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  1. Hair Mercury Negatively Correlates with Calcium Pump Activity in Human Term Newborns and Their Mothers at Delivery

    Huel, Guy; Sahuquillo, Josiane; Debotte, Ginette; Oury, Jean-François; Takser, Larissa

    2007-01-01

    Background Calcium homeostasis is a known target of several environmental toxicants including lead and mercury. Objective Our goal was to determine the relationship between Hg exposure and erythrocyte Ca pump activity in women at delivery and in their newborns. Methods We determined total Hg as well as Pb concentrations in 81 hair and blood samples obtained at delivery. Basal and calmodulin-stimulated Ca pump activity was measured in red blood cells from cord blood and maternal erythrocyte pl...

  2. Detection of elemental mercury by multimode diode laser correlation spectroscopy.

    Lou, Xiutao; Somesfalean, Gabriel; Svanberg, Sune; Zhang, Zhiguo; Wu, Shaohua

    2012-02-27

    We demonstrate a method for elemental mercury detection based on correlation spectroscopy employing UV laser radiation generated by sum-frequency mixing of two visible multimode diode lasers. Resonance matching of the multimode UV laser is achieved in a wide wavelength range and with good tolerance for various operating conditions. Large mode-hops provide an off-resonance baseline, eliminating interferences from other gas species with broadband absorption. A sensitivity of 1 μg/m3 is obtained for a 1-m path length and 30-s integration time. The performance of the system shows promise for mercury monitoring in industrial applications.

  3. Mercury

    Vilas, F.; Chapman, C.R.; Matthews, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Papers are presented on future observations of and missions to Mercury, the photometry and polarimetry of Mercury, the surface composition of Mercury from reflectance spectrophotometry, the Goldstone radar observations of Mercury, the radar observations of Mercury, the stratigraphy and geologic history of Mercury, the geomorphology of impact craters on Mercury, and the cratering record on Mercury and the origin of impacting objects. Consideration is also given to the tectonics of Mercury, the tectonic history of Mercury, Mercury's thermal history and the generation of its magnetic field, the rotational dynamics of Mercury and the state of its core, Mercury's magnetic field and interior, the magnetosphere of Mercury, and the Mercury atmosphere. Other papers are on the present bounds on the bulk composition of Mercury and the implications for planetary formation processes, the building stones of the planets, the origin and composition of Mercury, the formation of Mercury from planetesimals, and theoretical considerations on the strange density of Mercury

  4. Mercury

    Mercury is an element that is found in air, water and soil. It has several forms. Metallic mercury is a shiny, silver-white, odorless liquid. If ... with other elements to form powders or crystals. Mercury is in many products. Metallic mercury is used ...

  5. Circulating steroids negatively correlate with tinnitus.

    Chrbolka, Pavel; Palúch, Zoltán; Hill, Martin; Alušík, Štefan

    2017-07-01

    While not a disease entity in itself; symptoms of tinnitus (from Latin tinnio - clink) accompany a number of diseases. Tinnitus prevalence increases with age, deteriorates one's quality of life, and may even result in suicidal behavior. Tinnitus develops in response to a variety of risk factors, otoxic substances, noise exposure, hearing disorders, and psychological alterations. Tinnitus is closely related to mood, depression, and psychological state. In the present study, we focused on alterations of the steroid metabolome and particularly neuroactive, neuroprotective, and immunomodulatory steroids in patients with tinnitus. The study group consisted of 28 patients without evidence of an organic cause of tinnitus as well as without associated diseases or the effect of ototoxic medications. All patients underwent a complete audiological assessment and laboratory tests including routine biochemical markers and quantification of circulating steroids using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and immunoassays. To rule out a pathology in the cerebellopontine angle area, CT scan or MRI were performed. To diagnose stem lesions, evoked potentials were also measured. Pearson's correlations and multivariate regression were used to assess any links between tinnitus intensity and frequency on the one hand, and steroid levels on the other. Results indicated a significant and consistent negative correlation between tinnitus indices and intensity of adrenal steroidogenesis. The circulating steroid metabolome including hormones and neuroactive, neuroprotective, and immunomodulatory steroids negatively correlates with the degree of tinnitus due to hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis malfunction. Our results may help explain the pathophysiology of tinnitus and improve its diagnosis. However, further studies are needed to verify our postulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mercury

    de Vries, Irma

    2017-01-01

    Mercury is a naturally occurring metal that exists in several physical and chemical forms. Inorganic mercury refers to compounds formed after the combining of mercury with elements such as chlorine, sulfur, or oxygen. After combining with carbon by covalent linkage, the compounds formed are called

  7. Mercury

    ... that mercuric chloride and methylmercury are possible human carcinogens. top How does mercury affect children? Very young ... billion parts of drinking water (2 ppb). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has set a maximum ...

  8. Mockup experiments to investigate the leak rate correlation between mercury and helium for the mercury target system of J-PARC

    Haga, Katsuhiro; Naoe, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Wakui, Takashi; Futakawa, Masatoshi

    2009-01-01

    Checking the seal performance of the mercury piping network is very important for the mercury target system operation of J-PARC, and the test method for leaks using the pressure change measurement is preferable for this purpose because it can be carried out easily and precisely by measuring the pressure change, and it is free from the risk of mercury contamination. The piping network is pressurized by helium gas. Thus, the correlation between the helium leak rate and mercury leak flow rate was investigated experimentally by carrying out leak tests for helium and mercury with an identical mockup flange model. The results showed that the mercury leak flow rates of the experimental data were lower than those of the estimated value by 64% on average. It was also found that the threshold of the helium leak rate at which good seal performance for mercury can be obtained exists between 2.18 x 10 -4 and 1.01 x 10 -2 Pa.m 3 /s. This fact confirmed the sufficient safety margin of the mercury target system against the mercury leak, where 1 x 10 -6 Pa.m 3 /s was adopted as the seal performance criterion. (author)

  9. Neural Correlates of Processing Negative and Sexually Arousing Pictures

    Bailey, Kira; West, Robert; Mullaney, Kellie M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent work has questioned whether the negativity bias is a distinct component of affective picture processing. The current study was designed to determine whether there are different neural correlates of processing positive and negative pictures using event-related brain potentials. The early posterior negativity and late positive potential were greatest in amplitude for erotic pictures. Partial Least Squares analysis revealed one latent variable that distinguished erotic pictures from neutral and positive pictures and another that differentiated negative pictures from neutral and positive pictures. The effects of orienting task on the neural correlates of processing negative and erotic pictures indicate that affective picture processing is sensitive to both stimulus-driven, and attentional or decision processes. The current data, together with other recent findings from our laboratory, lead to the suggestion that there are distinct neural correlates of processing negative and positive stimuli during affective picture processing. PMID:23029071

  10. Mercury

    Mahoney, T J

    2014-01-01

    This gazetteer and atlas on Mercury lists, defines and illustrates every named (as opposed to merely catalogued) object and term as related to Mercury within a single reference work. It contains a glossary of terminology used, an index of all the headwords in the gazetteer, an atlas comprising maps and images with coordinate grids and labels identifying features listed in the gazetteer, and appendix material on the IAU nomenclature system and the transcription systems used for non-roman alphabets. This book is useful for the general reader, writers and editors dealing with astronomical themes, and those astronomers concerned with any aspect of astronomical nomenclature.

  11. Mercury

    Balogh, André; Steiger, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Mercury, the planet closest to the Sun, is different in several respects from the other three terrestrial planets. In appearance, it resembles the heavily cratered surface of the Moon, but its density is high, it has a magnetic field and magnetosphere, but no atmosphere or ionosphere. This book reviews the progress made in Mercury studies since the flybys by Mariner 10 in 1974-75, based on the continued research using the Mariner 10 archive, on observations from Earth, and on increasingly realistic models of its interior evolution.

  12. Negatively correlated local and global stock externalities: tax or subsidy?

    Zili Yang

    2006-01-01

    Fossil fuel combustion generates both CO 2 and SO 2 . CO 2 is the most important greenhouse gas; SO 2 can cause serious local pollution. But it can alleviate the potential global warming because of negative radiative forcing. Such a phenomenon can be characterized as negatively correlated local and global stock externalities. In this paper, we set up an optimal control problem of negatively correlated local and global stock externality provision. The efficiency conditions for this problem are derived. These conditions modify the Samuelson rules for optimal provision of externalities. In addition, we examine several policy related scenarios of negatively correlated local and global stock externality provisions. Finally, we discuss policy implications and limitation of the theoretical results derived in this paper. We also indicate applications of the theoretical results here to empirical research, particularly to economic analysis of multiple-gas issues in climate change. (Author)

  13. Correlation between mercury and selenium concentrations in Indian hair from Rondĵnia State, Amazon region, Brazil.

    Soares, Mônica Campos; Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo Souza; Müller, Regina Céli Sarkis; Brabo, Edilson Silva; Santos, Elizabete Oliveira

    2002-03-15

    Total mercury and selenium concentrations were determined in hair samples collected from Wari (Pacaás Novos) Indians living in Doutor Tanajura village, Gujará-Mirim city, Rondĵnia State. The mercury concentrations in some samples are much higher than the values determined in samples from individuals not exposed to mercury contamination, occupationally or environmentally. The selenium concentrations are in the normal range. A correlation was observed between the mercury and selenium concentration and the values of the molar ratio approach 1 at low Hg concentrations. This fact is related to the equimolar complex formed by [(Hg-Se)n]m-Seleprotein P, which can decrease the bioavailable mercury in the organism.

  14. Neural correlates of attitude change following positive and negative advertisements

    Junko Kato

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding changes in attitudes towards others is critical to understanding human behaviour. Neuropolitical studies have found that the activation of emotion-related areas in the brain is linked to resilient political preferences, and neuroeconomic research has analysed the neural correlates of social preferences that favour or oppose consideration of intrinsic rewards. This study aims to identify the neural correlates in the prefrontal cortices of changes in political attitudes toward others that are linked to social cognition. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiments have presented videos from previous electoral campaigns and television commercials for major cola brands and then used the subjects’ self-rated affinity toward political candidates as behavioural indicators. After viewing negative campaign videos, subjects showing stronger fMRI activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex lowered their ratings of the candidate they originally supported more than did those with smaller fMRI signal changes in the same region. Subjects showing stronger activation in the medial prefrontal cortex tended to increase their ratings more than did those with less activation. The same regions were not activated by viewing negative advertisements for cola. Correlations between the self-rated values and the neural signal changes underscore the metric representation of observed decisions (i.e., whether to support or not in the brain. This indicates that neurometric analysis may contribute to the exploration of the neural correlates of daily social behaviour.

  15. Neural Correlates of Attitude Change Following Positive and Negative Advertisements

    Kato, Junko; Ide, Hiroko; Kabashima, Ikuo; Kadota, Hiroshi; Takano, Kouji; Kansaku, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Understanding changes in attitudes towards others is critical to understanding human behaviour. Neuropolitical studies have found that the activation of emotion-related areas in the brain is linked to resilient political preferences, and neuroeconomic research has analysed the neural correlates of social preferences that favour or oppose consideration of intrinsic rewards. This study aims to identify the neural correlates in the prefrontal cortices of changes in political attitudes toward others that are linked to social cognition. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments have presented videos from previous electoral campaigns and television commercials for major cola brands and then used the subjects' self-rated affinity toward political candidates as behavioural indicators. After viewing negative campaign videos, subjects showing stronger fMRI activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex lowered their ratings of the candidate they originally supported more than did those with smaller fMRI signal changes in the same region. Subjects showing stronger activation in the medial prefrontal cortex tended to increase their ratings more than did those with less activation. The same regions were not activated by viewing negative advertisements for cola. Correlations between the self-rated values and the neural signal changes underscore the metric representation of observed decisions (i.e., whether to support or not) in the brain. This indicates that neurometric analysis may contribute to the exploration of the neural correlates of daily social behaviour. PMID:19503749

  16. Urine mercury levels correlate with DNA methylation of imprinting gene H19 in the sperm of reproductive-aged men.

    Zhaoxu Lu

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg is a well-recognized environmental pollutant known by its toxicity of development and neurotoxicity, which results in adverse health outcomes. However, the mechanisms underlying the teratogenic effects of Hg are not well understood. Imprinting genes are emerging regulators for fetal development subjecting to environmental pollutants impacts. In this study, we examined the association between preconceptional Hg exposure and the alteration of DNA methylation of imprinting genes H19, Meg3, and Peg3 in human sperm DNA.A total of 616 men, aged from 22 to 59, were recruited from Reproductive Medicine Clinic of Maternal and Child Care Service Center and the Urologic Surgery Clinic of Shanxi Academy of Medical Sciences during April 2015 and March 2016. Demographic information was collected through questionnaires. Urine was collected and urinary Hg concentrations were measured using a fully-automatic double-channel hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometer. Methylation of imprinting genes H19, Meg3 and Peg3 of sperm DNA from 242 participants were examined by bisulfite pyrosequencing. Spearman's rank and multivariate regression analysis were used for correlation analysis between sperm DNA methylation status of imprinting genes and urinary Hg levels.The median concentration of Hg for 616 participants was 9.14μg/l (IQR: 5.56-12.52 μg/l; ranging 0.16-71.35μg/l. A total of 42.7% of the participants are beyond normal level for non-occupational exposure according to the criterion of Hg poisoning (≥10 μg/L. Spearman's rank analysis indicated a negative correlation between urinary Hg concentrations and average DNA methylation levels of imprinted genes H19 (rs = -0.346, p <0.05, but there was no such a correlation for Peg3 and Meg3. Further, we analyzed the correlation between methylation level at individual CpG site of H19 and urinary Hg level. The results showed a negative correlation between urinary Hg concentrations and three out of

  17. Mercury concentrations in snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) correlate with environmental and landscape characteristics.

    Turnquist, Madeline A; Driscoll, Charles T; Schulz, Kimberly L; Schlaepfer, Martin A

    2011-10-01

    Mercury (Hg) deposited onto the landscape can be transformed into methylmercury (MeHg), a neurotoxin that bioaccumulates up the aquatic food chain. Here, we report on Hg concentrations in snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) across New York State, USA. The objectives of this study were to: (1) test which landscape, water, and biometric characteristics correlate with total Hg (THg) concentrations in snapping turtles; and (2) determine whether soft tissue THg concentrations correlate with scute (shell) concentrations. Forty-eight turtles were sampled non-lethally from ten lakes and wetlands across New York to observe patterns under a range of ecosystem variables and water chemistry conditions. THg concentrations ranged from 0.041 to 1.50 μg/g and 0.47 to 7.43 μg/g wet weight of muscle tissue and shell, respectively. The vast majority of mercury (~94%) was in the MeHg form. Sixty-one percent of turtle muscle samples exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) consumption advisory limit of 0.3 μg Hg/g for fish. Muscle THg concentrations were significantly correlated with sulfate in water and the maximum elevation of the watershed. Shell THg concentrations were significantly correlated with the acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of water, the maximum elevation of the watershed, the percent open water in the watershed, the lake to watershed size, and various forms of atmospheric Hg deposition. Thus, our results demonstrate that THg concentrations in snapping turtles are spatially variable, frequently exceed advisory limits, and are significantly correlated with several landscape and water characteristics.

  18. Negative correlation learning for customer churn prediction: a comparison study.

    Rodan, Ali; Fayyoumi, Ayham; Faris, Hossam; Alsakran, Jamal; Al-Kadi, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Recently, telecommunication companies have been paying more attention toward the problem of identification of customer churn behavior. In business, it is well known for service providers that attracting new customers is much more expensive than retaining existing ones. Therefore, adopting accurate models that are able to predict customer churn can effectively help in customer retention campaigns and maximizing the profit. In this paper we will utilize an ensemble of Multilayer perceptrons (MLP) whose training is obtained using negative correlation learning (NCL) for predicting customer churn in a telecommunication company. Experiments results confirm that NCL based MLP ensemble can achieve better generalization performance (high churn rate) compared with ensemble of MLP without NCL (flat ensemble) and other common data mining techniques used for churn analysis.

  19. Does mercury vapor exposure increase urinary selenium excretion

    Hongo, T; Suzuki, T; Himeno, S; Watanabe, C; Satoh, H; Shimada, Y

    1985-01-01

    It has been reported that an increase of urinary selenium excretion may occur as a result of mercury vapor exposure. However, experimental data regarding the interaction between mercury vapor and selenium have yielded ambiguous results about the retention and elimination of selenium due to mercury vapor exposure and the decrease of selenium excretion due to mercury in the form of mercuric mercury (Hg/sup 2 +/). In this study, the authors measured urinary mercury and selenium in workers with or without exposure to mercury vapor to determine whether or not urinary selenium excretion was increased as a result of mercury vapor exposure. Urine samples were collected from 141 workers, 71 men and 70 women, whose extent of exposure to mercury vapor varied according to their job sites. Workers were divided into five groups according to their urinary mercury levels. The mercury level in group I was less than 2.8 nmol/mmol creatinine which means that this group was mostly free from mercury exposure. The average age was almost identical among the groups. For both sexes, group V (with the highest urinary mercury level) had the lowest urinary selenium level, but one-way variance analysis (ANOVA) did not reveal any significant variations of urinary selenium with urinary mercury levels; however, a weak but significant negative correlation between mercury and selenium was found in men.

  20. Negative correlates of computer game play in adolescents.

    Colwell, J; Payne, J

    2000-08-01

    There is some concern that playing computer games may be associated with social isolation, lowered self-esteem, and aggression among adolescents. Measures of these variables were included in a questionnaire completed by 204 year eight students at a North London comprehensive school. Principal components analysis of a scale to assess needs fulfilled by game play provided some support for the notion of 'electronic friendship' among boys, but there was no evidence that game play leads to social isolation. Play was not linked to self-esteem in girls, but a negative relationship was obtained between self-esteem and frequency of play in boys. However, self-esteem was not associated with total exposure to game play. Aggression scores were not related to the number of games with aggressive content named among three favourite games, but they were positively correlated with total exposure to game play. A multiple regression analysis revealed that sex and total game play exposure each accounted for a significant but small amount of the variance in aggression scores. The positive correlation between playing computer games and aggression provides some justification for further investigation of the causal hypothesis, and possible methodologies are discussed.

  1. Chemical forms of the fluorine, chlorine, oxygen and carbon in coal fly ash and their correlations with mercury retention

    Deng, Shuang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment (China); Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Shu, Yun [Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Li, Songgeng, E-mail: sgli@ipe.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Multi-phase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Tian, Gang; Huang, Jiayu [Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhang, Fan, E-mail: zhangfan5188@vip.sina.com [Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Chlorine and fluorine are present mainly in an inorganic form on ash. • Correlations of carbon–oxygen complexes with mercury retention are established. • Concentrations of carbon–oxygen complexes on ash are related to coal type. • No effect of fluorine on mercury retention is observed. • Chlorine, fluorine and carbon in ash are enriched on surface. - Abstract: Fly ashes recovered from the particulate control devices at six pulverized coal boiler unites of China, are studied using an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with a particular focus on the functionalities of fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), carbon and oxygen on fly ash. It is found that the inorganic forms of F and Cl are predominant on the ash surface in comparison with their organics, and the proportion of organic Cl is relatively higher than that of organic F. Similar results are also obtained in the bulk by correlating the F and Cl contents with those of the unburnt carbon and other compositions in ash. Strong correlations of mercury retention with surface carbon–oxygen functional groups indicate that the C=O, OH/C−O and (O−C=O)−O on surface are of significant importance for mercury retention in fly ash. Their surface concentrations are related to coal type. The presence of Cl in fly ash helps with mercury retention. No obvious effect of F is observed.

  2. Quantitative renal scintigraphy: anatomo-clinical and biological correlation (concerning 51 mercury 197 renal scintigraphs)

    Pinganaud, J.-M.

    1976-01-01

    To find out whether the renal mercury uptake measurement in urology is a satisfactory way to judge the separate functional value of the kidneys the records of 51 patients were examined. The exploration took place as follows: - injection of 300 μCi 197 HgCl 2 , - measurement of the radioactivity fixed on each kidney, three days later, by means of a gamma camera. Of these 51 uptake measurements only one result appears inconsistent by excess. All the others agree perfectly with comparative observations. On the whole a close correlation is found between the renal mercury uptake measurement and the various clinical, urographic and anatomical data obtained on this group of patients. The method seems to be ideal because reliable, harmless and repeatable. Where dosimetry is concerned an injected dose of 300μCi delivers 9mrad to each kidney, 6mrad to the ovaries. By way of comparison it is interesting to note that an intraveinous urograph with 5 exposures delivers 500mrad to the ovaries. It is considered safe to repeat the examination 3 to 4 times on one patient [fr

  3. Growth rate correlates negatively with protein turnover in Arabidopsis accessions.

    Ishihara, Hirofumi; Moraes, Thiago Alexandre; Pyl, Eva-Theresa; Schulze, Waltraud X; Obata, Toshihiro; Scheffel, André; Fernie, Alisdair R; Sulpice, Ronan; Stitt, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies with Arabidopsis accessions revealed that biomass correlates negatively to dusk starch content and total protein, and positively to the maximum activities of enzymes in photosynthesis. We hypothesized that large accessions have lower ribosome abundance and lower rates of protein synthesis, and that this is compensated by lower rates of protein degradation. This would increase growth efficiency and allow more investment in photosynthetic machinery. We analysed ribosome abundance and polysome loading in 19 accessions, modelled the rates of protein synthesis and compared them with the observed rate of growth. Large accessions contained less ribosomes than small accessions, due mainly to cytosolic ribosome abundance falling at night in large accessions. The modelled rates of protein synthesis resembled those required for growth in large accessions, but were up to 30% in excess in small accessions. We then employed 13 CO 2 pulse-chase labelling to measure the rates of protein synthesis and degradation in 13 accessions. Small accessions had a slightly higher rate of protein synthesis and much higher rates of protein degradation than large accessions. Protein turnover was negligible in large accessions but equivalent to up to 30% of synthesised protein day -1 in small accessions. We discuss to what extent the decrease in growth in small accessions can be quantitatively explained by known costs of protein turnover and what factors may lead to the altered diurnal dynamics and increase of ribosome abundance in small accessions, and propose that there is a trade-off between protein turnover and maximisation of growth rate. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Overlapping Neural Correlates of Reading Emotionally Positive and Negative Adjectives

    Demirakca, Traute; Herbert, Cornelia; Kissler, Johanna; Ruf, Matthias; Wokrina, Tim; Ende, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    Comparison of positive and negative naturally read adjectives to neutral adjectives yielded an overlapping higher BOLD response in the occipital and the orbitofrontal cortex (gyrus rectus). Superior medial frontal gyrus and posterior cingulate gyrus showed higher BOLD response to negative adjectives and inferior frontal gyrus to positive adjectives. The overlap of activated regions and lack of pronounced distinct regions supports the assumption that the processing of negative and positive wor...

  5. Correlates between feeding ecology and mercury levels in historical and modern arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus.

    Natalia Bocharova

    Full Text Available Changes in concentration of pollutants and pathogen distribution can vary among ecotypes (e.g. marine versus terrestrial food resources. This may have important implications for the animals that reside within them. We examined 1 canid pathogen presence in an endangered arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus population and 2 relative total mercury (THg level as a function of ecotype ('coastal' or 'inland' for arctic foxes to test whether the presence of pathogens or heavy metal concentration correlate with population health. The Bering Sea populations on Bering and Mednyi Islands were compared to Icelandic arctic fox populations with respect to inland and coastal ecotypes. Serological and DNA based pathogen screening techniques were used to examine arctic foxes for pathogens. THg was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry from hair samples of historical and modern collected arctic foxes and samples from their prey species (hair and internal organs. Presence of pathogens did not correlate with population decline from Mednyi Island. However, THg concentration correlated strongly with ecotype and was reflected in the THg concentrations detected in available food sources in each ecotype. The highest concentration of THg was found in ecotypes where foxes depended on marine vertebrates for food. Exclusively inland ecotypes had low THg concentrations. The results suggest that absolute exposure to heavy metals may be less important than the feeding ecology and feeding opportunities of top predators such as arctic foxes which may in turn influence population health and stability. A higher risk to wildlife of heavy metal exposure correlates with feeding strategies that rely primarily on a marine based diet.

  6. Correlates between feeding ecology and mercury levels in historical and modern arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus).

    Bocharova, Natalia; Treu, Gabriele; Czirják, Gábor Árpád; Krone, Oliver; Stefanski, Volker; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Unnsteinsdóttir, Ester Rut; Hersteinsson, Páll; Schares, Gereon; Doronina, Lilia; Goltsman, Mikhail; Greenwood, Alex D

    2013-01-01

    Changes in concentration of pollutants and pathogen distribution can vary among ecotypes (e.g. marine versus terrestrial food resources). This may have important implications for the animals that reside within them. We examined 1) canid pathogen presence in an endangered arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) population and 2) relative total mercury (THg) level as a function of ecotype ('coastal' or 'inland') for arctic foxes to test whether the presence of pathogens or heavy metal concentration correlate with population health. The Bering Sea populations on Bering and Mednyi Islands were compared to Icelandic arctic fox populations with respect to inland and coastal ecotypes. Serological and DNA based pathogen screening techniques were used to examine arctic foxes for pathogens. THg was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry from hair samples of historical and modern collected arctic foxes and samples from their prey species (hair and internal organs). Presence of pathogens did not correlate with population decline from Mednyi Island. However, THg concentration correlated strongly with ecotype and was reflected in the THg concentrations detected in available food sources in each ecotype. The highest concentration of THg was found in ecotypes where foxes depended on marine vertebrates for food. Exclusively inland ecotypes had low THg concentrations. The results suggest that absolute exposure to heavy metals may be less important than the feeding ecology and feeding opportunities of top predators such as arctic foxes which may in turn influence population health and stability. A higher risk to wildlife of heavy metal exposure correlates with feeding strategies that rely primarily on a marine based diet.

  7. Kilometer-Scale Topographic Roughness of Mercury: Correlation with Geologic Features and Units

    Kreslavsky, Mikhail A.; Head, James W.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.

    2014-01-01

    We present maps of the topographic roughness of the northern circumpolar area of Mercury at kilometer scales. The maps are derived from range profiles obtained by the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) instrument onboard the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission. As measures of roughness, we used the interquartile range of profile curvature at three baselines: 0.7 kilometers, 2.8 kilometers, and 11 kilometers. The maps provide a synoptic overview of variations of typical topographic textures. They show a dichotomy between the smooth northern plains and rougher, more heavily cratered terrains. Analysis of the scale dependence of roughness indicates that the regolith on Mercury is thicker than on the Moon by approximately a factor of three. Roughness contrasts within northern volcanic plains of Mercury indicate a younger unit inside Goethe basin and inside another unnamed stealth basin. These new data permit interplanetary comparisons of topographic roughness.

  8. Study of correlations of positive and negative charged particles

    Takahashi, Y.; Chan, C.H.; Dong, B.L.; Duthie, J.G.; Gregory, J.C.; Hayashi, T.; Yokomi, H.; Christl, M.J.; Derrickson, J.H.; Eby, P.B.; Fountain, W.F.; Parnell, T.A.; Roberts, F.E.; Nagamiya, S.; Dake, S.; Tominaga, T.; Fuki, M.; Iyono, A.; Ogata, T.; Miyamura, O.

    1991-01-01

    Particle correlations of the central collision events of 32 S + Pb at 200 GeV/AMU have been studied by utilizing a Magnetic-Interferomagnetic-Emulsion-Chamber (MAGIC) detector. Particle angles, momentum, and charge-signs are measured for all produced charged tracks for each event. Two-particle correlation functions, C 2 = dN (vertical strokep 1 - p 2 vertical stroke = q)/dp 1 dp 2 , for (++), (--) and (+-) particles are examined. A source radius around 4 - 6 fm is observed for overall identical particle correlations, while unexpected short-range correlations of unlike-sign pairs are observed in the high rapidity region. An analysis of unlike-sign pairs in terms of resonance decays indicated that a large amount (40% relative to pions) of η or ω mesons (decaying into 3 π), or of scalar iso-scalar σ mesons (decaying into 2 π) would be required to explain some of the data. Multi-particle charge-sign clusters are recognized; however, their 'run-test' and 'conjugate-test' show small deviations from statistical fluctuations. (orig.)

  9. Characterizing quantum correlations. The genuine multiparticle negativity as entanglement monotone

    Hofmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Multiparticle entanglement is a useful resource in quantum information processing. It is involved in some quantum key distribution protocols, quantum metrology and many other physical applications and phenomena and can be experimentally observed in various quantum systems. Having said this, its classification, detection and especially its quantification is quite challenging. To this day there exists no general mixed state measure for genuine multiparticle entanglement, which can be computed and analytically treated at the same time. In this thesis the analytical characterisation of genuine multiparticle entanglement in quantum systems using the computable genuine multiparticle negativity as entanglement measure is provided. Furthermore, the notion of stabiliser states, which are families of symmetric genuine multiparticle entangled states, is generalised and a useful method to exploit local symmetries to speed up the computation of the investigated entanglement measure is provided. In the first part, after a short introduction, the genuine multiparticle negativity, which is defined as an optimisation problem known as semidefinite programming problem, is investigated. It is discussed, how this entanglement measure can be characterised in an analytical way. First, it is shown that the genuine multiparticle negativity with an appropriate renormalisation can be considered as coming from a mixed convex roof construction. Using this result, its analytical value for generalised n-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilingerdiagonal states and four-qubit cluster-diagonal states is determined. In the second part of this thesis, the genuine multiparticle negativity is used to study the scaling and spatial distribution of genuine multiparticle entanglement in three- and four-spin reduced states of a onedimensional spin model at its quantum phase transition. At the quantum phase transition of the one dimensional XY -model, which can be studied with analytic rigour, a logarithmic

  10. Mercury-induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of abnormal neurobehavior is correlated with sperm epimutations in zebrafish.

    Michael J Carvan

    Full Text Available Methylmercury (MeHg is a ubiquitous environmental neurotoxicant, with human exposures predominantly resulting from fish consumption. Developmental exposure of zebrafish to MeHg is known to alter their neurobehavior. The current study investigated the direct exposure and transgenerational effects of MeHg, at tissue doses similar to those detected in exposed human populations, on sperm epimutations (i.e., differential DNA methylation regions [DMRs] and neurobehavior (i.e., visual startle and spontaneous locomotion in zebrafish, an established human health model. F0 generation embryos were exposed to MeHg (0, 1, 3, 10, 30, and 100 nM for 24 hours ex vivo. F0 generation control and MeHg-exposed lineages were reared to adults and bred to yield the F1 generation, which was subsequently bred to the F2 generation. Direct exposure (F0 generation and transgenerational actions (F2 generation were then evaluated. Hyperactivity and visual deficit were observed in the unexposed descendants (F2 generation of the MeHg-exposed lineage compared to control. An increase in F2 generation sperm epimutations was observed relative to the F0 generation. Investigation of the DMRs in the F2 generation MeHg-exposed lineage sperm revealed associated genes in the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction and actin-cytoskeleton pathways being effected, which correlate to the observed neurobehavioral phenotypes. Developmental MeHg-induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of abnormal neurobehavior is correlated with sperm epimutations in F2 generation adult zebrafish. Therefore, mercury can promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease in zebrafish, which significantly impacts its environmental health considerations in all species including humans.

  11. Social jetlag negatively correlates with academic performance in undergraduates.

    Haraszti, Réka Ágnes; Ella, Krisztina; Gyöngyösi, Norbert; Roenneberg, Till; Káldi, Krisztina

    2014-06-01

    Discrepancies between sleep timing on workdays and weekends, also known as social jetlag (SJL), affect the majority of the population and have been found to be associated with increased health risk and health-impairing behaviors. In this study, we explored the relationship between SJL and academic performance in a sample of undergraduates of the Semmelweis University. We assessed SJL and other sleep-related parameters with the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ) (n = 753). Academic performance was measured by the average grade based on weekly test results as well as scores acquired on the final test (n = 247). The average mid-sleep point on free days in the Hungarian sample fits well the regression line plotted for longitudes within the Central European Time Zone and chronotypes, confirming that sunlight has a major impact on chronotype. Multivariate analysis showed negative effect of SJL on the weekly average grade (p = 0.028, n = 247) during the lecture term with its highly regular teaching schedules, while this association disappeared in the exam period (p = 0.871, n = 247) when students had no scheduled obligations (lower SJL). We also analyzed the relationship between the time of the weekly tests and academic performance and found that students with later sleep times on free days achieved worse in the morning (p = 0.017, n = 129), while the inverse tendency was observed for the afternoon test-takers (p = 0.10, n = 118). We did not find significant association between academic performance and sleep duration or sleep debt on work days. Our data suggest that circadian misalignment can have a significant negative effect on academic performance. One possible reason for this misalignment is socially enforced sleep times.

  12. Mercury species in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues after exposure to methyl mercury: correlation with autoimmune parameters during and after treatment in susceptible mice

    Havarinasab, Said; Björn, Erik; Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2007-01-01

    ). This study aimed at exploring the effect of MeHg with regard to HgIA, and especially the immunological events after stopping treatment, correlated with the presence of MeHg and Hg(2+) in the organs. Treatment of A.SW mice for 30 days with 4.2 mg MeHg/L drinking water (corresponding to approximately 420...... during the initial 6 weeks after stopping treatment, while all other HgIA features including antichromatin antibodies declined to control levels after 2-4 weeks. This indicates differences in either dose requirement or induction mechanisms for the different HgIA parameters. The selective accumulation...... together with the local demethylation increases the organ Hg(2+) concentration. MeHg is a well-known immunosuppressive agent, while Hg(2+) is associated with immunostimulation and autoimmunity especially in genetically susceptible rodents, creating a syndrome, i.e. mercury-induced autoimmunity (HgIA...

  13. On the relationship between positive and negative affect: Their correlation and their co-occurrence.

    Larsen, Jeff T; Hershfield, Hal E; Stastny, Bradley J; Hester, Neil

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the nature of emotional experience requires understanding the relationship between positive and negative affect. Two particularly important aspects of that relationship are the extent to which positive and negative affect are correlated with one another and the extent to which they co-occur. Some researchers have assumed that weak negative correlations imply greater co-occurrence (i.e., more mixed emotions) than do strong negative correlations, but others have noted that correlations may imply very little about co-occurrence. We investigated the relationship between the correlation between positive and negative affect and co-occurrence. Participants in each of 2 samples provided moment-to-moment happiness and sadness ratings as they watched an evocative film and listened to music. Results indicated (a) that 4 measures of the correlation between positive and negative affect were quite highly related to 1 another; (b) that the strength of the correlation between measures of mixed emotions varied considerably; (c) that correlational measures were generally (but not always) weakly correlated with mixed emotion measures; and (d) that bittersweet stimuli consistently led to elevations in mixed emotion measures but did not consistently weaken the correlation between positive and negative affect. Results highlight that the correlation between positive and negative affect and their co-occurrence are distinct aspects of the relationship between positive and negative affect. Such insight helps clarify the implications of existing work on age-related and cultural differences in emotional experience and sets the stage for greater understanding of the experience of mixed emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Study on the correlation between mercury contents in hair of lying-in women and their new-born babies by INAA

    Feng Weiyue; Qian Qinfang; Chai Zhifang

    1994-01-01

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been performed on 27 pairs of scalp hair samples for mothers and their new-born babies living in Haidian District, Beijing. The transfer of mercury in pregnant women and its accumulation in new-born babies were studied. The results showed that a significant positive correlation exists between the mercury contents in maternal and infant hair (γ = + 0.856, P < 0.001), and the infant level exceeded the maternal level by 12%. It was found that the concentration of mercury in maternal hair was gradually decreased during pregnancy

  15. Mercury species in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues after exposure to methyl mercury: Correlation with autoimmune parameters during and after treatment in susceptible mice

    Havarinasab, Said; Bjoern, Erik; Nielsen, Jesper B.; Hultman, Per

    2007-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is present in the environment as a result of the global cycling of mercury, although anthropogenic sources may dramatically increase the availability in confined geographical areas. Accumulation of MeHg in the aquatic food chain is the dominating way of exposure in mammals, which accumulate MeHg in all organs, including Brain. Demethylation has been described in the organs, especially in phagocytic cells, but mainly in the flora of the intestinal tract. While most of the inorganic mercury (Hg 2+ ) formed in the intestine is excreted, a fraction is reabsorbed which together with the local demethylation increases the organ Hg 2+ concentration. MeHg is a well-known immunosuppressive agent, while Hg 2+ is associated with immunostimulation and autoimmunity especially in genetically susceptible rodents, creating a syndrome, i.e. mercury-induced autoimmunity (HgIA). This study aimed at exploring the effect of MeHg with regard to HgIA, and especially the immunological events after stopping treatment, correlated with the presence of MeHg and Hg 2+ in the organs. Treatment of A.SW mice for 30 days with 4.2 mg MeHg/L drinking water (corresponding to approximately 420 μg Hg/kg body weight/day) caused all the HgIA features observed after primary treatment with inorganic Hg, except systemic immune complex deposits. The total Hg concentration was 5-fold higher in the kidneys as compared with lymph nodes, but the fraction of Hg 2+ was similar (17-20%). After stopping treatment, the renal and lymph node MeHg concentration declined according to first order kinetics during the initial 4-6 weeks, but then slower. A similar decline in the organ Hg 2+ concentration occurred during the initial 2 weeks after stopping treatment but then ceased, causing the Hg 2+ concentration to exceed that of MeHg in the lymph nodes and kidneys after 3 and 8 weeks, respectively. The selective increase in lymph node Hg 2+ fraction is likely to be due to demethylation of MeHg in the

  16. Quadrupole collective correlations and termination of the superdeformed bands in mercury

    Bonche, P.; Heenen, P.H.; Krieger, S.J.; Weiss, M.S.; Meyer, J.

    1990-03-01

    Fully self-consistent Generator Coordinate Method calculations have been performed on a basis of quadrupole constrained Hartree-Fock plus BCS wave functions for the five even mercury isotopes 190-198 Hg. The GCM results support conclusions drawn from previous HF+BCS calculations. The predicted evolution of superdeformed band head (shape isomer) properties as a function of the neutron number is consistent with the data. Using calculated transition matrix elements, we evaluate in-band versus out-of-band quadrupole decay and explain the sudden termination of the superdeformed band

  17. Plasma homovanillic acid levels in schizophrenic patients: correlation with negative symptoms.

    Dávila, Ricardo; Zumárraga, Mercedes; Basterreche, Nieves; Arrúe, Aurora; Anguiano, Juan B

    2007-05-30

    The relation between changes in the levels of plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) and clinical evolution during neuroleptic treatment of schizophrenic patients has not been satisfactorily characterized, as a number of conflicting findings have been reported. Significant correlations have generally been found using the assessment of positive symptoms as an index of clinical outcome. Nevertheless, attempts to correlate pHVA concentrations with negative symptoms have yielded contradictory results. With a view to evaluating if different responses in negative symptoms are associated with distinct pHVA profiles, we examined the levels of pHVA in 46 neuroleptic-free schizophrenic patients and in these patients after neuroleptic treatment. Negative and positive symptoms were also addressed before and after treatment. Our results reveal that at least two classes of negative symptoms exist; the clinical evolution of the first class of negative symptoms parallels that of positive symptoms, and clinical improvement correlates with reduced dopaminergic activity. In contrast, in the second class, reduced dopaminergic activity is associated with a further deterioration of negative symptoms. These findings corroborate the heterogeneity of negative symptoms and may contribute to a better definition of endophenotypes in the schizophrenic syndrome.

  18. Mercury and selenium levels, and selenium:mercury molar ratios of brain, muscle and other tissues in bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) from New Jersey, USA

    Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Donio, Mark; Pittfield, Taryn; Gochfeld, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A number of contaminants affect fish health, including mercury and selenium, and the selenium: mercury molar ratio. Recently the protective effects of selenium on methylmercury toxicity have been publicized, particularly for consumption of saltwater fish. Yet the relative ameliorating effects of selenium on toxicity within fish have not been examined, nor has the molar ratio in different tissues, (i.e. brain). We examined mercury and selenium levels in brain, kidney, liver, red and white muscle, and skin and scales in bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) from New Jersey to determine whether there were toxic levels of either metal, and we computed the selenium: mercury molar ratios by tissues. Total mercury averaged 0.32 ± 0.02 ppm wet weight in edible muscle and 0.09 ± 0.01 ppm in brain. Selenium concentration averaged 0.37 ± 0.03 in muscle and 0.36 ± 0.03 ppm in brain. There were significant differences in levels of mercury, selenium, and selenium: mercury molar ratios, among tissues. Mercury and selenium levels were correlated in kidney and skin/scales. Mercury levels were highest in kidney, intermediate in muscle and liver, and lowest in brain and skin/scales; selenium levels were also highest in kidney, intermediate in liver, and were an order of magnitude lower in the white muscle and brain. Mercury levels in muscle, kidney and skin/scales were positively correlated with fish size (length). Selenium levels in muscle, kidney and liver were positively correlated with fish length, but in brain; selenium levels were negatively correlated with fish length. The selenium: mercury molar ratio was negatively correlated with fish length for white muscle, liver, kidney, and brain, particularly for fish over 50 cm in length, suggesting that older fish experience less protective advantages of selenium against mercury toxicity than smaller fish, and that consumers of bluefish similarly receive less advantage from eating larger fish. PMID:23202378

  19. Does mercury contamination reduce body condition of endangered California clapper rails?

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Overton, Cory T.; Casazza, Michael L.; Takekawa, John Y.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Keister, Robin A.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    We examined mercury exposure in 133 endangered California clapper rails (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) within tidal marsh habitats of San Francisco Bay, California from 2006 to 2010. Mean total mercury concentrations were 0.56 μg/g ww in blood (range: 0.15–1.43), 9.87 μg/g fw in head feathers (3.37–22.0), 9.04 μg/g fw in breast feathers (3.68–20.2), and 0.57 μg/g fww in abandoned eggs (0.15–2.70). We recaptured 21 clapper rails and most had low within-individual variation in mercury. Differences in mercury concentrations were largely attributed to tidal marsh site, with some evidence for year and quadratic date effects. Mercury concentrations in feathers were correlated with blood, and slopes differed between sexes (R 2 = 0.58–0.76). Body condition was negatively related to mercury concentrations. Model averaged estimates indicated a potential decrease in body mass of 20–22 g (5–7%) over the observed range of mercury concentrations. Our results indicate the potential for detrimental effects of mercury contamination on endangered California clapper rails in tidal marsh habitats. - Highlights: ► We examined mercury in endangered California clapper rails within tidal marshes. ► Differences in mercury concentrations were largely attributed to tidal marsh site. ► Mercury concentrations in blood, feathers, and eggs were considered elevated. ► Body condition was negatively related to mercury concentrations. ► Results indicate detrimental effects of mercury on endangered clapper rails. - Mercury contamination in endangered California clapper rails was influenced by tidal marsh site and increased mercury resulted in reduced bird body condition.

  20. High Correlated Paternity Leads to Negative Effects on Progeny Performance in Two Mediterranean Shrub Species.

    Sofia Nora

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic habitat deterioration can promote changes in plant mating systems that subsequently may affect progeny performance, thereby conditioning plant recruitment for the next generation. However, very few studies yet tested mating system parameters other than outcrossing rates; and the direct effects of the genetic diversity of the pollen received by maternal plants (i.e. correlated paternity has often been overlooked. In this study, we investigated the relation between correlated paternity and progeny performance in two common Mediterranean shrubs, Myrtus communis and Pistacia lentiscus. To do so, we collected open-pollinated progeny from selected maternal plants, calculated mating system parameters using microsatellite genotyping and conducted sowing experiments under greenhouse and field conditions. Our results showed that some progeny fitness components were negatively affected by the high correlated paternity of maternal plants. In Myrtus communis, high correlated paternity had a negative effect on the proportion and timing of seedling emergence in the natural field conditions and in the greenhouse sowing experiment, respectively. In Pistacia lentiscus, seedling emergence time under field conditions was also negatively influenced by high correlated paternity and a progeny survival analysis in the field experiment showed greater mortality of seedlings from maternal plants with high correlated paternity. Overall, we found effects of correlated paternity on the progeny performance of Myrtus communis, a self-compatible species. Further, we also detected effects of correlated paternity on the progeny emergence time and survival in Pistacia lentiscus, an obligate outcrossed species. This study represents one of the few existing empirical examples which highlight the influence that correlated paternity may exert on progeny performance in multiple stages during early seedling growth.

  1. Systematic bias of correlation coefficient may explain negative accuracy of genomic prediction.

    Zhou, Yao; Vales, M Isabel; Wang, Aoxue; Zhang, Zhiwu

    2017-09-01

    Accuracy of genomic prediction is commonly calculated as the Pearson correlation coefficient between the predicted and observed phenotypes in the inference population by using cross-validation analysis. More frequently than expected, significant negative accuracies of genomic prediction have been reported in genomic selection studies. These negative values are surprising, given that the minimum value for prediction accuracy should hover around zero when randomly permuted data sets are analyzed. We reviewed the two common approaches for calculating the Pearson correlation and hypothesized that these negative accuracy values reflect potential bias owing to artifacts caused by the mathematical formulas used to calculate prediction accuracy. The first approach, Instant accuracy, calculates correlations for each fold and reports prediction accuracy as the mean of correlations across fold. The other approach, Hold accuracy, predicts all phenotypes in all fold and calculates correlation between the observed and predicted phenotypes at the end of the cross-validation process. Using simulated and real data, we demonstrated that our hypothesis is true. Both approaches are biased downward under certain conditions. The biases become larger when more fold are employed and when the expected accuracy is low. The bias of Instant accuracy can be corrected using a modified formula. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Correlates of mercury in fish from lakes near Clyde Forks, Ontario, Canada

    Ethier, A.L.M.; Scheuhammer, A.M.; Bond, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Subsurface soils near Clyde Forks, Ontario, Canada, can have naturally high concentrations of mercury (Hg) from local geological sources. To investigate Hg in local aquatic food webs, Hg was measured in fish dorsal muscle (mainly yellow perch [YP] and pumpkinseed sunfish [PS]) and surface sediments from 10 regional lakes. Water chemistry, along with fork length, weight, and stable isotopes (δ 15 N, δ 13 C, δ 34 S) in fish were also measured. No lake sediments had elevated (>0.3 μg/g dw) Hg, and average Hg concentrations in fish were not sufficiently high ( 13 C), and certain lake variables (e.g., pH for YP). PS with more pelagic feeding habits had higher δ 34 S and Hg than those with more littoral feeding habits. Potential biological linkages between fish Hg and δ 34 S, a parameter that may be related to the lake sulphate-reducing bacteria activity, requires further investigation. - Fish from lakes near a localized geological Hg source do not have elevated Hg concentrations

  3. Importance of Relativistic Effects and Electron Correlation in Structure Factors and Electron Density of Diphenyl Mercury and Triphenyl Bismuth.

    Bučinský, Lukáš; Jayatilaka, Dylan; Grabowsky, Simon

    2016-08-25

    This study investigates the possibility of detecting relativistic effects and electron correlation in single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments using the examples of diphenyl mercury (HgPh2) and triphenyl bismuth (BiPh3). In detail, the importance of electron correlation (ECORR), relativistic effects (REL) [distinguishing between total, scalar and spin-orbit (SO) coupling relativistic effects] and picture change error (PCE) on the theoretical electron density, its topology and its Laplacian using infinite order two component (IOTC) wave functions is discussed. This is to develop an understanding of the order of magnitude and shape of these different effects as they manifest in the electron density. Subsequently, the same effects are considered for the theoretical structure factors. It becomes clear that SO and PCE are negligible, but ECORR and scalar REL are important in low- and medium-order reflections on absolute and relative scales-not in the high-order region. As a further step, Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) and subsequent X-ray constrained wavefunction (XCW) fitting have been performed for the compound HgPh2 with various relativistic and nonrelativistic wave functions against the experimental structure factors. IOTC calculations of theoretical structure factors and relativistic HAR as well as relativistic XCW fitting are presented for the first time, accounting for both scalar and spin-orbit relativistic effects.

  4. Reliability of environmental sampling culture results using the negative binomial intraclass correlation coefficient.

    Aly, Sharif S; Zhao, Jianyang; Li, Ben; Jiang, Jiming

    2014-01-01

    The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) is commonly used to estimate the similarity between quantitative measures obtained from different sources. Overdispersed data is traditionally transformed so that linear mixed model (LMM) based ICC can be estimated. A common transformation used is the natural logarithm. The reliability of environmental sampling of fecal slurry on freestall pens has been estimated for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis using the natural logarithm transformed culture results. Recently, the negative binomial ICC was defined based on a generalized linear mixed model for negative binomial distributed data. The current study reports on the negative binomial ICC estimate which includes fixed effects using culture results of environmental samples. Simulations using a wide variety of inputs and negative binomial distribution parameters (r; p) showed better performance of the new negative binomial ICC compared to the ICC based on LMM even when negative binomial data was logarithm, and square root transformed. A second comparison that targeted a wider range of ICC values showed that the mean of estimated ICC closely approximated the true ICC.

  5. Radar correlated imaging for extended target by the combination of negative exponential restraint and total variation

    Qian, Tingting; Wang, Lianlian; Lu, Guanghua

    2017-07-01

    Radar correlated imaging (RCI) introduces the optical correlated imaging technology to traditional microwave imaging, which has raised widespread concern recently. Conventional RCI methods neglect the structural information of complex extended target, which makes the quality of recovery result not really perfect, thus a novel combination of negative exponential restraint and total variation (NER-TV) algorithm for extended target imaging is proposed in this paper. The sparsity is measured by a sequential order one negative exponential function, then the 2D total variation technique is introduced to design a novel optimization problem for extended target imaging. And the proven alternating direction method of multipliers is applied to solve the new problem. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm could realize high resolution imaging efficiently for extended target.

  6. Gene–Environment Correlation Underlying the Association Between Parental Negativity and Adolescent Externalizing Problems

    Marceau, Kristine; Horwitz, Briana N.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David; Narusyte, Jurgita; Spotts, Erica L.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of adolescent or parent-based twins suggest that gene–environment correlation (rGE) is an important mechanism underlying parent–adolescent relationships. However, information on how parents′ and children’s genes and environments influence correlated parent and child behaviors is needed to distinguish types of rGE. The present study used the novel Extended Children of Twins model to distinguish types of rGE underlying associations between negative parenting and adolescent (age 11–22 years) externalizing problems with a Swedish sample of 909 twin parents and their adolescent offspring and a U.S.-based sample of 405 adolescent siblings and their parents. Results suggest that evocative rGE, not passive rGE or direct environmental effects of parenting on adolescent externalizing, explains associations between maternal and paternal negativity and adolescent externalizing problems. PMID:23573986

  7. Negative moods correlate with craving in female methamphetamine users enrolled in compulsory detoxification

    Shen Wenwen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methamphetamine (METH use, especially in females, has become a growing public health concern in China. In this study, we aimed to characterize the factors that contributed to drug craving in female METH users under isolated compulsory detoxification. We characterized factors contributing to craving such as duration of detoxification, history of drug use and self-reported mood state. Methods Subjects (N=113 undergoing a 1- to 3-year METH detoxification program were recruited from the Zhejiang Compulsory Detoxification Center for Women. The Questionnaire of METH-use Urge (QMU was used to evaluate the level of craving for METH. The Abbreviate Profile of Mood States (A-POMS was applied as an assessment for the negative mood disturbances. Results The participants were at a mean age of 25.2, primarily lowly educated and unemployed, and single. Smoking was the only route of METH administration at an average dose of 0.5 g/day, and 4 times/week. The reported craving level was positively correlated with the negative mood disturbances and the weekly dose of METH, but independent of the duration of detoxification. Furthermore, all five aspects of negative mood disturbances, including fatigue, bewilderment, anxiety, depression and hostility, were shown to positively correlate to the self-reported craving level after controlling for weekly dose of METH. Conclusions The data demonstrate a robust correlation between mood distress and craving for METH. Our results call for close evaluation of mood distress in treatment of METH users in China.

  8. Serum acylated ghrelin is negatively correlated with the insulin resistance in the CODING study.

    Peyvand Amini

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid orexigenic peptide synthesized mainly in the stomach. Acute administration of ghrelin has been found to decrease insulin secretion. However, little data is available regarding whether ghrelin contributes to the long-term regulation of insulin resistance at the population level. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between circulating ghrelin and insulin resistance in a large population based study.A total of 2082 CODING study (Complex Diseases in the Newfoundland population: Environment and Genetics subjects were assessed. Subjects were of at least third generation Newfoundland descent, between the ages of 20 and 79 years, and had no serious metabolic, cardiovascular, or endocrine diseases. Ghrelin was measured with an Enzyme Immunoassay method. Insulin and fasting glucose were measured by Immulite 2500 autoanalyzer and Lx20 clinical chemistry analyzer, respectively. Homeostatic Model Assessment of β cell function (HOMA-β and Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR and Quantitative Insulin-sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI were used for measurement of insulin resistance.Partial correlation analyses showed a significant negative correlation between circulating ghrelin and insulin level and insulin resistance in the entire cohort and also in men and women separately. The aforementioned correlation was independent of age, percentage of trunk fat and HDL-cholesterol. According to menopausal status, only pre-menopausal women revealed negative correlations.Our results suggest that except for postmenopausal women, high circulating ghrelin level is associated with lower insulin resistance in the general population.

  9. The negative ultraslow potential, electrophysiological correlate of infarction in the human cortex.

    Lückl, Janos; Lemale, Coline L; Kola, Vasilis; Horst, Viktor; Khojasteh, Uldus; Oliveira-Ferreira, Ana I; Major, Sebastian; Winkler, Maren K L; Kang, Eun-Jeung; Schoknecht, Karl; Martus, Peter; Hartings, Jed A; Woitzik, Johannes; Dreier, Jens P

    2018-06-01

    Spreading depolarizations are characterized by abrupt, near-complete breakdown of the transmembrane ion gradients, neuronal oedema, mitochondrial depolarization, glutamate excitotoxicity and activity loss (depression). Spreading depolarization induces either transient hyperperfusion in normal tissue; or hypoperfusion (inverse coupling = spreading ischaemia) in tissue at risk for progressive injury. The concept of the spreading depolarization continuum is critical since many spreading depolarizations have intermediate characteristics, as opposed to the two extremes of spreading depolarization in either severely ischaemic or normal tissue. In animals, the spreading depolarization extreme in ischaemic tissue is characterized by prolonged depolarization durations, in addition to a slow baseline variation termed the negative ultraslow potential. The negative ultraslow potential is initiated by spreading depolarization and similar to the negative direct current (DC) shift of prolonged spreading depolarization, but specifically refers to a negative potential component during progressive recruitment of neurons into cell death in the wake of spreading depolarization. We here first quantified the spreading depolarization-initiated negative ultraslow potential in the electrocorticographic DC range and the activity depression in the alternate current range after middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Relevance of these variables to the injury was supported by significant correlations with the cortical infarct volume and neurological outcome after 72 h of survival. We then identified negative ultraslow potential-containing clusters of spreading depolarizations in 11 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. The human platinum/iridium-recorded negative ultraslow potential showed a tent-like shape. Its amplitude of 45.0 (39.0, 69.4) mV [median (first, third quartile)] was 6.6 times larger and its duration of 3.7 (3.3, 5.3) h was 34.9 times longer than the negative DC

  10. Leptin levels are negatively correlated with 2-arachidonoylglycerol in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with osteoarthritis.

    James Nicholson

    Full Text Available There is compelling evidence in humans that peripheral endocannabinoid signaling is disrupted in obesity. However, little is known about the corresponding central signaling. Here, we have investigated the relationship between gender, leptin, body mass index (BMI and levels of the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of primarily overweight to obese patients with osteoarthritis.Patients (20 females, 15 males, age range 44-78 years, BMI range 24-42 undergoing total knee arthroplasty for end-stage osteoarthritis were recruited for the study. Endocannabinoids were quantified by liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry. AEA and 2-AG levels in the serum and CSF did not correlate with either age or BMI. However, 2-AG levels in the CSF, but not serum, correlated negatively with CSF leptin levels (Spearman's ρ -0.48, P=0.0076, n=30. No such correlations were observed for AEA and leptin.In the patient sample investigated, there is a negative association between 2-AG and leptin levels in the CSF. This is consistent with pre-clinical studies in animals, demonstrating that leptin controls the levels of hypothalamic endocannabinoids that regulate feeding behavior.

  11. Leptin levels are negatively correlated with 2-arachidonoylglycerol in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with osteoarthritis.

    Nicholson, James; Azim, Syed; Rebecchi, Mario J; Galbavy, William; Feng, Tian; Reinsel, Ruth; Rizwan, Sabeen; Fowler, Christopher J; Benveniste, Helene; Kaczocha, Martin

    2015-01-01

    There is compelling evidence in humans that peripheral endocannabinoid signaling is disrupted in obesity. However, little is known about the corresponding central signaling. Here, we have investigated the relationship between gender, leptin, body mass index (BMI) and levels of the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of primarily overweight to obese patients with osteoarthritis. Patients (20 females, 15 males, age range 44-78 years, BMI range 24-42) undergoing total knee arthroplasty for end-stage osteoarthritis were recruited for the study. Endocannabinoids were quantified by liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry. AEA and 2-AG levels in the serum and CSF did not correlate with either age or BMI. However, 2-AG levels in the CSF, but not serum, correlated negatively with CSF leptin levels (Spearman's ρ -0.48, P=0.0076, n=30). No such correlations were observed for AEA and leptin. In the patient sample investigated, there is a negative association between 2-AG and leptin levels in the CSF. This is consistent with pre-clinical studies in animals, demonstrating that leptin controls the levels of hypothalamic endocannabinoids that regulate feeding behavior.

  12. Negative relationship behavior is more important than positive: Correlates of outcomes during stressful life events.

    Rivers, Alannah Shelby; Sanford, Keith

    2018-04-01

    When people who are married or cohabiting face stressful life situations, their ability to cope may be associated with two separate dimensions of interpersonal behavior: positive and negative. These behaviors can be assessed with the Couple Resilience Inventory (CRI). It was expected that scales on this instrument would correlate with outcome variables regarding life well-being, stress, and relationship satisfaction. It was also expected that effects for negative behavior would be larger than effects for positive and that the effects might be curvilinear. Study 1 included 325 married or cohabiting people currently experiencing nonmedical major life stressors and Study 2 included 154 married or cohabiting people with current, serious medical conditions. All participants completed an online questionnaire including the CRI along with an alternate measure of couple behavior (to confirm scale validity), a measure of general coping style (to serve as a covariate), and measures of outcome variables regarding well-being, quality of life, perceived stress, and relationship satisfaction. The effects for negative behavior were larger than effects for positive in predicting most outcomes, and many effects were curvilinear. Notably, results remained significant after controlling for general coping style, and scales measuring positive and negative behavior demonstrated comparable levels of validity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Vertical Distribution of Total Mercury and Mercury Methylation in a Landfill Site in Japan

    Jing Yang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a neurotoxin, with certain organic forms of the element being particularly harmful to humans. The Minamata Convention was adopted to reduce the intentional use and emission of mercury. Because mercury is an element, it cannot be decomposed. Mercury-containing products and mercury used for various processes will eventually enter the waste stream, and landfill sites will become a mercury sink. While landfill sites can be a source of mercury pollution, the behavior of mercury in solid waste within a landfill site is still not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the depth profile of mercury, the levels of methyl mercury (MeHg, and the factors controlling methylation in an old landfill site that received waste for over 30 years. Three sampling cores were selected, and boring sampling was conducted to a maximum depth of 18 m, which reached the bottom layer of the landfill. Total mercury (THg and MeHg were measured in the samples to determine the characteristics of mercury at different depths. Bacterial species were identified by 16S rRNA amplification and sequencing, because the methylation process is promoted by a series of genes. It was found that the THg concentration was 19–975 ng/g, with a geometric mean of 298 ng/g, which was slightly less than the 400 ng/g concentration recorded 30 years previously. In some samples, MeHg accounted for up to 15–20% of THg, which is far greater than the general level in soils and sediments, although the source of MeHg was unclear. The genetic data indicated that hgcA was present mostly in the upper and lower layers of the three cores, merA was almost as much as hgcA, while the level of merB was hundreds of times less than those of the other two genes. A significant correlation was found between THg and MeHg, as well as between MeHg and MeHg/THg. In addition, a negative correlation was found between THg and merA. The coexistence of the three genes indicated that both

  14. Radiation propagation in random media: From positive to negative correlations in high-frequency fluctuations

    Davis, Anthony B.; Mineev-Weinstein, Mark B.

    2011-01-01

    We survey research on radiation propagation or ballistic particle motion through media with randomly variable material density, and we investigate the topic with an emphasis on very high spatial frequencies. Our new results are based on a specific variability model consisting of a zero-mean Gaussian scaling noise riding on a constant value that is large enough with respect to the amplitude of the noise to yield overwhelmingly non-negative density. We first generalize known results about sub-exponential transmission from regular functions, which are almost everywhere continuous, to merely 'measurable' ones, which are almost everywhere discontinuous (akin to statistically stationary noises), with positively correlated fluctuations. We then use the generalized measure-theoretic formulation to address negatively correlated stochastic media without leaving the framework of conventional (continuum-limit) transport theory. We thus resolve a controversy about recent claims that only discrete-point process approaches can accommodate negative correlations, i.e., anti-clustering of the material particles. We obtain in this case the predicted super-exponential behavior, but it is rather weak. Physically, and much like the alternative discrete-point process approach, the new model applies most naturally to scales commensurate with the inter-particle distance in the material, i.e., when the notion of particle density breaks down due to Poissonian-or maybe not-so-Poissonian-number-count fluctuations occur in the sample volume. At the same time, the noisy structure must prevail up to scales commensurate with the mean-free-path to be of practical significance. Possible applications are discussed.

  15. Absorption of Mercury from Polluted Soil by Rice Plant(Case Study: Farms of Amol Industrial Suburban Area

    Fatemeh Ahmadipour

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mercury has recognized as one of the most toxic heavy metals, which many industries generate and dispose to the environment. Few studies are done about mercury accumulation in soil and bioconcentration and transfer factor of mercury in rice plant cultivated in industrial areas. In this study samples were taken randomly from 10 farms in vicinity of Amol industrial suburban area with three replications. Samples were measured by the LECO AMA 254 Advanced Mercury Analyzer according to ASTM D-6733method. Also the parameters related to the quality of the soil were measured. The mean of mercury concentration in soil, root, stem and grain were found 0.031 ±0.012 mg/kg, 0.074 ±0.0163 mg/kg, 0.058 ±0.008 mg/kg and 0.051 ±0.0083 mg/kg respectively. The calculated transfer factor of mercury to various organs and bioconcentration factor were < 1 and 2.46 respectively. Pearson correlation test showed a positive correlation between mercury concentration in soil with mercury concentration in grain and also a negative correlation between pH with mercury concentration in root and soil. It is concluded that rice plant have high potential for phytoremediation of mercury from soil.

  16. Testosterone levels in healthy men correlate negatively with serotonin 4 receptor binding

    Perfalk, Erik; Cunha-Bang, Sofi da; Holst, Klaus K

    2017-01-01

    The serotonergic system integrates sex steroid information and plays a central role in mood and stress regulation, cognition, appetite and sleep. This interplay may be critical for likelihood of developing depressive episodes, at least in a subgroup of sensitive individuals. The serotonin 4...... positron emission tomography in a group of 41 healthy men. We estimated global 5-HT4R binding using a latent variable model framework, which models shared correlation between 5-HT4R across multiple brain regions (hippocampus, amygdala, posterior and anterior cingulate, thalamus, pallidostriatum...... and neocortex). We tested whether testosterone and estradiol predict global 5-HT4R, adjusting for age. We found that testosterone, but not estradiol, correlated negatively with global 5-HT4R levels (p=0.02) suggesting that men with high levels of testosterone have higher cerebral serotonergic tonus. Our...

  17. Interspecific and intraspecific variation in selenium:mercury molar ratios in saltwater fish from the Aleutians: Potential protection on mercury toxicity by selenium

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Donio, Mark; Pittfield, Taryn

    2014-01-01

    A number of factors affect the consumption risk from mercury in fish, including mercury levels, seasonal patterns of mercury concentrations, human consumption patterns, and sensitive populations (e.g. pregnant women, fetuses, young children, and yet unknown genetic factors). Recently the protective effects of selenium on methylmercury toxicity have been publicized, particularly for saltwater fish. We examine levels of mercury and selenium in several species of fish and seabirds from the Aleutians (Alaska), determine selenium:mercury molar ratios, and examine species-specific and individual variation in the ratios as a means of exploring the use of the ratio in risk assessment and risk management. Variation among species was similar for mercury and selenium. There was significant inter-specific and intraspecific variation in selenium:mercury molar ratios for fish, and for birds. The mean selenium:mercury molar ratios for all fish and bird species were above 1, meaning there was an excess of selenium relative to mercury. It has been suggested that an excess of selenium confers some protective advantage for salt water fish, although the degree of excess necessary is unclear. The selenium:mercury molar ratio was significantly correlated negatively with total length for most fish species, but not for dolly varden. Some individuals of Pacific cod, yellow irish lord, rock greenling, Pacific halibut, dolly varden, and to a lesser extent, flathead sole, had selenium:mercury ratios below 1. No bird muscle had an excess of mercury (ratio below 1), and only glaucous-winged gull and pigeon guillemot had ratios between 1 and 5. There was a great deal of variation in selenium:mercury molar ratios within fish species, and within bird species, making it difficult and impractical to use these ratios in risk assessment or management, for fish advisories, or for consumers, particularly given the difficulty of interpreting the ratios. PMID:22664537

  18. Correlation of circRNAs’ differential expression to negative- positive symptoms of patients with schizophrenia

    Ling-ming KONG

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the correlation of circRNAs' expression level to the negative- and positive symptoms of patients with schizophrenia (SZ. Methods Gene chip screening was performed with the peripheral blood samples from each five of SZ patients and normal controls. Nine circRNAs showing differentiate expression were confirmed, and further verification was done by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR in 102 SZ patients and 103 normal controls. All the SZ patients were assessed with Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS. Results It was revealed that the expression levels of circRNA_102101, circRNA_102315, circRNA_104597, circRNA_101835 and circRNA_101836 were significantly down-regulated (P<0.01 or P<0.05, and circRNA_103102 and circRNA_103704 were up-regulated in SZ group (P<0.01. The ΔCT value of circRNA_102101 and circRNA_103102 was positively correlated to the positive symptoms (P<0.01 or P<0.05, and the ΔCT value of circRNA_103704 also showed positive correlation with positive symptoms and general psychopathological symptoms (P<0.01 or P<0.05. The ΔCT values of circRNA_102101, circRNA_103102, circRNA_102315, circRNA_103704 and circRNA_102802 were correlated with thinking disorder (P<0.01 or P<0.05, and the ΔCT values of circRNA_102101, circRNA_103102, circRNA_104597, circRNA_103704 and circRNA_102802 were correlated with the activation (P<0.01 or P<0.05. The ΔCT values of circRNA_102101, circRNA_103102, circRNA_103704 and circRNA_102802 were positively correlated with paranoid (P<0.01 or P<0.05, and of circRNA_102101, circRNA_103102, circRNA_103704 and circRNA_102802 were markedly correlated with assault (P<0.01 or P<0.05. Therefore, circRNA_103704 was chosen into regressive equation of positive symptoms (P<0.01, and circRNA_103704 and circRNA_102315 were chosen into regressive equation of general pathological findings (P<0.01 or P<0.05. Conclusion The expression levels of circRNA_103704 and circRNA_103102 are obviously up

  19. Negative Correlation between the Diffusion Coefficient and Transcriptional Activity of the Glucocorticoid Receptor.

    Mikuni, Shintaro; Yamamoto, Johtaro; Horio, Takashi; Kinjo, Masataka

    2017-08-25

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a transcription factor, which interacts with DNA and other cofactors to regulate gene transcription. Binding to other partners in the cell nucleus alters the diffusion properties of GR. Raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) was applied to quantitatively characterize the diffusion properties of EGFP labeled human GR (EGFP-hGR) and its mutants in the cell nucleus. RICS is an image correlation technique that evaluates the spatial distribution of the diffusion coefficient as a diffusion map. Interestingly, we observed that the averaged diffusion coefficient of EGFP-hGR strongly and negatively correlated with its transcriptional activities in comparison to that of EGFP-hGR wild type and mutants with various transcriptional activities. This result suggests that the decreasing of the diffusion coefficient of hGR was reflected in the high-affinity binding to DNA. Moreover, the hyper-phosphorylation of hGR can enhance the transcriptional activity by reduction of the interaction between the hGR and the nuclear corepressors.

