and nickel in water samples, based on cloud point extraction (CPE) as a prior step to their determination by inductively coupled plasma optic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), has been developed. The analytes reacted with 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR) at pH 5 to form hydrophobic chelates, which were separated and preconcentrated in a surfactant-rich phase of octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114). The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the proposed method, such as sample pH, complexing agent concentration, buffer amount, surfactant concentration, temperature, kinetics of complexation reaction, and incubation time were optimized and their respective values were 5, 0.6 mmol L -1 , 0.3 mL, 0.15% (w/v), 50 deg. C, 40 min, and 10 min for 15 mL of preconcentrated solution. The method presented precision (R.S.D.) between 1.3% and 2.6% (n = 9). The concentration factors with and without dilution of the surfactant-rich phase for the analytes ranged from 9.4 to 10.1 and from 94.0 to 100.1, respectively. The limits of detection (L.O.D.) obtained for copper, zinc, cadmium, and nickel were 1.2, 1.1, 1.0, and 6.3 μg L -1 , respectively. The accuracy of the procedure was evaluated through recovery experiments on aqueous samples.

  13. Highly sensitive determination of mercury using copper enhancer by diamond electrode coupled with sequential injection–anodic stripping voltammetry

    Chaiyo, Sudkate [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University (Thailand); Chailapakul, Orawon [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University (Thailand); Center for Petroleum, Petrochemicals, and Advanced Materials, Chulalongkorn University (Thailand); Siangproh, Weena, E-mail: weena@swu.ac.th [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University (Thailand)

    2014-12-10

    Highlights: • Highly sensitive determination of Hg(II) using SI–ASV-BDD was achieved. • Electrochemical detection of Hg(II) using Cu(II) enhancer was accomplished. • LOD and LOQ were found to be very low at 40.0 ppt and 135.0 ppt. • This method was successfully applied for determination of Hg(II) in real samples. - Abstract: A highly sensitive determination of mercury in the presence of Cu(II) using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) thin film electrode coupled with sequential injection–anodic stripping voltammetry (SI–ASV) was proposed. The Cu(II) was simultaneously deposited with Hg(II) in a 0.5 M HCl supporting electrolyte by electrodeposition. In presence of an excess of Cu(II), the sensitivity for the determination of Hg(II) was remarkably enhanced. Cu(II) and Hg(II) were on-line deposited onto the BDD electrode surface at −1.0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl, 3 M KCl) for 150 s with a flow rate of 14 μL s{sup −1}. An anodic stripping voltammogram was recorded from −0.4 V to 0.25 V using a frequency of 60 Hz, an amplitude of 50 mV, and a step potential of 10 mV at a stopped flow. Under the optimal conditions, well-defined peaks of Cu(II) and Hg(II) were found at −0.25 V and +0.05 V (vs. Ag/AgCl, 3 M KCl), respectively. The detection of Hg(II) showed two linear dynamic ranges (0.1–30.0 ng mL{sup −1} and 5.0–60.0 ng mL{sup −1}). The limit of detection (S/N = 3) obtained from the experiment was found to be 0.04 ng mL{sup −1}. The precision values for 10 replicate determinations were 1.1, 2.1 and 2.9% RSD for 0.5, 10 and 20 ng mL{sup −1}, respectively. The proposed method has been successfully applied for the determination of Hg(II) in seawater, salmon, squid, cockle and seaweed samples. A comparison between the proposed method and an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) standard method was performed on the samples, and the concentrations obtained via both methods were in agreement with the certified values of Hg

  14. Using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to characterize copper, zinc and mercury along grizzly bear hair providing estimate of diet

    Noël, Marie, E-mail: marie.noel@stantec.com [Stantec Consulting Ltd. 2042 Mills Road, Unit 11, Sidney BC V8L 4X2 (Canada); Christensen, Jennie R., E-mail: jennie.christensen@stantec.com [Stantec Consulting Ltd. 2042 Mills Road, Unit 11, Sidney BC V8L 4X2 (Canada); Spence, Jody, E-mail: jodys@uvic.ca [School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Bob Wright Centre A405, University of Victoria, PO BOX 3065 STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3V6 (Canada); Robbins, Charles T., E-mail: ctrobbins@wsu.edu [School of the Environment and School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-4236 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    We enhanced an existing technique, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), to function as a non-lethal tool in the temporal characterization of trace element exposure in wild mammals. Mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) were analyzed along the hair of captive and wild grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Laser parameters were optimized (consecutive 2000 μm line scans along the middle line of the hair at a speed of 50 μm/s; spot size = 30 μm) for consistent ablation of the hair. A pressed pellet of reference material DOLT-2 and sulfur were used as external and internal standards, respectively. Our newly adapted method passed the quality control tests with strong correlations between trace element concentrations obtained using LA-ICP-MS and those obtained with regular solution-ICP-MS (r{sup 2} = 0.92, 0.98, 0.63, 0.57, 0.99 and 0.90 for Hg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb, respectively). Cross-correlation analyses revealed good reproducibility between trace element patterns obtained from hair collected from the same bear. One exception was Cd for which external contamination was observed resulting in poor reproducibility. In order to validate the method, we used LA-ICP-MS on the hair of five captive grizzly bears fed known and varying amounts of cutthroat trout over a period of 33 days. Trace element patterns along the hair revealed strong Hg, Cu and Zn signals coinciding with fish consumption. Accordingly, significant correlations between Hg, Cu, and Zn in the hair and Hg, Cu, and Zn intake were evident and we were able to develop accumulation models for each of these elements. While the use of LA-ICP-MS for the monitoring of trace elements in wildlife is in its infancy, this study highlights the robustness and applicability of this newly adapted method. - Highlights: • LA-ICP-MS provides temporal trace metal exposure information for wild grizzly bears. • Cu and Zn temporal exposures provide

  15. Using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to characterize copper, zinc and mercury along grizzly bear hair providing estimate of diet

    Noël, Marie; Christensen, Jennie R.; Spence, Jody; Robbins, Charles T.

    2015-01-01

    We enhanced an existing technique, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), to function as a non-lethal tool in the temporal characterization of trace element exposure in wild mammals. Mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) were analyzed along the hair of captive and wild grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Laser parameters were optimized (consecutive 2000 μm line scans along the middle line of the hair at a speed of 50 μm/s; spot size = 30 μm) for consistent ablation of the hair. A pressed pellet of reference material DOLT-2 and sulfur were used as external and internal standards, respectively. Our newly adapted method passed the quality control tests with strong correlations between trace element concentrations obtained using LA-ICP-MS and those obtained with regular solution-ICP-MS (r 2 = 0.92, 0.98, 0.63, 0.57, 0.99 and 0.90 for Hg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb, respectively). Cross-correlation analyses revealed good reproducibility between trace element patterns obtained from hair collected from the same bear. One exception was Cd for which external contamination was observed resulting in poor reproducibility. In order to validate the method, we used LA-ICP-MS on the hair of five captive grizzly bears fed known and varying amounts of cutthroat trout over a period of 33 days. Trace element patterns along the hair revealed strong Hg, Cu and Zn signals coinciding with fish consumption. Accordingly, significant correlations between Hg, Cu, and Zn in the hair and Hg, Cu, and Zn intake were evident and we were able to develop accumulation models for each of these elements. While the use of LA-ICP-MS for the monitoring of trace elements in wildlife is in its infancy, this study highlights the robustness and applicability of this newly adapted method. - Highlights: • LA-ICP-MS provides temporal trace metal exposure information for wild grizzly bears. • Cu and Zn temporal exposures provide

  16. Bioavailability of cadmium, copper, mercury, lead, and zinc in subtropical coastal lagoons from the southeast Gulf of California using mangrove oysters (Crassostrea corteziensis and Crassostrea palmula).

    Páez-Osuna, Federico; Osuna-Martínez, Carmen C

    2015-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) were assessed in the edible tissues of Crassrotrea corteziensis oysters collected during the rainy and dry seasons in 27 sites from 8 coastal lagoons of the southeast Gulf of California. In addition, C. palmula oysters were sampled at 9 sites from the same mangrove roots where C. corteziensis oysters were collected. Metal analyses were performed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Cd, Cu, and Zn), graphite furnace (Pb), and cold vapor detection (Hg). The obtained mean levels were (µg g(-1) dry weight) as follows: Cd 6.05 ± 2.77, Cu 60.0 ± 33.4, Hg 0.38 ± 0.17, Pb 1.11 ± 0.63, and Zn 777 ± 528 µg g(-1). For all metals except Hg, the concentrations were greater during dry season than during rainy seasons. The high levels, particularly that for Cd, were related to upwelling along the eastern Gulf of California. High Hg levels in the rainy season were associated with the transport of materials from the watershed to the lagoon. Shrimp farming, agriculture, and other sources were considered as potential sources to explain the differences in metal bioavailability in the 8 lagoons. The mean concentrations of Cd (Santa María-La Reforma lagoon), Cu [San Ignacio-Navachiste-El Macapule (SINM), Urías (URI), and Altata-Ensenada del Pabellón lagoons], and zinc (Zn) (URI, Santa María-Ohuira-Topolobampo, El Colorado, and SINM lagoons) during the dry season were greater than the maximum permissible limits. C. palmula collected in 8 sites where they were present simultaneously with C. corteziensis had consistently greater metal levels than C. corteziensis, but correlation analyses showed a high and significant (P < 0.05) correlation between metal concentrations in both species. The correlation equations obtained are useful where the same species is not distributed and is necessary to compare results from distinct regions.

  17. Synthesis of Two Potentially Heptadentate (N4O3 Schiff-base Ligands Derived from Condensation of Tris(3-aminopropyl-amine and Salicylaldehyde or 4-Hydroxysalicylaldehyde. Nickel(II and Copper(II Complexes of the Former Ligand

    R. V. Parish

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Two potentially heptadentate (N4O3 tripodal Schiff-base ligands: tris(3-(salicylideneiminopropylamine (H3L1 and tris(3-(4’-hydroxysalicylideneimino-propylamine (H3L2 have been prepared and characterized by various spectroscopic methods (IR, FAB-MS, NMR. They are derived from the condensation reactions of tris(3-aminopropylamine (tpt, with 3 equivalents of either salicylaldehyde or the ringsubstituted salicylaldehyde, 4-hydroxysalicylaldehyde. The nickel(II and copper(II complexes of H3L1 were obtained from the its reactions Ni(II and Cu(II salts in absolute methanol. These complexes were studied by IR and FAB-Mass spectrometry.

  18. An Optical Model Study of Neutrons Elastically Scattered by Iron, Nickel, Cobalt, Copper, and Indium in the Energy Region 1.5 to 7.0 MeV

    Holmqvist, B; Wiedling, T

    1967-03-15

    Angular distributions of elastically scattered neutrons have been measured for cobalt and copper at nine energies between 1.5 and 7.0 MeV, for natural iron at 4.6 MeV, for natural nickel and indium at four energies between 3.0 and 4.6 MeV, by using time-of-flight technique. The observed angular distributions were corrected for neutron flux attenuation, multiple elastic scattering, and the finite geometry of the source-sample-detector system by using a Monte Carlo program. Theoretical angular distributions have been fitted to the experimental angular distributions by using an optical model potential with Saxon-Woods form factors. A computer program was used to find parameter values of the potential giving the best fittings to the experimental angular distributions.

  19. Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Studies of a New Mannich Base N-[Morpholino(phenylmethyl]acetamide and Its Cobalt(II, Nickel(II and Copper(II Metal Complexes

    L. Muruganandam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new Mannich base N-[morpholino(phenylmethyl]acetamide (MBA, was synthesized and characterized by spectral studies. Chelates of MBA with cobalt(II, nickel(II and copper(II ions were prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, IR and UV spectral studies. MBA was found to act as a bidentate ligand, bonding through the carbonyl oxygen of acetamide group and CNC nitrogen of morpholine moiety in all the complexes. Based on the magnetic moment values and UV-Visible spectral data, tetracoordinate geometry for nitrato complexes and hexacoordinate geometry for sulphato complexes were assigned. The antimicrobial studies show that the Co(II nitrato complex is more active than the other complexes.

  20. Study on solid phase extraction and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of nickel, silver, cobalt, copper, cadmium and lead with MCI GEL CHP 20Y as sorbent

    Yang Guangyu; Fen Weibo; Lei Chun; Xiao Weilie; Sun Handong

    2009-01-01

    A solid phase extraction and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) for the determination of nickel, silver, cobalt, copper, cadmium and lead with MCI GEL CHP 20Y as sorbent was studied. Trace amounts of chromium, nickel, silver, cobalt, copper, cadmium and lead were reacted with 2-(2-quinolinil-azo)-4-methyl-1,3-dihydroxidobenzene (QAMDHB) followed by adsorption onto MCI GEL CHP 20Y solid phase extraction column, and 1.0 mol L -1 HNO 3 was used as eluent. The metal ions in 300 mL solution can be concentrated to 1.0 mL, representing an enrichment factor of 300 was achieved. The recoveries of analytes at pH 8.0 with 1.0 g of resin were greater than 95% without interference from alkaline, earth alkaline and some metal ions. When detected with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, the detection limits in the original samples were 1.4 ng L -1 for Cr(III), 1.0 ng L -1 for Ni(II), 0.85 ng L -1 for Ag(I), 1.2 ng L -1 for Co(II), 1.0 ng L -1 for Cu(II), 1.2 ng L -1 for Cd(II) and 1.3 ng L -1 for Pb(II). The validation of the procedure was performed by the analysis of the certified standard reference materials, and the presented procedure was applied to the determination of analytes in biological, water and soil samples with good results (recoveries range from 89 to 104%, and R.S.D.% lower than 3.2%. The results agreed with the standard value or reference method)

  1. Cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II) and hafnium(IV) complexes of N'-(furan-3-ylmethylene)-2-(4-methoxyphenylamino)acetohydrazide.

    Emam, Sanaa M; El-Saied, Fathy A; Abou El-Enein, Saeyda A; El-Shater, Heba A

    2009-03-01

    Cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II) and hafnium(IV) complexes of furan-2-carbaldehyde 4-methoxy-N-anilinoacetohydrazone were synthesized and characterized by elemental and thermal (TG and DTA) analyses, IR, UV-vis and (1)H NMR spectra as well as magnetic moment and molar conductivity. Mononuclear complexes are obtained with 1:1 molar ratio except complexes 3 and 9 which are obtained with 1:2 molar ratios. The IR spectra of ligand and metal complexes reveal various modes of chelation. The ligand behaves as a neutral bidentate one and coordination occurs via the carbonyl oxygen atom and azomethine nitrogen atom. The ligand behaves also as a monobasic tridentate one and coordination occurs through the enolic oxygen atom, azomethine nitrogen atom and the oxygen atom of furan ring. Moreover, the ligand behaves as a neutral tridentate and coordination occurs via the carbonyl oxygen, azomethine nitrogen and furan oxygen atoms as well as a monobasic bidentate and coordination occurs via the enolic oxygen atom and azomethine nitrogen atom. The electronic spectra and magnetic moment measurements reveal that all complexes possess octahedral geometry except the copper complex 10 possesses a square planar geometry. The thermal studies showed the type of water molecules involved in metal complexes as well as the thermal decomposition of some metal complexes.

  2. Crystal structures of a copper(II and the isotypic nickel(II and palladium(II complexes of the ligand (E-1-[(2,4,6-tribromophenyldiazenyl]naphthalen-2-ol

    Souheyla Chetioui

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the copper(II complex, bis{(E-1-[(2,4,6-tribromophenyldiazenyl]naphthalen-2-olato}copper(II, [Cu(C16H8Br3N2O2], (I, the metal cation is coordinated by two N atoms and two O atoms from two bidentate (E-1-[(2,4,6-tribromophenyldiazenyl]naphthalen-2-olate ligands, forming a slightly distorted square-planar environment. In one of the ligands, the tribromobenzene ring is inclined to the naphthalene ring system by 37.4 (5°, creating a weak intramolecular Cu...Br interaction [3.134 (2 Å], while in the other ligand, the tribromobenzene ring is inclined to the naphthalene ring system by 72.1 (6°. In the isotypic nickel(II and palladium(II complexes, namely bis{(E-1-[(2,4,6-tribromophenyldiazenyl]naphthalen-2-olato}nickel(II, [Ni(C16H8Br3N2O2], (II, and bis{(E-1-[(2,4,6-tribromophenyldiazenyl]naphthalen-2-olato}palladium(II, [Pd(C16H8Br3N2O2], (III, respectively, the metal atoms are located on centres of inversion, hence the metal coordination spheres have perfect square-planar geometries. The tribromobenzene rings are inclined to the naphthalene ring systems by 80.79 (18° in (II and by 80.8 (3° in (III. In the crystal of (I, molecules are linked by C—H...Br hydrogen bonds, forming chains along [010]. The chains are linked by C—H...π interactions, forming sheets parallel to (011. In the crystals of (II and (III, molecules are linked by C—H...π interactions, forming slabs parallel to (10-1. For the copper(II complex (I, a region of disordered electron density was corrected for using the SQUEEZE routine in PLATON [Spek (2015. Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18]. The formula mass and unit-cell characteristics of the disordered solvent molecules were not taken into account during refinement.

  3. Influence of diethyldithiocarbamate on cadmium and copper toxicity ...

    drinie

    Abstract. Toxic effects of two heavy metals, cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu), and a fungicide, .... mining 50% morbid concentrations (MC50) and 50% inhibition .... WHITTON B and SHEHATA F (1982) Influence of cobalt, nickel, copper.

  4. Apparatus and method for removing mercury vapor from a gas stream

    Ganesan, Kumar [Butte, MT

    2008-01-01

    A metallic filter effectively removes mercury vapor from gas streams. The filter captures the mercury which then can be released and collected as product. The metallic filter is a copper mesh sponge plated with a six micrometer thickness of gold. The filter removes up to 90% of mercury vapor from a mercury contaminated gas stream.

  5. A comparison of cytotoxicity and oxidative stress from welding fumes generated with a new nickel-, copper-based consumable versus mild and stainless steel-based welding in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages.

    Badding, Melissa A; Fix, Natalie R; Antonini, James M; Leonard, Stephen S

    2014-01-01

    Welding processes that generate fumes containing toxic metals, such as hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), manganese (Mn), and nickel (Ni), have been implicated in lung injury, inflammation, and lung tumor promotion in animal models. While federal regulations have reduced permissible worker exposure limits to Cr(VI), this is not always practical considering that welders may work in confined spaces and exhaust ventilation may be ineffective. Thus, there has been a recent initiative to minimize the potentially hazardous components in welding materials by developing new consumables containing much less Cr(VI) and Mn. A new nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu)-based material (Ni-Cu WF) is being suggested as a safer alternative to stainless steel consumables; however, its adverse cellular effects have not been studied. This study compared the cytotoxic effects of the newly developed Ni-Cu WF with two well-characterized welding fumes, collected from gas metal arc welding using mild steel (GMA-MS) or stainless steel (GMA-SS) electrodes. RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages were exposed to the three welding fumes at two doses (50 µg/ml and 250 µg/ml) for up to 24 hours. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, phagocytic function, and cytokine production were examined. The GMA-MS and GMA-SS samples were found to be more reactive in terms of ROS production compared to the Ni-Cu WF. However, the fumes from this new material were more cytotoxic, inducing cell death and mitochondrial dysfunction at a lower dose. Additionally, pre-treatment with Ni-Cu WF particles impaired the ability of cells to phagocytize E. coli, suggesting macrophage dysfunction. Thus, the toxic cellular responses to welding fumes are largely due to the metal composition. The results also suggest that reducing Cr(VI) and Mn in the generated fume by increasing the concentration of other metals (e.g., Ni, Cu) may not necessarily improve welder safety.

  6. Mercury and Your Health

    ... the Risk of Exposure to Mercury Learn About Mercury What is Mercury What is Metallic mercury? Toxicological Profile ToxFAQs Mercury Resources CDC’s National Biomonitoring Program Factsheet on Mercury ...

  7. Determination of Lead(II), Cadmium(II) and Copper(II) in Waste-Water and Soil Extracts on Mercury Film Screen-Printed Carbon Electrodes Sensor

    Mohd Fairulnizal Md Noh; Tothill, I.E.

    2011-01-01

    A sensor incorporating a three electrodes configuration have been fabricated using low cost screen-printing technology. These electrodes couples with Square Wave Stripping Voltammetry (SWSV) has provided a convenient screening tool for on-site detection of trace levels of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II). Modification of the graphite carbon surface based on in situ deposition of mercury film has been carried out. By appropriate choice of supporting medium and optimized parameters setting such as amount of mercury used the deposition potential, deposition time, frequency and scan rate, well resolved and reproducible response for Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) were obtained. The performance characteristics of the developed mercury film screen printed carbon electrode (MFSPCE) for 120 s deposition time showed that the linear range for Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II) were 10 to 200 μg L -1 . The detection limit recorded for Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II) were 2, 1 and 5 μg L -1 with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 6.5 %, 6.9 % and 7.5 %, respectively. Successful applications of the sensing device to waste-water and extracted soil samples were demonstrated. (author)

  8. Planet Mercury

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 10's first image of Mercury acquired on March 24, 1974. During its flight, Mariner 10's trajectory brought it behind the lighted hemisphere of Mercury, where this image was taken, in order to acquire important measurements with other instruments.This picture was acquired from a distance of 3,340,000 miles (5,380,000 km) from the surface of Mercury. The diameter of Mercury (3,031 miles; 4,878 km) is about 1/3 that of Earth.Images of Mercury were acquired in two steps, an inbound leg (images acquired before passing into Mercury's shadow) and an outbound leg (after exiting from Mercury's shadow). More than 2300 useful images of Mercury were taken, both moderate resolution (3-20 km/pixel) color and high resolution (better than 1 km/pixel) black and white coverage.

  9. Melt impregnation as a post processing treatment for performance enhancement in high capacity 3D microporous tin-copper-nickel intermetallic anode for Li-ion battery supported by electrodeposited nickel scaffold: A structural study

    Sengupta, Srijan; Patra, Arghya; Mitra, Arijit; Jena, Sambedan; Das, Karabi; Majumder, Subhasish Basu; Das, Siddhartha

    2018-05-01

    This paper communicates stabilization of a Sn anode by impregnating it within the porous framework of a Ni-scaffold. The impregnation is carried out by electrodeposition Sn on Ni-foam followed by heating at 300 °C for 1 h. The Ni-foam was also electrodeposited on a Cu foil prior to deposition of Sn. The melting step leads to the formation of Nisbnd Sn and Cusbnd Sn intermetallics within pores of the Ni-scaffold. Snsbnd Cu/Ni intermetallics lithiate following the active-inactive strategy in which the inactive Cu/Ni buffers the volume expansion while Sn lithiates. Furthermore, this entire process takes place within Ni-scaffold which resists material pulverization and delamination and provide better electronic pathway for charge transfer. This active-inactive Sn:Snsbnd Cu/Ni intermetallic within a protected Ni-scaffold assembly results in 100th cycle discharge capacity of 587.9 mA h/g at a rate of 500 mA/g (0.5 C), and superior rate capability delivering 463 mAh/g at a rate of 2 A/g (2 C) while retaining structural integrity as compared to pure Sn electrodeposited (without heat-treatment) on the nickel scaffold.

  10. The application of spectrographic analysis to the radioisotope production control. II. Analysis of calcium-45, scandium-46, nickel-63, and copper-64 solutions

    Capdevila, C.; Roca, M.

    1972-01-01

    Semi-quantitative and quantitative determinations of both the radioactive and the target element in each radioisotope are described. The copper-spark technique was used except for Cu determinations, that need silver or.graphite electro des. Inter-element effects and their compensation through the use of Bi, 6a, In, Ho, Pd, TI and Y as reference elements was examined. For the determination of Ca in Ca-45 samples, Ba, La, Li and Sr were also tested. Good results are achieved with Li for Ca, Y for Sc,Ti and Ni, and either In or Y for Cu and Zn. (Author) 7 refs

  11. Synthesis and characterization of iron(III), manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) complexes of salicylidene-N-anilinoacetohydrazone (H2L1) and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylidene-N-anilinoacetohydrazone (H2L2).

    AbouEl-Enein, S A; El-Saied, F A; Kasher, T I; El-Wardany, A H

    2007-07-01

    Salicylidene-N-anilinoacetohydrazone (H(2)L(1)) and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylidene-N-anilinoacetohydrazone (H(2)L(2)) and their iron(III), manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) complexes have been synthesized and characterized by IR, electronic spectra, molar conductivities, magnetic susceptibilities and ESR. Mononuclear complexes are formed with molar ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 (M:L). The IR studies reveal various modes of chelation. The electronic absorption spectra and magnetic susceptibility measurements show that the iron(III), nickel(II) and cobalt(II) complexes of H(2)L(1) have octahedral geometry. While the cobalt(II) complexes of H(2)L(2) were separated as tetrahedral structure. The copper(II) complexes have square planar stereochemistry. The ESR parameters of the copper(II) complexes at room temperature were calculated. The g values for copper(II) complexes proved that the Cu-O and Cu-N bonds are of high covalency.

  12. Mercurial poisoning

    Gorton, B

    1924-01-01

    Cats which had been kept in a thermometer factory to catch rats were afflicted with mercury poisoning. So were the rats they were supposed to eat. The symptoms of mercury poisoning were the same in both species. The source of mercury for these animals is a fine film of the metal which coats floors, a result of accidental spills during the manufacturing process.

  13. Synthesis, spectral, thermal and antimicrobial studies on cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II) and palladium(II) complexes containing thiosemicarbazone ligand

    El-Sawaf, Ayman K.; El-Essawy, Farag; Nassar, Amal A.; El-Samanody, El-Sayed A.

    2018-04-01

    The coordination characteristic of new N4-morpholinyl isatin-3-thiosemicarbazone (HL) towards Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Pd(II) has been studies. The structures of the complexes were described by elemental analyses, molar conductivity, magnetic, thermal and spectral (IR, UV-Vis, 1H and 13C NMR and ESR) studies. On the basis of analytical and spectral studies the ligand behaves as monobasic tridentate ONS donor forming two five membered rings towards cobalt, copper and palladium and afforded complexes of the kind [M(L)X], (Mdbnd Co, Cu or Pd; Xdbnd Cl, Br or OAc). Whereas the ligand bound to NiCl2 as neutral tridentate ONS donor and with ZnCl2 as neutral bidentate NS donor. The newly synthesized thiosemicarbazone ligand and some of its complexes were examined for antimicrobial activity against 2 gram negative bacterial strains (Escherichia coli Pseudomonas and aeruginosa), 2 gram positive bacterial strains (Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus)} and two Pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans). All metal complexes possess higher antimicrobial activity comparing with the free thiosemicarbazone ligand. The high potent activities of the complexes may arise from the coordination and chelation, which tends to make metal complexes act as more controlling and potent antimicrobial agents, thus hindering the growing of the microorganisms. The antimicrobial results also show that copper bromide complex is better antimicrobial agent as compared to the Schiff base and its metal complexes.