  20. Free fatty acid has a negative correlation with myocardial uptake of FDG

    Eo, Jae Seon; Lee, Won Woo; Park, Eun Kyung; So, Young; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Kim, Sang Eun [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Free fatty acid (FFA) is a marker of insulin resistance. Myocardial uptake of FDG is influenced by insulin resistance. We investigated the correlation of FFA and myocardial uptake of FDG in whole body PET. We measured serum FFA levels in consecutive 112 patients who underwent whole body FDG PET due to malignancy work up. Twelve patients with diabetes. 13 with liver disease, 4 with suspicious ischemic heart disease. 1 with steroid therapy, and 10 with final diagnosis of benign disease were excluded. After fasting of diet or beverages for at least 6 hours, blood was aspirated at peripheral vein for measurement of FFA and glucose in serum. FDG was injected as a dose of 0.14 mCi/kg body weight. Fifty minutes later, whole body PET scan was performed from skull base to upper thigh. Maximum SUV (maxSUV) using lean body weight was obtained in heart. liver, cerebellum, muscle and malignant tissues. Finally 72 patients (M:F 45:27, age 56.9{+-}15.8 years) were enrolled. There were 27 non small cell lung cancer, 14 lymphoma, 10 esophageal cancer, 3 breast cancer, 3 colon cancer, 3 renal cell cancer, 2 melanoma, and 10 other cancers. Serum glucose level was 96.6{+-}14.3 mg/dL. Serum FFA level was 720.0{+-}315.2 uEq/L. MaxSUV of main malignant tissue ranged from 0.7 to 11.5 (mean 4.9{+-}2.6). MaxSUV of each organs were 1.0 to 14.6 (mean 4.0{+-}3.0) in heart, 2.7 to 6.4 (mean 3.9{+-}0.6) in cerebellum, 1.0 to 2.6 (mean 1.9{+-}0.3) in liver, and 0.6 to 1.1 (mean 0.8{+-}0.1) in gluteal muscle. FFA and maxSUV of heart had a negative correlation. The best fitting line was MaxSUV of Heart = -4.4583 x In(FF A) + 32.964. But FFA had no correlation with any other parameters like serum glucose level, and MaxSUV of cerebellum, muscle, liver and malignant tissues. We found a negative correlation between FFA levels and myocardial uptake of FDG. FFA modifying drugs such as nicotinic acid derivatives may have influence on myocardial uptake of FDG.

  1. Mercury exposure may suppress baseline corticosterone levels in juvenile birds.

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T; Herzog, Mark P

    2012-06-05

    Mercury exposure has been associated with a wide variety of negative reproductive responses in birds, however few studies have examined the potential for chick impairment via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The HPA axis regulates corticosterone levels during periods of stress. We examined the relationship between baseline fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations and mercury concentrations in down feathers of recently hatched (feathers (decreasing by 45% across the range of observed mercury concentrations) while accounting for stronger positive correlations between corticosterone concentrations and colony nest abundance and date. These results indicate that chronic mercury exposure may suppress baseline corticosterone concentrations in tern chicks and suggests that a juvenile bird's ability to respond to stress may be reduced via the downregulation of the HPA axis.

  2. Docosahexaenoic acid counteracts attenuation of CD95-induced cell death by inorganic mercury

    Gill, Randall; Lanni, Lydia; Jen, K.-L. Catherine; McCabe, Michael J.; Rosenspire, Allen

    2015-01-01

    In the United States the principal environmental exposure to mercury is through dietary consumption of sea food. Although the mechanism by which low levels of mercury affect the nervous system is not well established, epidemiological studies suggest that low level exposure of pregnant women to dietary mercury can adversely impact cognitive development in their children, but that Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the most prominent n-polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-PUFA) present in fish may counteract negative effects of mercury on the nervous system. Aside from effects on the nervous system, epidemiological and animal studies have also suggested that low level mercury exposure may be a risk factor for autoimmune disease. However unlike the nervous system where a mechanism linking mercury to impaired cognitive development remains elusive, we have previously suggested a potential mechanism linking low level mercury exposures to immune system dysfunction and autoimmunity. In the immune system it is well established that disruption of CD95 mediated apoptosis leads to autoimmune disease. We have previously shown in vitro as well as in vivo that in lymphocytes burdened with low levels of mercury, CD95 mediated cell death is impaired. In this report we now show that DHA counteracts the negative effect of mercury on CD95 signaling in T lymphocytes. T cells which have been pre-exposed to DHA are able to cleave pro-caspase 3 and efficiently signal programmed cell death through the CD95 signaling pathway, whether or not they are burdened with low levels of mercury. Thus DHA may lower the risk of autoimmune disease after low level mercury exposures. - Highlights: • Inorganic mercury (Hg 2+ ) interferes with CD95 mediated cell death in Jurkat T cells • DHA restores the ability of CD95 to signal cell death in Hg 2+ intoxicated T cells • The restoration of CD95 mediated cell death by DHA is correlated with increased activation of Caspase 3

  3. Docosahexaenoic acid counteracts attenuation of CD95-induced cell death by inorganic mercury

    Gill, Randall [Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Wayne State University, Detroit MI (United States); Lanni, Lydia; Jen, K.-L. Catherine [Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Wayne State University, Detroit MI (United States); McCabe, Michael J. [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester, Rochester NY (United States); Rosenspire, Allen, E-mail: arosenspire@wayne.edu [Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Wayne State University, Detroit MI (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In the United States the principal environmental exposure to mercury is through dietary consumption of sea food. Although the mechanism by which low levels of mercury affect the nervous system is not well established, epidemiological studies suggest that low level exposure of pregnant women to dietary mercury can adversely impact cognitive development in their children, but that Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the most prominent n-polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-PUFA) present in fish may counteract negative effects of mercury on the nervous system. Aside from effects on the nervous system, epidemiological and animal studies have also suggested that low level mercury exposure may be a risk factor for autoimmune disease. However unlike the nervous system where a mechanism linking mercury to impaired cognitive development remains elusive, we have previously suggested a potential mechanism linking low level mercury exposures to immune system dysfunction and autoimmunity. In the immune system it is well established that disruption of CD95 mediated apoptosis leads to autoimmune disease. We have previously shown in vitro as well as in vivo that in lymphocytes burdened with low levels of mercury, CD95 mediated cell death is impaired. In this report we now show that DHA counteracts the negative effect of mercury on CD95 signaling in T lymphocytes. T cells which have been pre-exposed to DHA are able to cleave pro-caspase 3 and efficiently signal programmed cell death through the CD95 signaling pathway, whether or not they are burdened with low levels of mercury. Thus DHA may lower the risk of autoimmune disease after low level mercury exposures. - Highlights: • Inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) interferes with CD95 mediated cell death in Jurkat T cells • DHA restores the ability of CD95 to signal cell death in Hg{sup 2+} intoxicated T cells • The restoration of CD95 mediated cell death by DHA is correlated with increased activation of Caspase 3.

  4. Canine antibody response to Phlebotomus perniciosus bites negatively correlates with the risk of Leishmania infantum transmission.

    Michaela Vlkova

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phlebotomine sand flies are blood-sucking insects that can transmit Leishmania parasites. Hosts bitten by sand flies develop an immune response against sand fly salivary antigens. Specific anti-saliva IgG indicate the exposure to the vector and may also help to estimate the risk of Leishmania spp. transmission. In this study, we examined the canine antibody response against the saliva of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector of Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean Basin, and characterized salivary antigens of this sand fly species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sera of dogs bitten by P. perniciosus under experimental conditions and dogs naturally exposed to sand flies in a L. infantum focus were tested by ELISA for the presence of anti-P. perniciosus antibodies. Antibody levels positively correlated with the number of blood-fed P. perniciosus females. In naturally exposed dogs the increase of specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 was observed during sand fly season. Importantly, Leishmania-positive dogs revealed significantly lower anti-P. perniciosus IgG2 compared to Leishmania-negative ones. Major P. perniciosus antigens were identified by western blot and mass spectrometry as yellow proteins, apyrases and antigen 5-related proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that monitoring canine antibody response to sand fly saliva in endemic foci could estimate the risk of L. infantum transmission. It may also help to control canine leishmaniasis by evaluating the effectiveness of anti-vector campaigns. Data from the field study where dogs from the Italian focus of L. infantum were naturally exposed to P. perniciosus bites indicates that the levels of anti-P. perniciosus saliva IgG2 negatively correlate with the risk of Leishmania transmission. Thus, specific IgG2 response is suggested as a risk marker of L. infantum transmission for dogs.

  5. Correlates of trading sex for methamphetamine in a sample of HIV-negative heterosexual methamphetamine users.

    Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Zians, Jim; Patterson, Thomas L

    2011-01-01

    While many studies have examined correlates of trading sex for money, few have examined factors associated with exclusive trading of sex for drugs. We identified sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychological correlates of trading sex for methamphetamine in a sample of HIV-negative heterosexual men and women who were enrolled in a sexual risk reduction intervention in San Diego, California. Of 342 participants, 26% overall (21% of males and 31% of females) reported trading sex for methamphetamine in the past two months. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that recently trading sex for methamphetamine was independently associated with being female, homeless, binging on methamphetamine, sexual victimization in the past two months, engaging in anal sex 24 or more times in the past two months, and higher sexual compulsivity scores. Effective interventions for this high-risk population should consider gender-focused counseling for sexual abuse, motivational enhancement therapy, social-cognitive skills training, as well as enhanced access and utilization of social services, including drug treatment.

  6. Increased serum urea to creatinine ratio and its negative correlation with arterial pressure in canine babesiosis.

    Zygner, Wojciech; Gójska-Zygner, Olga

    2014-09-01

    The increase of the serum urea to creatinine ratio (UCR) was observed in dogs infected with Babesia canis. Previous studies have suggested that decrease of blood pressure can be one of the reasons for this phenomenon. In this work statistically significant increase of the UCR was observed in dogs with babesiosis. Comparison of the UCR between 23 azotaemic dogs and 25 non-azotaemic dogs infected with Babesia canis showed statistically significantly higher mean of the UCR in azotaemic dogs. Correlations between UCR and systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure (SAP, DAP and MAP) in 48 dogs infected with B. canis were negative (UCR and SAP: r = -0.3909; UCR and DAP: r = -0.3182; UCR and MAP: r = -0.3682) and statistically significant (p high, and there was no statistically significant correlation between UCR and arterial pressures in azotaemic dogs. Thus, it seems that decrease of blood pressure in dogs with babesiosis explains only partially the cause of increased UCR in infected dogs. The other authors suggested hyperureagenesis and myocardial injury as a potential reason for the increased UCR in canine babesiosis. Thus, further studies are needed to determine causes of increased UCR in dogs with babesiosis, especially on the connection between UCR changes and the concentrations of plasma cardiac troponins and ammonia, and the occurrence of occult blood on fecal examination.

  7. Body conscious? Interoceptive awareness, measured by heartbeat perception, is negatively correlated with self-objectification.

    Ainley, Vivien; Tsakiris, Manos

    2013-01-01

    'Self-objectification' is the tendency to experience one's body principally as an object, to be evaluated for its appearance rather than for its effectiveness. Within objectification theory, it has been proposed that self-objectification accounts for the poorer interoceptive awareness observed in women, as measured by heartbeat perception. Our study is, we believe, the first specifically to test this relationship. Using a well-validated and reliable heartbeat perception task, we measured interoceptive awareness in women and compared this with their scores on the Self-Objectification Questionnaire, the Self-Consciousness Scale and the Body Consciousness Questionnaire. Interoceptive awareness was negatively correlated with self-objectification. Interoceptive awareness, public body consciousness and private body consciousness together explained 31% of the variance in self-objectification. However, private body consciousness was not significantly correlated with interoceptive awareness, which may explain the many nonsignificant results in self-objectification studies that have used private body consciousness as a measure of body awareness. We propose interoceptive awareness, assessed by heartbeat perception, as a measure of body awareness in self-objectification studies. Our findings have implications for those clinical conditions, in women, which are characterised by self-objectification and low interoceptive awareness, such as eating disorders.

  8. Body conscious? Interoceptive awareness, measured by heartbeat perception, is negatively correlated with self-objectification.

    Vivien Ainley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: 'Self-objectification' is the tendency to experience one's body principally as an object, to be evaluated for its appearance rather than for its effectiveness. Within objectification theory, it has been proposed that self-objectification accounts for the poorer interoceptive awareness observed in women, as measured by heartbeat perception. Our study is, we believe, the first specifically to test this relationship. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a well-validated and reliable heartbeat perception task, we measured interoceptive awareness in women and compared this with their scores on the Self-Objectification Questionnaire, the Self-Consciousness Scale and the Body Consciousness Questionnaire. Interoceptive awareness was negatively correlated with self-objectification. Interoceptive awareness, public body consciousness and private body consciousness together explained 31% of the variance in self-objectification. However, private body consciousness was not significantly correlated with interoceptive awareness, which may explain the many nonsignificant results in self-objectification studies that have used private body consciousness as a measure of body awareness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose interoceptive awareness, assessed by heartbeat perception, as a measure of body awareness in self-objectification studies. Our findings have implications for those clinical conditions, in women, which are characterised by self-objectification and low interoceptive awareness, such as eating disorders.

  9. Decreasing Signs of Negative Affect and Correlated Self-Injury in an Individual with Mental Retardation and Mood Disturbances.

    Lindauer, Steven E.; DeLeon, Iser G.; Fisher, Wayne W.

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated effects of an enriched environment, based on a paired-choice preference assessment, on rates of self-injurious behavior (SIB) and frequency of negative affect displayed by a woman with mental retardation and a mood disorder. Results suggested that SIB and negative affect were highly correlated and that the enriched environment…

  10. Correlation of regional cerebral blood flow and positive/negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients: covariate SPM analysis

    Lim, Ki Chun; Kim, J. S.; Kim, C. Y.; Lee, H. K.; Moon, D. H. [Ulsan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    We investigated the relations between rCBF and psychopathology in schizophrenic patients using a SPM99. Thirty-two patients(M/F:22/10, 25{+-}5,6yr) with active symptoms of schizophrenia and 15 age matched normal controls underwent Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT. Psychopathology of all patients were also assessed according to PANSS (positive and negative syndrome scale in schizophrenia). By covariate SPM analysis, specific areas where rCBF correlated with sum scores of positive/negative synptoms were identified. Regional CBF of schizophrenics was different in several cortical regions from normal controls. Sum scores of positive symptoms were positively correlated with rCBF of both rectal and inferior frontal gyri and right transverse temporal gyrus, and negatively correlated with rCBF of left lingual and right middle temporal gyri (p<0.01). Sum scores of negative symptoms were positively correlated with rCBF of both middle temporal gyri and negatively correlated with rCBF of right superior parietal lobule and medial frontal gyrus (p<0.01). Positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia were correlated with rCBF change in different regions of cerebral association cortex.

  11. Correlation of regional cerebral blood flow and positive/negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients: covariate SPM analysis

    Lim, Ki Chun; Kim, J. S.; Kim, C. Y.; Lee, H. K.; Moon, D. H.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the relations between rCBF and psychopathology in schizophrenic patients using a SPM99. Thirty-two patients(M/F:22/10, 25±5,6yr) with active symptoms of schizophrenia and 15 age matched normal controls underwent Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT. Psychopathology of all patients were also assessed according to PANSS (positive and negative syndrome scale in schizophrenia). By covariate SPM analysis, specific areas where rCBF correlated with sum scores of positive/negative synptoms were identified. Regional CBF of schizophrenics was different in several cortical regions from normal controls. Sum scores of positive symptoms were positively correlated with rCBF of both rectal and inferior frontal gyri and right transverse temporal gyrus, and negatively correlated with rCBF of left lingual and right middle temporal gyri (p<0.01). Sum scores of negative symptoms were positively correlated with rCBF of both middle temporal gyri and negatively correlated with rCBF of right superior parietal lobule and medial frontal gyrus (p<0.01). Positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia were correlated with rCBF change in different regions of cerebral association cortex

  12. Genetic effects of organic mercury compounds

    Ramel, C

    1967-01-01

    Studies on the genetic and developmental effects of organic mercury compounds on lilies, drosophila, and ice were carried out. It was found that chromosomal and developmental abnormalities were correlated with the administration of mercury compounds.

  13. Mercury and Your Health

    ... the Risk of Exposure to Mercury Learn About Mercury What is Mercury What is Metallic mercury? Toxicological Profile ToxFAQs Mercury Resources CDC’s National Biomonitoring Program Factsheet on Mercury ...

  14. [Study on the correlation among adolescents' family function, negative life events stress amount and suicide ideation].

    Zhang, Dongdong; Chen, Ling; Yin, Dan; Miao, Jinping; Sun, Yehuan

    2014-07-01

    To explore the correlation between suicide ideation and family function & negative life events, as well as other influential factors in adolescents, thus present a theoretical base for clinicians and school staff to develop intervention for those problems. By adopting current situation random sampling method, Self-Rating Idea of Suicide Scale, Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List and Family APGAR Index were used to assess adolescents at random in a hygiene vocational school in Changzhou City, Jiangsu Province and a collage in Wuhu City, Anhui Province. 3700 questionnaires were granted, 3675 questionnaires were collected, among which 3620 were valid. Chi-square test, t-test, and univariate logistic regression were employed in univariate analysis, multivariate logistic regression was used in multivariate analysis. The detection rate of suicide ideation is 7.0%, and the top five suicide ideation characteristics were: poor academic performance (33.6%), serious family functional impairment (25.8%), lower-middle academic performance (11.7%), bad economic conditions (10.8%) and study in Grade Three (9.9%). Multiple logistic regression showed that the following three high-level stress amount in negative life events are most crucial for suicide ideation. They are "relationships" (OR = 1.135, 95% CI 1.071 - 1. 202), "academic pressure" (OR = 1.169, 95% CI 1.101 - 1.241), and "external events" (OR = 1.278, 95% CI 1.187 - 1.376). What' s more, the stress of attending higher grades (OR = 1.980, 95% CI 1.302 - 3.008), poor academic performance (OR = 7.206, 95% CI 1.745 - 9.789), moderate family functional impairment (OR = 2.562, 95% CI 1.527 - 2.892) and its serious level (OR = 8.287, 95% CI 3.154 - 6.917) are also influential factors for suicide ideation. Severe family functional impairment and high-level stress amount of negative life events produced the main factors of suicide ideation. Therefore, necessary and sufficient support should be given to adolescents by

  15. Discrete Neural Correlates for the Recognition of Negative Emotions: Insights from Frontotemporal Dementia

    Kumfor, Fiona; Irish, Muireann; Hodges, John R.; Piguet, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Patients with frontotemporal dementia have pervasive changes in emotion recognition and social cognition, yet the neural changes underlying these emotion processing deficits remain unclear. The multimodal system model of emotion proposes that basic emotions are dependent on distinct brain regions, which undergo significant pathological changes in frontotemporal dementia. As such, this syndrome may provide important insight into the impact of neural network degeneration upon the innate ability to recognise emotions. This study used voxel-based morphometry to identify discrete neural correlates involved in the recognition of basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, sadness, surprise and happiness) in frontotemporal dementia. Forty frontotemporal dementia patients (18 behavioural-variant, 11 semantic dementia, 11 progressive nonfluent aphasia) and 27 healthy controls were tested on two facial emotion recognition tasks: The Ekman 60 and Ekman Caricatures. Although each frontotemporal dementia group showed impaired recognition of negative emotions, distinct associations between emotion-specific task performance and changes in grey matter intensity emerged. Fear recognition was associated with the right amygdala; disgust recognition with the left insula; anger recognition with the left middle and superior temporal gyrus; and sadness recognition with the left subcallosal cingulate, indicating that discrete neural substrates are necessary for emotion recognition in frontotemporal dementia. The erosion of emotion-specific neural networks in neurodegenerative disorders may produce distinct profiles of performance that are relevant to understanding the neurobiological basis of emotion processing. PMID:23805313

  16. Sleep duration in elderly obese patients correlated negatively with intake fatty

    Santana Aline

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study objectives The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between sleep duration and dietary habits in elderly obese patients treated at an institute of cardiology. Methods The fifty-eight volunteers were elderly patients with obesity (classified as obese according to BMI of both genders, between 60 and 80 years of age. All participants were subjected to assessments of food intake, anthropometry, level of physical activity, and duration of sleep. Results The men had significantly greater weight, height, and waist circumference than women. Sleep durations were correlated with dietary nutrient compositions only in men. We found a negative association between short sleep and protein intake (r = -0.43; p = 0.02, short sleep and monounsaturated fatty acids intake (r = -0.40; p = 0.03, and short sleep and cholesterol dietary intake (r = -0.50; p = 0.01. Conclusions We conclude that mainly in men, volunteers that had short sleep duration showed a preference for high energy-density as fatty food, at least in part, may explain the relationship between short sleep duration and the development of metabolic abnormalities.

  17. Data for default network reduced functional connectivity in meditators, negatively correlated with meditation expertise

    Aviva Berkovich-Ohana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available FMRI data described here was recorded during resting-state in Mindfulness Meditators (MM and control participants (see “Task-induced activity and resting-state fluctuations undergo similar alterations in visual and DMN areas of long-term meditators” Berkovich-Ohana et al. (2016 [1] for details. MM participants were also scanned during meditation. Analyses focused on functional connectivity within and between the default mode network (DMN and visual network (Vis. Here we show data demonstrating that: 1 Functional connectivity within the DMN and the Visual networks were higher in the control group than in the meditators; 2 Data show an increase for the functional connectivity between the DMN and the Visual networks in the meditators compared to controls; 3 Data demonstrate that functional connectivity both within and between networks reduces during meditation, compared to the resting-state; and 4 A significant negative correlation was found between DMN functional connectivity and meditation expertise. The reader is referred to Berkovich-Ohana et al. (2016 [1] for further interpretation and discussion.

  18. Two-electron germanium centers with a negative correlation energy in lead chalcogenides

    Terukov, E. I.; Marchenko, A. V.; Zaitseva, A. V.; Seregin, P. P.

    2007-01-01

    It is shown that the charge state of the 73 Ge antisite defect that arises in anionic sublattices of PbS, PbSe, and PbTe after radioactive transformation of 73 As does not depend on the position of the Fermi level, whereas the 73 Ge center in cationic sublattices of PbS and PbSe represents a two-electron donor with the negative correlation energy: the Moessbauer spectrum for the n-type samples corresponds to the neutral state of the donor center (Ge 2+ ), while this spectrum corresponds to the doubly ionized state (Ge 4+ ) of the center in the p-type samples. In partially compensated PbSe samples, a fast electron exchange between the neutral and ionized donor centers is realized. It is shown by the method of Moessbauer spectroscopy for the 119 Sn isotope that the germanium-related energy levels are located higher than the levels formed in the band gap of these semiconductors by the impurity tin atoms

  19. Planet Mercury

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 10's first image of Mercury acquired on March 24, 1974. During its flight, Mariner 10's trajectory brought it behind the lighted hemisphere of Mercury, where this image was taken, in order to acquire important measurements with other instruments.This picture was acquired from a distance of 3,340,000 miles (5,380,000 km) from the surface of Mercury. The diameter of Mercury (3,031 miles; 4,878 km) is about 1/3 that of Earth.Images of Mercury were acquired in two steps, an inbound leg (images acquired before passing into Mercury's shadow) and an outbound leg (after exiting from Mercury's shadow). More than 2300 useful images of Mercury were taken, both moderate resolution (3-20 km/pixel) color and high resolution (better than 1 km/pixel) black and white coverage.

  20. Mercurial poisoning

    Gorton, B

    1924-01-01

    Cats which had been kept in a thermometer factory to catch rats were afflicted with mercury poisoning. So were the rats they were supposed to eat. The symptoms of mercury poisoning were the same in both species. The source of mercury for these animals is a fine film of the metal which coats floors, a result of accidental spills during the manufacturing process.

  1. Correlation between atomic negative muon capture and electron distribution in organic sp2-hybridization compounds CxHyClz

    Sakai, Yoichi; Tominaga, Takeshi; Ikuta, Shigeru

    1986-01-01

    The atomic negative muon capture ratios determined experimentally in organic sp 2 -hybridization compound, C x H y Cl z , were compared with the electron populations of carbon atomic orbitals obtained by an ab initio molecular orbital calculation in such systems. A clear positive correlation was found between the C 2s and C 2pz populations and the negative muon capture ratio A (C/Cl), suggesting the mesomolecular process in the initial stage of muon capture. (orig.)

  2. Observations of speciated atmospheric mercury at three sites in Nevada: Evidence for a free tropospheric source of reactive gaseous mercury

    Weiss-Penzias, Peter; Gustin, Mae Sexauer; Lyman, Seth

    2009-01-01

    Air mercury (Hg) speciation was measured for 11 weeks (June–August 2007) at three sites simultaneously in Nevada, USA. Mean reactive gaseous Hg (RGM) concentrations were elevated at all sites relative to those reported for locations not directly influenced by known point sources. RGM concentrations at all sites displayed a regular diel pattern and were positively correlated with ozone (O3) and negatively correlated with elemental Hg (Hg0) and dew point temperature (Tdp). Superimposed on the d...

  3. Got Mercury?

    Meyers, Valerie E.; McCoy, J. Torin; Garcia, Hector D.; James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Many of the operational and payload lighting units used in various spacecraft contain elemental mercury. If these devices were damaged on-orbit, elemental mercury could be released into the cabin. Although there are plans to replace operational units with alternate light sources, such as LEDs, that do not contain mercury, mercury-containing lamps efficiently produce high quality illumination and may never be completely replaced on orbit. Therefore, exposure to elemental mercury during spaceflight will remain possible and represents a toxicological hazard. Elemental mercury is a liquid metal that vaporizes slowly at room temperature. However, it may be completely vaporized at the elevated operating temperatures of lamps. Although liquid mercury is not readily absorbed through the skin or digestive tract, mercury vapors are efficiently absorbed through the respiratory tract. Therefore, the amount of mercury in the vapor form must be estimated. For mercury releases from lamps that are not being operated, we utilized a study conducted by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Quality to calculate the amount of mercury vapor expected to form over a 2-week period. For longer missions and for mercury releases occurring when lamps are operating, we conservatively assumed complete volatilization of the available mercury. Because current spacecraft environmental control systems are unable to remove mercury vapors, both short-term and long-term exposures to mercury vapors are possible. Acute exposure to high concentrations of mercury vapors can cause irritation of the respiratory tract and behavioral symptoms, such as irritability and hyperactivity. Chronic exposure can result in damage to the nervous system (tremors, memory loss, insomnia, etc.) and kidneys (proteinurea). Therefore, the JSC Toxicology Group recommends that stringent safety controls and verifications (vibrational testing, etc.) be applied to any hardware that contains elemental mercury that could yield

  4. Negative emotion differentiation: its personality and well-being correlates and a comparison of different assessment methods.

    Erbas, Yasemin; Ceulemans, Eva; Lee Pe, Madeline; Koval, Peter; Kuppens, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that individual differences in negative emotion differentiation may play a prominent role in well-being. Yet, many basic questions about negative emotion differentiation remain unanswered, including how it relates and overlaps with related and known dimensions of individual differences and what its possible underlying processes are. To answer these questions, in the current article we present three correlational studies that chart the nomological network of individual differences in negative emotion differentiation in terms of personality, difficulties in identifying and describing feelings, and several indicators of well-being, propose a novel paradigm to assess it in the lab, and explore relationships with a possible underlying mechanism in terms of the motivation to approach or avoid emotions. The results affirm consistent relations between negative emotion differentiation and indicators of adjustment like negative affect, self-esteem, neuroticism, depression and meta-knowledge about one's emotions, and show how it is related to the motivation to experience affective states.

  5. Personality, negative affect coping, and drinking alone: a structural equation modeling approach to examine correlates of adolescent solitary drinking.

    Creswell, Kasey G; Chung, Tammy; Wright, Aidan G C; Clark, Duncan B; Black, Jessica J; Martin, Christopher S

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the personality traits of negative emotionality and constraint and the ability to resist drinking during negative affective states as correlates of solitary drinking in adolescence. We hypothesized that higher levels of negative emotionality and lower levels of constraint would predict solitary drinking and that these relationships would be mediated by the ability to resist drinking in response to negative emotions. Structural equation modeling was used to fit a path model from the personality traits of negative emotionality and constraint to solitary drinking status through intermediate effects on the ability to resist drinking during negative emotions using cross-sectional data. Clinical and community settings in Pennsylvania, USA. The sample included 761 adolescent drinkers (mean age = 17.1). Adolescents completed the Lifetime Drinking History, the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire, the Constructive Thinking Inventory and the Situational Confidence Questionnaire. The path model provided a good fit to the data. The association between trait negative emotionality and solitary drinking was fully mediated by adolescents' ability to resist drinking during negative affective states (b = 0.05, P = 0.01). In contrast, constraint had a direct effect on solitary drinking (odds ratio (OR) = 0.79, b = -0.23, P<0.01), as well as an indirect effect through the ability to resist drinking during negative affective states (b = -0.03, P = 0.02). The ability to resist drinking while experiencing negative feelings or emotions may be an important underlying mechanism linking trait negative emotionality (a tendency toward depression, anxiety and poor reaction to stress) and constraint (lack of impulsiveness) to adolescent solitary drinking. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Gene-Environment Correlation Underlying the Association between Parental Negativity and Adolescent Externalizing Problems

    Marceau, Kristine; Horwitz, Briana N.; Narusyte, Jurgita; Ganiban, Jody M.; Spotts, Erica L.; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of adolescent or parent-based twins suggest that gene-environment correlation (rGE) is an important mechanism underlying parent-adolescent relationships. However, information on how parents' and children's genes and environments influence correlated parent "and" child behaviors is needed to distinguish types of rGE. The present…

  7. Speciated atmospheric mercury in the marine boundary layer of the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea

    Wang, Chunjie; Ci, Zhijia; Wang, Zhangwei; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Guo, Jia

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this study are to identify the spatial and temporal distributions of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM), and fine particulate mercury (HgP2.5) in the marine boundary layer (MBL) of the Bohai Sea (BS) and Yellow Sea (YS), and to investigate the relationships between mercury species and meteorological parameters. The mean concentrations of GEM, RGM, and HgP2.5 were 2.03 ng m-3, 2.5 pg m-3, and 8.2 pg m-3 in spring, and 2.09 ng m-3, 4.3 pg m-3, and 8.3 pg m-3 in fall. Reactive mercury (RGM + HgP2.5) represented RGM + HgP2.5), which indicated that most mercury export in the MBL was GEM and the direct outflow of reactive mercury was very small. Moreover, GEM concentrations over the BS were generally higher than those over the YS both in spring and fall. Although RGM showed a homogeneous distribution over the BS and YS both in spring and fall, the mean RGM concentration in fall was significantly higher than that in spring. In contrast, the spatial distribution of HgP2.5 generally reflected a gradient with high levels near the coast of China and low levels in the open sea, suggesting the significant atmospheric mercury outflow from China. Interestingly, the mean RGM concentrations during daytime were significantly higher than those during nighttime both in spring and fall, while the opposite results were observed for HgP2.5. Additionally, RGM positively correlates with air temperature while negatively correlates with relative humidity. In conclusion, the elevated atmospheric mercury levels in the BS and YS compared to other open seas suggested that the human activities had a significant influence on the oceanic mercury cycle downwind of China.

  8. Positive schizotypy scores correlate with left visual field interference for negatively valenced emotional words: A lateralized emotional Stroop study.

    Van Strien, Jan W; Van Kampen, Dirk

    2009-10-30

    Fourteen men scoring high and 14 men scoring low on a positive schizotypy scale participated in a lateralized emotional Stroop task. Vocal reaction times for color naming of neutral, positive and negative emotional words were recorded. Across participants, the color naming of neutral and emotional words was slightly faster to right than to left visual field presentations. In men with high scores on positive schizotypy, the presentation of negative words to the left visual field (right hemisphere) resulted in significant affective interference with color naming, which was significantly larger than in men with low scores. Correlational analysis also showed that positive schizotypy was significantly associated with emotional interference in response to LVF negative words. The outcome is discussed in terms of right hemispheric engagement in negative emotions in high positive schizotypic men.

  9. False Negative Mammogram of Breast Cancer : Analysis of Mammographic and Sonographic Findings and Correlation with Clinical Findings

    Lee, Kil Jun; Lee, Ji Yeon; Han, Sung Nim; Jeong, Seong Ki; Tae, Seok; Shin, Kyoung Ja; Lee, Sang Chun

    1995-01-01

    Recent mammographic equipment have been of good quality and yielded high diagnostic accuracy for the detection of breast cancer. However, negative mammogram does not necessarily rule out breast cancer. Therefore were viewed cause of false negative mammography in confirmed breast cancer to improve diagnostic accuracy and for adequate clinical approach. We reviewed 19 cases of confirmed breast cancer, which showed false negative mammography with positive sonographic findings. Retrospective analysis was done by correlating the patient's age, sonographic finding and mass size, mammographic breast pattern and cause of false negative mammogram, and clinical symptoms. Among the 5 patients below 35 years in age, mass was not visible due to dense breast in 4 and due to small size in 1 case. In 14 patients over 35 years in age, 11 had normal mammographic findings, 4 had dense breast, and 7 had small sized mass. Remaining 3 cases showed asymmetric density in 2 and architecture distortion in 1 case. All showed mass lesion in sonography : ill defined malignant appearance in 14,well defined malignant appearance in 2, and well defined benign in 3 cases. Negative mammogram should be correlated with sonography in case of dense breast, below 35 years in age with palpable mass and under risk for breast cancer

  10. Why are price stability and statutory independence of central banks negatively correlated? : the role of culture

    Jong, Eelke de

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates whether in OECD-countries the negative relation between central bank independence and inflation is related to culture, in the sense of common values and norms. It appears that inflation is lower in countries where people dislike uncertainty. The tolerance in a society with

  11. Neural correlates of preparatory and regulatory control over positive and negative emotion.

    Seo, Dongju; Olman, Cheryl A; Haut, Kristen M; Sinha, Rajita; MacDonald, Angus W; Patrick, Christopher J

    2014-04-01

    This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activation during preparatory and regulatory control while participants (N = 24) were instructed either to simply view or decrease their emotional response to, pleasant, neutral or unpleasant pictures. A main effect of emotional valence on brain activity was found in the right precentral gyrus, with greater activation during positive than negative emotion regulation. A main effect of regulation phase was evident in the bilateral anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC), precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex, right putamen and temporal and occipital lobes, with greater activity in these regions during preparatory than regulatory control. A valence X regulation interaction was evident in regions of ventromedial PFC and anterior cingulate cortex, reflecting greater activation while regulating negative than positive emotion, but only during active emotion regulation (not preparation). Conjunction analyses revealed common brain regions involved in differing types of emotion regulation including selected areas of left lateral PFC, inferior parietal lobe, temporal lobe, right cerebellum and bilateral dorsomedial PFC. The right lateral PFC was additionally activated during the modulation of both positive and negative valence. Findings demonstrate significant modulation of brain activity during both preparation for, and active regulation of positive and negative emotional states.

  12. A RNA transcript (Heg) in mononuclear cells is negatively correlated with CD14 mRNA and TSH receptor autoantibodies

    Habekost, G.; Bratholm, P.; Christensen, Niels Juel

    2008-01-01

    of the poly A(-) transcript (designated Heg) in mononuclear cells was correlated with CD14 mRNA in normal subjects and with CD14 mRNA and TSH receptor autoantibodies in patients with acute and untreated Graves' disease. mRNA was expressed in amol/mu g DNA. The main study groups were: (i) normal subjects; (ii......) patients with early and untreated Graves' disease; and (iii) patients with Graves' disease studied after treatment. In 18 normal subjects and in 20 patients with treated Graves' disease CD14 mRNA was negatively correlated with Heg (P Graves' disease Heg and thyroid...

  13. Mercury correlations among blood, muscle, and hair of northern elephant seals during the breeding and molting fasts

    Peterson, Sarah; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Costa, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) biomonitoring and toxicological risk assessments for marine mammals commonly sample different tissues, making comparisons to toxicity benchmarks and among species and regions difficult. Few studies have examined how life history events, such as fasting, influence the relationship between total Hg (THg) concentrations in different tissues. We evaluated the relationships between THg concentrations in blood, muscle, and hair of female and male northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) at the start and end of the breeding and molting fasts. The relationships between tissues varied among tissue pairs and differed by sampling period and sex. Blood and muscle were generally related at all time periods; however, hair, an inert tissue, did not strongly represent the metabolically active tissues (blood and muscle) at all times of year. The strongest relationships between THg concentrations in hair and those in blood or muscle were observed during periods of active hair growth (end of the molting period) or during time periods when internal body conditions were similar to those when the hair was grown (end of the breeding fast). Our results indicate that THg concentrations in blood or muscle can be translated to the other tissue type using the equations we developed, but that THg concentrations in hair were generally a poor index of internal THg concentrations except during the end of fasting periods.

  14. Cerebrospinal fluid D-serine concentrations in major depressive disorder negatively correlate with depression severity.

    Ishiwata, Sayuri; Hattori, Kotaro; Sasayama, Daimei; Teraishi, Toshiya; Miyakawa, Tomoko; Yokota, Yuuki; Matsumura, Ryo; Nishikawa, Toru; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2018-01-15

    D-serine is an endogenous co-agonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and plays an important role in glutamate neurotransmission. Several studies suggested the possible involvement of D-serine related in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders including major depression disorders (MDD). We tried to examine whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or plasma D-serine concentrations are altered in MDD and whether D-serine concentrations correlated with disease severity. 26 MDD patients and 27 healthy controls matched for age, sex and ethnicity were enrolled. We measured amino acids in these samples using by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection. D-serine and L-serine, precursor of D-serine, levels in CSF or plasma were not significantly different in patients of MDD compared to controls. Furthermore, a significant correlation between D-serine levels in CSF and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD)-17 score was observed (r = -0.65, p = 0.006). Furthermore, we found a positive correlation between CSF D-serine and HVA concentrations in MDD patients (r = 0.54, p = 0.007). CSF D-serine concentrations were correlated with those of plasma in MDD (r = 0.61, p = 0.01) but not in controls. In CSF, we also confirmed a significant correlation between D-serine and L-serine levels in MDD (r = 0.72, p depression severity and HVA concentrations and further investigation were required to reveal the effect of medication and disease heterogeneity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Amygdala Reactivity and Negative Emotionality: Divergent Correlates of Antisocial Personality and Psychopathy Traits in a Community Sample

    Hyde, Luke W.; Byrd, Amy L.; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Hariri, Ahmad R.; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have emphasized that antisocial personality disorder (APD) and psychopathy overlap highly but differ critically in several features, notably negative emotionality (NEM) and possibly amygdala reactivity to social signals of threat and distress. Here we examined whether dimensions of psychopathy and APD correlate differentially with NEM and amygdala reactivity to emotional faces. Testing these relationships among healthy individuals, dimensions of psychopathy and APD were gener...

  16. Birth mass is the key to understanding the negative correlation between lifespan and body size in dogs.

    Fan, Rong; Olbricht, Gayla; Baker, Xavior; Hou, Chen

    2016-12-08

    Larger dog breeds live shorter than the smaller ones, opposite of the mass-lifespan relationship observed across mammalian species. Here we use data from 90 dog breeds and a theoretical model based on the first principles of energy conservation and life history tradeoffs to explain the negative correlation between longevity and body size in dogs. We found that the birth/adult mass ratio of dogs scales negatively with adult size, which is different than the weak interspecific scaling in mammals. Using the model, we show that this ratio, as an index of energy required for growth, is the key to understanding why the lifespan of dogs scales negatively with body size. The model also predicts that the difference in mass-specific lifetime metabolic energy usage between dog breeds is proportional to the difference in birth/adult mass ratio. Empirical data on lifespan, body mass, and metabolic scaling law of dogs strongly supports this prediction.

  17. Correlation between low-proficiency in English and negative perceptions of what it means to be an English speaker

    Kavarljit Kaur Gill

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning another language is very much affected by positive or negative connotations attached to the new language by the language learner. Entering Malaysian public universities there are many students with a low proficiency in English, despite spending eleven years studying English in schools. Could it be that the lack of progress among these students could be attributed to a negative view of what it means to be a speaker of English? This study investigated the perceptions of students at a public university, to determine whether there is a correlation between low-proficiency and negative perceptions of what it means to be an English speaker. Analysis of the results showed that Malaysian students have a very positive perception of what it means to be an English speaker.

  18. Triglycerides are negatively correlated with cognitive function in nondemented aging adults.

    Parthasarathy, Vishnu; Frazier, Darvis T; Bettcher, Brianne M; Jastrzab, Laura; Chao, Linda; Reed, Bruce; Mungas, Dan; Weiner, Michael; DeCarli, Charles; Chui, Helena; Kramer, Joel H

    2017-09-01

    Vascular risk factors like hyperlipidemia may adversely affect brain function. We hypothesized that increased serum triglycerides are associated with decreased executive function and memory in nondemented elderly subjects. We also researched possible vascular mediators and white matter microstructure as assessed with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Participants were 251 nondemented elderly adults (54% male) with a mean age of 78 (SD = 6.4; range: 62-94) years and a mean education of 15.6 (SD = 2.9; range: 8-23) years. Fasting blood samples were used to detect serum triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels along with ApoE4 status. DTI was used to determine whole brain fractional anisotropy (FA). Composite executive and memory scores were derived from item response theory. Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scores provided informant-based measures of daily functioning. Triglyceride levels were inversely correlated with executive function, but there was no relationship with memory. Controlling for age, gender, and education did not affect this correlation. This relationship persisted after controlling for vascular risk factors like LDL, total cholesterol, CDR and ApoE4 status. Lastly, adding whole-brain FA to the model did not affect the correlation between triglycerides and executive function. Triglyceride levels are inversely correlated with executive function in nondemented elderly adults after controlling for age, education, gender, total cholesterol, LDL, ApoE4 status, CDR, and white-matter microstructure. The fact that the effect of triglycerides on cognition was not clearly mediated by vascular risks or cerebrovascular injury raises questions about widely held assumptions of how triglycerides might impact cognition function. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. [Characteristics of mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere under the snow retention and snow melting control].

    Zhang, Gang; Wang, Ning; Ai, Jian-Chao; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Jing; Liu, Zi-Qi

    2013-02-01

    Jiapigou gold mine, located in the upper Songhua River, was once the largest mine in China due to gold output, where gold extraction with algamation was widely applied to extract gold resulting in severe mercury pollution to ambient environmental medium. In order to study the characteristics of mercury exchange flux between soil (snow) and atmosphere under the snow retention and snow melting control, sampling sites were selected in equal distances along the slope which is situated in the typical hill-valley terrain unit. Mercury exchange flux between soil (snow) and atmosphere was determined with the method of dynamic flux chamber and in all sampling sites the atmosphere concentration from 0 to 150 cm near to the earth in the vertical direction was measured. Furthermore, the impact factors including synchronous meteorology, the surface characteristics under the snow retention and snow melting control and the mercury concentration in vertical direction were also investigated. The results are as follows: During the period of snow retention and melting the air mercury tends to gather towards valley bottom along the slope and an obvious deposit tendency process was found from air to the earth's surface under the control of thermal inversion due to the underlying surface of cold source (snow surface). However, during the period of snow melting, mercury exchange flux between the soil and atmosphere on the surface of the earth with the snow being melted demonstrates alternative deposit and release processes. As for the earth with snow covered, the deposit level of mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere is lower than that during the period of snow retention. The relationship between mercury exchange flux and impact factors shows that in snow retention there is a remarkable negative linear correlation between mercury exchange flux and air mercury concentration as well as between the former and the air temperature. In addition, in snow melting mercury exchange

  20. Intake of mercury through fish consumption

    Sarmani, S.B.; Kiprawi, A.Z.; Ismail, R.B.; Hassan, R.B.; Wood, A.K.; Rahman, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Fish has been known as a source of non-occupational mercury exposure to fish consuming population groups, and this is shown by the high hair mercury levels. In this study, hair samples collected from fishermen and their families, and commercial marine fishes were analyzed for mercury and methylmercury by neutron activation and gas chromatography. The results showed a correlation between hair mercury levels and fish consumption patterns. The levels of mercury found in this study were similar to those reported by other workers for fish consuming population groups worldwide. (author)

  1. Correlations among Psychological Resilience, Self-Efficacy, and Negative Emotion in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Liu, Neng; Liu, Shaohui; Yu, Nan; Peng, Yunhua; Wen, Yumei; Tang, Jie; Kong, Lingyu

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the influencing factors of the psychological resilience and self-efficacy of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and the relationships of psychological resilience and self-efficacy with negative emotion. Eighty-eight participants were enrolled. Psychological resilience, self-efficacy, and negative emotion were assessed with the Psychological Resilience Scale, Self-Efficacy Scale, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), respectively. Furthermore, the relationships of psychological resilience and self-efficacy with negative emotion were investigated. The average scores of psychological resilience, self-efficacy, anxiety, and depression were 70.08 ± 13.26, 21.56 ± 9.66, 53.68 ± 13.10, and 56.12 ± 12.37, respectively. The incidences of anxiety and depression were 23.90% (21/88) and 28.40% (25/88), respectively. The psychological resilience and self-efficacy scores of AMI patients after PCI varied significantly with age and economic status. SAS scores and SDS scores were significantly negatively correlated with psychological resilience and self-efficacy. Negative emotions in AMI patients after PCI are closely related to psychological resilience and self-efficacy. Therefore, anxiety and depression could be alleviated by improving the psychological resilience and self-efficacy of patients undergoing PCI, thus improving patients' quality of life.

  2. Circulating Spexin Levels Negatively Correlate With Age, BMI, Fasting Glucose, and Triglycerides in Healthy Adult Women.

    Lin, Cheng-Yuan; Huang, Tao; Zhao, Ling; Zhong, Linda L D; Lam, Wai Ching; Fan, Bao-Min; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2018-05-01

    Spexin is a newly identified neuropeptide that is involved in satiety control, glucose, and lipids metabolism. It has also been related to human diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, whether spexin changes with age or not is still unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between circulating spexin levels and age and to study their interaction effects on body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose, and -lipids. This is a cross-sectional study, including 68 healthy adult women whose ages are in a wide range (minimum: 23; median: 38.5; maximum: 64). The serum spexin levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, urea, and creatinine were measured by routine biochemical test. Shapiro-Wilk's test, Spearman and Pearson correlation analyses, χ 2 test, and two-way analysis of variance were used to interpret the data. Serum spexin levels are significantly correlated with age (Spearman r = -0.277, P = 0.022), BMI (Spearman r = -0.445, P glucose (Spearman r = -0.302, P = 0.014), and TG (Spearman r = -0.324, P = 0.008). Spexin levels independently predict the risk of high BMI and high fasting glucose. No interaction effects of spexin and age on BMI and fasting glucose were found. Circulating spexin levels decrease with age, suggesting a possible role of this peptide in aging-related functions and disorders. Further investigations are needed to expand the clinical significance of this finding.

  3. Interleukin-6 levels in the central nervous system are negatively correlated with fat mass in overweight/obese subjects.

    Stenlöf, Kaj; Wernstedt, Ingrid; Fjällman, Ted; Wallenius, Ville; Wallenius, Kristina; Jansson, John-Olov

    2003-09-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that intracerebroventricular injection of IL-6 increases energy expenditure and decreases body fat in rodents. Therefore, IL-6 may play a role in appetite and body weight control in the central nervous system. In the present study we evaluated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum IL-6 levels in humans in relation to body fat content and to CSF and serum levels of leptin. Thirty-two healthy overweight/obese male subjects with a body mass index range of 29.3-36.0 kg/m(2) were studied. Total and sc body fat were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography, respectively. CSF IL-6 levels were in some individuals higher than serum IL-6 levels and correlated negatively with total body weight, sc and total body fat. In contrast, CSF leptin levels were 30-60 times lower than serum leptin levels and correlated positively with serum leptin, body weight, sc and total body fat. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between CSF IL-6 and leptin. In conclusion, CSF IL-6 differs in many ways from CSF leptin. CSF IL-6 may be locally produced rather than serum derived, and body fat-regulating regions in the central nervous system may be exposed to insufficient IL-6 levels in more severe obesity.

  4. Serum total bilirubin levels are negatively correlated with metabolic syndrome in aged Chinese women: a community-based study.

    Zhong, P; Sun, D M; Wu, D H; Li, T M; Liu, X Y; Liu, H Y

    2017-01-26

    We evaluated serum total bilirubin levels as a predictor for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and investigated the relationship between serum total bilirubin levels and MetS prevalence. This cross-sectional study included 1728 participants over 65 years of age from Eastern China. Anthropometric data, lifestyle information, and previous medical history were collected. We then measured serum levels of fasting blood-glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and total bilirubin, as well as alanine aminotransferase activity. The prevalence of MetS and each of its individual component were calculated per quartile of total bilirubin level. Logistic regression was used to assess the correlation between serum total bilirubin levels and MetS. Total bilirubin level in the women who did not have MetS was significantly higher than in those who had MetS (Pbilirubin quartiles were linearly and negatively correlated with MetS prevalence and hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) in females (Pbilirubin was an independent predictor of MetS for females (OR: 0.910, 95%CI: 0.863-0.960; P=0.001). The present study suggests that physiological levels of serum total bilirubin might be an independent risk factor for aged Chinese women, and the prevalence of MetS and HTG are negatively correlated to serum total bilirubin levels.

  5. Developmental Associations between Short-Term Variability and Long-Term Changes: Intraindividual Correlation of Positive and Negative Affect in Daily Life and Cognitive Aging

    Hülür, Gizem; Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Conceptual notions and empirical evidence suggest that the intraindividual correlation (iCorr) of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) is a meaningful characteristic of affective functioning. PA and NA are typically negatively correlated within-person. Previous research has found that the iCorr of PA and NA is relatively stable over time…

  6. Endotoxin levels correlate positively with a sedentary lifestyle and negatively with highly trained subjects.

    Lira, Fabio S; Rosa, Jose C; Pimentel, Gustavo D; Souza, Hélio A; Caperuto, Erico C; Carnevali, Luiz C; Seelaender, Marília; Damaso, Ana R; Oyama, Lila M; de Mello, Marco T; Santos, Ronaldo V

    2010-08-04

    A sedentary lifestyle increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes. This phenomenon is supported by recent studies suggesting a chronic, low-grade inflammation status. Endotoxin derived from gut flora may be key to the development of inflammation by stimulating the secretion of inflammatory factors. This study aimed to examine plasma inflammatory markers and endotoxin levels in individuals with a sedentary lifestyle and/or in highly trained subjects at rest. Fourteen male subjects (sedentary lifestyle n = 7; highly trained subjects n = 7) were recruited. Blood samples were collected after an overnight fast (approximately 12 h). The plasmatic endotoxin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1), ICAM/CD54, VCAM/CD106 and lipid profile levels were determined. Endotoxinemia was lower in the highly trained subject group relative to the sedentary subjects (p < 0.002). In addition, we observed a positive correlation between endotoxin and PAI-1 (r = 0.85, p < 0.0001), endotoxin and total cholesterol (r = 0.65; p < 0.01), endotoxin and LDL-c (r = 0.55; p < 0.049) and endotoxin and TG levels (r = 0.90; p < 0.0001). The plasma levels of MCP-1, ICAM/CD54 and VCAM/CD106 did not differ. These results indicate that a lifestyle associated with high-intensity and high-volume exercise induces favorable changes in chronic low-grade inflammation markers and may reduce the risk for diseases such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Spatial variation of mercury bioaccumulation in bats of Canada linked to atmospheric mercury deposition.

    Chételat, John; Hickey, M Brian C; Poulain, Alexandre J; Dastoor, Ashu; Ryjkov, Andrei; McAlpine, Donald; Vanderwolf, Karen; Jung, Thomas S; Hale, Lesley; Cooke, Emma L L; Hobson, Dave; Jonasson, Kristin; Kaupas, Laura; McCarthy, Sara; McClelland, Christine; Morningstar, Derek; Norquay, Kaleigh J O; Novy, Richard; Player, Delanie; Redford, Tony; Simard, Anouk; Stamler, Samantha; Webber, Quinn M R; Yumvihoze, Emmanuel; Zanuttig, Michelle

    2018-06-01

    Wildlife are exposed to neurotoxic mercury at locations distant from anthropogenic emission sources because of long-range atmospheric transport of this metal. In this study, mercury bioaccumulation in insectivorous bat species (Mammalia: Chiroptera) was investigated on a broad geographic scale in Canada. Fur was analyzed (n=1178) for total mercury from 43 locations spanning 20° latitude and 77° longitude. Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in fur were positively correlated with concentrations in internal tissues (brain, liver, kidney) for a small subset (n=21) of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) and big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), validating the use of fur to indicate internal mercury exposure. Brain methylmercury concentrations were approximately 10% of total mercury concentrations in fur. Three bat species were mainly collected (little brown bats, big brown bats, and northern long-eared bats [M. septentrionalis]), with little brown bats having lower total mercury concentrations in their fur than the other two species at sites where both species were sampled. On average, juvenile bats had lower total mercury concentrations than adults but no differences were found between males and females of a species. Combining our dataset with previously published data for eastern Canada, median total mercury concentrations in fur of little brown bats ranged from 0.88-12.78μg/g among 11 provinces and territories. Highest concentrations were found in eastern Canada where bats are most endangered from introduced disease. Model estimates of atmospheric mercury deposition indicated that eastern Canada was exposed to greater mercury deposition than central and western sites. Further, mean total mercury concentrations in fur of adult little brown bats were positively correlated with site-specific estimates of atmospheric mercury deposition. This study provides the largest geographic coverage of mercury measurements in bats to date and indicates that atmospheric

  8. Distribution and elevated soil pools of mercury in an acidic subtropical forest of southwestern China

    Zhou, Jun; Wang, Zhangwei; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Chen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Tieshanping catchment in southwest China was supposed to a large pool of atmospheric mercury. This work was aimed to examine THg (total mercury) concentrations, pools and influence factors in the acidic forest. THg concentrations were highly elevated in the study area, which was significantly depended on TOM (total organic matter) concentrations and altitudinal elevation, whereas negatively correlated with soil pH. The pools of mercury accumulated in soils were correlated strongly with the stocks of TOM and altitude, ranged from 5.9 to 32 mg m −2 and averaged 14.5 mg m −2 , indicating that the acidic forest was a great sink of atmospheric mercury in southwest China. THg concentrations in stream waters decreased with altitude increasing and regression analyses showed that soil/air exchange flux would be increased with the decrease of altitude. Present results suggest that elevation increasing decreases THg losses as low THg concentrations in runoffs and volatilization from soils. - Highlights: • Soil THg pools and influence factors were studied at an acidic catchment in southwestern China. • THg concentrations was increased significantly with TOM concentrations and altitude increasing, decreased with pH. • THg pools in soils were highly elevated and deepened on TOM pools and altitude. • Difference in THg output by volatilization and runoff was a major reason for THg distribution at different altitudes. - Mercury pools increased with altitude increasing as mercury lost more at low elevation area in acidic subtropical forest

  9. Global Mercury Pathways in the Arctic Ecosystem

    Lahoutifard, N.; Lean, D.

    2003-12-01

    The sudden depletions of atmospheric mercury which occur during the Arctic spring are believed to involve oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury, Hg(0), rendering it less volatile and more soluble. The Hg(II) oxidation product(s) are more susceptible to deposition, consistent with the observation of dramatic increases in snow mercury levels during depletion events. Temporal correlations with ozone depletion events and the proliferation of BrO radicals support the hypothesis that oxidation of Hg(0) occurs in the gas phase and results in its conversion to RGM (Reactive Gaseous Mercury). The mechanisms of Hg(0) oxidation and particularly Hg(II) reduction are as yet unproven. In order to evaluate the feasibility of proposed chemical processes involving mercury in the Arctic atmosphere and its pathway after deposition on the snow from the air, we investigated mercury speciation in air and snow pack at Resolute, Nunavut, Canada (latitude 75° N) prior to and during snow melt during spring 2003. Quantitative, real-time information on emission, air transport and deposition were combined with experimental studies of the distribution and concentrations of different mercury species, methyl mercury, anions, total organic carbon and total inorganic carbon in snow samples. The effect of solar radiation and photoreductants on mercury in snow samples was also investigated. In this work, we quantify mercury removed from the air, and deposited on the snow and the transformation to inorganic and methyl mercury.

  10. 1H MR spectroscopic imaging in patients with MRI-negative extratemporal epilepsy: correlation with ictal onset zone and histopathology

    Krsek, Pavel; Komarek, Vladimir; Hajek, Milan; Dezortova, Monika; Jiru, Filip; Skoch, Antonin; Marusic, Petr; Zamecnik, Josef; Kyncl, Martin; Tichy, Michal

    2007-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) is beneficial in the lateralization of the epileptogenic zone in temporal lobe epilepsy; however, its role in extratemporal and, especially, MRI-negative epilepsy has not been established. This study seeks to verify how 1 H MRS could help in localizing the epileptogenic zone in patients with MRI-negative extratemporal epilepsy. Seven patients (8-23 years) with MRI-negative refractory focal epilepsy were studied using 1 H MRS on a 1.5T MR system. Chemical shift imaging sequence in the transversal plane was directed towards the suspected epileptogenic zone localized by seizure semiology, scalp video/EEG, ictal SPECT and 18 FDG-PET. Spectra were evaluated using the program CULICH, and the coefficient of asymmetry was used for quantitative lateralization. MRS detected lateralization in all patients and was able to localize pathology in five. The most frequent findings were decreased ratios of N-acetylaspartate to choline compounds characterized by increasing choline concentration. The localization of the 1 H MRS abnormality correlated well with ictal SPECT and subdural mapping. In all cases, histopathological analysis revealed MRI-undetected focal cortical dysplasias. 1 H MRS could be more sensitive for the detection of discrete malformations of cortical development than conventional MRI. It is valuable in the presurgical evaluation of patients without MRI-apparent lesions. (orig.)

  11. Intraspecific chemical diversity among neighbouring plants correlates positively with plant size and herbivore load but negatively with herbivore damage.

    Bustos-Segura, Carlos; Poelman, Erik H; Reichelt, Michael; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Gols, Rieta

    2017-01-01

    Intraspecific plant diversity can modify the properties of associated arthropod communities and plant fitness. However, it is not well understood which plant traits determine these ecological effects. We explored the effect of intraspecific chemical diversity among neighbouring plants on the associated invertebrate community and plant traits. In a common garden experiment, intraspecific diversity among neighbouring plants was manipulated using three plant populations of wild cabbage that differ in foliar glucosinolates. Plants were larger, harboured more herbivores, but were less damaged when plant diversity was increased. Glucosinolate concentration differentially correlated with generalist and specialist herbivore abundance. Glucosinolate composition correlated with plant damage, while in polycultures, variation in glucosinolate concentrations among neighbouring plants correlated positively with herbivore diversity and negatively with plant damage levels. The results suggest that intraspecific variation in secondary chemistry among neighbouring plants is important in determining the structure of the associated insect community and positively affects plant performance. © 2016 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Radioactive mercury distribution in biological fluids and excretion in human subjects after inhalation of mercury vapor

    Cherian, M.G.; Hursh, J.B.; Clarkson, T.W.; Allen, J.

    1978-01-01

    The distribution of mercury in red blood cells (RBCs) and plasma, and its excretion in urine and feces are described in five human subjects during the first 7 days following inhalation of radioactive mercury vapor. A major portion (98%) of radioactive mercury in whole blood is initially accumulated in the RBCs and is transferred partly to the plasma compartment until the ratio of mercury in RBCs to plasma is about 2 within 20 h. The cumulative urinary and fecal excretion of mercury for 7 days is about 11.6% of the retained dose, and is closely related to the percent decline in body burden of mercury. There is little correlation between either the urinary excretion and plasma radioactivity of mercury, or the specific activities of urine and plasma mercury, suggesting a mechanism other than a direct glomerular filtration involved in the urinary excretion of recently exposed mercury. These studies suggest that blood mercury levels can be used as an index of recent exposure, while urinary levels may be an index of renal concentration of mercury. However, there is no reliable index for mercury concentration in the brain

  13. Behaviour of mercury compounds in soil

    Booer, J R

    1944-01-01

    The uses of inorganic compounds of mercury for the control of plant pests is reviewed, and a summary of the relevant chemical and physical properties of the compounds concerned is given. On chemical evidence a working hypothesis is propounded showing that all compounds may be expected to decompose into metallic mercury. A pot technique is described by means of which a correlation can be obtained between the effective mercury content of a given soil sample and the rate of growth of wheat seedlings. The mathematical treatment of the results is described, and the validity of the pot technique is verified by statistical analysis of results. Using the pot technqiue it is shown that volatilization losses are insignificant but that mercury is slowly rendered ineffective by the formation of mercuric sulphide. The effect of sulphur-reducing bacteria is considered and the influence of Vibrio desulphuricans on mercury is studied in detail. Experimental evidence obtained by the pot technique is produced to show that mercurous chloride slowly decomposes in the soil giving mercury and mercuric chloride, mercuric chloride rapidly decomposes into mercury and mercurous chloride, and other inorganic compounds decompose directly into mercury. The working hypothesis is substantiated in all major aspects. The uses and properties of the organo-mercury compounds are then discussed. Type compounds selected are ethyl mercury phosphate, phenyl mercury acetate and methoxyethyl mercury acetate. Using the pot technique it is shown that the formation of organo-mercury clays takes place and that these clays decompose giving metallic mercury. A mechanism is suggested.

  14. Atmospheric mercury monitoring survey in Beijing, China.

    Liu, Shili; Nadim, Farhad; Perkins, Chris; Carley, Robert J; Hoag, George E; Lin, Yuhan; Chen, Letian

    2002-07-01

    With the aid of one industrial, two urban, two suburban, and two rural sampling locations, diurnal patterns of total gaseous mercury (TGM) were monitored in January, February and September of 1998 in Beijing, China. Monitoring was conducted in six (two urban, two suburban, one rural and the industrial sites) of the seven sampling sites during January and February (winter) and in four (two urban, one rural, and the industrial sites) of the sampling locations during September (summer) of 1998. In the three suburban sampling stations, mean TGM concentrations during the winter sampling period were 8.6, 10.7, and 6.2 ng/m3, respectively. In the two urban sampling locations mean TGM concentrations during winter and summer sampling periods were 24.7, 8.3, 10, and 12.7 ng/m3, respectively. In the suburban-industrial and the two rural sampling locations, mean mercury concentrations ranged from 3.1-5.3 ng/m3 in winter to 4.1-7.7 ng/m3 in summer sampling periods. In the Tiananmen Square (urban), and Shijingshan (suburban) sampling locations the mean TGM concentrations during the summer sampling period were higher than winter concentrations, which may have been caused by evaporation of soil-bound mercury in warm periods. Continuous meteorological data were available at one of the suburban sites, which allowed the observation of mercury concentration variations associated with some weather parameters. It was found that there was a moderate negative correlation between the wind speed and the TGM concentration at this suburban sampling location. It was also found that during the sampling period at the same site, the quantity of TGM transported to or from the sampling site was mainly influenced by the duration and frequency of wind occurrence from certain directions.

  15. Daily atmospheric radionuclide observations and health impact estimation before and after the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident: Five-year trends by Canadian monitoring stations - Ten-year trends of atmospheric lead-210 and the correlation to atmospheric mercury in the Canadian Arctic

    Zhang, Weihua; Chen, Jing; Ungar, Kurt [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Rd. Ottawa, K1A 1C1 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Mercury is a global threat to human and environmental health. Anthropogenic emissions of mercury have been larger than natural emissions since the start of the industrial age about 200 years ago. In the past decades, many studies have focused on monitoring and controlling anthropogenic emissions of mercury and their transport and transformation in the environment. In October 2013, the Minamata Convention on Mercury was formally adopted as international law. The new treaty aims to further cut mercury emissions and releases; it is the first global convention on environment and health. Coal burning for power generation and industrial use is one of the major sources of anthropogenic mercury emissions to the air. However, coal combustion processes produce significant quantities of dust containing not only mercury but also natural radionuclides that are released into the atmosphere. Like the case of mercury, those radionuclides can be transported over long distances, deposited on soil and oceans and accumulated in Arctic biota. Exposure to elevated levels of radiation is a health concern. This study analyses long-term trends of atmospheric lead-210 from Health Canada's radiological monitoring stations in the Arctic. Results are compared with ten-year records of atmospheric mercury reported by Environment Canada. A discussion is given on the correlation of long-range atmospheric transport of lead-210 and mercury from industrial sources, such as coal burning. It is expected that continuous decline of atmospheric mercury in the Arctic, especially with more and more countries signing the Minamata Convention, will result in a deceasing trend of atmospheric lead-210 from industrial sources as well. (authors)

  16. Quantification of Hg excretion and distribution in biological samples of mercury-dental-amalgam users and its correlation with biological variables.