  14. Got Mercury?

    Meyers, Valerie E.; McCoy, J. Torin; Garcia, Hector D.; James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Many of the operational and payload lighting units used in various spacecraft contain elemental mercury. If these devices were damaged on-orbit, elemental mercury could be released into the cabin. Although there are plans to replace operational units with alternate light sources, such as LEDs, that do not contain mercury, mercury-containing lamps efficiently produce high quality illumination and may never be completely replaced on orbit. Therefore, exposure to elemental mercury during spaceflight will remain possible and represents a toxicological hazard. Elemental mercury is a liquid metal that vaporizes slowly at room temperature. However, it may be completely vaporized at the elevated operating temperatures of lamps. Although liquid mercury is not readily absorbed through the skin or digestive tract, mercury vapors are efficiently absorbed through the respiratory tract. Therefore, the amount of mercury in the vapor form must be estimated. For mercury releases from lamps that are not being operated, we utilized a study conducted by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Quality to calculate the amount of mercury vapor expected to form over a 2-week period. For longer missions and for mercury releases occurring when lamps are operating, we conservatively assumed complete volatilization of the available mercury. Because current spacecraft environmental control systems are unable to remove mercury vapors, both short-term and long-term exposures to mercury vapors are possible. Acute exposure to high concentrations of mercury vapors can cause irritation of the respiratory tract and behavioral symptoms, such as irritability and hyperactivity. Chronic exposure can result in damage to the nervous system (tremors, memory loss, insomnia, etc.) and kidneys (proteinurea). Therefore, the JSC Toxicology Group recommends that stringent safety controls and verifications (vibrational testing, etc.) be applied to any hardware that contains elemental mercury that could yield

  15. Application of Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with high-frequency modulation polarization for the direct determination of aluminum, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, manganese, nickel, lead, and thallium in human blood.

    Ivanenko, Natalya B; Solovyev, Nikolay D; Ivanenko, Anatoly A; Ganeev, Alexander A

    2012-10-01

    Determination of aluminum (Al), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and thallium (Tl) concentrations in human blood using high-frequency modulation polarization Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was performed. No sample digestion was used in the current study. Blood samples were diluted with deionized water or 0.1 % (m/v) Triton X-100 solution for Tl. Dilution factors ranged from 1/5 per volume for Be and Tl to 1/20 per volume for Cd and Pb. For Tl, Cd, and Hg, noble metals (gold, platinum, rhodium, etc.) were applied as surface modifiers. To mitigate chloride interference, 2 % (m/v) solution of NH(4)NO(3) was used as matrix modifier for Tl and Ni assessment. The use of Pd(NO(3))(2) as oxidative modifier was necessary for blood Hg and Tl measurement. Validation of the methods was performed by analyzing two-level reference material Seronorm. The precision of the designed methods as relative SD was between 4 and 12 % (middle of a dynamic range) depending on the element. For additional validation, spiked blood samples were analyzed. Limits of detection (LoDs, 3σ, n = 10) for undiluted blood samples were 2.0 μg L(-1) for Al, 0.08 μg L(-1) for Be, 0.10 μg L(-1) for Cd, 2.2 μg L(-1) for Cr, 7 μg L(-1) for Hg, 0.4 μg L(-1) for Mn, 2.3 μg L(-1) for Ni, 3.4 μg L(-1) for Pb, and 0.5 μg L(-1) for Tl. The LoDs achieved allowed determination of Al, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb at both toxic and background levels. Be, Hg, and Tl could be reliably measured at toxic levels only. The methods developed are used for clinical diagnostics and biological monitoring of work-related exposure.

  16. Simultaneous Automatic Electrochemical Detection of Zinc, Cadmium, Copper and Lead Ions in Environmental Samples Using a Thin-Film Mercury Electrode and an Artificial Neural Network

    Jiri Kudr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study a device for automatic electrochemical analysis was designed. A three electrodes detection system was attached to a positioning device, which enabled us to move the electrode system from one well to another of a microtitre plate. Disposable carbon tip electrodes were used for Cd(II, Cu(II and Pb(II ion quantification, while Zn(II did not give signal in this electrode configuration. In order to detect all mentioned heavy metals simultaneously, thin-film mercury electrodes (TFME were fabricated by electrodeposition of mercury on the surface of carbon tips. In comparison with bare electrodes the TMFEs had lower detection limits and better sensitivity. In addition to pure aqueous heavy metal solutions, the assay was also performed on mineralized rock samples, artificial blood plasma samples and samples of chicken embryo organs treated with cadmium. An artificial neural network was created to evaluate the concentrations of the mentioned heavy metals correctly in mixture samples and an excellent fit was observed (R2 = 0.9933.

  17. Aluminium or copper substrate panel for selective absorption of solar energy

    Roberts, M. L.; Sharpe, M. H.; Krupnick, A. C. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A method for making panels which selectively absorb solar energy is disclosed. The panels are comprised of an aluminum substrate, a layer of zinc thereon, a layer of nickel over the zinc layer and an outer layer of solar energy absorbing nickel oxide or a copper substrate with a layer of nickel thereon and a layer of solar energy absorbing nickel oxide distal from the copper substrate.

  18. Study of the Effect of Molten Copper Chloride Immersion Test on Alloys with High Nickel Content with and without Surface Coatings

    Siantar, Edwin

    The demand for hydrogen as a clean energy carrier has increased greatly. The Cu-Cl cycle is a promising thermochemical cycle that is currently being developed to be the large-scale method of hydrogen production. The lifetime of materials for the pipes transporting molten CuCl is an important parameter for an economic design of a commercial thermochemical Cu-Cl hydrogen plant. This research is an examination of candidate materials following an immersion test in molten CuCl at 500 °C for 100 h. Two alloys, Ni based super-alloy (Inconel 625) and super austenitic stainless steel (AL6XN) were selected as the base metal. There were two types of coating applied to improve the corrosion resistance of the base metals during molten CuCl exposure. A metallic of Diamalloy 4006 and two ceramic of yttria stabilized zirconia and alumina coatings were applied to the base metal using thermal spray methods. An immersion apparatus was designed and constructed to perform an immersion test that has a condition similar to those in a hydrogen plant. After the immersion test, the materials were evaluated using an electrochemical method in combination with ex-situ surface analysis. The surface condition including elemental composition, film structure and resistivity of the materials were examined and compared. The majority of the coatings were damaged and fell off. Cracks were found in the original coated specimens indicating the sample geometry may have affected the integrity of the sprayed coating. When the coating cracked, it provided a pathway for the molten CuCl to go under the coating and react with the surface underneath the coating. Copper deposits and iron chloride that were found on the sample surfaces suggest that there were corrosion reactions that involved the metal dissolution and reduction of copper during immersion test. The results also suggest that Inconel 625 performed better than stainless steel AL6XN. Both Diamalloy 4006 and YSZ (ZrO2 18TiO2 10Y2O3) coatings seemed to

  19. Regional tectonics, geology, magma chamber processes and mineralisation of the Jinchuan nickel-copper-PGE deposit, Gansu Province, China: A review

    T.M. (Mike Porter

    2016-05-01

    The Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion was injected into three interconnected sub-chambers, each containing a separate orebody. It essentially comprises an olivine-orthopyroxene-chromite cumulate, with interstitial orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, plagioclase and phlogopite, and is predominantly composed of lherzolite (∼80%, with an outer rim of olivine pyroxenite and cores of mineralised dunite. Mineralisation occurs as disseminated and net-textured sulphides, predominantly within the dunite, with lesser, PGE rich lenses, late massive sulphide accumulations, small copper rich pods and limited mineralised diopside skarn in wall rock marbles. The principal ore minerals are pyrrhotite (the dominant sulphide, pentlandite, chalcopyrite, cubanite, mackinawite and pyrite, with a variety of platinum group minerals and minor gold. The deposit underwent significant post-magmatic tremolite-actinolite, chlorite, serpentine and magnetite alteration. The volume of the Jinchuan intrusion accounts for <3% of the total parental magma required to generate the contained olivine and sulphide. It is postulated that mafic melt, intruded into the lower crust, hydraulically supported by density contrast buoyancy from below the Moho, ponded in a large staging chamber, where crystallisation and settling formed a lower sulphide rich mush. This mush was subsequently injected into nearby shallow dipping faults to form the Jinchuan intrusion.

  20. Structure-antiproliferative activity studies on l-proline- and homoproline-4-N-pyrrolidine-3-thiosemicarbazone hybrids and their nickel(ii), palladium(ii) and copper(ii) complexes.

    Dobrova, Aliona; Platzer, Sonja; Bacher, Felix; Milunovic, Miljan N M; Dobrov, Anatolie; Spengler, Gabriella; Enyedy, Éva A; Novitchi, Ghenadie; Arion, Vladimir B

    2016-09-14

    Two water-soluble thiosemicarbazone-proline (H2L(1)) and thiosemicarbazone-homoproline hybrids (H2L(2)) were synthesised. By reaction of H2L(1) with NiCl2·6H2O, PdCl2 and CuCl2·2H2O in ethanol, the series of square-planar complexes [Ni(H2L(1))Cl]Cl·1.3H2O (1·1.3H2O), [Pd(H2L(1))Cl]Cl·H2O (2·H2O) and [Cu(H2L(1))Cl]Cl·0.7H2O (3·0.7H2O) was prepared, and starting from H2L(2) and CuCl2·2H2O in methanol, the complex [Cu(H2L(2))Cl2]·H2O (4·H2O) was obtained. The compounds have been characterised by elemental analysis, spectroscopic methods (IR, UV-vis and NMR spectroscopy), ESI mass spectrometry and single crystal X-ray crystallography (H2L(1), 1, 2 and 4). As a solid, 1 is diamagnetic, while it is paramagnetic in methanolic solution. The effective magnetic moment of 3.26 B.M. at room temperature indicates the change in coordination geometry from square-planar to octahedral upon dissolution. The in vitro anticancer potency of ligand precursors H2L(1) and H2L(2) and metal complexes 1-4 was studied in three human cancer cell lines (A549, CH1 and SW480) and in noncancerous murine embryonal fibroblasts (NIH/3T3), and the mechanism of cell death was also assayed by flow cytometry. Clear-cut structure-activity relationships have been established. The metal ions exert marked effects in a divergent manner: copper(ii) increases, whereas nickel(ii) and palladium(ii) decrease the cytotoxicity of the hybrids. The antiproliferative activity of H2L(1) and metal complexes 1-3 decreases in all three tumour cell lines in the following rank order: 3 > H2L(1) > 1 > 2. The role of square-planar geometry in the underlying mechanism of cytotoxicity of the metal complexes studied seems to be negligible, while structural modifications at the terminal amino group of thiosemicarbazide and proline moieties are significant for enhancing the antiproliferative activity of both hybrids and copper(ii) complexes.

  1. New experimental methodology, setup and LabView program for accurate absolute thermoelectric power and electrical resistivity measurements between 25 and 1600 K: Application to pure copper, platinum, tungsten, and nickel at very high temperatures

    Abadlia, L.; Mayoufi, M.; Gasser, F.; Khalouk, K.; Gasser, J. G.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe an experimental setup designed to measure simultaneously and very accurately the resistivity and the absolute thermoelectric power, also called absolute thermopower or absolute Seebeck coefficient, of solid and liquid conductors/semiconductors over a wide range of temperatures (room temperature to 1600 K in present work). A careful analysis of the existing experimental data allowed us to extend the absolute thermoelectric power scale of platinum to the range 0-1800 K with two new polynomial expressions. The experimental device is controlled by a LabView program. A detailed description of the accurate dynamic measurement methodology is given in this paper. We measure the absolute thermoelectric power and the electrical resistivity and deduce with a good accuracy the thermal conductivity using the relations between the three electronic transport coefficients, going beyond the classical Wiedemann-Franz law. We use this experimental setup and methodology to give new very accurate results for pure copper, platinum, and nickel especially at very high temperatures. But resistivity and absolute thermopower measurement can be more than an objective in itself. Resistivity characterizes the bulk of a material while absolute thermoelectric power characterizes the material at the point where the electrical contact is established with a couple of metallic elements (forming a thermocouple). In a forthcoming paper we will show that the measurement of resistivity and absolute thermoelectric power characterizes advantageously the (change of) phase, probably as well as DSC (if not better), since the change of phases can be easily followed during several hours/days at constant temperature

  2. New experimental methodology, setup and LabView program for accurate absolute thermoelectric power and electrical resistivity measurements between 25 and 1600 K: application to pure copper, platinum, tungsten, and nickel at very high temperatures.

    Abadlia, L; Gasser, F; Khalouk, K; Mayoufi, M; Gasser, J G

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we describe an experimental setup designed to measure simultaneously and very accurately the resistivity and the absolute thermoelectric power, also called absolute thermopower or absolute Seebeck coefficient, of solid and liquid conductors/semiconductors over a wide range of temperatures (room temperature to 1600 K in present work). A careful analysis of the existing experimental data allowed us to extend the absolute thermoelectric power scale of platinum to the range 0-1800 K with two new polynomial expressions. The experimental device is controlled by a LabView program. A detailed description of the accurate dynamic measurement methodology is given in this paper. We measure the absolute thermoelectric power and the electrical resistivity and deduce with a good accuracy the thermal conductivity using the relations between the three electronic transport coefficients, going beyond the classical Wiedemann-Franz law. We use this experimental setup and methodology to give new very accurate results for pure copper, platinum, and nickel especially at very high temperatures. But resistivity and absolute thermopower measurement can be more than an objective in itself. Resistivity characterizes the bulk of a material while absolute thermoelectric power characterizes the material at the point where the electrical contact is established with a couple of metallic elements (forming a thermocouple). In a forthcoming paper we will show that the measurement of resistivity and absolute thermoelectric power characterizes advantageously the (change of) phase, probably as well as DSC (if not better), since the change of phases can be easily followed during several hours/days at constant temperature.

  3. Nickel allergy

    Fischer, L A; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The frequency of nickel allergy varies between different population groups. Exposure regulation has proven effective in decreasing the frequency. Experimental studies with other allergens have shown a significant relation between patch test reactivity and repeated open application test...... in a patch test and a dilution series of three concentrations in a ROAT, with duration of up to 21 days. Eighteen persons with no nickel allergy were included as control group for the ROAT. RESULTS: The predicted dose which will elicit a reaction in 10% of allergic individuals was calculated to be 0......-response; indeed, there was no statistically significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: For elicitation of nickel allergy the elicitation threshold for the patch test is higher than the elicitation threshold (per application) for the ROAT, but is approximately the same as the accumulated elicitation threshold...

  4. The role of nickel in urea assimilation by algae.

    Rees, T A; Bekheet, I A

    1982-12-01

    Nickel is required for urease synthesis by Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Tetraselmis subcordiformis and for growth on urea by Phaeodactylum. There is no requirement for nickel for urea amidolyase synthesis by Chlorella fusca var. vacuolata. Neither copper nor palladium can substitute for nickel but cobalt partially restored urease activity in Phaeodactylum. The addition of nickel to nickel-deficient cultures of Phaeodactylum or Tetraselmis resulted in a rapid increase of urease activity to 7-30 times the normal level; this increase was not inhibited by cycloheximide. It is concluded that nickel-deficient cells over-produce a non-functional urease protein and that either nickel or the functional urease enzyme participates in the regulation of the production of urease protein.

  5. Process for forming a nickel foil with controlled and predetermined permeability to hydrogen

    Engelhaupt, Darell E.

    1981-09-22

    The present invention provides a novel process for forming a nickel foil having a controlled and predetermined hydrogen permeability. This process includes the steps of passing a nickel plating bath through a suitable cation exchange resin to provide a purified nickel plating bath free of copper and gold cations, immersing a nickel anode and a suitable cathode in the purified nickel plating bath containing a selected concentration of an organic sulfonic acid such as a napthalene-trisulfonic acid, electrodepositing a nickel layer having the thickness of a foil onto the cathode, and separating the nickel layer from the cathode to provide a nickel foil. The anode is a readily-corrodible nickel anode. The present invention also provides a novel nickel foil having a greater hydrogen permeability than palladium at room temperature.

  6. Process for forming a nickel foil with controlled and predetermined permeability to hydrogen

    Engelhaupt, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    The present invention provides a novel process for forming a nickel foil having a controlled and predetermined hydrogen permeability. This process includes the steps of passing a nickel plating bath through a suitable cation exchange resin to provide a purified nickel plating bath free of copper and gold cations, immersing a nickel anode and a suitable cathode in the purified nickel plating bath containing a selected concentration of an organic sulfonic acid such as a napthalene-trisulfonic acid, electrodepositing a nickel layer having the thickness of a foil onto the cathode, and separating the nickel layer from the cathode to provide a nickel foil. The anode is a readilycorrodible nickel anode. The present invention also provides a novel nickel foil having a greater hydrogen permeability than palladium at room temperature

  7. Mercury, arsenic and cadmium in the unfried and fried fish

    Anand, S.J.S.

    1978-01-01

    Determination of mercury, arsenic and cadmium in unfried and fried fish samples has been carried out by neutron activation followed by chemical separation to remove the interfering activies of copper, zinc etc. This paper presents results of finding on losses of mercury, arsenic and cadmium in the unfried and fried fish. (author)

  8. Pretinning Nickel-Plated Wire Shields

    Igawa, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Nickel-plated copper shielding for wires pretinned for subsequent soldering with help of activated rosin flux. Shield cut at point 0.25 to 0.375 in. (6 to 10 mm) from cut end of outer jacket. Loosened end of shield straightened and pulled toward cut end. Insulation of inner wires kept intact during pretinning.

  9. Copper wire bonding

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  10. Mercury removal sorbents

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2016-03-29

    Sorbents and methods of using them for removing mercury from flue gases over a wide range of temperatures are disclosed. Sorbent materials of this invention comprise oxy- or hydroxyl-halogen (chlorides and bromides) of manganese, copper and calcium as the active phase for Hg.sup.0 oxidation, and are dispersed on a high surface porous supports. In addition to the powder activated carbons (PACs), this support material can be comprised of commercial ceramic supports such as silica (SiO.sub.2), alumina (Al.sub.2O.sub.3), zeolites and clays. The support material may also comprise of oxides of various metals such as iron, manganese, and calcium. The non-carbon sorbents of the invention can be easily injected into the flue gas and recovered in the Particulate Control Device (PCD) along with the fly ash without altering the properties of the by-product fly ash enabling its use as a cement additive. Sorbent materials of this invention effectively remove both elemental and oxidized forms of mercury from flue gases and can be used at elevated temperatures. The sorbent combines an oxidation catalyst and a sorbent in the same particle to both oxidize the mercury and then immobilize it.

  11. Does airborne nickel exposure induce nickel sensitization?

    Mann, Eugen; Ranft, Ulrich; Eberwein, Georg; Gladtke, Dieter; Sugiri, Dorothee; Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannes; Schäfer, Torsten; Begerow, Jutta; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Krämer, Ursula; Wilhelm, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Nickel is one of the most prevalent causes of contact allergy in the general population. This study focuses on human exposure to airborne nickel and its potential to induce allergic sensitization. The study group consisted of 309 children at school-starter age living in the West of Germany in the vicinity of two industrial sources and in a rural town without nearby point sources of nickel. An exposure assessment of nickel in ambient air was available for children in the Ruhr district using routinely monitored ambient air quality data and dispersion modelling. Internal nickel exposure was assessed by nickel concentrations in morning urine samples of the children. The observed nickel sensitization prevalence rates varied between 12.6% and 30.7%. Statistically significant associations were showed between exposure to nickel in ambient air and urinary nickel concentration as well as between urinary nickel concentration and nickel sensitization. Furthermore, an elevated prevalence of nickel sensitization was associated with exposure to increased nickel concentrations in ambient air. The observed associations support the assumption that inhaled nickel in ambient air might be a risk factor for nickel sensitization; further studies in larger collectives are necessary.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of nickel(II), cobalt(II), copper(II), manganese(II), zinc(II), zirconium(IV), dioxouranium(VI) and dioxomolybdenum(VI) complexes of a new Schiff base derived from salicylaldehyde and 5-methylpyrazole-3-carbohydrazide

    Syamal, A.; Maurya, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    Synthesis of a new Schiff base derived from salicylaldehyde and 5-methylpyrazole-3-carbohydrazide, and its coordination compounds with nickel(II), cobalt(II), copper(II), manganese(II), zinc(II), zirconium(IV), dioxouranium(VI) and dioxomolybdenum(VI) are described. The ligand and the complexes have been characterized on the basis of analytical, conductance, molecular weight, i.r., electronic and n.m.r. spectra and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The stoichiometries of the complexes are represented as NiL . 3H 2 O, CoL . 2H 2 O, CuL, MnL . 2H 2 O, ZnL . H 2 O, Zr(OH) 2 (LH) 2 , Zr(OH) 2 L . 2MeOH, UO 2 L . MeOH and MoO 2 L . MeOH (where LH 2 =Schiff base). The copper(II) complex shows a subnormal magnetic moment due to antiferromagnetic exchange interaction while the nickel(II), cobalt(II) and manganese(II) complexes show normal magnetic moments at room temperature. The i.r. and n.m.r. spectral studies show that the Schiff base behaves as a dibasic and tridentate ligand coordinating through the deprotonated phenolic oxygen, enolic oxygen and azomethine nitrogen. (orig.)

  13. Improved dust handling at Inco's Copper Cliff smelter

    Dutton, A.; Warner, A.E.M.; Humphris, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The Cooper Cliff Smelter Complex comprises three major production departments - a Nickel Smelter for the processing of nickel concentrated to a low iron, nickel - copper sulphide (Bessemer) matte; a Matte Processing plant for the separation of matte sulphides and the production of market nickel oxides and refinery feeds and a Copper Smelter to process copper concentrates to blister copper. Annual production is currently -114,000 tonnes of copper as blister and -110,000 tonnes of nickel. The nickel concentrate (11-13% Ni, 2-3% Cu) is roasted in multi-hearth roasters, smelted in oxy-fuel fired reverberatory furnaces to a 30-35% CuNiCo matte and converted to Bessemer matte (75% CuNiCo) in Peirce-Smith converters. The Bessemer matte is slow cooled and crushed for subsequent separation by mineral dressing techniques in the Matte Processing plant into nickel (sulphide and metallic) concentrates and a copper (chalcocite) concentrate. Nickel sulphides are further processed in fluid bed reactors to oxide market product or refinery feedstock. The copper concentrate (29-30% Cu, 0.9% No.) is dried in fluid bed driers, smelted to a 40-50% copper matte in an Inco oxygen flash furnace and converted to blister copper in Peirce-Smith converters. The chalcocite concentrate from the matte separation stage is flash converted to a semi-blister (3-4% S, 4-5% Ni) and then finished to lighter conventionally. A schematic process flowsheet of the Smelter Complex is shown in this paper

  14. Characterization of copper resistant ciliates: Potential candidates for ...

    Jane

    2011-08-17

    Aug 17, 2011 ... algae (Rehman and Shakoori, 2001), yeast (Shakoori et al., 2005) ... organisms, this study was undertaken to determine the efficiency of ...... copper, mercury and zinc to ciliates from activated sludge plants. Bull. Environ.

  15. On the ''memory'' effect and its relation to the mechanism of formation of mercury-graphite electrode in inversion voltammetry

    Nejman, E.Ya.; Petrova, L.G.; Dolgopolova, G.M.; Ignatov, V.I.

    1977-01-01

    Simultaneous discharge ionization of lead-copper and cadmium-copper systems on the surface of mercury-plated graphite and graphite electrodes has been studied. A model is suggested of the preparation process of a mercury-plated graphite electrode obtained in simultaneous electroposition of mercury and elements determined as microimpurities. Processes, which occur on the electrode during relaxation time between electrolysis beginning and formation of the mercury phase, may be probable reasons for mutual effects of elements of the mercury-plated graphite electrode

  16. Understanding the mercury reduction issue: the impact of mercury on the environment and human health.

    Kao, Richard T; Dault, Scott; Pichay, Teresa

    2004-07-01

    Mercury has been used in both medicine and dentistry for centuries. Recent media attention regarding the increased levels of mercury in dietary fish, high levels of mercury in air emissions, and conjecture that certain diseases may be caused by mercury exposure has increased public awareness of the potential adverse health effects of high doses of mercury. Dentistry has been criticized for its continued use of mercury in dental amalgam for both public health and environmental reasons. To address these concerns, dental professionals should understand the impact of the various levels and types of mercury on the environment and human health. Mercury is unique in its ability to form amalgams with other metals. Dental amalgam--consisting of silver, copper, tin, and mercury--has been used as a safe, stable, and cost-effective restorative material for more than 150 years. As a result of this use, the dental profession has been confronted by the public on two separate health issues concerning the mercury content in amalgam. The first issue is whether the mercury amalgamated with the various metals to create dental restorations poses a health issue for patients. The second is whether the scraps associated with amalgam placement and the removal of amalgam restorations poses environmental hazards which may eventually have an impact on human health. Despite the lack of scientific evidence for such hazards, there is growing pressure for the dental profession to address these health issues. In this article, the toxicology of mercury will be reviewed and the impact of amalgam on health and the environment will be examined.

  17. Biological role of nickel

    Thauer, R K; Diekert, G; Schoenheit, P

    1980-01-01

    Several enzymes and one cofactor have recently been shown to contain nickel. For example, urease of jack beans has been found to be a nickel protein and factor F/sub 430/ from methanogenic bacteria to be a nickel tetrapyrrole. The biological role of nickel in several organisms is discussed.

  18. Geochemical investigation of potentially harmful elements in household dust from a mercury-contaminated site, the town of Idrija (Slovenia).

    Bavec, Špela; Gosar, Mateja; Miler, Miloš; Biester, Harald

    2017-06-01

    A comprehensive geochemical investigation of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) in household dust from the town of Idrija (Slovenia), once a world-famous Hg mining town that is now seriously polluted, was performed for the first time. After aqua regia digestion, the content of mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) was measured. PHE-bearing particles were recognised and observed by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectrometry before and after exposure to simulated stomach acid (SSA). Mercury binding forms were identified by Hg thermal desorption technique and gastric bioaccessible Hg was estimated after SSA extraction by ICP-MS. With regard to rural and urban background values for Slovenia, high Hg content (6-120 mg/kg) and slightly elevated As content (1-13 mg/kg) were found. Mercury pollution is a result of past mining and ore processing activities. Arsenic content is potentially associated with As enrichment in local soils. Four Hg binding forms were identified: all samples contained Hg bound to the dust matrix, 14 samples contained cinnabar, two samples contained metallic Hg (Hg 0 ), and one sample assumingly contained mercury oxide. After exposure to SSA, Hg-bearing phases showed no signs of dissolution, while other PHE-bearing phases were significantly morphologically and/or chemically altered. Estimated gastric Hg bioaccessibility was low (<0.006-0.09 %), which is in accordance with identified Hg binding forms and high organic carbon content (15.9-31.5 %) in the dust samples.

  19. Mercury's Messenger

    Chapman, Clark R.

    2004-01-01

    Forty years after Mariner 2, planetary exploration has still only just begun, and many more missions are on drawing boards, nearing the launch pad, or even en route across interplanetary space to their targets. One of the most challenging missions that will be conducted this decade is sending the MESSENGER spacecraft to orbit the planet Mercury.…

  20. Mercury Report-Children's exposure to elemental mercury

    ... gov . Mercury Background Mercury Report Additional Resources Mercury Report - Children's Exposure to Elemental Mercury Recommend on Facebook ... I limit exposure to mercury? Why was the report written? Children attending a daycare in New Jersey ...

  1. Mercury and halogens in coal--Their role in determining mercury emissions from coal combustion

    Kolker, Allan; Quick, Jeffrey C.; Senior, Connie L.; Belkin, Harvey E.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic pollutant. In its elemental form, gaseous mercury has a long residence time in the atmosphere, up to a year, allowing it to be transported long distances from emission sources. Mercury can be emitted from natural sources such as volcanoes, or from anthropogenic sources, such as coal-fired powerplants. In addition, all sources of mercury on the Earth's surface can re-emit it from land and sea back to the atmosphere, from which it is then redeposited. Mercury in the atmosphere is present in such low concentrations that it is not considered harmful. Once mercury enters the aquatic environment, however, it can undergo a series of biochemical transformations that convert a portion of the mercury originally present to methylmercury, a highly toxic organic form of mercury that accumulates in fish and birds. Many factors contribute to creation of methylmercury in aquatic ecosystems, including mercury availability, sediment and nutrient load, bacterial influence, and chemical conditions. In the United States, consumption of fish with high levels of methylmercury is the most common pathway for human exposure to mercury, leading the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to issue fish consumption advisories in every State. The EPA estimates that 50 percent of the mercury entering the atmosphere in the United States is emitted from coal-burning utility powerplants. An EPA rule, known as MATS (for Mercury and Air Toxics Standards), to reduce emissions of mercury and other toxic pollutants from powerplants, was signed in December 2011. The rule, which is currently under review, specifies limits for mercury and other toxic elements, such as arsenic, chromium, and nickel. MATS also places limits on emission of harmful acid gases, such as hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. These standards are the result of a 2010 detailed nationwide program by the EPA to sample stack emissions and thousands of shipments of coal to coal-burning powerplants. The United

  2. Human exposure to nickel

    Grandjean, P

    1984-01-01

    In order of abundance in the earth's crust, nickel ranks as the 24th element and has been detected in different media in all parts of the biosphere. Thus, humans are constantly exposed to this ubiquitous element, though in variable amounts. Occupational exposures may lead to the retention of 100 micrograms of nickel per day. Environmental nickel levels depend particularly on natural sources, pollution from nickel-manufacturing industries and airborne particles from combustion of fossil fuels. Absorption from atmospheric nickel pollution is of minor concern. Vegetables usually contain more nickel than do other food items. Certain products, such as baking powder and cocoa powder, have been found to contain excessive amounts of nickel, perhaps related to nickel leaching during the manufacturing process. Soft drinking-water and acid beverages may dissolve nickel from pipes and containers. Scattered studies indicate a highly variable dietary intake of nickel, but most averages are about 200-300 micrograms/day. In addition, skin contact to a multitude of metal objects may be of significance to the large number of individuals suffering from contact dermatitis and nickel allergy. Finally, nickel alloys are often used in nails and prostheses for orthopaedic surgery, and various sources may contaminate intravenous fluids. Thus, human nickel exposure originates from a variety of sources and is highly variable. Occupational nickel exposure is of major significance, and leaching of nickel may add to dietary intakes and to cutaneous exposures. 79 references.

  3. Certification of Trace Elements and Methyl Mercury Mass Fractions in IAEA-456 Marine Sediment Samples

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of the IAEA Environment Laboratories is to assist Member States in the use of both stable and radioisotope analytical techniques to understand, monitor and protect the environment. In this context, the major impact of large coastal cities on marine ecosystems is an issue of prime concern for the IAEA and the IAEA Environment Laboratories. The marine pollution assessments required to understand such impacts depend on accurate knowledge of contaminant concentrations in various environmental compartments. The IAEA Environment Laboratories has been assisting national laboratories and regional laboratory networks since the early 1970s through the provision of a reference material programme for the analysis of radionuclides, trace elements and organic compounds in marine samples. Quality assurance, quality control and associated good laboratory practice are essential components of all marine environmental monitoring studies. Quality control procedures are commonly based on the analysis of certified reference materials and reference samples in order to validate analytical methods used in monitoring studies and to assess t h e reliability and comparability of measurement data. Data that are not based on adequate quality assurance and quality control can be erroneous, and their misuse can lead to poor environmental management decisions. A marine sediment sample with certified mass amount contents for aluminium, arsenic, cadmium chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, mercury, methyl mercury, manganese, nickel, vanadium and zinc was recently produced by the IAEA Environment Laboratories. This publication presents the sample preparation methodology, including material homogeneity and the stability study, the selection of laboratories, the evaluation of results from the certification campaign, and the assignment of property values and their associated uncertainty. As a result, certified values for mass fractions and associated expanded uncertainty were

  4. Copper welding in solid phase; Svarka medi v tverdoj faze

    Avagyan, V Sh

    1993-12-31

    An analysis of the publications on the technology of diffusion welding of copper in solid phase is carried out. The aspects of diffusion welding of copper with silver, aluminium, nickels, chromium, titanium, stainless steel and refractory metals are considered 35 refs.

  5. Normal modes of vibration in nickel

    Birgeneau, R J [Yale Univ., New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cordes, J [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Dolling, G; Woods, A D B

    1964-07-01

    The frequency-wave-vector dispersion relation, {nu}(q), for the normal vibrations of a nickel single crystal at 296{sup o}K has been measured for the [{zeta}00], [{zeta}00], [{zeta}{zeta}{zeta}], and [0{zeta}1] symmetric directions using inelastic neutron scattering. The results can be described in terms of the Born-von Karman theory of lattice dynamics with interactions out to fourth-nearest neighbors. The shapes of the dispersion curves are very similar to those of copper, the normal mode frequencies in nickel being about 1.24 times the corresponding frequencies in copper. The fourth-neighbor model was used to calculate the frequency distribution function g({nu}) and related thermodynamic properties. (author)

  6. Native copper in Permian Mudstones from South Devon: A natural analogue of copper canisters for high-level radioactive waste

    Milodowski, A.E.; Styles, M.T.; Werme, L.; Oversby, V.M.

    2001-01-01

    Native copper (>99.9% Cu) sheets associated with complex uraniferous and vanadiferous concretions in Upper Permian Mudstones from south Devon (United Kingdom) have been studied as a 'natural analogue' for copper canisters designed to be used in the isolation of spent fuel and high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) for deep geological disposal. Detailed analysis demonstrates that the copper formed before the mudstones were compacted. The copper displays complex corrosion and alteration. The earliest alteration was to copper oxides, followed sequentially by the formation of copper arsenides, nickel arsenide and copper sulphide, and finally nickel arsenide accompanied by nickel-copper arsenide, copper arsenide and uranium silicates. Petrographic observations demonstrate that these alteration products also formed prior to compaction. Consideration of the published history for the region indicates that maximum compaction of the rocks will have occurred by at least the Lower Jurassic (i.e. over 176 Ma ago). Since that time the copper sheets have remained isolated by the compacted mudstones and were unaffected by further corrosion until uplift and exposure to present-day surface weathering

  7. Cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), and zinc(II) complexes with [3(5)]adamanzane, 1,5,9,13-tetraazabicyclo[7.7.3]nonadecane and [(2.3)(2).2(1)]adamanzane, 1,5,9,12-tetraazabicyclo[7.5.2]hexadecane

    Broge, Louise; Pretzmann, Ulla; Jensen, Nicolai

    2001-01-01

    ) and of three cobalt(II), four nickel(II), one copper(II), and two zinc(II) complexes with [3(5)]adamanzane. For nine of these compounds (2-8, 10b, and 12) the single-crystal X-ray structures were determined. The coordination geometry around the metal ion is square pyramidal in [Cu([(2.3)(2).2(1)]adz)Br]ClO4 (2......) and trigonal bipyramidal in the isostructural structures [Cu([3(5)]adz)Br]Br (3), [Ni-([3(5)]adz)Cl]Cl (5), [Ni([3(5)]adz)Br]Br (6), and [Co([3(5)]adz)Cl]Cl (8). In [Ni([3(5)]adz)(NO3)]NO3 (4) and [Ni([3(5)]-adz)(ClO4)]ClO4 (7) the coordination geometry around nickel(II) is a distorted octahedron...... with the inorganic ligands at cis positions. The coordination polyhedron around the metal ion in [Co([3(5)]adz)][ZnCl4] (10b) and [Zn([3(5)]adz)][ZnCl4] (12) is a slightly distorted tetrahedron. Anation equilibrium constants were determined spectrophotometrically for complexes 2-6 at 25 and 40 degreesC and fall...

  8. Selenium plating of aluminium and nickel surfaces

    Qureshi, N.; Shams, N.; Kamal, A.; Ashraf, A.

    1993-01-01

    Selenium exhibits photovoltaic and photoconductive properties. This makes selenium useful in the production of photocells, exposure meters for photographic use, in solar cells, etc. In commerce, selenium coated surfaces are extensively used as photo receptive drums in the xerography machines for reproducing documents. Laboratory experiments were designed to obtain selenium plating on different materials. Of the various electrodes tested for cathodic deposition, anodized aluminum and nickel plated copper were found to give good results. (author)

  9. Copper hypersensitivity

    Fage, Simon W; Faurschou, Annesofie; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-01-01

    hypersensitivity, a database search of PubMed was performed with the following terms: copper, dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact hypersensitivity, contact sensitization, contact allergy, patch test, dental, IUD, epidemiology, clinical, and experimental. Human exposure to copper is relatively common...

  10. NICKEL PLATING PROCESS

    Hoover, T.B.; Zava, T.E.

    1959-05-12

    A simplified process is presented for plating nickel by the vapor decomposition of nickel carbonyl. In a preferred form of the invention a solid surface is nickel plated by subjecting the surface to contact with a mixture containing by volume approximately 20% nickel carbonyl vapor, 2% hydrogen sulfide and .l% water vapor or 1% oxygen and the remainder carbon dioxide at room temperature until the desired thickness of nickel is obtained. The advantage of this composition over others is that the normally explosive nickel carbonyl is greatly stabilized.

  11. Final disposal options for mercury/uranium mixed wastes from the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Gorin, A.H.; Leckey, J.H.; Nulf, L.E.

    1994-01-01

    Laboratory testing was completed on chemical stabilization and physical encapsulation methods that are applicable (to comply with federal and state regulations) to the final disposal of both hazardous and mixed hazardous elemental mercury waste that is in either of the following categories: (1) waste generated during decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities on mercury-contaminated buildings, such as Building 9201-4 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, or (2) waste stored and regulated under either the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement or the Federal Facilities Compliance Act. Methods were used that produced copper-mercury, zinc-mercury, and sulfur-mercury materials at room temperature by dry mixing techniques. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) results for mercury on batches of both the copper-mercury and the sulfur-mercury amalgams consistently produced leachates with less than the 0.2-mg/L Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulatory limit for mercury. The results clearly showed that the reaction of mercury with sulfur at room temperature produces black mercuric sulfide, a material that is well suited for land disposal. The results also showed that the copper-mercury and zinc-mercury amalgams had major adverse properties that make them undesirable for land disposal. In particular, they reacted readily in air to form oxides and liberate elemental mercury. Another major finding of this study is that sulfur polymer cement is potentially useful as a physical encapsulating agent for mercuric sulfide. This material provides a barrier in addition to the chemical stabilization that further prevents mercury, in the form of mercuric sulfide, from migrating into the environment

  12. Urine nickel concentrations in nickel-exposed workers.

    Bernacki, E J; Parsons, G E; Roy, B R; Mikac-Devic, M; Kennedy, C D; Sunderman, F W

    1978-01-01

    Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was employed for analyses of nickel concentrations in urine samples from nickel-exposed workers in 10 occupational groups and from non-exposed workers in two control groups. Mean concentrations of nickel in urine were greatest in workers who were exposed to inhalation of aerosols of soluble nickel salts (e.g., workers in nickel plating operations and in an electrolytic nickel refinery). Less marked increases in urine nickel concentrations were found in groups of metal sprayers, nickel battery workers, bench mechanics and are welders. No significant increases in mean concentrations of nickel were found in urine samples from workers who performed grinding, buffing and polishing of nickel-containing alloys or workers in a coal gasification plant who employed Raney nickel as a hydrogenation catalyst. Measurements of nickel concentrations in urine are more sensitive and practical than measurements of serum nickel concentrations for evaluation of nickel exposures in industrial workers.

  13. Mercury contamination extraction

    Fuhrmann, Mark [Silver Spring, MD; Heiser, John [Bayport, NY; Kalb, Paul [Wading River, NY

    2009-09-15

    Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

  14. Distribution ratios on Dowex 50W resins of metal leached in the caron nickel recovery process

    Reynolds, B.A.; Metsa, J.C.; Mullins, M.E.

    1980-05-01

    Pressurized ion exchange on Dowex 50W-X8 and 50W-X12 resins was investigated using elution techniques to determine distribution ratios for copper, nickel, and cobalt complexes contained in ammonium carbonate solution, a mixture which approximates the waste liquor from the Caron nickel recovery process. Results were determined for different feed concentrations, as well as for different concentrations and pH values of the ammonium carbonate eluant. Distribution ratios were compared with those previously obtained from a continuous annular chromatographic system. Separation of copper and nickel was not conclusively observed at any of the conditions examined

  15. Distribution ratios on Dowex 50W resins of metal leached in the caron nickel recovery process

    Reynolds, B.A.; Metsa, J.C.; Mullins, M.E.

    1980-05-01

    Pressurized ion exchange on Dowex 50W-X8 and 50W-X12 resins was investigated using elution techniques to determine distribution ratios for copper, nickel, and cobalt complexes contained in ammonium carbonate solution, a mixture which approximates the waste liquor from the Caron nickel recovery process. Results were determined for different feed concentrations, as well as for different concentrations and pH values of the ammonium carbonate eluant. Distribution ratios were compared with those previously obtained from a continuous annular chromatographic system. Separation of copper and nickel was not conclusively observed at any of the conditions examined.

  16. Mechanical and wear properties of pre-alloyed molybdenum P/M steels with nickel addition

    Yamanoglu R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to understand the effect of nickel addition on mechanical and wear properties of molybdenum and copper alloyed P/M steel. Specimens with three different nickel contents were pressed under 400 MPa and sintered at 1120ºC for 30 minutes then rapidly cooled. Microstructures and mechanical properties (bending strength, hardness and wear properties of the sintered specimens were investigated in detail. Metallographical investigations showed that the microstructures of consolidated specimens consist of tempered martensite, bainite, retained austenite and pores. It is also reported that the amount of pores varies depending on the nickel concentration of the alloys. Hardness of the alloys increases with increasing nickel content. Specimens containing 2% nickel showed minimum pore quantity and maximum wear resistance. The wear mechanism changed from abrasive wear at low nickel content to adhesive wear at higher nickel content.

  17. Determination of mercury in food by neutron activation

    Anand, S.J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Determination of mercury in food samples has been carried out by neutron activation followed by chemical separation to remove the interfering activities of copper, zinc etc. Chemical separation was carried out using anion exchange resin (DOWEX 1x8). Mercury was determined by counting 77 keV γ-rays of 197 Hg on a NaI(Tl) crystal in conjunction with a 400-channel pulse-height analyser. Levels of mercury in the following foods are tabulated: rice, wheat, pulses, millets, leafy vegetables, flower, carrot, potato, tomato, onion, chilli powder, sugar, tea leaves, milk. (T.I.)

  18. Determination of mercury in food by neutron activation

    Anand, S J.S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Air Monitoring Section

    1976-01-01

    Determination of mercury in food samples has been carried out by neutron activation followed by chemical separation to remove the interfering activities of copper, zinc etc. Chemical separation was carried out using anion exchange resin (DOWEX 1x8). Mercury was determined by counting 77 keV ..gamma..-rays of /sup 197/Hg on a NaI(Tl) crystal in conjunction with a 400-channel pulse-height analyser. Levels of mercury in the following foods are tabulated: rice, wheat, pulses, millets, leafy vegetables, flower, carrot, potato, tomato, onion, chilli powder, sugar, tea leaves, milk.

  19. Short-range clustering and decomposition in copper-nickel and copper-nickel-iron alloys

    Aalders, T.J.A.

    1982-07-01

    The thermodynamic equilibrium state of short-range clustering and the kinetics of short-range clustering and decomposition has been studied for a number of CuNi(Fe)-alloys by means of neutron scattering. The validity of the theories, which are usually applied to describe spinodal decomposition, nucleation and growth, coarsening etc., was investigated. It was shown that for the investigated substances the conventional theory of spinodal decomposition is valid for the relaxation of short-range clustering only for the case that the initial and final states do not differ too much. The dynamical scaling procedure described by Lebowitz et al. did not lead to a time-independent scaled function F(x) for the relaxation of short-range clustering, for the early stages of decomposition and for the case that an alloy, which was already decomposed at the quench temperature T 1 , was annealed at a temperature T 2 (T 1 ). For the later stages of decomposition, however, the scaling procedure was indeed successful. The coarsening of the alloys could, except for the later stages, be described by the Lifshitz-Slyozov theory. (Auth.)

  20. Studies of Redox Equilibria at Elevated Temperatures 3. Oxide/oxide and Oxide/metal Couples of Iron, Nickel, Copper, Silver. Mercury and Antimony in Aqueous Systems up to 100 deg C

    Johansson, Karin; Johnsson, Kerstin; Lewis, Derek

    1973-08-15

    Redox couples formed with Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, FeO{sub 2}H/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, NiO/Ni, Cu{sub 2}O/Cu, Ag{sub 2}O/Ag, HgO/Hg and Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Sb, in borax buffer solution have been studied at temperatures up to 100 deg C. The composition and morphology of the solid phases were characterized by X-ray diffraction measurements and electron micrography. Electrodes were formed with beds of mixtures of the solids through which the electrolyte was slowly perculated, and their potentials were measured relative to the hydrogen electrode. The results show that, in weakly alkaline solutions, systems including these couples only slowly attain electrochemical equilibrium. In the case of the iron couples at 25 deg C, for example, an emf with a long-term stability within 0.1 mV is not attained until after more than eight days equilibration: At higher temperatures a stable emf is attained more rapidly. All of the electrodes except the NiO/Ni electrode seem to be reversible but only the HgO/Hg electrode and, perhaps, the Cu{sub 2}O/Cu and Ag{sub 2}O/Ag electrodes, are likely to be useful at elevated temperatures. The apparent equilibrium constants found for the electrode reactions are compared with the theoretical values

  1. Synthesis and spectral studies of manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II) and mercury(II) complexes of 4-oxo-4H-1-benzopyran-3-carboxaldehyde hydrazone derivatives

    Nawar, N.; Khattab, M.A.; Bekheit, M.M.; El-Kaddah, A.H.

    1996-01-01

    A few complexes of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) with 4-oxo-4H-1-benzopyran-3-(carboxaldehyde-4-chlorobenzylhydrazone) (BCBH) and 4-oxo-4H-1-benzopyran-3-(carboxaldehyde-4-methylbenzylhydrazone) (BMBH) have been synthesised and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivities, magnetic measurements and infrared (IR) and visible spectral studies. The IR spectra show that BCBH and BMBH behave as bidentate ligands either in the keto or enol form. (author). 24 refs., 2 tabs

  2. Carbon thin films deposited by the magnetron sputtering technique using cobalt, copper and nickel as buffer-layers; Filmes finos de carbono depositados por meio da tecnica de magnetron sputtering usando cobalto, cobre e niquel como buffer-layers

    Costa e Silva, Danilo Lopes

    2015-11-01

    In this work, carbon thin films were produced by the magnetron sputtering technique using single crystal substrates of alumina c-plane (0001) and Si (111) and Si (100) substrates, employing Co, Ni and Cu as intermediate films (buffer-layers). The depositions were conducted in three stages, first with cobalt buffer-layers where only after the production of a large number of samples, the depositions using cooper buffer-layers were carried out on Si substrates. Then, depositions were performed with nickel buffer layers using single-crystal alumina substrates. The crystallinity of the carbon films was evaluated by using the technique of Raman spectroscopy and, then, by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphological characterization of the films was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and FEG-SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The XRD peaks related to the carbon films were observed only in the results of the samples with cobalt and nickel buffer-layers. The Raman spectroscopy showed that the carbon films with the best degree of crystallinity were the ones produced with Si (111) substrates, for the Cu buffers, and sapphire substrates for the Ni and Co buffers, where the latter resulted in a sample with the best crystallinity of all the ones produced in this work. It was observed that the cobalt has low recovering over the alumina substrates when compared to the nickel. Sorption tests of Ce ions by the carbon films were conducted in two samples and it was observed that the sorption did not occur probably because of the low crystallinity of the carbon films in both samples. (author)

  3. Mineral potential for nickel, copper, platinum group elements(PGE), and chromium deposits hosted in ultramafic rocks in the Islamic Republic of Mauritania (phase V, deliverable 67): Chapter G in Second projet de renforcement institutionnel du secteur minier de la République Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II)

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Marsh, Erin; Anderson, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    PRISM-I summary documents mention the presence of mafic-ultramafic igneous intrusive rocks in several areas of Mauritania and a number of chromium (Cr) and copper-nickel (Cu-Ni (±Co, Au)) occurrences associated with them. Permissive geologic settings generally include greenstone belts of any age, layered mafic-ultramafic and unlayered gabbro-anorthosite intrusive complexes in cratonic settings, ophiolite complexes, flood basalt provinces, and fluid-rich shear zones cutting accumulations of mafic-ultramafic rocks. Regions of Mauritania having these characteristics that are discussed in PRISM-I texts include the Mesoarchean greenstone belts of the TasiastTijirit terrane in the southwestern Rgueïbat Shield, two separate layered ultramafic complexes in the Amsaga Complex west of Atar, serpentinized metadunites in Mesoarchean rocks of the Rgueïbat Shield in the Zednes map sheet, several lateritized annular mafic-ultramafic complexes in the Paleoproterozoic northwestern portion of the Rgueïbat Shield, and the serpentinized ophiolitic segments of the Gorgol Noir Complex in the axial portion of the southern Mauritanides. Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM) work in the “Extreme Sud” zone also suggests that small copper occurrences associated with the extensive Jurassic microgabbroic intrusive rocks in the Taoudeni Basin of southeastern Mauritania could have potential for magmatic Cu-Ni (PGE, Co, Au) sulfide mineralization. Similarly, Jurassic mafic intrusive rocks in the northeastern Taoudeni Basin may be permissive. Known magmatic Cu-Ni deposits of these types in Mauritania are few in number and some uncertainty exists as to the nature of several of the more important ones.

  4. Global Trends in Mercury Management

    Choi, Kyunghee

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Environmental Program Governing Council has regulated mercury as a global pollutant since 2001 and has been preparing the mercury convention, which will have a strongly binding force through Global Mercury Assessment, Global Mercury Partnership Activities, and establishment of the Open-Ended Working Group on Mercury. The European Union maintains an inclusive strategy on risks and contamination of mercury, and has executed the Mercury Export Ban Act since December in 2010. The US Environmental Protection Agency established the Mercury Action Plan (1998) and the Mercury Roadmap (2006) and has proposed systematic mercury management methods to reduce the health risks posed by mercury exposure. Japan, which experienced Minamata disease, aims vigorously at perfection in mercury management in several ways. In Korea, the Ministry of Environment established the Comprehensive Plan and Countermeasures for Mercury Management to prepare for the mercury convention and to reduce risks of mercury to protect public health. PMID:23230466

  5. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include 234 Th, 234 Pa, 137 Cs, 239 Pu (trace), 60 Co, U, 99 Tc, and 237 Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs

  6. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

  7. Copper metallurgy at the crossroads

    Habashi F.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper technology changed from the vertical to the horizontal furnace and from the roast reaction to converting towards the end of the last century. However, the horizontal furnace proved to be an inefficient and polluting reactor. As a result many attempts were made to replace it. In the past 50 years new successful melting processes were introduced on an industrial scale that were more energy efficient and less polluting. In addition, smelting and converting were conducted in a single reactor in which the concentrate was fed and the raw copper was produced. The standing problem in many countries, however, is marketing 3 tonnes of sulfuric acid per tonne of copper produced as well as emitting large amounts of excess SO2 in the atmosphere. Pressure hydrometallurgy offers the possibility of liberating the copper industry from SO2 problem. Heap leaching technology has become a gigantic operation. Combined with solvent extraction and electrowinning it contributes today to about 20% of copper production and is expected to grow. Pressure leaching offers the possibility of liberating the copper industry from SO2 problem. The technology is over hundred years old. It is applied for leaching a variety of ores and concentrates. Hydrothermal oxidation of sulfide concentrates has the enormous advantage of producing elemental sulfur, hence solving the SO2 and sulfuric acid problems found in smelters. Precipitation of metals such as nickel and cobalt under hydrothermal conditions has been used for over 50 years. It has the advantage of a compact plant but the disadvantage of producing ammonium sulfate as a co-product. In case of copper, however, precipitation takes place without the need of neutralizing the acid, which is a great advantage and could be an excellent substitute for electrowinning which is energy intensive and occupies extensive space. Recent advances in the engineering aspects of pressure equipment design open the door widely for increased

  8. The GENIALL process for generation of nickel-iron alloys from nickel ores or mattes

    Diaz, G.; Frias, C.; Palma, J.

    2001-01-01

    A new process, called GENIALL (acronym of Generation of Nickel Alloys), for nickel recovery as ferronickel alloys from ores or mattes without previous smelting is presented in this paper. Its core technology is a new electrolytic concept, the ROSEL cell, for electrowinning of nickel-iron alloys from concentrated chloride solutions. In the GENIALL Process the substitution of iron-based solid wastes as jarosite, goethite or hematite, by saleable ferronickel plates provides both economic and environmental attractiveness. Another advantage is that no associated sulfuric acid plant is required. The process starts with leaching of the raw material (ores or mattes) with a solution of ferric chloride. The leachate liquor is purified by conventional methods like cementation or solvent extraction, to remove impurities or separate by-products like copper and cobalt. The purified solution, that contains a mixture of ferrous and nickel chlorides is fed to the cathodic compartment of the electrowinning cell, where nickel and ferrous ions are reduced together to form an alloy. Simultaneously, ferrous chloride is oxidized to ferric chloride in the anodic compartment, from where it is recycled to the leaching stage. The new electrolytic equipment has been developed and scaled up from laboratory to pilot prototypes with commercial size electrodes of 1 m 2 . Process operating conditions have been established in continuous runs at bench and pilot plant scale. The technology has shown a remarkable capacity to produce nickel-iron alloys of a wide range of compositions, from 10% to 80% nickel, just by adjusting the operating parameters. This emerging technology could be implemented in many processes in which iron and other non-ferrous metals are harmful impurities to be removed, or valuable metals to be recovered as a marketable iron alloy. Other potential applications of this technology are regeneration of spent etching liquors, and iron removal from aqueous effluents. (author)

  9. Basic Information about Mercury

    ... or metallic mercury is a shiny, silver-white metal and is liquid at room temperature. It is ... releases can happen naturally. Both volcanoes and forest fires send mercury into the atmosphere. Human activities, however, ...