    Gul, Nayab; Khan, Sardar; Khan, Abbas; Nawab, Javed; Shamshad, Isha; Yu, Xinwei

    2016-10-01

    This is the first study conducted to quantify the excretion and distribution of mercury (Hg) with time (days) in the biological samples collected from Hg dental amalgam users (MDA). The individuals, with Hg-based dental filling were selected, and their biological samples (red blood cells (RBCs), plasma, urine, hair, and nails) were collected on first, third, and 12th day of fillings. The concentrations of Hg observed in the biological samples of MDA were also correlated with the biological variables such as age, weight, restoration, fish consumption, number, and surface area of fillings. The concentrations of Hg in the biological samples of MDA were found 6-8 times higher than the non-amalgam users (control). The concentrations of Hg in the RBCs (4.39 μg/L), plasma (3.02 μg/L), and urine (22.5 μg/L) on first day of filling were found comparatively higher than the concentrations observed on third day (2.15, 1.46, and 12.3 μg/L for RBCs, plasma, urine, respectively) and 12th day (3.05, 2.5, 9.12 μg/L for RBCs, plasma, urine, respectively), while Hg concentrations were found lower in the hair and nails on third day of fillings (1.53 μg/g for hair and 2.35 μg/g for nails) as compared to the 12th day (2.95 μg/g for hair and 3.5 μg/g for nails). The correlations were found significant (p ˂ 0.05) between Hg concentrations in the biological samples of MDA and biological variables (the number of restoration, fish consumption, number, and surface area of fillings), while no significant (p ˃ 0.05) correlations were observed for Hg concentrations in the biological samples with age and weight of MDA. These observations unveil the fact that the use of Hg-based dental filling is the undesirable exposure to Hg which should be replaced by composite (a safer filling material).

  17. FA1 immunoreactivity in endocrine tumours and during development of the human fetal pancreas; negative correlation with glucagon expression

    Tornehave, D; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Teisner, B

    1996-01-01

    Fetal antigen 1 (FA1) is a glycoprotein containing six epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats. It is closely similar to the protein translated from the human delta-like (dlk) cDNA and probably constitutes a proteolytically processed form of dlk. dlk is homologous to the Drosophila homeotic...... proteins delta and notch and to the murine preadipocyte differentiation factor Pref-1. These proteins participate in determining cell fate choices during differentiation. We now report that FA1 immunoreactivity is present in a number of neuroectodermally derived tumours as well as in pancreatic endocrine...... tumours. A negative correlation between FA1 and glucagon immunoreactants in these tumours prompted a reexamination of FA1 immunoreactants during fetal pancreatic development. At the earliest stages of development, FA1 was expressed by most of the non-endocrine parenchymal cells and, with ensuing...

  18. Perturbed angular correlation study of the static and dynamic aspects of cadmium and mercury atoms inside and attached to a C{sub 60} fullerene cage

    Das, Satyendra K.; Guin, Rashmohan; Banerjee, Debasish [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata (India). Accelerator Chemistry Section (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre); Johnston, Karl [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Das, Parnika [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata (India); Butz, Tilman [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Faculty of Physics and Earth Sciences; Amaral, Vitor S. [Aveiro Univ. (Portugal). Physics Dept.; Aveiro Univ. (Portugal). CICECO; Correia, Joao G.; Barbosa, Marcelo B. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), Sacavem (Portugal); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland). ISOLDE

    2014-10-15

    30 keV {sup 111m}Cd and 50 keV {sup 199m}Hg beams from ISOLDE were used to implant on preformed targets of C{sub 60} with a thickness of 1 mg cm{sup -2}. Endofullerene compounds, viz. {sup 111m}Cd rate at C{sub 60} and {sup 199m}Hg rate at C{sub 60} formed during implantation were separated by filtration through micropore filter paper followed by solvent extraction. Dried samples of the endofullerene compounds were counted for the time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) measurement using the coincidence of the 151-245keV cascade of {sup 111m}Cd and the 374-158 keV cascade of {sup 199m}Hg on a six LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) detector system coupled with digital electronics. The results for {sup 111m}Cd rate at C{sub 60} indicate a single static component (27 %) and a fast relaxing component (73 %), the latter implying that the cadmium atom moves rapidly inside the cage at room temperature. The quadrupole interaction frequency and asymmetry parameter of the cadmium atom occupying the static site in C{sub 60} are ω{sub Q} = 8.21(36) Mrad s{sup -1} and η = 0.41(9), respectively. The fast relaxation constant is 0.0031(4) ns{sup -1}. Similarly, mercury atoms also exhibit a single static and a fast component. The static site has a quadrupole frequency ω{sub Q} = 283.0(12.4) Mrad s{sup -1} and η = 0 with a fraction of 30 %. The fast relaxation constant is 0.045(8) ns{sup -1} with a fraction of 70 %, very similar to that of cadmium.

  19. Correlations of DNA strand breaks and their repair with cell survival following acute exposure to mercury(II) and X-rays

    Cantoni, O.; Costa, M.

    1983-01-01

    Alkaline elution analysis demonstrates that both HgCl 2 and X-rays result in a rapid induction of DNA single-strand breaks at acutely cytotoxic doses (HgCl 2 , 25-100 microM for 60 min; X-rays, 150-600 rads) in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells. Cytotoxicity, as measured by cell-plating efficiency, correlates linearly with the level of DNA breakage induced by both agents (HgCl 2 , r . 0.97; X-rays, r . 0.99), although a substantial difference in axis intercepts of the two linear regression lines indicates that a higher level of DNA damage was required by X-rays as compared with HgCl 2 to produce an equivalent level of cell killing. DNA damage induced by X-rays was rapidly repaired such that within 1 hr following treatment the elution rate of DNA from treated cells resembled that obtained in untreated cultures. In contrast, DNA damage after Hg 2+ insult was not repaired, and further damage was evident following a similar 1-hr recovery period. Addition of noncytotoxic, non-DNA-damaging concentrations of HgCl 2 (10 microM) to cells 15-45 min following treatment with X-rays greatly inhibited the repair of the DNA strand breaks. Thus, although both HgCl 2 and X-rays induce rapid and striking single-strand breaks in the DNA, persistence of Hg 2+ in the cell can inhibit the repair of these breaks. The inhibition of DNA repair by HgCl 2 may explain why this agent is not severely mutagenic or carcinogenic despite its ability to induce an X-ray-like DNA damage and why a lower level of mercury-induced DNA damage, compared with that induced by X-rays, was required to produce an equivalent level of cell death

  20. The negative correlation between thyrotropin receptor-stimulating antibodies and bone mineral density in postmenopausal patients with Graves' disease.

    Amashukeli, Medea; Korinteli, Maka; Zerekidze, Tamar; Jikurauli, Nino; Shanava, Shorena; Tsagareli, Marina; Giorgadze, Elen

    2013-06-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder with various clinical manifestations. Thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAbs), the circulating autoantibodies specific to Graves' disease, are the cause for hyperthyroidism, the most prevalent abnormality. Hyperthyroidism leads to increased bone turnover and a negative bone balance. The aims of the present study were to determine the relationship between TRAbs and bone mineral density (BMD), to assess the extent of BMD change in patients with Graves' disease, and to determine the impact of conservative and surgical therapy on BMD. Fifty female postmenopausal patients with Graves' disease were chosen for this study. Twenty women had a recent diagnosis of Graves' disease, 30 women presented with a compensated disease state after either conservative or surgical treatment, and 30 healthy postmenopausal women served as controls. Thyroid parameters were measured, and BMD values were obtained by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scan.Femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD and T-scores were significantly lower in newly diagnosed patients compared with the control group, but a difference was not observed between the treated and control groups. Statistical analysis revealed a strong and significant negative correlation between femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD and TRAb values.Both surgical and conservative therapies are effective for restoring BMD in postmenopausal patients with Graves' disease, and the increased level of TRAb can be a useful marker of bone density impairment.

  1. Adolescent Age Moderates Genetic and Environmental Influences on Parent-Adolescent Positivity and Negativity: Implications for Genotype-Environment Correlation

    Marceau, Kristine; Knopik, Valerie S.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Spotts, Erica L.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we examined how genotype-environment correlation processes differ as a function of adolescent age. We tested whether adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on positivity and negativity in mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationships using parallel samples of twin parents from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden and twin/sibling adolescents from the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development Study. We inferred differences in the role of passive and non-passive genotype-environment correlation based on biometric moderation findings. Findings indicated that non-passive rGE played a stronger role for positivity in mother- and father- adolescent relationships in families with older adolescents than families with younger adolescents, and that passive rGE played a stronger role for positivity in the mother-adolescent relationship in families with younger adolescents than in families with older adolescents. Implications of these findings for the timing and targeting of interventions on family relationships are discussed. PMID:25924807

  2. Negative correlation between rates of molecular evolution and flowering cycles in temperate woody bamboos revealed by plastid phylogenomics.

    Ma, Peng-Fei; Vorontsova, Maria S; Nanjarisoa, Olinirina Prisca; Razanatsoa, Jacqueline; Guo, Zhen-Hua; Haevermans, Thomas; Li, De-Zhu

    2017-12-21

    Heterogeneous rates of molecular evolution are universal across the tree of life, posing challenges for phylogenetic inference. The temperate woody bamboos (tribe Arundinarieae, Poaceae) are noted for their extremely slow molecular evolutionary rates, supposedly caused by their mysterious monocarpic reproduction. However, the correlation between substitution rates and flowering cycles has not been formally tested. Here we present 15 newly sequenced plastid genomes of temperate woody bamboos, including the first genomes ever sequenced from Madagascar representatives. A data matrix of 46 plastid genomes representing all 12 lineages of Arundinarieae was assembled for phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses. We conducted phylogenetic analyses using different sequences (e.g., coding and noncoding) combined with different data partitioning schemes, revealing conflicting relationships involving internodes among several lineages. A great difference in branch lengths were observed among the major lineages, and topological inconsistency could be attributed to long-branch attraction (LBA). Using clock model-fitting by maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches, we furthermore demonstrated extensive rate variation among these major lineages. Rate accelerations mainly occurred for the isolated lineages with limited species diversification, totaling 11 rate shifts during the tribe's evolution. Using linear regression analysis, we found a negative correlation between rates of molecular evolution and flowering cycles for Arundinarieae, notwithstanding that the correlation maybe insignificant when taking the phylogenetic structure into account. Using the temperate woody bamboos as an example, we found further evidence that rate heterogeneity is universal in plants, suggesting that this will pose a challenge for phylogenetic reconstruction of bamboos. The bamboos with longer flowering cycles tend to evolve more slowly than those with shorter flowering cycles, in accordance

  3. Mercury soil surveys: a good reconnaissance tool

    Stone, C.; Ruscetta, C.A.; Foley, D. (eds.)

    1981-05-01

    Three examples of mercury soil surveys are discussed, along with the gravity data. An excellent correlation was found in southern Arizona between buried structures revealed by gravity and mercury soil surveys. The advantages of the latter over the former as a reconnaissance tool are listed. (MHR)

  4. Acclimation of subsurface microbial communities to mercury

    de Lipthay, Julia R; Rasmussen, Lasse D; Øregaard, Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    of mercury tolerance and functional versatility of bacterial communities in contaminated soils initially were higher for surface soil, compared with the deeper soils. However, following new mercury exposure, no differences between bacterial communities were observed, which indicates a high adaptive potential......We studied the acclimation to mercury of bacterial communities of different depths from contaminated and noncontaminated floodplain soils. The level of mercury tolerance of the bacterial communities from the contaminated site was higher than those of the reference site. Furthermore, the level...... of the subsurface communities, possibly due to differences in the availability of mercury. IncP-1 trfA genes were detected in extracted community DNA from all soil depths of the contaminated site, and this finding was correlated to the isolation of four different mercury-resistance plasmids, all belonging...

  5. Mercury's Messenger

    Chapman, Clark R.

    2004-01-01

    Forty years after Mariner 2, planetary exploration has still only just begun, and many more missions are on drawing boards, nearing the launch pad, or even en route across interplanetary space to their targets. One of the most challenging missions that will be conducted this decade is sending the MESSENGER spacecraft to orbit the planet Mercury.…

  6. Mercury in fish from the Madeira River and health risk to Amazonian and riverine populations.

    Soares, José Maria; Gomes, José M; Anjos, Marcelo R; Silveira, Josianne N; Custódio, Flavia B; Gloria, M Beatriz A

    2018-07-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify total mercury in highly popular Amazonian fish pacu, curimatã, jaraqui, and sardinha from the Madeira River and to estimate the exposure to methylmercury from fish consumption. The samples were obtained from two locations - Puruzinho Igarapé and Santa Rosa - near Humaitá, Amazonia, Brazil in two seasons of 2015 (high and low waters). The fish were identified, weighed and measured, and lipids were quantified. Total mercury was determined by gold amalgamation-atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean levels were used to calculate exposure of Amazonian and riverine populations. There was significant correlation (p < 0.05) between length × weight for all fish; length × lipid and weight × lipid were significant only for pacu. Total mercury levels varied along muscle tissue for the fish, except for sardinha; therefore muscle from the dorsal area along the fish were sampled, homogenized and used for analysis. The levels of total mercury varied from 0.01 to 0.46 mg/kg, with higher median levels in sardinha (0.24 mg/kg), followed by curimatã (0.16 mg/kg), jaraqui (0.13 mg/kg) and pacu (0.04 mg/kg), corresponding with the respective feeding habits along the trophic chain. Total mercury levels were not affected by the location of fish capture and by high and low waters seasons. Total mercury correlated significantly with length and weight for jaraqui and with length for sardinha (negative correlation). Total mercury levels in fish complied with legislation; however, exposures to methylmercury from fish consumption overpassed the safe intake reference dose for sardinha for Amazonians; however, for the riverine communities, all of the fish would cause potential health risk, mainly for children and women of childbearing age. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mercury Report-Children's exposure to elemental mercury

    ... gov . Mercury Background Mercury Report Additional Resources Mercury Report - Children's Exposure to Elemental Mercury Recommend on Facebook ... I limit exposure to mercury? Why was the report written? Children attending a daycare in New Jersey ...

  8. The neural correlates of anomalous habituation to negative emotional pictures in borderline and avoidant personality disorder patients.

    Koenigsberg, Harold W; Denny, Bryan T; Fan, Jin; Liu, Xun; Guerreri, Stephanie; Mayson, Sarah Jo; Rimsky, Liza; New, Antonia S; Goodman, Marianne; Siever, Larry J

    2014-01-01

    Extreme emotional reactivity is a defining feature of borderline personality disorder, yet the neural-behavioral mechanisms underlying this affective instability are poorly understood. One possible contributor is diminished ability to engage the mechanism of emotional habituation. The authors tested this hypothesis by examining behavioral and neural correlates of habituation in borderline patients, healthy comparison subjects, and a psychopathological comparison group of patients with avoidant personality disorder. During fMRI scanning, borderline patients, healthy subjects, and avoidant personality disorder patients viewed novel and repeated pictures, providing valence ratings at each presentation. Statistical parametric maps of the contrasts of activation during repeated versus novel negative picture viewing were compared between groups. Psychophysiological interaction analysis was employed to examine functional connectivity differences between groups. Unlike healthy subjects, neither borderline nor avoidant personality disorder patients exhibited increased activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex when viewing repeated versus novel pictures. This lack of an increase in dorsal anterior cingulate activity was associated with greater affective instability in borderline patients. In addition, borderline and avoidant patients exhibited smaller increases in insula-amygdala functional connectivity than healthy subjects and, unlike healthy subjects, did not show habituation in ratings of the emotional intensity of the images. Borderline patients differed from avoidant patients in insula-ventral anterior cingulate functional connectivity during habituation. Unlike healthy subjects, borderline patients fail to habituate to negative pictures, and they differ from both healthy subjects and avoidant patients in neural activity during habituation. A failure to effectively engage emotional habituation processes may contribute to affective instability in borderline

  9. Conifer density within lake catchments predicts fish mercury concentrations in remote subalpine lakes

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herring, Garth; Johnson, Branden L.; Graw, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Remote high-elevation lakes represent unique environments for evaluating the bioaccumulation of atmospherically deposited mercury through freshwater food webs, as well as for evaluating the relative importance of mercury loading versus landscape influences on mercury bioaccumulation. The increase in mercury deposition to these systems over the past century, coupled with their limited exposure to direct anthropogenic disturbance make them useful indicators for estimating how changes in mercury emissions may propagate to changes in Hg bioaccumulation and ecological risk. We evaluated mercury concentrations in resident fish from 28 high-elevation, sub-alpine lakes in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Fish total mercury (THg) concentrations ranged from 4 to 438 ng/g wet weight, with a geometric mean concentration (±standard error) of 43 ± 2 ng/g ww. Fish THg concentrations were negatively correlated with relative condition factor, indicating that faster growing fish that are in better condition have lower THg concentrations. Across the 28 study lakes, mean THg concentrations of resident salmonid fishes varied as much as 18-fold among lakes. We used a hierarchal statistical approach to evaluate the relative importance of physiological, limnological, and catchment drivers of fish Hg concentrations. Our top statistical model explained 87% of the variability in fish THg concentrations among lakes with four key landscape and limnological variables: catchment conifer density (basal area of conifers within a lake's catchment), lake surface area, aqueous dissolved sulfate, and dissolved organic carbon. Conifer density within a lake's catchment was the most important variable explaining fish THg concentrations across lakes, with THg concentrations differing by more than 400 percent across the forest density spectrum. These results illustrate the importance of landscape characteristics in controlling mercury bioaccumulation in fish.

  10. Toward a Unified Understanding of Mercury and Methylated Mercury from the World's Oceans

    McNutt, M. K.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Landing, W. M.; Sunderland, E. M.

    2012-12-01

    -profile concentration maxima, however, the depth of the maxima are more varied than the total mercury profiles (150 - 700m). Also, our observed distribution of methylated mercury highly correlated with organic carbon remineralization rates (OCRR) in the North Pacific and Indian Oceans. Interestingly, we find the highest methylated mercury concentrations in the Southern Ocean, suggesting the possibility of unique mechanisms for methylmercury production, preservation, and degradation in polar ecosystems such as cold water temperatures, extended periods of sea ice cover, and annual atmospheric mercury depletion events. We are using these data to better link oceanic production of bioaccumulative mercury to models for atmospheric and oceanic transport and bioaccumulation. This will ultimately lead to a better understanding of mercury levels in consumable fish and shell fish.

  11. Negative correlation of cortical thickness with the severity and duration of abdominal pain in Asian women with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Chua, Chian Sem; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Shiao, Chen-Yu; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Cheng, Chiao-Wen; Yang, Kuo-Ching; Chiu, Hung-Wen; Hsu, Jung-Lung

    2017-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) manifests as chronic abdominal pain. One pathophysiological theory states that the brain-gut axis is responsible for pain control in the intestine. Although several studies have discussed the structural changes in the brain of IBS patients, most of these studies have been conducted in Western populations. Different cultures and sexes experience different pain sensations and have different pain responses. Accordingly, we aimed to identify the specific changes in the cortical thickness of Asian women with IBS and to compare these data to those of non-Asian women with IBS. Thirty Asian female IBS patients (IBS group) and 39 healthy individuals (control group) were included in this study. Brain structural magnetic resonance imaging was performed. We used FreeSurfer to analyze the differences in the cortical thickness and their correlations with patient characteristics. The left cuneus, left rostral middle frontal cortex, left supramarginal cortex, right caudal anterior cingulate cortex, and bilateral insula exhibited cortical thinning in the IBS group compared with those in the controls. Furthermore, the brain cortical thickness correlated negatively the severity as well as duration of abdominal pain. Some of our findings differ from those of Western studies. In our study, all of the significant brain regions in the IBS group exhibited cortical thinning compared with those in the controls. The differences in cortical thickness between the IBS patients and controls may provide useful information to facilitate regulating abdominal pain in IBS patients. These findings offer insights into the association of different cultures and sexes with differences in cortical thinning in patients with IBS.

  12. Spatial correlations of Diceroprocta apache and its host plants: Evidence for a negative impact from Tamarix invasion

    Ellingson, A.R.; Andersen, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    1. The hypothesis that the habitat-scale spatial distribution of the Apache cicada Diceroprocta apache Davis is unaffected by the presence of the invasive exotic saltcedar Tamarix ramosissima was tested using data from 205 1-m2 quadrats placed within the flood-plain of the Bill Williams River, Arizona, U.S.A. Spatial dependencies within and between cicada density and habitat variables were estimated using Moran's I and its bivariate analogue to discern patterns and associations at spatial scales from 1 to 30 m.2. Apache cicadas were spatially aggregated in high-density clusters averaging 3 m in diameter. A positive association between cicada density, estimated by exuvial density, and the per cent canopy cover of a native tree, Goodding's willow Salix gooddingii, was detected in a non-spatial correlation analysis. No non-spatial association between cicada density and saltcedar canopy cover was detected.3. Tests for spatial cross-correlation using the bivariate IYZ indicated the presence of a broad-scale negative association between cicada density and saltcedar canopy cover. This result suggests that large continuous stands of saltcedar are associated with reduced cicada density. In contrast, positive associations detected at spatial scales larger than individual quadrats suggested a spill-over of high cicada density from areas featuring Goodding's willow canopy into surrounding saltcedar monoculture.4. Taken together and considered in light of the Apache cicada's polyphagous habits, the observed spatial patterns suggest that broad-scale factors such as canopy heterogeneity affect cicada habitat use more than host plant selection. This has implications for management of lower Colorado River riparian woodlands to promote cicada presence and density through maintenance or creation of stands of native trees as well as manipulation of the characteristically dense and homogeneous saltcedar canopies.

  13. Overt leptin response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation negatively correlates with pregnancy outcome in in vitro fertilization--embryo transfer cycle

    Jana Chakrabarti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: A critical body mass of adipose tissue is essential for the normal development of female reproductive functions. Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone encoded by the ′Ob′ gene has been proposed as a peripheral signal indicating the adequacy of nutritional status for reproductive functions. It is reported as a direct regulator of gametogenic and steroidogenic potential of ovary. Though leptin is widely present in reproductive tissues, its relationship to reproductive hormones is still poorly understood. Aims: Present investigation attempts to explore ovarian response to secretory profile of leptin and its impact on pregnancy outcome in women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET. Settings and Design: Patients enrolled for IVF-ET underwent pituitary-ovarian suppression by ′Long Protocol′ GnRH-agonist downregulation followed by ovarian stimulation. Materials and Methods: Sera were procured at different phases of IVF-ET for the assay of estradiol, progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin, and for leptin. Ovarian follicular fluids were also assayed for leptin. Luteinized granulosa cells were cultured in vitro to evaluate their steroidogenic potential. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analyses were done by student′s t-test, ANOVA, and Chi-square tests as applicable. All results were expressed as Mean ± SE. P values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Positive correlation was observed between serum and ovarian follicular fluid leptin. A negative correlation was noted between the serum leptin levels and endometrial thickness. Conclusions: Elevated leptin response may exert adverse impacts on pregnancy success during IVF-ET possibly by modulating uterine receptivity.

  14. Histamine H3 receptor density is negatively correlated with neural activity related to working memory in humans.

    Ito, Takehito; Kimura, Yasuyuki; Seki, Chie; Ichise, Masanori; Yokokawa, Keita; Kawamura, Kazunori; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Higuchi, Makoto; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Suhara, Tetsuya; Yamada, Makiko

    2018-06-14

    The histamine H 3 receptor is regarded as a drug target for cognitive impairments in psychiatric disorders. H 3 receptors are expressed in neocortical areas, including the prefrontal cortex, the key region of cognitive functions such as working memory. However, the role of prefrontal H 3 receptors in working memory has not yet been clarified. Therefore, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) techniques, we aimed to investigate the association between the neural activity of working memory and the density of H 3 receptors in the prefrontal cortex. Ten healthy volunteers underwent both fMRI and PET scans. The N-back task was used to assess the neural activities related to working memory. H 3 receptor density was measured with the selective PET radioligand [ 11 C] TASP457. The neural activity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during the performance of the N-back task was negatively correlated with the density of H 3 receptors in this region. Higher neural activity of working memory was associated with lower H 3 receptor density in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. This finding elucidates the role of H 3 receptors in working memory and indicates the potential of H 3 receptors as a therapeutic target for the cognitive impairments associated with neuropsychiatric disorders.

  15. Proteomic analysis indicates that mitochondrial energy metabolism in skeletal muscle tissue is negatively correlated with feed efficiency in pigs

    Fu, Liangliang; Xu, Yueyuan; Hou, Ye; Qi, Xiaolong; Zhou, Lian; Liu, Huiying; Luan, Yu; Jing, Lu; Miao, Yuanxin; Zhao, Shuhong; Liu, Huazhen; Li, Xinyun

    2017-03-01

    Feed efficiency (FE) is a highly important economic trait in pig production. Investigating the molecular mechanisms of FE is essential for trait improvement. In this study, the skeletal muscle proteome of high-FE and low-FE pigs were investigated by the iTRAQ approach. A total of 1780 proteins were identified, among which 124 proteins were differentially expressed between the high- and low-FE pigs, with 74 up-regulated and 50 down-regulated in the high-FE pigs. Ten randomly selected differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were validated by Western blotting and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that all the 25 DEPs located in mitochondria were down-regulated in the high-FE pigs. Furthermore, the glucose-pyruvate-tricarboxylic acid (TCA)-oxidative phosphorylation energy metabolism signaling pathway was found to differ between high- and low-FE pigs. The key enzymes involved in the conversion of glucose to pyruvate were up-regulated in the high-FE pigs. Thus, our results suggested mitochondrial energy metabolism in the skeletal muscle tissue was negatively correlated with FE in pigs, and glucose utilization to generate ATP was more efficient in the skeletal muscle tissue of high-FE pigs. This study offered new targets and pathways for improvement of FE in pigs.

  16. Correlation of Positive and Negative Reciprocity Fails to Confer an Evolutionary Advantage: Phase Transitions to Elementary Strategies

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2013-10-01

    Economic experiments reveal that humans value cooperation and fairness. Punishing unfair behavior is therefore common, and according to the theory of strong reciprocity, it is also directly related to rewarding cooperative behavior. However, empirical data fail to confirm that positive and negative reciprocity are correlated. Inspired by this disagreement, we determine whether the combined application of reward and punishment is evolutionarily advantageous. We study a spatial public goods game, where in addition to the three elementary strategies of defection, rewarding, and punishment, a fourth strategy that combines the latter two competes for space. We find rich dynamical behavior that gives rise to intricate phase diagrams where continuous and discontinuous phase transitions occur in succession. Indirect territorial competition, spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance, as well as divergent fluctuations of oscillations that terminate in an absorbing phase are observed. Yet, despite the high complexity of solutions, the combined strategy can survive only in very narrow and unrealistic parameter regions. Elementary strategies, either in pure or mixed phases, are much more common and likely to prevail. Our results highlight the importance of patterns and structure in human cooperation, which should be considered in future experiments.

  17. Water spray-induced grooming is negatively correlated with depressive behavior in the forced swimming test in rats.

    Shiota, Noboru; Narikiyo, Kimiya; Masuda, Akira; Aou, Shuji

    2016-05-01

    Rodents show grooming, a typical self-care behavior, under stress and non-stress conditions. Previous studies revealed that grooming under stress conditions such as the open-field test (OFT) or the elevated plus-maze test (EPM) is associated with anxiety, but the roles of grooming under non-stress conditions are not well understood. Here, we examined spray-induced grooming as a model of grooming under a non-stress condition to investigate the relationship between this grooming and depression-like behavior in the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test, and we compared spray-induced grooming with OFT- and EPM-induced grooming. The main finding was that the duration of spray-induced grooming, but not that of OFT/EPM-induced grooming, was negatively correlated with the duration of immobility in the FST, an index of depression-like behavior. The results suggest that spray-induced grooming is functionally different from the grooming in the OFT and EPM and is related to reduction of depressive behavior.

  18. Correlation of Positive and Negative Reciprocity Fails to Confer an Evolutionary Advantage: Phase Transitions to Elementary Strategies

    Attila Szolnoki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic experiments reveal that humans value cooperation and fairness. Punishing unfair behavior is therefore common, and according to the theory of strong reciprocity, it is also directly related to rewarding cooperative behavior. However, empirical data fail to confirm that positive and negative reciprocity are correlated. Inspired by this disagreement, we determine whether the combined application of reward and punishment is evolutionarily advantageous. We study a spatial public goods game, where in addition to the three elementary strategies of defection, rewarding, and punishment, a fourth strategy that combines the latter two competes for space. We find rich dynamical behavior that gives rise to intricate phase diagrams where continuous and discontinuous phase transitions occur in succession. Indirect territorial competition, spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance, as well as divergent fluctuations of oscillations that terminate in an absorbing phase are observed. Yet, despite the high complexity of solutions, the combined strategy can survive only in very narrow and unrealistic parameter regions. Elementary strategies, either in pure or mixed phases, are much more common and likely to prevail. Our results highlight the importance of patterns and structure in human cooperation, which should be considered in future experiments.

  19. Negative Correlation between miR-200c and Decorin Plays an Important Role in the Pathogenesis of Colorectal Carcinoma

    Ren-Yi Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To demonstrate the regulatory role of miRNA in colorectal carcinoma (CRC and reveal the transcript markers that may be associated with CRC clinical outcomes. Method. Herein, we analyzed both mRNA and miRNA gene expression profiles of 255 CRC tumor samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas project to reveal the regulatory association between miRNA and mRNA. Also, the potential role of gene coexpression network in CRC has been explored. Results. The negative correlation between miR-200c and DCN (Decorin was calculated in CRC, indicating that DCN could be a potential target of miR-200c. Clinical features indicated that colon polyp history and overall survival were significantly related to the expression level of miR-200c. Three coexpression networks have been constructed, and genes involved in the networks are related to cell cycle, NOTCH, and mTOR signaling pathways. Conclusion. Our result provides a new insight into cancer related mRNA coexpression network in CRC research.

  20. The Sluggishness of Early-Stage Face Processing (N170 is Correlated with Negative and General Psychiatric Symptoms in Schizophrenia

    Yingjun Zheng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia exhibit consistent abnormalities in face-evoked N170. However, the relation between face-specific N170 abnormalities in schizophrenic patients and schizophrenia clinical characters, which probably based on common neural mechanisms, is still rarely discovered. Using event-related potentials (ERPs recording in both schizophrenic patients and healthy controls, the amplitude and latency of N170 were recorded when participants were passively watching face and non-face (table pictures. The results showed a face-specific N170 latency sluggishness in schizophrenic patients, i.e., the N170 latencies of schizophrenic patients were significantly longer than those of healthy controls under both upright face and inverted face conditions. Importantly, the face-related N170 latencies of the left temporo-occipital electrodes (P7 and PO7 were positively correlated with negative symptoms and general psychiatric symptoms. Besides the analysis of latencies, the N170 amplitudes became weaker in schizophrenic patients under both inverted face and inverted table conditions, with a left hemisphere dominant. More interestingly, the FIEs (the difference of N170 amplitudes between upright and inverted faces were absent in schizophrenic patients, which suggested the abnormality of holistic face processing. These results above revealed a marked symptom-relevant neural sluggishness of face-specific processing in schizophrenic patients, supporting the demyelinating hypothesis of schizophrenia.

  1. Maternal transfer of mercury to songbird eggs.

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Hartman, C Alex; Herzog, Mark P

    2017-11-01

    We evaluated the maternal transfer of mercury to eggs in songbirds, determined whether this relationship differed between songbird species, and developed equations for predicting mercury concentrations in eggs from maternal blood. We sampled blood and feathers from 44 house wren (Troglodytes aedon) and 34 tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) mothers and collected their full clutches (n = 476 eggs) within 3 days of clutch completion. Additionally, we sampled blood and feathers from 53 tree swallow mothers and randomly collected one egg from their clutches (n = 53 eggs) during mid to late incubation (6-10 days incubated) to evaluate whether the relationship varied with the timing of sampling the mother's blood. Mercury concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with mercury concentrations in maternal blood sampled at (1) the time of clutch completion for both house wrens (R 2  = 0.97) and tree swallows (R 2  = 0.97) and (2) during mid to late incubation for tree swallows (R 2  = 0.71). The relationship between mercury concentrations in eggs and maternal blood did not differ with the stage of incubation when maternal blood was sampled. Importantly, the proportion of mercury transferred from mothers to their eggs decreased substantially with increasing blood mercury concentrations in tree swallows, but increased slightly with increasing blood mercury concentrations in house wrens. Additionally, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs at the same maternal blood mercury concentration differed between species. Specifically, tree swallow mothers transferred 17%-107% more mercury to their eggs than house wren mothers over the observed mercury concentrations in maternal blood (0.15-1.92 μg/g ww). In contrast, mercury concentrations in eggs were not correlated with those in maternal feathers and, likewise, mercury concentrations in maternal blood were not correlated with those in feathers (all R 2  mercury concentrations from maternal blood to eggs

  2. Adsorption behavior of n-butanol molecules on negatively charged surfaces of electrodes of mercury, gallium, and alloys In-Ga and Tl-Ga

    Damskin, B.B.; Baturina, O.A.; Vasil'ev, S.Yu.; Emets, V.V.; Kazarinov, V.E.

    1999-01-01

    Curves of differential capacitance in the interfaces Hg/H 2 O, Ga/H 2 O, (In-Ga)/H 2 O and (Tl-Ga)H 2 O in 0.05 M Na 2 SO 4 solutions with different additions of n-butanol have been obtained by the bridge method at a frequency of 420 Hz and temperature of 32 deg C. The method of regression analysis of the curves permitted ascertaining the adsorption parameters of n-butanol for the range of charges q, where there is no chemisorption of H 2 O dipoles. The data obtained suggested that the difference in the adsorption behaviour of organic molecules on the metals studied in the range of higher negative charges is largely determined by different electron electrochemical work functions, the definition being given by S. Trasatti [ru

  3. Mercury emission from a temperate lake during autumn turnover

    Wollenberg, Jennifer L.; Peters, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    Lakes in temperate regions stratify during summer and winter months, creating distinct layers of water differentiated by their physical and chemical characteristics. When lakes mix in autumn and spring, mercury cycling may be affected by the chemical changes that occur during mixing. Sampling was conducted in Lake Lacawac, Eastern Pennsylvania, USA, throughout the autumn of 2007 to characterize changes in emission of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) from the lake surface and dissolved mercury profiles in the water column during mixing. Water chemistry and weather parameters were also measured, including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), iron, and solar radiation which have been shown to interact with mercury species. Results indicate that emission of Hg 0 from the lake to the atmosphere during turnover was controlled both by solar radiation and by surface water mercury concentration. As autumn turnover progressed through the months of October and November, higher mercury concentration water from the hypolimnion mixed with epilimnetic water, increasing mercury concentration in epilimnetic waters. Dissolved absorbance was significantly correlated with mercury concentrations and with iron, but DOC concentrations were essentially constant throughout the study period and did not exhibit a relationship with either dissolved mercury concentrations or emission rates. Positive correlations between dissolved mercury and iron and manganese also suggest a role for these elements in mercury transport within the lake, but iron and manganese did not demonstrate a relationship with emission rates. This research indicates that consideration of seasonal processes in lakes is important when evaluating mercury cycling in aquatic systems

  4. Amygdala reactivity and negative emotionality: divergent correlates of antisocial personality and psychopathy traits in a community sample.

    Hyde, Luke W; Byrd, Amy L; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Hariri, Ahmad R; Manuck, Stephen B

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have emphasized that antisocial personality disorder (APD) and psychopathy overlap highly but differ critically in several features, notably negative emotionality (NEM) and possibly amygdala reactivity to social signals of threat and distress. Here we examined whether dimensions of psychopathy and APD correlate differentially with NEM and amygdala reactivity to emotional faces. Testing these relationships among healthy individuals, dimensions of psychopathy and APD were generated by the profile matching technique of Lynam and Widiger (2001), using facet scales of the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised, and amygdala reactivity was measured using a well-established emotional faces task, in a community sample of 103 men and women. Higher psychopathy scores were associated with lower NEM and lower amygdala reactivity, whereas higher APD scores were related to greater NEM and greater amygdala reactivity, but only after overlapping variance in APD and psychopathy was adjusted for in the statistical model. Amygdala reactivity did not mediate the relationship of APD and psychopathy scores to NEM. Supplemental analyses also compared other measures of factors within psychopathy in predicting NEM and amygdala reactivity and found that Factor 2 psychopathy was positively related to NEM and amygdala reactivity across measures of psychopathy. The overall findings replicate seminal observations on NEM in psychopathy by Hicks and Patrick (2006) and extend this work to neuroimaging in a normative population. They also suggest that one critical way in which APD and psychopathy dimensions may differ in their etiology is through their opposing levels of NEM and amygdala reactivity to threat. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Serum galectin-1 levels are positively correlated with body fat and negatively with fasting glucose in obese children.

    Acar, Sezer; Paketçi, Ahu; Küme, Tuncay; Tuhan, Hale; Gürsoy Çalan, Özlem; Demir, Korcan; Böber, Ece; Abacı, Ayhan

    2017-09-01

    Galectin-1, a recently identified peptide, is primarily released from the adipose tissue. Although galectin-1 was shown to have an anti-inflammatory effect, its specific function is not clearly understood. We aimed to evaluate the relationship of serum galectin-1 levels with clinical and laboratory parameters in childhood obesity. A total of 45 obese children (mean age: 12.1±3.1years) and 35 normal-weight children (mean age: 11.8±2.2years) were enrolled. Clinical [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), percentage of body fat and blood pressure] and biochemical [glucose, insulin, lipids, galectin-1, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and leptin levels] parameters were assessed. Serum galectin-1, hsCRP and leptin levels were significantly higher in obese children than those in normal-weight children (12.4 vs 10.2ng/mL, pobese children, galectin-1 levels correlated negatively with fasting glucose (r=-0.346, p=0.020) and positively with fat mass (r=0.326, p=0.026) and WC standard deviation score (SDS) (r=0.451, p=0.002). The multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that serum galectin-1 levels were significantly associated with fasting glucose and WC SDS. This study showed that obese children had significantly higher galectin-1 levels in proportion to fat mass in obese cases than those in healthy children, which may be interpreted as a compensatory increase in an attempt to improve glucose metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Photosynthetic capacity is negatively correlated with the concentration of leaf phenolic compounds across a range of different species.

    Sumbele, Sally; Fotelli, Mariangela N; Nikolopoulos, Dimosthenis; Tooulakou, Georgia; Liakoura, Vally; Liakopoulos, Georgios; Bresta, Panagiota; Dotsika, Elissavet; Adams, Mark A; Karabourniotis, George

    2012-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are the most commonly studied of all secondary metabolites because of their significant protective-defensive roles and their significant concentration in plant tissues. However, there has been little study on relationships between gas exchange parameters and the concentration of leaf phenolic compounds (total phenolics (TP) and condensed tannins (CT)) across a range of species. Therefore, we addressed the question: is there any correlation between photosynthetic capacity (A(max)) and TP and CT across species from different ecosystems in different continents? A plethora of functional and structural parameters were measured in 49 plant species following different growth strategies from five sampling sites located in Greece and Australia. The relationships between several leaf traits were analysed by means of regression and principal component analysis. The results revealed a negative relationship between TP and CT and A(max) among the different plant species, growth strategies and sampling sites, irrespective of expression (with respect to mass, area or nitrogen content). Principal component analysis showed that high concentrations of TP and CT are associated with thick, dense leaves with low nitrogen. This leaf type is characterized by low growth, A(max) and transpiration rates, and is common in environments with low water and nutrient availability, high temperatures and high light intensities. Therefore, the high TP and CT in such leaves are compatible with the protective and defensive functions ascribed to them. Our results indicate a functional integration between carbon gain and the concentration of leaf phenolic compounds that reflects the trade-off between growth and defence/protection demands, depending on the growth strategy adopted by each species.

  7. Mercury contamination extraction

    Fuhrmann, Mark [Silver Spring, MD; Heiser, John [Bayport, NY; Kalb, Paul [Wading River, NY

    2009-09-15

    Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

  8. Mercury's Lithospheric Magnetization

    Johnson, C.; Phillips, R. J.; Philpott, L. C.; Al Asad, M.; Plattner, A.; Mast, S.; Kinczyk, M. J.; Prockter, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic field data obtained by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft have been used to demonstrate the presence of lithospheric magnetization on Mercury. Larger amplitude fields resulting from the core dynamo and the strongly time-varying magnetospheric current systems are first estimated and subtracted from the magnetic field data to isolate lithospheric signals with wavelengths less than 500 km. These signals (hereafter referred to as data) are only observed at spacecraft altitudes less than 120 km, and are typically a few to 10 nT in amplitude. We present and compare equivalent source dipole magnetization models for latitudes 35°N to 75°N obtained from two distinct approaches to constrain the distribution and origin of lithospheric magnetization. First, models that fit either the data or the surface field predicted from a regional spherical harmonic representation of the data (see Plattner & Johnson abstract) and that minimize the root mean square (RMS) value of the magnetization are derived. Second, models in which the spatial distribution of magnetization required to fit the data is minimized are derived using the approach of Parker (1991). As seen previously, the largest amplitudes of lithospheric magnetization are concentrated around the Caloris basin. With this exception, across the northern hemisphere there are no overall correlations of magnetization with surface geology, although higher magnetizations are found in regions with darker surfaces. Similarly, there is no systematic correlation of magnetization signatures with crater materials, although there are specific instances of craters with interiors or ejecta that have magnetizations distinct from the surrounding region. For the latter case, we observe no correlation of the occurrence of these signatures with crater degradation state (a proxy for age). At the lowest spacecraft altitudes (source depths less than O(10 km) are unlikely in most regions

  9. Neural Correlates of Biased Responses: The Negative Method Effect in the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale Is Associated with Right Amygdala Volume.

    Wang, Yinan; Kong, Feng; Huang, Lijie; Liu, Jia

    2016-10-01

    Self-esteem is a widely studied construct in psychology that is typically measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). However, a series of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested that a simple and widely used unidimensional factor model does not provide an adequate explanation of RSES responses due to method effects. To identify the neural correlates of the method effect, we sought to determine whether and how method effects were associated with the RSES and investigate the neural basis of these effects. Two hundred and eighty Chinese college students (130 males; mean age = 22.64 years) completed the RSES and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Behaviorally, method effects were linked to both positively and negatively worded items in the RSES. Neurally, the right amygdala volume negatively correlated with the negative method factor, while the hippocampal volume positively correlated with the general self-esteem factor in the RSES. The neural dissociation between the general self-esteem factor and negative method factor suggests that there are different neural mechanisms underlying them. The amygdala is involved in modulating negative affectivity; therefore, the current study sheds light on the nature of method effects that are related to self-report with a mix of positively and negatively worded items. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Nodal infection in Markovian susceptible-infected-susceptible and susceptible-infected-removed epidemics on networks are non-negatively correlated.

    Cator, E; Van Mieghem, P

    2014-05-01

    By invoking the famous Fortuin, Kasteleyn, and Ginibre (FKG) inequality, we prove the conjecture that the correlation of infection at the same time between any pair of nodes in a network cannot be negative for (exact) Markovian susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) and susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) epidemics on networks. The truth of the conjecture establishes that the N-intertwined mean-field approximation (NIMFA) upper bounds the infection probability in any graph so that network design based on NIMFA always leads to safe protections against malware spread. However, when the infection or/and curing are not Poisson processes, the infection correlation between two nodes can be negative.

  11. Nodal infection in Markovian susceptible-infected-susceptible and susceptible-infected-removed epidemics on networks are non-negatively correlated

    Cator, E.; Van Mieghem, P.

    2014-05-01

    By invoking the famous Fortuin, Kasteleyn, and Ginibre (FKG) inequality, we prove the conjecture that the correlation of infection at the same time between any pair of nodes in a network cannot be negative for (exact) Markovian susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) and susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) epidemics on networks. The truth of the conjecture establishes that the N-intertwined mean-field approximation (NIMFA) upper bounds the infection probability in any graph so that network design based on NIMFA always leads to safe protections against malware spread. However, when the infection or/and curing are not Poisson processes, the infection correlation between two nodes can be negative.

  12. High activity carbon sorbents for mercury capture

    Stavropoulos George G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available High efficiency activated carbons have been prepared for removing mercury from gas streams. Starting materials used were petroleum coke, lignite, charcoal and olive seed waste, and were chemically activated with KOH. Produced adsorbents were primarily characterized for their porosity by N2 adsorption at 77 K. Their mercury retention capacity was characterized based on the breakthrough curves. Compared with typical commercial carbons, they have exhibited considerably enhanced mercury adsorption capacity. An attempt has been made to correlate mercury entrapment and pore structure. It has been shown that physical surface area is increased during activation in contrast to the mercury adsorption capacity that initially increases and tends to decrease at latter stages. Desorption of active sites may be responsible for this behavior.

  13. Correlates of Chilean Adolescents’ Negative Attitudes Toward Cigarettes: The Role of Gender, Peer, Parental, and Environmental Factors

    Bares, Cristina; Delva, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: We examined the association of peer, parental, and environmental factors with negative attitudes toward cigarettes among youth from Santiago, Chile. Methods: A total of 860 youth from Santiago, Chile, completed questions regarding their lifetime use of cigarettes, intentions to smoke, attitudes toward cigarettes, and questions that assessed peer, parental, and environmental factors. Results: For both boys and girls, peer disapproval of smoking was associated with more negative attitudes toward cigarettes and peer smoking was associated with less negative attitudes toward cigarettes. Peer pressure was significantly associated with more negative attitudes toward cigarettes for girls only. Parental smoking was associated with less negative attitudes and parental control with more negative attitudes, but these associations were significant in the overall sample only. School prevention efforts and exposure to cigarette ads were not associated with cigarette attitudes. Difficulty in accessing cigarettes was positively associated with negative attitudes for boys and girls. Conclusion: Smoking prevention efforts focus on attitude change, but scant information is available about the experiences that influence Chilean youth’s attitudes toward cigarettes. Results from the current study suggest that prevention efforts could benefit from gender-specific strategies. Girls’ but not boys’ attitudes were influenced by peer pressure. Moreover, negative attitudes toward cigarettes were associated with lower current smoking in girls only. Parental smoking was an important influence on youth’s attitudes toward cigarettes. Efforts to reduce smoking among Chilean youth may benefit from concurrently reducing parental smoking. PMID:22157230

  14. Correlates of chilean adolescents' negative attitudes toward cigarettes: the role of gender, peer, parental, and environmental factors.

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Bares, Cristina; Delva, Jorge

    2012-02-01

    We examined the association of peer, parental, and environmental factors with negative attitudes toward cigarettes among youth from Santiago, Chile. A total of 860 youth from Santiago, Chile, completed questions regarding their lifetime use of cigarettes, intentions to smoke, attitudes toward cigarettes, and questions that assessed peer, parental, and environmental factors. For both boys and girls, peer disapproval of smoking was associated with more negative attitudes toward cigarettes and peer smoking was associated with less negative attitudes toward cigarettes. Peer pressure was significantly associated with more negative attitudes toward cigarettes for girls only. Parental smoking was associated with less negative attitudes and parental control with more negative attitudes, but these associations were significant in the overall sample only. School prevention efforts and exposure to cigarette ads were not associated with cigarette attitudes. Difficulty in accessing cigarettes was positively associated with negative attitudes for boys and girls. Smoking prevention efforts focus on attitude change, but scant information is available about the experiences that influence Chilean youth's attitudes toward cigarettes. Results from the current study suggest that prevention efforts could benefit from gender-specific strategies. Girls' but not boys' attitudes were influenced by peer pressure. Moreover, negative attitudes toward cigarettes were associated with lower current smoking in girls only. Parental smoking was an important influence on youth's attitudes toward cigarettes. Efforts to reduce smoking among Chilean youth may benefit from concurrently reducing parental smoking.

  15. Staging primary breast cancer. Are there tumour pathological features that correlate with a false-negative axillary ultrasound?

    Johnson, S.; Brown, S.; Porter, G.; Steel, J.; Paisley, K.; Watkins, R.; Holgate, C.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether the histopathological characteristics of primary breast cancer tumours could predict the likelihood of false-negative axillary ultrasound. Materials and methods: Screening and symptomatic patients were identified from pathology records and imaging and pathology records reviewed. True and false-negative axillary staging ultrasound groups were compared statistically in terms of tumour size, pathological type and grade, lymphovascular invasion, and oestrogen receptor (ER) status. Results: Of 155 women with normal ultrasounds, 45 (29%) were node positive at axillary surgery. Breast tumour size was significantly different with the average size smaller in the true-negative group: 21 versus 30 mm (p < 0.02). The histological type varied significantly between the groups, with more lobular carcinomas in the false-negative group [6/110 (5%) versus 6/45 (13%), p < 0.001]. The false-negative group was also more likely to show lymphovascular invasion in the breast [6/110 (5%) versus 14/45 (31%), p < 0.001]. There was no significant difference in tumour grade or ER status. Conclusion: The present study has found significant differences in tumour characteristics between women with true-negative and false-negative axillary staging ultrasound in terms of size, primary tumour histological type and presence of lymphovascular invasion. In particular, axillary ultrasound in primary lobular carcinoma may be less accurate and a negative result is more likely to be spurious than with primary ductal carcinomas.

  16. Interaction of ethanol and mercury body burden in the mouse

    Dunn, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The interaction of ethanol with mercury in the body resulting in increased exhalation of the metal was studied in the mouse. A persistent elimination of the metal in the breath was demonstrated after single, sublethal (<1 mgHg/Kg body weight) exposures to mercury vapor (Hg/sup 0/) or mercury II chloride (HgCl/sub 2/). The amount of mercury exhaled per unit time was enhanced by oral or parenteral administration of ethanol solutions. These modifications were investigated in dose-response studies in which the drug was administered in doses ranging from 0.2g to 5.5g/Kg to mice pretreated with mercury. The EC/sub 50/ for blood ethanol with respect to mercury exhalation was determined to be approximately 200 mg/dl corresponding to an output rate of approximately 0.1% of the simultaneous body burden in 30 min several days after mercury. A hypothesis that mercury expired by these animals was proportional to the body burden after mercury administration was addressed in experiments whereby mice given one of several doses of mercuric chloride (0.16 to 500 ..mu..g/Kg) were monitored for pulmonary mercury elimination for a fifteen day period. The high correlation obtained between the amount of mercury exhaled in a standard time period and the body burden by group indicated that breath sampling could be applied as an indicator of the mercury body burden which may not be limited to the mouse.

  17. Impact of negative emotion on the neural correlates of long-term recognition in younger and older adults

    Grégoria eKalpouzos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Some studies have suggested that the memory advantage for negative emotional information over neutral information (negativity effect is reduced in aging. Besides the fact that most findings are based on immediate retrieval, the neural underpinnings of long-term emotional memory in aging have so far not been investigated. To address these issues, we assessed recognition of neutral and negative scenes after one- and 3-week retention intervals in younger and older adults using fMRI. We further used an event-related design in order to disentangle successful, false and true recognition. This study revealed 4 key findings: 1 Increased retention interval induced an increased rate of false recognitions for negative scenes, cancelling out the negativity effect (present for hit rates only on discrimination in both younger and older adults; 2 In younger, but not older, adults, reduced activity of the medial temporal lobe was observed over time for neutral scenes, but not for negative scenes, where stable or increased activity was seen; 3 Engagement of amygdala was observed in older adults after a 3-week delay during successful recognition of negative scenes (hits versus misses in comparison with neutral scenes, which may indicate engagement of automatic processes, but engagement of ventrolateral prefrontal cortex was unrelated to amygdala activity and performance; and 4 After 3 weeks, but not after one week, true recognition of negative scenes was characterized by more activity in left hippocampus and lateral occipito-temporal regions (hits versus false alarms. As these regions are known to be related to consolidation mechanisms, the observed pattern may indicate the presence of delayed consolidation of true memories. Nonetheless, older adults’ low performance in discrimination of negative scenes could reflect the fact that overall, after long delays of retention, they rely more on general information rather than on perceptual detail in making

  18. Mercury and selenium levels in 19 species of saltwater fish from New Jersey as a function of species, size, and season

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    There are few data on risks to biota and humans from mercury levels in saltwater fish. This paper examines mercury and selenium levels in muscle of 19 species of fish caught by recreational fisherfolk off the New Jersey shore, as a function of species of fish, size, and season, and risk of mercury to consumers. Average mercury levels ranged from 0.01 ppm (wet weight) (Menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus) to 1.83 ppm (Mako Shark Isurus oxyrinchus). There were four categories of mercury levels: very high (only Mako), high (averaging 0.3–0.5 ppm, 3 species), medium (0.14–0.20 ppm, 10 species), and low (below 0.13 ppm, 5 species). Average selenium levels for the fish species ranged from 0.18 ppm to 0.58 ppm, and had lower variability than mercury (coefficient of variation=38.3 vs 69.1%), consistent with homeostatic regulation of this essential element. The correlation between mercury and selenium was significantly positive for five and negative for two species. Mercury levels showed significant positive correlations with fish size for ten species. Size was the best predictor of mercury levels. Selenium showed no consistent relationship to fish length. Over half of the fish species had some individual fish with mercury levels over 0.3 ppm, and a third had fish with levels over 0.5 ppm, levels that pose a human health risk for high end consumers. Conversely several fish species had no individuals above 0.5 ppm, and few above 0.3 ppm, suggesting that people who eat fish frequently, can reduce their risk from mercury by selecting which species (and which size) to consume. Overall, with the exception of shark, Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus), Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) and Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis), the species sampled are generally medium to low in mercury concentration. Selenium:mercury molar ratios were generally above 1:1, except for the Mako shark. PMID:21292311

  19. Negative mood state enhances the susceptibility to unpleasant events: neural correlates from a music-primed emotion classification task.

    Jiajin Yuan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various affective disorders are linked with enhanced processing of unpleasant stimuli. However, this link is likely a result of the dominant negative mood derived from the disorder, rather than a result of the disorder itself. Additionally, little is currently known about the influence of mood on the susceptibility to emotional events in healthy populations. METHOD: Event-Related Potentials (ERP were recorded for pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures while subjects performed an emotional/neutral picture classification task during positive, neutral, or negative mood induced by instrumental Chinese music. RESULTS: Late Positive Potential (LPP amplitudes were positively related to the affective arousal of pictures. The emotional responding to unpleasant pictures, indicated by the unpleasant-neutral differences in LPPs, was enhanced during negative compared to neutral and positive moods in the entire LPP time window (600-1000 ms. The magnitude of this enhancement was larger with increasing self-reported negative mood. In contrast, this responding was reduced during positive compared to neutral mood in the 800-1000 ms interval. Additionally, LPP reactions to pleasant stimuli were similar across positive, neutral and negative moods except those in the 800-900 ms interval. IMPLICATIONS: Negative mood intensifies the humans' susceptibility to unpleasant events in healthy individuals. In contrast, music-induced happy mood is effective in reducing the susceptibility to these events. Practical implications of these findings were discussed.

  20. Phonetic measures of reduced tongue movement correlate with negative symptom severity in hospitalized patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

    Covington, Michael A; Lunden, S L Anya; Cristofaro, Sarah L; Wan, Claire Ramsay; Bailey, C Thomas; Broussard, Beth; Fogarty, Robert; Johnson, Stephanie; Zhang, Shayi; Compton, Michael T

    2012-12-01

    Aprosody, or flattened speech intonation, is a recognized negative symptom of schizophrenia, though it has rarely been studied from a linguistic/phonological perspective. To bring the latest advances in computational linguistics to the phenomenology of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, a clinical first-episode psychosis research team joined with a phonetics/computational linguistics team to conduct a preliminary, proof-of-concept study. Video recordings from a semi-structured clinical research interview were available from 47 first-episode psychosis patients. Audio tracks of the video recordings were extracted, and after review of quality, 25 recordings were available for phonetic analysis. These files were de-noised and a trained phonologist extracted a 1-minute sample of each patient's speech. WaveSurfer 1.8.5 was used to create, from each speech sample, a file of formant values (F0, F1, F2, where F0 is the fundamental frequency and F1 and F2 are resonance bands indicating the moment-by-moment shape of the oral cavity). Variability in these phonetic indices was correlated with severity of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptom scores using Pearson correlations. A measure of variability of tongue front-to-back position-the standard deviation of F2-was statistically significantly correlated with the severity of negative symptoms (r=-0.446, p=0.03). This study demonstrates a statistically significant and meaningful correlation between negative symptom severity and phonetically measured reductions in tongue movements during speech in a sample of first-episode patients just initiating treatment. Further studies of negative symptoms, applying computational linguistics methods, are warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of chronic neuropsychological effects of mercury vapour poisoning in chloral-alkali plant workers

    Nurka Pranjić

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available A prospective case study was conducted in the Department of Occupational Medicine, Tuzla. The purpose of this study was to indicate negative effects from occupational exposure to mercury on behavioural and mental health, memory and psychomotor function that was tested in 46 chloral-alkali plant workers (mean age was 38. 8+/- 5. 7 years; mean age of occupational history 16. 5+/- 6. 0 years. Data on toxicological monitoring on atomic absorption spectrometer, and data on mental health were collected, psychiatric and other subjective symptoms, and behavioural, psychomotor and memory function tested. The data were compared to control group, 32 healthy non exposed workers. The study was designed to assess blood and urine mercurylevels and length of occupational exposure and investigate its relationships to effects on the mental health. The mean air mercury levels were 0.23 mg/m3, the mean blood mercury concentrations was 3. 6 mg/ dl and the mean urine mercuryconcentrations were 151.7 +/- 180.4 mg/l. In 25 (53% workers exposed to mercury vapour was identified Depression-Hypochondrias Syndrome (p trend < 0. 001 with higher scores for scales: Hysteria (p trend <0. 001, Schizoid and Psychoastenia (MMPI. All psychological parameters were in highly significantly correlations with mercury levels and length of occupational exposure. Pathological parameters were possible general identified if the concentration of blood mercury levels are >2. 9 mg/ dl, or urine mercury levels > 87 mg/l workers exposed to mercury vapour knew that toxic effects in body resulted in loosing some of intellectual abilities, and that people who handle chemicals had an increased health risk (ESW questionnaire. The occupational mercury exposed workers had introvert behaviour (EPQ. Aggressiveness was found in 71.7% workers. The cognitive disturbances: short-term memory loss, difficult to concentrate on tasks which require attention and thinking

  2. Hodgkin's disease: correlation of clinical characteristics with probabilities for negative lymphangiogram vs. negative laparotomy findings in patients with stage I supradiaphragmatic presentations vs. those in patients with stage II

    Fuller, Lillian M.; Mirza, Nadeem Q.; Palmer, J. Lynn; Davis, Barry R.; Ha, Chul S.; Rodriguez, M. Alma; Hagemeister, Fredrick B.; Cabanillas, Fernando; McLaughlin, Peter; Butler, James J.; North, Luceil B.; Martin, Richard G.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: At a time both when late complications and second malignancies have become a growing concern and when staging laparotomy has been largely abandoned and comparative studies for staging Hodgkin's disease by state of the art computed tomography (CT) vs. lymphangiography have revealed minimal differences in results for these procedures, our purpose for undertaking this study was twofold. Our initial reason was to determine and compare probabilities for negative abdominal findings for patients with Stage I presentations with those for patients with Stage II as determined by lymphangiography and subsequently by laparotomy for those patients who had negative lymphangiograms. Our second reason, being an extension of the first, was to create a resource that can be used in conjunction with other information for arriving at appropriate treatment decisions including giving either more or particularly less than standard institutional therapy and especially with respect to the abdomen. Methods and Materials: Data on 714 patients with prelymphangiogram Stage I-II upper torso presentations of Hodgkin's disease were entered prospectively in our database between 1968 and 1987. Twenty-eight with lymphocyte predominant disease, who had both negative lymphangiogram and negative laparotomy findings and 17 with questionable diagnoses of lymphocyte-depleted or unclassified disease were excluded from subsequent analyses of 669 patients with nodular sclerosis (NS) and mixed cellularity (MC) diagnoses. Results: Stage I: in final logistic models, negative lymphangiogram findings were associated strongly with a combination of no constitutional symptoms and nodular sclerosis histology, whereas negative laparotomy findings correlated strongly with a combination of no constitutional symptoms and female sex. Predicted probabilities depended on the ratios of favorable to unfavorable characteristics. Stage II: in final logistic models, negative lymphangiogram findings were associated

  3. Types of work-family interface: well-being correlates of negative and positive spillover between work and family.

    Kinnunen, Ulla; Feldt, Taru; Geurts, Sabine; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2006-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the structure of the work-family interface measure, which was intended to take into account both the positive and negative spillover between work and family demands in both directions. In addition, the links among the types of work-family spillover and the subjects' general and domain-specific well-being were examined. The sample (n = 202) consisted of Finnish employees, aged 42, who had a spouse/partner. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a four-factor model, including negative work-to-family spillover, negative family-to-work spillover, positive work-to-family spillover, and positive family-to-work spillover, was superior compared to the other factor models examined. Path analysis showed, as hypothesized, that the negative work-to-family spillover was most strongly related to low well-being at work (job exhaustion) and next strongly to low general well-being (psychological distress), whereas the negative family-to-work spillover was associated with low well-being in the domain of family (marital dissatisfaction). Positive work-to-family spillover was positively related both to well-being at work and general well-being. Inconsistent with our expectations, positive family-to-work spillover was not directly related to any of the well-being indicators examined.

  4. Global Trends in Mercury Management

    Choi, Kyunghee

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Environmental Program Governing Council has regulated mercury as a global pollutant since 2001 and has been preparing the mercury convention, which will have a strongly binding force through Global Mercury Assessment, Global Mercury Partnership Activities, and establishment of the Open-Ended Working Group on Mercury. The European Union maintains an inclusive strategy on risks and contamination of mercury, and has executed the Mercury Export Ban Act since December in 2010. The US Environmental Protection Agency established the Mercury Action Plan (1998) and the Mercury Roadmap (2006) and has proposed systematic mercury management methods to reduce the health risks posed by mercury exposure. Japan, which experienced Minamata disease, aims vigorously at perfection in mercury management in several ways. In Korea, the Ministry of Environment established the Comprehensive Plan and Countermeasures for Mercury Management to prepare for the mercury convention and to reduce risks of mercury to protect public health. PMID:23230466

  5. Types of work-family interface: well-being correlates of negative and positive spillover between work and family

    Kinnunen, U.; Feldt, T.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Pulkkinen, L.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the structure of the work-family interface measure, which was intended to take into account both the positive and negative spillover between work and family demands in both directions. In addition, the links among the types of work-family spillover and the

  6. Positive schizotypy scores correlate with left visual field interference for negatively valenced emotional words: A lateralized emotional stroop study

    Strien, J.W.; van Kampen, D.

    2010-01-01

    Fourteen men scoring high and 14 men scoring low on a positive schizotypy scale participated in a lateralized emotional Stroop task. Vocal reaction times for color naming of neutral, positive and negative emotional words were recorded. Across participants, the color naming of neutral and emotional

  7. Siblings of Individuals with Smith-Magenis Syndrome: An Investigation of the Correlates of Positive and Negative Behavioural Traits

    Moshier, M. S.; York, T. P.; Silberg, J. L.; Elsea, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects approximately one out of 25 000 births worldwide. To date, no research has been conducted to investigate how having an individual with SMS in a family is a positive or negative influence on siblings. Methods: To investigate this question we conducted a study…

  8. Serotonin transporter binding in the hypothalamus correlates negatively with tonic heat pain ratings in healthy subjects: A [11C]DASB PET study

    Kupers, Ron; Frokjaer, Vibe G.; Erritzoe, David

    2010-01-01

    There is a large body of evidence that the serotonergic system plays an important role in the transmission and regulation of pain. Here we used positron emission tomography (PET) with the serotonin transporter (SERT) tracer [11C]DASB to study the relationship between SERT binding in the brain and....... The negative correlation between SERT binding in the hypothalamus and insula with tonic pain ratings suggests a possible serotonergic control of the role of these areas in the modulation or in the affective appreciation of pain.......) tonic noxious heat stimulus. PET data were analyzed using both volume-of-interest (VOI) and voxel-based approaches. VOI analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between tonic pain ratings and SERT binding in the hypothalamus (r = −0.59; p = 0.008), a finding confirmed by the parametric...... analysis. The parametric analysis also revealed a negative correlation between tonic pain ratings and SERT binding in the right anterior insula. Measures of regional SERT binding did not correlate with pain threshold or with responses to short phasic suprathreshold phasic heat stimuli. Finally, the VOI...

  9. [The frequency of peripheral blood CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs is negatively correlated with the inflammation in patients with chronic hepatitis B].

    Zhang, Hao; Guan, Shihe; Yang, Kai; Ye, Jun; Yan, Kaili; Pan, Ying; Wu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Aihua; Sun, Beibei

    2015-10-01

    To study the frequency of CD14⁺HLA-DR(-/low) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the peripheral blood of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and the relationship with biochemical characteristics, viral load and liver pathology. The frequency of CD14⁺HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs in the peripheral blood of 96 patients with CHB and 20 healthy control cases were detected by flow cytometry. Ultrasound-guided liver biopsies as well as HBV-related serological tests were performed in HBV-infected individuals to analyze the biochemical characteristics, viral load and pathology. The data were assessed using Spearman correlation analysis. The frequency of the peripheral blood CD14⁺HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs in the 96 CHB cases was (6.03 ± 0.09)%, which was significantly higher than that of the 20 healthy control cases (1.87 ± 0.05)%. The group of HBeAg positive cases had a significantly higher frequency of the peripheral blood CD14⁺HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs compared with the group of HBeAg negative cases and the healthy control group. The frequency of CD14⁺HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs in the peripheral blood was negatively correlated with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels. There was no correlation between the frequency of peripheral blood CD14⁺HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs and HBV load. The frequency of CD14⁺HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs in the peripheral blood was negatively correlated with the liver inflammation grade, but not related with the fibrosis stage in patients with CHB. The frequency of CD14⁺HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs is negatively correlated with the inflammation of CHB.

  10. Preliminary study of the distribution of gaseous mercury species in the air of Guiyang city, China

    Shang, L.; Feng, X.; Zheng, W.; Yan, H.

    2003-05-01

    Total gaseous mercury (TGM) in ambient air consists of Hg^0 and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) in general. Although RGM only constitutes a small portion of TGM in the air, it contributes the most to both dry and wet deposition of mercury from the atmosphere. TGM and RGM concentrations in ambient air at one site of Guiyang City were determined in March 2002. TGM concentrations were monitored using an automated mercury vapor analyzer Tekran2537A, and RGM in ambient air was sampled using KCI coated tubular denuders. The sampled RGM denuders were analyzed using thermal desorption coupled with CVAFS detection. The average concentrations of TGM and RGM are 7.09 ng m^{-3} and 37.5pg m^{-3} respectively during the sampling period. The primary anthropogenic source for both Hg^0 and RGM is coal combustion in the study area. TGM concentrations are significantly elevated comparing to the global background values, whereas RGM concentrations are only slightly higher than the reported values in remote areas in Europe and US. RGM only constitutes 0.5% ofTGM in the air at the sampling period. There is a significant negative correlation between RGM concentration and relative humidity (RH), with a coefficient correlation of 0.39 (αRGM concentrations observed.