  10. Minamata Convention on Mercury

    On November 6, 2013 the United States signed the Minamata Convention on Mercury, a new multilateral environmental agreement that addresses specific human activities which are contributing to widespread mercury pollution

  11. APT characterization of high nickel RPV steels

    Miller, M.K.; Russell, K.F

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The microstructures of several high nickel content pressure vessel steels have been characterized by atom probe tomography. The purposes of this study were to investigate the influence of high nickel levels on the response to neutron irradiation of high and low copper pressure vessel steels and to establish whether any additional phases were present after neutron irradiation. The nickel levels in these steels were at least twice that typically found in Western pressure vessel steels. Two different types of pressure vessel steels with low and high copper contents were selected for this study. The first set of alloys was low copper (∼0.05% Cu) base (15Ch2NMFAA) and weld (12Ch2N2MAA) materials used in a VVER-1000 reactor. The composition of the lower nickel VVER-1000 base material was Fe- 0.17 wt% C, 0.30% Si, 0.46% Mn, 2.2% Cr, 1.26% Ni, 0.05% Cu, 0.01% S, 0.008% P, 0.10% V and 0.50% Mo. The composition of the higher nickel VVER-1000 weld material was Fe- 0.06 wt % C, 0.33% Si, 0.80% Mn, 1.8% Cr, 1.78% Ni, 0.07% Cu, 0.009% S, 0.005% P, and 0.63% Mo. The VVER-1000 steels were irradiated in the HSSI Program's irradiation facilities at the University of Michigan, Ford Nuclear Reactor at a temperature of 288 o C for 2,137 h at an average flux of 7.08 x 10 11 cm 2 s -1 for a fluence of 5.45 x 10 18 n cm -2 (E >1 MeV) and for 5,340 h at an average flux of 4.33 x 10 11 cm -2 s -1 for a fluence of 8.32 x 10 1 28 n cm -2 (E >1 MeV). Therefore, the total fluence was 1.38 x 10 19 n cm -2 (E >1 MeV). The second type of pressure vessel steel was a high copper (0.20% Cu) weld from the Palisades reactor. The average composition of the Palisades weld was Fe- 0.11 wt% C, 0.18% Si, 1.27% Mn, 0.04% Cr, 1.20% Ni, 0.20% Cu, 0.017% S, 0.014% P, 0.003% V and 0.55% Mn. The Palisades weld, designated weldment 'B' from weld heat 34B009, was irradiated at a temperature of 288 o C and a flux of ∼7 x 10 11 cm -2 s -1 to a fast fluence of 1.4 x 10 19 n cm -2 (E >1 MeV). These three

  12. Sintering of nickel catalysts. Effects of time, atmosphere, temperature, nickel-carrier interactions, and dopants

    Sehested, Jens; Gelten, Johannes A.P.; Helveg, Stig [Haldor Topsoee A/S, Nymoellevej 55, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2006-08-01

    Supported nickel catalysts are widely used in the steam-reforming process for industrial scale production of hydrogen and synthesis gas. This paper provides a study of sintering in nickel-based catalysts (Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ni/MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}). Specifically the influence of time, temperature, atmosphere, nickel-carrier interactions and dopants on the rate of sintering is considered. To probe the sintering kinetics, all catalysts were analyzed by sulfur chemisorption to determine the Ni surface area. Furthermore selected samples were further analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), mercury porosimetry, BET area measurements, and electron microscopy (EM). The observed sintering rates as a function of time, temperature, and P{sub H{sub 2}O}/P{sub H{sub 2}} ratio were consistent with recent model predictions [J. Sehested, J.A.P. Gelten, I.N. Remediakis, H. Bengaard, J.K. Norskov, J. Catal. 223 (2004) 432] over a broad range of environmental conditions. However, exposing the catalysts to severe sintering conditions the loss of nickel surface area is faster than model predictions and the deviation is attributed to a change in the sintering mechanism and nickel removal by nickel-carrier interactions. Surprisingly, alumina-supported Ni particles grow to sizes larger than the particle size of the carrier indicating that the pore diameter does not represent an upper limit for Ni particle growth. The effects of potassium promotion and sulfur poisoning on the rates of sintering were also investigated. No significant effects of the dopants were observed after ageing at ambient pressure. However, at high pressures of steam and hydrogen (31bar and H{sub 2}O:H{sub 2}=10:1) potassium promotion increased the sintering rate relative to that of the unpromoted catalyst. Sulfur also enhances the rate of sintering at high pressures, but the effect of sulfur is less than for potassium. (author)

  13. Mercury in Your Environment

    Basic information about mercury, how it gets in the air, how people are exposed to it and health effects associated with exposure; what EPA and other organizations are doing to limit exposures; what citizens should know to minimize exposures and to reduce mercury in the environment; and information about products that contain mercury.

  14. Intoxication with metallic mercury

    Fichte, B.; Assmann, H.; Ritzau, F.

    1984-01-01

    Intoxications by metallic mercury are extremely rare. Report of a patient, who tried to commit suicide by subcutaneous injection of 500 g of metallic mercury. He died 16 months later in the course of the intoxication. A short review is given of effects and reactions of metallic mercury in the human organism. (orig.) [de

  15. Intoxication with metallic mercury

    Fichte, B.; Ritzau, F.; Assmann, H.

    1984-02-01

    Intoxications by metallic mercury are extremely rare. Report is given of a patient who tried to commit suicide by subcutaneous injection of 500 g of metallic mercury. He died 16 months later in the course of the intoxication. A short review is given of effects and reactions of metallic mercury in the human organism.

  16. Intoxication with metallic mercury

    Fichte, B.; Assmann, H.; Ritzau, F.

    1984-02-01

    Intoxications by metallic mercury are extremely rare. Report is given of a patient, who tried to commit suicide by subcutaneous injection of 500 g of metallic mercury. He died 16 months later in the course of the intoxication. A short review is given of effects and reactions of metallic mercury in the human organism.

  17. Geochemical characterization of water, sediment, and biota affected by mercury contamination and acidic drainage from historical gold mining, Greenhorn Creek, Nevada County, California, 1999-2001

    Alpers, Charles N.; Hunerlach, Michael P.; May, Jason T.; Hothem, Roger L.; Taylor, Howard E.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; De Wild, John F.; Lawler, David A.

    2005-01-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated studies of mercury and methylmercury occurrence, transformation, and transport in the Bear River and Yuba River watersheds of the northwestern Sierra Nevada. Because these watersheds were affected by large-scale, historical gold extraction using mercury amalgamation beginning in the 1850s, they were selected for a pilot study of mercury transport by the USGS and other cooperating agencies. This report presents data on methylmercury (MeHg) and total mercury (THg) concentrations in water, bed sediment, invertebrates, and frogs collected at 40 stations during 1999-2001 in the Greenhorn Creek drainage, a major tributary to Bear River. Results document several mercury contamination ?hot spots? that represent potential targets for ongoing and future remediation efforts at abandoned mine sites in the study area. Water-quality samples were collected one or more times at each of 29 stations. The concentrations of total mercury in 45 unfiltered water samples ranged from 0.80 to 153,000 nanograms per liter (ng/L); the median was 9.6 ng/L. Total mercury concentrations in filtered water (41 samples) ranged from less than 0.3 to 8,000 ng/L; the median was 2.7 ng/L. Concentrations of methylmercury in the unfiltered water (40 samples) ranged from less than 0.04 to 9.1 ng/L; the median was 0.07 ng/L. Methylmercury in filtered water (13 samples) ranged from less than 0.04 to 0.27 ng/L; the median was 0.04 ng/L. Acidic drainage with pH values as low as 3.4 was encountered in some of the mined areas. Elevated concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, and zinc were found at several stations, especially in the more acidic water samples. Total mercury concentrations in sediment were determined by laboratory and field methods. Total mercury concentrations (determined by laboratory methods) in ten samples from eight stations ranged from about 0.0044 to 12 ?g/g (microgram per gram, equivalent to parts per

  18. Pressure brazing of ceramics to metals with copper solder

    Pavlova, M.A.; Metelkin, I.I.

    1986-01-01

    The effect on the quality of joints brazed with copper of different non metallized aluminooxide dielectrics with metals and alloys of a series of technological parameters (temperature, pressure, holding, and medium) in the course of pressure brazing is investigated. It is shown that in case of brazing with kovar and nickel the character of dependences is identical, however in all cases the joints with nickel are more durable. For the ceramics - molybdenum system characterized by weak interaction with copper solder kinetic dependences have no maximum and only under holding of more than 20 min the constant strength of 150-190 MPa is attained

  19. Copper Test

    ... in the arm and/or a 24-hour urine sample is collected. Sometimes a health practitioner performs a liver ... disease , a rare inherited disorder that can lead to excess storage of copper in the liver, brain, and other ...

  20. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    Santella, M.L.; Sikka, V.K.

    1998-03-10

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and cast in copper chill molds. 3 figs.

  1. Were mercury emission factors for Chinese non-ferrous metal smelters overestimated? Evidence from onsite measurements in six smelters

    Zhang Lei; Wang Shuxiao; Wu Qingru; Meng Yang; Yang Hai; Wang Fengyang; Hao Jiming

    2012-01-01

    Non-ferrous metal smelting takes up a large proportion of the anthropogenic mercury emission inventory in China. Zinc, lead and copper smelting are three leading sources. Onsite measurements of mercury emissions were conducted for six smelters. The mercury emission factors were 0.09–2.98 g Hg/t metal produced. Acid plants with the double-conversion double-absorption process had mercury removal efficiency of over 99%. In the flue gas after acid plants, 45–88% was oxidized mercury which can be easily scavenged in the flue gas scrubber. 70–97% of the mercury was removed from the flue gas to the waste water and 1–17% to the sulfuric acid product. Totally 0.3–13.5% of the mercury in the metal concentrate was emitted to the atmosphere. Therefore, acid plants in non-ferrous metal smelters have significant co-benefit on mercury removal, and the mercury emission factors from Chinese non-ferrous metal smelters were probably overestimated in previous studies. - Highlights: ► Acid plants in smelters provide significant co-benefits for mercury removal (over 99%). ► Most of the mercury in metal concentrates for smelting ended up in waste water. ► Previously published emission factors for Chinese metal smelters were probably overestimated. - Acid plants in smelters have high mercury removal efficiency, and thus mercury emission factors for Chinese non-ferrous metal smelters were probably overestimated.

  2. Electroless nickel plating on abs plastics from nickel chloride and nickel sulfate baths

    Inam-ul-haque; Ahmad, S.; Khan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Aqueous acid nickel chloride and alkaline nickel sulphate bath were studied for electroless nickel planting on acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) plastic. Before electroless nickel plating, specimens were etched, sensitized and activated. Effects of sodium hypophosphite and sodium citrate concentration on the electroless nickel plating thickness were discussed. Aqueous acid nickel chloride bath comprising, nickel chloride 10 g/L, sodium hypophosphite 40 g/L, sodium citrate 40g/L at pH 5.5, temperature 85 deg. C and density of 1 Be/ for thirty minutes gave best coating thickness in micrometer. It was found that acid nickel chloride bath had a greater stability, wide operating range and better coating thickness results than alkaline nickel sulphate bath. Acid nickel chloride bath gave better coating thickness than alkaline nickel sulfate bath

  3. Transfer functions for solid-solution partitioning of cadmium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc in soils. Derivation of relationships for free metal ion activities and validation with independent data

    Groenenberg, J.E.; Roemkens, P.F.A.M.; De Vries, W. [Soil Science Centre, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Comans, R.N.J. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Luster, J. [Research Unit Soil Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Zuercherstrasse 111 CH-8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Pampura, T. [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Soils, Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science RAS, Pushchino, Moscow Region, 142290 (Russian Federation); Shotbolt, L. [Department of Geography, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Tipping, E. [Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Models to predict the solid-solution partitioning of trace metals are important tools in risk assessment, providing information on the biological availability of metals and their leaching. Empirically based models, or transfer functions, published to date differ with respect to the mathematical model used, the optimization method, the methods used to determine metal concentrations in the solid and solution phases and the soil properties accounted for. Here we review these methodological aspects before deriving our own transfer functions that relate free metal ion activities to reactive metal contents in the solid phase. One single function was able to predict free-metal ion activities estimated by a variety of soil solution extraction methods. Evaluation of the mathematical formulation showed that transfer functions derived to optimize the Freundlich adsorption constant (Kf ), in contrast to functions derived to optimize either the solid or solution concentration, were most suitable for predicting concentrations in solution from solid phase concentrations and vice versa. The model was shown to be generally applicable on the basis of a large number of independent data, for which predicted free metal activities were within one order of magnitude of the observations. The model only over-estimated free-metal ion activities at alkaline pH (>7). The use of the reactive metal content measured by 0.43 m HNO3 rather than the total metal content resulted in a close correlation with measured data, particularly for nickel and zinc.

  4. Initial study of Nickel Electrolyte for EnFACE Process

    Tri Widayatno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nickel electrolyte for a micro-pattern transfer process without photolithography, EnFACE, has been developed. Previous work on copper deposition indicated that a conductivity of ~2.7 Sm-1 is required. Electrochemical parameters of electrolyte i.e. current density and overpotential are also crucial to govern a successful pattern replication. Therefore, the investigation focused on the measurement of physicochemical properties and electrochemical behaviour of the electrolyte at different nickel concentrations and complexing agents of chloride and sulfamate. Nickel electrolytes containing sulfamate, chloride and combined sulfamate-chloride with concentrations between 0.14 M and 0.3 M were investigated. Physicochemical properties i.e. pH and conductivity were measured to ensure if they were in the desired value. The electrochemical behaviour of the electrolytes was measured by polarisation experiments in a standard three-electrode cell. The working electrode was a copper disc (surface area of 0.196 cm2 and the counter electrode was platinum mesh. The potential was measured againts a saturated calomel reference electrode (SCE. The experiments were carried out at various scan rate and Rotating Disc Electrode (RDE rotation speed to see the effect of scan rate and agitation. Based on the measured physicochemical properties, the electrolyte of 0.19 M nickel sulfamate was chosen for experimentation. Polarisation curve of agitated solution suggested that overall nickel electrodeposition reaction is controlled by a combination of kinetics and mass transfer.  Reduction potential of nickel was in the range of -0.7 to -1.0 V. The corresponding current densities for nickel deposition were in the range of -0.1 to -1.5 mA cm-2.

  5. Fluorescence Probe for Copper(Ⅱ) and Mercury(Ⅱ) Based on the Dansyl Aminoquinoline%丹酰基团修饰的喹啉衍生物作为Cu2+和 Hg2+荧光探针研究

    邓乐芳; 张敏; 严玉华; 杨丽庭; 马立军

    2013-01-01

    合成并表征了一种具有良好水溶性的荧光探针---8-(丹磺酰氨基)喹啉,它能在水溶液中荧光识别和检测Cu2+和Hg2+。随着2种离子浓度的增加,该探针的荧光发射强度均发生较大程度的猝灭,而相同测试条件下,其他8种重金属离子对该荧光探针的荧光发射性质影响不大,说明8-(丹磺酰氨基)喹啉是一种对Cu2+和Hg2+具有选择性识别的荧光探针。%A good water-soluble fluorescence probe 8-dansyl-aminoquinoline ( DK) was synthesized and character-ized.The probe showed fluorescence recognition and detection to copper (Ⅱ) and mercury (Ⅱ) ions in aqueous solutions.Upon the addition of Cu2 +and Hg2+, the fluorescent emission intensity of the probe was quenched .Oth-er metal ions did not show similar recognition signals at the same condition .The molecule is a fluorescence probe with selectivity toward Cu 2+and Hg2+.

  6. Mercury balance analysis

    Maag, J.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed assessment of the consumption of mercury, divided into use areas, was carried out. Disposal and emissions to the environment were also qualified. The assessment is mainly based on data from 1992 - 1993. The most important source of emission of mercury to air is solid waste incineration which is assessed in particular to be due to the supply of mercury in batteries (most likely mercury oxide batteries from photo equipment) and to dental fillings. The second most important source of mercury emission to air is coal-fired power plants which are estimated to account for 200-500 kg of mercury emission p.a. Other mercury emissions are mainly related to waste treatment and disposal. The consumption of mercury is generally decreasing. During the period from 1982/83 - 1992-93, the total consumption of mercury in Denmark was about halved. This development is related to the fact that consumption with regard to several important use areas (batteries, dental fillings, thermometers etc.) has been significantly reduced, while for other purposes the use of mercury has completely, or almost disappeared, i.e. (fungicides for seed, tubes etc.). (EG)

  7. NICKEL – ENVIRONMENTAL ALLERGEN

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nickel (Ni is ubiquitus in our biosphere because of its emission from natural and anthropogenic sources. Its toxic and carcinogenic properties are well recognised only in workers exposed to high Ni concentrations. Nickel allergy is the most common form of cutaneus hypersensitivity in general population and also in occupationally exposed groups. As sensitizing agent Ni has a high prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis. The most important known risk factor associated with nickel allergy is ear piercing and use of other jewelry in females. In general population 17 % adults and 8 % children have Ni allergy symptoms. Permanently growing Ni allergy is regarded as serious risk for public health.

  8. 78 FR 65573 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval of Copper-Clad Iron Shot and Fluoropolymer Shot...

    2013-11-01

    ... shot, causing sediment/soil and water contamination and the direct ingestion of shot by aquatic and.... Shot[supreg]. * Coatings of copper, nickel, tin, zinc, zinc chloride, zinc chrome, and fluoropolymers...

  9. Determination of mercury in drinking water

    Anand, S.J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Determination of mercury in drinking water samples have been carried out by neutron activation followed by chemical separation. The chemical analysis is necessary as the levels of mercury in these samples are quite low and activities of sodium, copper etc. interfere in its determination by direct spectroscopy. Solvent extraction separation offers speed and complete separation from interfering activities. Some of drinking water samples collected at Trombay have been analysed and their result are given in this paper. The procedure was checked with 197 Hg tracer and the reproducibility of the procedure is within 5%. It was free from contamination due to the activities of Cu, Na etc. The time of analysis was 15 minutes, and upto 5 samples could be analysed conveniently at a time. The average chemical yield was 72%. (T.I.)

  10. Formation of chemical compounds under vacuum plasma-arc deposition of nickel and its alloy onto piezoceramics

    Grinchenko, V.T.; Lyakhovich, T.K.; Prosina, N.I.; Khromov, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    The phase composition of the transition layer appearing during vacuum-arc coating of nickel and nickel alloy with copper on barium titanate and lead zirconate-titanate is identified. During vacuum plasma-arc coating of nickel and its alloy at the boundary with barium titanate and lead zirconate-titanate the Ni 2 Ti 4 O compound appears which has the crystal lattice type identical with substrate with the parity of lattice parameters. The transition layer contains nickel oxides and NiTiO 3 in the case of barium titanate. When titanate content in substrate increases the zone of reaction diffusion increases in value and becomes more complicate in composition

  11. Process for low mercury coal

    Merriam, Norman W.; Grimes, R. William; Tweed, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

  12. Mercury (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    ... in contact with) to mercury is by eating fish or shellfish that have high levels of mercury. You can also get sick from: Touching it Breathing it in Drinking contaminated water How can mercury ...

  13. Plated copper front side metallization on printed seed-layers for silicon solar cells

    Kraft, Achim

    2015-01-01

    A novel copper front side metallization architecture for silicon solar cells based on a fine printed silver seed-layer, plated with nickel, copper and silver, is investigated. The work focuses on the printing of fine seed-layers with low silver consumption, the corrosion of the printed seed-layers by the interaction with electrolyte solutions and the encapsulation material on module level and on the long term stability of the cells due to copper migration. The investigation of the correlation...

  14. Mercury is Moon's brother

    Ksanfomalifi, L.V.

    1976-01-01

    The latest information on Mercury planet is presented obtained by studying the planet with the aid of radar and space vehicles. Rotation of Mercury about its axis has been discovered; within 2/3 of its year it executes a complete revolution about its axis. In images obtained by the ''Mariner-10'' Mercurys surface differs little from that of the Moon. The ''Mariner-10'' has also discovered the Mercurys atmosphere, which consists of extremely rarefied helium. The helium is continuously supplied to the planet by the solar wind. The Mercury's magnetic field has been discovered, whose strength is 35 x 10 -4 at the Equator and 70 x 10 -4 E at the poles. The inclination of the dipole axis to the Mercury's rotation axis is 7 deg

  15. Nickel in tap water

    Andersen, K E; Nielsen, G D; Flyvholm, M A; Fregert, S; Gruvberge, B

    1983-03-01

    Nickel analyses of tap water from several sources in Copenhagen gave up to 490 X 10(-6) g X 1(-1) in the first 250 ml portions. Hot water gave higher values than cold water. After flushing for 5 min, low values were found. Considerable variation from time to time and from tap to tap was found. Drinking of only the first portion in the morning might have an influence on nickel hand eczema.

  16. Polystyrene films as barrier layers for corrosion protection of copper and copper alloys.

    Románszki, Loránd; Datsenko, Iaryna; May, Zoltán; Telegdi, Judit; Nyikos, Lajos; Sand, Wolfgang

    2014-06-01

    Dip-coated polystyrene layers of sub-micrometre thickness (85-500nm) have been applied on copper and copper alloys (aluminium brass, copper-nickel 70/30), as well as on stainless steel 304, and produced an effective barrier against corrosion and adhesion of corrosion-relevant microorganisms. According to the dynamic wettability measurements, the coatings exhibited high advancing (103°), receding (79°) and equilibrium (87°) contact angles, low contact angle hysteresis (6°) and surface free energy (31mJ/m(2)). The corrosion rate of copper-nickel 70/30 alloy samples in 3.5% NaCl was as low as 3.2μm/a (44% of that of the uncoated samples), and in artificial seawater was only 0.9μm/a (29% of that of the uncoated samples). Cell adhesion was studied by fluorescence microscopy, using monoculture of Desulfovibrio alaskensis. The coatings not only decreased the corrosion rate but also markedly reduced the number of bacterial cells adhered to the coated surfaces. The PS coating on copper gave the best result, 2×10(3)cells/cm(2) (1% of that of the uncoated control). © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Antibacterial, antimalarial and leishmanicidal activities of Cu (II) and nickel (II) complexes of diclofenac sodium

    Rehman, F.U.; Khan, M.F.; Khan, G.M.; Khan, H.; Khan, I.U.

    2010-01-01

    Metal complexes are famous for a wide array of chemotherapeutic effects. The current study was designed to synthesize and evaluate unexplored chemotherapeutic effects of Cu (II) and Nickel (II) complexes of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac. Nickel complex exhibited significant leishmanicidal activity against Lieshmania major, while the copper complex was found to possess low activity against the same pathogen. Both of the complexes revealed low antibacterial activities and were interestingly failed to produce any considerable antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7. Selective leishmanicidal activities of Nickel (II) complex of diclofenac needs further improvement to be developed as potential new metal-based leishmanicidal agent.(author)

  18. Antibacterial, antimalarial and leishmanicidal activities of Cu (II) and nickel (II) complexes of diclofenac sodium

    Rehman, F U; Khan, M F; Khan, G M; Khan, H [Gomal University, D.I. Khan (Pakistan). Dept. of Faculty of Pharmacy; Khan, I U [University of Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Faculty of Pharmacy

    2010-08-15

    Metal complexes are famous for a wide array of chemotherapeutic effects. The current study was designed to synthesize and evaluate unexplored chemotherapeutic effects of Cu (II) and Nickel (II) complexes of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac. Nickel complex exhibited significant leishmanicidal activity against Lieshmania major, while the copper complex was found to possess low activity against the same pathogen. Both of the complexes revealed low antibacterial activities and were interestingly failed to produce any considerable antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7. Selective leishmanicidal activities of Nickel (II) complex of diclofenac needs further improvement to be developed as potential new metal-based leishmanicidal agent.(author)

  19. The contact heat conductance at diamond-OFHC copper interface with GaIn eutectic as a heat transfer medium

    Assoufid, L.; Khounsary, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Results of an experimental study of the contact heat conductance across a single diamond crystal interface with OFHC copper (Cu) are reported. Gallium-indium (GaIn) eutectic was used as an interstitial material. Contact conductance data are important in the design and the prediction of the performance of x-ray diamond monochromators under high-heat-load conditions. Two sets of experiments were carried out. In one, the copper surface in contact with diamond was polished and then electroless plated with 1 μm of nickel, while in the other, the copper contact surface was left as machined. Measured average interface heat conductances are 44.7 ±8 W/cm 2 -K for nonplated copper and 23.0 ±3 W/cm 2 -K for nickel-plated copper. For reference, the thermal contact conductances at a copper-copper interface (without diamond) were also measured, and the results are reported. A typical diamond monochromator, 0.2 mm thick, will absorb about 44 W under a standard undulator beam at the Advanced Photon Source. The measured conductance for nickel-plated copper suggests that the temperature drop across the interface of diamond and nickel-plated copper, with a 20 mm 2 contact area, will be about 10 degree C. Therefore temperature rises are rather modest, and the accuracy of the measured contact conductances presented here are sufficient for design purposes

  20. LabVIEW-based sequential-injection analysis system for the determination of trace metals by square-wave anodic and adsorptive stripping voltammetry on mercury-film electrodes.

    Economou, Anastasios; Voulgaropoulos, Anastasios

    2003-01-01

    The development of a dedicated automated sequential-injection analysis apparatus for anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) and adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV) is reported. The instrument comprised a peristaltic pump, a multiposition selector valve and a home-made potentiostat and used a mercury-film electrode as the working electrodes in a thin-layer electrochemical detector. Programming of the experimental sequence was performed in LabVIEW 5.1. The sequence of operations included formation of the mercury film, electrolytic or adsorptive accumulation of the analyte on the electrode surface, recording of the voltammetric current-potential response, and cleaning of the electrode. The stripping step was carried out by applying a square-wave (SW) potential-time excitation signal to the working electrode. The instrument allowed unattended operation since multiple-step sequences could be readily implemented through the purpose-built software. The utility of the analyser was tested for the determination of copper(II), cadmium(II), lead(II) and zinc(II) by SWASV and of nickel(II), cobalt(II) and uranium(VI) by SWAdSV.