  11. SEMINAL PLASMA LEVELS OF LEAD AND MERCURY IN INFERTILE MALES IN BENIN CITY, NIGERIA

    Emokpae MA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectives: Studies on environmental exposure to toxic metals and their effects on male reproductive function are scare in our setting. This study evaluates the levels of lead and mercury in seminal plasma of infertile males who are non-occupationally exposed in Benin City, Nigeria and to determine the relationship between seminal quality and these toxic metals. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects participated in this study which includes 60 infertile males on routine visit to the infertility clinics in Benin City and 20 fertile males as controls. The concentration of lead in seminal plasma was assayed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer while the concentration of mercury was measured using inductively coupled plasma Mass spectrometry. Semen analyses were performed using standard techniques as recommended by World Health Organization. Results: Mean seminal plasma lead and mercury levels were significantly higher (p<0.001 in infertile males compared with controls. Mercury and lead correlated negatively (p<0.001 with sperm count, progressive motility, total motility and morphology but not with semen volume. There was no significant correlation between toxic metals and sperm indices in fertile males (controls. Conclusion: The levels of the studied toxic metals were higher in seminal plasma of infertile males and appear to have adverse effect on seminal indices in non -occupationally exposed males.

  12. Basic Information about Mercury

    ... or metallic mercury is a shiny, silver-white metal and is liquid at room temperature. It is ... releases can happen naturally. Both volcanoes and forest fires send mercury into the atmosphere. Human activities, however, ...

  13. Minamata Convention on Mercury

    On November 6, 2013 the United States signed the Minamata Convention on Mercury, a new multilateral environmental agreement that addresses specific human activities which are contributing to widespread mercury pollution

  14. Geographic and seasonal variation in mercury exposure of the declining Rusty Blackbird

    Samuel T. Edmonds; David C. Evers; Daniel A. Cristol; Claudia Mettke-Hofmann; Luke L. Powell

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that mercury exposure has negative effects on the health of songbirds, and species that forage in wetlands may be at a greater risk of bioaccumulation of mercury than are those of other habitats. We examined mercury concentrations in blood and feathers from the wetland obligate and rapidly declining Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) from...

  15. Brain Oscillatory Correlates of Altered Executive Functioning in Positive and Negative Symptomatic Schizophrenia Patients and Healthy Controls.

    Berger, Barbara; Minarik, Tamas; Griesmayr, Birgit; Stelzig-Schoeler, Renate; Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Sauseng, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Working Memory and executive functioning deficits are core characteristics of patients suffering from schizophrenia. Electrophysiological research indicates that altered patterns of neural oscillatory mechanisms underpinning executive functioning are associated with the psychiatric disorder. Such brain oscillatory changes have been found in local amplitude differences at gamma and theta frequencies in task-specific cortical areas. Moreover, interregional interactions are also disrupted as signified by decreased phase coherence of fronto-posterior theta activity in schizophrenia patients. However, schizophrenia is not a one-dimensional psychiatric disorder but has various forms and expressions. A common distinction is between positive and negative symptomatology but most patients have both negative and positive symptoms to some extent. Here, we examined three groups-healthy controls, predominantly negative, and predominantly positive symptomatic schizophrenia patients-when performing a working memory task with increasing cognitive demand and increasing need for executive control. We analyzed brain oscillatory activity in the three groups separately and investigated how predominant symptomatology might explain differences in brain oscillatory patterns. Our results indicate that differences in task specific fronto-posterior network activity (i.e., executive control network) expressed by interregional phase synchronization are able to account for working memory dysfunctions between groups. Local changes in the theta and gamma frequency range also show differences between patients and healthy controls, and more importantly, between the two patient groups. We conclude that differences in oscillatory brain activation patterns related to executive processing can be an indicator for positive and negative symptomatology in schizophrenia. Furthermore, changes in cognitive and especially executive functioning in patients are expressed by alterations in a task-specific fronto

  16. Mercury in Your Environment

    Basic information about mercury, how it gets in the air, how people are exposed to it and health effects associated with exposure; what EPA and other organizations are doing to limit exposures; what citizens should know to minimize exposures and to reduce mercury in the environment; and information about products that contain mercury.

  17. Intoxication with metallic mercury

    Fichte, B.; Assmann, H.; Ritzau, F.

    1984-01-01

    Intoxications by metallic mercury are extremely rare. Report of a patient, who tried to commit suicide by subcutaneous injection of 500 g of metallic mercury. He died 16 months later in the course of the intoxication. A short review is given of effects and reactions of metallic mercury in the human organism. (orig.) [de

  18. Intoxication with metallic mercury

    Fichte, B.; Ritzau, F.; Assmann, H.

    1984-02-01

    Intoxications by metallic mercury are extremely rare. Report is given of a patient who tried to commit suicide by subcutaneous injection of 500 g of metallic mercury. He died 16 months later in the course of the intoxication. A short review is given of effects and reactions of metallic mercury in the human organism.

  19. Intoxication with metallic mercury

    Fichte, B.; Assmann, H.; Ritzau, F.

    1984-02-01

    Intoxications by metallic mercury are extremely rare. Report is given of a patient, who tried to commit suicide by subcutaneous injection of 500 g of metallic mercury. He died 16 months later in the course of the intoxication. A short review is given of effects and reactions of metallic mercury in the human organism.

  20. Atmospheric mercury inputs in montane soils increase with elevation: evidence from mercury isotope signatures.

    Zhang, Hua; Yin, Run-sheng; Feng, Xin-bin; Sommar, Jonas; Anderson, Christopher W N; Sapkota, Atindra; Fu, Xue-wu; Larssen, Thorjørn

    2013-11-25

    The influence of topography on the biogeochemical cycle of mercury (Hg) has received relatively little attention. Here, we report the measurement of Hg species and their corresponding isotope composition in soil sampled along an elevational gradient transect on Mt. Leigong in subtropical southwestern China. The data are used to explain orography-related effects on the fate and behaviour of Hg species in montane environments. The total- and methyl-Hg concentrations in topsoil samples show a positive correlation with elevation. However, a negative elevation dependence was observed in the mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) and mass-independent fractionation (MIF) signatures of Hg isotopes. Both a MIF (Δ(199)Hg) binary mixing approach and the traditional inert element method indicate that the content of Hg derived from the atmosphere distinctly increases with altitude.

  1. A Negative Correlation Between Blood Glucose and Acetone Measured in Healthy and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Patient Breath.

    Rydosz, Artur

    2015-07-01

    Exhaled acetone analysis has long been recognized as a supplementary tool for diagnosis and monitoring diabetes, especially type 1 diabetes. It is essential, therefore to determine the relationship between exhaled acetone concentration and glucose in blood. Usually, a direct linear correlation between this both compounds has been expected. However, in some cases we can observe a reverse correlation. When blood glucose was increasing, breath acetone declined. The breath analysis as a supplementary tool for diagnosing and monitoring diabetes makes sense only in case of utilization of portable analyzers. This need has created a market for gas sensors. However, commercially available acetone gas sensors are developed for measuring samples at several tens part per million. The exhaled acetone concentration was measured using commercial acetone gas sensor (TGS 822, 823 Figaro, Arlington Heights, IL, USA Inc) with micropreconcentrator in low temperature cofired ceramics. The reference analyzer-mass spectrometry (HPR-20 QIC, Hiden Analytical, Warrington, UK) was used. Twenty-two healthy volunteers with no history of any respiratory disease participated in the research, as did 31 patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Respectively, 3 healthy volunteer and 5 type 1 diabetes mellitus subjects with reverse trend were selected. The linear fitting coefficient various from 0.1139 to 0.9573. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the correlation between blood glucose concentrations and under different conditions, for example, insulin levels, as well as correlate the results with clinical tests, for example, Hb1Ac. It is well known that the concentration of acetone is strongly influenced by diet, insulin treatment, and so on. Therefore, much more complex analysis with long-term measurements are required. Thus, presented results should be regarded as tentative, and validation studies with the analysis of clinical test and in a large number of patients, including control groups

  2. Negative phenotypic and genetic correlation between natal dispersal propensity and nest-defence behaviour in a wild bird.

    Bize, Pierre; Daniel, Grégory; Viblanc, Vincent A; Martin, Julien G A; Doligez, Blandine

    2017-07-01

    Natural selection is expected to favour the integration of dispersal and phenotypic traits allowing individuals to reduce dispersal costs. Accordingly, associations have been found between dispersal and personality traits such as aggressiveness and exploration, which may facilitate settlement in a novel environment. However, the determinism of these associations has only rarely been explored. Here, we highlight the functional integration of individual personality in nest-defence behaviour and natal dispersal propensity in a long-lived colonial bird, the Alpine swift ( Apus melba ), providing insights into genetic constraints shaping the coevolution of these two traits. We report a negative association between natal dispersal and nest-defence (i.e. risk taking) behaviour at both the phenotypic and genetic level. This negative association may result from direct selection if risk-averseness benefits natal dispersers by reducing the costs of settlement in an unfamiliar environment, or from indirect selection if individuals with lower levels of nest defence also show lower levels of aggressiveness, reducing costs of settlement among unfamiliar neighbours in a colony. In both cases, these results highlight that risk taking is an important behavioural trait to consider in the study of dispersal evolution. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Heterogeneous Distribution of Chromium on Mercury

    Nittler, L. R.; Boujibar, A.; Crapster-Pregont, E.; Frank, E. A.; McCoy, T. J.; McCubbin, F. M.; Starr, R. D.; Vander Kaaden, K. E.; Vorburger, A.; Weider, S. Z.

    2018-05-01

    Mercury's surface has an average Cr/Si ratio of 0.003 (Cr 800 ppm), with at least a factor of 2 systematic uncertainty. Cr is heterogeneously distributed and correlated with Mg, Ca, S, and Fe and anti-correlated with Al.

  4. Mercury emission, control and measurement from coal combustion

    Pan, Wei-Ping [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering; Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States). Inst. for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology; Cao, Yan [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States). Inst. for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology; Zhang, Kai [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Coal-fired electric power generation accounts for 65% of U.S. emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), 22% of nitrogen oxides (NOx), and 37% of mercury (Hg). The proposed Clear Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) will attempt to regulate these emissions using a cap-and-trade program to replace a number of existing regulatory requirements that will impact this industry over the next decade. Mercury emissions remain the largest source that has not yet been efficiently controlled, in part because this is one of the most expensive to control. Mercury is a toxic, persistent pollutant that accumulates in the food chain. During the coal combustion process, when both sampling and accurate measurements are challenging, we know that mercury is present in three species: elemental, oxidized and particulate. There are three basic types of mercury measurement methods: Ontario Hydro Method, mercury continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) and sorbent-based monitoring. Particulate mercury is best captured by electrostatic precipitators (ESP). Oxidized mercury is best captured in wet scrubbers. Elemental mercury is the most difficult to capture, but selective catalytic reduction units (SCRs) are able to convert elemental mercury to oxidized mercury allowing it to be captured by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). This works well for eastern coals with high chlorine contents, but this does not work well on the Wyoming Powder River Basin (PRB) coals. However, no good explanation for its mechanism, correlations of chlorine content in coal with SCR performance, and impacts of higher chlorine content in coal on FGD re-emission are available. The combination of SCR and FGD affords more than an 80% reduction in mercury emissions in the case of high chlorine content coals. The mercury emission results from different coal ranks, boilers, and the air pollution control device (APCD) in power plant will be discussed. Based on this UAEPA new regulation, most power plants

  5. Dissolved gaseous mercury formation and mercury volatilization in intertidal sediments.

    Cesário, Rute; Poissant, Laurier; Pilote, Martin; O'Driscoll, Nelson J; Mota, Ana M; Canário, João

    2017-12-15

    Intertidal sediments of Tagus estuary regularly experiences complex redistribution due to tidal forcing, which affects the cycling of mercury (Hg) between sediments and the water column. This study quantifies total mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MMHg) concentrations and fluxes in a flooded mudflat as well as the effects on water-level fluctuations on the air-surface exchange of mercury. A fast increase in dissolved Hg and MMHg concentrations was observed in overlying water in the first 10min of inundation and corresponded to a decrease in pore waters, suggesting a rapid export of Hg and MMHg from sediments to the water column. Estimations of daily advective transport exceeded the predicted diffusive fluxes by 5 orders of magnitude. A fast increase in dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) concentration was also observed in the first 20-30min of inundation (maximum of 40pg L -1 ). Suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations were inversely correlated with DGM concentrations. Dissolved Hg variation suggested that biotic DGM production in pore waters is a significant factor in addition to the photochemical reduction of Hg. Mercury volatilization (ranged from 1.1 to 3.3ngm -2 h -1 ; average of 2.1ngm -2 h -1 ) and DGM production exhibited the same pattern with no significant time-lag suggesting a fast release of the produced DGM. These results indicate that Hg sediment/water exchanges in the physical dominated estuaries can be underestimated when the tidal effect is not considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Positive expression of LSD1 and negative expression of E-cadherin correlate with metastasis and poor prognosis of colon cancer.

    Jie, Ding; Zhongmin, Zhang; Guoqing, Liao; Sheng, Liu; Yi, Zhang; Jing, Wen; Liang, Zeng

    2013-06-01

    The first identified lysine-specific demethylase, LSD1, plays an important role in the metastatic progression of several types of cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate LSD1, E-cadherin, and N-cadherin expression in colon cancer specimens and their clinical significance. The expression of LSD1, E-cadherin, and N-cadherin in colon cancer specimens was determined by immunohistochemistry, and the relationship between the expression of the respective molecules and clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed. The positive expression rates of LSD1, E-cadherin, and N-cadherin in colon cancer specimens were 66.7 % (72/108), 85.2 % (92/108), and 41.7 % (45/108), respectively. LSD1 was significantly more highly expressed in colon cancer specimens classified as high TNM stage lesions and with distant metastasis (P colon cancer specimens classified as high TNM stage lesions and with distant metastasis (P clinical and pathological characteristics (P > 0.05). Correlation analysis revealed that LSD1 expression was negatively correlated with E-cadherin expression (r s = -0.318, P = 0.001), but not evidently correlated with N-cadherin expression (r s = 0.182, P = 0.06). Colon cancer specimens with positive LSD1 expression and negative E-cadherin expression were correlated with significantly lower overall survival. LSD1 showed a significantly higher expression, in contrast to the significantly lower expression of E-cadherin, in colon cancer specimens classified as high TNM stage lesions and with distant metastasis. Positive expression of LSD1 and negative expression of E-cadherin may be predictors of a worse colon cancer prognosis.

  7. Spatial distribution correlation of soil-gas radon (222Rn) and mercury with leveling deformation in northern margin fault zone of West Qinling, China.

    Li, Chenhua; Zhang, Hui; Su, Hejun; Zhou, Huiling; Wang, Yanhong

    2017-11-01

    This study concerns measurement of 222 Rn and mercury concentrations in soil-gas in the northern margin fault zone of West Qinling, Tibet (China). Based on profiles crossing perpendicularly the different segments of the fault at six different locations, the relations between the gas measurements, fault deformation, and seismic activity in each segment of the studied fault were analyzed, determining seismic risks in the fault zone. Soil-gas data are heterogeneous, but appear relatively organized along the three segments of the fault. The detailed multidisciplinary analysis reveals complex interactions between the structural setting, uprising fluids, leveling and seismic activity in different fault segments. The results for both fault soil gas and deformation indicated relatively stronger fault activity in the Wushan segment in the middle-eastern segment of the northern margin fault zone of West Qinling and lower activity in the Zhangxian segment, whereas the fault in the Tianshui segment was relatively locked. Additionally, in the Wushan strike-slip pull-apart area, the active influence of fluid activities facilitated the occurrence of small to medium-sized seismic events, which prevented the occurrence of larger events; in contrast, in the Tianshui segment, the west Zhangxian segment, the weak fluid activities and the corresponding strain rate will probably lead to strong earthquake buildup. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Avian mercury exposure and toxicological risk across western North America: A synthesis

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark; Hartman, Christopher; Peterson, Sarah; Evers, David C.; Jackson, Allyson K.; Elliott, John E.; Vander Pol, Stacy S.; Bryan, Colleen E.

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury contamination of the environment is an important issue globally, and birds are useful bioindicators for mercury monitoring programs. The available data on mercury contamination of birds in western North America were synthesized. Original data from multiple databases were obtained and a literature review was conducted to obtain additional mercury concentrations. In total, 29219 original bird mercury concentrations from 225 species were compiled, and an additional 1712 mean mercury concentrations, representing 19998 individuals and 176 species, from 200 publications were obtained. To make mercury data comparable across bird tissues, published equations of tissue mercury correlations were used to convert all mercury concentrations into blood-equivalent mercury concentrations. Blood-equivalent mercury concentrations differed among species, foraging guilds, habitat types, locations, and ecoregions. Piscivores and carnivores exhibited the greatest mercury concentrations, whereas herbivores and granivores exhibited the lowest mercury concentrations. Bird mercury concentrations were greatest in ocean and salt marsh habitats and lowest in terrestrial habitats. Bird mercury concentrations were above toxicity benchmarks in many areas throughout western North America, and multiple hotspots were identified. Additionally, published toxicity benchmarks established in multiple tissues were summarized and translated into a common blood-equivalent mercury concentration. Overall, 66% of birds sampled in western North American exceeded a blood-equivalent mercury concentration of 0.2 μg/g wet weight (ww; above background levels), which is the lowest-observed effect level, 28% exceeded 1.0 μg/g ww (moderate risk), 8% exceeded 3.0 μg/g ww (high risk), and 4% exceeded 4.0 μg/g ww (severe risk). Mercury monitoring programs should sample bird tissues, such as adult blood and eggs, that are most-easily translated into tissues with well-developed toxicity benchmarks and that

  9. Biomarkers of mercury exposure at a mercury recycling facility in Ukraine

    Gibb, H.J.; Kozlov, K.; Buckley, J.P.; Centeno, J.; Jurgenson, V.; Kolker, A.; Conko, K.; Landa, E.; Panov, B.; Panov, Y.; Xu, H.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates biomarkers of occupational mercury exposure among workers at a mercury recycling operation in Gorlovka, Ukraine. The 29 study participants were divided into three occupational categories for analysis: (1) those who worked in the mercury recycling operation (Group A, n = 8), (2) those who worked at the facility but not in the yard where the recycling was done (Group B, n = 14), and (3) those who did not work at the facility (Group C, n = 7). Urine, blood, hair, and nail samples were collected from the participants, and a questionnaire was administered to obtain data on age, gender, occupational history, smoking, alcohol consumption, fish consumption, tattoos, dental amalgams, home heating system, education, source of drinking water, and family employment in the former mercury mine/smelter located on the site of the recycling facility. Each factor was tested in a univariate regression with total mercury in urine, blood, hair, and nails. Median biomarker concentrations were 4.04 ??g/g-Cr (urine), 2.58 ??g/L (blood), 3.95 ??g/g (hair), and 1.16 ??g/g (nails). Occupational category was significantly correlated (p < 0.001) with both blood and urinary mercury concentrations but not with hair or nail mercury. Four individuals had urinary mercury concentrations in a range previously found to be associated with subtle neurological and subjective symptoms (e.g., fatigue, loss of appetite, irritability), and one worker had a urinary mercury concentration in a range associated with a high probability of neurological effects and proteinuria. Comparison of results by occupational category found that workers directly involved with the recycling operation had the highest blood and urinary mercury levels. Those who worked at the facility but were not directly involved with the recycling operation had higher levels than those who did not work at the facility. Copyright ?? 2008 JOEH, LLC.

  10. The correlation between subordinate fish eye colour and received attacks: a negative social feedback mechanism for the reduction of aggression during the formation of dominance hierarchies.

    Miyai, Caio A; Carretero Sanches, Fábio H; Costa, Tânia M; Colpo, Karine Delevati; Volpato, Gilson L; Barreto, Rodrigo E

    2011-12-01

    Eye darkening has been linked to social status in fish. The subordinate's eyes darken, while the eyes of the dominant fish become pale. Although this phenomenon has been described in salmonid fishes and in the African cichlid Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, it is unclear whether eye darkening correlates with a reduction in aggressive behaviour. Thus, we evaluated the link between social status and eye darkening. We evaluated whether the eye colours of subordinate fish correlate with the frequency of received attacks in a neotropical fish, the pearl cichlid Geophagus brasiliensis. We paired pearl cichlids and quantified both the aggressive behaviour and the eye darkening of each fish. As has been described for Nile tilapia and Atlantic salmon, a clear-cut hierarchical relationship formed, where dominance and subordination were associated with pale and dark eye colours, respectively. Initially, eye colour darkening was positively correlated with the frequency of received attacks; however, a negative association occurred following eye darkening, in which the intensity of aggressive interactions decreased. Thus, fish that initially received a high number of attacks signalled subordination more rapidly and intensely (rapid and dramatic eye darkening), thereby inducing a negative social feedback mechanism that led to reduced aggression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Biosorption of mercury by capsulated and slime layer- forming Gram ...

    ONOS

    2010-09-20

    Sep 20, 2010 ... high negatively charged components, showed more than 1.5 fold increase as compared to capsulated ... Mercury is one of the most toxic heavy metals released in ... ion exchange, activated carbon adsorption and separation.

  12. Outcome correlation of smear-positivity but culture-negativity during standard anti-tuberculosis treatment in Taiwan.

    Chao, Wen-Cheng; Huang, Yi-Wen; Yu, Ming-Chih; Yang, Wen-Ta; Lin, Chou-Jui; Lee, Jen-Jyh; Huang, Ruay-Ming; Shieh, Chi-Chang; Chien, Shun-Tien; Chien, Jung-Yien

    2015-02-18

    The appearance of smear-positivity but culture-negativity (SPCN) for acid-fast bacilli among sputum specimen is frequently found in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients during treatment. This study aimed to investigate clinical risk factors, impacts on treatment course, and relapse pattern associated with sputum SPCN. We retrospectively enrolled 800 patients with culture-proven pulmonary TB who were receiving standard treatment and follow-up at six TB-referral hospitals in Taiwan between January 2006 and December 2007. Relevant patient characteristics and chemotherapy data were analyzed for associations with incidence of SPCN. Data from patients who relapsed within 3 years after completing treatment were analyzed for associations with SPCN during treatment. Of the 800 subjects, 111 (13.8%) had sputum SPCN during treatment. Three factors were found to predict the development of SPCN; namely, high initial acid-fast staining grading (OR, 3.407; 95% CI, 2.090-5.553), cavitation on chest-X ray films (OR, 2.217; 95% CI, 1.359-3.615), and smoking (OR, 1.609; 95% CI, 1.006-2.841). Patients with SPCN had longer treatment duration (rifampicin: 284 ± 91 vs. 235 ± 69 days, P <0.001; isoniazid: 289 ± 90 vs. 234 ± 69 days, P < 0.001) than those without SPCN. Finally, the rate of relapse within 3 years of completing treatment was similar for groups with/without SPCN (2.7%, 3/111 vs. 1.0%, 7/689, respectively; P = 0.15). In conclusion, severity of infection was a major risk factor for SPCN during treatment; however, the relapse rate within 3 years of completing treatment was not affected by the appearance of SPCN.

  13. Comparative evaluation of methods for the detection of biofilm formation in coagulase-negative staphylococci and correlation with antibiogram

    Shrestha LB

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Lok Bahadur Shrestha, Narayan Raj Bhattarai, Basudha Khanal Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal Introduction: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS are normal commensals of human skin and mucous membranes. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of CNS among clinical isolates, characterize them up to species level, compare the three conventional methods for detection of biofilm formation, and study their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern.Materials and methods: CNS were obtained from various clinical samples including blood, urine, central venous catheter tips, endotracheal tube aspirate, and pus during a 1-year period (July 1, 2014, to June 30, 2015. Characterization up to species level was done using biochemical tests, and biofilm formation was detected by tube adherence, Congo red agar, and tissue culture plate method. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed following Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines.Results: A total of 71 CNS isolates, comprising of seven species were obtained. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most common species followed by S. saprophyticus and S. haemolyticus. We detected biofilm formation in 71.8% of isolates. Considering the fact that tissue culture plate method is the gold standard, sensitivity of tube adherence method and Congo red agar method was found as 82% and 78%, respectively. The isolates exhibited high resistance toward penicillin (90%, azithromycin (60%, co-trimoxazole (60%, and ceftriaxone (40%, while all were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid. Biofilm former isolates showed higher resistance than the non-formers.Conclusion: Among 71 CNS isolated, S. epidermidis was the most common isolate followed by S. saprophyticus and S. haemolyticus. Biofilm formation was detected in 71.8% of the isolates. All of the methods were effective in detecting biofilm-producing CNS strains. The

  14. Child-evoked maternal negativity from 9 to 27 months: Evidence of gene-environment correlation and its moderation by marital distress.

    Fearon, R M Pasco; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D; Shaw, Daniel S; Scaramella, Laura V; Ganiban, Jody M; Neiderhiser, Jenae M

    2015-11-01

    Past research has documented pervasive genetic influences on emotional and behavioral disturbance across the life span and on liability to adult psychiatric disorder. Increasingly, interest is turning to mechanisms of gene-environment interplay in attempting to understand the earliest manifestations of genetic risk. We report findings from a prospective adoption study, which aimed to test the role of evocative gene-environment correlation in early development. Included in the study were 561 infants adopted at birth and studied between 9 and 27 months, along with their adoptive parents and birth mothers. Birth mother psychiatric diagnoses and symptoms scales were used as indicators of genetic influence, and multiple self-report measures were used to index adoptive mother parental negativity. We hypothesized that birth mother psychopathology would be associated with greater adoptive parent negativity and that such evocative effects would be amplified under conditions of high adoptive family adversity. The findings suggested that genetic factors associated with birth mother externalizing psychopathology may evoke negative reactions in adoptive mothers in the first year of life, but only when the adoptive family environment is characterized by marital problems. Maternal negativity mediated the effects of genetic risk on child adjustment at 27 months. The results underscore the importance of genetically influenced evocative processes in early development.

  15. Mössbauer studies of two-electron centers with negative correlation energy in crystalline and amorphous semiconductors

    Bordovsky, G. A.; Nemov, S. A.; Marchenko, A. V.; Seregin, P. P.

    2012-01-01

    The results of the study of donor U − -centers of tin and germanium in lead chalcogenides by Mössbauer emission spectroscopy are discussed. The published data regarding the identification of amphoteric U − -centers of tin in glassy binary arsenic and germanium chalcogenides using Mössbauer emission spectroscopy, and in multicomponent chalcogenide glasses using Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy are considered. Published data concerning the identification of two-atom U − -centers of copper in lattices of semimetal copper oxides by Mössbauer emission spectroscopy are analyzed. The published data on the detection of spatial inhomogeneity of the Bose-Einstein condensate in superconducting semiconductors and semimetal compounds, and on the existence of the correlation between the electron density in lattice sites and the superconducting transition temperature are presented. The principal possibility of using Mössbauer U − -centers as a tool for studying the Bose-Einstein condensation of electron pairs during the superconducting phase transition in semiconductors and semimetals is considered.

  16. Mercury balance analysis

    Maag, J.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed assessment of the consumption of mercury, divided into use areas, was carried out. Disposal and emissions to the environment were also qualified. The assessment is mainly based on data from 1992 - 1993. The most important source of emission of mercury to air is solid waste incineration which is assessed in particular to be due to the supply of mercury in batteries (most likely mercury oxide batteries from photo equipment) and to dental fillings. The second most important source of mercury emission to air is coal-fired power plants which are estimated to account for 200-500 kg of mercury emission p.a. Other mercury emissions are mainly related to waste treatment and disposal. The consumption of mercury is generally decreasing. During the period from 1982/83 - 1992-93, the total consumption of mercury in Denmark was about halved. This development is related to the fact that consumption with regard to several important use areas (batteries, dental fillings, thermometers etc.) has been significantly reduced, while for other purposes the use of mercury has completely, or almost disappeared, i.e. (fungicides for seed, tubes etc.). (EG)

  17. Does the prevalence of latent toxoplasmosis and frequency of Rhesus-negative subjects correlate with the nationwide rate of traffic accidents?

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Dama, Madhukar

    2014-12-01

    Latent toxoplasmosis is probably the most common protistan parasitic disease with many indirect negative impacts on human health. One of the important impacts is impaired psychomotor function leading to reduced driving efficiency in Toxoplasma-seropositive subjects. Numerous case-control studies have established a positive relation between the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) and probability of traffic accidents in study populations. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis varies between populations according to local geographical conditions, hygienic practices and kitchen habits. Similarly, we see a striking variation in the incidence of traffic accidents across countries. Hence, we compiled the largest ever data set on the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and tried to understand its role in traffic accident-related deaths and disabilities across 87 countries. Simple non-parametric analysis showed a positive and strong relation of T. gondii seroprevalence and traffic accident related disabilities. Further, we conducted multivariate analysis to control for confounding factors. After controlling for wealth, geographical latitude, health of population, length of roads and number of vehicles, the correlation disappeared. When the frequency of RhD negativity and its interaction with toxoplasmosis were included into the model, the effects of toxoplasmosis seemingly returned. However, the analysed data suffered from the problem of multicollinearity. When a proper method of analysis, ridge regression, was applied, the effects of toxoplasmosis prevalence and RhD negativity frequency disappeared again. The existence of a strong correlation between the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and health of population in particular countries, which was the probable cause of multicollinearity and possible reason for the negative result of the present study, suggests that 'asymptomatic' latent toxoplasmosis could have a large impact on public health.

  18. Increased Zn/Glutathione Levels and Higher Superoxide Dismutase-1 Activity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Women with Long-Term Dental Amalgam Fillings: Correlation between Mercury/Aluminium Levels (in Hair) and Antioxidant Systems in Plasma

    Cabaña-Muñoz, María Eugenia; Parmigiani-Izquierdo, José María; Bravo-González, Luis Alberto; Kyung, Hee-Moon; Merino, José Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Background The induction of oxidative stress by Hg can affect antioxidant enzymes. However, epidemiological studies have failed to establish clear association between dental fillings presence and health problems. Objectives To determine whether heavy metals (in hair), antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1) and glutathione levels could be affected by the chronic presence of heavy metals in women who had dental amalgam fillings. Materials and Methods 55 hair samples (42 females with amalgam fillings and 13 female control subjects) were obtained. All subjects (mean age 44 years) who had dental amalgam filling for more than 10 years (average 15 years). Certain metals were quantified by ICP-MS (Mass Spectrophotometry) in hair (μg/g: Al, Hg, Ba, Ag, Sb, As, Be, Bi, Cd, Pb, Pt, Tl, Th, U, Ni, Sn, Ti) and SOD-1 and Glutathione (reduced form) levels in plasma. Data were compared with controls without amalgams, and analyzed to identify any significant relation between metals and the total number of amalgam fillings, comparing those with four or less (n = 27) with those with more than four (n = 15). As no significant differences were detected, the two groups were pooled (Amlgam; n = 42). Findings Hg, Ag, Al and Ba were higher in the amalgam group but without significant differences for most of the heavy metals analyzed. Increased SOD-1 activity and glutathione levels (reduced form) were observed in the amalgam group. Aluminum (Al) correlated with glutathione levels while Hg levels correlated with SOD-1. The observed Al/glutathione and Hg/SOD-1 correlation could be adaptive responses against the chronic presence of mercury. Conclusions Hg, Ag, Al and Ba levels increased in women who had dental amalgam fillings for long periods. Al correlated with glutathione, and Hg with SOD-1. SOD-1 may be a possible biomarker for assessing chronic Hg toxicity. PMID:26076368

  19. Process for low mercury coal

    Merriam, Norman W.; Grimes, R. William; Tweed, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

  20. Mercury (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    ... in contact with) to mercury is by eating fish or shellfish that have high levels of mercury. You can also get sick from: Touching it Breathing it in Drinking contaminated water How can mercury ...

  1. Maternal transfer of contaminants in birds: Mercury and selenium concentrations in parents and their eggs

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hartman, C. Alex

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a detailed assessment of the maternal transfer of mercury and selenium to eggs in three bird species (n = 107 parents and n = 339 eggs), and developed predictive equations linking contaminant concentrations in eggs to those in six tissues of the mother (blood, muscle, liver, kidney, breast feathers, and head feathers). Mercury concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with mercury concentrations in each of the mother's internal tissues (R"2 ≥ 0.95), but generally not with feathers. For each species, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs decreased as mercury concentrations in the mother increased. At the same maternal mercury concentration, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs differed among species, such that Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) and black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) females transferred more methylmercury to their eggs than American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) females. Selenium concentrations in eggs also were correlated with selenium concentrations in the mother's liver (R"2 = 0.87). Furthermore, mercury and selenium concentrations in tern eggs were positively correlated with those in the father (R"2 = 0.84). Incubating male terns had 21% higher mercury concentrations in blood compared to incubating females at the same egg mercury concentration. We provide equations to predict contaminant concentrations in eggs from each of the commonly sampled bird tissues. - Highlights: • We developed predictive equations linking contaminant concentrations in eggs to those in the mother. • Mercury concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with those in the mother. • The proportion of mercury transferred to eggs decreased as mercury in the mother increased. • The proportion of mercury transferred to eggs differed among species. • Selenium concentrations in eggs also were correlated with those in the mother's liver. - We examined the maternal transfer of mercury and selenium to eggs in

  2. Mercury is Moon's brother

    Ksanfomalifi, L.V.

    1976-01-01

    The latest information on Mercury planet is presented obtained by studying the planet with the aid of radar and space vehicles. Rotation of Mercury about its axis has been discovered; within 2/3 of its year it executes a complete revolution about its axis. In images obtained by the ''Mariner-10'' Mercurys surface differs little from that of the Moon. The ''Mariner-10'' has also discovered the Mercurys atmosphere, which consists of extremely rarefied helium. The helium is continuously supplied to the planet by the solar wind. The Mercury's magnetic field has been discovered, whose strength is 35 x 10 -4 at the Equator and 70 x 10 -4 E at the poles. The inclination of the dipole axis to the Mercury's rotation axis is 7 deg

  3. Mercury levels, reproduction, and hematology in western grebes from three California Lakes, USA

    Elbert, R.A.; Anderson, D.W. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Wildlife, Fish, and Conservation Biology

    1998-02-01

    Twenty-three healthy adult western and Clark`s grebes (Aechmorphorus occidentalis and Aechmorphorus clarkii) were collected at three study sites in California, USA, in 1992: Clear Lake, Lake County; Eagle Lake, Lassen County; and Tule Lake, Siskiyou County. Liver, kidney, breast muscle, and brain were analyzed for total mercury (Hg) concentration (ppm wet weight), and blood was analyzed for various blood parameters. Clear Lake birds had greater Hg concentrations in kidney, breast muscle, and brain than birds from the other two lakes whereas liver concentrations were not statistically different. Average concentrations for Clear Lake birds were 2.74 ppm for liver, 2.06 ppm for kidney, 1.06 ppm for breast muscle, and 0.28 ppm for brain. The tissue levels of kidney, breast muscle, and brain at the other two study sites were one half the levels found at Clear Lake. These mean tissue levels were near, but below, those known to cause adverse effects. When data from all sites were merged, kidney, breast muscle, and brain concentrations are positively correlated to each other. Liver concentrations were not correlated to any other value. Brain Hg concentrations were also negatively correlated to blood potassium and blood phosphorus levels. Kidney Hg levels were positively correlated to percent blood heterophils and negatively correlated to percent eosinophils, suggesting that mercury levels might be affecting immune function. These biomarkers could not be related to any obvious ecological effects.

  4. Below a Historic Mercury Mine: Non-linear Patterns of Mercury Bioaccumulation in Aquatic Organisms

    Haas, J.; Ichikawa, G.; Ode, P.; Salsbery, D.; Abel, J.

    2001-12-01

    Unlike most heavy metals, mercury is capable of bioaccumulating in aquatic food-chains, primarily because it is methylated by bacteria in sediment to the more toxic methylmercury form. Mercury concentrations in a number of riparian systems in California are highly elevated as a result of historic mining activities. These activities included both the mining of cinnabar in the coastal ranges to recover elemental mercury and the use of elemental mercury in the gold fields of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. The most productive mercury mining area was the New Almaden District, now a county park, located in the Guadalupe River drainage of Santa Clara County, where cinnabar was mined and retorted for over 100 years. As a consequence, riparian systems in several subwatersheds of the Guadalupe River drainage are contaminated with total mercury concentrations that exceed state hazardous waste criteria. Mercury concentrations in fish tissue frequently exceed human health guidelines. However, the potential ecological effects of these elevated mercury concentrations have not been thoroughly evaluated. One difficulty is in extrapolating sediment concentrations to fish tissue concentrations without accounting for physical and biological processes that determine bioaccumulation patterns. Many processes, such as methylation and demethylation of mercury by bacteria, assimilation efficiency in invertebrates, and metabolic rates in fish, are nonlinear, a factor that often confounds attempts to evaluate the effects of mercury contamination on aquatic food webs. Sediment, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish tissue samples were collected in 1998 from the Guadalupe River drainage in Santa Clara County at 13 sites upstream and downstream from the historic mining district. Sediment and macroinvertebrate samples were analyzed for total mercury and methylmercury. Fish samples were analyzed for total mercury as whole bodies, composited by species and size. While linear correlations of sediment

  5. SDF-1/CXCR4 expression in bladder cancer tissue and the correlation with negative costimulatory molecule PD-L1, cell apoptosis and invasion

    Ming-Bao Ye

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the SDF-1/CXCR4 expression in bladder cancer tissue and the correlation with negative costimulatory molecule PD-L1, cell apoptosis and invasion. Methods: A total of 118 cases of bladder cancer tissue and para-carcinoma tissue surgically removed in our hospital between May 2014 and May 2016 were selected as the research samples, the RNA was extracted and then reverse-transcribed into cDNA, and the expression levels of SDF-1/ CXCR4, PD-L1/PD-1, cell apoptosis-related molecules and cell invasion-related molecules were detected. Results: SDF-1 and CXCR4 mRNA expression in bladder cancer tissue were significantly higher than those in para-carcinoma tissue; PD-L1, PD-1, Rec1, Survivin, MRPS5, Nanog, BCAPP2Ac, TRPM8, TRPV2, ILK, β-catenin and GUGBP1 mRNA expression in bladder cancer tissue were significantly higher than those in para-carcinoma tissue and positively correlated with SDF-1 and CXCR4 mRNA expression. Conclusion: Highly expressed SDF-1/CXCR4 in bladder cancer tissue are closely related to the high expression of negative costimulatory molecule PD-L1, pro-proliferation molecules and proinvasion molecules, and SDF-1/CXCR4 can promote the immune escape, proliferation and invasion of bladder cancer cells.

  6. The Effect of Long Term Mercury Pollution on the Soil Microbial Community

    Müller, A.K.; Westergaard, K.; Christensen, Søren

    2001-01-01

    The effect of long-term exposure to mercury on the soil microbial community was investigated in soil from three different sites along a pollution gradient. The amount of total and bioavailable mercury was negatively correlated to the distance from the center of contamination. The size...... of the bacterial and protozoan populations was reduced in the most contaminated soil, whereas there was no significant difference in fungal biomass measured as chitinase activity. Based on the number of colony morphotypes, moreover, the culturable bacterial population was structurally less diverse and contained...... of the number and abundance of bands. The functional potential of the microbial population measured as sole carbon source utilization by Ecoplates® differed between the soils, but there was no change in the number of substrates utilized. The observed changes in the different soil microbial populations...

  7. Mercury dilution by autochthonous organic matter in a fertilized mangrove wetland.

    Machado, Wilson; Sanders, Christian J; Santos, Isaac R; Sanders, Luciana M; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V; Luiz-Silva, Wanilson

    2016-06-01

    A dated sediment core from a highly-fertilized mangrove wetland located in Cubatão (SE Brazil) presented a negative correlation between mercury (Hg) and organic carbon contents. This is an unusual result for a metal with well-known affinity to organic matter. A dilution of Hg concentrations by autochthonous organic matter explained this observation, as revealed by carbon stable isotopes signatures (δ(13)C). Mercury dilution by the predominant mangrove-derived organic matter counterbalanced the positive influences of algal-derived organic matter and clay contents on Hg levels, suggesting that deleterious effects of Hg may be attenuated. Considering the current paradigm on the positive effect of organic matter on Hg concentrations in coastal sediments and the expected increase in mangrove organic matter burial due to natural and anthropogenic stimulations of primary production, predictions on the influences of organic matter on Hg accumulation in mangrove wetlands deserve caution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. {sup 1}H MR spectroscopic imaging in patients with MRI-negative extratemporal epilepsy: correlation with ictal onset zone and histopathology

    Krsek, Pavel; Komarek, Vladimir [Charles University, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Second Medical School, Motol Hospital, Prague (Czech Republic); Hajek, Milan [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, MR Unit, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Prague (Czech Republic); Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, MR Spectroscopy, Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Dezortova, Monika; Jiru, Filip; Skoch, Antonin [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, MR Unit, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Prague (Czech Republic); Marusic, Petr [Charles University, Department of Neurology, Second Medical School, Motol Hospital, Prague (Czech Republic); Zamecnik, Josef [Charles University, Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Second Medical School, Motol Hospital, Prague (Czech Republic); Kyncl, Martin [Charles University, Department of Radiology, Second Medical School, Motol Hospital, Prague (Czech Republic); Tichy, Michal [Charles University, Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Second Medical School, Motol Hospital, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2007-08-15

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) is beneficial in the lateralization of the epileptogenic zone in temporal lobe epilepsy; however, its role in extratemporal and, especially, MRI-negative epilepsy has not been established. This study seeks to verify how {sup 1}H MRS could help in localizing the epileptogenic zone in patients with MRI-negative extratemporal epilepsy. Seven patients (8-23 years) with MRI-negative refractory focal epilepsy were studied using {sup 1}H MRS on a 1.5T MR system. Chemical shift imaging sequence in the transversal plane was directed towards the suspected epileptogenic zone localized by seizure semiology, scalp video/EEG, ictal SPECT and {sup 18}FDG-PET. Spectra were evaluated using the program CULICH, and the coefficient of asymmetry was used for quantitative lateralization. MRS detected lateralization in all patients and was able to localize pathology in five. The most frequent findings were decreased ratios of N-acetylaspartate to choline compounds characterized by increasing choline concentration. The localization of the {sup 1}H MRS abnormality correlated well with ictal SPECT and subdural mapping. In all cases, histopathological analysis revealed MRI-undetected focal cortical dysplasias. {sup 1}H MRS could be more sensitive for the detection of discrete malformations of cortical development than conventional MRI. It is valuable in the presurgical evaluation of patients without MRI-apparent lesions. (orig.)

  9. Mercury content in amalgam tattoos of human oral mucosa and its relation to local tissue reactions

    Forsell, M.; Larsson, B.; Ljungqvist, A.; Carlmark, B.; Johansson, O

    1998-02-01

    Mucosal biopsies from 48 patients with and 9 without amalgam tattoos were analysed with respect to their mercury content, distribution of mercury in the tissue, and histological tissue reactions. The distribution of mercury was assessed by auto-metallography (AMG), a silver amplification technique. The mercury content was determined by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), a multielemental analysis. Mercury was observed in connective tissue where it was confined to fibroblasts and macrophages, in vessel walls and in structures with the histological character of nerve fibres. A correlation was found between the histopathological tissue reaction, the type of mercury deposition, the intensity of the AMG reaction, and the mercury content. Mercury was also found in patients with amalgam dental fittings but without amalgam tattoos. (au) 24 refs.

  10. Mercury content in amalgam tattoos of human oral mucosa and its relation to local tissue reactions

    Forsell, M.; Larsson, B.; Ljungqvist, A.; Carlmark, B.; Johansson, O.

    1998-01-01

    Mucosal biopsies from 48 patients with and 9 without amalgam tattoos were analysed with respect to their mercury content, distribution of mercury in the tissue, and histological tissue reactions. The distribution of mercury was assessed by auto-metallography (AMG), a silver amplification technique. The mercury content was determined by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), a multielemental analysis. Mercury was observed in connective tissue where it was confined to fibroblasts and macrophages, in vessel walls and in structures with the histological character of nerve fibres. A correlation was found between the histopathological tissue reaction, the type of mercury deposition, the intensity of the AMG reaction, and the mercury content. Mercury was also found in patients with amalgam dental fittings but without amalgam tattoos. (au)

  11. Plasma bile acids show a positive correlation with body mass index and are negatively associated with cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients

    Philip ePrinz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bile acids may be involved in the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of plasma bile acids with body mass index (BMI and the possible involvement of circulating bile acids in the modulation of physical activity and eating behavior. Blood was obtained in a group of hospitalized patients with normal weight (BMI 18.5-25 kg/m2, underweight (anorexia nervosa, BMI 50 kg/m2, n=14-15/group and plasma bile acid concentrations assessed. Physical activity and plasma bile acids were measured in a group of patients with anorexia nervosa (BMI 14.6±0.3 kg/m2, n=43. Lastly, in a population of obese patients (BMI 48.5±0.9 kg/m2, n=85, psychometric parameters related to disordered eating and plasma bile acids were assessed. Plasma bile acids showed a positive correlation with BMI (r=0.26, p=0.03 in the population of patients with broad range of BMI (9-85 kg/m2, n=74. No associations were observed between plasma bile acids and different parameters of physical activity in anorexic patients (p>0.05. Plasma bile acids were negatively correlated with cognitive restraint of eating (r=-0.30, p=0.008, while no associations were observed with other psychometric eating behavior-related parameters (p>0.05 in obese patients. In conclusion, these data may point towards a role of bile acids in the regulation of body weight. Since plasma bile acids are negatively correlated with the cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients, this may represent a compensatory adaptation to prevent further overeating.

  12. Monitoring of mercury concentration in atmosphere in Usti nad Labem

    Synek, V.; Baloch, T.; Otcenasek, J.; Kremlova, S.; Subrt, P.

    2007-01-01

    This study elaborates the observation of mercury pollution of the atmosphere in the city of Usti nad Labem. The biggest source of the polluting mercury in Usti nad Labem is the chlor-alkali production in the factory of Spolchemie Inc. The method of mercury determination applied is based on capturing the mercury contented in a volume of the air on an amalgamator and measuring the mercury by an atomic absorption spectrometer (Perkin -Elmer 4100ZL) equipped with a special adapter after a thermal release of the mercury from the amalgamator. The basic characteristics of this method were evaluated; e.g. the limit of detection and limit of determination are, respectively, 0.43 and 1.4 ng/m 3 , the relative expanded uncertainty is 28 %. The work gives results of long-term (1998-2006) observations in a few localities in Usti nad Labem situated in various distances from the mercury source (e.g. means of 28.6 and 14.1 ng/m3 were obtained, respectively, in places 350 and 700 m far from the electrolysis plant) and also in a different city (Duchcov). The cases with a higher mercury concentration are very frequent so the sets of the obtained results have lognormal distributions. This study statistically compares the total level and variability of the mercury concentrations in the time series. It also investigates their trends, correlations between them and meteorological influences upon the levels of mercury concentration in the air. The effect of the mercury emission from the chlor-alkali plant is dominant. It as the only factor determines when the cases with a high mercury concentration in the atmosphere occur. (author)

  13. Cardiac autonomic activity and blood pressure among Nunavik Inuit adults exposed to environmental mercury: a cross-sectional study

    Poirier Paul

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mercury is a contaminant that reaches high levels in Nunavik (North of Quebec. It is transformed into methylmercury (MeHg and accumulated in marine mammals and predator fish, an important part of the traditional Inuit diet. MeHg has been suggested to affect BP in adults and children while the influence on HRV has only been studied in children. We aimed to assess the impact of MeHg levels on HRV and BP in Inuit adults from Nunavik. Methods In the fall of 2004, the «Qanuippitaa?» Health Survey was conducted in Nunavik (Quebec, Canada and information on HRV was collected among 280 adults aged 40 years and older. Indicators of the time and frequency domains of HRV were derived from a 2-hour Holter recording. BP was measured according to the Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure technique. Pulse pressure (PP was the difference between systolic (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP. Blood mercury concentration was used as exposure biomarker. Statistical analysis was conducted through linear regression and multivariable linear regression was used to control for confounders. Results Mercury was negatively correlated with low frequency (LF (r = -0.18; p = 0.02, the standard deviation of RR intervals (SDNN (r = -0.14; p = 0.047 and the coefficient of variation of RR intervals (CVRR (r = -0.18; p = 0.011 while correlations with other HRV parameters did not reach statistical significance. After adjusting for confounders, the association with LF (beta = -0.006; p = 0.93 became non significant. However, the association with SDANN became statistically significant (beta = -0.086; p = 0.026 and CVRR tended to decrease with blood mercury concentrations (beta = -0.057; p = 0.056. Mercury was positively correlated with SBP (r = 0.25; p Conclusion The results of this study suggest a deleterious impact of mercury on BP and HRV in adults. SBP and PP increased with blood mercury concentrations while SDANN decreased with blood mercury

  14. Silicon nitride grids are compatible with correlative negative staining electron microscopy and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for use in the detection of micro-organisms.

    Lausch, V; Hermann, P; Laue, M; Bannert, N

    2014-06-01

    Successive application of negative staining transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) is a new correlative approach that could be used to rapidly and specifically detect and identify single pathogens including bioterrorism-relevant viruses in complex samples. Our objective is to evaluate the TERS-compatibility of commonly used electron microscopy (EM) grids (sample supports), chemicals and negative staining techniques and, if required, to devise appropriate alternatives. While phosphortungstic acid (PTA) is suitable as a heavy metal stain, uranyl acetate, paraformaldehyde in HEPES buffer and alcian blue are unsuitable due to their relatively high Raman scattering. Moreover, the low thermal stability of the carbon-coated pioloform film on copper grids (pioloform grids) negates their utilization. The silicon in the cantilever of the silver-coated atomic force microscope tip used to record TERS spectra suggested that Si-based grids might be employed as alternatives. From all evaluated Si-based TEM grids, the silicon nitride (SiN) grid was found to be best suited, with almost no background Raman signals in the relevant spectral range, a low surface roughness and good particle adhesion properties that could be further improved by glow discharge. Charged SiN grids have excellent particle adhesion properties. The use of these grids in combination with PTA for contrast in the TEM is suitable for subsequent analysis by TERS. The study reports fundamental modifications and optimizations of the negative staining EM method that allows a combination with near-field Raman spectroscopy to acquire a spectroscopic signature from nanoscale biological structures. This should facilitate a more precise diagnosis of single viral particles and other micro-organisms previously localized and visualized in the TEM. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Modeling Mercury in Proteins

    Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally occurring element that is released into the biosphere both by natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Although its reduced, elemental form Hg(0) is relatively non-toxic, other forms such as Hg2+ and, in particular, its methylated form, methylmercury, are toxic, with deleterious effects on both ecosystems and humans. Microorganisms play important roles in the transformation of mercury in the environment. Inorganic Hg2+ can be methylated by certain bacteria and archaea to form methylmercury. Conversely, bacteria also demethylate methylmercury and reduce Hg2+ to relatively inert Hg(0). Transformations and toxicity occur as a result of mercury interacting with various proteins. Clearly, then, understanding the toxic effects of mercury and its cycling in the environment requires characterization of these interactions. Computational approaches are ideally suited to studies of mercury in proteins because they can provide a detailed picture and circumvent issues associated with toxicity. Here we describe computational methods for investigating and characterizing how mercury binds to proteins, how inter- and intra-protein transfer of mercury is orchestrated in biological systems, and how chemical reactions in proteins transform the metal. We describe quantum chemical analyses of aqueous Hg(II), which reveal critical factors that determine ligand binding propensities. We then provide a perspective on how we used chemical reasoning to discover how microorganisms methylate mercury. We also highlight our combined computational and experimental studies of the proteins and enzymes of the mer operon, a suite of genes that confers mercury resistance in many bacteria. Lastly, we place work on mercury in proteins in the context of what is needed for a comprehensive multi-scale model of environmental mercury cycling.

  16. Colour mapping of the Shakespeare (H-03) quadrangle of Mercury

    Bott, N.; Doressoundiram, A.; Perna, D.; Zambon, F.; Carli, C.; Capaccioni, F.

    2017-09-01

    We will present a colour mapping of the Shakespeare (H-03) quadrangle of Mercury, as well as the spectral analysis and a preliminary correlation between the spectral properties and the geological units.

  17. Intentional intravenous mercury injection

    In this case report, intravenous complications, treatment strategies and possible ... Mercury toxicity is commonly associated with vapour inhalation or oral ingestion, for which there exist definite treatment options. Intravenous mercury ... personality, anxiousness, irritability, insomnia, depression and drowsi- ness.[1] However ...

  18. Mercury's shifting, rolling past

    Trulove, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of scalloped-edged cliffs or lobate scarps on Mercury's surface are thrust faults that are consistent with the planet shrinking and cooling with time. However, compression occurred in the planet's early history and Mariner 10 images revealed decades ago that lobate scarps are among the youngest features on Mercury. Why don't we find more evidence of older compressive features?

  19. Global Mercury Assessment 2013

    mercury pollution. This summary report and the accompanying. Technical Background Report for the Global. Mercury Assessment 2013 are developed in response to Decision 25/5, paragraph ... The use of different pollution control technologies in different ...... vegetation, snow, freshwater, and seawater. One of the largest ...

  20. MESSENGER: Exploring Mercury's Magnetosphere

    Slavin, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet's miniature magnetosphere since Mariner 10's brief fly-bys in 1974-5. Mercury's magnetosphere is unique in many respects. The magnetosphere of Mercury is the smallest in the solar system with its magnetic field typically standing off the solar wind only - 1000 to 2000 km above the surface. For this reason there are no closed dri-fi paths for energetic particles and, hence, no radiation belts; the characteristic time scales for wave propagation and convective transport are short possibly coupling kinetic and fluid modes; magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause may erode the subsolar magnetosphere allowing solar wind ions to directly impact the dayside regolith; inductive currents in Mercury's interior should act to modify the solar In addition, Mercury's magnetosphere is the only one with its defining magnetic flux tubes rooted in a planetary regolith as opposed to an atmosphere with a conductive ionosphere. This lack of an ionosphere is thought to be the underlying reason for the brevity of the very intense, but short lived, approx. 1-2 min, substorm-like energetic particle events observed by Mariner 10 in Mercury's magnetic tail. In this seminar, we review what we think we know about Mercury's magnetosphere and describe the MESSENGER science team's strategy for obtaining answers to the outstanding science questions surrounding the interaction of the solar wind with Mercury and its small, but dynamic magnetosphere.

  1. Impact of exposure to low levels of mercury on the health of dental workers

    Leda Freitas Jesus

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the impact of exposure to mercury on the health of workers comparing dentists and dental assistants exposed to mercury by handling amalgam in a public dental clinic with a reference group which, in private offices, did not make use of the metal in their professional routine. Data collection included mercury levels in urine and air samples determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, questionnaires and direct observation. The difference between urine and air samples in both groups was statistically significant while mercury levels in air and urine showed positive associations. Mercury concentration in urine correlated with gender, practice time, and age of workers. Half of those exposed had complaints compatible with mercury contamination. Among the exposed, the most common complaints were cognitive and neurocognitive symptoms. Correlations between symptoms and exposure time and also number of amalgam fillings placed per week were positive. Amalgam handling resulted in environmental and biological contamination by mercury.

  2. Correlation between {sup 18}F-FDG uptake on PET/CT and prognostic factors in triple-negative breast cancer

    Koo, Hye Ryoung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 28 Yongon-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong Seon [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Keon Wook [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonshik [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, In Ae [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 28 Yongon-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a correlation exists between {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake and prognostic factors in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Between January 2009 and December 2013, 103 patients (mean age, 50.6 years) with primary TNBC (mean, 2.6 cm; range, 1.0-6.5 cm) underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for initial staging. Correlations between maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) on PET/CT and prognostic factors including tumour size, nodal status, histological grade, Ki-67 proliferation index, tumour suppressor p53, and 'basal-like' markers (epidermal growth factor receptor and CK 5/6) were assessed. The mean SUV{sub max} of the 103 tumours was 10.94 ± 5.25 (range: 2-32.8). There was a positive correlation between SUV{sub max} and Ki-67 (Spearman's rho = 0.29, P = 0.003) and tumour size (Spearman's rho = 0.27, P = 0.006), whereas this relationship was not observed in the nodal status, histological grade, p53 status and 'basal-like' phenotypes. In a multivariate regression analysis, Ki-67 (P < 0.001) and tumour size (P = 0.009) were significantly associated with SUV{sub max} in TNBCs. Increased {sup 18}F-FDG uptake on PET/CT was correlated with a high Ki-67 proliferation index and larger tumour size in TNBC. These results suggest a potential role of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in identifying TNBC with more aggressive behaviour. (orig.)

  3. Mercury in Nordic ecosystems

    Munthe, John; Waengberg, Ingvar (IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (SE)); Rognerud, Sigurd; Fjeld, Eirik (Norwegian Inst. for Water Research (NIVA), Oslo (Norway)); Verta, Matti; Porvari, Petri (Finnish Environment Inst. (SYKE), Helsinki (Finland)); Meili, Markus (Inst. of Applied Environmental Research (ITM), Stockholm (Sweden))

    2007-12-15

    This report provides a first comprehensive compilation and assessment of available data on mercury in air, precipitation, sediments and fish in the Nordic countries. The main conclusion is that mercury levels in Nordic ecosystems continue to be affected by long-range atmospheric transport. The geographical patterns of mercury concentrations in both sediments and fish are also strongly affected by ecosystem characteristics and in some regions possibly by historical pollution. An evaluation of geographical variations in mercury concentrations in precipitation indicates that the influence from anthropogenic sources from Central European areas is still significant. The annual variability of deposition is large and dependant of precipitation amounts. An evaluation of data from stations around the North Sea has indicated a significant decrease in mercury concentrations in precipitation indicating a continuous decrease of emissions in Europe (Waengberg et al., 2007). For mercury in air (TGM), the geographical pattern is less pronounced indicating the influence of mercury emissions and distribution over a larger geographical area (i.e. hemispherical transport). Comparison of recent (surficial) and historical lake sediments show significantly elevated concentrations of mercury most likely caused by anthropogenic atmospheric deposition over the past century. The highest pollution impact was observed in the coastal areas of southern Norway, in south western Finland and in Sweden from the coastal areas in the southwest across the central parts to the north-east. The general increase in recent versus old sediments was 2-5 fold. Data on mercury in Nordic freshwater fish was assembled and evaluated with respect to geographical variations. The fish data were further compared with temporal and spatial trends in mercury deposition and mercury contamination of lake sediments in order to investigate the coupling between atmospheric transport and deposition of mercury and local mercury

  4. Correlation between urinary concentrations of malondialdehyde and DNA damage in people exposed to mercury = Correlación entre la concentración urinaria de malondialdehído y daño en el ADN de personas expuestas a mercurio

    Castaño Arias, Paula Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine whether the extent of DNA damage is correlated with the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA in urine of individuals occupationally exposed and unexposed to mercury Methods: We evaluated 64 medical records (32 reference group and 32 exposed group, they were matched byage, smoke and alcohol consumption. For analysis, comet assay data (olive tail moment, % DNA in the tail and tail length, levels of urinary MDA and urinary mercury were taken. We compared the concentrations of MDA and the changes in the comet assay between the groups and the correlation between these variables. Results: MDA concentrations were higher in exposed than in referents (median 1.28 vs 0.51μmol/L, respectively and further damage to the comet assay (mean of tail % DNA: 27.37 vs. 0.31, median of Olivetail moment 8.29 vs olive 0.056; median of tail length 35 vs. 3.0, respectively.However there was a poor correlation between urinary MDA and genetic damage(r<0.11. Conclusion: No evidence was obtainedwith higher concentrations of MDA in urine provide additional genetic damage, but there was more DNA damage and higher concentrations of MDA in individuals occupationally exposed to mercury.

  5. Potential for Increased Mercury Accumulation in the Estuary Food Web

    Jay A Davis

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Present concentrations of mercury in large portions of San Francisco Bay (Bay, the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Delta, and the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers are high enough to warrant concern for the health of humans and wildlife. Large scale tidal wetland restoration is currently under consideration as a means of increasing populations of fish species of concern. Tidal wetland restoration activities may lead to increased concentrations of mercury in the estuarine food web and exacerbate the existing mercury problem. This paper evaluates our present ability to predict the local and regional effects of restoration actions on mercury accumulation in aquatic food webs. A sport fish consumption advisory is in place for the Bay, and an advisory is under consideration for the Delta and lower Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. Mercury concentrations in eggs of several water bird species from the Bay have exceeded the lowest observed effect level. A variety of mercury sources, largely related to historic mercury and gold mining, is present in the watershed and has created a spatially heterogeneous distribution of mercury in the Bay-Delta Estuary. Mercury exists in the environment in a variety of forms and has a complex biogeochemical cycle. The most hazardous form, methylmercury, is produced at a relatively high rate in wetlands and newly flooded aquatic habitats. It is likely that distinct spatial variation on multiple spatial scales exists in net methylmercury production in Bay-Delta tidal wetlands, including variation within each tidal wetland, among tidal wetlands in the same region, and among tidal wetlands in different regions. Understanding this spatial variation and its underlying causes will allow environmental managers to minimize the negative effects of mercury bioaccumulation as a result of restoration activities. Actions needed to reduce the uncertainty associated with this issue include a long term, multifaceted research effort, long

  6. Getting Mercury out of Schools.

    1999

    This guide was prepared while working with many Massachusetts schools to remove items that contain mercury and to find suitable alternatives. It contains fact sheets on: mercury in science laboratories and classrooms, mercury in school buildings and maintenance areas, mercury in the medical office and in medical technology classrooms in vocational…

  7. Characteristics of total gaseous mercury concentrations at a coastal area of the Yangtze Delta, China.

    Diao, Chunyan; Li, Jianfeng; Zhang, Bin; Tang, Shichuang

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we report on total gaseous mercury (TGM) field observations made in the rural area of Shanghai, Chongming Island, China, from September 2009 to April 2012. The average TGM was 2.65 ± 1.73 ng m -3 in Chongming Island, which is higher than the TGM background value of the Northern Hemisphere (1.5-1.7 ng m -3 ); this indicates that to some extent, the Chongming area has been affected by anthropogenic mercury emissions. The observed TGM follows a seasonal pattern; concentrations are highest in winter, followed by autumn, summer, and spring. There is also a clear diurnal variation in TGM. All peak values appear between 7:00 and 9:00 in all four seasons; this appears to be the result of the height change in the atmospheric boundary layer that occurs between day and night. TGM concentrations in Chongming remain high in the westerly wind direction, especially in the southwest direction because of its low frequency, so the greatest source contribution to TGM in Chongming lies to the northwest. Wind speed is also a significant factor affecting TGM, and was negatively correlated with TGM concentrations. TGM is also closely related to carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations, indicating that TGM is impacted by human activities. The slope of the linear fitting of TGM and CO demonstrates that the contribution of noncoal source emissions to TGM in summer is greater than in autumn, mainly because the high temperature and intensive sunlight in summer increase mercury emissions from natural sources. Except for some studies in the coastal areas (e.g., Kang Hwa Island by Kim et al., 2006, An-Myun Island by Kim et al., 2002, and Okinawa by Chan et al., 2008), data specifically for coastal areas are lacking. Monitoring of total gaseous mercury (TGM) in the rural area of Shanghai, Chongming Island, can help us understand mercury distribution.

  8. Mercury use in small scale gold mining in Ghana: an assessment of its impact on miners

    Biagya, Robert Yakubu

    2002-12-01

    Small scale gold mining is responsible for about 5% of Ghana’s annual gold production. It is estimated that between 80,000 and 100,000 people are engaged in small scale gold mining either on part-time or permanent basis. Amalgamation is the preferred method used by small scale gold miners for extracting free gold from its ores. The rate at which mercury, an important input in this method, is discharged into the atmosphere and water bodies is alarming. This research describes the various mining and processing methods in small scale gold mining and the extent of mercury use and releases to the environment. It discusses mercury and its human and environmental effects. It defines the various forms of mercury, routes of exposure, toxic effects. The levels of exposure to mercury by all groups of small scale gold miners are determined, and the impacts on the miners and the environment are assessed. It concludes that: • Mercury is mainly released into the environment as a result of small scale gold mining through spillage of elemental mercury and evaporation of mercury from the amalgam and sponge gold when they are heated on open fire. • Mercury in environmental samples from small scale gold mining areas is well above standard limit values. • Mercury released into the environment through small scale gold mining impacts negatively on the miners themselves and the general environment. Finally, it recommends the need for the adoption of mercury emission reduction strategies for dealing with the mercury problem. (au)

  9. Anticholinergic load negatively correlates with recovery of cognitive activities of daily living for geriatric patients after stroke in the convalescent stage.

    Kose, E; Hirai, T; Seki, T; Hidaka, S; Hamamoto, T

    2018-05-16

    Anticholinergic drugs are associated with risks of falls, confusion and cognitive dysfunction. However, the effect of anticholinergic drug use on rehabilitation outcomes after a stroke is poorly documented. We therefore aimed to establish whether the anticholinergic load was associated with functional recovery among geriatric patients convalescing after stroke. Consecutive geriatric stroke patients admitted and discharged from a convalescence rehabilitation ward between 2010 and 2016 were included in this retrospective cohort study. Anticholinergic load was assessed by the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), and functional recovery was assessed by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). The primary outcome was cognitive FIM (FIM-C) gain, but we also assessed the interaction of other putative factors identified from univariate analysis. Multivariate analyses were performed, adjusting for confounding factors. We included 418 participants (171 males, 247 females) with a median age of 78 years (interquartile range, 72-84 years). Multiple regression analysis revealed that ARS change, length of stay, and epilepsy were independently and negatively correlated with cognitive FIM gain. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the "Comprehension" and "Memory" items of the cognitive FIM gain were independently and negatively associated with anticholinergic load. A causal relationship cannot be established, but increased ARS scores during hospitalization may predict limited cognitive functional improvement in geriatric patients after stroke. Alternatively, cognitive impairment may lead to increased use of anticholinergic drugs. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon: Their nature, origin and role in terrestrial planet evolution. Geologic map analyses: Correlation of geologic and cratering histories. Ph.D. Thesis

    Leake, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Geologic map analyses are expanded, beginning with a discussion of particular regions which may illustrate volcanic and ballistic plains emplacement on Mercury. Major attention is focused on the surface history of Mercury through discussion of the areal distribution of plains and craters and the paleogeologic maps of the first quadrant. A summary of the lunar intercrater plains formation similarly interrelates the information from the Moon's geologic and cratering histories.

  11. Determination of Mercury Daily Intake and Hair-to-Blood Mercury Concentration Ratio in People Resident of the Coast of the Persian Gulf, Iran.

    Okati, Narjes; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to understand the mercury daily intake and hair-to-blood mercury ratio in fishermen and non-fishermen families in the coast of the Persian Gulf in Iran. The mean mercury concentration in the hair of fishermen and non-fishermen families was 5.76 and 2.27 μg/g, respectively. The mean mercury concentrations of RBCs were obtained for fishermen families and non-fishermen families: 35.96 and 17.18 μg/L, respectively. Hair mercury concentrations in 17% of people were higher than 10 μg/g, the No Observed Adverse Effects Level set by the World Health Organization. 78% of people had a blood mercury value > 5.8 μg/L, the standard level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A significant correlation (r = 0.94, p = 0.000) was seen between log hair and RBCs mercury concentrations. The mean mercury daily intake for fishermen and non-fishermen families was 0.42 and 0.20 µg/kg BW per day, respectively. The mean mercury daily intake of fishermen families was higher than the provisional tolerable daily intake (0.23 µg/kg BW per day) suggested by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. Mercury daily intake significantly correlated with fish consumption (r = 0.50, p = 0.000) and log hair mercury (r = 0.88, p = 0.000). The total mean of hair-to-blood mercury concentration ratio was 306. We conclude that the use of mercury concentrations in the hair and RBCs could have been suitable biomarkers for predicting mercury exposure of people with a high rate of fish consumption.

  12. The secondary release of mercury in coal fly ash-based flue-gas mercury removal technology.

    He, Jingfeng; Duan, Chenlong; Lei, Mingzhe; Zhu, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    The secondary release of mercury from coal fly ash is a negative by-product from coal-fired power plants, and requires effective control to reduce environmental pollution. Analysing particle size distribution and composition of the coal fly ash produced by different mercury removing technologies indicates that the particles are generally less than 0.5 mm in size and are composed mainly of SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3. The relationships between mercury concentration in the coal fly ash, its particle size, and loss of ignition were studied using different mercury removing approaches. The research indicates that the coal fly ash's mercury levels are significantly higher after injecting activated carbon or brominating activated carbon when compared to regular cooperating-pollution control technology. This is particularly true for particle size ranges of >0.125, 0.075-0.125, and 0.05-0.075 mm. Leaching experiments revealed the secondary release of mercury in discarded coal fly ash. The concentration of mercury in the coal fly ash increases as the quantity of injecting activated carbon or brominating activated carbon increases. The leached concentrations of mercury increase as the particle size of the coal fly ash increases. Therefore, the secondary release of mercury can be controlled by adding suitable activated carbon or brominating activated carbon when disposing of coal fly ash. Adding CaBr2 before coal combustion in the boiler also helps control the secondary release of mercury, by increasing the Hg(2+) concentration in the leachate. This work provides a theoretical foundation for controlling and removing mercury in coal fly ash disposal.

  13. Mercury in Nelson's Sparrow subspecies at breeding sites.

    Virginia L Winder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mercury is a persistent, biomagnifying contaminant that can cause negative effects on ecosystems. Marshes are often areas of relatively high mercury methylation and bioaccumulation. Nelson's Sparrows (Ammodramus nelsoni use marsh habitats year-round and have been documented to exhibit tissue mercury concentrations that exceed negative effects thresholds. We sought to further characterize the potential risk of Nelson's Sparrows to mercury exposure by sampling individuals from sites within the range of each of its subspecies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From 2009 to 2011, we captured adult Nelson's Sparrows at sites within the breeding range of each subspecies (A. n. nelsoni: Grand Forks and Upham, North Dakota; A. n. alterus: Moosonee, Ontario; and A. n. subvirgatus: Grand Manan Island, New Brunswick and sampled breast feathers, the first primary feather (P1, and blood for total mercury analysis. Mean blood mercury in nelsoni individuals captured near Grand Forks ranged from 0.84 ± 0.37 to 1.65 ± 1.02 SD ppm among years, between 2.0 and 4.9 times as high as concentrations at the other sites (P<0.01. Breast feather mercury did not vary among sites within a given sampling year (site means ranged from 0.98 ± 0.69 to 2.71 ± 2.93 ppm. Mean P1 mercury in alterus (2.96 ± 1.84 ppm fw was significantly lower than in any other sampled population (5.25 ± 2.24-6.77 ± 3.51 ppm; P ≤ 0.03. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study further characterized mercury in Nelson's Sparrows near Grand Forks; we documented localized and potentially harmful mercury concentrations, indicating that this area may represent a biological mercury hotspot. This finding warrants further research to determine if wildlife populations of conservation or recreational interest in this area may be experiencing negative effects due to mercury exposure. We present preliminary conclusions about the risk of each sampled population to mercury exposure.

  14. Negative correlation between nuptial throat colour and blood parasite load in male European green lizards supports the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis

    Molnár, Orsolya; Bajer, Katalin; Mészáros, Boglárka; Török, János; Herczeg, Gábor

    2013-06-01

    During female mate choice, conspicuous male sexual signals are used to infer male quality and choose the best sire for the offspring. The theory of parasite-mediated sexual selection (Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis) presumes that parasite infection can influence the elaboration of sexual signals: resistant individuals can invest more energy into signal expression and thus advertise their individual quality through signal intensity. By preferring these males, females can provide resistance genes for their offspring. Previous research showed that nuptial throat colour of male European green lizard, Lacerta viridis, plays a role in both inter- and intrasexual selections as a condition-dependent multiple signalling system. The aim of this study was to test the predictions of the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis on male European green lizards. By blood sampling 30 adult males during the reproductive season, we found members of the Haemogregarinidae family in all but one individual (prevalence = 96 %). The infection intensity showed strong negative correlation with the throat and belly colour brightness in line with the predictions of the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis. In addition, we found other correlations between infection intensity and other fitness-related traits, suggesting that parasite load has a remarkable effect on individual fitness. This study shows that throat patch colour of the European green lizards not only is a multiple signalling system but also possibly acts as an honest sexual signal of health state in accordance with the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis.

  15. Elevated endogenous expression of the dominant negative basic helix-loop-helix protein ID1 correlates with significant centrosome abnormalities in human tumor cells

    Gutmann Anja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ID proteins are dominant negative inhibitors of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that have multiple functions during development and cellular differentiation. Ectopic (over-expression of ID1 extends the lifespan of primary human epithelial cells. High expression levels of ID1 have been detected in multiple human malignancies, and in some have been correlated with unfavorable clinical prognosis. ID1 protein is localized at the centrosomes and forced (over-expression of ID1 results in errors during centrosome duplication. Results Here we analyzed the steady state expression levels of the four ID-proteins in 18 tumor cell lines and assessed the number of centrosome abnormalities. While expression of ID1, ID2, and ID3 was detected, we failed to detect protein expression of ID4. Expression of ID1 correlated with increased supernumerary centrosomes in most cell lines analyzed. Conclusions This is the first report that shows that not only ectopic expression in tissue culture but endogenous levels of ID1 modulate centrosome numbers. Thus, our findings support the hypothesis that ID1 interferes with centrosome homeostasis, most likely contributing to genomic instability and associated tumor aggressiveness.

  16. Understanding the effects of sulfur on mercury capture from coal-fired utility flue gases

    Morris, E.A.; Morita, K.; Jia, C.Q. [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Coal combustion continues to be a major source of energy throughout the world and is the leading contributor to anthropogenic mercury emissions. Effective control of these emissions requires a good understanding of how other flue gas constituents such as sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}) may interfere in the removal process. Most of the current literature suggests that SO{sub 2} hinders elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation by scavenging oxidizing species such as chlorine (Cl2) and reduces the overall efficiency of mercury capture, while there is evidence to suggest that SO{sub 2} with oxygen (O{sub 2}) enhances Hg{sup 0} oxidation by promoting Cl2 formation below 100{sup o}C. However, studies in which SO{sub 2} was shown to have a positive correlation with Hg{sup 0} oxidation in full-scale utilities indicate that these interactions may be heavily dependent on operating conditions, particularly chlorine content of the coal and temperature. While bench-scale studies explicitly targeting SO{sub 3} are scarce, the general consensus among full-scale coal-fired utilities is that its presence in flue gas has a strong negative correlation with mercury capture efficiency. The exact reason behind this observed correlation is not completely clear, however. While SO{sub 3} is an inevitable product of SO{sub 2} oxidation by O{sub 2}, a reaction that hinders Hg{sup 0} oxidation, it readily reacts with water vapor, forms sulfuric acid (H{sub 2 }SO{sub 4}) at the surface of carbon, and physically blocks active sites of carbon. On the other hand, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} on carbon surfaces may increase mercury capacity either through the creation of oxidation sites on the carbon surface or through a direct reaction of mercury with the acid. However, neither of these beneficial impacts is expected to be of practical significance for an activated carbon injection system in a real coal-fired utility flue gas.

  17. Mercury pollution in the ground of Saint-Petersburg

    Malov, A.M. [FSSI Inst. of Toxicology FMBA of Russia, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    The problem of mercury poisoning in St-Petersburg's industrial centre was investigated. First, mercury content was directly measured in ground samples taken at various depths. Mushrooms, which are abundant in every district of the city, were then collected from lawns, yards and parks. Mushrooms provide an accurate indication of mercury distribution in the upper layer of the ground because they get their nutrients from the environment. As such, the chemical composition of mushrooms depends on the composition of the substrate on which they grow, notably the composition of the ground soil and its mercury content. The purpose of the study was to determine the mercury content of the mushrooms growing in the centre of St-Petersburg and its suburbs. The mercury content of the samples was measured by using the cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry method. The mercury content of the mushrooms collected ranged from 1.29 mg/kg to 0.010 mg/kg. There was some correlation of the 2 data sets for territorial mercury impurity. The mercury content in the blood of 2 comparable groups of women living in the central part of St-Petersburg and its suburbs was also compared. Although there was no one single patterns of mercury distribution in the ground of the city, the depth of 1.0 to 2.0 m was found to be the most polluted. It was concluded that both measuring methods could be used to determine mercury contamination, but each reflects the situation from a different perspective. 20 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. Increased macroH2A1.1 expression correlates with poor survival of triple-negative breast cancer patients.

    Anne-Claire Lavigne

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT features appear to be key events in development and progression of breast cancer. Epigenetic modifications contribute to the establishment and maintenance of cancer subclasses, as well as to the EMT process. Whether histone variants contribute to these transformations is not known. We investigated the relative expression levels of histone macroH2A1 splice variants and correlated it with breast cancer status/prognosis/types. METHODS: To detect differential expression of macroH2A1 variant mRNAs in breast cancer cells and tumor samples, we used the following databases: GEO, EMBL-EBI and publisher databases (may-august 2012. We extracted macroH2A1.1/macroH2A1 mRNA ratios and performed correlation studies on intrinsic molecular subclasses of breast cancer and on molecular characteristics of EMT. Associations between molecular and survival data were determined. RESULTS: We found increased macroH2A1.1/macroH2A1 mRNA ratios to be associated with the claudin-low intrinsic subtype in breast cancer cell lines. At the molecular level this association translates into a positive correlation between macroH2A1 ratios and molecular characteristics of the EMT process. Moreover, untreated Triple Negative Breast Cancers presenting a high macroH2A1.1 mRNA ratio exhibit a poor outcome. CONCLUSION: These results provide first evidence that macroH2A1.1 could be exploited as an actor in the maintenance of a transient cellular state in EMT progress towards metastatic development of breast tumors.

  19. Biomarkers of mercury exposure at a mercury recycling facility in Ukraine.

    Gibb, Herman Jones; Kozlov, Kostj; Buckley, Jessie Poulin; Centeno, Jose; Jurgenson, Vera; Kolker, Allan; Conko, Kathryn; Landa, Edward; Panov, Boris; Panov, Yuri; Xu, Hanna

    2008-08-01

    This study evaluates biomarkers of occupational mercury exposure among workers at a mercury recycling operation in Gorlovka, Ukraine. The 29 study participants were divided into three occupational categories for analysis: (1) those who worked in the mercury recycling operation (Group A, n = 8), (2) those who worked at the facility but not in the yard where the recycling was done (Group B, n = 14), and (3) those who did not work at the facility (Group C, n = 7). Urine, blood, hair, and nail samples were collected from the participants, and a questionnaire was administered to obtain data on age, gender, occupational history, smoking, alcohol consumption, fish consumption, tattoos, dental amalgams, home heating system, education, source of drinking water, and family employment in the former mercury mine/smelter located on the site of the recycling facility. Each factor was tested in a univariate regression with total mercury in urine, blood, hair, and nails. Median biomarker concentrations were 4.04 microg/g-Cr (urine), 2.58 microg/L (blood), 3.95 microg/g (hair), and 1.16 microg/g (nails). Occupational category was significantly correlated (p recycling operation had the highest blood and urinary mercury levels. Those who worked at the facility but were not directly involved with the recycling operation had higher levels than those who did not work at the facility.

  20. Monitoring and assessment of mercury pollution in the vicinity of a chloralkali plant. IV. Bioconcentration of mercury in in situ aquatic and terrestrial plants at Ganjam, India.

    Lenka, M; Panda, K K; Panda, B B

    1992-02-01

    In situ aquatic and terrestrial plants including a few vegetable and crop plants growing in and around a chloralkali plant at Ganjam, India were analyzed for concentrations of root and shoot mercury. The aquatic plants found to bioconcentrate mercury to different degrees included Marsilea spp., Spirodela polyrhiza, Jussiea repens, Paspalum scrobiculatam, Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipes, Hygrophila schulli, Monochoria hastata and Bacopa monniera. Among wild terrestrial plants Chloris barbata, Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus rotundus and Croton bonplandianum were found growing on heavily contaminated soil containing mercury as high as 557 mg/kg. Analysis of mercury in root and shoot of these plants in relation to the mercury levels in soil indicated a significant correlation between soil and plant mercury with the exception of C. bonplandianum. Furthermore, the tolerance to mercury toxicity was highest with C. barbata followed by C. dactylon and C. rotundus, in that order. The rice plants analyzed from the surrounding agricultural fields did not show any significant levels of bioconcentrated mercury. Of the different vegetables grown in a contaminated kitchen garden with mercury level at 8.91 mg/kg, the two leafy vegetables, namely cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and amaranthus (Amaranthus oleraceous), were found to bioconcentrate mercury at statistically significant levels. The overall study indicates that the mercury pollution is very much localized to the specific sites in the vicinity of the chloralkali plant.

  1. Fixed-bed studies of the interactions between mercury and coal combustion fly ash

    Dunham, Grant E.; DeWall, Raymond A. [Energy and Environmental Research Center, 15 North 23rd Street, Grand Forks, ND 58203 (United States); Senior, Constance L. [Reaction Engineering International, 77 West 200 South, Suite 210, Salt Lake City, UT 84101 (United States)

    2003-08-15

    Sixteen different fly ash samples, generated from both pilot-scale and full-scale combustion systems, were exposed to a simulated flue gas containing either elemental mercury or HgCl{sub 2} in a bench-scale reactor system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center to evaluate the interactions and determine the effects of temperature, mercury species, and ash type on adsorption of mercury and oxidation of elemental mercury. The fly ash samples were characterized for surface area, loss on ignition, and forms of iron in the ash. While many of the ash samples oxidized elemental mercury, not all of the samples that oxidized mercury also captured elemental mercury. However, no capture of elemental mercury was observed without accompanying oxidation. Generally, oxidation of elemental mercury increased with increasing amount of magnetite in the ash. However, one high-carbon subbituminous ash with no magnetite showed considerable mercury oxidation that may have been due to unburned carbon. Surface area as well as the nature of the surface appeared to be important for oxidation and adsorption of elemental mercury. The capacity of the ash samples for HgCl{sub 2} was similar to that for elemental mercury. There was a good correlation between the capacity for HgCl{sub 2} and the surface area; capacity decreased with increasing temperature.

  2. Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail

    Slavin, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The source of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief passages is due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet's lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute to Mercury's very brief Dungey cycle, approx. 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury's tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

  3. Sources of speciated atmospheric mercury at a residential neighborhood impacted by industrial sources.

    Manolopoulos, Helen; Snyder, David C; Schauer, James J; Hill, Jason S; Turner, Jay R; Olson, Mark L; Krabbenhoft, David P

    2007-08-15

    Speciated measurements of atmospheric mercury plumes were obtained at an industrially impacted residential area of East St. Louis, IL. These plumes were found to result in extremely high mercury concentrations at ground level that were composed of a wide distribution of mercury species. Ground level concentrations as high as 235 ng m(-3) for elemental mercury (Hg0) and 38 300 pg m(-3) for reactive mercury species (reactive gaseous (RGM) plus particulate (PHg) mercury) were measured. The highest mercury concentrations observed during the study were associated with plumes that contained high concentrations of all mercury species (Hg0, RGM, and PHg) and originated from a source located southwest of the sampling site. Variations in proportions of Hg0/RGM/PHg among plumes, with Hg0 dominating some plumes and RGM and/or PHg dominating others, were attributed to differences in emissions from different sources. Correlations between mercury plumes and elevated NO(x) were not observed; however, a correlation between elevated SO2 and mercury plumes was observed during some but not all plume events. Despite the presence of six coal-fired power plants within 60 km of the study site, wind direction data along with Hg/SO2 and Hg/NO(x) ratios suggest that high-concentration mercury plumes impacting the St. Louis-Midwest Particle Matter Supersite are attributable to local point sources within 5 km of the site.

  4. Sources of speciated atmospheric mercury at a residential neighborhood impacted by industrial sources

    Helen Manolopoulos; David C. Snyder; James J. Schauer; Jason S. Hill; Jay R. Turner; Mark L. Olson; David P. Krabbenhoft [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States). Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program

    2007-08-15

    Speciated measurements of atmospheric mercury plumes were obtained at an industrially impacted residential area of East St. Louis, IL. These plumes were found to result in extremely high mercury concentrations at ground level that were composed of a wide distribution of mercury species. Ground level concentrations as high as 235 ng m{sup -3} for elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) and 38,300 pg m{sup -3} for reactive mercury species (reactive gaseous (RGM) plus particulate (PHg) mercury) were measured. The highest mercury concentrations observed during the study were associated with plumes that contained high concentrations of all mercury species (Hg{sup 0}, RGM, and PHg) and originated from a source located southwest of the sampling site. Variations in proportions of Hg{sup 0}/RGM/PHg among plumes, with Hg{sup 0} dominating some plumes and RGM and/or PHg dominating others, were attributed to differences in emissions from different sources. Correlations between mercury plumes and elevated NOx were not observed; however, a correlation between elevated SO{sub 2} and mercury plumes was observed during some but not all plume events. Despite the presence of six coal-fired power plants within 60 km of the study site, wind direction data along with Hg/SO{sub 2} and Hg/NOx ratios suggest that high-concentration mercury plumes impacting the St. Louis-Midwest Particle Matter Supersite are attributable to local point sources within 5 km of the site. 35 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Accumulation of mercury in Typha domingensis under field conditions.

    Lominchar, M A; Sierra, M J; Millán, R

    2015-01-01

    Typha species is a common wetland plant used in the treatment of urban and industrial effluents. But, despite their widespread implementation, there are not many studies based on the behaviour of this plant growing in an areas affected by mercury. The present work investigates the ability of Typha domingensis to accumulate mercury under field conditions. The study area was along the Valdeazogues river which flows through the Almadén mining district (Ciudad Real, Spain) that is considered the largest mercury reservoir in the world. The mercury concentration in different plant fractions was measured as well as the available and total concentration in the bottom sediments. The results showed that the highest mercury concentrations were found in the belowground organs. T. domingensis had a high efficiency to accumulate mercury in their organs although available metal concentrations in the environment did not exceed 0.16 mg kg(-1). Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) ranged between 121 and 3168 in roots. Furthermore, significant correlations were found between mercury concentration in all plant organs and Hg in sediments (both total and available). These results demonstrated that T. domingensis could be used as a biomonitor as well as in phytoextraction technology in areas affected by mercury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ecological and physiological parameters of mercury and cesium-137 accumulation in the raccoon

    Davis, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    Raccoons from 4 regions in the southeastern Coastal Plain were evaluated for mercury content. Mercury content of hair when used as an indicator of total body mercury content was significantly different among 3 of the 4 areas: Okefenokee Swamp, Eglin Air Force Base, and Sapelo Island on the Georgia Coast. Raccoons from Echols County Georgia were not significantly different from those of the Okefenokee. Mercury in the liver and kidney was significantly different between Okefenokee and Sapelo. There was a strong correlation between the age of the raccoon and the mercury in hair, with older animals having higher concentrations. This relationship was also valid for most other tissues. There was evidence that mercury content in some tissues was correlated with the season and the body condition of the raccoon. Mercury was not transferred through the placenta to the fetal raccoons. There was a strong relationship of mercury content to raccoon behavioral characteristics. Raccoon body weight was slightly different between the areas studied. Cesium-137 values in raccoons were significantly different between the Okefenokee and Sapelo Island. Cesium-137 content was correlated with raccoon age, body weight, and mercury content. Generally non-detectable levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons and PCB were found in Okefenokee raccoons. Mercury concentrations in crayfish were generally low but probably of importance in the raccoon food chain. The biological half life of mercury in brain, gonad, pancreas, spleen, heart, and lung was approximately 52 days. The half-life of mercury in muscle was 35 days. Mercury content of hair, liver, and kidney decreased at very slow rates, with biological half lives of 229, 108, and 138 days. This was probably due to the role of these tissues in clearance of mercury from the body, and to the molting pattern of raccoon hair

  7. Perturbed Angular Correlation Study of the Static and Dynamic Aspects of Cadmium and Mercury Atoms Inside and Attached to a C60 Fullerene Cage

    Das, Satyendra K; Banerjee, Debasish; Johnston, Karl; Das, Parnika; Butz, Tilman; Amaral, Vitor S; Correia, Joao G; Barbosa, Marcelo B

    2014-01-01

    30 keV Cd-111m and 50 keV Hg-199m beams from ISOLDE were used to implant on preformed targets of C-60 with a thickness of 1 mg cm(-2). Endofullerene compounds, viz. Cd-111m@C-60 and Hg-199m@C-60 formed during implantation were separated by filtration through micropore filter paper followed by solvent extraction. Dried samples of the endofullerene compounds were counted for the time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) measurement using the coincidence of the 151-245 keV cascade of Cd-111m and the 374 158 keV cascade of Hg-199m on a six LaBr3(Ce) detector system coupled with digital electronics. The results for 111mCd@C60 indicate a single static component (27\\%) and a fast relaxing component (73\\%), the latter implying that the cadmium atom moves rapidly inside the cage at room temperature. The quadrupole interaction frequency and asymmetry parameter of the cadmium atom occupying the static site in C60 are omega(Q) = 8.21(36) Mrad s(-1) and eta = 0.41(9), respectively. The fast relaxation con...

  8. ERBB2 in Cat Mammary Neoplasias Disclosed a Positive Correlation between RNA and Protein Low Expression Levels: A Model for erbB-2 Negative Human Breast Cancer

    Abreu, Rui M. V.; Bastos, Estela; Amorim, Irina; Gut, Ivo G.; Gärtner, Fátima; Chaves, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    Human ERBB2 is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 epithelial growth factor receptor. In human breast cancer (HBC), erbB-2 protein overexpression has been repeatedly correlated with poor prognosis. In more recent works, underexpression of this gene has been described in HBC. Moreover, it is also recognised that oncogenes that are commonly amplified or deleted encompass point mutations, and some of these are associated with HBC. In cat mammary lesions (CMLs), the overexpression of ERBB2 (27%–59.6%) has also been described, mostly at the protein level and although cat mammary neoplasias are considered to be a natural model of HBC, molecular information is still scarce. In the present work, a cat ERBB2 fragment, comprising exons 10 to 15 (ERBB2_10–15) was achieved for the first time. Allelic variants and genomic haplotype analyses were also performed, and differences between normal and CML populations were observed. Three amino acid changes, corresponding to 3 non-synonymous genomic sequence variants that were only detected in CMLs, were proposed to damage the 3D structure of the protein. We analysed the cat ERBB2 gene at the DNA (copy number determination), mRNA (expression levels assessment) and protein levels (in extra- and intra protein domains) in CML samples and correlated the last two evaluations with clinicopathological features. We found a positive correlation between the expression levels of the ERBB2 RNA and erbB-2 protein, corresponding to the intracellular region. Additionally, we detected a positive correlation between higher mRNA expression and better clinical outcome. Our results suggest that the ERBB2 gene is post-transcriptionally regulated and that proteins with truncations and single point mutations are present in cat mammary neoplastic lesions. We would like to emphasise that the recurrent occurrence of low erbB-2 expression levels in cat mammary tumours, suggests the cat mammary neoplasias as a valuable model for erbB-2 negative HBC

  9. Red fox Vulpes vulpes (L., 1758) as a bioindicator of mercury contamination in terrestrial ecosystems of north-western Poland.

    Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Lisowski, Piotr; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta Izabela

    2012-02-01

    In this study, we determined the concentrations of total mercury (Hg) in samples of liver, kidney and skeletal muscle of 27 red foxes Vulpes vulpes (L., 1758) from north-western Poland, and examined the morphometric characteristics of the collected specimens. The analysis also included the relationship between Hg concentration and the fox size, and the suitability of individual organs as bioindicators in indirect evaluation of environmental mercury contamination. Determination of Hg concentration was performed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. In the analysed samples, the Hg concentration was low and the maximum value did not exceed 0.85 mgHg/kg dry weight (dw). There were no significant differences in Hg concentrations in the analysed material between males and females or between immature and adult groups. The median concentrations of Hg in the liver, kidney and skeletal muscle were 0.22, 0.11 and 0.05 mgHg/kg dw, respectively. The correlation coefficients were significant between the concentrations of mercury in the liver, kidney and skeletal muscle (positive) and between the kidney Hg concentration and kidney mass (negative). Taking into account our results and findings of other authors, it may be argued that the red fox exhibits a measurable response to mercury environmental pollution and meets the requirements of a bioindicator.

  10. Total Mercury content of skin toning creams

    Administrator

    2008-04-01

    Apr 1, 2008 ... used it for cosmetics (Silberberg, 1995). Mercury- ... Cosmetic preparations containing mercury com- pounds are .... mercury determination by a modified version of an open .... level mercury exposure, which could lead to a.

  11. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  12. Mercury and water level fluctuations in lakes of northern Minnesota

    Larson, James H.; Maki, Ryan P; Christensen, Victoria G.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; LeDuc, Jaime F.; Kissane, Claire; Knights, Brent C.

    2017-01-01

    Large lake ecosystems support a variety of ecosystem services in surrounding communities, including recreational and commercial fishing. However, many northern temperate fisheries are contaminated by mercury. Annual variation in mercury accumulation in fish has previously been linked to water level (WL) fluctuations, opening the possibility of regulating water levels in a manner that minimizes or reduces mercury contamination in fisheries. Here, we compiled a long-term dataset (1997-2015) of mercury content in young-of-year Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) from six lakes on the border between the U.S. and Canada and examined whether mercury content appeared to be related to several metrics of WL fluctuation (e.g., spring WL rise, annual maximum WL, and year-to-year change in maximum WL). Using simple correlation analysis, several WL metrics appear to be strongly correlated to Yellow Perch mercury content, although the strength of these correlations varies by lake. We also used many WL metrics, water quality measurements, temperature and annual deposition data to build predictive models using partial least squared regression (PLSR) analysis for each lake. These PLSR models showed some variation among lakes, but also supported strong associations between WL fluctuations and annual variation in Yellow Perch mercury content. The study lakes underwent a modest change in WL management in 2000, when winter WL minimums were increased by about 1 m in five of the six study lakes. Using the PLSR models, we estimated how this change in WL management would have affected Yellow Perch mercury content. For four of the study lakes, the change in WL management that occurred in 2000 likely reduced Yellow Perch mercury content, relative to the previous WL management regime.

  13. Metallic mercury recycling. Final report

    Beck, M.A.

    1994-07-01

    Metallic mercury is known to be a hazardous material and is regulated as such. The disposal of mercury, usually by landfill, is expensive and does not remove mercury from the environment. Results from the Metallic Mercury Recycling Project have demonstrated that metallic mercury is a good candidate for reclamation and recycling. Most of the potential contamination of mercury resides in the scum floating on the surface of the mercury. Pinhole filtration was demonstrated to be an inexpensive and easy way of removing residues from mercury. The analysis method is shown to be sufficient for present release practices, and should be sufficient for future release requirements. Data from tests are presented. The consistently higher level of activity of the filter residue versus the bulk mercury is discussed. Recommendations for the recycling procedure are made.

  14. Metallic mercury recycling. Final report

    Beck, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Metallic mercury is known to be a hazardous material and is regulated as such. The disposal of mercury, usually by landfill, is expensive and does not remove mercury from the environment. Results from the Metallic Mercury Recycling Project have demonstrated that metallic mercury is a good candidate for reclamation and recycling. Most of the potential contamination of mercury resides in the scum floating on the surface of the mercury. Pinhole filtration was demonstrated to be an inexpensive and easy way of removing residues from mercury. The analysis method is shown to be sufficient for present release practices, and should be sufficient for future release requirements. Data from tests are presented. The consistently higher level of activity of the filter residue versus the bulk mercury is discussed. Recommendations for the recycling procedure are made

  15. Toenail mercury and dyslipidemia: Interaction with selenium.

    Park, Kyong; Seo, Eunmin

    2017-01-01

    Although compelling evidences from in vivo and in vitro studies exist, limited studies have examined the association between chronic mercury exposure and dyslipidemia. Particularly, data are sparse regarding the influence of selenium on this association of mercury with dyslipidemia in humans. The purpose of the current study was to examine the associations of toenail mercury with dyslipidemia and its components, and to examine whether selenium in toenails modifies these associations. We performed cross-sectional analyses using baseline data from a cohort in the Yeungnam area in South Korea, including 232 men and 269 women. Toenail mercury and selenium concentrations were quantified using neutron activation analysis, and fasting serum lipid measurements were obtained through the medical examination. Odds ratios of the prevalent hypercholesterolemia, hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia, hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and dyslipidemia in correlation with mercury levels were calculated using multivariable logistic regression. The mean levels of toenail mercury were 0.47μg/g for men and 0.34μg/g for women. After adjustment for multiple confounding variables, participants in the highest tertile of toenail mercury levels had 4.08 (95% CI 1.09-15.32, p for trend=0.02) times higher risk of hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia, and 2.24 (95% CI 1.15-4.37, p for trend=0.004) times higher risk of dyslipidemia than those in the lowest tertile. Selenium is a significant effect-modifier for these associations; the highest tertile of toenail mercury were significantly associated with a higher risk of hypercholesterolemia (OR 5.25, 95% CI 1.04-26.38) and dyslipidemia (OR 2.98, 95% CI 1.16-7.66) compared to the lowest tertile at toenail selenium levels ≤0.685μg/g, while these associations became weak and non-significant, showing OR 0.98 and 95% CI 0.25-3.80 for hypercholesterolemia and OR 1.99 and 95% CI 0.73-5.45 for dyslipidemia at toenail selenium levels >0.685μg/g. We

  16. Maternal transfer of contaminants in birds: Mercury and selenium concentrations in parents and their eggs

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hartman, C. Alex

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a detailed assessment of the maternal transfer of mercury and selenium to eggs in three bird species (n = 107 parents and n = 339 eggs), and developed predictive equations linking contaminant concentrations in eggs to those in six tissues of the mother (blood, muscle, liver, kidney, breast feathers, and head feathers). Mercury concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with mercury concentrations in each of the mother's internal tissues (R2 ≥ 0.95), but generally not with feathers. For each species, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs decreased as mercury concentrations in the mother increased. At the same maternal mercury concentration, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs differed among species, such that Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) and black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) females transferred more methylmercury to their eggs than American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) females. Selenium concentrations in eggs also were correlated with selenium concentrations in the mother's liver (R2 = 0.87). Furthermore, mercury and selenium concentrations in tern eggs were positively correlated with those in the father (R2 = 0.84). Incubating male terns had 21% higher mercury concentrations in blood compared to incubating females at the same egg mercury concentration. We provide equations to predict contaminant concentrations in eggs from each of the commonly sampled bird tissues.

  17. The tectonics of Mercury

    Melosh, H.J.; Mckinnon, W.B.

    1988-01-01

    The probable tectonic history of Mercury and the relative sequence of events are discussed on the basis of data collected by the Mariner-10 spacecraft. Results indicate that Mercury's tectonic activity was confined to its early history; its endogenic activity was principally due to a small change in the shape of its lithosphere, caused by tidal despinning, and a small change in area caused by shrinkage due to cooling. Exogenic processes, in particular the impact activity, have produced more abundant tectonic features. Many features associated with the Caloris basin are due to loading of Mercury's thick lithosphere by extrusive lavas or subsidence due to magma withdrawal. It is emphasized that tectonic features observed on Mercury yield insight into the earliest tectonic events on planets like Mars and, perhaps, the earth, where subsequent events obscured or erased the most ancient tectonic records

  18. Intentional intravenous mercury injection

    Elemental mercury is the well-known silver liquid and usually causes pulmonary, neurological and ... suicidal ideation or features of major depression. Clinically the patient was .... medically at this stage and consider surgical intervention later.

  19. Mercury's Dynamic Magnetosphere

    Imber, S. M.

    2018-05-01

    The global dynamics of Mercury's magnetosphere will be discussed, focussing on observed asymmetries in the magnetotail and on the precipitation of particles of magnetospheric origin onto the nightside planetary surface.

  20. Mercury analysis in hair

    Esteban, Marta; Schindler, Birgit K; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A

    2015-01-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an effective tool for assessing actual exposure to chemicals that takes into account all routes of intake. Although hair analysis is considered to be an optimal biomarker for assessing mercury exposure, the lack of harmonization as regards sampling and analytical...... assurance program (QAP) for assessing mercury levels in hair samples from more than 1800 mother-child pairs recruited in 17 European countries. To ensure the comparability of the results, standard operating procedures (SOPs) for sampling and for mercury analysis were drafted and distributed to participating...... laboratories. Training sessions were organized for field workers and four external quality-assessment exercises (ICI/EQUAS), followed by the corresponding web conferences, were organized between March 2011 and February 2012. ICI/EQUAS used native hair samples at two mercury concentration ranges (0...

  1. Mercury's Early Geologic History

    Denevi, B. W.; Ernst, C. M.; Klima, R. L.; Robinson, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    A combination of geologic mapping, compositional information, and geochemical models are providing a better understanding of Mercury's early geologic history, and allow us to place it in the context of the Moon and the terrestrial planets.

  2. Evaluation of passive sampling of gaseous mercury using different sorbing materials.

    Lin, Huiming; Zhang, Wei; Deng, Chunyan; Tong, Yingdong; Zhang, Qianggong; Wang, Xuejun

    2017-06-01

    Atmospheric mercury monitoring is essential because of its potential human health and ecological impacts. Current automated monitoring systems include limitations such as high cost, complicated configuration, and electricity requirements. Passive samplers require no electric power and are more appropriate for screening applications and long-term monitoring. Sampling rate is a major factor to evaluate the performance of a passive sampler. In this study, laboratory experiments were carried out using an exposure chamber to search for high efficiency sorbents for gaseous mercury. Four types of sorbents, including sulfur-impregnated carbon (SIC), chlorine-impregnated carbon (CIC), bromine-impregnated carbon (BIC), and gold-coated sand (GCS) were evaluated under a wide range of meteorological parameters, including temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed. The results showed that the four sorbents all have a high sampling rate above 0.01 m 3 g -1  day -1 , and wind speed has a positive correlation with the sampling rate. Under different temperature and relative humidity, the sampling rate of SIC keeps stable. The sampling rate of CIC and BIC shows a negative correlation with temperature, and GCS is influenced by all the three meteorological factors. Furthermore, long-term experiments were carried out to investigate the uptake capacity of GCS and SIC. Uptake curves show that the mass amount of sorbent in a passive sampler can influence uptake capacity. In the passive sampler, 0.9 g SIC or 0.9 g GCS can achieve stable uptake efficiency for at least 110 days with gaseous mercury concentration at or below 2 ng/m 3 . For mercury concentration at or below 21 ng/m 3 , 0.9 g SIC can maintain stable uptake efficiency for 70 days, and 0.9 g GCS can maintain stability for 45 days.

  3. The effect of mercury on baseline corticosterone in a breeding songbird.

    Maddux, Sarah L; Cristol, Daniel A; Varian-Ramos, Claire W; Bradley, Eric L

    2015-02-01

    Although songbirds accumulate mercury at rates equivalent to better-studied aquatic avian species, effects of mercury bioaccumulation in songbirds remain understudied. Little is known about the effects of mercury on endocrine physiology, but recent evidence indicates that mercury may disrupt the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Both field-based correlational studies and a recent dosing experiment suggest that mercury exposure alters levels of the primary avian stress hormone, CORT. We sampled zebra finches that had been dosed with 0, 0.5, or 1.0 ppm dietary methylmercury for baseline CORT twice; once during pairing and once after successfully fledging young. Circulating levels of CORT were not significantly affected by mercury exposure. However, our findings indicate potentially important differences in CORT responses between the sexes when exposed to environmentally relevant doses of mercury across the nesting cycle.

  4. Mercury in Nelson's Sparrow Subspecies at Breeding Sites

    Winder, Virginia L.; Emslie, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Mercury is a persistent, biomagnifying contaminant that can cause negative effects on ecosystems. Marshes are often areas of relatively high mercury methylation and bioaccumulation. Nelson's Sparrows (Ammodramus nelsoni) use marsh habitats year-round and have been documented to exhibit tissue mercury concentrations that exceed negative effects thresholds. We sought to further characterize the potential risk of Nelson's Sparrows to mercury exposure by sampling individuals from sites within the range of each of its subspecies. Methodology/Principal Findings From 2009 to 2011, we captured adult Nelson's Sparrows at sites within the breeding range of each subspecies (A. n. nelsoni: Grand Forks and Upham, North Dakota; A. n. alterus: Moosonee, Ontario; and A. n. subvirgatus: Grand Manan Island, New Brunswick) and sampled breast feathers, the first primary feather (P1), and blood for total mercury analysis. Mean blood mercury in nelsoni individuals captured near Grand Forks ranged from 0.84±0.37 to 1.65±1.02 SD ppm among years, between 2.0 and 4.9 times as high as concentrations at the other sites (Pmercury did not vary among sites within a given sampling year (site means ranged from 0.98±0.69 to 2.71±2.93 ppm). Mean P1 mercury in alterus (2.96±1.84 ppm fw) was significantly lower than in any other sampled population (5.25±2.24–6.77±3.51 ppm; P≤0.03). Conclusions/Significance Our study further characterized mercury in Nelson's Sparrows near Grand Forks; we documented localized and potentially harmful mercury concentrations, indicating that this area may represent a biological mercury hotspot. This finding warrants further research to determine if wildlife populations of conservation or recreational interest in this area may be experiencing negative effects due to mercury exposure. We present preliminary conclusions about the risk of each sampled population to mercury exposure. PMID:22384194

  5. HMGB1 is negatively correlated with the development of endometrial carcinoma and prevents cancer cell invasion and metastasis by inhibiting the process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    Luan XR

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Xiaorong Luan,1,2 Chunjing Ma,2 Ping Wang,2 Fenglan Lou1 1Nursing College, Shandong University, 2Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: High-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1, a nuclear protein that plays a significant role in DNA architecture and transcription, was correlated with the progression of some types of cancer. However, the role of HMGB1 in endometrial cancer cell invasion and metastasis remains unexplored. HMGB1 expression was initially assessed by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR in normal endometrial tissue and endometrial carcinoma tissue. High expressions of HMGB1 protein were detected in normal endometrial tissues; however, in endometrial cancer tissues, the expressions of HMGB1 were found to be very weak. Furthermore, HMGB1 expressions were negatively correlated with advanced stage and lymph node metastasis in endometrial cancer. Then by RT-qPCR, Western blot and immunocytochemistry, HMGB1 was also detected in primary cultured endometrial cells and four kinds of endometrial cancer cell lines (Ishikawa, HEC-1A, HEC-1B and KLE. We found that the expression of HMGB1 was much higher in normal endometrial cells than in endometrial cancer cells, and reduced expression levels of HMGB1 were observed especially in the highly metastatic cell lines. Using lentivirus transfection, HMGB1 small hairpin RNA was constructed, and this infected the lowly invasive endometrial cancer cell lines, Ishikawa and HEC-1B. HMGB1 knockdown significantly enhanced the proliferation, invasion and metastasis of endometrial cancer cells and induced the process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. These results can contribute to the development of a new potential therapeutic target for endometrial cancer. Keywords: HMGB1, endometrial cancer, invasion, metastasis, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

  6. Positive and negative symptom scores are correlated with activation in different brain regions during facial emotion perception in schizophrenia patients: a voxel-based sLORETA source activity study.

    Kim, Do-Won; Kim, Han-Sung; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2013-12-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most devastating of all mental illnesses, and has dimensional characteristics that include both positive and negative symptoms. One problem reported in schizophrenia patients is that they tend to show deficits in face emotion processing, on which negative symptoms are thought to have stronger influence. In this study, four event-related potential (ERP) components (P100, N170, N250, and P300) and their source activities were analyzed using EEG data acquired from 23 schizophrenia patients while they were presented with facial emotion picture stimuli. Correlations between positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) scores and source activations during facial emotion processing were calculated to identify the brain areas affected by symptom scores. Our analysis demonstrates that PANSS positive scores are negatively correlated with major areas of the left temporal lobule for early ERP components (P100, N170) and with the right middle frontal lobule for a later component (N250), which indicates that positive symptoms affect both early face processing and facial emotion processing. On the other hand, PANSS negative scores are negatively correlated with several clustered regions, including the left fusiform gyrus (at P100), most of which are not overlapped with regions showing correlations with PANSS positive scores. Our results suggest that positive and negative symptoms affect independent brain regions during facial emotion processing, which may help to explain the heterogeneous characteristics of schizophrenia. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mercury CEM Calibration

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani; Susan S. Sorini

    2007-03-31

    The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005, requires that calibration of mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The traceability protocol will be written by EPA. Traceability will be based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging from about 2-40 ug/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ID ICP/MS) through a chain of analyses linking the calibration unit in the power plant to the NIST ID ICP/MS. Prior to this project, NIST did not provide a recommended mercury vapor pressure equation or list mercury vapor pressure in its vapor pressure database. The NIST Physical and Chemical Properties Division in Boulder, Colorado was subcontracted under this project to study the issue in detail and to recommend a mercury vapor pressure equation that the vendors of mercury vapor pressure calibration units can use to calculate the elemental mercury vapor concentration in an equilibrium chamber at a particular temperature. As part of this study, a preliminary evaluation of calibration units from five vendors was made. The work was performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD and Joe Rovani from WRI who traveled to NIST as a Visiting Scientist.

  8. Cutaneous mercury granuloma

    Kalpana A Bothale; Sadhana D Mahore; Sushil Pande; Trupti Dongre

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous mercury granuloma is rarely encountered. Clinically it may pose difficulty in diagnosis. Here, we report a 23-year-old male presented with erythematous, nodular lesions over the forearm and anterior aspect of chest wall. Metallic mercury in tissue sections appear as dark black, opaque, spherical globules of varying size and number. They are surrounded by granulomatous foreign-body reaction. It is composed of foreign body giant cells and mixed inflammatory infiltrate composed of hist...

  9. Mercury in human hair

    Kapauan, P.A.; Cruz, C.C.; Verceluz, F.P.

    1980-10-01

    The analysis of mercury (Hg) in scalp hair obtained from individuals residing in five different localities in the Philippines - Metro Manila, Naga City in Bicol, Bataan, Oriental Mindoro, and Palawan is presented. An overall mean of 1.46 ug/g of hair was obtained for all samples excluding those from Palawan and represents a baseline value.'' In terms of the mercury levels found in hair, the Honda Bay area in Palawan is, relatively, a ''contaminated area.'' (author)

  10. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    Durham, Michael D.; Schlager, Richard J.; Sappey, Andrew D.; Sagan, Francis J.; Marmaro, Roger W.; Wilson, Kevin G.

    1997-01-01

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber.

  11. Gremlin-1 Overexpression in Mouse Lung Reduces Silica-Induced Lymphocyte Recruitment - A Link to Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis through Negative Correlation with CXCL10 Chemokine.

    Katri Koli

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is characterized by activation and injury of epithelial cells, the accumulation of connective tissue and changes in the inflammatory microenvironment. The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP inhibitor protein gremlin-1 is associated with the progression of fibrosis both in human and mouse lung. We generated a transgenic mouse model expressing gremlin-1 in type II lung epithelial cells using the surfactant protein C (SPC promoter and the Cre-LoxP system. Gremlin-1 protein expression was detected specifically in the lung after birth and did not result in any signs of respiratory insufficiency. Exposure to silicon dioxide resulted in reduced amounts of lymphocyte aggregates in transgenic lungs while no alteration in the fibrotic response was observed. Microarray gene expression profiling and analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytokines indicated a reduced lymphocytic response and a downregulation of interferon-induced gene program. Consistent with reduced Th1 response, there was a downregulation of the mRNA and protein expression of the anti-fibrotic chemokine CXCL10, which has been linked to IPF. In human IPF patient samples we also established a strong negative correlation in the mRNA expression levels of gremlin-1 and CXCL10. Our results suggest that in addition to regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk during tissue injury, gremlin-1 modulates inflammatory cell recruitment and anti-fibrotic chemokine production in the lung.

  12. Gremlin-1 Overexpression in Mouse Lung Reduces Silica-Induced Lymphocyte Recruitment - A Link to Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis through Negative Correlation with CXCL10 Chemokine.

    Koli, Katri; Sutinen, Eva; Rönty, Mikko; Rantakari, Pia; Fortino, Vittorio; Pulkkinen, Ville; Greco, Dario; Sipilä, Petra; Myllärniemi, Marjukka

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by activation and injury of epithelial cells, the accumulation of connective tissue and changes in the inflammatory microenvironment. The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibitor protein gremlin-1 is associated with the progression of fibrosis both in human and mouse lung. We generated a transgenic mouse model expressing gremlin-1 in type II lung epithelial cells using the surfactant protein C (SPC) promoter and the Cre-LoxP system. Gremlin-1 protein expression was detected specifically in the lung after birth and did not result in any signs of respiratory insufficiency. Exposure to silicon dioxide resulted in reduced amounts of lymphocyte aggregates in transgenic lungs while no alteration in the fibrotic response was observed. Microarray gene expression profiling and analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytokines indicated a reduced lymphocytic response and a downregulation of interferon-induced gene program. Consistent with reduced Th1 response, there was a downregulation of the mRNA and protein expression of the anti-fibrotic chemokine CXCL10, which has been linked to IPF. In human IPF patient samples we also established a strong negative correlation in the mRNA expression levels of gremlin-1 and CXCL10. Our results suggest that in addition to regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk during tissue injury, gremlin-1 modulates inflammatory cell recruitment and anti-fibrotic chemokine production in the lung.

  13. Gremlin-1 Overexpression in Mouse Lung Reduces Silica-Induced Lymphocyte Recruitment – A Link to Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis through Negative Correlation with CXCL10 Chemokine

    Koli, Katri; Sutinen, Eva; Rönty, Mikko; Rantakari, Pia; Fortino, Vittorio; Pulkkinen, Ville; Greco, Dario; Sipilä, Petra; Myllärniemi, Marjukka

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by activation and injury of epithelial cells, the accumulation of connective tissue and changes in the inflammatory microenvironment. The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibitor protein gremlin-1 is associated with the progression of fibrosis both in human and mouse lung. We generated a transgenic mouse model expressing gremlin-1 in type II lung epithelial cells using the surfactant protein C (SPC) promoter and the Cre-LoxP system. Gremlin-1 protein expression was detected specifically in the lung after birth and did not result in any signs of respiratory insufficiency. Exposure to silicon dioxide resulted in reduced amounts of lymphocyte aggregates in transgenic lungs while no alteration in the fibrotic response was observed. Microarray gene expression profiling and analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytokines indicated a reduced lymphocytic response and a downregulation of interferon-induced gene program. Consistent with reduced Th1 response, there was a downregulation of the mRNA and protein expression of the anti-fibrotic chemokine CXCL10, which has been linked to IPF. In human IPF patient samples we also established a strong negative correlation in the mRNA expression levels of gremlin-1 and CXCL10. Our results suggest that in addition to regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk during tissue injury, gremlin-1 modulates inflammatory cell recruitment and anti-fibrotic chemokine production in the lung. PMID:27428020

  14. Quantitative analyses of schizophrenia-associated metabolites in serum: serum D-lactate levels are negatively correlated with gamma-glutamylcysteine in medicated schizophrenia patients.

    Takeshi Fukushima

    Full Text Available The serum levels of several metabolites are significantly altered in schizophrenia patients. In this study, we performed a targeted analysis of 34 candidate metabolites in schizophrenia patients (n = 25 and compared them with those in age- and gender-matched healthy subjects (n = 27. Orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis revealed that complete separation between controls and patients was achieved based on these metabolites. We found that the levels of γ-glutamylcysteine (γ-GluCys, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, D-serine, 3-hydroxybutyrate, glutathione (GSH, 5-hydroxytryptamine, threonine, and tyrosine were significantly lower, while D-lactate, tryptophan, kynurenine, and glutamate levels were significantly higher in schizophrenia patients compared to controls. Using receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, and the area under curve of γ-GluCys, a precursor of GSH, and D-lactate, a terminal metabolite of methylglyoxal, were 88.00%, 81.48%, and 0.8874, and 88.00%, 77.78%, and 0.8415, respectively. In addition, serum levels of D-lactate were negatively correlated with γ-GluCys levels in patients, but not in controls. The present results suggest that oxidative stress-induced damage may be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

  15. Mercury in breast milk - a health hazard for infants in gold mining areas?

    Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan; Lettmeier, Beate; Roider, Gabriele; Siebert, Uwe; Drasch, Gustav

    2008-10-01

    Breast-feeding can be a source of mercury exposure for infants. The main concern up to now is methyl-mercury exposure of women at child-bearing age. Certain fish species have high levels of methyl-mercury leading to consumer's advisory guidelines in regard of fish consumption to protect infants from mercury exposure passing through breast milk. Little is known about the transfer of inorganic mercury passing through breast milk to infants. Epidemiological studies showed negative health effects of inorganic mercury in gold mining areas. Small-scale gold miners use mercury to extract the gold from the ore. Environmental and health assessments of gold mining areas in Indonesia, Tanzania and Zimbabwe showed a high exposure with inorganic mercury in these gold mining areas, and a negative health impact of the exposure to the miners and the communities. This paper reports about the analysis and the results of 46 breast milk samples collected from mercury-exposed mothers. The median level of 1.87mug/l is fairly high compared to other results from literature. Some breast milk samples showed very high levels of mercury (up to 149mug/l). Fourteen of the 46 breast milk samples exceed 4mug/l which is considered to be a "high" level. US EPA recommends a "Reference Dose" of 0.3mug inorganic mercury/kg body weight/day [United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1997. Volume V: Health Effects of Mercury and Mercury Compounds. Study Report EPA-452/R-97-007: US EPA]. Twenty-two of the 46 children from these gold mining areas had a higher calculated total mercury uptake. The highest calculated daily mercury uptake of 127mug exceeds by far the recommended maximum uptake of inorganic mercury. Further systematic research of mercury in breast milk from small-scale gold mining areas is needed to increase the knowledge about the bio-transfer of mercury from mercury vapour-exposed mothers passing through breast milk to the breast-fed infant.

  16. Total mercury and methylmercury in fish fillets, water, and bed sediments from selected streams in the Delaware River basin, New Jersery, New York, and Pennsylvania, 1998-2001

    Brightbill, Robin A.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Bilger, Michael D.; Byrnes, John D.

    2004-01-01

    Within the Delaware River Basin, fish-tissue samples were analyzed for total mercury (tHg). Water and bed-sediment samples were analyzed for tHg and methylmercury (MeHg), and methylation efficiencies were calculated. This study was part of a National Mercury Pilot Program conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The Delaware River Basin was chosen because it is part of the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Program that integrates physical, chemical, and biological sampling efforts to determine status and trends in surface-water and ground-water resources. Of the 35 sites in the study, 31 were sampled for fish. The species sampled at these sites include smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), the target species, and where smallmouth bass could not be collected, brown trout (Salmo trutta), chain pickerel (Esox niger), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris). There were a total of 32 fish samples; 7 of these exceeded the 0.3 ?g/g (micrograms per gram) wet-weight mercury (Hg) concentration set for human health by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and 27 of these exceeded the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service criteria of 0.1 ?g/g wet weight for the protection of fish-eating birds and wildlife. Basinwide analysis of Hg in fish, water, and bed sediment showed tHg concentration in fillets correlated positively with population density, urban land cover, and impervious land surface. Negative correlations included wetland land cover, septic density, elevation, and latitude. Smallmouth bass from the urban sites had a higher median concentration of tHg than fish from agricultural, low intensity-agricultural, or forested sites. Concentrations of tHg and MeHg in water were higher in samples from the more urbanized areas of the basin and were positively correlated with urbanization and negatively correlated with forested land cover. Methylation efficiency of water was negatively correlated with urbanization. Bed

  17. Litterfall mercury dry deposition in the eastern USA

    Risch, Martin R.; DeWild, John F.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Kolka, Randall K.; Zhang, Leiming

    2012-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) in autumn litterfall from predominately deciduous forests was measured in 3 years of samples from 23 Mercury Deposition Network sites in 15 states across the eastern USA. Annual litterfall Hg dry deposition was significantly higher (median 12.3 micrograms per square meter (μg/m 2 ), range 3.5–23.4 μg/m 2 ) than annual Hg wet deposition (median 9.6 μg/m 2 , range 4.4–19.7 μg/m 2 ). The mean ratio of dry to wet Hg deposition was 1.3–1. The sum of dry and wet Hg deposition averaged 21 μg/m 2 per year and 55% was litterfall dry deposition. Methylmercury was a median 0.8% of Hg in litterfall and ranged from 0.6 to 1.5%. Annual litterfall Hg and wet Hg deposition rates differed significantly and were weakly correlated. Litterfall Hg dry deposition differed among forest-cover types. This study demonstrated how annual litterfall Hg dry deposition rates approximate the lower bound of annual Hg dry fluxes. - Highlights: ► Annual litterfall mercury dry deposition was significantly higher than wet deposition. ► The mean ratio of dry to wet mercury deposition was 1.3–1. ► The sum of dry and wet mercury deposition averaged 55% litterfall dry deposition. ► Litterfall mercury deposition was highest in the oak-hickory forest-cover type. ► Methylmercury was a median 0.8% of mercury in litterfall and ranged to 1.5%. - A multi-year study of Mercury Deposition Network sites found that annual mercury dry deposition from litterfall in predominately deciduous forests exceeded annual mercury wet deposition in the eastern USA.

  18. Mercury pollution in Malaysia.

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Jinap, S; Ismail, Ahmad; Mahyudin, Nor Ainy

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have been published on levels of mercury contamination of the environment, and of food and human tissues in Peninsular Malaysia, there is a serious dearth of research that has been performed in East Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak). Industry is rapidly developing in East Malaysia, and, hence, there is a need for establishing baseline levels of mercury contamination in environmental media in that part of the country by performing monitoring studies. Residues of total mercury and inorganic in food samples have been determined in nearly all previous studies that have been conducted; however, few researchers have analyzed samples for the presence of methlymercury residues. Because methylmercury is the most toxic form of mercury, and because there is a growing public awareness of the risk posed by methylmercury exposure that is associated with fish and seafood consumption, further monitoring studies on methylmercury in food are also essential. From the results of previous studies, it is obvious that the economic development in Malaysia, in recent years, has affected the aquatic environment of the country. Primary areas of environmental concern are centered on the rivers of the west Peninsular Malaysian coast, and the coastal waters of the Straits of Malacca, wherein industrial activities are rapidly expanding. The sources of existing mercury input to both of these areas of Malaysia should be studied and identified. Considering the high levels of mercury that now exists in human tissues, efforts should be continued, and accelerated in the future, if possible, to monitor mercury contamination levels in the coastal states, and particularly along the west Peninsular Malaysian coast. Most studies that have been carried out on mercury residues in environmental samples are dated, having been conducted 20-30 years ago; therefore, the need to collect much more and more current data is urgent. Furthermore, establishing baseline levels of mercury exposure to

  19. Fractal analysis of SEM images and mercury intrusion porosimetry data for the microstructural characterization of microcrystalline cellulose-based pellets

    Gomez-Carracedo, A.; Alvarez-Lorenzo, C.; Coca, R.; Martinez-Pacheco, R.; Concheiro, A.; Gomez-Amoza, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    The microstructure of theophylline pellets prepared from microcrystalline cellulose, carbopol and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, according to a mixture design, was characterized using textural analysis of gray-level scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and thermodynamic analysis of the cumulative pore volume distribution obtained by mercury intrusion porosimetry. Surface roughness evaluated in terms of gray-level non-uniformity and fractal dimension of pellet surface depended on agglomeration phenomena during extrusion/spheronization. Pores at the surface, mainly 1-15 μm in diameter, determined both the mechanism and the rate of theophylline release, and a strong negative correlation between the fractal geometry and the b parameter of the Weibull function was found for pellets containing >60% carbopol. Theophylline mean dissolution time from these pellets was about two to four times greater. Textural analysis of SEM micrographs and fractal analysis of mercury intrusion data are complementary techniques that enable complete characterization of multiparticulate drug dosage forms

  20. Variation in concentrations of three mercury (Hg) forms at a rural and a suburban site in New York State.

    Choi, Hyun-Deok; Huang, Jiaoyan; Mondal, Sumona; Holsen, Thomas M

    2013-03-15

    Tekran® Hg speciation systems were used at a rural site (Huntington Forest, NY; HF) and a suburban site (Rochester, NY; ROC) to measure gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), and fine particulate-bound mercury (PBM2.5) concentrations for two years (December 2007 to November 2009). Ancillary data were also available from the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency Clean Air Status and Trends Network. Seasonal GEM concentrations were similar at both sites and influenced by factors such as the planet boundary layer (PBL) height and mercury emissions from snow, soil, and point sources. In some seasons, O3 was negatively correlated with GEM at ROC and positively correlated with GEM at HF. At HF, O3 was correlated with GOM and was typically higher in the afternoon. The cause of this pattern may be photochemical reactions during the day, and the GOM diel pattern may also be due to deposition which is enhanced by dew formation during the night and early morning. PBM2.5 concentrations were higher in winter at both sites. This is indicative of local wood combustion for space heating in winter, increased sorption to particles at lower temperatures, and lower PBL in the winter. At the suburban site, 2 of 12 events with enhanced GEM/CO ratios were poorly correlated with SO2/GOM, implying that these two events were due either to long range transport or regional metallurgical industries in Canada. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mercury Quick Facts: Health Effects of Mercury Exposure

    ... 2012 What are the Health Effects of Mercury Exposure? The health effects that can be caused by breathing mercury depend ... they breathe faster and have smaller lungs. Health effects caused by long-term exposure to mercury vapors • • Anxiety • • Excessive shyness • • Anorexia • • Sleeping ...

  2. [Evaluation and source analysis of the mercury pollution in soils and vegetables around a large-scale zinc smelting plant].

    Liu, Fang; Wang, Shu-Xiao; Wu, Qing-Ru; Lin, Hai

    2013-02-01

    The farming soil and vegetable samples around a large-scale zinc smelter were collected for mercury content analyses, and the single pollution index method with relevant regulations was used to evaluate the pollution status of sampled soils and vegetables. The results indicated that the surface soil and vegetables were polluted with mercury to different extent. Of the soil samples, 78% exceeded the national standard. The mercury concentration in the most severely contaminated area was 29 times higher than the background concentration, reaching the severe pollution degree. The mercury concentration in all vegetable samples exceeded the standard of non-pollution vegetables. Mercury concentration, in the most severely polluted vegetables were 64.5 times of the standard, and averagely the mercury concentration in the vegetable samples was 25.4 times of the standard. For 85% of the vegetable samples, the mercury concentration, of leaves were significantly higher than that of roots, which implies that the mercury in leaves mainly came from the atmosphere. The mercury concentrations in vegetable roots were significantly correlated with that in soils, indicating the mercury in roots was mainly from soil. The mercury emissions from the zinc smelter have obvious impacts on the surrounding soils and vegetables. Key words:zinc smelting; mercury pollution; soil; vegetable; mercury content

  3. MicroRNA-218 functions as a tumor suppressor in lung cancer by targeting IL-6/STAT3 and negatively correlates with poor prognosis.

    Yang, Yan; Ding, Lili; Hu, Qun; Xia, Jia; Sun, Junjie; Wang, Xudong; Xiong, Hua; Gurbani, Deepak; Li, Lianbo; Liu, Yan; Liu, Aiguo

    2017-08-22

    Aberrant expression of microRNAs in different human cancer types has been widely reported. MiR-218 acts as a tumor suppressor in diverse human cancer types impacting regulation of multiple genes in oncogenic pathways. Here, we evaluated the expression and function of miR-218 in human lung cancer and ALDH positive lung cancer cells to understand the potential mechanisms responsible for disease pathology. Also, the association between its host genes and the target genes could be useful towards the better understanding of prognosis in clinical settings. Publicly-available data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) was mined to compare the levels of miR-218 and its host gene SLIT2/3 between lung cancer tissues and normal lung tissues. Transfection of miR-218 to investigate its function in lung cancer cells was done and in vivo effects were determined using miR-218 expressing lentiviruses. Aldefluor assay and Flow cytometry was used to quantify and enrich ALDH positive lung cancer cells. Levels of miR-218, IL-6R, JAK3 and phosphorylated STAT3 were compared in ALDH1A1 positive and ALDH1A1 negative cells. Overexpression of miR-218 in ALDH positive cells was carried to test the survival by tumorsphere culture. Finally, utilizing TCGA data we studied the association of target genes of miR-218 with the prognosis of lung cancer. We observed that the expression of miR-218 was significantly down-regulated in lung cancer tissues compared to normal lung tissues. Overexpression of miR-218 decreased cell proliferation, invasion, colony formation, and tumor sphere formation in vitro and repressed tumor growth in vivo. We further found that miR-218 negatively regulated IL-6 receptor and JAK3 gene expression by directly targeting the 3'-UTR of their mRNAs. In addition, the levels of both miR-218 host genes and the components of IL-6/STAT3 pathway correlated with prognosis of lung cancer patients. MiR-218 acts as a tumor suppressor in lung cancer via IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway

  4. Mercury pOIsonIng

    A case of mercury poisoning is reported and clinical observations of 6 .... fish ingested and occupational exposure. .... exposed to mercury as a result of inadequate industrial safety standards, and ... WHO Tech Rep Ser 1980; No. 674: 102-115.

  5. Mercury Study Report to Congress

    EPA's Report to Congress on Mercury provides an assessment of the magnitude of U.S. mercury emissions by source, the health and environmental implications of those emissions, and the availability and cost of control technologies.

  6. True Polar Wander of Mercury

    Keane, J. T.; Matsuyama, I.

    2018-05-01

    We use new MESSENGER gravity data to investigate how impact basins and volcanic provinces alter Mercury's moments of inertia. We find that Mercury has reoriented tens of degrees over its history, affecting tectonics, volatiles, and more.

  7. Mercury Emissions: The Global Context

    Mercury emissions are a global problem that knows no national or continental boundaries. Mercury that is emitted to the air can travel thousands of miles in the atmosphere before it is eventually deposited back to the earth.

  8. Marine biogeochemistry of mercury

    Gill, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    Noncontaminating sample collection and handling procedures and accurate and sensitive analysis methods were developed to measure sub-picomolar Hg concentrations in seawater. Reliable and diagnostic oceanographic Hg distributions were obtained, permitting major processes governing the marine biogeochemistry of Hg to be identified. Mercury concentrations in the northwest Atlantic, central Pacific, southeast Pacific, and Tasman Sea ranged from 0.5 to 12 pM. Vertical Hg distributions often exhibited a maximum within or near the main thermocline. At similar depths, Hg concentrations in the northwest Atlantic Ocean were elevated compared to the N. Pacific Ocean. This pattern appears to result from a combination of enhanced supply of Hg to the northwest Atlantic by rainfall and scavenging removal along deep water circulation pathways. These observations are supported by geochemical steady-state box modelling which predicts a relatively short mean residence time for Hg in the oceans; demonstrating the reactive nature of Hg in seawater and precluding significant involvement in nutrient-type recyclic. Evidence for the rapid removal of Hg from seawater was obtained at two locations. Surface seawater Hg measurements along 160 0 W (20 0 N to 20 0 S) showed a depression in the equatorial upwelling area which correlated well with the transect region exhibiting low 234 Th/ 238 U activity ratios. This relationship implies that Hg will be scavenged and removed from surface seawater in biologically productive oceanic zones. Further, a broad minimum in the vertical distribution of Hg was observed to coincide with the intense oxygen minimum zone in the water column in coastal waters off Peru

  9. Mercury's magnetic field and interior

    Connerney, J.E.P.; Ness, N.F.

    1988-01-01

    The magnetic-field data collected on Mercury by the Mariner-10 spacecraft present substantial evidence for an intrinsic global magnetic field. However, studies of Mercury's thermal evolution show that it is most likely that the inner core region of Mercury solidified or froze early in the planet's history. Thus, the explanation of Mercury's magnetic field in the framework of the traditional planetary dynamo is less than certain

  10. Mercury exposure may influence fluctuating asymmetry in waterbirds.

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Ackerman, Joshua T

    2017-06-01

    Variation in avian bilateral symmetry can be an indicator of developmental instability in response to a variety of stressors, including environmental contaminants. The authors used composite measures of fluctuating asymmetry to examine the influence of mercury concentrations in 2 tissues on fluctuating asymmetry within 4 waterbird species. Fluctuating asymmetry increased with mercury concentrations in whole blood and breast feathers of Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri), a species with elevated mercury concentrations. Specifically, fluctuating asymmetry in rectrix feather 1 was the most strongly correlated structural variable of those tested (wing chord, tarsus, primary feather 10, rectrix feather 6) with mercury concentrations in Forster's terns. However, for American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia), the authors found no relationship between fluctuating asymmetry and either whole-blood or breast feather mercury concentrations, even though these species had moderate to elevated mercury exposure. The results indicate that mercury contamination may act as an environmental stressor during development and feather growth and contribute to fluctuating asymmetry of some species of highly contaminated waterbirds. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1599-1605. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  11. Mercury exposure may influence fluctuating asymmetry in waterbirds

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2017-01-01

    Variation in avian bilateral symmetry can be an indicator of developmental instability in response to a variety of stressors, including environmental contaminants. The authors used composite measures of fluctuating asymmetry to examine the influence of mercury concentrations in 2 tissues on fluctuating asymmetry within 4 waterbird species. Fluctuating asymmetry increased with mercury concentrations in whole blood and breast feathers of Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri), a species with elevated mercury concentrations. Specifically, fluctuating asymmetry in rectrix feather 1 was the most strongly correlated structural variable of those tested (wing chord, tarsus, primary feather 10, rectrix feather 6) with mercury concentrations in Forster's terns. However, for American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia), the authors found no relationship between fluctuating asymmetry and either whole-blood or breast feather mercury concentrations, even though these species had moderate to elevated mercury exposure. The results indicate that mercury contamination may act as an environmental stressor during development and feather growth and contribute to fluctuating asymmetry of some species of highly contaminated waterbirds.

  12. MERCURY IN MARINE LIFE DATABASE

    The purpose of the Mercury in Marine Life Project is to organize information on estuarine and marine species so that EPA can better understand both the extent of monitoring for mercury and level of mercury contamination in the biota of coastal environments. This report follows a ...

  13. Reference Atmosphere for Mercury

    Killen, Rosemary M.