  1. Modeling Mercury in Proteins

    Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally occurring element that is released into the biosphere both by natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Although its reduced, elemental form Hg(0) is relatively non-toxic, other forms such as Hg2+ and, in particular, its methylated form, methylmercury, are toxic, with deleterious effects on both ecosystems and humans. Microorganisms play important roles in the transformation of mercury in the environment. Inorganic Hg2+ can be methylated by certain bacteria and archaea to form methylmercury. Conversely, bacteria also demethylate methylmercury and reduce Hg2+ to relatively inert Hg(0). Transformations and toxicity occur as a result of mercury interacting with various proteins. Clearly, then, understanding the toxic effects of mercury and its cycling in the environment requires characterization of these interactions. Computational approaches are ideally suited to studies of mercury in proteins because they can provide a detailed picture and circumvent issues associated with toxicity. Here we describe computational methods for investigating and characterizing how mercury binds to proteins, how inter- and intra-protein transfer of mercury is orchestrated in biological systems, and how chemical reactions in proteins transform the metal. We describe quantum chemical analyses of aqueous Hg(II), which reveal critical factors that determine ligand binding propensities. We then provide a perspective on how we used chemical reasoning to discover how microorganisms methylate mercury. We also highlight our combined computational and experimental studies of the proteins and enzymes of the mer operon, a suite of genes that confers mercury resistance in many bacteria. Lastly, we place work on mercury in proteins in the context of what is needed for a comprehensive multi-scale model of environmental mercury cycling.

  2. Simulations on Nickel target preparation and separation of Ni(II)-Cu(II) matrix for production of radioisotope "6"4Cu

    Sunarhadijoso Soenarjo; Wira Y Rahman; Sriyono; Triyanto

    2011-01-01

    The simulations on Nickel target preparation and separation of Ni(II)-Cu(II) matrix has been carried out as a preliminary study for production of medical radioisotope Cu-64 based on nuclear reaction of "6"4Ni (p,n) "6"4Cu. The nickel target preparation was performed by means of electroplating method using acidic solution of nickel chloride - boric acid mixture and basic solution of nickel sulphate - nickel chloride mixture on a silver - surfaced-target holder. The simulated solution of Ni(II) - Cu(II) matrix was considered as the solution of post-proton-irradiated nickel target containing both irradiated nickel and radioactive copper, but in the presented work the proton irradiation of nickel target was omitted, while the radioactive copper was originally obtained from neutron irradiation of CuO target. The separation of radioactive copper from the nickel target matrix was based on anion exchange column chromatography in which the radiocopper was conditioned to form anion complex CuCl_4"2"- and retained on the column while the nickel was kept in the form of Ni"2"+ cation and eluted off from the column. The retained radioactive copper was then eluted out the column in the condition of dilute HCl changing back the copper anion complex into Cu"2"+ cation. It was found that the electroplating result from the acidic solution was more satisfied than that from the basic solution. By conditioning the matrix solution at HCl 6 M, the radioactive copper was found in the forms of Cu"2"+ and CuCl_4"2"- while the nickel was totally in the form of Ni"2"+. In the condition of HCl 9 M, the radioactive copper was mostly in the form of CuCl_4"2"- while the nickel was found as both Ni"2"+ and NiCl_4"2"-. The best condition of separation was in HCl 8 M in which the radioactive copper was mostly in the form of CuCl_4"2"- while the nickel was mostly in the form of Ni"2"+. The retained CuCl_4"2"- was then changed back into Cu_2_+ cation form and eluted out the column by using HCl 0.05 M

  3. Trace elements in Antarctic fish species and the influence of foraging habitats and dietary habits on mercury levels

    Goutte, Aurélie, E-mail: aurelie.goutte@ephe.sorbonne.fr [École Pratique des Hautes Études (EPHE), SPL, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7619 METIS, F-75005, 4 place Jussieu, Paris (France); Cherel, Yves [Centre d' Etudes Biologiques de Chizé, UMR 7372, CNRS-Université de La Rochelle, 79360 Villiers-en-Bois (France); Churlaud, Carine [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMR 7266, CNRS-Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Ponthus, Jean-Pierre [École Pratique des Hautes Études (EPHE), SPL, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7619 METIS, F-75005, 4 place Jussieu, Paris (France); Massé, Guillaume [Unité Mixte Internationale Takuvik, Pavillon Alexandre-Vachon, Université Laval, QC, Québec (Canada); Bustamante, Paco [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMR 7266, CNRS-Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France)

    2015-12-15

    This study aims at describing and interpreting concentration profiles of trace elements in seven Antarctic fish species (N = 132 specimens) off Adélie Land. Ichthyofauna plays a key role in the Antarctic ecosystem, as they occupy various ecological niches, including cryopelagic (ice-associated), pelagic, and benthic habitats. Firstly, trace element levels in the studied specimens were similar to those previously observed in fish from the Southern Ocean. Apart from manganese and zinc, concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, mercury (Hg), nickel, selenium and silver differed among fish species. Muscle δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values were determined to investigate whether the fish foraging habitats and dietary habits could explain Hg levels. Species and foraging habitat (δ{sup 13}C) were strong predictors for variations of Hg concentrations in muscle tissues. The highest Hg contamination was found in shallow benthic fish compared to cryopelagic and pelagic fish. This pattern was likely due to the methylation of Hg in the coastal sediment and the photodemethylation by ultraviolet radiation in surface waters. - Highlights: • Trace elements and stable isotopes were analyzed in seven Antarctic fish species. • Levels of trace elements in liver and in muscle differed among species. • Hg load was higher in benthic fish than in cryopelagic and pelagic fish. • These findings could be due to the high methylation rate of Hg in the sediment.

  4. Trace elements in Antarctic fish species and the influence of foraging habitats and dietary habits on mercury levels

    Goutte, Aurélie; Cherel, Yves; Churlaud, Carine; Ponthus, Jean-Pierre; Massé, Guillaume; Bustamante, Paco

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at describing and interpreting concentration profiles of trace elements in seven Antarctic fish species (N = 132 specimens) off Adélie Land. Ichthyofauna plays a key role in the Antarctic ecosystem, as they occupy various ecological niches, including cryopelagic (ice-associated), pelagic, and benthic habitats. Firstly, trace element levels in the studied specimens were similar to those previously observed in fish from the Southern Ocean. Apart from manganese and zinc, concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, mercury (Hg), nickel, selenium and silver differed among fish species. Muscle δ"1"3C and δ"1"5N values were determined to investigate whether the fish foraging habitats and dietary habits could explain Hg levels. Species and foraging habitat (δ"1"3C) were strong predictors for variations of Hg concentrations in muscle tissues. The highest Hg contamination was found in shallow benthic fish compared to cryopelagic and pelagic fish. This pattern was likely due to the methylation of Hg in the coastal sediment and the photodemethylation by ultraviolet radiation in surface waters. - Highlights: • Trace elements and stable isotopes were analyzed in seven Antarctic fish species. • Levels of trace elements in liver and in muscle differed among species. • Hg load was higher in benthic fish than in cryopelagic and pelagic fish. • These findings could be due to the high methylation rate of Hg in the sediment.

  5. Intentional intravenous mercury injection

    In this case report, intravenous complications, treatment strategies and possible ... Mercury toxicity is commonly associated with vapour inhalation or oral ingestion, for which there exist definite treatment options. Intravenous mercury ... personality, anxiousness, irritability, insomnia, depression and drowsi- ness.[1] However ...

  6. Mercury's shifting, rolling past

    Trulove, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of scalloped-edged cliffs or lobate scarps on Mercury's surface are thrust faults that are consistent with the planet shrinking and cooling with time. However, compression occurred in the planet's early history and Mariner 10 images revealed decades ago that lobate scarps are among the youngest features on Mercury. Why don't we find more evidence of older compressive features?

  7. Global Mercury Assessment 2013

    mercury pollution. This summary report and the accompanying. Technical Background Report for the Global. Mercury Assessment 2013 are developed in response to Decision 25/5, paragraph ... The use of different pollution control technologies in different ...... vegetation, snow, freshwater, and seawater. One of the largest ...

  8. MESSENGER: Exploring Mercury's Magnetosphere

    Slavin, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet's miniature magnetosphere since Mariner 10's brief fly-bys in 1974-5. Mercury's magnetosphere is unique in many respects. The magnetosphere of Mercury is the smallest in the solar system with its magnetic field typically standing off the solar wind only - 1000 to 2000 km above the surface. For this reason there are no closed dri-fi paths for energetic particles and, hence, no radiation belts; the characteristic time scales for wave propagation and convective transport are short possibly coupling kinetic and fluid modes; magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause may erode the subsolar magnetosphere allowing solar wind ions to directly impact the dayside regolith; inductive currents in Mercury's interior should act to modify the solar In addition, Mercury's magnetosphere is the only one with its defining magnetic flux tubes rooted in a planetary regolith as opposed to an atmosphere with a conductive ionosphere. This lack of an ionosphere is thought to be the underlying reason for the brevity of the very intense, but short lived, approx. 1-2 min, substorm-like energetic particle events observed by Mariner 10 in Mercury's magnetic tail. In this seminar, we review what we think we know about Mercury's magnetosphere and describe the MESSENGER science team's strategy for obtaining answers to the outstanding science questions surrounding the interaction of the solar wind with Mercury and its small, but dynamic magnetosphere.

  9. Mercury in Nordic ecosystems

    Munthe, John; Waengberg, Ingvar (IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (SE)); Rognerud, Sigurd; Fjeld, Eirik (Norwegian Inst. for Water Research (NIVA), Oslo (Norway)); Verta, Matti; Porvari, Petri (Finnish Environment Inst. (SYKE), Helsinki (Finland)); Meili, Markus (Inst. of Applied Environmental Research (ITM), Stockholm (Sweden))

    2007-12-15

    This report provides a first comprehensive compilation and assessment of available data on mercury in air, precipitation, sediments and fish in the Nordic countries. The main conclusion is that mercury levels in Nordic ecosystems continue to be affected by long-range atmospheric transport. The geographical patterns of mercury concentrations in both sediments and fish are also strongly affected by ecosystem characteristics and in some regions possibly by historical pollution. An evaluation of geographical variations in mercury concentrations in precipitation indicates that the influence from anthropogenic sources from Central European areas is still significant. The annual variability of deposition is large and dependant of precipitation amounts. An evaluation of data from stations around the North Sea has indicated a significant decrease in mercury concentrations in precipitation indicating a continuous decrease of emissions in Europe (Waengberg et al., 2007). For mercury in air (TGM), the geographical pattern is less pronounced indicating the influence of mercury emissions and distribution over a larger geographical area (i.e. hemispherical transport). Comparison of recent (surficial) and historical lake sediments show significantly elevated concentrations of mercury most likely caused by anthropogenic atmospheric deposition over the past century. The highest pollution impact was observed in the coastal areas of southern Norway, in south western Finland and in Sweden from the coastal areas in the southwest across the central parts to the north-east. The general increase in recent versus old sediments was 2-5 fold. Data on mercury in Nordic freshwater fish was assembled and evaluated with respect to geographical variations. The fish data were further compared with temporal and spatial trends in mercury deposition and mercury contamination of lake sediments in order to investigate the coupling between atmospheric transport and deposition of mercury and local mercury

  10. Getting Mercury out of Schools.

    1999

    This guide was prepared while working with many Massachusetts schools to remove items that contain mercury and to find suitable alternatives. It contains fact sheets on: mercury in science laboratories and classrooms, mercury in school buildings and maintenance areas, mercury in the medical office and in medical technology classrooms in vocational…

  11. Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of Coal Combustion By-Product Disposal and Utilizaton

    David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher; Mei Xin; Mae Sexauer Gustin; Rob Jung

    2007-03-31

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a multiyear study to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements (ATEs) on the management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). The ATEs evaluated in this project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. The study included laboratory tasks to develop measurement techniques for mercury and ATE releases, sample characterization, and release experiments. A field task was also performed to measure mercury releases at a field site. Samples of fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were collected preferentially from full-scale coal-fired power plants operating both without and with mercury control technologies in place. In some cases, samples from pilot- and bench-scale emission control tests were included in the laboratory studies. Several sets of 'paired' baseline and test fly ash and FGD materials collected during full-scale mercury emission control tests were also included in laboratory evaluations. Samples from mercury emission control tests all contained activated carbon (AC) and some also incorporated a sorbent-enhancing agent (EA). Laboratory release experiments focused on measuring releases of mercury under conditions designed to simulate CCB exposure to water, ambient-temperature air, elevated temperatures, and microbes in both wet and dry conditions. Results of laboratory evaluations indicated that: (1) Mercury and sometimes selenium are collected with AC used for mercury emission control and, therefore, present at higher concentrations than samples collected without mercury emission controls present. (2) Mercury is stable on CCBs collected from systems both without and with mercury emission controls present under most conditions tested, with the exception of vapor-phase releases of mercury exposed to elevated temperatures. (3) The presence of carbon either from added AC or from unburned coal can result in mercury

  12. Increased sensitivity of anodic stripping voltammetry at the hanging mercury drop electrode by ultracathodic deposition.

    Rodrigues, José A; Rodrigues, Carlos M; Almeida, Paulo J; Valente, Inês M; Gonçalves, Luís M; Compton, Richard G; Barros, Aquiles A

    2011-09-09

    An improved approach to the anodic stripping voltammetric (ASV) determination of heavy metals, using the hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE), is reported. It was discovered that using very cathodic accumulation potentials, at which the solvent reduction occurs (overpotential deposition), the voltammetric signals of zinc(II), cadmium(II), lead(II) and copper(II) increase. When compared with the classical methodology a 5 to 10-fold signal increase is obtained. This effect is likely due to both mercury drop oscillation at such cathodic potentials and added local convection at the mercury drop surface caused by the evolution of hydrogen bubbles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Corrosion behavior of copper-base materials in a gamma-irradiated environment

    Yunker, W.H.

    1990-09-01

    Specimens of three copper-base materials were corrosion tested with gamma radiation exposure dose rates in the range of 1.9 x 10 3 R/h to 4.9 x 10 5 R/h. Materials used were pure copper, 7% aluminum bronze and 30% copper-nickel. Exposures were performed in moist air at 95 degree C and 150 degree C and liquid Well J-13 water at 95 degree C, for periods of up to 16 months. Specimens were monitored for uniform weight loss, stress-induced corrosion and crevice corrosion. Specimen surfaces were examined visually at 10X magnification as well as by Auger Electron Spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and metallography. Corrosion was not severe in any of the cases. In general, the pure copper was corroded most uniformly while the copper-nickel was the least reproducibly corroded. 11 refs, 40 figs., 15 tabs

  14. Corrosion behavior of copper-base materials in a gamma-irradiated environment; Final report

    Yunker, W.H.

    1990-09-01

    Specimens of three copper-base materials were corrosion tested with gamma radiation exposure dose rates in the range of 1.9 {times} 10{sup 3} R/h to 4.9 {times} 10{sup 5} R/h. Materials used were pure copper, 7% aluminum bronze and 30% copper-nickel. Exposures were performed in moist air at 95{degree}C and 150{degree}C and liquid Well J-13 water at 95{degree}C, for periods of up to 16 months. Specimens were monitored for uniform weight loss, stress-induced corrosion and crevice corrosion. Specimen surfaces were examined visually at 10X magnification as well as by Auger Electron Spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and metallography. Corrosion was not severe in any of the cases. In general, the pure copper was corroded most uniformly while the copper-nickel was the least reproducibly corroded. 11 refs, 40 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. Determination of nickel-63

    Poletiko, C.

    1988-01-01

    The research of activation products in the environment is often centered on cobalt-60 or other gamma emitters, since pure beta emitters require time consuming separations to be counted. However, some beta emitters must be checked because they have a build up in the environment, leading to potential hazards. Among these nuclides, there is nickel-63 which is a pure, soft beta emitter (67 keV) with a long half-life (100 years). A chemical separation, providing good results, was developed. Such a separation is based upon nickel carrier addition in the sample than DMG complex formation and isolation; after elimination of solvent. DMG complex is destroyed. Chemical yield is determined by flame atomic absorption measurement and nickel-63 counted by liquid scintillation. The described procedure allows the determination of low-level activities in different samples (soils, effluents, etc.). Detection limits are close to 0.1 Bq per sample

  16. Nanoparticles of nickel hexacyanoferrate

    Bicalho, U.O.; Santos, D.C.; Silvestrini, D.R.; Trama, B.; Carmo, D.R. do

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles of nickel hexacyanoferrate (NHNi) were prepared in three medium (aqueous, formamide and aqueous/formamide). The materials were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electronica spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) region and also by cyclic voltammetry (CV). By spectroscopic analysis of X-ray diffraction was possible to estimate the size of the particles obtained by the Scherrer equation. The graphite paste electrodes containing nanoparticles of nickel hexacyanoferrate means formamide was sensitive to different concentrations of Dipyrone. (author)

  17. Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail

    Slavin, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The source of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief passages is due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet's lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute to Mercury's very brief Dungey cycle, approx. 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury's tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

  18. Nickel silicide formation in silicon implanted nickel

    Rao, Z.; Williams, J. S.; Pogany, A. P.; Sood, D. K.; Collins, G. A.

    1995-04-01

    Nickel silicide formation during the annealing of very high dose (≥4.5×1017 ions/cm2) Si implanted Ni has been investigated, using ion beam analytical techniques, electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction analysis. An initial amorphous Si-Ni alloy, formed as a result of high dose ion implantation, first crystallized to Ni2Si upon annealing in the temperature region of 200-300 °C. This was followed by the formation of Ni5Si2 in the temperature region of 300-400 °C and then by Ni3Si at 400-600 °C. The Ni3Si layer was found to have an epitaxial relationship with the substrate Ni, which was determined as Ni3Si∥Ni and Ni3Si∥Ni for Ni(100) samples. The minimum channeling yield in the 2 MeV He Rutherford backscattering and channeling spectra of this epitaxial layer improved with higher annealing temperatures up to 600 °C, and reached a best value measured at about 8%. However, the epitaxial Ni3Si dissolved after long time annealing at 600 °C or annealing at higher temperatures to liberate soluble Si into the Ni substrate. The epitaxy is attributed to the excellent lattice match between the Ni3Si and the Ni. The annealing behavior follows the predictions of the Ni-Si phase diagram for this nickel-rich binary system.

  19. The cost of nickel allergy

    Hamann, Carsten R; Hamann, Dathan; Hamann, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    %), followed by aluminium-bronze (62, 17%). In total, 239 denominations released nickel (28%). Coins from Bolivia, Brazil and Costa Rica did not release nickel. Fewer than one-third of the denominations or issues from China, India, the euro area and Indonesia released nickel. In the United States, the Russian...... Federation, Japan, and Mexico, one-third or more of the denominations released nickel. Conclusions. This worldwide selection of circulating coins covered countries with 75% of the world population, and shows that the majority of the world population lives in countries where coins release nickel. Pertinently...

  20. Nickel in tap water

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Nielsen, G D; Flyvholm, Morten

    1983-01-01

    Nickel analyses of tap water from several sources in Copenhagen gave up to 490 X 10(-6) g X 1(-1) in the first 250 ml portions. Hot water gave higher values than cold water. After flushing for 5 min, low values were found. Considerable variation from time to time and from tap to tap was found...

  1. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    DR. AMINU

    Department of Chemistry Bayero University, P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria. E-mail: hnuhu2000@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and .... water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in acetone. The molar conductance measurement [Table 3] of the complex compounds in.

  2. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND PATHOGENETIC ASPECTS OF NICKEL POISONING

    Vladmila Bojanic; Vladimir Ilic; Biljana Jovic

    2007-01-01

    Nickel is widely distributed in the environment. High consumption of nickel containing products inevitably leads to environmental pollution by nickel and its derivatives at all stages of production, utilization, and disposal.Human exposure to nickel occurs primarily via inhalation and ingestion and is particularly high among nickel metallurgy workers. In addition, implantation of nickel-containing endoprostheses and iatrogenic administration of nickel-contaminated medica-tions leads to signif...

  3. Total Mercury content of skin toning creams

    Administrator

    2008-04-01

    Apr 1, 2008 ... used it for cosmetics (Silberberg, 1995). Mercury- ... Cosmetic preparations containing mercury com- pounds are .... mercury determination by a modified version of an open .... level mercury exposure, which could lead to a.

  4. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  5. Metallic mercury recycling. Final report

    Beck, M.A.

    1994-07-01

    Metallic mercury is known to be a hazardous material and is regulated as such. The disposal of mercury, usually by landfill, is expensive and does not remove mercury from the environment. Results from the Metallic Mercury Recycling Project have demonstrated that metallic mercury is a good candidate for reclamation and recycling. Most of the potential contamination of mercury resides in the scum floating on the surface of the mercury. Pinhole filtration was demonstrated to be an inexpensive and easy way of removing residues from mercury. The analysis method is shown to be sufficient for present release practices, and should be sufficient for future release requirements. Data from tests are presented. The consistently higher level of activity of the filter residue versus the bulk mercury is discussed. Recommendations for the recycling procedure are made.

  6. Metallic mercury recycling. Final report

    Beck, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Metallic mercury is known to be a hazardous material and is regulated as such. The disposal of mercury, usually by landfill, is expensive and does not remove mercury from the environment. Results from the Metallic Mercury Recycling Project have demonstrated that metallic mercury is a good candidate for reclamation and recycling. Most of the potential contamination of mercury resides in the scum floating on the surface of the mercury. Pinhole filtration was demonstrated to be an inexpensive and easy way of removing residues from mercury. The analysis method is shown to be sufficient for present release practices, and should be sufficient for future release requirements. Data from tests are presented. The consistently higher level of activity of the filter residue versus the bulk mercury is discussed. Recommendations for the recycling procedure are made

  7. The tectonics of Mercury

    Melosh, H.J.; Mckinnon, W.B.

    1988-01-01

    The probable tectonic history of Mercury and the relative sequence of events are discussed on the basis of data collected by the Mariner-10 spacecraft. Results indicate that Mercury's tectonic activity was confined to its early history; its endogenic activity was principally due to a small change in the shape of its lithosphere, caused by tidal despinning, and a small change in area caused by shrinkage due to cooling. Exogenic processes, in particular the impact activity, have produced more abundant tectonic features. Many features associated with the Caloris basin are due to loading of Mercury's thick lithosphere by extrusive lavas or subsidence due to magma withdrawal. It is emphasized that tectonic features observed on Mercury yield insight into the earliest tectonic events on planets like Mars and, perhaps, the earth, where subsequent events obscured or erased the most ancient tectonic records

  8. Intentional intravenous mercury injection

    Elemental mercury is the well-known silver liquid and usually causes pulmonary, neurological and ... suicidal ideation or features of major depression. Clinically the patient was .... medically at this stage and consider surgical intervention later.

  9. Mercury's Dynamic Magnetosphere

    Imber, S. M.

    2018-05-01

    The global dynamics of Mercury's magnetosphere will be discussed, focussing on observed asymmetries in the magnetotail and on the precipitation of particles of magnetospheric origin onto the nightside planetary surface.

  10. Mercury analysis in hair

    Esteban, Marta; Schindler, Birgit K; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A

    2015-01-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an effective tool for assessing actual exposure to chemicals that takes into account all routes of intake. Although hair analysis is considered to be an optimal biomarker for assessing mercury exposure, the lack of harmonization as regards sampling and analytical...... assurance program (QAP) for assessing mercury levels in hair samples from more than 1800 mother-child pairs recruited in 17 European countries. To ensure the comparability of the results, standard operating procedures (SOPs) for sampling and for mercury analysis were drafted and distributed to participating...... laboratories. Training sessions were organized for field workers and four external quality-assessment exercises (ICI/EQUAS), followed by the corresponding web conferences, were organized between March 2011 and February 2012. ICI/EQUAS used native hair samples at two mercury concentration ranges (0...

  11. Mercury's Early Geologic History

    Denevi, B. W.; Ernst, C. M.; Klima, R. L.; Robinson, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    A combination of geologic mapping, compositional information, and geochemical models are providing a better understanding of Mercury's early geologic history, and allow us to place it in the context of the Moon and the terrestrial planets.

  12. Mercury CEM Calibration

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani; Susan S. Sorini

    2007-03-31

    The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005, requires that calibration of mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The traceability protocol will be written by EPA. Traceability will be based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging from about 2-40 ug/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ID ICP/MS) through a chain of analyses linking the calibration unit in the power plant to the NIST ID ICP/MS. Prior to this project, NIST did not provide a recommended mercury vapor pressure equation or list mercury vapor pressure in its vapor pressure database. The NIST Physical and Chemical Properties Division in Boulder, Colorado was subcontracted under this project to study the issue in detail and to recommend a mercury vapor pressure equation that the vendors of mercury vapor pressure calibration units can use to calculate the elemental mercury vapor concentration in an equilibrium chamber at a particular temperature. As part of this study, a preliminary evaluation of calibration units from five vendors was made. The work was performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD and Joe Rovani from WRI who traveled to NIST as a Visiting Scientist.

  13. Cutaneous mercury granuloma

    Kalpana A Bothale; Sadhana D Mahore; Sushil Pande; Trupti Dongre

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous mercury granuloma is rarely encountered. Clinically it may pose difficulty in diagnosis. Here, we report a 23-year-old male presented with erythematous, nodular lesions over the forearm and anterior aspect of chest wall. Metallic mercury in tissue sections appear as dark black, opaque, spherical globules of varying size and number. They are surrounded by granulomatous foreign-body reaction. It is composed of foreign body giant cells and mixed inflammatory infiltrate composed of hist...

  14. Mercury in human hair

    Kapauan, P.A.; Cruz, C.C.; Verceluz, F.P.

    1980-10-01

    The analysis of mercury (Hg) in scalp hair obtained from individuals residing in five different localities in the Philippines - Metro Manila, Naga City in Bicol, Bataan, Oriental Mindoro, and Palawan is presented. An overall mean of 1.46 ug/g of hair was obtained for all samples excluding those from Palawan and represents a baseline value.'' In terms of the mercury levels found in hair, the Honda Bay area in Palawan is, relatively, a ''contaminated area.'' (author)

  15. Nickel–copper hybrid electrodes self-adhered onto a silicon wafer by supersonic cold-spray

    Lee, Jong-Gun; Kim, Do-Yeon; Kang, Byungjun; Kim, Donghwan; Song, Hee-eun; Kim, Jooyoung; Jung, Woonsuk; Lee, Dukhaeng; Al-Deyab, Salem S.; James, Scott C.; Yoon, Sam S.

    2015-01-01

    High-performance electrodes are fabricated through supersonic spraying of nickel and copper particles. These electrodes yield low specific resistivities, comparable to electrodes produced by screen-printed silver paste and light-induced plating. The appeal of this fabrication method is the low cost of copper and large area scalability of supersonic spray-coating techniques. The copper and nickel electrode was fabricated in the open air without any pre- or post-treatment. The spray-coated copper–nickel electrode was characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Although both SEM and TEM images confirmed voids trapped between flattened particles in the fabricated electrode, this electrode’s resistivity was order 10 −6 Ω cm, which is comparable to the bulk value for pure copper

  16. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    Durham, Michael D.; Schlager, Richard J.; Sappey, Andrew D.; Sagan, Francis J.; Marmaro, Roger W.; Wilson, Kevin G.

    1997-01-01

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber.

  17. Antwerp Copper Plates

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    In addition to presenting a short history of copper paintings, topics detail artists’ materials and techniques, as well as aspects of the copper industry, including mining, preparation and trade routes.......In addition to presenting a short history of copper paintings, topics detail artists’ materials and techniques, as well as aspects of the copper industry, including mining, preparation and trade routes....

  18. Texture Formation of Electroplated Nickel and Nickel Alloy on Cu Substrate

    Lee, Hee Gyoun; Hong, Gye Won; Kim, Jae Geun; Lee, Sun Wang; Kim, Ho Jin

    2006-01-01

    Nickel and nickel-tungsten alloy were electroplated on a cold rolled and heat treated copper(Cu) substrate. 4 mm-thick high purity commercial grade Cu was rolled to various thicknesses of 50, 70, 100 and 150 micron. High reduction ratio of 30% was applied down to 150 micron. Rolled texture was converted into cube texture via high temperature heat treatment at 400-800 degrees C. Grain size of Cu was about 50 micron which is much smaller compared to >300 micron for the Cu prepared using smaller reduction pass of 5%. 1.5 km-long 150 micron Cu was fabricated with a rolling speed of 33 m/min and texture of Cu was uniform along length. Abnormal grain growth and non-cube texture appeared for the specimen anneal above 900 degrees C. 1-10 micron thick Ni and Ni-W film was electroplated onto an annealed cube-textured Cu or directly on a cold rolled Cu. Both specimens were annealed and the degree of texture was measured. For electroplating of Ni on annealed Cu, Ni layer duplicated the cube-texture of Cu substrate and the FWHM of in plane XRD measurement for annealed Cu layer and electroplated layer was 9.9 degree and 13.4 degree, respectively. But the FWHM of in plane XRD measurement of the specimen which electroplated Ni directly on cold rolled Cu was 8.6 degree, which is better texture than that of nickel electroplated on annealed Cu and it might be caused by the suppression of secondary recrystallization and abnormal grain growth of Cu at high temperature above 900 degrees C by electroplated nickel.

  19. Nickel-titanium alloys: stress-related temperature transitional range.

    Santoro, M; Beshers, D N

    2000-12-01

    The inducement of mechanical stress within nickel-titanium wires can influence the transitional temperature range of the alloy and therefore the expression of the superelastic properties. An analogous variation of the transitional temperature range may be expected during orthodontic therapy, when the archwires are engaged into the brackets. To investigate this possibility, samples of currently used orthodontic nickel-titanium wires (Sentalloy, GAC; Copper Ni-Ti superelastic at 27 degrees C, 35 degrees C, 40 degrees C, Ormco; Nitinol Heat-Activated, 3M-Unitek) were subjected to temperature cycles ranging between 4 degrees C and 60 degrees C. The wires were mounted in a plexiglass loading device designed to simulate clinical situations of minimum and severe dental crowding. Electrical resistivity was used to monitor the phase transformations. The data were analyzed with paired t tests. The results confirmed the presence of displacements of the transitional temperature ranges toward higher temperatures when stress was induced. Because nickel-titanium wires are most commonly used during the aligning stage in cases of severe dental crowding, particular attention was given to the performance of the orthodontic wires under maximum loading. An alloy with a stress-related transitional temperature range corresponding to the fluctuations of the oral temperature should express superelastic properties more consistently than others. According to our results, Copper Ni-Ti 27 degrees C and Nitinol Heat-Activated wires may be considered suitable alloys for the alignment stage.

  20. Copper and Copper Proteins in Parkinson's Disease

    Rivera-Mancia, Susana; Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Tristan-Lopez, Luis; Rios, Camilo

    2014-01-01

    Copper is a transition metal that has been linked to pathological and beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease, free copper is related to increased oxidative stress, alpha-synuclein oligomerization, and Lewy body formation. Decreased copper along with increased iron has been found in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus of Parkinson's disease patients. Copper influences iron content in the brain through ferroxidase ceruloplasmin activity; therefore decreased protein-bound copper in brain may enhance iron accumulation and the associated oxidative stress. The function of other copper-binding proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD and metallothioneins is also beneficial to prevent neurodegeneration. Copper may regulate neurotransmission since it is released after neuronal stimulus and the metal is able to modulate the function of NMDA and GABA A receptors. Some of the proteins involved in copper transport are the transporters CTR1, ATP7A, and ATP7B and the chaperone ATOX1. There is limited information about the role of those biomolecules in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease; for instance, it is known that CTR1 is decreased in substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson's disease and that a mutation in ATP7B could be associated with Parkinson's disease. Regarding copper-related therapies, copper supplementation can represent a plausible alternative, while copper chelation may even aggravate the pathology. PMID:24672633

  1. Separation of copper-64 from copper phthalocyanine

    Battaglin, R.I.M.

    1979-01-01

    The separation of copper-64 from irradiated copper phthalocyanine by Szilard-Chalmers effect is studied. Two methods of separation are used: one of them is based on the dissolution of the irradiated dry compound in concentrated sulfuric acid following its precipitation in water. In the other one the compound is irradiated with water in paste form following treatment with water and hydrochloric acid. The influence of the crystal form of the copper phthalocyanine on the separation yield of copper-64 is shown. Preliminary tests using the ionic exchange technique for purification and changing of copper-64 sulfate to chloride form are carried out. The specific activity using the spectrophotometric technique, after the determination of the copper concentration in solution of copper-64, is calculated. (Author) [pt

  2. Carbon deposition on nickel ferrites and nickel-magnetite surfaces

    Allen, G.C.; Jutson, J.A.

    1988-06-01

    Carbon deposition on Commercial Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (CAGR) fuel cladding and heat exchanger surfaces lowers heat transfer efficiency and increases fuel pin temperatures. Several types of deposit have been identified including both thin dense layers and also low density columnar deposits with filamentary or convoluted laminar structure. The low-density types are often associated with particles containing iron, nickel or manganese. To identify the role of nickel in the deposition process surfaces composed of nickel-iron spinels or metallic nickel/magnetite mixtures have been exposed to γ radiation in a gas environment simulating that in the reactor. Examination of these surfaces by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) have shown that while metallic nickel (Ni(O)) catalyses the formation of filamentary low density carbon deposits, the presence of divalent nickel (Ni(II)) sites in spinel type oxides is associated only with dense deposits. (author)

  3. Nickel hydrogen/nickel cadmium battery trade studies

    Stadnick, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    Nickel Hydrogen cell and battery technology has matured to the point where a real choice exists between Nickel Hydrogen and Nickel Cadmium batteries for each new spacecraft application. During the past few years, a number of spacecraft programs have been evaluated at Hughes with respect to this choice, with the results being split about fifty-fifty. The following paragraphs contain criteria which were used in making the battery selection.

  4. Nickel ferrule applicators: a source of nickel exposure in children.

    Jacob, Sharon E; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Rizk, Christopher; Silverberg, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    Eye makeup has been investigated for nickel content and found to have no direct association with nickel allergy and cosmetic dermatitis. However, the tools used (e.g., eyelash curlers, hairdressing scissors, hair curlers, and eye shadow and makeup applicators) may be sources. Nickel is ubiquitous and a wide range of sources have been reported, and makeup applicators (ferrules) now join the list. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Mercury pollution in Malaysia.

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Jinap, S; Ismail, Ahmad; Mahyudin, Nor Ainy

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have been published on levels of mercury contamination of the environment, and of food and human tissues in Peninsular Malaysia, there is a serious dearth of research that has been performed in East Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak). Industry is rapidly developing in East Malaysia, and, hence, there is a need for establishing baseline levels of mercury contamination in environmental media in that part of the country by performing monitoring studies. Residues of total mercury and inorganic in food samples have been determined in nearly all previous studies that have been conducted; however, few researchers have analyzed samples for the presence of methlymercury residues. Because methylmercury is the most toxic form of mercury, and because there is a growing public awareness of the risk posed by methylmercury exposure that is associated with fish and seafood consumption, further monitoring studies on methylmercury in food are also essential. From the results of previous studies, it is obvious that the economic development in Malaysia, in recent years, has affected the aquatic environment of the country. Primary areas of environmental concern are centered on the rivers of the west Peninsular Malaysian coast, and the coastal waters of the Straits of Malacca, wherein industrial activities are rapidly expanding. The sources of existing mercury input to both of these areas of Malaysia should be studied and identified. Considering the high levels of mercury that now exists in human tissues, efforts should be continued, and accelerated in the future, if possible, to monitor mercury contamination levels in the coastal states, and particularly along the west Peninsular Malaysian coast. Most studies that have been carried out on mercury residues in environmental samples are dated, having been conducted 20-30 years ago; therefore, the need to collect much more and more current data is urgent. Furthermore, establishing baseline levels of mercury exposure to

  6. Nickel base alloys

    Gibson, R.C.; Korenko, M.K.

    1980-01-01

    Nickel based alloy, the characteristic of which is that it mainly includes in percentages by weight: 57-63 Ni, 7-18 Cr, 10-20 Fe, 4-6 Mo, 1-2 Nb, 0.2-0.8 Si, 0.01-0.05 Zr, 1.0-2.5 Ti, 1.0-2.5 Al, 0.02-0.06 C and 0.002-0.015 B. The aim is to create new nickel-chromium alloys, hardened in a solid solution and by precipitation, that are stable, exhibit reduced swelling and resistant to plastic deformation inside the reactor. These alloys of the gamma prime type have improved mechanical strengthm swelling resistance, structural stability and welding properties compared with Inconel 625 [fr

  7. Certification of Trace Elements and Methyl Mercury Mass Fractions in IAEA-461 Clam (Gafrarium tumidum) Sample

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of the IAEA Environment Laboratories is to assist Member States in the use of both stable and radioisotope analytical techniques to understand, monitor and protect the environment. In this context, the major impact exerted by large coastal cities on marine ecosystems is an issue of primary concern for the IAEA and the IAEA Environment Laboratories. The marine pollution assessments required to understand such impacts depend on accurate knowledge of contaminant concentrations in various environmental compartments. The IAEA Environment Laboratories has been assisting national laboratories and regional laboratory networks since the early 1970s through the provision of reference material programme for the analysis of radionuclides, trace elements and organic compounds in marine samples. Quality assurance, quality control and associated good laboratory practice are essential components of all marine environmental monitoring studies. Quality control procedures are commonly based on the analysis of certified reference materials and reference samples in order to validate analytical methods used in monitoring studies and to assess the reliability and comparability of measurement data. Data that are not based on adequate quality assurance and quality control can be erroneous, and their misuse can lead to poor environmental management decisions. This publication describes the production of the IAEA-461 certified reference material, which was produced following ISO Guide 34:2009, General Requirements for the Competence of Reference Material Producers. A sample of approximately 60 kg of clams (Gafrarium tumidum) was collected in Noumea, New Caledonia, and processed at the IAEA Environment Laboratories to produce a certified reference material of marine biota. The sample contained certified mass fractions for arsenic, cadmium, calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, mercury, methyl mercury, manganese, nickel, selenium, vanadium and zinc. The produced vials

  8. Mercury Quick Facts: Health Effects of Mercury Exposure

    ... 2012 What are the Health Effects of Mercury Exposure? The health effects that can be caused by breathing mercury depend ... they breathe faster and have smaller lungs. Health effects caused by long-term exposure to mercury vapors • • Anxiety • • Excessive shyness • • Anorexia • • Sleeping ...

  9. Risk factors for mercury exposure of children in a rural mining town in northern Chile.

    Johan Ohlander

    Full Text Available Traditional gold mining is associated with mercury exposure. Especially vulnerable to its neurotoxic effects is the developing nervous system of a child. We aimed to investigate risk factors of mercury exposure among children in a rural mining town in Chile.Using a validated questionnaire distributed to the parents of the children, a priori mercury risk factors, potential exposure pathways and demographics of the children were obtained. Mercury levels were measured through analyzing fingernail samples. Logistic regression modeling the effect of risk factors on mercury levels above the 75(th percentile were made, adjusted for potential confounders.The 288 children had a mean age of 9.6 years (SD = 1.9. The mean mercury level in the study population was 0.13 µg/g (SD 0.11, median 0.10, range 0.001-0.86 µg/g. The strongest risk factor for children's odds of high mercury levels (>75(th percentile, 0.165 µg/g was to play inside a house where a family member worked with mercury (OR adjusted 3.49 95% CI 1.23-9.89. Additionally, children whose parents worked in industrial gold mining had higher odds of high mercury levels than children whose parents worked in industrial copper mining or outside mining activities.Mercury exposure through small-scale gold mining might affect children in their home environments. These results may further help to convince the local population of banning mercury burning inside the households.

  10. Nickel accumulation by Hybanthus floribundus

    Severne, B C

    1974-04-26

    Several ecotypes of Hybanthus floribundus are found across the southern part of Australia. However, the three nickel accumulating ecotypes are restricted to a broad belt in Western Australia. Nickel concentrations in this shrub were observed to decrease southwards (from 8000 to 1000 p.p.m.) as the annual rainfall increased from 7 inches to more than 30 inches. Studies have shown that nickel concentrations increase from the roots through the rootstock, into the stems and reach maximum towards the leaf tips. High nickel concentrations are also seen in seed capsules (1500 p.p.m.), seeds (2000 p.p.m.) and flowers. The maximum nickel concentration recorded is 1.6% (26% nickel in ash) in mature leaf tissue. 16 references, 2 tables.

  11. Isolation and characterization of bacteria from mercury contaminated sites in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and assessment of methylmercury removal capability of a Pseudomonas putida V1 strain.

    Cabral, Lucélia; Giovanella, Patrícia; Gianello, Clésio; Bento, Fátima Menezes; Andreazza, Robson; Camargo, Flávio Anastácio Oliveira

    2013-06-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is one of the most dangerous heavy metal for living organisms that may be found in environment. Given the crescent industrialization of Brazil and considering that mercury is a residue of several industrial processes, there is an increasing need to encounter and develop remediation approaches of mercury contaminated sites. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize methylmercury resistant bacteria from soils and sludge sewage from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Sixteen bacteria were isolated from these contaminated sites and some isolates were highly resistant to methylmercury (>8.7 μM). All the isolates were identified by 16S rDNA. Pseudomonas putida V1 was able to volatilize approximately 90 % of methylmercury added to growth media and to resist to copper, lead, nickel, chromate, zinc, cobalt, manganese and barium. In the presence of high concentrations of methylmercury (12 μM), cell growth was limited, but P. putida V1 was still able to remove up to 29 % of this compound from culture medium. This bacterium removed an average of 77 % of methylmercury from culture medium with pH in the range 4.0-6.0. In addition, methylmercury was efficiently removed (>80 %) in temperature of 21-25 °C. Polymerase chain reactions indicated the presence of merA but not merB in P. putida V1. The growth and ability of P. putida V1 to remove methylmercury in a wide range of pH (4.0 and 8.0) and temperature (10-35 °C), its tolerance to other heavy metals and ability to grow in the presence of up to 11.5 μM of methylmercury, suggest this strain as a new potential resource for degrading methylmercury contaminated sites.

  12. Mercury pOIsonIng

    A case of mercury poisoning is reported and clinical observations of 6 .... fish ingested and occupational exposure. .... exposed to mercury as a result of inadequate industrial safety standards, and ... WHO Tech Rep Ser 1980; No. 674: 102-115.

  13. Mercury Study Report to Congress

    EPA's Report to Congress on Mercury provides an assessment of the magnitude of U.S. mercury emissions by source, the health and environmental implications of those emissions, and the availability and cost of control technologies.

  14. True Polar Wander of Mercury

    Keane, J. T.; Matsuyama, I.

    2018-05-01

    We use new MESSENGER gravity data to investigate how impact basins and volcanic provinces alter Mercury's moments of inertia. We find that Mercury has reoriented tens of degrees over its history, affecting tectonics, volatiles, and more.

  15. Mercury Emissions: The Global Context

    Mercury emissions are a global problem that knows no national or continental boundaries. Mercury that is emitted to the air can travel thousands of miles in the atmosphere before it is eventually deposited back to the earth.

  16. Phase transformation changes in thermocycled nickel-titanium orthodontic wires.

    Berzins, David W; Roberts, Howard W

    2010-07-01

    In the oral environment, orthodontic wires will be subject to thermal fluctuations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of thermocycling on nickel-titanium (NiTi) wire phase transformations. Straight segments from single 27 and 35 degrees C copper NiTi (Ormco), Sentalloy (GAC), and Nitinol Heat Activated (3M Unitek) archwires were sectioned into 5mm segments (n=20). A control group consisted of five randomly selected non-thermocycled segments. The remaining segments were thermocycled between 5 and 55 degrees C with five randomly selected segments analyzed with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC; -100150 degrees C at 10 degrees C/min) after 1000, 5000, and 10,000 cycles. Thermal peaks were evaluated with results analyzed via ANOVA (alpha=0.05). Nitinol HA and Sentalloy did not demonstrate qualitative or quantitative phase transformation behavior differences. Significant differences were observed in some of the copper NiTi transformation temperatures, as well as the heating enthalpy with the 27 degrees C copper NiTi wires (p<0.05). Qualitatively, with increased thermocycling the extent of R-phase in the heating peaks decreased in the 35 degrees C copper NiTi, and an austenite to martensite peak shoulder developed during cooling in the 27 degrees C copper NiTi. Repeated temperature fluctuations may contribute to qualitative and quantitative phase transformation changes in some NiTi wires. Copyright 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.

  17. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion in Copper and Nickel Seawater Piping Systems

    1990-09-01

    Influenced Tipton, D. G. and Kain, R. M. 1980. Effect of temperature onCorosiope in Nuclear Power Plants atudy a Mical Gnuide the resistance to pitting of...Monel alloy 400 in seawater. In:Corrosion in Nuclear Power Plants anda Practical ie fr Proceedings of Corrosion 󈨔. Chicago, Illinois: National...Sons Ltd. 441 pp. Quimica . Verink, E.D. and Pourbaix, M. 1971. Use of electrochemical Pope, D. H., Duquette, D. J., Johannes, A. H., and Wayner

  18. Copper (II), nickel (II) and cobalt (II) complexes of n ...

    aminoalkylaminomethanephosphonic acids, (n-ampa). LM Durosinmi, IAO Oje, Jide Ige. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research Vol. 1 1996: 53-60. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  19. Investigation of the immobilisation/mobilisation of nickel, copper ...

    DRINIE

    nitrate, manganese hydroxides, iron hydroxides, sulphate and carbon dioxide). ... standard solution contained (g·l-1 dH2O): ferrous ammonium sulphate, 39.21; ferric ... (AAS) with a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame, to minimise chemical interferences, was ... The synthetic refuse used facilitated the production of volatile fatty ...

  20. INVESTIGATION IN HARDSURFACING A NICKEL-COPPER ALLOY (MONEL400)

    CZAJKOWSKI, C.; BUTTERS, M.

    2001-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) investigated the causes of weldability problems and materials failures encountered with the application of Monel (Ni-Cu) 400 as a base material and Stellite 6 (Co-Cr) as the hard-surfacing material when using the oxyacetylene welding process. This work was performed under a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) with the Target Rock Division of the Curtiss-Wright Flow Control Corporation. BNL evaluated two heats of Monel 400 material. One of the heats had performed well during manufacturing, producing an acceptable number of ''good'' parts. The second heat had produced some good parts but also exhibited a peculiar type of hardsurfacing/base metal collapse during the welding process. A review of the chemistry on the two heats of material indicated that they both met the chemical requirements for Monel400. During examination of the failed component, linear indications (cracks) were evident on the valve body, both on the circumferential area (top of valve body) and below the hard surfaced weld deposit. independent measurements also indicated that the two heats met the specification requirement for the material. The heat affected zone (HAZ) also contained linear discontinuities. The valve body was welded using the oxyacetylene welding process, a qualified and skilled welder, and had been given a pre-heat of between 1400-1600 F (760-871 C), which is the Target Rock qualified procedure requirement. Both original suppliers performed mechanical testing on their material that indicated the two heats also met the mechanical property requirements of the specification. The BNL investigation into the cause of the differences between these heats of material utilized the following techniques: (1) Heat Treatment of both heats of material; (2) Hardness testing; (3) Optical microscopy; (4) Scanning electron microscope (SEM)/Fractography; and (5) Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The report concludes that the cause of the failure of the valve body during welding is not obvious, however, it does not appear to be a welding issue. The observed inter-granular fractures indicate a grain boundary problem. Further research is recommended

  1. Segregation of a copper-nickel alloy after electron irradiation

    Wagner, W.

    1979-09-01

    In the present work measurement of diffuse neutron scattering are used to determine short range segregation effects of the alloy Cu 0 sub(.) 414 Ni 0 sub(.) 586 after thermal annealing and 3 MeV electron irradiation in the temperature range between 370 K and 600 K. In addition neutron small angle scattering measurement are performed after irradiation to study possible long range segregation effects. Residual resistivity measurements are performed in parallel in order tp orientate the relatively expensive neutron scattering measurements with respect to the residual changes (orig./KBI) [de

  2. POTENTIOMETRIC STUDIES OF NICKEL (II) AND COPPER (II ...

    DR. AMINU

    1Department of Chemistry, Bayero University, P.M.B. 3011, Kano-Nigeria. 2Department of Chemistry, Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil. ..... Advanced Inorganic. Chemical, 5th Edition John Wiley, New York, p 671. Fernelius, S., and Blanch, J. E. (1957). Synthesis of Tris. (acetylacetonato) Chromium, Inorg.

  3. Development and characterization of protective nickel coatings by CVD process for non-ferrous metals and alloys

    Haq, A.U.

    2012-01-01

    Objective of this thesis is the formation of adhesive and corrosion resistant nickel film on aluminum, aluminum-lithium (Li 0.5 %) alloy and copper substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. Different surface preparation treatments such as electropolishing, anodizing and pickling are applied to the aforementioned substrates and its effect on the adhesion and corrosion resistance of nickel coating is studied. Nickel coating is deposited on different substrates by using already optimized parameters of 190-200 degree C deposition temperature, 9-8 x 10/sup -1/ Torr pressure during deposition, pure nickel-tetra-carbonyl gas, and induction heating source and 5 minutes deposition time. Substrates subjected to pickling treatment show excellent adhesion of nickel coating with a value of 5B based on ASTM standard while electropolished substrates show valve of 3B. XRD characterization of the nickel film show characteristic peaks of nickel confirming its phase purity. The SEM images show that nickel coating follows the surface features of the substrate. The pickled surface results in film with rough morphology than electropolished or anodized surface. The corrosion resistance of both uncoated and coated substrates is studied by monitoring its open circuit potential in different electrolytes (brine solution, sea and distilled water) at different temperatures. All substrates coated with nickel show 120-400mV potential difference compare with uncoated substrates in different electrolytes. (author)

  4. Corrosion Characterization in Nickel Plated 110 ksi Low Alloy Steel and Incoloy 925: An Experimental Case Study

    Thomas, Kiran; Vincent, S.; Barbadikar, Dipika; Kumar, Shresh; Anwar, Rebin; Fernandes, Nevil

    2018-04-01

    Incoloy 925 is an age hardenable Nickel-Iron-Chromium alloy with the addition of Molybdenum, Copper, Titanium and Aluminium used in many applications in oil and gas industry. Nickel alloys are preferred mostly in corrosive environments where there is high concentration of H2S, CO2, chlorides and free Sulphur as sufficient nickel content provides protection against chloride-ion stress-corrosion cracking. But unfortunately, Nickel alloys are very expensive. Plating an alloy steel part with nickel would cost much lesser than a part make of nickel alloy for large quantities. A brief study will be carried out to compare the performance of nickel plated alloy steel with that of an Incoloy 925 part by conducting corrosion tests. Tests will be carried out using different coating thicknesses of Nickel on low alloy steel in 0.1 M NaCl solution and results will be verified. From the test results we can confirm that Nickel plated low alloy steel is found to exhibit fairly good corrosion in comparison with Incoloy 925 and thus can be an excellent candidate to replace Incoloy materials.

  5. Transfert de nickel, de cuivre et de zinc lors de la manipulation de pièces de monnaie : le cas du dirham marocain

    Fournier, Paul-Guy; Nourtier, Alain; Monkade, Mohammed; Berrada, Khalid; Boughaleb, Hichame; Outzourhit, Abdelkader; Pichon, Rémy; Haut, Christian; Govers, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    When the euro was introduced, the fact that some coins contain nickel, which is known to be an allergen, gave rise to controversy. More generally, this raises the question of metal transfer from coins to skin. Morocco has used for decades one-dirham coins made of pure or alloyed nickel. Studying their wear, the labile metal on their surface and the transfer to fingers in handling may therefore be especially instructive. Weighing statistics for a sample of 401 coins confirm that cupronickel coins wear out more quickly than pure nickel coins and reveal that the dirham suffers a much stronger wear than other currencies for which wear statistics are available. SEM studies supplemented by ICP quantitative analyses show that the labile metal is mainly made up of chips, even after many handlings. These chips are often cupronickel, even on pure nickel coins, which shows that they are produced by the friction of coins against one another. Secondly, the surface of coins presents sweat residue with an important proportion of copper and a little nickel, which confirms that sweat dissolves surface copper. Depending on the alloy and date, coins have between 20 and 140 μg of labile copper and nickel, with a content of one quarter of nickel on cupronickel coins and about one half on pure nickel coins. The most worn cupronickel coins are the coins that present the largest amount of labile metal, and even labile nickel. In our experiments, the metal transfer to fingers when a cupronickel coin is handled for the first time represents between 4 and 9% of the labile metal and 0.05% of the annual wear. A simple and reliable test of nickel contamination consists in measuring the labile nickel. To cite this article: P.-G. Fournier et al., C. R. Physique 7 (2006).

  6. Mercury's magnetic field and interior

    Connerney, J.E.P.; Ness, N.F.

    1988-01-01

    The magnetic-field data collected on Mercury by the Mariner-10 spacecraft present substantial evidence for an intrinsic global magnetic field. However, studies of Mercury's thermal evolution show that it is most likely that the inner core region of Mercury solidified or froze early in the planet's history. Thus, the explanation of Mercury's magnetic field in the framework of the traditional planetary dynamo is less than certain

  7. MERCURY IN MARINE LIFE DATABASE

    The purpose of the Mercury in Marine Life Project is to organize information on estuarine and marine species so that EPA can better understand both the extent of monitoring for mercury and level of mercury contamination in the biota of coastal environments. This report follows a ...

  8. Reference Atmosphere for Mercury

    Killen, Rosemary M.

    2002-01-01

    We propose that Ar-40 measured in the lunar atmosphere and that in Mercury's atmosphere is due to current diffusion into connected pore space within the crust. Higher temperatures at Mercury, along with more rapid loss from the atmosphere will lead to a smaller column abundance of argon at Mercury than at the Moon, given the same crustal abundance of potassium. Because the noble gas abundance in the Hermean atmosphere represents current effusion, it is a direct measure of the crustal potassium abundance. Ar-40 in the atmospheres of the planets is a measure of potassium abundance in the interiors, since Ar-40 is a product of radiogenic decay of K-40 by electron capture with the subsequent emission of a 1.46 eV gamma-ray. Although the Ar-40 in the Earth's atmosphere is expected to have accumulated since the late bombardment, Ar-40 in the atmospheres of Mercury and the Moon is eroded quickly by photoionization and electron impact ionization. Thus, the argon content in the exospheres of the Moon and Mercury is representative of current effusion rather than accumulation over the lifetime of the planet.