    2002-01-01

    We propose that Ar-40 measured in the lunar atmosphere and that in Mercury's atmosphere is due to current diffusion into connected pore space within the crust. Higher temperatures at Mercury, along with more rapid loss from the atmosphere will lead to a smaller column abundance of argon at Mercury than at the Moon, given the same crustal abundance of potassium. Because the noble gas abundance in the Hermean atmosphere represents current effusion, it is a direct measure of the crustal potassium abundance. Ar-40 in the atmospheres of the planets is a measure of potassium abundance in the interiors, since Ar-40 is a product of radiogenic decay of K-40 by electron capture with the subsequent emission of a 1.46 eV gamma-ray. Although the Ar-40 in the Earth's atmosphere is expected to have accumulated since the late bombardment, Ar-40 in the atmospheres of Mercury and the Moon is eroded quickly by photoionization and electron impact ionization. Thus, the argon content in the exospheres of the Moon and Mercury is representative of current effusion rather than accumulation over the lifetime of the planet.

  14. Mercury regulation, fate, transport, transformation, and abatement within cement manufacturing facilities: review.

    Sikkema, Joel K; Alleman, James E; Ong, Say Kee; Wheelock, Thomas D

    2011-09-15

    The USEPA's 2010 mercury rule, which would reduce emissions from non-hazardous waste burning cement manufacturing facilities by an estimated 94%, represents a substantial regulatory challenge for the industry. These regulations, based on the performance of facilities that benefit from low concentrations of mercury in their feedstock and fuel inputs (e.g., limestone concentration was less than 25 ppb at each facility), will require non-compliant facilities to develop innovative controls. Control development is difficult because each facility's emissions must be assessed and simple correlation to mercury concentrations in limestone or an assumption of 'typically observed' mercury concentrations in inputs are unsupported by available data. Furthermore, atmospheric emissions are highly variable due to an internal control mechanism that captures and loops mercury between the high-temperature kiln and low-temperature raw materials mill. Two models have been reported to predict emissions; however, they have not been benchmarked against data from the internal components that capture mercury and do not distinguish between mercury species, which have different sorption and desorption properties. Control strategies include technologies applied from other industries and technologies developed specifically for cement facilities. Reported technologies, listed from highest to lowest anticipated mercury removal, include purge of collected dust or raw meal, changes in feedstocks and fuels, wet scrubbing, cleaning of mercury enriched dust, dry sorbent injection, and dry and semi-dry scrubbing. The effectiveness of these technologies is limited by an inadequate understanding of sorption, desorption, and mercury species involved in internal loop mercury control. To comply with the mercury rule and to improve current mercury control technologies and practices, research is needed to advance fundamental knowledge regarding mercury species sorption and desorption dynamics on materials

  15. Water displacement mercury pump

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1984-04-20

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  16. The Effect of Mercury Vapor and the Role of Green Tea Extract on Brain Cells

    Dhona Afriza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a wellknown toxic metal that is capable to induce free radical-induced oxidative stress. It can cause human disease including brain disorders. Objective: To identify the effect of mercury vapor inhalation on brain cells and the role of green tea extract (Camellia sinensis as antioxidant on the brain cells exposed to mercury. Methods: Fourty-eight male Mus musculus were divided into 8 groups, which were given treatment for 3 and 6 weeks. Group A did not receive any treatment and served as a negative control. Group B was a positive control exposed to Mercury. Group C was exposed to Mercury and treated with 26μg/g green tea extract. Group D was exposed to mercury and treated with 52μg/g green tea extract. All animals in the Group B, C, D were exposed to mercury through inhalation for 4 hours daily. The effect of mercury on the brain cells were examined histopathologically. Results: The numbers of necrotic cells counted in the green tea-treated mice group were significantly lower than those untreated group (p<0,05. Conclusion: Mercury vapor inhalation may cause necrosis on brain cells. Administration of green tea extract as an antioxidant reduced the amount of mercury-induced necrotic brain cells in mice.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v20i2.151

  17. Bioaccumulation of mercury and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in salty water organisms.

    Liao, Pei-Yu; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Liu, Wen-Yao

    2016-01-01

    Mercury and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) accumulate in organisms through food webs and exert potentially toxic effects on aquatic organisms and humans. This study examined the levels of mercury and PCDD/Fs in organisms and sediment samples collected from a saltwater pond at the An-Shun site, a chloralkali factory that shut down in Tainan City, Taiwan. It was also a pentachlorophenol production plant. After the factories were shut down in the 1980s, mercury and PCDD/Fs contamination remained, posing severe health hazards. The correlation between PCDD/Fs congener accumulation patterns in distinct fish organs and the sediment was evaluated. Mercury and PCDD/Fs levels in all the fish samples exceeded food safety limits, and the concentrations of mercury and PCDD/Fs in each species were closely correlated (n = 12, Spearman's rank correlation [R] = 0.811, p mercury concentrations were positively but non-significantly correlated with the weight (n = 11, R = 0.741, p mercury concentration was correlated with organism weight and length, whereas the PCDD/Fs concentration was associated with organ lipid content. The study results are valuable for assessing the health risks associated with ingesting mercury- and PCFF/F-contaminated seafood from the study site.

  18. BEHAVIOR OF MERCURY DURING DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL PROCESSING

    Zamecnik, J.; Koopman, D.

    2012-04-09

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility has experienced significant issues with the stripping and recovery of mercury in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The stripping rate has been inconsistent, often resulting in extended processing times to remove mercury to the required endpoint concentration. The recovery of mercury in the Mercury Water Wash Tank has never been high, and has decreased significantly since the Mercury Water Wash Tank was replaced after the seventh batch of Sludge Batch 5. Since this time, essentially no recovery of mercury has been seen. Pertinent literature was reviewed, previous lab-scale data on mercury stripping and recovery was examined, and new lab-scale CPC Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) runs were conducted. For previous lab-scale data, many of the runs with sufficient mercury recovery data were examined to determine what factors affect the stripping and recovery of mercury and to improve closure of the mercury material balance. Ten new lab-scale SRAT runs (HG runs) were performed to examine the effects of acid stoichiometry, sludge solids concentration, antifoam concentration, form of mercury added to simulant, presence of a SRAT heel, operation of the SRAT condenser at higher than prototypic temperature, varying noble metals from none to very high concentrations, and higher agitation rate. Data from simulant runs from SB6, SB7a, glycolic/formic, and the HG tests showed that a significant amount of Hg metal was found on the vessel bottom at the end of tests. Material balance closure improved from 12-71% to 48-93% when this segregated Hg was considered. The amount of Hg segregated as elemental Hg on the vessel bottom was 4-77% of the amount added. The highest recovery of mercury in the offgas system generally correlated with the highest retention of Hg in the slurry. Low retention in the slurry (high segregation on the vessel bottom) resulted in low recovery in the offgas system. High agitation rates appear to result in lower

  19. Mercury exposure in Ireland

    Cullen, Elizabeth; Evans, David S; Davidson, Fred

    2014-01-01

    of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES) pilot biomonitoring study. METHODS: Hair mercury concentrations were determined from a convenience sample of 120 mother/child pairs. Mothers also completed a questionnaire. Rigorous quality assurance within DEMOCOPHES...... guaranteed the accuracy and international comparability of results. RESULTS: Mercury was detected in 79.2% of the samples from mothers, and 62.5% of children's samples. Arithmetic mean levels in mothers (0.262 µg/g hair) and children (0.149 µg /g hair) did not exceed the US EPA guidance value. Levels were...

  20. Mercury CEM Calibration

    John Schabron; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson

    2008-02-29

    Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks. The power industry desires to conduct at least a full year of monitoring before the formal monitoring and reporting requirement begins on January 1, 2009. It is important for the industry to have available reliable, turnkey equipment from CEM vendors. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The generators are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 requires that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards (Federal Register 2007). Traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued an interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury generators (EPA 2007). The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of generators by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the generator models that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD. The

  1. Seafood substitutions obscure patterns of mercury contamination in Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides or "Chilean sea bass".

    Peter B Marko

    Full Text Available Seafood mislabeling distorts the true abundance of fish in the sea, defrauds consumers, and can also cause unwanted exposure to harmful pollutants. By combining genetic data with analyses of total mercury content, we have investigated how species substitutions and fishery-stock substitutions obscure mercury contamination in Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides, also known as "Chilean sea bass". Patagonian toothfish show wide variation in mercury concentrations such that consumers may be exposed to either acceptable or unacceptable levels of mercury depending on the geographic origins of the fish and the allowable limits of different countries. Most notably, stocks of Patagonian toothfish in Chile accumulate significantly more mercury than stocks closer to the South Pole, including the South Georgia/Shag Rocks stock, a fishery certified by the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC as sustainably fished. Consistent with the documented geography of mercury contamination, our analysis showed that, on average, retail fish labeled as MSC-certified Patagonian toothfish had only half the mercury of uncertified fish. However, consideration of genetic data that were informative about seafood substitutions revealed a complex pattern of contamination hidden from consumers: species substitutions artificially inflated the expected difference in mercury levels between MSC-certified and uncertified fish whereas fishery stock substitutions artificially reduced the expected difference in mercury content between MSC-certified and uncertified fish that were actually D. eleginoides. Among MSC-certified fish that were actually D. eleginoides, several with exogenous mtDNA haplotypes (i.e., not known from the certified fishery had mercury concentrations on par with uncertified fish from Chile. Overall, our analysis of mercury was consistent with inferences from the genetic data about the geographic origins of the fish, demonstrated the potential negative impact of

  2. Genetic and demographic responses of mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) populations exposed to mercury for multiple generations

    Tatara, C.P.; Mulvey, M.; Newman, M.C.

    1999-12-01

    Genetic and demographic responses of mosquitofish were examined after multiple generations of exposure to mercury. Previous studies of acute lethal exposures of mosquitofish to either mercury or arsenic demonstrated a consistent correlation between time to death and genotype at the glucosephosphate isomerase-2 (Gpi-2) locus. A mesocosm study involving mosquitofish populations exposed to mercury for 111 d showed significant female sexual selection and fecundity selection at the Gpi-2 locus. Here the mesocosm study was extended to populations exposed to mercury for several (approx. four) generations. After 2 years, control and mercury-exposed populations met Hardy-Weinberg expectations and showed no evidence of genetic bottlenecks. The mean number of heterozygous loci did not differ significantly between the mercury-exposed and control populations. Significant differences in allele frequencies at the Gpi-2 locus were observed between the mercury-exposed and control populations. Relative to the initial and control allele frequencies, the GPI-2{sup 100} allele frequency was lower, the Gpi-2{sup 66} allele frequency increased, but the Gpi-2{sup 38} allele frequency did not change in mercury-exposed populations. No significant differences were found in standard length, weight, sex ratio, or age class ratio between the control and mercury-exposed populations. Allele frequency changes at the Gpi-2 locus suggest population-level response to chronic mercury exposure. Changes in allele frequency may be useful as indicators of population response to contaminants, provided that the population in question is well understood.

  3. Mercury levels in eggs, embryos, and neonates of Trachemys callirostris (Testudines, Emydidae)

    Rendon Valencia, Beatriz; Zapata, Lina M; Bock, Brian C; Paez, Vivian P; Palacio, Jaime A.

    2014-01-01

    We quantified total mercury concentrations in eggshells, egg yolks, and embryos from 16 nests of the Colombian slider (Trachemys callirostris). Nests were collected in different stages of development, but estimated time of incubation in natural substrates was not correlated with mercury levels in the eggs, suggesting that mercury was not absorbed from the substrate, but more likely passed on to the embryos during folliculogenesis by the reproductive females who had bioaccumulated the mercury from environmental sources. Mean mercury concentrations were higher in embryos than in eggshells or egg yolks, indicating that embryos also bioaccumulate mercury present in other egg tissues. Intra-clutch variation in egg yolk mercury concentrations was relatively high. Egg yolk mercury concentrations were not associated with any of the fitness proxies we quantified for the nests (hatching success rates, initial neonate sizes and first-month juvenile growth rates). After five months of captive rearing in a mercury-free laboratory environment, 86 % of the juveniles had eliminated the mercury from their tissues.

  4. Assessment of mobility and bioavailability of mercury compounds in sewage sludge and composts.

    Janowska, Beata; Szymański, Kazimierz; Sidełko, Robert; Siebielska, Izabela; Walendzik, Bartosz

    2017-07-01

    Content of heavy metals, including mercury, determines the method of management and disposal of sewage sludge. Excessive concentration of mercury in composts used as organic fertilizer may lead to accumulation of this element in soil and plant material. Fractionation of mercury in sewage sludge and composts provides a better understanding of the extent of mobility and bioavailability of the different mercury species and helps in more informed decision making on the application of sludge for agricultural purposes. The experimental setup comprises the composing process of the sewage sludge containing 13.1mgkg -1 of the total mercury, performed in static reactors with forced aeration. In order to evaluate the bioavailability of mercury, its fractionation was performed in sewage sludge and composts during the process. An analytical procedure based on four-stage sequential extraction was applied to determine the mercury content in the ion exchange (water soluble and exchangeable Hg), base soluble (Hg bound to humic and fulvic acid), acid soluble (Hg bound to Fe/Mn oxides and carbonates) and oxidizable (Hg bound to organic matter and sulphide) fractions. The results showed that from 50.09% to 64.55% of the total mercury was strongly bound to organo-sulphur and inorganic sulphide; that during composting, increase of concentrations of mercury compounds strongly bound with organic matter and sulphides; and that mercury content in the base soluble and oxidizable fractions was strongly correlated with concentration of dissolved organic carbon in those fractions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Method and apparatus for sampling atmospheric mercury

    Trujillo, Patricio E.; Campbell, Evan E.; Eutsler, Bernard C.

    1976-01-20

    A method of simultaneously sampling particulate mercury, organic mercurial vapors, and metallic mercury vapor in the working and occupational environment and determining the amount of mercury derived from each such source in the sampled air. A known volume of air is passed through a sampling tube containing a filter for particulate mercury collection, a first adsorber for the selective adsorption of organic mercurial vapors, and a second adsorber for the adsorption of metallic mercury vapor. Carbon black molecular sieves are particularly useful as the selective adsorber for organic mercurial vapors. The amount of mercury adsorbed or collected in each section of the sampling tube is readily quantitatively determined by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  6. From Midges to Spiders: Mercury Biotransport in Riparian Zones Near the Buffalo River Area of Concern (AOC), USA.

    Pennuto, C M; Smith, M

    2015-12-01

    Riparian communities can receive environmental contaminants from adjacent aquatic 'donor' habitats. We investigated mercury biotransport from aquatic to terrestrial habitats via aquatic insect emergence and uptake by riparian spiders at sites within and upstream of the Buffalo River Area of Concern (AOC), a site with known sediment Hg contamination. Mercury concentration in emerging midges was roughly 10× less than contaminated sediment levels with the AOC, but biomagnification factors from midges to spiders ranged from 2.0 to 2.65 between sites. There was a significantly negative body mass:total mercury relationship in spiders (p Spiders contained significantly more mercury than their midge prey and spiders upstream of the AOC had higher mercury concentrations than spiders from within the AOC. Collectively, these data indicate that riparian spiders can be good mercury sentinels in urban environments, and that riparian communities upstream from the AOC may be at greater risk to mercury than has been previously considered.

  7. Observations of speciated atmospheric mercury at three sites in Nevada: Evidence for a free tropospheric source of reactive gaseous mercury

    Weiss-Penzias, Peter; Gustin, Mae Sexauer; Lyman, Seth N.

    2009-07-01

    Air mercury (Hg) speciation was measured for 11 weeks (June-August 2007) at three sites simultaneously in Nevada, USA. Mean reactive gaseous Hg (RGM) concentrations were elevated at all sites relative to those reported for locations not directly influenced by known point sources. RGM concentrations at all sites displayed a regular diel pattern and were positively correlated with ozone (O3) and negatively correlated with elemental Hg (Hg0) and dew point temperature (Tdp). Superimposed on the diel changes were 2- to 7-day periods when RGM concentrations increased across all three sites, producing significant intersite correlations of RGM daily means (r = 0.53-0.76, p distribution (GFD) plots and determine trajectory residence times (TRT) in specific source boxes. The GFD for the upper-quartile RGM daily means at one site showed a contributing airflow regime from the high-altitude subtropics with little precipitation, while that developed for the lower-quartile RGM concentrations indicated predominantly lower-altitude westerly flow and precipitation. Daily mean TRT in a subtropical high-altitude source box (>2 km and RGM at two sites (r2 = 0.37 and 0.27, p RGM from the free troposphere is a potentially important component of Hg input to rural areas of the western United States.

  8. Changes in Hair Mercury Levels Among Women of Child-Bearing Age Following an Educational Intervention.

    Raymond, Michelle; Christensen, Krista Y; Thompson, Brooke; Anderson, Henry

    2017-06-01

    Describe mercury exposures among women of childbearing age before and after an educational intervention. Women age 18 to 45 were recruited to participate in an educational intervention concerning fish consumption. Fish consumption habits and total mercury concentration in hair were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Regression models examined associations between mercury, fish consumption, and demographics. Overall, 234 women completed the study. On average, mercury concentrations increased by 0.01 ppm (parts per million) following the intervention, despite declines in fish consumption; however, women in the 90th percentile for mercury at baseline decreased concentrations significantly while maintaining high rates of fish consumption. Mercury concentrations were positively correlated with fish consumption and certain demographic characteristics. The intervention reached individuals most at-risk. Healthcare providers should discuss fish consumption habits with women to encourage consumption of low-risk fish, and identify women needing education and counseling.

  9. Mercury Levels in Pregnant Women, Children, and Seafood from Mexico City

    Basu, Niladri; Tutino, Rebecca; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Cantonwine, David E.; Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Somers, Emily C.; Rodriguez, Lauren; Schnaas, Lourdes; Solano, Maritsa; Mercado, Adriana; Peterson, Karen; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Mercury is a global contaminant of concern though little is known about exposures in México. Objectives To characterize mercury levels in pregnant women, children, and commonly consumed seafood samples. Methods Use resources of the Early Life Exposures in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) birth cohorts to measure total mercury levels in archived samples from 348 pregnant women (blood from three trimesters and cord blood), 825 offspring (blood, hair, urine) and their mothers (hair), and 91 seafood and canned tuna samples from Mexico City. Results Maternal blood mercury levels correlated across three trimesters and averaged 3.4μg/L. Cord blood mercury averaged 4.7μg/L and correlated with maternal blood from trimester 3 (but not trimesters 1 and 2). In children, blood, hair and urine mercury levels correlated and averaged 1.8μg/L, 0.6μg/g, and 0.9μg/L, respectively. Hair mercury was 0.5μg/g in mothers and correlated with child's hair. Mean consumption of canned tuna, fresh fish, canned sardine, and shellfish was 3.1, 2.2, 0.5, and 1.0 times per month respectively in pregnant women. Mean mercury content in 7 of 23 seafood species and 5 of 9 canned tuna brands purchased exceeded the U.S. EPA guidance value of 0.3 μg/g. Conclusions Mercury exposures in pregnant women and children from Mexico City, via biomarker studies, are generally 3-5 times greater than values reported in population surveys from the U.S., Canada, and elsewhere. In particular, mercury levels in 29-39% of the maternal participants exceeded the biomonitoring guideline associated with the U.S. EPA reference dose for mercury. PMID:25262076

  10. Formation of nanocolloidal metacinnabar in mercury-DOM-sulfide systems

    Gerbig, Chase A.; Kim, Christopher S.; Stegemeier, John P.; Ryan, Joseph N.; Aiken, George R.

    2011-01-01

    Direct determination of mercury (Hg) speciation in sulfide-containing environments is confounded by low mercury concentrations and poor analytical sensitivity. Here we report the results of experiments designed to assess mercury speciation at environmentally relevant ratios of mercury to dissolved organic matter (DOM) (i.e., structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. Aqueous Hg(II) and a DOM isolate were equilibrated in the presence and absence of 100 μM total sulfide. In the absence of sulfide, mercury adsorption to the resin increased as the Hg:DOM ratio decreased and as the strength of Hg-DOM binding increased. EXAFS analysis indicated that in the absence of sulfide, mercury bonds with an average of 2.4 ± 0.2 sulfur atoms with a bond length typical of mercury-organic thiol ligands (2.35 Å). In the presence of sulfide, mercury showed greater affinity for the C18 resin, and its chromatographic behavior was independent of Hg:DOM ratio. EXAFS analysis showed mercury–sulfur bonds with a longer interatomic distance (2.51–2.53 Å) similar to the mercury–sulfur bond distance in metacinnabar (2.53 Å) regardless of the Hg:DOM ratio. For all samples containing sulfide, the sulfur coordination number was below the ideal four-coordinate structure of metacinnabar. At a low Hg:DOM ratio where strong binding DOM sites may control mercury speciation (1.9 nmol mg–1) mercury was coordinated by 2.3 ± 0.2 sulfur atoms, and the coordination number rose with increasing Hg:DOM ratio. The less-than-ideal coordination numbers indicate metacinnabar-like species on the nanometer scale, and the positive correlation between Hg:DOM ratio and sulfur coordination number suggests progressively increasing particle size or crystalline order with increasing abundance of mercury with respect to DOM. In DOM-containing sulfidic systems nanocolloidal metacinnabar-like species may form, and these species need to be considered when addressing mercury biogeochemistry.

  11. Mercury Information Clearinghouse

    Chad A. Wocken; Michael J. Holmes; Dennis L. Laudal; Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett; Greg F. Weber; Nicholas V. C. Ralston; Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Edwin S. Olson; Laura J. Raymond; John H. Pavlish; Everett A. Sondreal; Steven A. Benson

    2006-03-31

    The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) identified a need and contracted the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to create and maintain an information clearinghouse on global research and development activities related to mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. With the support of CEA, the Center for Air Toxic Metals{reg_sign} (CATM{reg_sign}) Affiliates, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the EERC developed comprehensive quarterly information updates that provide a detailed assessment of developments in the various areas of mercury monitoring, control, policy, and research. A total of eight topical reports were completed and are summarized and updated in this final CEA quarterly report. The original quarterly reports can be viewed at the CEA Web site (www.ceamercuryprogram.ca). In addition to a comprehensive update of previous mercury-related topics, a review of results from the CEA Mercury Program is provided. Members of Canada's coal-fired electricity generation sector (ATCO Power, EPCOR, Manitoba Hydro, New Brunswick Power, Nova Scotia Power Inc., Ontario Power Generation, SaskPower, and TransAlta) and CEA, have compiled an extensive database of information from stack-, coal-, and ash-sampling activities. Data from this effort are also available at the CEA Web site and have provided critical information for establishing and reviewing a mercury standard for Canada that is protective of environment and public health and is cost-effective. Specific goals outlined for the CEA mercury program included the following: (1) Improve emission inventories and develop management options through an intensive 2-year coal-, ash-, and stack-sampling program; (2) Promote effective stack testing through the development of guidance material and the support of on-site training on the Ontario Hydro method for employees, government representatives, and contractors on an as-needed basis; (3) Strengthen laboratory analytical capabilities through

  12. Mercury content in fish from newly impounded reservoirs

    Frick, K.

    1992-12-01

    During the seventies elevated mercury content in fish was observed in newly created reservoirs although background levels were normal. The initial rise of reservoir mercury levels is probably caused by the dramatically increased amount of organic matter originating from flooded top-soil and vegetation. Mercury is introduced in the food-chain by methylating bacteria that utilize the surplus of organic matter. This microbial methylation is probably also favoured by reductions in oxygen content and pH that accompanies the decomposition of organic material. It is difficult to make reliable estimates of the duration and maximum levels of the elevated mercury levels since the end result is affected by several biological and chemical processes in combination. Variations may occur on the basis of the type and amount of flooded organic and inorganic material, water chemistry, specific combination of fish and residence time of reservoir water. All available preventive and ameliorating measures are untried in reservoir water bodies, at least in large scale experiments. Vegetation and top-soil stripping could be efficient but also very costly. Liming is a possible method in cases of ongoing or expected acidification. Addition of selenium is a potentially powerful way of lowering the mercury content in fish and this method is well suited to neutral water bodies. Large reductions in fish mercury content have been documented, but since selenium also has been shown to have strong negative effects on biota this method is not yet recommended. (57 refs.)

  13. Mercury Phase II Study - Mercury Behavior in Salt Processing Flowsheet

    Jain, V.; Shah, H.; Wilmarth, W. R.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) in the Savannah River Site Liquid Waste System (LWS) originated from decades of canyon processing where it was used as a catalyst for dissolving the aluminum cladding of reactor fuel. Approximately 60 metric tons of mercury is currently present throughout the LWS. Mercury has long been a consideration in the LWS, from both hazard and processing perspectives. In February 2015, a Mercury Program Team was established at the request of the Department of Energy to develop a comprehensive action plan for long-term management and removal of mercury. Evaluation was focused in two Phases. Phase I activities assessed the Liquid Waste inventory and chemical processing behavior using a system-by-system review methodology, and determined the speciation of the different mercury forms (Hg+, Hg++, elemental Hg, organomercury, and soluble versus insoluble mercury) within the LWS. Phase II activities are building on the Phase I activities, and results of the LWS flowsheet evaluations will be summarized in three reports: Mercury Behavior in the Salt Processing Flowsheet (i.e. this report); Mercury Behavior in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Flowsheet; and Mercury behavior in the Tank Farm Flowsheet (Evaporator Operations). The evaluation of the mercury behavior in the salt processing flowsheet indicates, inter alia, the following: (1) In the assembled Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 in Tank 21, the total mercury is mostly soluble with methylmercury (MHg) contributing over 50% of the total mercury. Based on the analyses of samples from 2H Evaporator feed and drop tanks (Tanks 38/43), the source of MHg in Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 can be attributed to the 2H evaporator concentrate used in assembling the salt batches. The 2H Evaporator is used to evaporate DWPF recycle water. (2) Comparison of data between Tank 21/49, Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), and Tank 50 samples suggests that the total mercury as well as speciated

  14. Distribution and assessment of residual mercury from gold mining in Changbai Mountain Range Northeastern China

    Meng, D.; Wang, N.; Ai, J. C.; Zhang, G.; Liu, X. J.

    2016-08-01

    Gold mining was first initiated in Jiapigou area, Huadian city of Northeastern China about 200 years ago. Before 2006, the mercury amalgamation technique was used in the gold mining process, which led to severe mercury contamination. The aim of this paper is to explore the influences of residual mercury on the environment media after eliminating the amalgamation process to extract gold. The mercury concentrations of the atmosphere and the soil were determined in autumn of 2011 and spring of 2012. The soil environmental quality was assessed by the index of geoaccumulation. The results indicated that the maximum value of gaseous mercury was 25ng•m-3 in autumn and 19.5ng•m-3 in spring; the maximum value of mercury in the soil was 2.06mg•kg-1 in autumn and 2.51mg•kg-1in spring. It can be seen that the peak concentrations of the gaseous mercury happened at the gold mine area and tailings, while the peak mercury concentrations in the soil were located at the places near the mining sites and the residential area in the valley. Furthermore, the regression analysis of the total mercury contents between the atmosphere and the soil showed a significant correlation, which indicated that there was certain circulation of the mercury between the regional atmosphere and soil. In general, after the elimination of the amalgamation technique in gold extraction, the distance to the mercury source, the special conditions of hilly weather and landforms and the mercury exchange flux are the main factors of mercury contamination.

  15. A mercury transport and fate model (LM2-mercury) for mass budget assessment of mercury cycling in Lake Michigan

    LM2-Mercury, a mercury mass balance model, was developed to simulate and evaluate the transport, fate, and biogeochemical transformations of mercury in Lake Michigan. The model simulates total suspended solids (TSS), disolved organic carbon (DOC), and total, elemental, divalent, ...

  16. [Mercury dynamics of several plants collected from the water-level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir area during flooding and its impact on water body].

    Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Cheng; Sun, Rong-guo; Wang, Ding-yong

    2014-12-01

    Submerged plants are a major source for the abnormal elevation of methylmercury in reservoir. Several specific plants (Echinochloa crusgalli, Cynodondactylon and Corn stover) were collected and inundated in a simulated aquatic environment in the laboratory for investigating the mercury (Hg) dynamics in plants and the release process into water, aiming to find out the properties of Hg dynamics of plants under inundation conditions and its impact on water body in the Water-Level Fluctuation Zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The results showed that the contents of total mercury in several plants were in the range of 9. 21-12.07 ng x g(-1), and the percentage content of methylmercury (MeHg) was about 1%-2%. The content of total mercury (THg) in plants gradually decreased, by 35.81%-55.96%, whereas that of the dissolved mercury (DHg) increased sharply, by 103.23% -232.15%, which indicated an emission of Hg from plants to water in the process of decomposition. Furthermore, the state of inundation provided sufficient conditions for the methylation process in plants and therefore caused an increase of the content of methylmercury in the plant residues, which was 3.04-6.63 times as much as the initial content. The concentration of dissolved methylmercury (DMeHg) in the overlying water also increased significantly by 14.84- 16.05 times compared with the initial concentration. Meanwhile, the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the overlying water was significantly and negatively correlated with DMeHg. On the other hand, the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the overlying water was significantly and positively correlated with DMeHg. During the whole inundation period, the increase of DHg in the overlying water accounted for 41.74% -47.01% of the total amount of THg emission, and there was a negative correlation between the content of THg in plant residues and that of DHg in the overlying water.

  17. Mercury Exposure and Heart Diseases

    Genchi, Giuseppe; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Carocci, Alessia; Lauria, Graziantonio; Catalano, Alessia

    2017-01-01

    Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. It has been determined that mercury is not only harmful to the health of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children, but is also toxic to ordinary adults in various ways. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities. Nowadays, the exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Recent studies suggest that chronic exposure, even to low concentration levels of mercury, can cause cardiovascular, reproductive, and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Possible biological effects of mercury, including the relationship between mercury toxicity and diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction, are being studied. As heart rhythm and function are under autonomic nervous system control, it has been hypothesized that the neurotoxic effects of mercury might also impact cardiac autonomic function. Mercury exposure could have a long-lasting effect on cardiac parasympathetic activity and some evidence has shown that mercury exposure might affect heart rate variability, particularly early exposures in children. The mechanism by which mercury produces toxic effects on the cardiovascular system is not fully elucidated, but this mechanism is believed to involve an increase in oxidative stress. The exposure to mercury increases the production of free radicals, potentially because of the role of mercury in the Fenton reaction and a reduction in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase. In this review we report an overview on the toxicity of mercury and focus our attention on the toxic effects on the cardiovascular system. PMID:28085104

  18. Mercury Exposure and Heart Diseases.

    Genchi, Giuseppe; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Carocci, Alessia; Lauria, Graziantonio; Catalano, Alessia

    2017-01-12

    Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. It has been determined that mercury is not only harmful to the health of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children, but is also toxic to ordinary adults in various ways. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities. Nowadays, the exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Recent studies suggest that chronic exposure, even to low concentration levels of mercury, can cause cardiovascular, reproductive, and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Possible biological effects of mercury, including the relationship between mercury toxicity and diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction, are being studied. As heart rhythm and function are under autonomic nervous system control, it has been hypothesized that the neurotoxic effects of mercury might also impact cardiac autonomic function. Mercury exposure could have a long-lasting effect on cardiac parasympathetic activity and some evidence has shown that mercury exposure might affect heart rate variability, particularly early exposures in children. The mechanism by which mercury produces toxic effects on the cardiovascular system is not fully elucidated, but this mechanism is believed to involve an increase in oxidative stress. The exposure to mercury increases the production of free radicals, potentially because of the role of mercury in the Fenton reaction and a reduction in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase. In this review we report an overview on the toxicity of mercury and focus our attention on the toxic effects on the cardiovascular system.

  19. Mercury Exposure and Heart Diseases

    Giuseppe Genchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. It has been determined that mercury is not only harmful to the health of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children, but is also toxic to ordinary adults in various ways. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities. Nowadays, the exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Recent studies suggest that chronic exposure, even to low concentration levels of mercury, can cause cardiovascular, reproductive, and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Possible biological effects of mercury, including the relationship between mercury toxicity and diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction, are being studied. As heart rhythm and function are under autonomic nervous system control, it has been hypothesized that the neurotoxic effects of mercury might also impact cardiac autonomic function. Mercury exposure could have a long-lasting effect on cardiac parasympathetic activity and some evidence has shown that mercury exposure might affect heart rate variability, particularly early exposures in children. The mechanism by which mercury produces toxic effects on the cardiovascular system is not fully elucidated, but this mechanism is believed to involve an increase in oxidative stress. The exposure to mercury increases the production of free radicals, potentially because of the role of mercury in the Fenton reaction and a reduction in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase. In this review we report an overview on the toxicity of mercury and focus our attention on the toxic effects on the cardiovascular system.

  20. FINAL REPORT ON THE AQUATIC MERCURY ASSESSMENT STUDY

    Halverson, N

    2008-09-30

    . Methylmercury ranged from 0.002 ng/l in Upper Three Runs to 2.60 ng/l in Tims Branch. Total mercury in the Savannah River ranged from 0.62 ng/l to 43.9 ng/l, and methylmercury ranged from 0.036 ng/l to 7.54 ng/l. Both total and methylmercury concentrations were consistently high in the river near the mouth of Steel Creek. Total mercury was positively correlated with methylmercury (r = 0.88). Total mercury bound to particulates ranged from 41% to 57% in the river and from 28% to 90% in the streams. Particulate methylmercury varied from 9% to 37% in the river and from 6% to 79% in the streams. Small temporary pools in the Savannah River swamp area near and around Fourmile Branch had the highest concentrations observed in the Savannah River watershed, reaching 1,890 ng/l for total mercury and 34.0 ng/l for methylmercury. The second study developed a mercury bioaccumulation factor (BAF) for the Savannah River near SRS. A BAF is the ratio of the concentration of mercury in fish flesh to the concentration of mercury in the water. BAFs are important in the TMDL process because target concentrations for mercury in water are computed from BAFs. Mercury BAFs are known to differ substantially among fish species, water bodies, and possibly seasons. Knowledge of such variation is needed to determine a BAF that accurately represents average and extreme conditions in the water body under study. Analysis of fish tissue and aqueous methylmercury samples collected at a number of locations and over several seasons in a 110 km (68 mile) reach of the Savannah River demonstrated that BAFs for each species under study varied by factors of three to eight. Influences on BAF variability were location, habitat and season-related differences in fish mercury levels and seasonal differences in methylmercury levels in the water. Overall (all locations, habitats, and seasons) average BAFs were 3.7 x 10{sup 6} for largemouth bass, 1.4 x 10{sup 6} for sunfishes, and 2.5 x 10{sup 6} for white catfish. This study

  1. Impacts of Sublethal Mercury Exposure on Birds: A Detailed Review.

    Whitney, Margaret C; Cristol, Daniel A

    Mercury is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant known to accumulate in, and negatively affect, fish-eating and oceanic bird species, and recently demonstrated to impact some terrestrial songbirds to a comparable extent. It can bioaccumulate to concentrations of >1 μg/g in tissues of prey organisms such as fish and insects. At high enough concentrations, exposure to mercury is lethal to birds. However, environmental exposures are usually far below the lethal concentrations established by dosing studies.The objective of this review is to better understand the effects of sublethal exposure to mercury in birds. We restricted our survey of the literature to studies with at least some exposures >5 μg/g. The majority of sublethal effects were subtle and some studies of similar endpoints reached different conclusions. Strong support exists in the literature for the conclusion that mercury exposure reduces reproductive output, compromises immune function, and causes avoidance of high-energy behaviors. For some endpoints, notably certain measures of reproductive success, endocrine and neurological function, and body condition, there is weak or contradictory evidence of adverse effects and further study is required. There was no evidence that environmentally relevant mercury exposure affects longevity, but several of the sublethal effects identified likely do result in fitness reductions that could adversely impact populations. Overall, 72% of field studies and 91% of laboratory studies found evidence of deleterious effects of mercury on some endpoint, and thus we can conclude that mercury is harmful to birds, and the many effects on reproduction indicate that bird population declines may already be resulting from environmental mercury pollution.

  2. MERCURY USAGE AND ALTERNATIVES IN THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES

    Many industries have already found alternatives for mercury or have greatly decreased mercury use. However, the unique electromechanical and photoelectric properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some applications. This study was i...

  3. Environmental costs of mercury pollution

    Hylander, Lars D. [Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science, Uppsala University, Villavaegen 16, S-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Goodsite, Michael E. [Department of Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry Research Group, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2006-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) has been used for millennia in many applications, primarily in artisanal mining and as an electrode in the chlor-alkali industry. It is anthropogenically emitted as a pollutant from coal fired power plants and naturally emitted, primarily from volcanoes. Its unique chemical characteristics enable global atmospheric transport and it is deposited after various processes, ultimately ending up in one of its final sinks, such as incorporated into deep sediment or bioaccumulated, primarily in the marine environment. All forms of Hg have been established as toxic, and there have been no noted biological benefits from the metal. Throughout time, there have been notable incidents of Hg intoxication documented, and the negative health effects have been documented to those chronically or acutely exposed. Today, exposure to Hg is largely diet or occupationally dependent, however, many are exposed to Hg from their amalgam fillings. This paper puts a tentative monetary value on Hg polluted food sources in the Arctic, where local, significant pollution sources are limited, and relates this to costs for strategies avoiding Hg pollution and to remediation costs of contaminated sites in Sweden and Japan. The case studies are compiled to help policy makers and the public to evaluate whether the benefits to the global environment from banning Hg and limiting its initial emission outweigh the benefits from its continued use or lack of control of Hg emissions. The cases we studied are relevant for point pollution sources globally and their remediation costs ranged between 2500 and 1.1 million US$ kg{sup -1} Hg isolated from the biosphere. Therefore, regulations discontinuing mercury uses combined with extensive flue gas cleaning for all power plants and waste incinerators is cost effective. (author)

  4. Mercury's exosphere: observations during MESSENGER's First Mercury flyby.

    McClintock, William E; Bradley, E Todd; Vervack, Ronald J; Killen, Rosemary M; Sprague, Ann L; Izenberg, Noam R; Solomon, Sean C

    2008-07-04

    During MESSENGER's first Mercury flyby, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer measured Mercury's exospheric emissions, including those from the antisunward sodium tail, calcium and sodium close to the planet, and hydrogen at high altitudes on the dayside. Spatial variations indicate that multiple source and loss processes generate and maintain the exosphere. Energetic processes connected to the solar wind and magnetospheric interaction with the planet likely played an important role in determining the distributions of exospheric species during the flyby.

  5. Positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia as correlates of help-seeking behaviour and the duration of untreated psychosis in south-east Nigeria

    Paul Chigozie Odinka

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP has been widely recognised in recent years as a potentially important predictor of illness outcome, and the manifestations of schizophrenia have been known to influence its early recognition as a mental illness.  Objective. To assess the association between the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, help-seeking and DUP.  Methods. We performed a cross-sectional study of 360 patients with schizophrenia, who had had no previous contact with Western mental health services. The Sociodemographic Questionnaire, World Health Organization Pathway Encounter Form and a questionnaire to establish DUP were used. The positive and negative syndrome scale and Composite International Diagnostic Interview were used for the assessment of mental disorders and to diagnose. Results. Respondents who had predominant positive symptoms and who had a median DUP of 8 weeks or 24 weeks, tended to use psychiatric hospitals and other Western medical facilities, respectively, as their first treatment options. However, those who had predominant negative symptoms and who had a median DUP of 144 weeks or 310 weeks, tended to use faith healers and traditional healers, respectively, as first treatment options. Conclusion. The predominance of negative symptoms could militate against early presentation among people with schizophrenia, probably because negative symptoms are poorly recognised as indicating mental illness in Nigeria, as they could be interpreted as deviant behaviour or spiritual problems that would require spiritual solutions.

  6. The Impact of Impoundment on Mercury Bioaccumulation in Fish Downstream from a Newly Constructed Reservoir, Wujiang River, Southwest China.

    Li, Sixin; Zhou, Lianfeng; Chang, Jianbo; Yang, Zhi; Hu, Juxiang; Hongjun, Wang

    2017-11-01

    Mercury concentrations in fish were investigated downstream from a newly impounded subtropical reservoir in August 2008. After 6-7 months of reservoir impoundment, mean mercury concentration in fish from downstream is significantly increased by 1.9 times. Not only carnivorous fish but also benthic fish had significantly higher total mercury concentrations than others. No significant correlation was found between total mercury concentrations and body length or weight of 13 fish species. Compared with the pre-impoundment, total mercury in fish from downstream is significantly increased by reservoir impoundment, but the increased rate is lower than those in subarctic and temperate areas. Fish samples surpassed the Chinese hygienic standard for tolerances of mercury in foods increased by 4.3%. More attention should be given to fish mercury levels from downstream sites to prevent possible adverse effects on the health of local people.

  7. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1989-12-05

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

  8. Health Effects of Exposures to Mercury

    ... IRIS database Top of Page Elemental (Metallic) Mercury Effects Exposures to metallic mercury most often occur when metallic ... poor performance on tests of mental function Higher exposures may also cause kidney effects, respiratory failure and death. Note that metallic mercury ...

  9. Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products Share Tweet Linkedin ... and, in some situations, criminal prosecution. Dangers of Mercury Exposure to mercury can have serious health consequences. ...

  10. Expression of the hypoxia-inducible monocarboxylate transporter MCT4 is increased in triple negative breast cancer and correlates independently with clinical outcome

    Doyen, J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre A. Lacassagne, Nice (France); Trastour, C. [Department of Gynecology, Archet II Hospital, 06202 Nice (France); Ettore, F.; Peyrottes, I.; Toussant, N. [Department of Pathology, Centre A. Lacassagne, Nice (France); Gal, J. [Department of Medical Statistics, Centre A. Lacassagne, Nice (France); Ilc, K.; Roux, D. [Institute for Research on Cancer and Aging (IRCAN), University of Nice, Centre A. Lacassagne, 06189 Nice (France); Parks, S.K. [Centre Scientifique de Monaco (CSM) (Monaco); Ferrero, J.M. [Department of Medical Oncology, Centre A. Lacassagne, Nice (France); Pouysségur, J., E-mail: jacques.pouyssegur@unice.fr [Institute for Research on Cancer and Aging (IRCAN), University of Nice, Centre A. Lacassagne, 06189 Nice (France); Centre Scientifique de Monaco (CSM) (Monaco)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Glycolytic markers are highly expressed in triple negative breast cancers. • Lactate/H{sup +} symporter MCT4 demonstrated the strongest deleterious impact on survival. • MCT4 should serve as a new prognostic factor in node-negative breast cancers. - Abstract: Background: {sup 18}Fluor-deoxy-glucose PET-scanning of glycolytic metabolism is being used for staging in many tumors however its impact on prognosis has never been studied in breast cancer. Methods: Glycolytic and hypoxic markers: glucose transporter (GLUT1), carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), monocarboxylate transporter 1 and 4 (MCT1, 4), MCT accessory protein basigin and lactate-dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) were assessed by immunohistochemistry in two cohorts of breast cancer comprising 643 node-negative and 127 triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) respectively. Results: In the 643 node-negative breast tumor cohort with a median follow-up of 124 months, TNBC were the most glycolytic (≈70%), followed by Her-2 (≈50%) and RH-positive cancers (≈30%). Tumoral MCT4 staining (without stromal staining) was a strong independent prognostic factor for metastasis-free survival (HR = 0.47, P = 0.02) and overall-survival (HR = 0.38, P = 0.002). These results were confirmed in the independent cohort of 127 cancer patients. Conclusion: Glycolytic markers are expressed in all breast tumors with highest expression occurring in TNBC. MCT4, the hypoxia-inducible lactate/H{sup +} symporter demonstrated the strongest deleterious impact on survival. We propose that MCT4 serves as a new prognostic factor in node-negative breast cancer and can perhaps act soon as a theranostic factor considering the current pharmacological development of MCT4 inhibitors.

  11. Mercury content in Hot Springs

    Nakagawa, R

    1974-01-01

    A method of determination of mercury in hot spring waters by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry is described. Further, the mercury content and the chemical behavior of the elementary mercury in hot springs are described. Sulfide and iodide ions interfered with the determination of mercury by the reduction-vapor phase technique. These interferences could, however, be minimized by the addition of potassium permanganate. Waters collected from 55 hot springs were found to contain up to 26.0 ppb mercury. High concentrations of mercury have been found in waters from Shimoburo Springs, Aomori (10.0 ppb), Osorezan Springs, Aomori (1.3 approximately 18.8 ppb), Gosyogake Springs, Akita (26.0 ppb), Manza Springs, Gunma (0.30 approximately 19.5 ppb) and Kusatu Springs, Gunma (1.70 approximately 4.50 ppb). These hot springs were acid waters containing a relatively high quantity of chloride or sulfate.

  12. Positive affect and negative affect correlate differently with distress and health-related quality of life in patients with cardiac conditions: Validation of the Danish Global Mood Scale

    Spindler, Helle; Denollet, Johan; Kruse, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    The Global Mood Scale (GMS), assessing negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA), is sensitive to tapping treatment-related changes in patients with cardiac conditions. We examined the psychometric properties of the Danish GMS and the influence of NA and PA on distress and health-related qual...

  13. Factors influencing mercury in freshwater surface sediments of northeastern North America

    Kamman, N.C.; Chalmers, A.; Clair, T.A.; Major, A.; Moore, R.B.; Norton, S.A.; Shanley, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    We report on an inventory and analysis of sediment mercury (Hg) concentrations from 579 sites across northeastern North America. Sediment Hg concentrations ranged from the limit of detection ca. 0.01-3.7 ??g g -1 (dry weight, d.w.), and the average concentration was 0.19 ??g g-1 (d.w.) Sediment methylmercury concentrations ranged from 0.15 to 21 ng g-1 (d.w.) and the mean concentration was 3.83 ng g -1 (d.w.). Total Hg concentrations (HgT) were greatest in lakes > reservoirs > rivers, although the proportion of Hg as methylmercury showed an inverse pattern. Total Hg was weakly and positively correlated with the sediment organic matter and percent of watershed as forested land, and weakly and negatively correlated with sediment solids content, drainage area, and agricultural land. Sediment methylmercury concentrations were weakly and positively correlated to wetland area, and weakly and negatively correlated to drainage area. Methylmercury, expressed as a percentage of HgT was positively correlated to agricultural land area. For sites with co-located sediment and fish-tissue sampling results, there was no relationship between sediment Hg and fish-tissue Hg. Finally, our data indicate that at least 44% of waters across the region have sediment HgT concentrations in excess of Canadian and United States minimum sediment contaminant guidelines for the protection of aquatic biota. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  14. Mercury in Hair Is Inversely Related to Disease Associated Damage in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    William Crowe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune inflammatory disease, and environmental factors are proposed to exacerbate existing symptoms. One such environmental factor is mercury. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to mercury (Hg and disease activity and disease associated damage in Total Hg concentrations in hair and urine were measured in 52 SLE patients. Dental amalgams were quantified. Disease activity was assessed using three indexes including the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group Index (BILAG. Disease associated damage was measured using the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology SLICC/ACR Damage Index. Pearson’s correlation identified a significant negative correlation between hair Hg and BILAG (r = −0.323, p = 0.029 and SLICC/ACR (r = −0.377, p = 0.038. Multiple regression analysis identified hair Hg as a significant predictor of disease associated damage as determined by SLICC/ACR (β = −0.366, 95% confidence interval (CI: −1.769, −0.155 p = 0.019. Urinary Hg was not related to disease activity or damage. Fish consumption is the primary route of MeHg exposure in humans and the inverse association of hair Hg with disease activity observed here might be explained by the anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids also found in fish.

  15. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM emissions from snow surfaces in northern New York.

    J Alexander Maxwell

    Full Text Available Snow surface-to-air exchange of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM was measured using a modified Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP dynamic flux chamber (DFC in a remote, open site in Potsdam, New York. Sampling was conducted during the winter months of 2011. The inlet and outlet of the DFC were coupled with a Tekran Model 2537A mercury (Hg vapor analyzer using a Tekran Model 1110 two port synchronized sampler. The surface GEM flux ranged from -4.47 ng m(-2 hr(-1 to 9.89 ng m(-2 hr(-1. For most sample periods, daytime GEM flux was strongly correlated with solar radiation. The average nighttime GEM flux was slightly negative and was not well correlated with any of the measured meteorological variables. Preliminary, empirical models were developed to estimate GEM emissions from snow surfaces in northern New York. These models suggest that most, if not all, of the Hg deposited with and to snow is reemitted to the atmosphere.

  16. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) emissions from snow surfaces in northern New York.

    Maxwell, J Alexander; Holsen, Thomas M; Mondal, Sumona

    2013-01-01

    Snow surface-to-air exchange of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) was measured using a modified Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) dynamic flux chamber (DFC) in a remote, open site in Potsdam, New York. Sampling was conducted during the winter months of 2011. The inlet and outlet of the DFC were coupled with a Tekran Model 2537A mercury (Hg) vapor analyzer using a Tekran Model 1110 two port synchronized sampler. The surface GEM flux ranged from -4.47 ng m(-2) hr(-1) to 9.89 ng m(-2) hr(-1). For most sample periods, daytime GEM flux was strongly correlated with solar radiation. The average nighttime GEM flux was slightly negative and was not well correlated with any of the measured meteorological variables. Preliminary, empirical models were developed to estimate GEM emissions from snow surfaces in northern New York. These models suggest that most, if not all, of the Hg deposited with and to snow is reemitted to the atmosphere.

  17. Interior Volatile Reservoirs in Mercury

    Anzures, B. A.; Parman, S. W.; Milliken, R. E.; Head, J. W.

    2018-05-01

    More measurements of 1) surface volatiles, and 2) pyroclastic deposits paired with experimental volatile analyses in silicate minerals can constrain conditions of melting and subsequent eruption on Mercury.

  18. Mercury in Canadian crude oil

    Hollebone, B.P.

    2005-01-01

    Estimates for average mercury concentrations in crude oil range widely from 10 ng/g of oil to 3,500 ng/g of oil. With such a broad range of estimates, it is difficult to determine the contributions of the petroleum sector to the total budget of mercury emissions. In response to concerns that the combustion of petroleum products may be a major source of air-borne mercury pollution, Environment Canada and the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute has undertaken a survey of the average total mercury concentration in crude oil processed in Canadian refineries. In order to calculate the potential upper limit of total mercury in all refined products, samples of more than 30 different types of crude oil collected from refineries were measured for their concentration of mercury as it enters into a refinery before processing. High temperature combustion, cold vapour atomic absorption and cold vapour atomic fluorescence were the techniques used to quantify mercury in the samples. The results of the study provide information on the total mass of mercury present in crude oil processed in Canada each year. Results can be used to determine the impact of vehicle exhaust emissions to the overall Canadian mercury emission budget. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  19. When negation is not negation

    Milicevic, Nataša

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I will discuss the formation of different types of yes/no questions in Serbian (examples in (1)), focusing on the syntactically and semantically puzzling example (1d), which involves the negative auxiliary inversion. Although there is a negative marker on the fronted auxiliary, the construction does not involve sentential negation. This coincides with the fact that the negative quantifying NPIs cannot be licensed. The question formation and sentential negation have similar synta...

  20. Mercury in bryophytes (moss)

    Yeaple, D S

    1972-01-28

    Recent reports in the literature, concerning the ability of certain mosses and lichens to concentrate heavy metals, have led to an investigation of the potential application of mosses as indicators of the transport of mercury through the atmosphere. A number of moss samples were collected to provide information regarding the level of mercury in moss around several types of populated areas. The results reported are from moss collected within an 80 mile radius of Boston, Massachusetts, along the Maine coast, near the tops of Mount Katahdin in Maine and Mount Washington in New Hampshire, and from Walden, New York, a small town located about 60 miles north of New York City. The data are admittedly limited, but provide sufficient insight into the usefulness of moss as an indicator to warrant the pursuit of a more detailed investigation. 6 references, 1 table.

  1. Integrated criteria document mercury

    Sloof, W.; Beelan, P. van; Annema, J.A.; Janus, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The document contains a systematic review and a critical evaluation of the most relevant data on the priority substance mercury for the purpose of effect-oriented environmental policy. Chapter headings are: properties and existing standards; production, application, sources and emissions (natural sources, industry, energy, households, agriculture, dental use, waste); distribution and transformation (cinnabar; Hg 2+ , Hg 2 2+ , elemental mercury, methylmercury, behavior in soil, water, air, biota); concentrations and fluxes in the environment and exposure levels (sampling and measuring methods, occurrence in soil, water, air etc.); effects (toxicity to humans and aquatic and terrestrial systems); emissions reduction (from industrial sources, energy, waste processing etc.); and evaluation (risks, standards, emission reduction objectives, measuring strategies). 395 refs

  2. Total mercury, organic mercury and selenium in liver and kidney of a South American coastal dolphin

    Seixas, Tercia G.; Kehrig, Helena do A.; Costa, Monica; Fillmann, Gilberto; Di Beneditto, Ana Paula M.; Secchi, Eduardo R.; Souza, Cristina M.M.; Malm, Olaf; Moreira, Isabel

    2008-01-01

    Selenium and total and organic mercury were determined in the liver and kidney of franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) incidentally caught in fishing nets along two Brazilian coastal areas (southeast and south). Regional differences in the concentrations of these contaminants were observed in P. blainvillei. Liver showed the highest organic and total mercury. In general, samples of individuals collected at the southern of Brazil had the highest concentrations of selenium and total and organic mercury. No significant gender differences were observed. Growth stage influenced the accumulation of these contaminants in both organs, and hepatic concentrations increased with the body length, according to the sampling area. Molar mercury and selenium concentrations in liver were significantly correlated, with a Se:Hg ratio close to 4. The among-site differences we found may be related to differences in preferred prey, bioavailability in the marine environment, environmental conditions, or these individuals may belong to distinct populations. - This study presents some useful data on the bioaccumulation of Hg, organic Hg and Se, and their inter-element relationships in a Brazilian small cetacean

  3. Total mercury, organic mercury and selenium in liver and kidney of a South American coastal dolphin

    Seixas, Tercia G. [Departamento de Quimica, PUC-Rio, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, IBCCF-UFRJ, 21949-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: tercia@rdc.puc-rio.br; Kehrig, Helena do A. [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, IBCCF-UFRJ, 21949-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Costa, Monica [Departamento de Oceanografia, CTG-UFPE, 50740-550 Recife, PE (Brazil); Fillmann, Gilberto [Departamento de Oceanografia, FURG, C.P. 474, 96201-900 Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Di Beneditto, Ana Paula M. [Laboratorio de Ciencias Ambientais, CBB-UENF, 28013-602 Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Secchi, Eduardo R. [Departamento de Oceanografia, FURG, C.P. 474, 96201-900 Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Laboratorio de Tartarugas e Mamiferos Marinhos, Departamento de Oceanografia e Museu Oceanografico ' Prof. E.C. Rios' , FURG, 96201-900 Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Souza, Cristina M.M. [Laboratorio de Ciencias Ambientais, CBB-UENF, 28013-602 Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Malm, Olaf [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, IBCCF-UFRJ, 21949-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Moreira, Isabel [Departamento de Quimica, PUC-Rio, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-15

    Selenium and total and organic mercury were determined in the liver and kidney of franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) incidentally caught in fishing nets along two Brazilian coastal areas (southeast and south). Regional differences in the concentrations of these contaminants were observed in P. blainvillei. Liver showed the highest organic and total mercury. In general, samples of individuals collected at the southern of Brazil had the highest concentrations of selenium and total and organic mercury. No significant gender differences were observed. Growth stage influenced the accumulation of these contaminants in both organs, and hepatic concentrations increased with the body length, according to the sampling area. Molar mercury and selenium concentrations in liver were significantly correlated, with a Se:Hg ratio close to 4. The among-site differences we found may be related to differences in preferred prey, bioavailability in the marine environment, environmental conditions, or these individuals may belong to distinct populations. - This study presents some useful data on the bioaccumulation of Hg, organic Hg and Se, and their inter-element relationships in a Brazilian small cetacean.

  4. Global Mercury Observatory System (GMOS): measurements of atmospheric mercury in Celestun, Yucatan, Mexico during 2012.

    Velasco, Antonio; Arcega-Cabrera, Flor; Oceguera-Vargas, Ismael; Ramírez, Martha; Ortinez, Abraham; Umlauf, Gunther; Sena, Fabrizio

    2016-09-01

    Within the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) project, long-term continuous measurements of total gaseous mercury (TGM) were carried out by a monitoring station located at Celestun, Yucatan, Mexico, a coastal site along the Gulf of Mexico. The measurements covered the period from January 28th to October 17th, 2012. TGM data, at the Celestun site, were obtained using a high-resolution mercury vapor analyzer. TGM data show values from 0.50 to 2.82 ng/m(3) with an annual average concentration of 1.047 ± 0.271 ng/m(3). Multivariate analyses of TGM and meteorological variables suggest that TGM is correlated with the vertical air mass distribution in the atmosphere, which is influenced by diurnal variations in temperature and relative humidity. Diurnal variation is characterized by higher nighttime mercury concentrations, which might be influenced by convection currents between sea and land. The back trajectory analysis confirmed that local sources do not significantly influence TGM variations. This study shows that TGM monitoring at the Celestun site fulfills GMOS goals for a background site.

  5. Method for mercury refinement

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-04-09

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the [sup 196]Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures.

  6. Apparatus for mercury refinement

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-07-16

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the [sup 196]Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures.

  7. The planet Mercury (1971)

    1972-01-01

    The physical properties of the planet Mercury, its surface, and atmosphere are presented for space vehicle design criteria. The mass, dimensions, mean density, and orbital and rotational motions are described. The gravity field, magnetic field, electromagnetic radiation, and charged particles in the planet's orbit are discussed. Atmospheric pressure, temperature, and composition data are given along with the surface composition, soil mechanical properties, and topography, and the surface electromagnetic and temperature properties.

  8. Magnetic field of Mercury

    Jackson, D.J.; Beard, D.B.

    1977-01-01

    The geomagnetic field, suitably scaled down and parameterized, is shown to give a very good fit to the magnetic field measurements taken on the first and third passes of the Mariner 10 space probe past Mercury. The excellence of the fit to a reliable planetary magnetospheric model is good evidence that the Mercury magnetosphere is formed by a simple, permanent, intrinsic planetary magnetic field distorted by the effects of the solar wind. The parameters used for a best fit to all the data are (depending slightly on the choice of data) 2.44--2.55 for the ratio of Mercury's magnetic field strength at the subsolar point to that of the earth's subsolar point field (this results in a dipole moment of 170 γR/sub M/ 3 (R/sub M/ is Mercury Radius), i.e., 2.41 x 10 22 G cm 3 in the same direction as the earth's dipole), approx.-113 γR/sub M/ 4 for the planetary quadrupole moment parallel to the dipole moment, 10degree--17degree for the tilt of the planet dipole toward the sun, 4.5degree for the tilt of the dipole toward dawn, and 2.5degree--7.6degree aberration angle for the shift in the tail axis from the planet-sun direction because of the planet's orbital velocity. The rms deviation overall for the entire data set compared with the theoretical fitted model for the magnetic field strength was 17 γ (approx.4% of the maximum field measured). If the data from the first pass that show presumed strong time variations are excluded, the overall rms deviation for the field magnitude is only 10 γ

  9. Method for scavenging mercury

    Chang, Shih-ger [El Cerrito, CA; Liu, Shou-heng [Kaohsiung, TW; Liu, Zhao-rong [Beijing, CN; Yan, Naiqiang [Berkeley, CA

    2009-01-20

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  10. Apparatus for mercury refinement

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-01-01

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the 196 Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg 2 Cl 2 . The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg 2 Cl 2 contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures

  11. Method for mercury refinement

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-01-01

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the 196 Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg 2 Cl 2 . The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg 2 Cl 2 contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures

  12. A comparison of mercury levels in feathers and eggs of osprey (Pandion haliaetus) in the North American Great Lakes.

    Hughes, K D; Ewins, P J; Clark, K E

    1997-11-01

    Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs and chick feathers were collected for mercury analysis from nests at four Great Lakes study areas in Ontario (three "naturally formed" lakes in southern Ontario and one reservoir in northern Ontario) and two New Jersey study areas in 1991-1994. Adult osprey feathers were sampled from three Great Lakes study areas in 1991. Feathers sampled from chicks (approximately 28-35 days old) appear to be better indicators of local contaminant conditions since spatial patterns of mercury in known prey, yellow perch (Perca flavescens), also collected in these areas, were more similar to chick feathers than to eggs. Mercury levels were less variable in chick feathers than in eggs. Estimates of biomagnification factors using prey of known size at these areas were also less variable in feathers than in eggs. At naturally formed lakes, no significant correlation in mercury levels between eggs and chick feathers from the same nest was apparent, suggesting that the source of mercury contamination was not the same in these two tissues: mercury levels in eggs reflect mercury acquired on the breeding grounds, wintering grounds, and migratory route; mercury levels in chick feathers reflect local dietary conditions on the breeding grounds. Mercury levels in both osprey eggs and chick feathers were higher at the Ogoki Reservoir than at naturally formed lakes. Adult osprey feathers had higher mercury concentrations than chick feathers. Mercury levels in osprey eggs, chick feathers, and adult feathers did not approach levels associated with toxic reproductive effects.

  13. Mercury's Densely Cratered Surface

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 10 took this picture (FDS 27465) of the densely cratered surface of Mercury when the spacecraft was 18,200 kilometers (8085 miles) from the planet on March 29. The dark line across top of picture is a 'dropout' of a few TV lines of data. At lower left, a portion of a 61 kilometer (38 mile) crater shows a flow front extending across the crater floor and filling more than half of the crater. The smaller, fresh crater at center is about 25 kilometers (15 miles) in diameter. Craters as small as one kilometer (about one-half mile) across are visible in the picture.The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Northwestern University

  14. Mercury removal sorbents

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2016-03-29

    Sorbents and methods of using them for removing mercury from flue gases over a wide range of temperatures are disclosed. Sorbent materials of this invention comprise oxy- or hydroxyl-halogen (chlorides and bromides) of manganese, copper and calcium as the active phase for Hg.sup.0 oxidation, and are dispersed on a high surface porous supports. In addition to the powder activated carbons (PACs), this support material can be comprised of commercial ceramic supports such as silica (SiO.sub.2), alumina (Al.sub.2O.sub.3), zeolites and clays. The support material may also comprise of oxides of various metals such as iron, manganese, and calcium. The non-carbon sorbents of the invention can be easily injected into the flue gas and recovered in the Particulate Control Device (PCD) along with the fly ash without altering the properties of the by-product fly ash enabling its use as a cement additive. Sorbent materials of this invention effectively remove both elemental and oxidized forms of mercury from flue gases and can be used at elevated temperatures. The sorbent combines an oxidation catalyst and a sorbent in the same particle to both oxidize the mercury and then immobilize it.

  15. Association of methionine requirement with methyl mercury resistant mutants of yeast

    Singh, A.; Sherman, F.

    1974-01-25

    It has been known for several years that strains resistant to mercury can be obtained in several bacterial species. Soon after the correlation between resistance to antibiotics and to mercury was recognized, it was established that genetic elements conferring resistance to antibiotics, mercury and other heavy metals in Escherichia coli and Samonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus reside on extrachromosomal resistance transfer factors or plasmids. Among fungi, mercury resistant strains of Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium notatum, Sclerotinia fructicola, Stemphylium sarcinaeforme, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been reported. In most cases, this was accomplished by training the normal strains for growth on media supplemented with successively increasing concentrations of mercury compounds, and in some cases the resistance was lost when subcultured on mercury-free media. It is noteworthy that in none of the mercury-adapted strains of fungi has the genetic basis of resistance been determined. In this report we describe a method of isolation and characterization of methyl mercury resistant mutants of S. cerevisiae. This study was undertaken with the view that the examination of physiological changes associated with genetically defined resistant mutants will be useful in studying the mechanisms of cellular detoxification of organic mercurials.

  16. Remediation aspect of microbial changes of plant rhizosphere in mercury contaminated soil.

    Sas-Nowosielska, Aleksandra; Galimska-Stypa, Regina; Kucharski, Rafał; Zielonka, Urszula; Małkowski, Eugeniusz; Gray, Laymon

    2008-02-01

    Phytoremediation, an approach that uses plants to remediate contaminated soil through degradation, stabilization or accumulation, may provide an efficient solution to some mercury contamination problems. This paper presents growth chamber experiments that tested the ability of plant species to stabilize mercury in soil. Several indigenous herbaceous species and Salix viminalis were grown in soil collected from a mercury-contaminated site in southern Poland. The uptake and distribution of mercury by these plants were investigated, and the growth and vitality of the plants through a part of one vegetative cycle were assessed. The highest concentrations of mercury were found at the roots, but translocation to the aerial part also occurred. Most of the plant species tested displayed good growth on mercury contaminated soil and sustained a rich microbial population in the rhizosphere. The microbial populations of root-free soil and rhizosphere soil from all species were also examined. An inverse correlation between the number of sulfur amino acid decomposing bacteria and root mercury content was observed. These results indicate the potential for using some species of plants to treat mercury contaminated soil through stabilization rather than extraction. The present investigation proposes a practical cost-effective temporary solution for phytostabilization of soil with moderate mercury contamination as well as the basis for plant selection.

  17. Defective interleukin-4/Stat6 activity correlates with increased constitutive expression of negative regulators SOCS-3, SOCS-7, and CISH in colon cancer cells.

    Liu, Xiao Hong; Xu, Shuang Bing; Yuan, Jia; Li, Ben Hui; Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Qin; Li, Pin Dong; Li, Feng; Zhang, Wen Jie

    2009-12-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4)-induced Stat6 activities (phenotypes) vary among human cancer cells, of which the HT-29 cell line carries an active Stat6(high) phenotype, while Caco-2 carries a defective Stat6(null) phenotype, respectively. Cancer cells with Stat6(high) show resistance to apoptosis and exaggerated metastasis, suggesting the clinical significance of Stat6 phenotypes. We previously showed that Stat6(high) HT-29 cells exhibited low constitutive expression of Stat6-negative regulators SOCS-1 and SHP-1 because of gene hypermethylation. This study further examined the constitutive expression of other closely related SOCS family numbers including SOCS-3, SOCS-5, SOCS-7, and CISH using RT-PCR. Similar to SOCS-1 and SHP-1, Stat6(high) HT-29 cells expressed low constitutive mRNA of SOCS-3, SOCS-7, and CISH than Stat6(null) Caco-2 cells. Interestingly, DNA demethylation using 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine in HT-29 cells up-regulated mRNA expression of the above genes, indicating a hypermethylation status, which was confirmed by methylation-specific sequencing in selected SOCS-3 gene. Furthermore, defective Stat6(null) Caco-2 exhibited impaired phosphorylation of Stat6 after IL-4 stimulation by flow cytometry, in keeping with the notion of an over-performed negative regulation. The findings that IL-4/Stat6 phenotypes show differential expression of multiple negative regulators suggest a model that a collective force of powerful negative regulators, directly and indirectly, acts on Stat6 activation, which may result in differential Stat6 phenotypes.