  9. The accumulation of nickel in human lungs.

    Edelman, D A; Roggli, V L

    1989-01-01

    Using data from published studies, lung concentrations of nickel were compare for persons with and without occupational exposure to nickel. As expected, the concentrations were much higher for persons with occupational exposure. To estimate the effects of nickel-containing tobacco smoke and nickel in the ambient air on the amount of nickel accumulated in lungs over time, a model was derived that took into account various variables related to the deposition of nickel in lungs. The model predic...

  10. Nickel detoxification and plant growth promotion by multi metal resistant plant growth promoting Rhizobium species RL9.

    Wani, Parvaze Ahmad; Khan, Mohammad Saghir

    2013-07-01

    Pollution of the biosphere by heavy metals is a global threat that has accelerated dramatically since the beginning of industrial revolution. The aim of the study is to check the resistance of RL9 towards the metals and to observe the effect of Rhizobium species on growth, pigment content, protein and nickel uptake by lentil in the presence and absence of nickel. The multi metal tolerant and plant growth promoting Rhizobium strain RL9 was isolated from the nodules of lentil. The strain not only tolerated nickel but was also tolerant o cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, zinc and copper. The strain tolerated nickel 500 μg/mL, cadmium 300 μg/mL, chromium 400 μg/mL, lead 1,400 μg/mL, zinc 1,000 μg/mL and copper 300 μg/mL, produced good amount of indole acetic acid and was also positive for siderophore, hydrogen cyanide and ammonia. The strain RL9 was further assessed with increasing concentrations of nickel when lentil was used as a test crop. The strain RL9 significantly increased growth, nodulation, chlorophyll, leghaemoglobin, nitrogen content, seed protein and seed yield compared to plants grown in the absence of bioinoculant but amended with nickel The strain RL9 decreased uptake of nickel in lentil compared to plants grown in the absence of bio-inoculant. Due to these intrinsic abilities strain RL9 could be utilized for growth promotion as well as for the remediation of nickel in nickel contaminated soil.

  11. Electrolytic Recovery of Nickel from Spent Electroless Nickel Bath Solution

    R. Idhayachander

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plating industry is one of the largest polluting small scale industries and nickel plating is among the important surface finishing process in this industry. The waste generated during this operation contains toxic nickel. Nickel removal and recovery is of great interest from spent bath for environmental and economic reasons. Spent electroless nickel solution from a reed relay switch manufacturing industry situated in Chennai was taken for electrolytic recovery of nickel. Electrolytic experiment was carried out with mild steel and gold coated mild steel as cathode and the different parameters such as current density, time, mixing and pH of the solution were varied and recovery and current efficiency was studied. It was noticed that there was an increase in current efficiency up to 5 A/dm2 and after that it declines. There is no significant improvement with mixing but with modified cathode there was some improvement. Removal of nickel from the spent electroless nickel bath was 81.81% at 5 A/dm2 and pH 4.23. Under this condition, the content of nickel was reduced to 0.94 g/L from 5.16 g/L. with 62.97% current efficiency.

  12. Water displacement mercury pump

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1984-04-20

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  13. Mercury exposure in Ireland

    Cullen, Elizabeth; Evans, David S; Davidson, Fred

    2014-01-01

    of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES) pilot biomonitoring study. METHODS: Hair mercury concentrations were determined from a convenience sample of 120 mother/child pairs. Mothers also completed a questionnaire. Rigorous quality assurance within DEMOCOPHES...... guaranteed the accuracy and international comparability of results. RESULTS: Mercury was detected in 79.2% of the samples from mothers, and 62.5% of children's samples. Arithmetic mean levels in mothers (0.262 µg/g hair) and children (0.149 µg /g hair) did not exceed the US EPA guidance value. Levels were...

  14. Mercury CEM Calibration

    John Schabron; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson

    2008-02-29

    Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks. The power industry desires to conduct at least a full year of monitoring before the formal monitoring and reporting requirement begins on January 1, 2009. It is important for the industry to have available reliable, turnkey equipment from CEM vendors. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The generators are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 requires that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards (Federal Register 2007). Traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued an interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury generators (EPA 2007). The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of generators by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the generator models that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD. The

  15. Study of copper and purine-copper complexes on modified carbon electrodes by cyclic and elimination voltammetry

    Trnková, L.; Zerzánková, L.; Dyčka, F.; Mikelová, R.; Jelen, František

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2008), s. 429-444 ISSN 1424-8220 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100040602; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400040804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : copper-purine complexes * paraffin-impregnated graphite electrode * mercury-film electrode Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.870, year: 2008

  16. Point defects in nickel

    Peretto, P.

    1969-01-01

    The defects in electron irradiated nickel (20 deg. K) or neutron irradiated nickel (28 deg. K) are studied by simultaneous analysis using the magnetic after-effect, electron microscopy and electrical resistivity recovery. We use zone refined nickel (99.999 per cent) which, for some experiments, is alloyed with a small amount of iron (for example 0.1 per cent Fe). The temperature dependant electrical recovery may be divided in four stages. The sub-stages I B (31 deg. K), I C (42 deg. K), I D (from to 57 deg. K) and I E (62 deg. K) of stage I are due to the disappearance of single interstitials into vacancies. The interstitial defect has a split configuration with a migration energy of about 0.15 eV. In the close pair which disappears in stage I B the interstitial is found to be in a 3. neighbour position whilst in stage I D it is near the direction from the vacancy. In stage I E there is no longer any interaction between the interstitial and the vacancy. The stage II is due to more complicated interstitial defects: di-interstitials for stage II B (84 deg. K) and larger and larger interstitial loops for the following sub-stages. The loops may be seen by electron microscopy. Impurities can play the role of nucleation centers for the loops. Stages III A (370 deg. K) and III B (376 deg. K) are due to two types of di-vacancies. During stage IV (410 deg. K) the single vacancies migrate. Vacancy type loops and interstitial type loops grow concurrently and disappear at about 800 deg. K as observed by electron microscopy. (author) [fr

  17. Nickel, cobalt, and their alloys

    2000-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive guide to the compositions, properties, processing, performance, and applications of nickel, cobalt, and their alloys. It includes all of the essential information contained in the ASM Handbook series, as well as new or updated coverage in many areas in the nickel, cobalt, and related industries.

  18. Characterization and assessment of dermal and inhalable nickel exposures in nickel production and primary user industries.

    Hughson, G W; Galea, K S; Heim, K E

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the levels of nickel in the skin contaminant layer of workers involved in specific processes and tasks within the primary nickel production and primary nickel user industries. Dermal exposure samples were collected using moist wipes to recover surface contamination from defined areas of skin. These were analysed for soluble and insoluble nickel species. Personal samples of inhalable dust were also collected to determine the corresponding inhalable nickel exposures. The air samples were analysed for total inhalable dust and then for soluble, sulfidic, metallic, and oxidic nickel species. The workplace surveys were carried out in five different workplaces, including three nickel refineries, a stainless steel plant, and a powder metallurgy plant, all of which were located in Europe. Nickel refinery workers involved with electrolytic nickel recovery processes had soluble dermal nickel exposure of 0.34 microg cm(-2) [geometric mean (GM)] to the hands and forearms. The GM of soluble dermal nickel exposure for workers involved in packing nickel salts (nickel chloride hexahydrate, nickel sulphate hexahydrate, and nickel hydroxycarbonate) was 0.61 microg cm(-2). Refinery workers involved in packing nickel metal powders and end-user powder operatives in magnet production had the highest dermal exposure (GM = 2.59 microg cm(-2) soluble nickel). The hands, forearms, face, and neck of these workers all received greater dermal nickel exposure compared with the other jobs included in this study. The soluble nickel dermal exposures for stainless steel production workers were at or slightly above the limit of detection (0.02 microg cm(-2) soluble nickel). The highest inhalable nickel concentrations were observed for the workers involved in nickel powder packing (GM = 0.77 mg m(-3)), although the soluble component comprised only 2% of the total nickel content. The highest airborne soluble nickel exposures were associated with refineries using

  19. Aquatic Life Criteria - Copper

    Documents pertain to Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality criteria for Copper (2007 Freshwater, 2016 Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Copper in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  20. Method and apparatus for sampling atmospheric mercury

    Trujillo, Patricio E.; Campbell, Evan E.; Eutsler, Bernard C.

    1976-01-20

    A method of simultaneously sampling particulate mercury, organic mercurial vapors, and metallic mercury vapor in the working and occupational environment and determining the amount of mercury derived from each such source in the sampled air. A known volume of air is passed through a sampling tube containing a filter for particulate mercury collection, a first adsorber for the selective adsorption of organic mercurial vapors, and a second adsorber for the adsorption of metallic mercury vapor. Carbon black molecular sieves are particularly useful as the selective adsorber for organic mercurial vapors. The amount of mercury adsorbed or collected in each section of the sampling tube is readily quantitatively determined by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  1. Nanoscale investigation of the interface situation of plated nickel and thermally formed nickel silicide for silicon solar cell metallization

    Mondon, A., E-mail: andrew.mondon@ise.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer ISE, Heidenhofst. 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Wang, D. [Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), H.-von-Helmholz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Zuschlag, A. [Universität Konstanz FB Physik, Jacob-Burckhardt-Str. 27, D-78464 Konstanz (Germany); Bartsch, J.; Glatthaar, M.; Glunz, S.W. [Fraunhofer ISE, Heidenhofst. 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany)

    2014-12-30

    Highlights: • Adhesion of metallization of fully plated nickel–copper contacts on silicon solar cells can be achieved by formation of nickel silicide at the cost of degraded cell performance. • Understanding of silicide growth mechanisms and controlled growth may lead to high performance together with excellent adhesion. • Silicide formation is well known from CMOS production from PVD-Ni on flat surfaces. Yet the deposition methods and therefore layer characteristics and the surface topography are different for plated metallization. • TEM analysis is performed for differently processed samples. • A nickel silicide growth model is created for plated Ni on textured silicon solar cells. - Abstract: In the context of nickel silicide formation from plated nickel layers for solar cell metallization, there are several open questions regarding contact adhesion and electrical properties. Nanoscale characterization by transmission electron microscopy has been employed to support these investigations. Interfacial oxides and silicide phases were investigated on differently prepared samples by different analytical methods associated with transmission electron microscopy analysis. Processing variations included the pre-treatment of samples before nickel plating, the used plating solution and the thermal budget for the nickel–silicon solid-state reaction. It was shown that interface oxides of only few nm thickness on both silicon and nickel silicide are present on the samples, depending on the chosen process sequence, which have been shown to play an important role in adhesion of nickel on silicide in an earlier publication. From sample pretreatment variations, conclusions about the role of an interfacial oxide in silicide formation and its influence on phase formation were drawn. Such an oxide layer hinders silicide formation except for pinhole sites. This reduces the availability of Ni and causes a silicide with low Ni content to form. Without an interfacial oxide

  2. Synthesis of two new Nickel and Copper-Nickel vanadates used for propane oxidative dehydrogenation

    Juan Pablo Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se probaron dos nuevos vanadatos en la deshidrogenación oxidativa de propano. Los catalizadores fueron sintetizados por el método hidrotérmico y de coprecipitación, la caracterización se llevó a cabo por medio de difracción de rayos X, absorción atómica, análisis termogravimétrico y análisis térmico diferencial. La reacción se realizó en un rango de temperatura de 350-500 °C. Con el vanadato de níquel se obtuvo una conversión de propano de 10.6 % y una selectividad hacia propeno del 29.9 % a 400 °C y con el vanadato de cobre y níquel se alcanzó a la misma temperatura una conversión de 1.9 % y una selectividad del 56.9 %.

  3. Welding of titanium and nickel alloy by combination of explosive welding and spark plasma sintering technologies

    Malyutina, Yu. N., E-mail: iuliiamaliutina@gmail.com; Bataev, A. A., E-mail: bataev@adm.nstu.ru; Shevtsova, L. I., E-mail: edeliya2010@mail.ru [Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk, 630073 (Russian Federation); Mali, V. I., E-mail: vmali@mail.ru; Anisimov, A. G., E-mail: anis@hydro.nsc.ru [Lavrentyev Institute of Hydrodynamics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    A possibility of titanium and nickel-based alloys composite materials formation using combination of explosive welding and spark plasma sintering technologies was demonstrated in the current research. An employment of interlayer consisting of copper and tantalum thin plates makes possible to eliminate a contact between metallurgical incompatible titanium and nickel that are susceptible to intermetallic compounds formation during their interaction. By the following spark plasma sintering process the bonding has been received between titanium and titanium alloy VT20 through the thin powder layer of pure titanium that is distinguished by low defectiveness and fine dispersive structure.

  4. Copper Bioleaching in Chile

    Juan Carlos Gentina; Fernando Acevedo

    2016-01-01

    Chile has a great tradition of producing and exporting copper. Over the last several decades, it has become the first producer on an international level. Its copper reserves are also the most important on the planet. However, after years of mineral exploitation, the ease of extracting copper oxides and ore copper content has diminished. To keep the production level high, the introduction of new technologies has become necessary. One that has been successful is bioleaching. Chile had the first...

  5. Demystifying Controlling Copper Corrosion

    The LCR systematically misses the highest health and corrosion risk sites for copper. Additionally, there are growing concerns for WWTP copper in sludges and discharge levels. There are many corrosion control differences between copper and lead. This talk explains the sometimes c...

  6. Mercury Information Clearinghouse

    Chad A. Wocken; Michael J. Holmes; Dennis L. Laudal; Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett; Greg F. Weber; Nicholas V. C. Ralston; Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Edwin S. Olson; Laura J. Raymond; John H. Pavlish; Everett A. Sondreal; Steven A. Benson

    2006-03-31

    The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) identified a need and contracted the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to create and maintain an information clearinghouse on global research and development activities related to mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. With the support of CEA, the Center for Air Toxic Metals{reg_sign} (CATM{reg_sign}) Affiliates, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the EERC developed comprehensive quarterly information updates that provide a detailed assessment of developments in the various areas of mercury monitoring, control, policy, and research. A total of eight topical reports were completed and are summarized and updated in this final CEA quarterly report. The original quarterly reports can be viewed at the CEA Web site (www.ceamercuryprogram.ca). In addition to a comprehensive update of previous mercury-related topics, a review of results from the CEA Mercury Program is provided. Members of Canada's coal-fired electricity generation sector (ATCO Power, EPCOR, Manitoba Hydro, New Brunswick Power, Nova Scotia Power Inc., Ontario Power Generation, SaskPower, and TransAlta) and CEA, have compiled an extensive database of information from stack-, coal-, and ash-sampling activities. Data from this effort are also available at the CEA Web site and have provided critical information for establishing and reviewing a mercury standard for Canada that is protective of environment and public health and is cost-effective. Specific goals outlined for the CEA mercury program included the following: (1) Improve emission inventories and develop management options through an intensive 2-year coal-, ash-, and stack-sampling program; (2) Promote effective stack testing through the development of guidance material and the support of on-site training on the Ontario Hydro method for employees, government representatives, and contractors on an as-needed basis; (3) Strengthen laboratory analytical capabilities through

  7. Mercury Phase II Study - Mercury Behavior in Salt Processing Flowsheet

    Jain, V.; Shah, H.; Wilmarth, W. R.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) in the Savannah River Site Liquid Waste System (LWS) originated from decades of canyon processing where it was used as a catalyst for dissolving the aluminum cladding of reactor fuel. Approximately 60 metric tons of mercury is currently present throughout the LWS. Mercury has long been a consideration in the LWS, from both hazard and processing perspectives. In February 2015, a Mercury Program Team was established at the request of the Department of Energy to develop a comprehensive action plan for long-term management and removal of mercury. Evaluation was focused in two Phases. Phase I activities assessed the Liquid Waste inventory and chemical processing behavior using a system-by-system review methodology, and determined the speciation of the different mercury forms (Hg+, Hg++, elemental Hg, organomercury, and soluble versus insoluble mercury) within the LWS. Phase II activities are building on the Phase I activities, and results of the LWS flowsheet evaluations will be summarized in three reports: Mercury Behavior in the Salt Processing Flowsheet (i.e. this report); Mercury Behavior in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Flowsheet; and Mercury behavior in the Tank Farm Flowsheet (Evaporator Operations). The evaluation of the mercury behavior in the salt processing flowsheet indicates, inter alia, the following: (1) In the assembled Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 in Tank 21, the total mercury is mostly soluble with methylmercury (MHg) contributing over 50% of the total mercury. Based on the analyses of samples from 2H Evaporator feed and drop tanks (Tanks 38/43), the source of MHg in Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 can be attributed to the 2H evaporator concentrate used in assembling the salt batches. The 2H Evaporator is used to evaporate DWPF recycle water. (2) Comparison of data between Tank 21/49, Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), and Tank 50 samples suggests that the total mercury as well as speciated

  8. A mercury transport and fate model (LM2-mercury) for mass budget assessment of mercury cycling in Lake Michigan

    LM2-Mercury, a mercury mass balance model, was developed to simulate and evaluate the transport, fate, and biogeochemical transformations of mercury in Lake Michigan. The model simulates total suspended solids (TSS), disolved organic carbon (DOC), and total, elemental, divalent, ...

  9. Nickel Excretion in Urine after Oral Administration

    Menne, T.; Mikkelsen, H. I.; Solgaard, Per Bent

    1978-01-01

    In recent years the importance of internal exposure to nickel in patients with recurrent hand eczema and nickel allergy has become evident. The present study was performed in order to investigate the value of urinary nickel determinations as an index of oral nickel intake. After oral administration...

  10. Mercury Exposure and Heart Diseases

    Genchi, Giuseppe; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Carocci, Alessia; Lauria, Graziantonio; Catalano, Alessia

    2017-01-01

    Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. It has been determined that mercury is not only harmful to the health of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children, but is also toxic to ordinary adults in various ways. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities. Nowadays, the exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Recent studies suggest that chronic exposure, even to low concentration levels of mercury, can cause cardiovascular, reproductive, and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Possible biological effects of mercury, including the relationship between mercury toxicity and diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction, are being studied. As heart rhythm and function are under autonomic nervous system control, it has been hypothesized that the neurotoxic effects of mercury might also impact cardiac autonomic function. Mercury exposure could have a long-lasting effect on cardiac parasympathetic activity and some evidence has shown that mercury exposure might affect heart rate variability, particularly early exposures in children. The mechanism by which mercury produces toxic effects on the cardiovascular system is not fully elucidated, but this mechanism is believed to involve an increase in oxidative stress. The exposure to mercury increases the production of free radicals, potentially because of the role of mercury in the Fenton reaction and a reduction in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase. In this review we report an overview on the toxicity of mercury and focus our attention on the toxic effects on the cardiovascular system. PMID:28085104

  11. Mercury Exposure and Heart Diseases.

    Genchi, Giuseppe; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Carocci, Alessia; Lauria, Graziantonio; Catalano, Alessia

    2017-01-12

    Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. It has been determined that mercury is not only harmful to the health of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children, but is also toxic to ordinary adults in various ways. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities. Nowadays, the exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Recent studies suggest that chronic exposure, even to low concentration levels of mercury, can cause cardiovascular, reproductive, and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Possible biological effects of mercury, including the relationship between mercury toxicity and diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction, are being studied. As heart rhythm and function are under autonomic nervous system control, it has been hypothesized that the neurotoxic effects of mercury might also impact cardiac autonomic function. Mercury exposure could have a long-lasting effect on cardiac parasympathetic activity and some evidence has shown that mercury exposure might affect heart rate variability, particularly early exposures in children. The mechanism by which mercury produces toxic effects on the cardiovascular system is not fully elucidated, but this mechanism is believed to involve an increase in oxidative stress. The exposure to mercury increases the production of free radicals, potentially because of the role of mercury in the Fenton reaction and a reduction in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase. In this review we report an overview on the toxicity of mercury and focus our attention on the toxic effects on the cardiovascular system.

  12. Mercury Exposure and Heart Diseases

    Giuseppe Genchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. It has been determined that mercury is not only harmful to the health of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children, but is also toxic to ordinary adults in various ways. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities. Nowadays, the exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Recent studies suggest that chronic exposure, even to low concentration levels of mercury, can cause cardiovascular, reproductive, and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Possible biological effects of mercury, including the relationship between mercury toxicity and diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction, are being studied. As heart rhythm and function are under autonomic nervous system control, it has been hypothesized that the neurotoxic effects of mercury might also impact cardiac autonomic function. Mercury exposure could have a long-lasting effect on cardiac parasympathetic activity and some evidence has shown that mercury exposure might affect heart rate variability, particularly early exposures in children. The mechanism by which mercury produces toxic effects on the cardiovascular system is not fully elucidated, but this mechanism is believed to involve an increase in oxidative stress. The exposure to mercury increases the production of free radicals, potentially because of the role of mercury in the Fenton reaction and a reduction in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase. In this review we report an overview on the toxicity of mercury and focus our attention on the toxic effects on the cardiovascular system.

  13. MERCURY USAGE AND ALTERNATIVES IN THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES

    Many industries have already found alternatives for mercury or have greatly decreased mercury use. However, the unique electromechanical and photoelectric properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some applications. This study was i...

  14. Mercury's exosphere: observations during MESSENGER's First Mercury flyby.

    McClintock, William E; Bradley, E Todd; Vervack, Ronald J; Killen, Rosemary M; Sprague, Ann L; Izenberg, Noam R; Solomon, Sean C

    2008-07-04

    During MESSENGER's first Mercury flyby, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer measured Mercury's exospheric emissions, including those from the antisunward sodium tail, calcium and sodium close to the planet, and hydrogen at high altitudes on the dayside. Spatial variations indicate that multiple source and loss processes generate and maintain the exosphere. Energetic processes connected to the solar wind and magnetospheric interaction with the planet likely played an important role in determining the distributions of exospheric species during the flyby.

  15. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1989-12-05

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

  16. Health Effects of Exposures to Mercury

    ... IRIS database Top of Page Elemental (Metallic) Mercury Effects Exposures to metallic mercury most often occur when metallic ... poor performance on tests of mental function Higher exposures may also cause kidney effects, respiratory failure and death. Note that metallic mercury ...

  17. Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products Share Tweet Linkedin ... and, in some situations, criminal prosecution. Dangers of Mercury Exposure to mercury can have serious health consequences. ...

  18. Nickel Electroless Plating: Adhesion Analysis for Mono-Type Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells.

    Shin, Eun Gu; Rehman, Atteq ur; Lee, Sang Hee; Lee, Soo Hong

    2015-10-01

    The adhesion of the front electrodes to silicon substrate is the most important parameters to be optimized. Nickel silicide which is formed by sintering process using a silicon substrate improves the mechanical and electrical properties as well as act as diffusion barrier for copper. In this experiment p-type mono-crystalline czochralski (CZ) silicon wafers having resistivity of 1.5 Ω·cm were used to study one step and two step nickel electroless plating process. POCl3 diffusion process was performed to form the emitter with the sheet resistance of 70 ohm/sq. The Six, layer was set down as an antireflection coating (ARC) layer at emitter surface by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process. Laser ablation process was used to open SiNx passivation layer locally for the formation of the front electrodes. Nickel was deposited by electroless plating process by one step and two step nickel electroless deposition process. The two step nickel plating was performed by applying a second nickel deposition step subsequent to the first sintering process. Furthermore, the adhesion analysis for both one step and two steps process was conducted using peel force tester (universal testing machine, H5KT) after depositing Cu contact by light induced plating (LIP).

  19. Nickel aggregates produced by radiolysis

    Marignier, J.L.; Belloni, J.

    1988-01-01

    Nickel aggregates with subcolloidal size and stable in water have been synthesized by inhibiting the corrosion by the medium. The protective effect of the surfactant is discussed in relation with the characteristics of various types of polyvinyl alcohol studied. The reactivity of aggregates towards oxidizing compounds, nitro blue tetrazolium, methylene blue, silver ions, oxygen, methylviologen, enables an estimation of the redox potential of nickel aggregates (E = - 04 ± 0.05 V). It has been applied to quantitative analysis of the particles in presence of nickel ions. 55 refs [fr

  20. Mechanisms of nickel toxicity in microorganisms

    Macomber, Lee; Hausinger, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    Nickel has long been known to be an important human toxicant, including having the ability to form carcinomas, but until recently nickel was believed to be an issue only to microorganisms living in nickel-rich serpentine soils or areas contaminated by industrial pollution. This assumption was overturned by the discovery of a nickel defense system (RcnR/RcnA) found in microorganisms that live in a wide range of environmental niches, suggesting that nickel homeostasis is a general biological co...

  1. Respiratory carcinogenicity assessment of soluble nickel compounds.

    Oller, Adriana R

    2002-01-01

    The many chemical forms of nickel differ in physicochemical properties and biological effects. Health assessments for each main category of nickel species are needed. The carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds has proven particularly difficult. Epidemiologic evidence indicates an association between inhalation exposures to nickel refinery dust containing soluble nickel compounds and increased risk of respiratory cancers. However, the nature of this association is unclear...

  2. Mercury content in Hot Springs

    Nakagawa, R

    1974-01-01

    A method of determination of mercury in hot spring waters by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry is described. Further, the mercury content and the chemical behavior of the elementary mercury in hot springs are described. Sulfide and iodide ions interfered with the determination of mercury by the reduction-vapor phase technique. These interferences could, however, be minimized by the addition of potassium permanganate. Waters collected from 55 hot springs were found to contain up to 26.0 ppb mercury. High concentrations of mercury have been found in waters from Shimoburo Springs, Aomori (10.0 ppb), Osorezan Springs, Aomori (1.3 approximately 18.8 ppb), Gosyogake Springs, Akita (26.0 ppb), Manza Springs, Gunma (0.30 approximately 19.5 ppb) and Kusatu Springs, Gunma (1.70 approximately 4.50 ppb). These hot springs were acid waters containing a relatively high quantity of chloride or sulfate.

  3. Spectrochemical analysis of impurities in nickel and in nickel oxide

    Goldbart, Z.; Lorber, A.; Harel, A.