  18. Correlation between blood mercury levels in mothers and newborns in Itaituba, Pará State, Brazil Correlação de teores de mercúrio no sangue entre mulheres e recém-nascidos do Município de Itaituba, Pará, Brasil

    Elisabeth Oliveira Santos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated transplacental mercury transfer by measuring Hg in blood samples of mothers and newborns (umbilical cord in hospitals in the municipality (county of Itaituba, Pará State, Brazil. Epidemiological and mercury exposure data were collected, besides clinical birth data. Mercury tests were performed by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. A total of 1,510 women and an equal number of their newborns participated in the study. Mean blood mercury was 11.53µg/L in mothers and 16.68µg/L in newborns (umbilical cord. The highest Hg levels were in the 31-40-year maternal age group and their newborns, with 14.37µg/L and 21.87µg/L, respectively. However, in all age groups the mean mercury level was higher in newborns than in mothers. There was a strong positive correlation between Hg levels in newborns and mothers (r = 0.8019; p = 0.000, with a significant linear regression model (r = 0.5283; p = 0.000. The results highlight the importance of monitoring pregnant women exposed to mercury as part of public health surveillance.Este estudo avaliou a transferência transplacentária de mercúrio (Hg utilizando amostras de sangue das mães e recém-nascidos (cordão umbilical de hospitais do Município de Itaituba, Pará, Brazil. Foram coletados dados epidemiológicos e de exposição ao Hg, além de dados clínicos ao nascimento. As análises de mercúrio foram realizadas por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica com sistema de vapor frio. Um total de 1.510 mulheres e seus recém-nascidos participaram do estudo. A média de Hg em sangue das mães foi de 11,52µg/L e no cordão umbilical foi 16,68µg/L. Os níveis mais elevados de Hg foram verificados nas idades entre 31 a 40 anos, com médias de 14,37µg/L nas mães e 21,87µg/L nos recém-nascidos. Entretanto, em todas as faixas de idade materna as médias de Hg estavam mais elevadas nos recém-nascidos em relação às mães. Verificou-se correlação positiva e forte entre

  19. [Environment spatial distribution of mercury pollution in Songhua River upstream gold mining areas].

    Zou, Ting-Ting; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Gang; Zhao, Dan-Dan

    2010-09-01

    Using Zeeman mercury spectrometer RA915+ monitoring the total gaseous mercury concentration were collected from gold mining area in Huadian, in the upper reaches of the Songhua River, during summer and autumn of 2008, where we simultaneously collected samples of air, water, sediment and soil. The research is focused on analyzing of the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of atmospheric mercury pollution and the correlation with other environmental factors. The results show that: the concentration of atmospheric mercury in summer is higher than that in autumn and in the evening is higher than at noon, and it present a gradual decay with the distance to the gold mining area as the center point increasing. The distribution rule of mercury pollution of environmental factors in the gold mining area is: in sediment > in soil > in plant > in water, the characteristics of mercury pollution distribution in plant is: root > stem and leaf, and the content of mercury in plant in autumn is commonly higher than that in summer. This is thought due to the accumulation of pollutant element from soil during the growth of plant. The atmospheric mercury has a significant correlation with the root of plant, respectively 0.83 in summer and 0.97 in autumn.

  20. Rotation of the planet mercury.

    Jefferys, W H

    1966-04-08

    The equations of motion for the rotation of Mercury are solved for the general case by an asymptotic expansion. The findings of Liu and O'Keefe, obtained by numerical integration of a special case, that it is possible for Mercury's rotation to be locked into a 2:3 resonance with its revolution, are confirmed in detail. The general solution has further applications.

  1. Mercury: Exploration of a Planet

    1976-01-01

    The flight of the Mariner 10 spacecraft to Venus and Mercury is detailed in animation and photography. Views of Mercury are featured. Also included is animation on the origin of the solar system. Dr. Bruce C. Murray, director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, comments on the mission.

  2. Nothing a hot bath won't cure: infection rates of amphibian chytrid fungus correlate negatively with water temperature under natural field settings.

    Forrest, Matthew J; Schlaepfer, Martin A

    2011-01-01

    Dramatic declines and extinctions of amphibian populations throughout the world have been associated with chytridiomycosis, an infectious disease caused by the pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Previous studies indicated that Bd prevalence correlates with cooler temperatures in the field, and laboratory experiments have demonstrated that Bd ceases growth at temperatures above 28°C. Here we investigate how small-scale variations in water temperature correlate with Bd prevalence in the wild. We sampled 221 amphibians, including 201 lowland leopard frogs (Rana [Lithobates] yavapaiensis), from 12 sites in Arizona, USA, and tested them for Bd. Amphibians were encountered in microhabitats that exhibited a wide range of water temperatures (10-50°C), including several geothermal water sources. There was a strong inverse correlation between the water temperature in which lowland leopard frogs were captured and Bd prevalence, even after taking into account the influence of year, season, and host size. In locations where Bd was known to be present, the prevalence of Bd infections dropped from 75-100% in water 30°C. A strong inverse correlation between Bd infection status and water temperature was also observed within sites. Our findings suggest that microhabitats where water temperatures exceed 30°C provide lowland leopard frogs with significant protection from Bd, which could have important implications for disease dynamics, as well as management applications.There must be quite a few things a hot bath won't cure, but I don't know many of them--Sylvia Plath, "The Bell Jar" (1963).

  3. Nothing a hot bath won't cure: infection rates of amphibian chytrid fungus correlate negatively with water temperature under natural field settings.

    Matthew J Forrest

    Full Text Available Dramatic declines and extinctions of amphibian populations throughout the world have been associated with chytridiomycosis, an infectious disease caused by the pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. Previous studies indicated that Bd prevalence correlates with cooler temperatures in the field, and laboratory experiments have demonstrated that Bd ceases growth at temperatures above 28°C. Here we investigate how small-scale variations in water temperature correlate with Bd prevalence in the wild. We sampled 221 amphibians, including 201 lowland leopard frogs (Rana [Lithobates] yavapaiensis, from 12 sites in Arizona, USA, and tested them for Bd. Amphibians were encountered in microhabitats that exhibited a wide range of water temperatures (10-50°C, including several geothermal water sources. There was a strong inverse correlation between the water temperature in which lowland leopard frogs were captured and Bd prevalence, even after taking into account the influence of year, season, and host size. In locations where Bd was known to be present, the prevalence of Bd infections dropped from 75-100% in water 30°C. A strong inverse correlation between Bd infection status and water temperature was also observed within sites. Our findings suggest that microhabitats where water temperatures exceed 30°C provide lowland leopard frogs with significant protection from Bd, which could have important implications for disease dynamics, as well as management applications.There must be quite a few things a hot bath won't cure, but I don't know many of them--Sylvia Plath, "The Bell Jar" (1963.

  4. 49 CFR 173.164 - Mercury (metallic and articles containing mercury).

    2010-10-01

    ... ounces) of mercury per package; (iv) Tubes which are completely jacketed in sealed leakproof metal cases... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mercury (metallic and articles containing mercury... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.164 Mercury (metallic and articles containing mercury). (a) For...

  5. Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) expression correlates positively with active angiogenesis and negatively with basic fibroblast growth factor expression in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Szubert, Sebastian; Szpurek, Dariusz; Moszynski, Rafal; Nowicki, Michal; Frankowski, Andrzej; Sajdak, Stefan; Michalak, Slawomir

    2014-03-01

    The primary aim of this paper was to evaluate the expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) and its relationship with proangiogenic factors and microvessel density (MVD) in ovarian cancer. The study group included 58 epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs), 35 benign ovarian tumors, and 21 normal ovaries. The expression of EMMPRIN, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was assessed by ELISA of tissue homogenates. Antibodies against CD105, CD31, and CD34 were used to immunohistochemically assess MVD. We have found significantly higher EMMPRIN expression in EOC than in benign ovarian tumors and normal ovaries. Similarly, the VEGF expression was higher in EOC than in benign ovarian tumors and normal ovaries. By contrast, bFGF expression was lower in EOC than in benign ovarian tumors and ovary samples. EMMPRIN expression in EOC was directly correlated with VEGF expression and CD105-MVD, but inversely correlated with bFGF expression. Grade 2/3 ovarian cancers had increased expression of EMMPRIN and VEGF, increased CD105-MVD, and lowered expression of bFGF compared to grade 1 ovarian cancers. Moreover, EMMPRIN expression was higher in advanced (FIGO III and IV) ovarian cancer. The upregulation of EMMPRIN and VEGF expression is correlated with increased CD105-MVD and silenced bFGF, which suggests early and/or reactivated angiogenesis in ovarian cancer. Aggressive EOC is characterized by the following: high expression of EMMPRIN and VEGF, high CD105-MVD, and low expression of bFGF.

  6. Hair mercury measurement in Egyptian autistic children | El-baz ...

    difficulties, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, which comprise the three DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of autism. The aim of this work was to measure the concentration of total mercury trace elements in the hair of some Egyptian autistic children and to correlate these levels with severity of the disease. Methods: ...

  7. Methyl mercury in terrestrial compartments

    Stoeppler, M.; Burow, M.; Padberg, S.; May, K.

    1993-09-01

    On the basis of the analytical methodology available at present the state of the art for the determination of total mercury and of various organometallic compounds of mercury in air, precipitation, limnic systems, soils, plants and biota is reviewed. This is followed by the presentation and discussion of examples for the data obtained hitherto for trace and ultratrace levels of total mercury and mainly methyl mercury in terrestrial and limnic environments as well as in biota. The data discussed stem predominantly from the past decade in which, due to significant methodological progress, many new aspects were elucidated. They include the most important results in this area achieved by the Research Centre (KFA) Juelich within the project 'Origin and Fate of Methyl Mercury' (contracts EV4V-0138-D and STEP-CT90-0057) supported by the Commission of the European Communities, Brussels. (orig.) [de

  8. Human Exposure and Health Effects of Inorganic and Elemental Mercury

    Park, Jung-Duck; Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic and non-essential metal in the human body. Mercury is ubiquitously distributed in the environment, present in natural products, and exists extensively in items encountered in daily life. There are three forms of mercury, i.e., elemental (or metallic) mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury compounds. This review examines the toxicity of elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds. Inorganic mercury compounds are water soluble with a bioavailability o...

  9. Methods for dispensing mercury into devices

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1987-04-28

    A process for dispensing mercury into devices which requires mercury. Mercury is first electrolytically separated from either HgO or Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 and plated onto a cathode wire. The cathode wire is then placed into a device requiring mercury.

  10. Determination of mercury in plant material

    Pickard, J A; Martin, J T

    1960-07-01

    An analytical procedure used for the determination of traces of mercury in plant material is described. The conditions of combustion of organic matter are controlled to avoid loss of mercury and EDTA is used to reduce the values for apparent mercury on uncontaminated samples. Satisfactory recoveries of mercury added to apples, tomatoes and coffee are obtained. 10 references, 1 table.

  11. Negative mass

    Hammond, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    Some physical aspects of negative mass are examined. Several unusual properties, such as the ability of negative mass to penetrate any armor, are analysed. Other surprising effects include the bizarre system of negative mass chasing positive mass, naked singularities and the violation of cosmic censorship, wormholes, and quantum mechanical results as well. In addition, a brief look into the implications for strings is given. (paper)

  12. Off-line tests on pitting damage in mercury target

    Futakawa, Masatoshi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Ishikura, Shuichi; Ikeda, Yujiro

    2003-03-01

    A liquid-mercury target system for the MW-scale target is being developed in the world. The moment the proton beams bombard the target, stress waves will be imposed on the beam window and pressure waves will be generated in the mercury by the thermally shocked heat deposition. Provided that the negative pressure generates through its propagation in the mercury target and causes cavitation in the mercury, there is the possibility for the cavitation bubbles collapse to form pits on the interface between the mercury and the target vessel wall. In order to estimate the cavitation erosion damage due to pitting, two types of off-line tests were performed: Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), and Magnetic IMpact Testing Machine (MIMTM). The data on the piping damage at the high cycle impacts up to 10 million were given by the MIMTM. Additionally the data obtained were compared with classical vibratory horn tests. As a result, it is confirmed that the mean depth erosion is predictable using a homologous line in the steady state with mass loss independently of testing machines and the incubation period is very dependent on materials and imposed pressures. (author)

  13. Off-line tests on pitting damage in mercury target

    Futakawa, M; Ishikura, S; Kogawa, H; Tsai, C C

    2003-01-01

    A liquid-mercury target system for the MW-scale target is being developed in the world. The moment the proton beams bombard the target, stress waves will be imposed on the beam window and pressure waves will be generated in the mercury by the thermally shocked heat deposition. Provided that the negative pressure generates through its propagation in the mercury target and causes cavitation in the mercury, there is the possibility for the cavitation bubbles collapse to form pits on the interface between the mercury and the target vessel wall. In order to estimate the cavitation erosion damage due to pitting, two types of off-line tests were performed: Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), and Magnetic IMpact Testing Machine (MIMTM). The data on the piping damage at the high cycle impacts up to 10 million were given by the MIMTM. Additionally the data obtained were compared with classical vibratory horn tests. As a result, it is confirmed that the mean depth erosion is predictable using a homologous line in the s...

  14. Atmospheric speciation of mercury in two contrasting Southeastern US airsheds

    Gabriel, Mark C.; Williamson, Derek G.; Brooks, Steve; Lindberg, Steve

    Simultaneous measurement of gaseous elemental, reactive gaseous, and fine particulate mercury took place in Tuscaloosa AL, (urban airshed) and Cove Mountain, TN (non-urban airshed) during the summers of 2002 and 2003. The objective of this research was to (1) summarize the temporal distribution of each mercury specie at each site and compare to other speciation data sets developed by other researchers and (2) provide insight into urban and non-urban mercury speciation effects using various statistical methods. Average specie concentrations were as follows: 4.05 ng m -3 (GEM), 13.6 pg m -3 (RGM), 16.4 pg m -3 (Hg-p) for Tuscaloosa; 3.20 ng m -3 (GEM), 13.6 pg m -3 (RGM), 9.73 pg m -3 (Hg-p) for Cove Mountain. As a result of urban airshed impacts, short periods of high concentration for all mercury species was common in Tuscaloosa. At Cove Mountain a consistent mid-day rise and evening drop for mercury species was found. This pattern was primarily the result of un-impacted physical boundary layer movement, although, other potential impacts were ambient photochemistry and air-surface exchange of mercury. Meteorological parameters that are known to heavily impact mercury speciation were similar for the study period for Tuscaloosa and Cove Mountain except for wind speed (m s -1), which was higher at Cove Mountain. For both sites statistically significant ( p<0.0001), inverse relationships existed between wind speed and Hg 0 concentration. A weaker windspeed-Hg 0 correlation existed for Tuscaloosa. By analyzing Hg concentration—wind speed magnitude change at both sites it was found that wind speed at Cove Mountain had a greater influence on Hg 0 concentration variability than Tuscaloosa by a factor of 3. Using various statistical tests, we concluded that the nature of Tuscaloosa's atmospheric mercury speciation was the result of typical urban airshed impacts. Cove Mountain showed atmospheric mercury speciation characteristics indicative of a non-urban area along with

  15. Emotions and personality traits in former mercury miners

    Darja Kobal Grum

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of long-term occupational exposure to elemental mercury vapor (Hg° on the personality traits of ex-mercury miners. The study groups included 53 ex-mercury miners previously exposed to Hg° and 53 age-matched controls. Their previous occupational exposure, as well as some biological indices of actual non-occupational exposure, were evaluated. Miners and controls completed the self-reporting Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ and the Emotional States Questionnaire (ESQ. Group differences were analyzed through the application of ANOVA software. The relationship between the indices of previous occupational exposure and the observed personality traits was evaluated by machine learning methods (regression trees. The mercury miners were intermittently exposed to Hg° in intervals – cycles for a period of 7-31 years at air Hg° concentrations ranging from 0.14 to 0.45 mg/m3. The miners' mean cycle urine mercury (U-Hg level (range 20–120 μg/L and cumulative U-Hg level (range 1286–21390 μg/L were very high. The present non-occupational exposure to mercury was very low in both groups. The low extraversion and lie scores shown by EPQ suggest that miners are more introverted and sincere. The results obtained from ESQ indicate that mercury miners tend to be more depressive, more rigid in expressing their emotions (indifference, and are likely to have more negative self-concepts than the controls. The tendency towards emotional rigidity, negative self-concept, and partly also introversion seems to be associated with some biological indices of occupational Hg° exposure, but not the lower score of lie found in miners. Higher occupational Hg° exposure (cycles U-Hg level > 38.7 mg/L in interaction with moderate alcohol consumption (<26 ml/day seems to have had a decisive influence on the development of miners' depression. Despite the limitations, long-term intermittent, substantial exposure to Hg° in

  16. Radar observations of Mercury

    Harmon, J.K.; Campbell, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Some of the radar altimetry profiles of Mercury obtained on the basis of data from the Arecibo Observatory are presented. In these measurements, the delay-Doppler method was used to measure altitudes along the Doppler equator, rather than to map radar reflectivity. The profiles, derived from observations made over a 6-yr period, provide extensive coverage over a restricted equatorial band and permit the identification of radar signatures for features as small as 50-km diameter craters and 1-km-high arcuate scarps. The data allowed identification of large-scale topographic features such as smooth plains subsidence zones and major highland regions

  17. Fluorescent sensor for mercury

    Wang, Zidong [Urbana, IL; Lee, Jung Heon [Evanston, IL; Lu, Yi [Champaign, IL

    2011-11-22

    The present invention provides a sensor for detecting mercury, comprising: a first polynucleotide, comprising a first region, and a second region, a second polynucleotide, a third polynucleotide, a fluorophore, and a quencher, wherein the third polynucleotide is optionally linked to the second region; the fluorophore is linked to the first polynucleotide and the quencher is linked to the second polynucleotide, or the fluorophore is linked to the second polynucleotide and the quencher is linked to the first polynucleotide; the first region and the second region hybridize to the second polynucleotide; and the second region binds to the third polynucleotide in the presence of Hg.sup.2+ ions.

  18. Mercury in the Umbilical Cord: Implications for Risk Assessment for Minamata Disease

    Dalgård, Christine; Grandjean, Philippe; Jørgensen, Poul Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    Umbilical cord tissue was obtained from 50 births in the Faroe Islands, where high mercury intake is due to ingestion of pilot whale meat. The mercury concentration correlated significantly with the frequency of maternal whale meat dinners during pregnancy and with mercury concentrations in umbil...... mercury concentration of 4.95 nmol/g dry weight in Minamata would correspond to 668 nmol/l cord blood and 114 nmol/g maternal hair. These levels agree well with other evidence of susceptibility of the fetus to increased exposure to methylmercury....... in umbilical cord blood and in maternal hair. The results were compared with published values for mercury in umbilical cord tissue from 12 infants diagnosed with congenital methylmercury poisoning in Minamata, Japan. From the regression coefficients obtained in the Faroese samples, the median umbilical cord...

  19. Negative Leadership

    2013-03-01

    Negative Leadership by Colonel David M. Oberlander United States Army United States Army War...SUBTITLE Negative Leadership 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Colonel David M...Dr. Richard C. Bullis Department of Command Leadership , and Management 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING

  20. Negative liability

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.

    2009-01-01

    Negative and positive externalities pose symmetrical problems to social welfare. The law internalizes negative externalities by providing general tort liability rules. According to such rules, those who cause harm to others should pay compensation. In theory, in the presence of positive

  1. Negative ... concord?

    Giannakidou, A

    The main claim of this paper is that a general theory of negative concord (NC) should allow for the possibility of NC involving scoping of a universal quantifier above negation. I propose that Greek NC instantiates this option. Greek n-words will be analyzed as polarity sensitive universal

  2. Mercury heavy-metal-induced physiochemical changes and genotoxic alterations in water hyacinths [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.)].

    Malar, Srinivasan; Sahi, Shivendra Vikram; Favas, Paulo J C; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2015-03-01

    Mercury heavy metal pollution has become an important environmental problem worldwide. Accumulation of mercury ions by plants may disrupt many cellular functions and block normal growth and development. To assess mercury heavy metal toxicity, we performed an experiment focusing on the responses of Eichhornia crassipes to mercury-induced oxidative stress. E. crassipes seedlings were exposed to varying concentrations of mercury to investigate the level of mercury ions accumulation, changes in growth patterns, antioxidant defense mechanisms, and DNA damage under hydroponics system. Results showed that plant growth rate was significantly inhibited (52 %) at 50 mg/L treatment. Accumulation of mercury ion level were 1.99 mg/g dry weight, 1.74 mg/g dry weight, and 1.39 mg/g dry weight in root, leaf, and petiole tissues, respectively. There was a decreasing trend for chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids with increasing the concentration of mercury ions. Both the ascorbate peroxidase and malondialdehyde contents showed increased trend in leaves and roots up to 30 mg/L mercury treatment and slightly decreased at the higher concentrations. There was a positive correlation between heavy metal dose and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase antioxidative enzyme activities which could be used as biomarkers to monitor pollution in E. crassipes. Due to heavy metal stress, some of the normal DNA bands were disappeared and additional bands were amplified compared to the control in the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profile. Random amplified polymorphic DNA results indicated that genomic template stability was significantly affected by mercury heavy metal treatment. We concluded that DNA changes determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA assay evolved a useful molecular marker for detection of genotoxic effects of mercury heavy metal contamination in plant species.

  3. Litterfall mercury deposition in Atlantic forest ecosystem from SE – Brazil

    Teixeira, Daniel C.; Montezuma, Rita C.; Oliveira, Rogério R.; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V.

    2012-01-01

    Litterfall is believed to be the major flux of Hg to soils in forested landscapes, yet much less is known about this input on tropical environment. The Hg litterfall flux was measured during one year in Atlantic Forest fragment, located within Rio de Janeiro urban perimeter, in the Southeastern region of Brazil. The results indicated a mean annual Hg concentration of 238 ± 52 ng g −1 and a total annual Hg deposition of 184 ± 8.2 μg m −2 y −1 . The negative correlation observed between rain precipitation and Hg concentrations is probably related to the higher photosynthetic activity observed during summer. The total Hg concentration in leaves from the most abundant species varied from 60 to 215 ng g −1 . Hg concentration showed a positive correlation with stomatal and trichomes densities. These characteristics support the hypothesis that Tropical Forest is an efficient mercury sink and litter plays a key role in Hg dynamics. - Highlights: ► The litter production from an Atlantic Forest was measured by one year. ► Concentration and flux of mercury was measured from these litter samples. ► The Hg concentrations from 5 trees were taken. ► Correlations between the data found and meteorological and anatomical plant parameters were confronted. ► The high Hg values found and their distribution points to a great sequester potential from this biome. - Hg high values in litter are a pattern found at Tropical Forest, it seems to be correlated with physio-anatomical plant characteristics from this biome.

  4. Selenium:Mercury Molar Ratios in Freshwater Fish from Tennessee: Individual, Species, and Geographical Variations have Implications for Management

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, C.; Donio, M.; Pittfield, T.

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrates, including humans, can experience adverse effects from mercury consumed in fish. Humans often prefer large predatory fish that bioaccumulate high mercury levels. Recent attention has focused on the role of selenium countering mercury toxicity, but there is little research on the selenium:mercury molar ratios in freshwater fish. We examine selenium:mercury molar ratios in freshwater fish from Tennessee at Poplar Creek which receives ongoing inputs of mercury from the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge Y-12 facility. Our objective was to determine variation of the ratios within species that might affect the protectiveness of selenium against mercury toxicity. Within species, the ratio was correlated significantly and positively with fish length only for two species. There was great individual variation in the selenium:mercury molar ratio within each species, except striped bass. The lack of a clear relationship between the selenium:mercury molar ratio and fish length, and the intraspecific variation, suggests that it would be difficult to use the molar ratio in predicting either the risk from mercury toxicity or in devising consumption advisories. PMID:22456727

  5. Not All Distraction Is Bad: Working Memory Vulnerability to Implicit Socioemotional Distraction Correlates with Negative Symptoms and Functional Impairment in Psychosis

    Quintino R. Mano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated implicit socioemotional modulation of working memory (WM in the context of symptom severity and functional status in individuals with psychosis (N = 21. A delayed match-to-sample task was modified wherein task-irrelevant facial distracters were presented early and briefly during the rehearsal of pseudoword memoranda that varied incrementally in load size (1, 2, or 3 syllables. Facial distracters displayed happy, sad, or emotionally neutral expressions. Implicit socioemotional modulation of WM was indexed by subtracting task accuracy on nonfacial geometrical distraction trials from facial distraction trials. Results indicated that the amount of implicit socioemotional modulation of high WM load accuracy was significantly associated with negative symptoms (r=0.63, P<0.01, role functioning (r=−0.50, P<0.05, social functioning (r=−0.55, P<0.01, and global assessment of functioning (r=−0.53, P<0.05. Specifically, greater attentional distraction of high WM load was associated with less severe symptoms and functional impairment. This study demonstrates the importance of the WM-socioemotional interface in influencing clinical and psychosocial functional status in psychosis.

  6. Mercury's Sodium Exosphere: Observations during the MESSENGER Orbital Phase

    Killen, Rosemary M.; Cassidy, Timothy A.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Burger, Matthew H.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Sprague, Ann L.; McClintock, William E.; Benna, Mehdi; Solomon, Sean C.

    2012-01-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft entered into orbit about Mercury on March 18,2011. We now have approximately five Mercury years of data from orbit. Prior to the MESSENGER mission, Mercury's surface-bounded exosphere was known to contain H, He, Na. K, and Ca. The Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) began routine orbital observations of both the dayside and nightside exosphere on March 29. 2011, measuring altitude profiles for all previously detected neutral species except for He and K. We focus here on what we have learned about the sodium exosphere: its spatial, seasonal, and sporadic variation. Observations to date permit delineation of the relative roles of photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) and impact vaporization (IV) from seasonal and spatial effects, as well as of the roles of ions both as sputtering agents and in their possible role to enhance the efficiency of PSD. Correlations of Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere with measurements from MESSENGER's Magnetometer (MAG) and Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) provide insight into the roles of ions and electrons. Models incorporating MAG observations provide a basis for identifying the location and area of the surface exposed to solar wind plasma, and EPPS observations reveal episodic populations of energetic electrons in the magnetosphere and the presence of planetary He(+), 0(+), and Na(+),

  7. Mercury kinetics in marine zooplankton

    Fowler, S.W.; Heyraud, M.; LaRosa, J.

    1976-01-01

    Mercury, like many other heavy metals, is potentially available to marine animals by uptake directly from water and/or through the organisms food. Furthermore, bioavailability, assimilation and subsequent retention in biota may be affected by the chemical species of the element in sea water. While mercury is known to exist in the inorganic form in sea water, recent work has indicated that, in certain coastal areas, a good portion of the total mercury appears to be organically bound; however, the exact chemical nature of the organic fraction has yet to be determined. Methyl mercury may be one constituent of the natural organically bound fraction since microbial mechanisms for in situ methylation of mercury have been demonstrated in the aquatic environment. Despite the fact that naturally produced methyl mercury probably comprises only a small fraction of an aquatic ecosystem, the well-documented toxic effects of this organo-mercurial, caused by man-made introductions into marine food chains, make it an important compound to study

  8. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg-1) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg-1). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark—in pyroclastic wounds—and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg-1) and bark (6.0 μg kg-1) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  9. Atmospheric mercury footprints of nations.

    Liang, Sai; Wang, Yafei; Cinnirella, Sergio; Pirrone, Nicola

    2015-03-17

    The Minamata Convention was established to protect humans and the natural environment from the adverse effects of mercury emissions. A cogent assessment of mercury emissions is required to help implement the Minamata Convention. Here, we use an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output model to calculate atmospheric mercury footprints of nations based on upstream production (meaning direct emissions from the production activities of a nation), downstream production (meaning both direct and indirect emissions caused by the production activities of a nation), and consumption (meaning both direct and indirect emissions caused by final consumption of goods and services in a nation). Results show that nations function differently within global supply chains. Developed nations usually have larger consumption-based emissions than up- and downstream production-based emissions. India, South Korea, and Taiwan have larger downstream production-based emissions than their upstream production- and consumption-based emissions. Developed nations (e.g., United States, Japan, and Germany) are in part responsible for mercury emissions of developing nations (e.g., China, India, and Indonesia). Our findings indicate that global mercury abatement should focus on multiple stages of global supply chains. We propose three initiatives for global mercury abatement, comprising the establishment of mercury control technologies of upstream producers, productivity improvement of downstream producers, and behavior optimization of final consumers.

  10. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis.

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg(-1)) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg(-1)). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark-in pyroclastic wounds-and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg(-1)) and bark (6.0 μg kg(-1)) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  11. Method for removal and stabilization of mercury in mercury-containing gas streams

    Broderick, Thomas E.

    2005-09-13

    The present invention is directed to a process and apparatus for removing and stabilizing mercury from mercury-containing gas streams. A gas stream containing vapor phase elemental and/or speciated mercury is contacted with reagent, such as an oxygen-containing oxidant, in a liquid environment to form a mercury-containing precipitate. The mercury-containing precipitate is kept or placed in solution and reacts with one or more additional reagents to form a solid, stable mercury-containing compound.

  12. [Mercury concentration of fish in Tokyo Bay and the surrounding sea area].

    Zhang, R; Kashima, Y; Matsui, M; Okabe, T; Doi, R

    2001-07-01

    Total mercury in the muscles of three fish species was analyzed in fish caught in Tokyo Bay and the surrounding sea areas, Sagami Bay and Choshi. Tokyo Bay is a semi-closed sea area surrounded by Tokyo, Kanagawa and Chiba prefectures. Sagami Bay and Choshi are open to the Pacific Ocean. A total of 412 fish consisting of northern whiting (Sillago japonica), flatfish (Limanda yokohamae) and sardine (Sardinops melanosticta) were caught in these areas over a 6 months period from November 1998 to April 1999. Total mercury concentration ranged from 0.008-0.092 microgram/g (wet wt.) in northern whiting, 0.006-0.065 microgram/g in flatfish and 0.001-0.045 microgram/g in sardine. All concentrations were below the restriction limit of fish mercury in Japan, 0.4 microgram/g of total mercury concentration. A significant correlation was found between mercury concentrations and body length or body weight in northern whiting and flatfish, irrespective of the sea area. A correlation was also found between mercury concentration in fish and their feeding habits: among the 3 species caught in the same area, crustacean feeding northern whiting had the highest, polychaete feeding flatfish moderate, and plankton feeding sardine had the lowest mercury concentration. In a comparison of mercury concentration in the same species caught in different sea areas, a higher concentration was noted in fish caught in the semi-closed sea area of Tokyo Bay, than in fish caught in the open sea areas of Sagami Bay and Choshi. This difference was most marked in fish caught at the bottom of Tokyo Bay and we considered that the mercury concentration of seawater and sediment in these areas was the cause of mercury accumulation in fish. These findings suggest that improved water quality control and environmental monitoring is necessary in semi-closed sea areas such as Tokyo Bay.

  13. Dynamic recycling of gaseous elemental mercury in the boundary layer of the Antarctic Plateau

    A. Dommergue

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0 was investigated in the troposphere and in the interstitial air extracted from the snow at Dome Concordia station (alt. 3320 m on the Antarctic Plateau during January 2009. Measurements and modeling studies showed evidence of a very dynamic and daily cycling of Hg0 inside the mixing layer with a range of values from 0.2 ng m−3 up to 2.3 ng m−3. During low solar irradiation periods, fast Hg0 oxidation processes in a confined layer were suspected. Unexpectedly high Hg0 concentrations for such a remote place were measured under higher solar irradiation due to snow photochemistry. We suggest that a daily cycling of reemission/oxidation occurs during summer within the mixing layer at Dome Concordia. Hg0 concentrations showed a negative correlation with ozone mixing ratios, which contrasts with atmospheric mercury depletion events observed during the Arctic spring. Unlike previous Antarctic studies, we think that atmospheric Hg0 removal may not be the result of advection processes. The daily and dramatic Hg0 losses could be a consequence of surface or snow induced oxidation pathways. It remains however unclear whether halogens are involved. The cycling of other oxidants should be investigated together with Hg species in order to clarify the complex reactivity on the Antarctic plateau.

  14. Determination of mercury and selenium in hair samples of Brazilian Indian populations living in the Amazonic region by NAA

    Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Paletti, G.; Catharino, M.G.M.; Saiki, M.; Favaro, D.I.T.; Bode, P.; Ammerlaan, A.K.; Byrne, A.R.; Baruzzi, R.; Rodrigues, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    Biomonitoring of mercury contamination of Brazilian Indian population groups living in the Xingu Park, a reservation situated in the Amazonic region, has revealed very high levels of mercury in hair samples as compared to controls. Total mercury was determined by INAA in most of the tribes living in the Park and methylmercury was determined by CVAAS in samples with total mercury above 10 mg/kg. Due to the fact that selenium seems to protect animals against the toxic effects of methylmercury, it was considered also of interest to determine its concentrations in the hair samples with very high mercury levels. Selenium was determined by INAA via the short-lived radionuclide 77m Se (T 1/2 = 17.45 s). The correlations between selenium and mercury concentrations in Brazilian controls and in the Indian population groups are discussed. (author)

  15. Spatial trends and impairment assessment of mercury in sport fish in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta watershed

    Melwani, A.R.; Bezalel, S.N.; Hunt, J.A.; Grenier, J.L.; Ichikawa, G.; Heim, W.; Bonnema, A.; Foe, C.; Slotton, D.G.; Davis, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    A three-year study was conducted to examine mercury in sport fish from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. More than 4000 fish from 31 species were collected and analyzed for total mercury in individual muscle filets. Largemouth bass and striped bass were the most contaminated, averaging 0.40 μg/g, while redear sunfish, bluegill and rainbow trout exhibited the lowest (<0.15 μg/g) concentrations. Spatial variation in mercury was evaluated with an analysis of covariance model, which accounted for variability due to fish size and regional hydrology. Significant regional differences in mercury were apparent in size-standardized largemouth bass, with concentrations on the Cosumnes and Mokelumne rivers significantly higher than the central and western Delta. Significant prey-predator mercury correlations were also apparent, which may explain a significant proportion of the spatial variation in the watershed. - Regional differences in sport fish mercury were found in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta.

  16. Shipborne measurements of mercury in the marine boundary layer

    Soerensen, A. L.; Skov, H.; Christensen, J.; Glasius, M.; Soerensen, B. T.; Steffen, A.; Jensen, B.; Christoffersen, C.; Madsen, H. W.; Johnson, M. S.

    2008-12-01

    Mercury accumulates in the human body, for example when consumed through fish and other aquatic animals. While it is poisonous to adults, only low doses are sufficient to cause severe effects in the development of foetuses where the source of mercury is through the mother's blood. From once being a problem restricted to certain populations, the negative effects of mercury consumption are becoming a global problem due to high anthropogenic emissions, long range transport in the atmosphere and bioaccumulation in the food chain after deposition. It is therefore important to understand the atmospheric photochemical pathways of mercury from source to sink. We have used a TEKRAN 2537A mercury vapor analyzer with a TEKRAN 1130 mercury speciation unit to measure gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) during an eight month circumnavigation of the Earth. This is the longest single track time series of mercury concentrations that we know of. This has offered the opportunity to give a global overview of the marine boundary layer (MBL) distribution of both GEM and RGM. Supplemented with earlier cruise measurements, we now have a broader knowledge of global GEM and RGM concentration in the MBL. The Galathea 3 cruise data offers new knowledge of the mechanisms causing the distribution patterns of GEM and RGM in the MBL. The first analysis of the Galathea 3 data indicates that measurements show a concentration difference between the northern and the southern hemispheres. In the northern hemisphere, the mean concentration in the free ocean is 2.06 ng/m3 and, including values down wind of Western Europe, an average value of 2.47 ng/m3 was found. Measurements in the southern hemisphere show a mean concentration of 1.24 ng/m3 and 1.57 ng/m3 where values close to the coast of West Africa are included. In contrast, the concentration levels of RGM are similar for the two hemispheres (northern hemisphere 3.40 pg/m3, southern hemisphere 3.95 pg/m3). Some

  17. Assessment of permeation quality of concrete through mercury intrusion porosimetry

    Kumar, Rakesh; Bhattacharjee, B.

    2004-01-01

    Permeation quality of laboratory cast concrete beams was determined through initial surface absorption test (ISAT). The pore system characteristics of the same concrete beam specimens were determined through mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). Data so obtained on the measured initial surface absorption rate of water by concrete and characteristics of pore system of concrete estimated from porosimetry results were used to develop correlations between them. Through these correlations, potential of MIP in assessing the durability quality of concrete in actual structure is demonstrated

  18. Spatial and Ontogenetic Variation in Mercury in Lake Superior Basin Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus).

    Moses, Sara K; Polkinghorne, Christine N; Mattes, William P; Beesley, Kimberly M

    2018-01-01

    Mercury concentrations were measured in eggs, larvae, and adult spawning-phase sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) collected in tributaries of Lake Superior to investigate spatial and ontogenetic variation. There were significant differences in mercury concentrations between all three life stages, with levels highest in adults (mean = 3.01 µg/g), followed by eggs (mean = 0.942 µg/g), and lowest in larvae (mean = 0.455 µg/g). There were no significant differences in mercury concentrations by location for any life stage or by sex in adults. Mercury was not correlated with adult or larval lamprey length or mass. Mercury levels in adult lampreys exceeded U.S. and Canadian federal guidelines for human consumption. Mercury concentrations in all life stages exceeded criteria for the protection of piscivorous wildlife, posing a threat to local fish, birds, and mammals. High mercury levels in adult lampreys combined with their semelparous life history make them a potential source of lake-derived mercury to spawning streams.

  19. CTCF-KDM4A complex correlates with histone modifications that negatively regulate CHD5 gene expression in cancer cell lines

    Guerra-Calderas, Lissania; González-Barrios, Rodrigo; Patiño, Carlos César; Alcaraz, Nicolás; Salgado-Albarrán, Marisol; de León, David Cantú; Hernández, Clementina Castro; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia; Maldonado-Martínez, Héctor Aquiles; De la Rosa-Velazquez, Inti A.; Vargas-Romero, Fernanda; Herrera, Luis A.; García-Carrancá, Alejandro; Soto-Reyes, Ernesto

    2018-01-01

    Histone demethylase KDM4A is involved in H3K9me3 and H3K36me3 demethylation, which are epigenetic modifications associated with gene silencing and RNA Polymerase II elongation, respectively. KDM4A is abnormally expressed in cancer, affecting the expression of multiple targets, such as the CHD5 gene. This enzyme localizes at the first intron of CHD5, and the dissociation of KDM4A increases gene expression. In vitro assays showed that KDM4A-mediated demethylation is enhanced in the presence of CTCF, suggesting that CTCF could increase its enzymatic activity in vivo, however the specific mechanism by which CTCF and KDM4A might be involved in the CHD5 gene repression is poorly understood. Here, we show that CTCF and KDM4A form a protein complex, which is recruited into the first intron of CHD5. This is related to a decrease in H3K36me3/2 histone marks and is associated with its transcriptional downregulation. Depletion of CTCF or KDM4A by siRNA, triggered the reactivation of CHD5 expression, suggesting that both proteins are involved in the negative regulation of this gene. Furthermore, the knockout of KDM4A restored the CHD5 expression and H3K36me3 and H3K36me2 histone marks. Such mechanism acts independently of CHD5 promoter DNA methylation. Our findings support a novel mechanism of epigenetic repression at the gene body that does not involve promoter silencing. PMID:29682202

  20. Validation of mismatch negativity and P3a for use in multi-site studies of schizophrenia: characterization of demographic, clinical, cognitive, and functional correlates in COGS-2.

    Light, Gregory A; Swerdlow, Neal R; Thomas, Michael L; Calkins, Monica E; Green, Michael F; Greenwood, Tiffany A; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Pela, Marlena; Radant, Allen D; Seidman, Larry J; Sharp, Richard F; Siever, Larry J; Silverman, Jeremy M; Sprock, Joyce; Stone, William S; Sugar, Catherine A; Tsuang, Debby W; Tsuang, Ming T; Braff, David L; Turetsky, Bruce I

    2015-04-01

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a are auditory event-related potential (ERP) components that show robust deficits in schizophrenia (SZ) patients and exhibit qualities of endophenotypes, including substantial heritability, test-retest reliability, and trait-like stability. These measures also fulfill criteria for use as cognition and function-linked biomarkers in outcome studies, but have not yet been validated for use in large-scale multi-site clinical studies. This study tested the feasibility of adding MMN and P3a to the ongoing Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS) study. The extent to which demographic, clinical, cognitive, and functional characteristics contribute to variability in MMN and P3a amplitudes was also examined. Participants (HCS n=824, SZ n=966) underwent testing at 5 geographically distributed COGS laboratories. Valid ERP recordings were obtained from 91% of HCS and 91% of SZ patients. Highly significant MMN (d=0.96) and P3a (d=0.93) amplitude reductions were observed in SZ patients, comparable in magnitude to those observed in single-lab studies with no appreciable differences across laboratories. Demographic characteristics accounted for 26% and 18% of the variance in MMN and P3a amplitudes, respectively. Significant relationships were observed among demographically-adjusted MMN and P3a measures and medication status as well as several clinical, cognitive, and functional characteristics of the SZ patients. This study demonstrates that MMN and P3a ERP biomarkers can be feasibly used in multi-site clinical studies. As with many clinical tests of brain function, demographic factors contribute to MMN and P3a amplitudes and should be carefully considered in future biomarker-informed clinical studies. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Crater Degradation on Mercury: A Global Perspective

    Kinczyk, M. J.; Byrne, P. K.; Prockter, L. M.; Susorney, H. C. M.; Chapman, C. R.; Barnouin, O. S.

    2017-12-01

    On geologic timescales, initially fresh craters are subjected to many weathering mechanisms. Whereas water and wind are, or were, effective erosive mechanisms such as on Earth and Mars, micrometeorite bombardment and modification due to subsequent impacts are the dominant processes that degrade craters and crater rays on airless bodies like the Moon and Mercury. Classifying craters based on their state of degradation can help determine the relative ages of landforms proximal to, and crosscut by, these craters. However, this method is most effective when used together with statistical analysis of crater distributions. Pre-MESSENGER degradation classification schemes lacked sufficient detail to be consistently applied to craters of various sizes and morphological types—despite evidence suggesting that the ejecta deposits of large basins persist much longer than those of smaller craters, for instance—yet broad assumptions have been made regarding the correlation of crater class to the planet's time-stratigraphic sequence. Moreover, previous efforts to categorize craters by degradation state have either been restricted to regional study sites or applied only to a subset of crater age or size. As a result, numerous interpretations of crater degradation state persist for Mercury, challenging a complete understanding of this process on the innermost planet. We report on the first global survey of crater degradation on Mercury. By modifying an established 5-class scheme, we have systematically applied a rigorous set of criteria to all craters ≥40 km in diameter on the planet. These criteria include the state and morphology of crater deposits separately (e.g., rim, floor, wall, ejecta) and degradation classes were assigned as the collection of these individual attributes. This approach yields a consistent classification of craters of different sizes. Our results provide the first comprehensive assessment of how craters of various states of degradation are distributed

  2. Exploring Mercury: The Iron Planet

    Stevenson, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Planet Mercury is both difficult to observe and difficult to reach by spacecraft. Just one spacecraft, Mariner 10, flew by the planet 30 years ago. An upcoming NASA mission, MESSENGER, will be launched this year and will go into orbit around Mercury at the end of this decade. A European mission is planned for the following decade. It's worth going there because Mercury is a strange body and the history of planetary exploration has taught us that strangeness gives us insight into planetary ori...

  3. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    Rong Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role of chelating agents against mercury poisoning, which provides a promising research direction for broader application of chelation therapy in prevention and treatment of mercury poisoning.

  4. MESSENGER'S First Flyby of Mercury

    Slavin, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet's miniature magnetosphere since Mariner 10's brief fly-bys in 1974-5. The magnetosphere of Mercury is the smallest in the solar system with its magnetic field typically standing off the solar wind only - 1000 to 2000 km above the surface. An overview of the MESSENGER mission and its January 14th close flyby of Mercury will be provided. Primary science objectives and the science instrumentation will be described. Initial results from MESSENGER'S first flyby on January 14th, 2008 will be discussed with an emphasis on the magnetic field and charged particle measurements.

  5. Distribution and retention of organic and inorganic mercury in methyl mercury-treated neonatal rats

    Thomas, D.J.; Fisher, H.L.; Sumler, M.R.; Hall, L.L.; Mushak, P.

    1988-01-01

    Seven-day-old Long Evans rats received one mumol of 203 Hg-labeled methyl mercury/kg sc and whole body retention and tissue distribution of organic and inorganic mercury were examined for 32 days postdosing. Neonates cleared mercury slowly until 10 days postdosing when the clearance rate abruptly increased. During the interval when whole body clearance of mercury was extremely slow, methyl mercury was metabolized to inorganic mercury. Peak concentration of mercury in kidney occurred at 2 days postdosing. At 32 days postdosing, 8% of mercury in kidney was in an organic from. Liver mercury concentration peaked at 2 days postdosing and organic mercury accounted for 38% at 32 days postdosing. Brain concentrations of mercury peaked at 2 days postdosing. At 10 days postdosing, organic mercury accounted for 86% of the brain mercury burden, and, at 32 days postdosing, for 60%. The percentage of mercury body burden in pelt rose from 30 to 70% between 1 and 10 days postdosing. At 32 days postdosing pelt contained 85% of the body burden of mercury. At all time points, about 95% of mercury in pelt was in an organic form. Compartmental analysis of these data permitted development of a model to describe the distribution and excretion of organic and inorganic mercury in methyl mercury-treated neonatal rats

  6. The Long Intron 1 of Growth Hormone Gene from Reeves’ Turtle (Chinemys reevesii Correlates with Negatively Regulated GH Expression in Four Cell Lines

    Wen-Sheng Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Turtles grow slowly and have a long lifespan. Ultrastructural studies of the pituitary gland in Reeves’ turtle (Chinemys reevesii have revealed that the species possesses a higher nucleoplasmic ratio and fewer secretory granules in growth hormone (GH cells than other animal species in summer and winter. C. reevesii GH gene was cloned and species-specific similarities and differences were investigated. The full GH gene sequence in C. reevesii contains 8517 base pairs (bp, comprising five exons and four introns. Intron 1 was found to be much longer in C. reevesii than in other species. The coding sequence (CDS of the turtle’s GH gene, with and without the inclusion of intron 1, was transfected into four cell lines, including DF-1 chicken embryo fibroblasts, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells, human embryonic kidney 293FT cells, and GH4C1 rat pituitary cells; the turtle growth hormone (tGH gene mRNA and protein expression levels decreased significantly in the intron-containing CDS in these cell lines, compared with that of the corresponding intronless CDS. Thus, the long intron 1 of GH gene in Reeves’ turtle might correlate with downregulated gene expression.

  7. Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3beta) negatively regulates PTTG1/human securin protein stability, and GSK3beta inactivation correlates with securin accumulation in breast tumors.

    Mora-Santos, Mar; Limón-Mortés, M Cristina; Giráldez, Servando; Herrero-Ruiz, Joaquín; Sáez, Carmen; Japón, Miguel Á; Tortolero, Maria; Romero, Francisco

    2011-08-26

    PTTG1, also known as securin, is an inactivating partner of separase, the major effector for chromosome segregation during mitosis. At the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, securin is targeted for proteasomal destruction by the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome, allowing activation of separase. In addition, securin is overexpressed in metastatic or genomically instable tumors, suggesting a relevant role for securin in tumor progression. Stability of securin is regulated by phosphorylation; some phosphorylated forms are degraded out of mitosis, by the action of the SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein (SCF) complex. The kinases targeting securin for proteolysis have not been identified, and mechanistic insight into the cause of securin accumulation in human cancers is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) phosphorylates securin to promote its proteolysis via SCF(βTrCP) E3 ubiquitin ligase. Importantly, a strong correlation between securin accumulation and GSK3β inactivation was observed in breast cancer tissues, indicating that GSK3β inactivation may account for securin accumulation in breast cancers.

  8. Anti-HIV activity in cervical-vaginal secretions from HIV-positive and -negative women correlate with innate antimicrobial levels and IgG antibodies.

    Mimi Ghosh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of antimicrobials in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL from HIV(+ and HIV(- women on target cell infection with HIV. Since female reproductive tract (FRT secretions contain a spectrum of antimicrobials, we hypothesized that CVL from healthy HIV(+ and (- women inhibit HIV infection.CVL from 32 HIV(+ healthy women with high CD4 counts and 15 healthy HIV(- women were collected by gently washing the cervicovaginal area with 10 ml of sterile normal saline. Following centrifugation, anti-HIV activity in CVL was determined by incubating CVL with HIV prior to addition to TZM-bl cells. Antimicrobials and anti-gp160 HIV IgG antibodies were measured by ELISA. When CXCR4 and CCR5 tropic HIV-1 were incubated with CVL from HIV(+ women prior to addition to TZM-bl cells, anti-HIV activity in CVL ranged from none to 100% inhibition depending on the viral strains used. CVL from HIV(- controls showed comparable anti-HIV activity. Analysis of CH077.c (clone of an R5-tropic, mucosally-transmitted founder virus viral inhibition by CVL was comparable to laboratory strains. Measurement of CVL for antimicrobials HBD2, trappin-2/elafin, SLPI and MIP3alpha indicated that each was present in CVL from HIV(+ and HIV(- women. HBD2 and MIP3alpha correlated with anti-HIV activity as did anti-gp160 HIV IgG antibodies in CVL from HIV(+ women.These findings indicate that CVL from healthy HIV(+ and HIV(- women contain innate and adaptive defense mechanisms that inhibit HIV infection. Our data suggest that innate endogenous antimicrobials and HIV-specific IgG in the FRT can act in concert to contribute toward the anti-HIV activity of the CVL and may play a role in inhibition of HIV transmission to women.

  9. Genotypic differences in arsenic, mercury, lead and cadmium in milled rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Jiang, Shuli; Shi, Chunhai; Wu, Jianguo

    2012-06-01

    The contents of arsenic, mercury, lead and cadmium in milled rice were determined. Among 216 genotypes, the As, Hg, Pb and Cd contents were ranged from 5.06 to 296.45, 2.46 to 65.85, 4.16 to 744.95 and 5.91 to 553.40 ng/g, respectively. Six genotypes with lower contents of toxic metal elements were selected. The averages of As and Pb contents for indica rice were higher than those of japonica rice, while the averages of Hg and Cd contents were in contrast. Compared with white brown rice, the milled rice from black and red brown rice contained lower contents of four elements. Significant negative correlation was found between As content and alkaline spread value. Significant correlations were observed between As and aspartic acid (Asp) content, Hg and Asp or leucine contents, Pb and cysteine or methionine contents. Cd content was significantly negatively correlated with protein and 14 amino acid contents.

  10. The Use of Bacteria for Remediation of Mercury Contaminated Groundwater

    Many processes of mercury transformation in the environment are bacteria mediated. Mercury properties cause some difficulties of remediation of mercury contaminated environment. Despite the significance of the problem of mercury pollution, methods of large scale bioremediation ...

  11. [Concentrations of mercury in ambient air in wastewater irrigated area of Tianjin City and its accumulation in leafy vegetables].

    Zheng, Shun-An; Han, Yun-Lei; Zheng, Xiang-Qun

    2014-11-01

    Gaseous Hg can evaporate and enter the plants through the stomata of plat leaves, which will cause a serious threat to local food safety and human health. For the risk assessment, this study aimed to characterize atmospheric mercury (Hg) as well as its accumulation in 5 leafy vegetables (spinach, edible amaranth, rape, lettuce, allium tuberosum) from sewage-irrigated area of Tianjin City. Bio-monitoring sites were located in paddy (wastewater irrigation for 30 a), vegetables (wastewater irrigation for 15 a) and grass (control) fields. Results showed that after long-term wastewater irrigation, the mean values of mercury content in paddy and vegetation fields were significantly higher than the local background value and the national soil environment quality standard value for mercury in grade I, but were still lower than grade II. Soil mercury contents in the studied control grass field were between the local background value and the national soil environment quality standard grade I . Besides, the atmospheric environment of paddy and vegetation fields was subjected to serious mercury pollution. The mean values of mercury content in the atmosphere of paddy and vegetation fields were 71.3 ng x m(-3) and 39.2 ng x m(-3), respectively, which were markedly higher than the reference gaseous mercury value on the north sphere of the earth (1.5-2.0 ng x m(-3)). The mean value of ambient mercury in the control grass fields was 9.4 ng x m(-3). In addition, it was found that the mercury content in leafy vegetables had a good linear correlation with the ambient total gaseous mercury (the data was transformed into logarithms as the dataset did not show a normal distribution). The comparison among 5 vegetables showed that the accumulations of mercury in vegetables followed this order: spinach > edible amaranth > allium tuberosum > rape > lettuce. Median and mean values of mercury contents in spinach and edible amaranth were greater than the hygienic standard for the allowable

  12. Elimination of mercury in health care facilities.

    2000-03-01

    Mercury is a persistent, bioaccumulative toxin that has been linked to numerous health effects in humans and wildlife. It is a potent neurotoxin that may also harm the brain, kidneys, and lungs. Unborn children and young infants are at particular risk for brain damage from mercury exposure. Hospitals' use of mercury in chemical solutions, thermometers, blood pressure gauges, batteries, and fluorescent lamps makes these facilities large contributors to the overall emission of mercury into the environment. Most hospitals recognize the dangers of mercury. In a recent survey, four out of five hospitals stated that they have policies in place to eliminate the use of mercury-containing products. Sixty-two percent of them require vendors to disclose the presence of mercury in chemicals that the hospitals purchase. Only 12 percent distribute mercury-containing thermometers to new parents. Ninety-two percent teach their employees about the health and environmental effects of mercury, and 46 percent teach all employees how to clean up mercury spills. However, the same study showed that many hospitals have not implemented their policies. Forty-two percent were not aware whether they still purchased items containing mercury. In addition, 49 percent still purchase mercury thermometers, 44 percent purchase mercury gastrointestinal diagnostic equipment, and 64 percent still purchase mercury lab thermometers.

  13. Assessment of chronic neuropsychological effects of mercury vapour poisoning in chloral-alkali plant workers.

    Pranjić, Nurka; Sinanović, Osman; Karamehić, Jasenko; Jakubović, Rusid

    2002-12-01

    A prospective case study was conducted in the Department of Occupational Medicine, Tuzla. The purpose of this study was to indicate negative effects from occupational exposure to mercury on behavioural and mental health, memory and psychomotor function that was tested in 46 chloral-alkali plant workers (mean age was 38. 8+/- 5. 7 years; mean age of occupational history 16. 5+/- 6. 0 years). Data on toxicological monitoring on atomic absorption spectrometer, and data on mental health were collected, psychiatric and other subjective symptoms, and behavioural, psychomotor and memory function tested. The data were compared to control group, 32 healthy non exposed workers. The study was designed to assess blood and urine mercury levels and length of occupational exposure and investigate its relationships to effects on the mental health. The mean air mercury levels were 0.23 mg/m3, the mean blood mercury concentrations was 3. 6 mg/ dl and the mean urine mercury concentrations were 151.7 +/- 180.4 mg/l. In 25 (53%) workers exposed to mercury vapour was identified Depression-Hypochondrias Syndrome (p trend 2. 9 mg/ dl, or urine mercury levels > 87 mg/l workers exposed to mercury vapour knew that toxic effects in body resulted in loosing some of intellectual abilities, and that people who handle chemicals had an increased health risk (ESW questionnaire). The occupational mercury exposed workers had introvert behaviour (EPQ). Aggressiveness was found in 71.7% workers. The cognitive disturbances: short-term memory loss, difficult to concentrate on tasks which require attention and thinking, were significantly differed compared to those of controls (p trend < 0. 001). In 24 (52%) exposed to mercury workers we have determined ego strength loss and regressive defensive mechanisms (LB). Handwriting disturbances-micrography we have identified in 27 (58.7%) workers.

  14. Mercury pollution: a transdisciplinary treatment

    Zuber, Sharon L; Newman, Michael C

    2012-01-01

    .... Also included are smaller case studies, such as the Minamata tragedy, fish consumption, and international treaties"-- "Mercury is the gravest chemical pollutant problem of our time, and this is...

  15. Mercury contamination in the Amazon

    Nancy Minogue

    contamination is mainly caused by deforestation upstream. ... The team expected to find that the mercury levels in the water, sediment, and soil decreased as they ... Methylmercury poisoning — known as Minamata Disease after the Japanese ...

  16. Mercury absorption in aqueous hypochlorite

    Zhao, L.L.; Rochelle, G.T.

    1999-01-01

    The absorption of elemental Hg vapor into aqueous hypochlorite was measured in a stirred tank reactor at 25 and 55C. NaOCl strongly absorbs Hg even at high pH. Low pH, high Cl - and high-temperature favor mercury absorption. Aqueous free Cl 2 was the active species that reacted with mercury. However, chlorine desorption was evident at high Cl - and pH 15 M -1 s -1 at 25C and 1.4x10 17 M -1 s -1 at 55C. Gas-phase reaction was observed between Hg and Cl 2 on apparatus surfaces. Strong mercury absorption in water was also detected with Cl 2 present. Results indicate that the chlorine concentration, moisture, and surface area contribute positively to mercury removal. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  17. Origin and composition of Mercury

    Lewis, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The predictions of the expected range of composition of Mercury at the time of its formation made on the basis of a suite of condensation-accretion models of Mercury spanning a range of condensation temperature and accretion sampling functions appropriate to Mercury are examined. It is concluded that these compositonal models can, if modified to take into account the nonselective loss of most of the silicate component of the planet during accretion, provide compositional predictions for the Weidenschilling (1978, 1980) mechanism for the accretion of a metal-rich Mercury. The silicate portion would, in this case, contain 3.6 to 4.5 percent alumina, roughly 1 percent of alkali oxides, and between 0.5 and 6 percent FeO

  18. Localized surface plasmon resonance mercury detection system and methods

    James, Jay; Lucas, Donald; Crosby, Jeffrey Scott; Koshland, Catherine P.

    2016-03-22

    A mercury detection system that includes a flow cell having a mercury sensor, a light source and a light detector is provided. The mercury sensor includes a transparent substrate and a submonolayer of mercury absorbing nanoparticles, e.g., gold nanoparticles, on a surface of the substrate. Methods of determining whether mercury is present in a sample using the mercury sensors are also provided. The subject mercury detection systems and methods find use in a variety of different applications, including mercury detecting applications.

  19. Mercury Toolset for Spatiotemporal Metadata

    Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Palanisamy, Giri; Green, James; Wilson, Bruce; Rhyne, B. Timothy; Lindsley, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Mercury (http://mercury.ornl.gov) is a set of tools for federated harvesting, searching, and retrieving metadata, particularly spatiotemporal metadata. Version 3.0 of the Mercury toolset provides orders of magnitude improvements in search speed, support for additional metadata formats, integration with Google Maps for spatial queries, facetted type search, support for RSS (Really Simple Syndication) delivery of search results, and enhanced customization to meet the needs of the multiple projects that use Mercury. It provides a single portal to very quickly search for data and information contained in disparate data management systems, each of which may use different metadata formats. Mercury harvests metadata and key data from contributing project servers distributed around the world and builds a centralized index. The search interfaces then allow the users to perform a variety of fielded, spatial, and temporal searches across these metadata sources. This centralized repository of metadata with distributed data sources provides extremely fast search results to the user, while allowing data providers to advertise the availability of their data and maintain complete control and ownership of that data. Mercury periodically (typically daily)harvests metadata sources through a collection of interfaces and re-indexes these metadata to provide extremely rapid search capabilities, even over collections with tens of millions of metadata records. A number of both graphical and application interfaces have been constructed within Mercury, to enable both human users and other computer programs to perform queries. Mercury was also designed to support multiple different projects, so that the particular fields that can be queried and used with search filters are easy to configure for each different project.

  20. Mercury Toolset for Spatiotemporal Metadata

    Wilson, Bruce E.; Palanisamy, Giri; Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Rhyne, B. Timothy; Lindsley, Chris; Green, James

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (http://mercury.ornl.gov) is a set of tools for federated harvesting, searching, and retrieving metadata, particularly spatiotemporal metadata. Version 3.0 of the Mercury toolset provides orders of magnitude improvements in search speed, support for additional metadata formats, integration with Google Maps for spatial queries, facetted type search, support for RSS (Really Simple Syndication) delivery of search results, and enhanced customization to meet the needs of the multiple projects that use Mercury. It provides a single portal to very quickly search for data and information contained in disparate data management systems, each of which may use different metadata formats. Mercury harvests metadata and key data from contributing project servers distributed around the world and builds a centralized index. The search interfaces then allow the users to perform a variety of fielded, spatial, and temporal searches across these metadata sources. This centralized repository of metadata with distributed data sources provides extremely fast search results to the user, while allowing data providers to advertise the availability of their data and maintain complete control and ownership of that data. Mercury periodically (typically daily) harvests metadata sources through a collection of interfaces and re-indexes these metadata to provide extremely rapid search capabilities, even over collections with tens of millions of metadata records. A number of both graphical and application interfaces have been constructed within Mercury, to enable both human users and other computer programs to perform queries. Mercury was also designed to support multiple different projects, so that the particular fields that can be queried and used with search filters are easy to configure for each different project.

  1. Feedback mechanisms between snow and atmospheric mercury: Results and observations from field campaigns on the Antarctic plateau.

    Spolaor, Andrea; Angot, Hélène; Roman, Marco; Dommergue, Aurélien; Scarchilli, Claudio; Vardè, Massimiliano; Del Guasta, Massimo; Pedeli, Xanthi; Varin, Cristiano; Sprovieri, Francesca; Magand, Olivier; Legrand, Michel; Barbante, Carlo; Cairns, Warren R L

    2018-04-01

    The Antarctic Plateau snowpack is an important environment for the mercury geochemical cycle. We have extensively characterized and compared the changes in surface snow and atmospheric mercury concentrations that occur at Dome C. Three summer sampling campaigns were conducted between 2013 and 2016. The three campaigns had different meteorological conditions that significantly affected mercury deposition processes and its abundance in surface snow. In the absence of snow deposition events, the surface mercury concentration remained stable with narrow oscillations, while an increase in precipitation results in a higher mercury variability. The Hg concentrations detected confirm that snowfall can act as a mercury atmospheric scavenger. A high temporal resolution sampling experiment showed that surface concentration changes are connected with the diurnal solar radiation cycle. Mercury in surface snow is highly dynamic and it could decrease by up to 90% within 4/6 h. A negative relationship between surface snow mercury and atmospheric concentrations has been detected suggesting a mutual dynamic exchange between these two environments. Mercury concentrations were also compared with the Br concentrations in surface and deeper snow, results suggest that Br could have an active role in Hg deposition, particularly when air masses are from coastal areas. This research presents new information on the presence of Hg in surface and deeper snow layers, improving our understanding of atmospheric Hg deposition to the snow surface and the possible role of re-emission on the atmospheric Hg concentration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Identifying a size-specific hazard of silica nanoparticles after intravenous administration and its relationship to the other hazards that have negative correlations with the particle size in mice

    Handa, Takayuki; Hirai, Toshiro; Izumi, Natsumi; Eto, Shun-ichi; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi; Nagano, Kazuya; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2017-03-01

    Many of the beneficial and toxic biological effects of nanoparticles have been shown to have a negative correlation with particle size. However, few studies have demonstrated biological effects that only occur at specific nanoparticle sizes. Further elucidation of the size-specific biological effects of nanoparticles may reveal not only unknown toxicities, but also novel benefits of nanoparticles. We used surface-unmodified silica particles with a wide range of diameters and narrow size intervals between the diameters (10, 30, 50, 70, 100, 300, and 1000 nm) to investigate the relationship between particle size and acute toxicity after intravenous administration in mice. Negative correlations between particle size and thrombocytopenia, liver damage, and lethal toxicity were observed. However, a specific size-effect was observed for the severity of hypothermia, where silica nanoparticles with a diameter of 50 nm induced the most severe hypothermia. Further investigation revealed that this hypothermia was mediated not by histamine, but by platelet-activating factor, and it was independent of the thrombocytopenia and the liver damage. In addition, macrophages/Kupffer cells and platelets, but not neutrophils, play a critical role in the hypothermia. The present results reveal that silica nanoparticles have particle size-specific toxicity in mice, suggesting that other types of nanoparticles may also have biological effects that only manifest at specific particle sizes. Further study of the size-specific effects of nanoparticles is essential for safer and more effective nanomedicines.

  3. Mercury concentration in black flies Simulium spp. (Diptera, Simuliidae) from soft-water streams in Ontario, Canada

    Harding, K.M.; Gowland, J.A.; Dillon, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Total Hg in Simulium spp. (Diptera, Simuliidae) was measured in 17 soft-water streams in the District of Muskoka and Haliburton County (Ontario, Canada) during 2003 and 2004. Black flies contained 0.07-0.64 μg/g total Hg (dry weight). The methylmercury concentration was measured in 6 samples of the 17, and ranged from 58% to 93% of total Hg. The concentration of total Hg is much higher than has been found in other filter feeding insects, and represents a significant potential source of Hg to fish. Mercury concentrations in Simulium spp. at different sites were strongly positively correlated with dissolved organic carbon, and the proportion of land within each catchment that was wetland. There was also a strong negative correlation with pH. By examining Hg concentration in filter feeding insects we have found a significant entry point for Hg and MeHg into the food web. - Accumulation of total mercury by black fly larvae is affected by stream pH, DOC and wetland area in the stream catchment

  4. Mercury concentration in black flies Simulium spp. (Diptera, Simuliidae) from soft-water streams in Ontario, Canada

    Harding, K.M. [Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Gowland, J.A. [Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Dillon, P.J. [Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada)]. E-mail: pdillon@trentu.ca

    2006-10-15

    Total Hg in Simulium spp. (Diptera, Simuliidae) was measured in 17 soft-water streams in the District of Muskoka and Haliburton County (Ontario, Canada) during 2003 and 2004. Black flies contained 0.07-0.64 {mu}g/g total Hg (dry weight). The methylmercury concentration was measured in 6 samples of the 17, and ranged from 58% to 93% of total Hg. The concentration of total Hg is much higher than has been found in other filter feeding insects, and represents a significant potential source of Hg to fish. Mercury concentrations in Simulium spp. at different sites were strongly positively correlated with dissolved organic carbon, and the proportion of land within each catchment that was wetland. There was also a strong negative correlation with pH. By examining Hg concentration in filter feeding insects we have found a significant entry point for Hg and MeHg into the food web. - Accumulation of total mercury by black fly larvae is affected by stream pH, DOC and wetland area in the stream catchment.