    1981-11-01

    Various spectrochemical methods are described for the quantitative determination of 23 impurities in metallic nickel and in nickel oxide. The average limit of detection is from 1 to 5 ppm and the dynamic range lies over 2.5 orders of magnitude. The elements that were determined are: Al,B,Ba,Bi,Ca,Cd,Co,Cu,Fe,Ga,Ge,In,Mg,Mn,Mo,Nb,Si,Sn,Sr,Ti,Cr,V. (author)

  4. Innate stimulatory capacity of high molecular weight transition metals Au (gold) and Hg (mercury).

    Rachmawati, Dessy; Alsalem, Inás W A; Bontkes, Hetty J; Verstege, Marleen I; Gibbs, Sue; von Blomberg, B M E; Scheper, Rik J; van Hoogstraten, Ingrid M W

    2015-03-01

    Nickel, cobalt and palladium ions can induce an innate immune response by triggering Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 which is present on dendritic cells (DC). Here we studied mechanisms of action for DC immunotoxicity to gold and mercury. Next to gold (Na3Au (S2O3)2⋅2H2O) and mercury (HgCl2), nickel (NiCl2) was included as a positive control. MoDC activation was assessed by release of the pro-inflammatory mediator IL-8. Also PBMC were studied, and THP-1 cells were used as a substitution for DC for evaluation of cytokines and chemokines, as well as phenotypic, alterations in response to gold and mercury. Our results showed that both Na3Au (S2O3)2⋅2H2O and HgCl2 induce substantial release of IL-8, but not IL-6, CCL2 or IL-10, from MoDc, PBMC, or THP-1 cells. Also gold and, to a lesser extent mercury, caused modest dendritic cell maturation as detected by increased membrane expression of CD40 and CD80. Both metals thus show innate immune response capacities, although to a lower extent than reported earlier for NiCl2, CoCl2 and Na2 [PdCl4]. Importantly, the gold-induced response could be ascribed to TLR3 rather than TLR4 triggering, whereas the nature of the innate mercury response remains to be clarified. In conclusion both gold and mercury can induce innate immune responses, which for gold could be ascribed to TLR3 dependent signalling. These responses are likely to contribute to adaptive immune responses to these metals, as reflected by skin and mucosal allergies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Three-dimensional interconnected nickel phosphide networks with hollow microstructures and desulfurization performance

    Zhang, Shuna; Zhang, Shujuan; Song, Limin; Wu, Xiaoqing; Fang, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Three-dimensional interconnected nickel phosphide networks with hollow microstructures and desulfurization performance. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional Ni 2 P has been prepared using foam nickel as a template. • The microstructures interconnected and formed sponge-like porous networks. • Three-dimensional Ni 2 P shows superior hydrodesulfurization activity. - Abstract: Three-dimensional microstructured nickel phosphide (Ni 2 P) was fabricated by the reaction between foam nickel (Ni) and phosphorus red. The as-prepared Ni 2 P samples, as interconnected networks, maintained the original mesh structure of foamed nickel. The crystal structure and morphology of the as-synthesized Ni 2 P were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, automatic mercury porosimetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The SEM study showed adjacent hollow branches were mutually interconnected to form sponge-like networks. The investigation on pore structure provided detailed information for the hollow microstructures. The growth mechanism for the three-dimensionally structured Ni 2 P was postulated and discussed in detail. To investigate its catalytic properties, SiO 2 supported three-dimensional Ni 2 P was prepared successfully and evaluated for the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT). DBT molecules were mostly hydrogenated and then desulfurized by Ni 2 P/SiO 2

  6. Removing nickel from nickel-coated carbon fibers

    Hardianto, A.; Hertleer, C.; De Mey, G.; Van Langenhove, L.

    2017-10-01

    Conductive fibers/yarns are one of the most important materials for smart textiles because of their electrically conductive functionality combined with flexibility and light weight. They can be applied in many fields such as the medical sector, electronics, sensors and even as thermoelectric generators. Temperature sensors, for example, can be made using the thermocouple or thermopile principle which usually uses two different metal wires that can produce a temperature-dependent voltage. However, if metal wires are inserted into a textile structure, they will decrease the flexibility properties of the textile product. Nickel-coated Carbon Fiber (NiCF), a conductive textile yarn, has a potential use as a textile-based thermopile if we can create an alternating region of carbon and nickel along the fiber which in turn it can be used for substituting the metallic thermopile. The idea was to remove nickel from NiCF in order to obtain a yarn that contains alternating zones of carbon and nickel. Due to no literature reporting on how to remove nickel from NiCF, in this paper we investigated some chemicals to remove nickel from NiCF.

  7. Determination of mercury concentration in biological materials by neutron activation analysis

    Munoz, L.; Gras, N.; Cortes, E.; Cassorla, V.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this work was to obtain a confident analytical method for measuring the mercury concentration in biological materials. Destructive neutron activation analysis was used for this purpose and a radiochemical separation method was studied to isolate the mercury from its main interferences: sodium and phosphorus, because these elements in biological materials are in high concentrations. The method developed was based on the copper amalgamation under controlled conditions. Yield and reproductibility studies were performed using 203 Hg as radioactive tracer. Finally, food samples of regular consumption were analyzed and the results were compared with those recommended by FAO/WHO. (Author)

  8. Interior Volatile Reservoirs in Mercury

    Anzures, B. A.; Parman, S. W.; Milliken, R. E.; Head, J. W.

    2018-05-01

    More measurements of 1) surface volatiles, and 2) pyroclastic deposits paired with experimental volatile analyses in silicate minerals can constrain conditions of melting and subsequent eruption on Mercury.

  9. Mercury in Canadian crude oil

    Hollebone, B.P.

    2005-01-01

    Estimates for average mercury concentrations in crude oil range widely from 10 ng/g of oil to 3,500 ng/g of oil. With such a broad range of estimates, it is difficult to determine the contributions of the petroleum sector to the total budget of mercury emissions. In response to concerns that the combustion of petroleum products may be a major source of air-borne mercury pollution, Environment Canada and the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute has undertaken a survey of the average total mercury concentration in crude oil processed in Canadian refineries. In order to calculate the potential upper limit of total mercury in all refined products, samples of more than 30 different types of crude oil collected from refineries were measured for their concentration of mercury as it enters into a refinery before processing. High temperature combustion, cold vapour atomic absorption and cold vapour atomic fluorescence were the techniques used to quantify mercury in the samples. The results of the study provide information on the total mass of mercury present in crude oil processed in Canada each year. Results can be used to determine the impact of vehicle exhaust emissions to the overall Canadian mercury emission budget. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  10. Mercury in bryophytes (moss)

    Yeaple, D S

    1972-01-28

    Recent reports in the literature, concerning the ability of certain mosses and lichens to concentrate heavy metals, have led to an investigation of the potential application of mosses as indicators of the transport of mercury through the atmosphere. A number of moss samples were collected to provide information regarding the level of mercury in moss around several types of populated areas. The results reported are from moss collected within an 80 mile radius of Boston, Massachusetts, along the Maine coast, near the tops of Mount Katahdin in Maine and Mount Washington in New Hampshire, and from Walden, New York, a small town located about 60 miles north of New York City. The data are admittedly limited, but provide sufficient insight into the usefulness of moss as an indicator to warrant the pursuit of a more detailed investigation. 6 references, 1 table.

  11. Integrated criteria document mercury

    Sloof, W.; Beelan, P. van; Annema, J.A.; Janus, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The document contains a systematic review and a critical evaluation of the most relevant data on the priority substance mercury for the purpose of effect-oriented environmental policy. Chapter headings are: properties and existing standards; production, application, sources and emissions (natural sources, industry, energy, households, agriculture, dental use, waste); distribution and transformation (cinnabar; Hg 2+ , Hg 2 2+ , elemental mercury, methylmercury, behavior in soil, water, air, biota); concentrations and fluxes in the environment and exposure levels (sampling and measuring methods, occurrence in soil, water, air etc.); effects (toxicity to humans and aquatic and terrestrial systems); emissions reduction (from industrial sources, energy, waste processing etc.); and evaluation (risks, standards, emission reduction objectives, measuring strategies). 395 refs

  12. Extraction chromatography of trace concentrations of mercury(II)

    Smejkal, Z.; Zepla, Z.; Tauferova, J.

    1984-01-01

    The separation of trace amounts of mercury(II) from aqueous solutions has been studied in mixtures of other metal ions (concentration Hg(II) 10 μg/100 ml). The Hg(II) separation was carried out in glass columns filled with Synachrom E-5 carrier impregnanted with a solution of bis(diethyldithiocarbamate)-copper(II) in a mixture of 1.2-dichlorbenzene and cyclohexane (1:1). Trapped Hg(II) was eluted by HCl. The course of the chromatographic process was followed by gamma spectroscopy. Separation yields of Hg(II) were about 90%. (author)

  13. Method for mercury refinement

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-04-09

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the [sup 196]Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures.

  14. Apparatus for mercury refinement

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-07-16

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the [sup 196]Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures.

  15. The planet Mercury (1971)

    1972-01-01

    The physical properties of the planet Mercury, its surface, and atmosphere are presented for space vehicle design criteria. The mass, dimensions, mean density, and orbital and rotational motions are described. The gravity field, magnetic field, electromagnetic radiation, and charged particles in the planet's orbit are discussed. Atmospheric pressure, temperature, and composition data are given along with the surface composition, soil mechanical properties, and topography, and the surface electromagnetic and temperature properties.

  16. Magnetic field of Mercury

    Jackson, D.J.; Beard, D.B.

    1977-01-01

    The geomagnetic field, suitably scaled down and parameterized, is shown to give a very good fit to the magnetic field measurements taken on the first and third passes of the Mariner 10 space probe past Mercury. The excellence of the fit to a reliable planetary magnetospheric model is good evidence that the Mercury magnetosphere is formed by a simple, permanent, intrinsic planetary magnetic field distorted by the effects of the solar wind. The parameters used for a best fit to all the data are (depending slightly on the choice of data) 2.44--2.55 for the ratio of Mercury's magnetic field strength at the subsolar point to that of the earth's subsolar point field (this results in a dipole moment of 170 γR/sub M/ 3 (R/sub M/ is Mercury Radius), i.e., 2.41 x 10 22 G cm 3 in the same direction as the earth's dipole), approx.-113 γR/sub M/ 4 for the planetary quadrupole moment parallel to the dipole moment, 10degree--17degree for the tilt of the planet dipole toward the sun, 4.5degree for the tilt of the dipole toward dawn, and 2.5degree--7.6degree aberration angle for the shift in the tail axis from the planet-sun direction because of the planet's orbital velocity. The rms deviation overall for the entire data set compared with the theoretical fitted model for the magnetic field strength was 17 γ (approx.4% of the maximum field measured). If the data from the first pass that show presumed strong time variations are excluded, the overall rms deviation for the field magnitude is only 10 γ

  17. Method for scavenging mercury

    Chang, Shih-ger [El Cerrito, CA; Liu, Shou-heng [Kaohsiung, TW; Liu, Zhao-rong [Beijing, CN; Yan, Naiqiang [Berkeley, CA

    2009-01-20

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  18. Apparatus for mercury refinement

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-01-01

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the 196 Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg 2 Cl 2 . The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg 2 Cl 2 contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures

  19. Method for mercury refinement

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-01-01

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the 196 Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg 2 Cl 2 . The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg 2 Cl 2 contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures

  20. Mercury's Densely Cratered Surface

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 10 took this picture (FDS 27465) of the densely cratered surface of Mercury when the spacecraft was 18,200 kilometers (8085 miles) from the planet on March 29. The dark line across top of picture is a 'dropout' of a few TV lines of data. At lower left, a portion of a 61 kilometer (38 mile) crater shows a flow front extending across the crater floor and filling more than half of the crater. The smaller, fresh crater at center is about 25 kilometers (15 miles) in diameter. Craters as small as one kilometer (about one-half mile) across are visible in the picture.The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Northwestern University

  1. Excessive nickel release from mobile phones--a persistent cause of nickel allergy and dermatitis

    Jensen, Peter; Johansen, Jeanne D; Zachariae, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Despite the political intention to limit nickel allergy and dermatitis in Europeans, nickel allergy remains frequent. There are several explanations for the persistence of nickel allergy and dermatitis, including the increasing use of mobile phones. Before regulation of nickel release from mobile...... phones, we showed that eight (19.5%) of 41 mobile phones marketed in Denmark between 2003 and 2007 released nickel in concentrations that may result in nickel allergy and dermatitis. In 2009, the EU Nickel Directive was revised to include nickel-releasing mobile phones....

  2. Excessive nickel release from mobile phones--a persistent cause of nickel allergy and dermatitis

    Jensen, Peter; Johansen, Jeanne D; Zachariae, Claus

    2011-01-01

    phones, we showed that eight (19.5%) of 41 mobile phones marketed in Denmark between 2003 and 2007 released nickel in concentrations that may result in nickel allergy and dermatitis. In 2009, the EU Nickel Directive was revised to include nickel-releasing mobile phones.......Despite the political intention to limit nickel allergy and dermatitis in Europeans, nickel allergy remains frequent. There are several explanations for the persistence of nickel allergy and dermatitis, including the increasing use of mobile phones. Before regulation of nickel release from mobile...

  3. Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System

    Johnson, Yvette B.; Mccall, Kurt E.

    1992-01-01

    The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System-2, or 'NICBES-2', which was used by the NASA HST six-battery testbed, was subsequently converted into the Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System, or 'NICHES'. Accounts are presently given of this conversion process and future uses being contemplated for NICHES. NICHES will calculate orbital summary data at the end of each orbit, and store these files for trend analyses and rules-generation.

  4. Electrical transport and electromigration studies on nickel encapsulated carbon nanotubes: possible future interconnects

    Kulshrestha, Neha; Misra, D S; Misra, Abhishek

    2013-01-01

    We nominate the nickel filled multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) as potential candidates to cope with challenges in persistent scaling for future interconnect technology. The insights into electrical transport through nickel filled carbon nanotubes provide an effective solution for major performance and reliability issues such as the increasing resistivity of metals at reduced scales, electromigration at high current densities and the problem of diffusion and corrosion faced by the existing copper interconnect technology. Furthermore, the nickel filled MWNTs outperform their hollow counterparts, the unfilled MWNTs, carrying at least one order higher current density, with increased time to failure. The results suggest that metal filled carbon nanotubes can provide a twofold benefit: (1) the metal filling provides an increased density of states for the system leading to a higher current density compared to hollow MWNTs, (2) metal out-diffusion and corrosion is prevented by the surrounding graphitic walls. (paper)

  5. The potential use of indigenous nickel hyperaccumulators for small-scale mining in The Philippines

    E S Fernando

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Uptake of nickel and three other heavy metals (copper, cobalt, and chromium was examined in 33 species of the common and rare native vascular plants growing in an ultramafic area currently subjected to mining in Zambales Province, Luzon, Philippines. Leaf tissue samples were initially screened in the field using filter paper impregnated with dimethylglyoxime (1% solution in 70% ethyl alcohol and later analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. One species was found to be a hypernickelophore (>10,000 µg/g, eight species were nickel hyperaccumulators (>1,000 µg/g, nineteen species were hemi-accumulators (>100-1,000 µg/g, and five species were non-accumulators (<100 µg/g. This paper significantly adds to the list of hyperaccumulator species first reported for the Philippines in 1992. The findings will be discussed in context of using indigenous species for post mining ecological restoration and nickel phytoextraction in small-scale mining in the Philippines

  6. Biosorption of nickel with barley straw.

    Thevannan, Ayyasamy; Mungroo, Rubeena; Niu, Catherine Hui

    2010-03-01

    Wastewater containing nickel sulphate generated from a nickel plating industry is of great concern. In the present work, biosorption of nickel by barley straw from nickel sulphate solution was investigated. Nickel uptake at room temperature (23+/-0.5 degrees C) was very sensitive to solution pH, showing a better uptake value at a pH of 4.85+/-0.10 among the tested values. The nickel biosorption isotherm fitted well the Langmuir equation. When the ionic strength (IS) of the solution was increased from less than 0.02-0.6M, nickel uptake was reduced to 12% of that obtained at IS of less than 0.02 M. Barley straw showed a higher nickel uptake (0.61 mmol/g) than acid washed crab shells (0.04 mmol/g), demonstrating its potential as an adsorbent for removal of nickel. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Structural information on the coordination compounds formed by manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II) and mercury(II) thiocyanates with 4-cyanopyridine N-oxide from their magnetic moments, electronic and infrared spectra

    Ahuja, I. S.; Yadava, C. L.; Singh, Raghuvir

    1982-05-01

    Coordination compounds formed by the interaction of 4-cyanopyridine. N-oxide (4-CPO), a potentially bidentate ligand, with manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II) and rnercury(II) thiocyanates have been prepared and characterized from their elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibilities, electronic and infrared spectral studies down to 200 cm -1 in the solid state. The compounds isolated are: Mn(4-CPO) 2(NCS) 2, Co(4-CPO) 2(NCS) 2,Ni(4-CPO) 2(NCS) 2,Zn(4-CPO) 2(NCS) 2, Cd(4-CPO)(NCS) 2 and Hg(4-CPO) 2(SCN) 2. It is shown that 4-CPO acts as a terminal N-oxide oxygen bonded monodentate ligand in all the metal(II) thiocyanate complexes studied. Tentative stereochemistries of the complexes in the solid state are discussed. The ligand field parameters 10 Dq, B, β and λ calculated for the manganese(II), cobalt(II) and nickel(II) complexes are consistent with their proposed stereochemistries.

  8. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND PATHOGENETIC ASPECTS OF NICKEL POISONING

    Vladmila Bojanic

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Nickel is widely distributed in the environment. High consumption of nickel containing products inevitably leads to environmental pollution by nickel and its derivatives at all stages of production, utilization, and disposal.Human exposure to nickel occurs primarily via inhalation and ingestion and is particularly high among nickel metallurgy workers. In addition, implantation of nickel-containing endoprostheses and iatrogenic administration of nickel-contaminated medica-tions leads to significant parenteral exposures. Exposure to nickel compounds can produce a variety of adverse effects on human health. Nickel allergy in the form of contact dermatitis is the most common reaction.A frontal headache, vertigo, nausea, vomiting, insomnia, and irritability are the most common signs of acute poisoning with nickel compounds. The respiratory tract, kidneys and liver suffer the most significant changes like nickel pneumoconiosis, chronic rhinitis and sinonasal tumors and transitory nephropathy. Although the accumulation of nickel in the body through chronic exposure can lead to lung fibrosis, cardiovascular and kidney diseases, the most serious concerns relate to nickel’s carcinogenic activity. Nickel compounds are carcinogenic to humans and metallic nickel is possibly carcinogenic to humans.

  9. Relationship between nickel allergy and diet

    Sharma Ashimav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel is a ubiquitous trace element and it occurs in soil, water, air and of the biosphere. It is mostly used to manufacture stainless steel. Nickel is the commonest cause of metal allergy. Nickel allergy is a chronic and recurring skin problem; females are affected more commonly than males. Nickel allergy may develop at any age. Once developed, it tends to persist life-long. Nickel is present in most of the dietary items and food is considered to be a major source of nickel exposure for the general population. Nickel content in food may vary considerably from place to place due to the difference in nickel content of the soil. However, certain foods are routinely high in nickel content. Nickel in the diet of a nickel-sensitive person can provoke dermatitis. Careful selection of food with relatively low nickel concentration can bring a reduction in the total dietary intake of nickel per day. This can influence the outcome of the disease and can benefit the nickel sensitive patient.

  10. Preparation of high purity nickel film from industrial effluent by the distribution of charge over microelectrodes using newly designed free electrolytic diffusion approach

    Ahmed, Sheikh Asrar; Qadir, Muhammad Abdul; Zafar, Muhammad Nadeem; Hussain, Ishtiaq; Tufail, Shahid; Rashid, Saima; Shah, Hamid Ali

    2008-01-01

    The present work deals with the development of a newly designed free electrolytic diffusion approach (the distribution of charge over microelectrodes) for the purification of metals and was successfully applied for the purification of nickel from the industrial effluent containing high proportion of nickel. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) analyzed the purified nickel deposited on working microelectrodes. The results obtained show that the purity of nickel was enhanced from 95% to 99.9% with traces of copper etc. It was concluded that distribution of charge over the microcathodes at a rate of 50 cycles per second (cps) shows better results for the production of high purity (HP) nickel as compared to 25 cycles per second (cps)

  11. Preparation of high purity nickel film from industrial effluent by the distribution of charge over microelectrodes using newly designed free electrolytic diffusion approach

    Ahmed, Sheikh Asrar; Qadir, Muhammad Abdul [Institute of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan); Zafar, Muhammad Nadeem [Institute of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan)], E-mail: znadeempk@yahoo.com; Hussain, Ishtiaq [Institute of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan); Tufail, Shahid [PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Feroz pur Road, Lahore (Pakistan); Rashid, Saima; Shah, Hamid Ali [Institute of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan)

    2008-09-15

    The present work deals with the development of a newly designed free electrolytic diffusion approach (the distribution of charge over microelectrodes) for the purification of metals and was successfully applied for the purification of nickel from the industrial effluent containing high proportion of nickel. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) analyzed the purified nickel deposited on working microelectrodes. The results obtained show that the purity of nickel was enhanced from 95% to 99.9% with traces of copper etc. It was concluded that distribution of charge over the microcathodes at a rate of 50 cycles per second (cps) shows better results for the production of high purity (HP) nickel as compared to 25 cycles per second (cps)

  12. The EU Nickel Directive revisited--future steps towards better protection against nickel allergy

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Uter, Wolfgang; McFadden, John

    2011-01-01

    In July 2001, the EU Nickel Directive came into full force to protect European citizens against nickel allergy and dermatitis. Prior to this intervention, Northern European governments had already begun to regulate consumer nickel exposure. According to part 2 of the EU Nickel Directive and the D......In July 2001, the EU Nickel Directive came into full force to protect European citizens against nickel allergy and dermatitis. Prior to this intervention, Northern European governments had already begun to regulate consumer nickel exposure. According to part 2 of the EU Nickel Directive...... and the Danish nickel regulation, consumer items intended to be in direct and prolonged contact with the skin were not allowed to release more than 0.5 µg nickel/cm2/week. It was considered unlikely that nickel allergy would disappear altogether as a proportion of individuals reacted below the level defined...

  13. Copper-resistant halophilic bacterium isolated from the polluted Maruit Lake, Egypt.

    Osman, O; Tanguichi, H; Ikeda, K; Park, P; Tanabe-Hosoi, S; Nagata, S

    2010-04-01

    To isolate and characterize copper-resistant halophilic bacteria from the polluted Maruit Lake, Egypt and identify the role of plasmids in toxic metal resistance. We isolated strain MA2, showing high copper resistance up to the 1.5 mmol l(-1) concentration; it was also resistant to other metals such as nickel, cobalt and zinc and a group of antibiotics. Partial 16S rRNA analysis revealed that strain MA2 belonged to the genus Halomonas. Copper uptake, measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometery, was higher in the absence of NaCl than in the presence of 0.5-1.0 mol l(-1) NaCl during 5-15 min of incubation. Cell fractionation and electron microscopic observation clarified that most of the copper accumulated in the outer membrane and periplasmic fractions of the cells. Plasmid screening yielded two plasmids: pMA21 (11 kb) and pMA22 (5 kb). Plasmid curing resulted in a strain that lost both the plasmids and was sensitive to cobalt and chromate but not copper, nickel and zinc. This cured strain also showed weak growth in the presence of 0.5-1.0 mol l(-1) NaCl. Partial sequencing of both plasmids led to the identification of different toxic metals transporters but copper transporters were not identified. The highest cell viability was found in the presence of 1.0 mol l(-1) NaCl at different copper concentrations, and copper uptake was optimal in the absence of NaCl. Plasmid pMA21 encoded chromate, cobalt, zinc and cadmium transporters, whereas pMA22 encoded specific zinc and RND (resistance, nodulation, cell division) efflux transporters as well as different kinds of metabolic enzymes. Copper resistance was mainly incorporated in the chromosome. Strain MA2 is a fast and efficient tool for copper bioremediation and the isolated plasmids show significant characteristics of both toxic metal and antibiotic resistance.

  14. Environmental assessment of mercury pollution in urban tailings from gold mining.

    Leiva, Manuel A G; Morales, Sandra

    2013-04-01

    It is well-known that small-scale artisanal mining is a source of mercury emissions into the environment, mainly from the use of rudimentary technologies that use mercury amalgamation in the extraction process. Mines near Andacollo, which is located in the Coquimbo region of Chile, use primitive methods to mine gold and copper. In this study, we determined the mercury content of gold mining wastes from Andacollo. At each site, we randomly sampled the soil at the surface and at a depth of 2 m following the ISO 10381 guidelines. Mercury analysis was performed with a direct mercury analyzer. At least one site was contaminated at a mercury concentration of 13.6±1.4 mg kg(-1), which was above the international recommendations that were set by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment's soil quality guidelines (CA-SQG) and the Dutch guidelines (NL-RIVM). At least four of the fourteen sites in this study were within the control and tolerance levels of these recommendations. Better characterization of these sites is required to establish whether they represent a risk to the local community. Based on the US-EPA recommendations, which have a higher tolerance limit, none of the fourteen sites should pose a risk to humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship between nickel allergy and diet

    Sharma Ashimav

    2007-01-01

    Nickel is a ubiquitous trace element and it occurs in soil, water, air and of the biosphere. It is mostly used to manufacture stainless steel. Nickel is the commonest cause of metal allergy. Nickel allergy is a chronic and recurring skin problem; females are affected more commonly than males. Nickel allergy may develop at any age. Once developed, it tends to persist life-long. Nickel is present in most of the dietary items and food is considered to be a major source of nickel exposure for the...

  16. Rotation of the planet mercury.

    Jefferys, W H

    1966-04-08

    The equations of motion for the rotation of Mercury are solved for the general case by an asymptotic expansion. The findings of Liu and O'Keefe, obtained by numerical integration of a special case, that it is possible for Mercury's rotation to be locked into a 2:3 resonance with its revolution, are confirmed in detail. The general solution has further applications.

  17. Mercury: Exploration of a Planet

    1976-01-01

    The flight of the Mariner 10 spacecraft to Venus and Mercury is detailed in animation and photography. Views of Mercury are featured. Also included is animation on the origin of the solar system. Dr. Bruce C. Murray, director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, comments on the mission.

  18. 49 CFR 173.164 - Mercury (metallic and articles containing mercury).

    2010-10-01

    ... ounces) of mercury per package; (iv) Tubes which are completely jacketed in sealed leakproof metal cases... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mercury (metallic and articles containing mercury... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.164 Mercury (metallic and articles containing mercury). (a) For...

  19. Methyl mercury in terrestrial compartments

    Stoeppler, M.; Burow, M.; Padberg, S.; May, K.

    1993-09-01

    On the basis of the analytical methodology available at present the state of the art for the determination of total mercury and of various organometallic compounds of mercury in air, precipitation, limnic systems, soils, plants and biota is reviewed. This is followed by the presentation and discussion of examples for the data obtained hitherto for trace and ultratrace levels of total mercury and mainly methyl mercury in terrestrial and limnic environments as well as in biota. The data discussed stem predominantly from the past decade in which, due to significant methodological progress, many new aspects were elucidated. They include the most important results in this area achieved by the Research Centre (KFA) Juelich within the project 'Origin and Fate of Methyl Mercury' (contracts EV4V-0138-D and STEP-CT90-0057) supported by the Commission of the European Communities, Brussels. (orig.) [de

  20. Human Exposure and Health Effects of Inorganic and Elemental Mercury

    Park, Jung-Duck; Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic and non-essential metal in the human body. Mercury is ubiquitously distributed in the environment, present in natural products, and exists extensively in items encountered in daily life. There are three forms of mercury, i.e., elemental (or metallic) mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury compounds. This review examines the toxicity of elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds. Inorganic mercury compounds are water soluble with a bioavailability o...