  5. Environmental Sampling FY03 Annual Report - Understanding the Movement of Mercury on the INEEL

    Michael L. Abbott

    2003-01-01

    Environmental mercury measurements were started in Fy-01 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) to monitor downwind impacts from on-going waste treatment operations at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) and to improve our scientific understanding of mercury fate and transport in this region. This document provides a summary of the sampling done in FY04. Continuous total gaseous mercury (TGM) measurements were made using a Tekran Model 2537A mercury vapor analyzer during October 2002 and from February through July 2003. The equipment was deployed in a self-contained field trailer at the Experimental Field Station (EFS) four kilometers downwind (northeast) of INTEC. Mercury surface-to-air flux measurements were made in October 2002 and from February through May 2003 to better understand the fate of the estimated 1500 kg of mercury emitted from 36 years of calciner operations at INTEC and to improve our scientific understanding of mercury environmental cycling in this region. Flux was measured using an INEEL-designed dynamic flux chamber system with a Tekran automated dual sampling (TADS) unit. Diel flux was positively correlated with solar radiation (r = 0.65), air temperature (r = 0.64), and wind speed (r = 0.38), and a general linear model for flux prediction at the INEEL was developed. Reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) was measured at EFS in July using a Tekran Model 1130 mercury speciation unit. Based on comparisons with other published data around the U.S., mercury air concentrations and surface flux rates directly downwind from INTEC were not distinguishable from remote area (non-industrial) background levels during the monitoring period

  6. Does seasonal snowpacks enhance or decrease mercury contamination of high elevation ecosystems?

    Pierce, A.; Fain, X.; Obrist, D.; Helmig, D.; Barth, C.; Jacques, H.; Chowanski, K.; Boyle, D.; William, M.

    2009-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is an extremely toxic pollutant globally dispersed in the environment. Natural and anthropogenic sources emit Hg to the atmosphere, either as gaseous elemental mercury (GEM; Hg0) or as divalent mercury species. Due to the long lifetime of GEM mercury contamination is not limited to industrialized sites, but also a concern in remote areas such as high elevation mountain environments. During winter and spring 2009, we investigated the fate of atmospheric mercury deposited to mountain ecosystems in the Sierra Nevada (Sagehen station, California, USA) and the Rocky Mountains (Niwot Ridge station, Colorado, USA). At Sagehen, we monitored mercury in snow (surface snow sampling and snow pits), wet deposition, and stream water during the snow-dominated season. Comparison of Hg stream discharge to snow Hg wet deposition showed that only a small fraction of Hg wet deposition reached stream in the melt water. Furthermore, Hg concentration in soil transects (25 different locations) showed no correlations to wet deposition Hg loads due to pronounced altitudinal precipitation gradient suggesting that Hg deposited to the snowpack was not transferred to ecosystems. At Niwot Ridge, further characterization of the chemical transformation involving mercury species within snowpacks was achieved by 3-months of continuous monitoring of GEM and ozone concentrations in the snow air at eight depths from the soil-snow interface to the top of the up to 2 meter deep snowpack. Divalent mercury concentrations were monitored as well (surface snow sampling and snow pits). GEM levels in snow air exhibited strong diurnal pattern indicative of both oxidation and reduction processes. Low levels of divalent mercury concentrations in snow pack suggest that large fractions of Hg originally deposited as wet deposition was reemitted back to the atmosphere after reduction. Hence, these results suggest that the presence of a seasonal snowpack may decrease effective wet deposition of mercury and

  7. Neuropsychological dysfunction related to earlier occupational exposure to mercury vapor

    E.C. Zachi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the neuropsychological test performances of 26 patients (mean age = 41.5 ± 6.1 years; mean years of education = 9.8 ± 1.8; 20 males diagnosed with chronic occupational mercurialism who were former workers at a fluorescent lamp factory. They had been exposed to elemental mercury for an average of 10.2 ± 3.8 years and had been away from this work for 6 ± 4.7 years. Mean urinary mercury concentrations 1 year after cessation of work were 1.8 ± 0.9 µg/g creatinine. Twenty control subjects matched for age, gender, and education (18 males were used for comparison. Neuropsychological assessment included attention, inhibitory control, verbal and visual memory, verbal fluency, manual dexterity, visual-spatial function, executive function, and semantic knowledge tests. The Beck Depression Inventory and the State and Trait Inventory were used to assess depression and anxiety symptoms, respectively. The raw score for the group exposed to mercury indicated slower information processing speed, inferior performance in psychomotor speed, verbal spontaneous recall memory, and manual dexterity of the dominant hand and non-dominant hand (P < 0.05. In addition, the patients showed increased depression and anxiety symptoms (P < 0.001. A statistically significant correlation (Pearson was demonstrable between mean urinary mercury and anxiety trait (r = 0.75, P = 0.03. The neuropsychological performances of the former workers suggest that occupational exposure to elemental mercury has long-term effects on information processing and psychomotor function, with increased depression and anxiety also possibly reflecting the psychosocial context.

  8. Mercury and selenium relationship in a tropical estuarine fish

    Ana Carolina Pizzochero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic systems have been considered as final sinks for persistent and bioaccumulative toxicants (PBTs, such as metals and organohalogen compounds. Among the trace elements, non-essential metals deserve special attention due to their toxicity. In this context, mercury (Hg should be highlighted due to its toxic effects, which comprise neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, genotoxicity, among others. Several studies have highlighted the selenium-mediated methylmercury detoxification process, via mercury selenide formation in tissues of marine vertebrates. Despite being an essential element, selenium may also be toxic in high concentrations. This study focused on Guanabara Bay (GB, a heavily polluted urban estuary in Rio de Janeiro state (Brazil, where the whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri provides a valuable fishery resource. Therefore, hepatic (Hg and Se and muscular (Hg concentrations of these elements were determined in GB whitemouth croakers. Mercury and selenium measurements were performed by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS and electrothermal AAS (ET-AAS, respectively. Total mercury (THg concentrations in muscle (n=19 ranged from 184.9 to 858.6 (ng/g, while in liver they varied from 11.05 to 1188 (ng/g. Hepatic selenium concentrations ranged from 7820 to 40085 (ng/g. The hepatic Se:THg molar ratio ranged from 40,8 to 3102,5. The results showed a significant correlation between hepatic mercury and selenium levels, but the molar ratio suggests the absence of mercury selenide formation. Some of the Se concentrations found were above the threshold level for freshwater fish (12000 ng/g; however, it is not yet clear if these concentrations are toxic for marine fish as well. More studies are necessary for evaluating the impact of such exposure in fish from Guanabara Bay.

  9. Negative CO

    Meysman, F.J.R.; Montserrat, F.

    2017-01-01

    Negative emission technologies (NETs) target the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, and are being actively investigated as a strategy to limit global warming to within the 1.5–2°C targets of the 2015 UN climate agreement. Enhanced silicate weathering (ESW) proposes to

  10. Negative Certainty

    Ariso, José María

    2017-01-01

    The definitions of "negative knowledge" and the studies in this regard published to date have not considered the categorial distinction Wittgenstein established between knowledge and certainty. Hence, the important role that certainty, despite its omission, should have in these definitions and studies has not yet been shown. In this…

  11. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2005-06-01

    Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems. Our current strategy is to engineer plants to

  12. Autometallographic tracing of mercury in frog liver

    Loumbourdis, N.S.; Danscher, G.

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of mercury in the liver of the frog Rana ridibunda with the autometallographic method was investigated. The mercury specific autometallographic (HgS/Se AMG ) technique is a sensitive histochemical approach for tracing mercury in tissues from mercury-exposed organisms. Mercury accumulates in vivo as mercury sulphur/mercury selenium nanocrystals that can be silver-enhanced. Thus, only a fraction of the Hg can be visualized. Six animals were exposed for one day and another group of six animals for 6 days in 1 ppm mercury (as HgCI 2 ) dissolved in fresh water. A third group of six animals, served as controls, were sacrificed the day of arrival at the laboratory. First, mercury appears in the blood plasma and erythrocytes. Next, mercury moves to hepatocytes and in the apical part of the cells, that facing bile canaliculi. In a next step, mercury appears in the endothelial and Kupffer cells. It seems likely that, the mercury of hepatocytes moves through bile canaliculi to the gut, most probably bound to glutathione and/or other similar ligands. Most probably, the endothelial and Kupffer cells comprise the first line of defense against metal toxicity. - Frogs can be good bioindicators of mercury

  13. Impact of gold mining associated with mercury contamination in soil, biota sediments and tailings in Kenya.

    Odumo, Benjamin Okang'; Carbonell, Gregoria; Angeyo, Hudson Kalambuka; Patel, Jayanti Purshottam; Torrijos, Manuel; Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio

    2014-11-01

    This work considered the environmental impact of artisanal mining gold activity in the Migori-Transmara area (Kenya). From artisanal gold mining, mercury is released to the environment, thus contributing to degradation of soil and water bodies. High mercury contents have been quantified in soil (140 μg kg(-1)), sediment (430 μg kg(-1)) and tailings (8,900 μg kg(-1)), as expected. The results reveal that the mechanism for transporting mercury to the terrestrial ecosystem is associated with wet and dry depositions. Lichens and mosses, used as bioindicators of pollution, are related to the proximity to mining areas. The further the distance from mining areas, the lower the mercury levels. This study also provides risk maps to evaluate potential negative repercussions. We conclude that the Migori-Transmara region can be considered a strongly polluted area with high mercury contents. The technology used to extract gold throughout amalgamation processes causes a high degree of mercury pollution around this gold mining area. Thus, alternative gold extraction methods should be considered to reduce mercury levels that can be released to the environment.

  14. Characterization of the binding capacity of mercurial species in Lactobacillus strains.

    Alcántara, Cristina; Jadán-Piedra, Carlos; Vélez, Dinoraz; Devesa, Vicenta; Zúñiga, Manuel; Monedero, Vicente

    2017-12-01

    Metal sequestration by bacteria has been proposed as a strategy to counteract metal contamination in foodstuffs. Lactobacilli can interact with metals, although studies with important foodborne metals such as inorganic [Hg(II)] or organic (CH 3 Hg) mercury are lacking. Lactobacilli were evaluated for their potential to bind these contaminants and the nature of the interaction was assessed by the use of metal competitors, chemical and enzymatical treatments, and mutants affected in the cell wall structure. Lactobacillus strains efficiently bound Hg(II) and CH 3 Hg. Mercury binding by Lactobacillus casei BL23 was independent of cell viability. In BL23, both forms of mercury were cell wall bound. Their interaction was not inhibited by cations and it was resistant to chelating agents and protein digestion. Lactobacillus casei mutants affected in genes involved in the modulation of the negative charge of the cell wall anionic polymer lipoteichoic acid showed increased mercury biosorption. In these mutants, mercury toxicity was enhanced compared to wild-type bacteria. These data suggest that lipoteichoic acid itself or the physicochemical characteristics that it confers to the cell wall play a major role in mercury complexation. This is the first example of the biosorption of Hg(II) and CH 3 Hg in lactobacilli and it represents a first step towards their possible use as agents for diminishing mercury bioaccessibility from food at the gastrointestinal tract. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Effects of methyl mercury exposure on the growth of juvenile common loons

    Kenow, K.P.; Gutreuter, S.; Hines, R.K.; Meyer, M.W.; Fournier, F.; Karasov, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a dose-response laboratory study to quantify the level of mercury exposure associated with negative effects on the development of common loon chicks reared in captivity from hatch to 105 days. A dose regimen was implemented that provided exposure levels that bracketed relevant exposure levels of methyl mercury found in loon chicks across North America. We observed no overt signs of mercury toxicosis and detected no significant effect of dietary mercury exposure on growth or food consumption. However, asymptotic mass was lower in chicks that hatched from eggs collected from nests on low pH lakes relative to eggs from neutral pH lakes. Rapid excretion of methyl mercury during feather growth likely provides loon chicks protection from methyl mercury toxicity and may explain the lack of convincing toxicological findings in this study. Lake-source effects suggest that in ovo exposure to methyl mercury or other factors related to lake pH have consequences on chick development.

  16. Mercury: Aspects of its ecology and environmental toxicity. [physiological effects of mercury compound contamination of environment

    Siegel, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of mercury pollution on the environment. The possible sources of mercury contamination in sea water are identified. The effects of mercury on food sources, as represented by swordfish, are analyzed. The physiological effects of varying concentrations of mercury are reported. Emphasis is placed on the situation existing in the Hawaiian Islands.

  17. 76 FR 13851 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell...

    2011-03-14

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali...-5] RIN 2060-AN99 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Supplemental...

  18. Groundwater Modeling Of Mercury Pollution At A Former Mercury Cell Chlor Alkali Facility In Pavoldar, Kazakhstan

    In Kazakhstan, there is a serious case of mercury pollution near the city of Pavlodar from an old mercury cell chlor-alkali plant. The soil, sediment, and water is severly contaminated with mercury and mercury compounds as a result of the industrial activity of this chemical pla...

  19. Mercury and trace element contents of Donbas coals and associated mine water in the vicinity of Donetsk, Ukraine

    Kolker, A.; Panov, B.S.; Panov, Y.B.; Landa, E.R.; Conko, K.M.; Korchemagin, V.A.; Shendrik, T.; McCord, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Mercury-rich coals in the Donets Basin (Donbas region) of Ukraine were sampled in active underground mines to assess the levels of potentially harmful elements and the potential for dispersion of metals through use of this coal. For 29 samples representing c11 to m3 Carboniferous coals, mercury contents range from 0.02 to 3.5 ppm (whole-coal dry basis). Mercury is well correlated with pyritic sulfur (0.01 to 3.2 wt.%), with an r2 of 0.614 (one outlier excluded). Sulfides in these samples show enrichment of minor constituents in late-stage pyrite formed as a result of interaction of coal with hydrothermal fluids. Mine water sampled at depth and at surface collection points does not show enrichment of trace metals at harmful levels, indicating pyrite stability at subsurface conditions. Four samples of coal exposed in the defunct open-cast Nikitovka mercury mines in Gorlovka have extreme mercury contents of 12.8 to 25.5 ppm. This coal was formerly produced as a byproduct of extracting sandstone-hosted cinnabar ore. Access to these workings is unrestricted and small amounts of extreme mercury-rich coal are collected for domestic use, posing a limited human health hazard. More widespread hazards are posed by the abandoned Nikitovka mercury processing plant, the extensive mercury mine tailings, and mercury enrichment of soils extending into residential areas of Gorlovka.

  20. Cadmium, mercury, zinc and selenium in ringed seals (Phoca hispida from Greenland and Svalbard

    Run Dietz

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscle, liver, and kidney tissue from 456 ringed seals (Phoca hispida from eight areas in Greenland were analysed for cadmium, mercury, zinc and selenium. In general, cadmium concentrations were high in liver and kidney tissue, with geometric means of 7.79 and 33.5 μg/g (all data on wet weight basis, respectively. Muscle levels were considerably lower, at 0.067 μg/g. The concentration of mercury was relatively high in liver tissue with a geometric mean of 2.59 μg/g. Muscle and kidney mercury levels were somewhat lower, with geometric means of 0.210 and 0.956 μg/g, respectively. Cadmium and mercury levels were strongly dependent upon age and sampling area, as well as the interaction combinations, indicating that the accumulation of cadmium and mercury varies with age and area. Mercury accumulated in all three tissues throughout life, whereas cadmium in liver and kidneys peaked in the age group 5-10 years old where after it dropped significantly. Cadmium levels showed a tendency towards higher concentrations in the northern municipalities, which may be due to the higher cadmium levels in certain prey items in the northern areas. Mercury levels were higher in seals from East Greenland compared to West Greenland. Variations in feeding habits probably explain some of the differences in levels of cadmium and mercury in ringed seals from different geographical areas. Cadmium concentrations were correlated (both pairwise and partial in the three organs. This was true for mercury as well, whereas only half of the combinations were significant for zinc and selenium. Cadmium was strongly correlated to mercury in all three tissues and zinc only in liver and kidneys. Mercury was only correlated to selenium in liver and not to zinc. High concentrations of cadmium were found in the bile from 58 ringed seals, and were about 10-fold higher than in muscle. The concentration of mercury in bile was relatively low, being only one third of the

  1. Mercury - the hollow planet

    Rothery, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Mercury is turning out to be a planet characterized by various kinds of endogenous hole (discounting impact craters), which are compared here. These include volcanic vents and collapse features on horizontal scales of tens of km, and smaller scale depressions ('hollows') associated with bright crater-floor deposits (BCFD). The BCFD hollows are tens of metres deep and kilometres or less across and are characteristically flat-floored, with steep, scalloped walls. Their form suggests that they most likely result from removal of surface material by some kind of mass-wasting process, probably associated with volume-loss caused by removal (via sublimation?) of a volatile component. These do not appear to be primarily a result of undermining. Determining the composition of the high-albedo bluish surface coating in BCFDs will be a key goal for BepiColombo instruments such as MIXS (Mercury Imaging Xray Spectrometer). In contrast, collapse features are non-circular rimless pits, typically on crater floors (pit-floor craters), whose morphology suggests collapse into void spaces left by magma withdrawal. This could be by drainage of either erupted lava (or impact melt) or of shallowly-intruded magma. Unlike the much smaller-scale BCFD hollows, these 'collapse pit' features tend to lack extensive flat floors and instead tend to be close to triangular in cross-section with inward slopes near to the critical angle of repose. The different scale and morphology of BCFD hollows and collapse pits argues for quite different modes of origin. However, BCFD hollows adjacent to and within the collapse pit inside Scarlatti crater suggest that the volatile material whose loss was responsible for the growth of the hollows may have been emplaced in association with the magma whose drainage caused the main collapse. Another kind of volcanic collapse can be seen within a 25 km-wide volcanic vent outside the southern rim of the Caloris basin (22.5° N, 146.1° E), on a 28 m/pixel MDIS NAC image

  2. Mercury in dated Greenland marine sediments

    Asmund, G.; Nielsen, S.P.

    2000-01-01

    Twenty marine sediment cores from Greenland were analysed for mercury, and dated by the lead-210 method. In general the cores exhibit a mercury profile with higher mercury concentrations in the upper centimetres of the core. The cores were studied by linear regression of In Hg vs, age of the sedi......Twenty marine sediment cores from Greenland were analysed for mercury, and dated by the lead-210 method. In general the cores exhibit a mercury profile with higher mercury concentrations in the upper centimetres of the core. The cores were studied by linear regression of In Hg vs, age...... indicating that the mercury mainly originates from atmospheric washout. But the large variability indicates that other processes also influence the mercury flux to Arctic marine sediments. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  3. Sorption of mercury on chemically synthesized polyaniline

    Remya Devi, P.S.; Verma, R.; Sudersanan, M.

    2006-01-01

    Sorption of inorganic mercury (Hg 2+ ) and methyl mercury, on chemically synthesized polyaniline, in 0.1-10N HCl solutions has been studied. Hg 2+ is strongly sorbed at low acidities and the extent of sorption decreases with increase in acidity. The sorption of methyl mercury is very low in the HCl concentration range studied. Sorption of Hg 2+ on polyaniline in 0.1-10N LiCl and H 2 SO 4 solutions has also been studied. The analysis of the data indicates that the sorption of Hg 2+ depends on the degree of protonation of polyaniline and the nature of mercury(II) chloride complexes in solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis (XPS) of polyaniline sorbed with mercury show that mercury is bound as Hg 2+ . Sorbed mercury is quantitatively eluted from polyaniline with 0.5N HNO 3 . Polyaniline can be used for separation and pre-concentration of inorganic mercury from aqueous samples. (author)

  4. Mercury-Containing Devices and Demolition

    Some items inside residential buildings contain mercury, which poses a persistent and toxic human health and environmental threat. These materials should be carefully salvaged for proper recycling to prevent mercury contamination prior to demolition.

  5. EPA Leadership in the Global Mercury Partnership

    The Global Mercury Partnership is a voluntary multi-stakeholder partnership initiated in 2005 to take immediate actions to protect human health and the environment from the releases of mercury and its compounds to the environment.

  6. Mercury in Thana creek, Bombay harbour

    Zingde, M.D.; Desai, B.N.

    weight) with marked increased from harbour to the creek region suggests substantial mercury input in the head region. Chemical extraction by hydrogen peroxide indicated that more than 70% of mercury was leachable and probably organically bound...

  7. Mercury Lander Mission Concept Study Summary

    Eng, D. A.

    2018-05-01

    Provides a summary of the Mercury Lander Mission Concept Study performed as part of the last Planetary Decadal Survey. The presentation will focus on engineering trades and the challenges of developing a Mercury lander mission.

  8. The mercury species and their association with carbonaceous compositions, bromine and iodine in PM2.5 in Shanghai.

    Duan, Lian; Xiu, Guangli; Feng, Ling; Cheng, Na; Wang, Chenggang

    2016-03-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected in south Shanghai from November 2013 to October 2014. The species of particulate bounded mercury (PBM), including hydrochloric soluble particle-phase mercury (HPM), element soluble particle-phase mercury (EPM) and residual soluble particle-phase mercury (RPM), were determined in PM2.5. The chemical composition of PM2.5 including organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), total bromine and iodine were also analyzed. The results showed that the annual average concentration of PBM was 0.30 ± 0.31 ng m(-3) and 0.34 ± 0.32 ng m(-3) in winter, 0.31 ± 0.19 ng m(-3) in spring, 0.30 ± 0.45 ng m(-3) in fall and 0.28 ± 0.17 ng m(-3) in summer. HPM took the highest fraction 51.2% in PBM, followed by RPM 27.7% and EPM 21.1%. EC positively correlated to particle mercury, especially in winter (r = 0.70), the same for OC in winter (r = 0.72), which indicated that the carbonaceous composition may affect the transformation of Hg in the atmosphere. Mercury species showed different correlations with bromine and iodine in the four seasons. The strongest correlation between bromine, iodine and mercury was found in spring and fall, respectively. Bromine showed the stronger correlation with total mercury and speciated particle mercury than iodine. In addition, the days were classified into haze and non-haze days based on the visibility and relative humidity, while the ratio of HPM in haze days was much higher than that in non-haze days. EC strongly correlated with PBM during haze and non-haze days while OC only positively correlated with PBM in non-haze days, this may indicate that the different carbonaceous part may affect PBM differently. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mercury Emission Measurement in Coal-Fired Boilers by Continuous Mercury Monitor and Ontario Hydro Method

    Zhu, Yanqun; Zhou, Jinsong; He, Sheng; Cai, Xiaoshu; Hu, Changxin; Zheng, Jianming; Zhang, Le; Luo, Zhongyang; Cen, Kefa

    2007-06-01

    The mercury emission control approach attaches more importance. The accurate measurement of mercury speciation is a first step. Because OH method (accepted method) can't provide the real-time data and 2-week time for results attained, it's high time to seek on line mercury continuous emission monitors(Hg-CEM). Firstly, the gaseous elemental and oxidized mercury were conducted to measure using OH and CEM method under normal operation conditions of PC boiler after ESP, the results between two methods show good consistency. Secondly, through ESP, gaseous oxidized mercury decrease a little and particulate mercury reduce a little bit, but the elemental mercury is just the opposite. Besides, the WFGD system achieved to gaseous oxidized mercury removal of 53.4%, gaseous overall mercury and elemental mercury are 37.1% and 22.1%, respectively.

  10. Potency of Mangrove Apple (Sonneratia alba as Mercury Bioindicator

    Muhammad Reza Cordova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The anthropogenic provide a negative impact on the surrounding environment. Mangrove species, such as Sonneratia alba would get the impact of anthropogenic activities, to accumulate the pollution of heavy metals. The aim of this study were to evaluate mercury accumulation in Mangrove Apple (S. alba and to analyze mangrove apple potency as mercury bioindicator. Samples were taken in April 2016 at Pari Island, Seribu Islands by purposive sampling. The results showed that the highest concentration of Hg in the Northern of Pari Island was found in the leaves and the lowest was in the fruit. The highest concentration of Hg in the Eastern of Pari Island was found in the leaves and lowest was in the fruit. The concentrations of Hg in the Eastern area higher the Northern area (significantly different. The accumulation of Hg mainly collected on the leaves with TF> 1, but the ability of S. alba trees absorb Hg in the environment showed a small value, namely BCF <1. The ability of S. alba in sediments, contaminated with mercury showed a high value of the leaves in the East Pari Island, but the fruit of S. alba both in the North and East of the Pari Island showed a small value.  Mangrove Apple leaves has a potency as mercury bioindicator organ.

  11. Method for the removal and recovery of mercury

    Easterly, Clay E.; Vass, Arpad A.; Tyndall, Richard L.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.

  12. Hair mercury concentrations and associated factors in an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China

    Ni, Wenqing [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Chen, Yaowen [Central Laboratory of Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China); Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Zhang, Gairong [Central Laboratory of Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China); Luo, Jiayi [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Wu, Kusheng, E-mail: kswu@stu.edu.cn [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China)

    2014-01-15

    Objective: Toxic heavy metals are released to the environment constantly from unregulated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of mercury (Hg) and other heavy metals levels in human hair. We aimed to investigate concentrations of mercury in hair from Guiyu and potential risk factors and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste processing occurs. Methods: A total of 285 human hair samples were collected from three villages (including Beilin, Xianma, and Huamei) of Guiyu (n=205) and the control area, Jinping district of Shantou city (n=80). All the volunteers were administered a questionnaire regarding socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors contributed to hair mercury concentration. Hair mercury concentration was analyzed by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Results: Our results suggested that hair mercury concentrations in volunteers of Guiyu (median, 0.99; range, 0.18–3.98 μg/g) were significantly higher than those of Jinping (median, 0.59; range, 0.12–1.63 μg/g). We also observed a higher over-limit ratio (>1 μg/g according to USEPA) in Guiyu than in Jinping (48.29% vs. 11.25%, P<0.001). Logistic regression model showed that the variables of living house also served as an e-waste workshop, work related to e-waste, family income, time of residence in Guiyu, the distance between home and waste incineration, and fish intake were associated with hair mercury concentration. After multiple stepwise regression analysis, in the Guiyu samples, hair mercury concentration was found positively associated with the time residence in Guiyu (β=0.299, P<0.001), and frequency of shellfish intake (β=0.184, P=0.016); and negatively associated with the distance between home and waste incineration (β=−0.190, P=0.015) and whether house also served as e-waste workshop (β=−0.278, P=0.001). Conclusions: This study investigated human mercury exposure

  13. Hair mercury concentrations and associated factors in an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China

    Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Gairong; Luo, Jiayi; Wu, Kusheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Toxic heavy metals are released to the environment constantly from unregulated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of mercury (Hg) and other heavy metals levels in human hair. We aimed to investigate concentrations of mercury in hair from Guiyu and potential risk factors and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste processing occurs. Methods: A total of 285 human hair samples were collected from three villages (including Beilin, Xianma, and Huamei) of Guiyu (n=205) and the control area, Jinping district of Shantou city (n=80). All the volunteers were administered a questionnaire regarding socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors contributed to hair mercury concentration. Hair mercury concentration was analyzed by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Results: Our results suggested that hair mercury concentrations in volunteers of Guiyu (median, 0.99; range, 0.18–3.98 μg/g) were significantly higher than those of Jinping (median, 0.59; range, 0.12–1.63 μg/g). We also observed a higher over-limit ratio (>1 μg/g according to USEPA) in Guiyu than in Jinping (48.29% vs. 11.25%, P<0.001). Logistic regression model showed that the variables of living house also served as an e-waste workshop, work related to e-waste, family income, time of residence in Guiyu, the distance between home and waste incineration, and fish intake were associated with hair mercury concentration. After multiple stepwise regression analysis, in the Guiyu samples, hair mercury concentration was found positively associated with the time residence in Guiyu (β=0.299, P<0.001), and frequency of shellfish intake (β=0.184, P=0.016); and negatively associated with the distance between home and waste incineration (β=−0.190, P=0.015) and whether house also served as e-waste workshop (β=−0.278, P=0.001). Conclusions: This study investigated human mercury exposure

  14. Study of the environmental cycling of mercury

    Garcia Frades, J P; Hildebrand, S G; Huckabee, J W; Murias, B; Diaz, F S; Wilson, R H

    1977-01-01

    A study of mercury in the environment is under way near the mercury mine at Almaden, Spain. The main aspects of the project are: ecology; atmospheric monitoring; and human studies. The mercury deposit at Almaden is described. The liquid effluent from the mine and smelter contains high concentrations of mercury that pollute nearby rivers. Sample collection and analytical methods used in the ecological survey are reviewed. Ecological experiments are considered. Air monitoring studies and human studies currently being performed are assessed. (1 map)

  15. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2004-12-01

    Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems.

  16. ICP OES and CV AAS in determination of mercury in an unusual fatal case of long-term exposure to elemental mercury in a teenager.

    Lech, Teresa

    2014-04-01

    In this work, a case of deliberate self-poisoning is presented. A 14-year-old girl suddenly died during one of the several hospitalizations. Abdominal computer tomography showed a large number of metallic particles in the large intestine. Analysis of blood and internal organs for mercury and other toxic metals carried out by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) revealed high concentrations of mercury in kidneys and liver (64,200 and 2470ng/g, respectively), less in stomach (90ng/g), and none in blood. Using cold vapor-atomic absorption spectrometry (CV AAS), high levels of mercury were confirmed in all examined materials, including blood (87ng/g), and additionally in hair. The results of analysis obtained by two techniques revealed that the exposure to mercury was considerable (some time later, it was stated that the mercury originated from thermometers that had been broken over the course of about 1 year, because of Münchausen syndrome). CV AAS is a more sensitive technique, particularly for blood samples (negative results using ICP OES), and tissue samples - with LOQ: 0.63ng/g of Hg (CV AAS) vis-à-vis 70ng/g of Hg (ICP OES). However, ICP OES may be used as a screening technique for autopsy material in acute poisoning by a heavy metal, even one as volatile as mercury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 18q loss of heterozygosity in microsatellite stable colorectal cancer is correlated with CpG island methylator phenotype-negative (CIMP-0 and inversely with CIMP-low and CIMP-high

    Kirkner Gregory J

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP with widespread promoter methylation is a distinct epigenetic phenotype in colorectal cancer, associated with microsatellite instability-high (MSI-high and BRAF mutations. 18q loss of heterozygosity (LOH commonly present in colorectal cancer with chromosomal instability (CIN is associated with global hypomethylation in tumor cell. A recent study has shown an inverse correlation between CIN and CIMP (determined by MINTs, p16, p14 and MLH1 methylation in colorectal cancer. However, no study has examined 18q LOH in relation to CIMP-high, CIMP-low (less extensive promoter methylation and CIMP-0 (CIMP-negative, determined by quantitative DNA methylation analysis. Methods: Utilizing MethyLight technology (real-time PCR, we quantified DNA methylation in 8 CIMP-specific promoters {CACNA1G, CDKN2A (p16, CRABP1, IGF2, MLH1, NEUROG1, RUNX3 and SOCS1} in 758 non-MSI-high colorectal cancers obtained from two large prospective cohorts. Using four 18q microsatellite markers (D18S55, D18S56, D18S67 and D18S487 and stringent criteria for 18q LOH, we selected 374 tumors (236 LOH-positive tumors with ≥ 2 markers showing LOH; and 138 LOH-negative tumors with ≥ 3 informative markers and no LOH. Results: CIMP-0 (0/8 methylated promoters was significantly more common in 18q LOH-positive tumors (59% = 139/236, p = 0.002 than 18q LOH-negative tumors (44% = 61/138, while CIMP-low/high (1/8–8/8 methylated promoters was significantly more common (56% in 18q LOH-negative tumors than 18q LOH-positive tumors (41%. These relations persisted after stratification by sex, location, or the status of MSI, p53 expression (by immunohistochemistry, or KRAS/BRAF mutation. Conclusion: 18q LOH is correlated positively with CIMP-0 and inversely with CIMP-low and CIMP-high. Our findings provide supporting evidence for relationship between CIMP-0 and 18q LOH as well as a molecular difference between CIMP-0 and CIMP-low in

  18. 18q loss of heterozygosity in microsatellite stable colorectal cancer is correlated with CpG island methylator phenotype-negative (CIMP-0) and inversely with CIMP-low and CIMP-high.

    Ogino, Shuji; Kawasaki, Takako; Kirkner, Gregory J; Ohnishi, Mutsuko; Fuchs, Charles S

    2007-05-02

    The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) with widespread promoter methylation is a distinct epigenetic phenotype in colorectal cancer, associated with microsatellite instability-high (MSI-high) and BRAF mutations. 18q loss of heterozygosity (LOH) commonly present in colorectal cancer with chromosomal instability (CIN) is associated with global hypomethylation in tumor cell. A recent study has shown an inverse correlation between CIN and CIMP (determined by MINTs, p16, p14 and MLH1 methylation) in colorectal cancer. However, no study has examined 18q LOH in relation to CIMP-high, CIMP-low (less extensive promoter methylation) and CIMP-0 (CIMP-negative), determined by quantitative DNA methylation analysis. Utilizing MethyLight technology (real-time PCR), we quantified DNA methylation in 8 CIMP-specific promoters {CACNA1G, CDKN2A (p16), CRABP1, IGF2, MLH1, NEUROG1, RUNX3 and SOCS1} in 758 non-MSI-high colorectal cancers obtained from two large prospective cohorts. Using four 18q microsatellite markers (D18S55, D18S56, D18S67 and D18S487) and stringent criteria for 18q LOH, we selected 374 tumors (236 LOH-positive tumors with > or = 2 markers showing LOH; and 138 LOH-negative tumors with > or = 3 informative markers and no LOH). CIMP-0 (0/8 methylated promoters) was significantly more common in 18q LOH-positive tumors (59% = 139/236, p = 0.002) than 18q LOH-negative tumors (44% = 61/138), while CIMP-low/high (1/8-8/8 methylated promoters) was significantly more common (56%) in 18q LOH-negative tumors than 18q LOH-positive tumors (41%). These relations persisted after stratification by sex, location, or the status of MSI, p53 expression (by immunohistochemistry), or KRAS/BRAF mutation. 18q LOH is correlated positively with CIMP-0 and inversely with CIMP-low and CIMP-high. Our findings provide supporting evidence for relationship between CIMP-0 and 18q LOH as well as a molecular difference between CIMP-0 and CIMP-low in colorectal cancer.

  19. Altered miRNA expression in the cervix during pregnancy associated with lead and mercury exposure

    Sanders, Alison P; Burris, Heather H; Just, Allan C; Motta, Valeria; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Svensson, Katherine; Oken, Emily; Solano-Gonzalez, Maritsa; Mercado-Garcia, Adriana; Pantic, Ivan; Schwartz, Joel; Tellez-Rojo, Martha M; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Wright, Robert O

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Toxic metals including lead and mercury are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study aimed to assess the association between miRNA expression in the cervix during pregnancy with lead and mercury levels. Materials & methods: We obtained cervical swabs from pregnant women (n = 60) and quantified cervical miRNA expression. Women's blood lead, bone lead and toenail mercury levels were analyzed. We performed linear regression to examine the association between metal levels and expression of 74 miRNAs adjusting for covariates. Results: Seventeen miRNAs were negatively associated with toenail mercury levels, and tibial bone lead levels were associated with decreased expression of miR-575 and miR-4286. Conclusion: The findings highlight miRNAs in the human cervix as novel responders to maternal chemical exposure during pregnancy. PMID:26418635

  20. Mercury Continuous Emmission Monitor Calibration

    John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster; Joseph Rovani

    2009-03-12

    Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMs) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks throughput the U.S. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor calibrators/generators. These devices are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 and vacated by a Federal appeals court in early 2008 required that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Despite the vacature, mercury emissions regulations in the future will require NIST traceable calibration standards, and EPA does not want to interrupt the effort towards developing NIST traceability protocols. The traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued a conceptual interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The EPA traceability protocol document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of calibrator models by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the calibrators that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma

  1. MERCURY IN FISHERY PRODUCTS FROM CENTRAL ADRIATIC SEA (OFFICIAL CONTROLS FROM 1995 TO 2009

    C. Ciccarelli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to its properties, methylmercury is the most bioavailable form of mercury compounds. In fact, it causes the most toxic effects on the immune, cardiovascular, renal and central nervous systems, in particular the fetal brain. Seafood consumption is recognized as being the largest environmental mercury source to most human populations. So, fishery products are the most important source of methylmercury exposure in human. As the mercury burden of fish increases for transference to upper trophic levels (biomagnification, piscivors have the potential to accumulate extremely high mercury loads, in the methylated form, 70 to 100% in the muscular tissues. Reg. CE 1881/2006 sets, lastly, allowed maximum levels of mercury in seafood. Several authors found out an increase of mercury levels with size of carnivorous fishes. But this relationship strictly depends on fish species, and is a result of the interaction between environmental and physiological effects. This paper describes the results of a monitoring of mercury levels in fishery products, from 1995 to 2009, before they were sold by auction in the Wholesale Fish Market in the town of San Benedetto del Tronto. The authors’aim was to set a correlation between increasing fish size (weight and loads of the metal up to maximum levels by law.

  2. Ship-Based Measurements of Atmospheric Mercury Concentrations over the Baltic Sea

    Hanna Hoglind

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a toxic pollutant emitted from both natural sources and through human activities. A global interest in atmospheric mercury has risen ever since the discovery of the Minamata disease in 1956. Properties of gaseous elemental mercury enable long range transport, which can cause pollution even in pristine environments. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM was measured from winter 2016 to spring 2017 over the Baltic Sea. A Tekran 2357A mercury analyser was installed aboard the research and icebreaking vessel Oden for the purpose of continuous measurements of gaseous mercury in ambient air. Measurements were performed during a campaign along the Swedish east coast and in the Bothnian Bay near Lulea during the icebreaking season. Data was evaluated from Gothenburg using plotting software, and back trajectories for air masses were calculated. The GEM average of 1.36 ± 0.054 ng/m3 during winter and 1.29 ± 0.140 ng/m3 during spring was calculated as well as a total average of 1.36 ± 0.16 ng/m3. Back trajectories showed a possible correlation of anthropogenic sources elevating the mercury background level in some areas. There were also indications of depleted air, i.e., air with lower concentrations than average, being transported from the Arctic to northern Sweden, resulting in a drop in GEM levels.

  3. Mercury Exposure in a Riverside Amazon Population, Brazil: A Study of the Ototoxicity of Methylmercury

    Hoshino, Ana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Mercury poisoning causes hearing loss in humans and animals. Acute and long-term exposures produce irreversible peripheral and central auditory system damage, and mercury in its various forms of presentation in the environment is ototoxic. Objective We investigated the otoacoustic emissions responses in a riverside population exposed to environmental mercury by analyzing the inhibitory effect of the medial olivocochlear system (MOCS on transient otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE. Methods The purpose of the research was to evaluate the entire community independently of variables of sex and age. All of the participants were born and lived in a riverside community. After otolaryngologic evaluation, participants were received tympanometry, evaluation of contralateral acoustic reflexes, pure tone audiometry, and recording of TEOAEs with nonlinear click stimulation. Hair samples were collect to measure mercury levels. Results There was no significant correlation between the inhibitory effect of the MOCS, age, and the level of mercury in the hair. Conclusions The pathophysiological effects of chronic exposure may be subtle and nonspecific and can have a long period of latency; therefore, it will be important to monitor the effects of mercury exposure in the central auditory system of the Amazon population over time. Longitudinal studies should be performed to determine whether the inhibitory effect of the MOCS on otoacoustic emissions can be an evaluation method and diagnostic tool in populations exposed to mercury.

  4. Using Sulfate-Amended Sediment Slurry Batch Reactors to Evaluate Mercury Methylation

    Harmon, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the methylated form, mercury represents a concern to public health primarily through the consumption of contaminated fish tissue. Research conducted on the methylation of mercury strongly suggests the process is microbial in nature and facilitated principally by sulfate-reducing bacteria. This study addressed the potential for mercury methylation by varying sulfate treatments and wetland-based soil in microbial slurry reactors with available inorganic mercury. Under anoxic laboratory conditions conducive to growth of naturally occurring sulfate-reducing bacteria in the soil, it was possible to evaluate how various sulfate additions influenced the methylation of inorganic mercury added to overlying water. Treatments included sulfate amendments ranging FR-om 25 to 500 mg/L (0.26 to 5.2 mM) above the soil's natural sulfate level. This study also provided an assessment of mercury methylation relative to sulfate-reducing bacterial population growth and subsequent sulfide production. Mercury methylation in sulfate treatments did not exceed that of the non-amended control during a 35-day incubation. However, increases in methylmercury concentration were linked to bacterial growth and sulfate reduction. A time lag in methylation in the highest treatment correlated with an equivalent lag in bacterial growth

  5. MODELING MERCURY CONTROL WITH POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON

    The paper presents a mathematical model of total mercury removed from the flue gas at coal-fired plants equipped with powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection for Mercury control. The developed algorithms account for mercury removal by both existing equipment and an added PAC in...

  6. Plain formation on Mercury: tectonic implications

    Thomas, P.

    1980-01-01

    Four major plain units, plus intermediates, are distinguished on Mercury. The chronologic relationships between these plains indicate that plains formation was a permanent process on Mercury. Their location and morphology seem to indicate a possible volcanic origin for these plains. The relationships between tectonism and volcanism seems to indicate the global contraction is not the only tectonic process on Mercury. (Auth.)

  7. 21 CFR 872.3700 - Dental mercury.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental mercury. 872.3700 Section 872.3700 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3700 Dental mercury. (a) Identification. Dental mercury is a... dental cavity or a broken tooth. (b) Classification. Class I. ...

  8. Quarter 9 Mercury information clearinghouse final report

    Laudal, D.L.; Miller, S.; Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.; Ralston, N.; Dunham, G.; Weber, G.

    2005-12-15

    The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) identified a need and contracted the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to create and maintain an information clearinghouse on global research and development activities related to mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. A total of eight reports were completed and are summarized and updated in this final CEA quarterly report. Selected topics were discussed in detail in each quarterly report. Issues related to mercury from coal-fired utilities include the general areas of measurement, control, policy, and transformations. Specific topics that have been addressed in previous quarterly reports include the following: Quarterly 1 - Sorbent Control Technologies for Mercury Control; Quarterly 2 - Mercury Measurement; Quarterly 3 - Advanced and Developmental Mercury Control Technologies; Quarterly 4 - Prerelease of Mercury from Coal Combustion By-Products; Quarterly 5 - Mercury Fundamentals; Quarterly 6 - Mercury Control Field Demonstrations; Quarterly 7 - Mercury Regulations in the United States: Federal and State; and Quarterly 8 - Commercialization Aspects of Sorbent Injection Technologies in Canada. In this last of nine quarterly reports, an update of these mercury issues is presented that includes a summary of each topic, with recent information pertinent to advances made since the quarterly reports were originally presented. In addition to a comprehensive update of previous mercury-related topics, a review of results from the CEA Mercury Program is provided. 86 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. 40 CFR 721.10068 - Elemental mercury.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Elemental mercury. 721.10068 Section... Substances § 721.10068 Elemental mercury. (a) Definitions. The definitions in § 721.3 apply to this section... elemental mercury (CAS. No. 7439-97-6) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  10. Mercury bioaccumulation in the Mediterranean

    Cinnirella S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study details mercury pollution within the food chain of the Mediterranean by analysing the most comprehensive mercury dataset available for biota and water measurements. In this study we computed a bioaccumulation factor (BAF for datasets in the existing mercury-related scientific literature, in on-going programs, and in past measurement campaigns. Preliminary results indicate a major lack of information, making the outcome of any assessment very uncertain. Importantly, not all marine eco-regions are (or have ever been covered by measurement campaigns. Most lacking is information associated with the South-Eastern part of the Mediterranean, and in several eco-regions it is still impossible to reconstruct a trophic net, as the required species were not accounted for when mercury measurements were taken. The datasets also have additional temporal sampling problems, as species were often not sampled systematically (but only sporadically during any given sampling period. Moreover, datasets composed of mercury concentrations in water also suffer from similar geographic limitations, as they are concentrated in the North-Western Mediterranean. Despite these concerns, we found a very clear bioaccumulation trend in 1999, the only year where comprehensive information on both methylmercury concentrations in water and biota was available.

  11. Dietary whole-grain wheat increases intestinal levels of bifidobacteria in humans and bifidobacterial abundance is negatively correlated with the effect of fecal water on trans-epithelial resistance in vitro

    Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Licht, Tine Rask; Kristensen, M.

    Consumption of whole grain products are considered to have beneficial effects on human health including decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, effects on gut microbial composition have only been studied limitedly. We used quantitative PCR to determine changes in the gut bacterial...... composition in post-menopausal women following a 12-week energy restricted intervention with whole-grain wheat (WW, n=37) or refined wheat (RW, n=33). The WW intervention significantly increased the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium. Caco-2 cells were exposed to fecal water to determine effects...... of the bacterial community metabolites on the trans-epithelial resistance (TER). Fecal water increased TER independent of diet, indicating that commensal bacteria provide metabolites facilitating an increase in intestinal integrity. TER was unexpectedly found to be negatively correlated to the relative abundance...

  12. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) fluxes over canopy of two typical subtropical forests in south China

    Yu, Qian; Luo, Yao; Wang, Shuxiao; Wang, Zhiqi; Hao, Jiming; Duan, Lei

    2018-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) exchange between forests and the atmosphere plays an important role in global Hg cycling. The present estimate of global emission of Hg from natural source has large uncertainty, partly due to the lack of chronical and valid field data, particularly for terrestrial surfaces in China, the most important contributor to global atmospheric Hg. In this study, the micrometeorological method (MM) was used to continuously observe gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) fluxes over forest canopy at a mildly polluted site (Qianyanzhou, QYZ) and a moderately polluted site (Huitong, HT, near a large Hg mine) in subtropical south China for a full year from January to December in 2014. The GEM flux measurements over forest canopy in QYZ and HT showed net emission with annual average values of 6.67 and 0.30 ng m-2 h-1, respectively. Daily variations of GEM fluxes showed an increasing emission with the increasing air temperature and solar radiation in the daytime to a peak at 13:00, and decreasing emission thereafter, even as a GEM sink or balance at night. High temperature and low air Hg concentration resulted in the high Hg emission in summer. Low temperature in winter and Hg absorption by plant in spring resulted in low Hg emission, or even adsorption in the two seasons. GEM fluxes were positively correlated with air temperature, soil temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation, while it is negatively correlated with air humidity and atmospheric GEM concentration. The lower emission fluxes of GEM at the moderately polluted site (HT) when compared with that in the mildly polluted site (QYZ) may result from a much higher adsorption fluxes at night in spite of a similar or higher emission fluxes during daytime. This shows that the higher atmospheric GEM concentration at HT restricted the forest GEM emission. Great attention should be paid to forests as a crucial increasing Hg emission source with the decreasing atmospheric GEM concentration in polluted areas because of Hg

  13. Glutathione level after long-term occupational elemental mercury exposure

    Kobal, Alfred Bogomir; Prezelj, Marija; Horvat, Milena; Krsnik, Mladen; Gibicar, Darija; Osredkar, Josko

    2008-01-01

    Many in vitro and in vivo studies have elucidated the interaction of inorganic mercury (Hg) and glutathione. However, human studies are limited. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of remote long-term intermittent occupational elemental Hg vapour (Hg o ) exposure on erythrocyte glutathione levels and some antioxidative enzyme activities in ex-mercury miners in the period after exposure. The study included 49 ex-mercury miners divided into subgroups of 28 still active, Hg o -not-exposed miners and 21 elderly retired miners, and 41 controls, age-matched to the miners subgroup. The control workers were taken from 'mercury-free works'. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized disulphide glutathione (GSSG) concentrations in haemolysed erythrocytes were determined by capillary electrophoresis, while total glutathione (total GSH) and the GSH/GSSG ratio were calculated from the determined values. Catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in erythrocytes were measured using commercially available reagent kits, while urine Hg (U-Hg) concentrations were determined by cold vapour atomic absorption (CVAAS). No correlation of present U-Hg levels, GSH, GSSG, and antioxidative enzymes with remote occupational biological exposure indices were found. The mean CAT activity in miners and retired miners was significantly higher (p o could be an inductive and additive response to maintain the balance between GSH and antioxidative enzymes in interaction with the Hg body burden accumulated during remote occupational exposure, which does not represent a severely increased oxidative stress

  14. Enzymatic Mercury Detoxification: The Regulatory Protein MerR

    Ctortecka, B; Walsh, C T; Comess, K M

    2002-01-01

    Mercury ions and organomercurial reagents are extremely toxic due to their affinity for thiol groups. Many bacteria contain an elaborate detoxification system for a metabolic conversion of toxic Hg$^{2+}$ or organomercurials to less toxic elemental Hg$^0$. The main components of the enzymatic mercury detoxification (see Fig. 1) are the regulatory protein MerR (mercury responsive genetic switch), the organomercurial lyase MerB (cleavage of carbon mercury bonds), and the mercuric ion reductase MerA (reduction of mercuric ions). In these proteins Hg$^{2+}$ is usually coordinated by the thiol groups of cysteines. We utilize the nuclear quadrupole interaction (NQI) of ${\\rm^{199m}}$Hg detected by time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) to identify the Hg metal site geometries in these proteins in order to elucidate the molecular origin of the ultrasensitivity, selectivity and reaction mechanism of this detoxification system. The short lived TDPAC probe ${\\rm^{199m}}$Hg ($\\tau_{1/2} =$ 43 min) is su...

  15. Control of mercury emissions: policies, technologies, and future trends

    Rhee, Seung-Whee

    2015-01-01

    Seung-Whee Rhee Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyonggi University, Suwon, Republic of Korea Abstract: Owing to the Minamata Convention on Mercury and the Global Mercury Partnership, policies and regulations on mercury management in advanced countries were intensified by a mercury phaseout program in the mercury control strategy. In developing countries, the legislative or regulatory frameworks on mercury emissions are not established specifically, but mercury management is designed...

  16. Significant reduction of peripheral blood interleukin-35 and CD4+EBI3+ T cells, which are negatively correlated with an increase in the plasma IL-17 and cTnI level, in viral myocarditis patients

    Han Ouyang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Viral myocarditis (VMC has become an increasingly common heart disease that endangers human health. In the present study, the plasma interleukin-35 (IL-35 level and the percentage of CD4 + EBI3 + T cells in VMC patients were detected to investigate the significance of changes in these parameters in the plasma of VMC patients and their association with the disease. Material and methods: ELISA was performed to detect the plasma IL-35 level and the percentage of peripheral blood CD4 + EBI3 + T cells in 40 VMC patients and in 20 healthy individuals. Moreover, the plasma IL-17 levels in the VMC patients and in the healthy individuals were detected using an ELISA, and the cardiac Troponin-I (cTnI levels were detected using a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay to compare the differences in the groups. Results : Plasma IL-35 level and the percentage of CD4 + EBI3 + T cells in acute phase VMC patients was lower than that in the healthy control group and the convalescent phase VMC patients. Additionally, the plasma IL-35 level in the VMC patients exhibited a negative correlation with the levels of cTnI and IL-17. The percentage of CD4 + EBI3 + T cells also showed a negative correlation with the levels of cTnI and IL-17. Conclusions : The plasma IL-35 level and the percentage of CD4 + EBI3 + T cells in VMC patients was reduced, and the amount of the decrease was associated with the severity of the disease. These results suggest that IL-35 and CD4 + EBI3 + T might play important roles in the progression of VMC and could be used as indictors of the disease.

  17. Impact of wildfire on levels of mercury in forested watershed systems - Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Brigham, Mark E.; Cannon, William F.

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition of mercury to remote lakes in mid-continental and eastern North America has increased approximately threefold since the mid-1800s (Swain and others, 1992; Fitzgerald and others, 1998; Engstrom and others, 2007). As a result, concerns for human and wildlife health related to mercury contamination have become widespread. Despite an apparent recent decline in atmospheric deposition of mercury in many areas of the Upper Midwest (Engstrom and Swain, 1997; Engstrom and others, 2007), lakes in which fish contain levels of mercury deemed unacceptable for human consumption and possibly unacceptable for fish-consuming wildlife are being detected with increasing frequency. In northern Minnesota, Voyageurs National Park (VNP) (fig. 1) protects a series of southern boreal lakes and wetlands situated on bedrock of the Precambrian Canadian Shield. Mercury contamination has become a significant resource issue within VNP as high concentrations of mercury in loons, bald eagle eaglets, grebes, northern pike, and other species of wildlife and fish have been found. The two most mercury-contaminated lakes in Minnesota, measured as methylmercury in northern pike (Esox lucius), are in VNP. Recent multidisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research demonstrated that the bulk of the mercury in lake waters, soils, and fish in VNP results from atmospheric deposition (Wiener and others, 2006). The study by Wiener and others (2006) showed that the spatial distribution of mercury in watershed soils, lake waters, and age-1 yellow perch (Perca flavescens) within the Park was highly variable. The majority of factors correlated for this earlier study suggested that mercury concentrations in lake waters and age-1 yellow perch reflected the influence of ecosystem processes that affected within-lake microbial production and abundance of methylmercury (Wiener and others, 2006), while the distribution of mercury in watershed soils seemed to be partially dependent on forest

  18. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  19. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of

  20. Apparatus for control of mercury

    Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing mercury in industrial gases such as the flue gas produced by the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal adds hydrogen sulfide to the flue gas in or just before a scrubber of the industrial process which contains the wet scrubber. The method and apparatus of the present invention is applicable to installations employing either wet or dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization systems. The present invention uses kraft green liquor as a source for hydrogen sulfide and/or the injection of mineral acids into the green liquor to release vaporous hydrogen sulfide in order to form mercury sulfide solids.

  1. The Cut-off Value of Blood Mercury Concentration in Relation to Insulin Resistance

    Seok-Hoon Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background : Increased blood mercury concentration is associated with inflammation, and chronic inflammation can cause insulin resistance. We examined the cut-off value of blood mercury in relation to an increased score on the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Methods : We used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2010. Relevant data from 5,184 subjects (2,523 men and 2,661 women were analyzed cross-sectionally. General linear analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between HOMA-IR score and blood mercury concentration. In addition, we determined the cut-off value of blood mercury concentration in relation to increased HOMA-IR score (> 2.34 using an ROC curve. Results : The mean value of blood mercury concentration in men and women was 5.88 μg/L and 4.11 μg/L, respectively. In men, comparing to the first quartile, HOMA-IR score increased significantly in the third and fourth blood mercury quartiles. In women, however, the increase in HOMA-IR score was not significant. The cut-off value that best represented the association between increased HOMA-IR score and blood mercury concentration in men was found to be 4.71 μg/L. Conclusion : Blood mercury concentration was associated with increased HOMA-IR score in men, and the cut-off value of blood mercury concentration that was correlated with increased HOMA-IR score was around 4.71 μg/L.

  2. Characteristics and source appointment of atmospheric particulate mercury over East China Sea: Implication on the deposition of atmospheric particulate mercury in marine environment.

    Duan, Lian; Cheng, Na; Xiu, Guangli; Wang, Fujiang; Chen, Ying

    2017-05-01

    Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) samples were collected at Huaniao Island in northern East China Sea (ECS) from March 2012 to January 2013. Chemical analysis were conducted to measure the concentration of total particulate mercury (TPM) and speciated particulate mercury including HCl-soluble particulate mercury (HPM), elemental particulate mercury (EPM) and residual particulate mercury (RPM). The bromine (Br) and iodine (I) on particles were also detected. The mean concentration of TPM during the study period was 0.23 ± 0.15 ng m -3 , while the obviously seasonal variation was found that the concentrations of TPM in spring, summer, fall and winter were 0.34 ± 0.20 ng m -3 , 0.15 ± 0.03 ng m -3 , 0.15 ± 0.05 ng m -3 and 0.27 ± 0.26 ng m -3 , respectively. The statistically strong correlation of bromine and iodine to HPM was only found in spring with r = 0.81 and 0.77 (p mercury due to the deposition of mercury over the sea. The cluster of air mass across the sea had low concentration of HPM in winter, which suggested that the oxidation of mercury in winter might be related to other oxidants. During the whole sampling period, the air mass from the north of China contributed to the higher concentration of TPM in Huaniao Island. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mercury cycling in surface water, pore water and sediments of Mugu Lagoon, CA, USA

    Rothenberg, Sarah E. [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, Box 951772, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1772 (United States)], E-mail: rothenberg.sarah@gmail.com; Ambrose, Richard F. [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, Box 951772, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1772 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Box 951772, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1772 (United States)], E-mail: rambrose@ucla.edu; Jay, Jennifer A. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Box 951593, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1593 (United States)], E-mail: jjay@seas.ucla.edu

    2008-07-15

    Mugu Lagoon is an estuary in southern California, listed as impaired for mercury. In 2005, we examined mercury cycling at ten sites within at most four habitats. In surface water (unfiltered and filtered) and pore water, the concentration of total mercury was correlated with methylmercury levels (R{sup 2} = 0.29, 0.26, 0.27, respectively, p < 0.05), in contrast to sediments, where organic matter and reduced iron levels were most correlated with methylmercury content (R{sup 2} = 0.37, 0.26, respectively, p < 0.05). Interestingly, levels for percent methylmercury of total mercury in sediments were higher than typical values for estuarine sediments (average 5.4%, range 0.024-38%, n = 59), while pore water methylmercury K{sub d} values were also high (average 3.1, range 2.0-4.2 l kg{sup -1}, n = 39), and the estimated methylmercury flux from sediments was low (average 1.7, range 0.14-5.3 ng m{sup -2} day{sup -1}, n = 19). Mercury levels in predatory fish tissue at Mugu are >0.3 ppm, suggesting biogeochemical controls on methylmercury mobility do not completely mitigate methylmercury uptake through the food web. - Trends in mercury cycling differed between habitats and within matrices at Mugu Lagoon.

  4. Blood Mercury Level and Its Determinants among Dental Practitioners in Hamadan, Iran

    M. Vahedi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Exposure to mercury can occur in occupational and environmental settings.During clinical work with dental amalgam, the dental personnel are exposed to both metallic mercury and mercury vapor. The aim of the present study was to investigate bloodmercury level (BML and its determinants among dentists practicing in Hamadan city,Iran.Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was done on all dental practitioners of Hamadan (n=43. Dentists were asked to complete a questionnaire, and then 5 ml bloodsamples were obtained from them. After preparation, mercury concentration of each sample was measured by cold vapor atomic absorption device. Pearson correlation test and regression models served for statistical analysis.Results: The mean blood concentration of mercury was 6.3 μg/l (SD=1.31 range 4.15-8.93. BML was positively associated with age, years in practice, working hours per day,number of amalgam restorations per day, number of amalgam removal per week, sea foodconsumption, working years in present office, using amalgam powder, using diamond bur for amalgam removal, dry sterilization of amalgam contaminated instruments, and deficient air ventilation.Conclusion: BML of dentists in Hamadan was higher than standards. Working hours and number of amalgam restorations per day were significantly correlated with blood mercury.

  5. Maternal Steller sea lion diets elevate fetal mercury concentrations in an area of population decline

    Rea, Lorrie D., E-mail: lorrie.rea@alaska.gov [Division of Wildlife Conservation, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fairbanks, AK 99701 (United States); Castellini, J. Margaret, E-mail: maggie.c@alaska.edu [Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Correa, Lucero, E-mail: lucero.correa@alaska.gov [Division of Wildlife Conservation, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fairbanks, AK 99701 (United States); Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Fadely, Brian S., E-mail: brian.fadely@noaa.gov [National Marine Mammal Laboratory, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, Seattle, WA 98115 (United States); O' Hara, Todd M., E-mail: tmohara@alaska.edu [Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Total mercury concentrations ([THg]) measured in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lion pup hair were the highest maximum [THg] documented in this endangered species to date. Some pups exceeded concentrations at which other fish-eating mammals can exhibit adverse neurological and reproductive effects (21% and 15% pups above 20 and 30 μg/g in hair, respectively). Of particular concern is fetal exposure to mercury during a particularly vulnerable stage of neurological development in late gestation. Hair and blood [THg] were highly correlated and 20% of pups sampled in the western Aleutian Islands of Alaska exceeded mammalian risk thresholds established for each of these tissues. Higher nitrogen isotope ratios suggested that pups accumulated the highest [THg] when their dams fed on higher trophic level prey during late gestation. - Highlights: • High total mercury concentrations in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lions • Some pups exceeded thresholds for adverse neurological and reproductive effects. • Fetal exposure to mercury during a vulnerable stage of neurological development • Mercury concentrations in hair were highly correlated with circulating blood levels. • High mercury levels in pups related to dams feeding on high trophic level prey.

  6. Maternal Steller sea lion diets elevate fetal mercury concentrations in an area of population decline

    Rea, Lorrie D.; Castellini, J. Margaret; Correa, Lucero; Fadely, Brian S.; O'Hara, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    Total mercury concentrations ([THg]) measured in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lion pup hair were the highest maximum [THg] documented in this endangered species to date. Some pups exceeded concentrations at which other fish-eating mammals can exhibit adverse neurological and reproductive effects (21% and 15% pups above 20 and 30 μg/g in hair, respectively). Of particular concern is fetal exposure to mercury during a particularly vulnerable stage of neurological development in late gestation. Hair and blood [THg] were highly correlated and 20% of pups sampled in the western Aleutian Islands of Alaska exceeded mammalian risk thresholds established for each of these tissues. Higher nitrogen isotope ratios suggested that pups accumulated the highest [THg] when their dams fed on higher trophic level prey during late gestation. - Highlights: • High total mercury concentrations in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lions • Some pups exceeded thresholds for adverse neurological and reproductive effects. • Fetal exposure to mercury during a vulnerable stage of neurological development • Mercury concentrations in hair were highly correlated with circulating blood levels. • High mercury levels in pups related to dams feeding on high trophic level prey

  7. Determination of mercury in air by adsorption on Hopcalite and by neutron activation analysis

    Leyni-Barbaz, D.; Zikovsky, L.; Poissant, L.

    2002-01-01

    A new method for the determination of mercury in air has been developed. It combines the adsorption of mercury on Hopcalite (a material approved for this purpose by the National Institute of Health of the United States) and its quantification by neutron activation. The concentrations of mercury in office air in Montreal, Canada, were determined by instrumental semiabsolute neutron activation analysis. They varied from 39 to 48 ng/m 3 . The results were compared with the concentrations of mercury in office air determined simultaneously at the same place by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrophotometry. A close correlation between the results of the 2 methods was obtained. The detection limit of our method is about 14 ng/m 3 . (author)

  8. Mercury accumulation plant Cyrtomium macrophyllum and its potential for phytoremediation of mercury polluted sites.

    Xun, Yu; Feng, Liu; Li, Youdan; Dong, Haochen

    2017-12-01

    Cyrtomium macrophyllum naturally grown in 225.73 mg kg -1 of soil mercury in mining area was found to be a potential mercury accumulator plant with the translocation factor of 2.62 and the high mercury concentration of 36.44 mg kg -1 accumulated in its aerial parts. Pot experiments indicated that Cyrtomium macrophyllum could even grow in 500 mg kg -1 of soil mercury with observed inhibition on growth but no obvious toxic effects, and showed excellent mercury accumulation and translocation abilities with both translocation and bioconcentration factors greater than 1 when exposed to 200 mg kg -1 and lower soil mercury, indicating that it could be considered as a great mercury accumulating species. Furthermore, the leaf tissue of Cyrtomium macrophyllum showed high resistance to mercury stress because of both the increased superoxide dismutase activity and the accumulation of glutathione and proline induced by mercury stress, which favorited mercury translocation from the roots to the aerial parts, revealing the possible reason for Cyrtomium macrophyllum to tolerate high concentration of soil mercury. In sum, due to its excellent mercury accumulation and translocation abilities as well as its high resistance to mercury stress, the use of Cyrtomium macrophyllum should be a promising approach to remediating mercury polluted soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mercury emission monitoring on municipal waste combustion

    Braun, H.; Gerig, A.

    1991-01-01

    In waste incineration, mercury is the only heavy metal to be released as a gas, mostly as mercury(II) chloride, because of its high volatility. Continuous emission monitoring is possible only when mercury occurs in its elemental form. This paper reports on various possibilities of converting Hg(II) into Hg(0) that has been studied and tested on a laboratory scale and in the TAMARA refuse incineration pilot facility. Continuous mercury emission measurement appears to be possible, provided mercury is converted in the flue gas condensate precipitated. The measuring results obtained on two municipal solid waste and on one sewage treatment sludge incineration plants show that the mercury monitor is a highly sensitive and selective continuously working instrument for mercury emission monitoring

  10. Genetic effects of organic mercury compounds

    Ramel, C

    1967-01-01

    Organic mercury compounds have a c-mitotic effect on plant cells that cause polyploidi. Studies were performed on Allium root cells. These investigations involved methyl mercury dicyandiamide, methyl mercury hydroxide, and phenyl mercury hydroxide. The lowest concentration necessary for a cytologically observable effect was about 0.05 ppM Hg for the methyl compounds. For the phenyl compound, the value was lower. Experiments were performed on Drosophila melanogaster. The question was whether the mercury would reach the gonads. Experimental data with mercury treated larvae indicated a chromosome disjunction. Data indicated a preferential segregation at the meiotic division might be involved. Experiments are being performed on mice inbred (CBA) in order to investigate teratogenic effects and dominant lethality caused by organic mercury compounds. The mutagenic effects of these compounds are studied on Neurospora Drosophila. No conclusive data is now available.

  11. Mathematical modeling and comparison of protein size distribution in different plant, animal, fungal and microbial species reveals a negative correlation between protein size and protein number, thus providing insight into the evolution of proteomes

    Tiessen Axel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sizes of proteins are relevant to their biochemical structure and for their biological function. The statistical distribution of protein lengths across a diverse set of taxa can provide hints about the evolution of proteomes. Results Using the full genomic sequences of over 1,302 prokaryotic and 140 eukaryotic species two datasets containing 1.2 and 6.1 million proteins were generated and analyzed statistically. The lengthwise distribution of proteins can be roughly described with a gamma type or log-normal model, depending on the species. However the shape parameter of the gamma model has not a fixed value of 2, as previously suggested, but varies between 1.5 and 3 in different species. A gamma model with unrestricted shape parameter described best the distributions in ~48% of the species, whereas the log-normal distribution described better the observed protein sizes in 42% of the species. The gamma restricted function and the sum of exponentials distribution had a better fitting in only ~5% of the species. Eukaryotic proteins have an average size of 472 aa, whereas bacterial (320 aa and archaeal (283 aa proteins are significantly smaller (33-40% on average. Average protein sizes in different phylogenetic groups were: Alveolata (628 aa, Amoebozoa (533 aa, Fornicata (543 aa, Placozoa (453 aa, Eumetazoa (486 aa, Fungi (487 aa, Stramenopila (486 aa, Viridiplantae (392 aa. Amino acid composition is biased according to protein size. Protein length correlated negatively with %C, %M, %K, %F, %R, %W, %Y and positively with %D, %E, %Q, %S and %T. Prokaryotic proteins had a different protein size bias for %E, %G, %K and %M as compared to eukaryotes. Conclusions Mathematical modeling of protein length empirical distributions can be used to asses the quality of small ORFs annotation in genomic releases (detection of too many false positive small ORFs. There is a negative correlation between average protein size and total number of

  12. Mercury risk in poultry in the Wanshan Mercury Mine, China

    Yin, Runsheng; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Guangyi; Feng, Zhaohui; Hurley, James P.; Yang, Liyuan; Shang, Lihai; Feng, Xinbin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in muscles (leg and breast), organs (intestine, heart, stomach, liver) and blood were investigated for backyard chickens, ducks and gees