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Sample records for mercury contaminated area

  1. Mixed Waste Focus Area mercury contamination product line: An integrated approach to mercury waste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulet, G.A.; Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is tasked with ensuring that solutions are available for the mixed waste treatment problems of the DOE complex. During the MWFA's initial technical baseline development process, three of the top four technology deficiencies identified were related to the need for amalgamation, stabilization, and separation/removal technologies for the treatment of mercury and mercury-contaminated mixed waste. The focus area grouped mercury-waste-treatment activities into the mercury contamination product line under which development, demonstration, and deployment efforts are coordinated to provide tested technologies to meet the site needs. The Mercury Working Group (HgWG), a selected group of representatives from DOE sites with significant mercury waste inventories, is assisting the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing efforts to address these areas. Based on the scope and magnitude of the mercury mixed waste problem, as defined by HgWG, solicitations and contract awards have been made to the private sector to demonstrate amalgamation and stabilization processes using actual mixed wastes. Development efforts are currently being funded under the product line that will address DOE's needs for separation/removal processes. This paper discusses the technology selection process, development activities, and the accomplishments of the MWFA to date through these various activities

  2. Mercury contamination of soils in vicinity of historical mining area

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hojdová, Maria; Navrátil, Tomáš; Rohovec, Jan; Penížek, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 34, 4/6 (2008), s. 1340257-1340257 ISSN 0161-6951. [International Geological Congress /33./. 06.08.2008-14.08.2008, Oslo ] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB300130615 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : mercury * speciation * thermo-desorption analysis * mining * soils Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry

  3. Mercury contamination extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Mark [Silver Spring, MD; Heiser, John [Bayport, NY; Kalb, Paul [Wading River, NY

    2009-09-15

    Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

  4. Environmental contamination of mercury from Hg-mining areas in Wuchuan, northeastern Guizhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu Guangle [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 73 Guanshui Road, Guiyang, Guizhou 550002 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Feng Xinbin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 73 Guanshui Road, Guiyang, Guizhou 550002 (China)]. E-mail: fengxinbin@vip.skleg.cn; Wang Shaofeng [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 73 Guanshui Road, Guiyang, Guizhou 550002 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Shang Lihai [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 73 Guanshui Road, Guiyang, Guizhou 550002 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China)

    2006-08-15

    Total Hg and methyl-Hg were evaluated in mine wastes, soils, water, and vegetations from the Wuchuan Hg-mining areas, Guizhou, China. Mine wastes contain high total Hg concentrations, ranging from 79 to 710 {mu}g g{sup -1}, and methyl-Hg from 0.32 to 3.9 ng g{sup -1}. Total Hg in soil samples range from 0.33 to 320 {mu}g g{sup -1} and methyl-Hg from 0.69 to 20 ng g{sup -1}. Vegetations present a high average total Hg concentration of 260 ng g{sup -1}, which greatly exceeds the maximum Hg concentration of 20 ng g{sup -1} recommended by the Chinese National Standard Agency for food sources. The rice samples contain elevated methyl-Hg concentrations, ranging from 4.2 to 18 ng g{sup -1}. Stream water collected from Hg-mining areas is also contaminated, containing Hg as high as 360 ng l{sup -1}, and methyl-Hg reaches up to 5.7 ng l{sup -1}. Data indicate heavy Hg-contaminations and significant conversion of methyl-Hg in the study areas. - Mercury mining activities in Wuchun, Guizhou, China have resulted in seriously mercury contamination to the local environment.

  5. Environmental contamination of mercury from Hg-mining areas in Wuchuan, northeastern Guizhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Guangle; Feng Xinbin; Wang Shaofeng; Shang Lihai

    2006-01-01

    Total Hg and methyl-Hg were evaluated in mine wastes, soils, water, and vegetations from the Wuchuan Hg-mining areas, Guizhou, China. Mine wastes contain high total Hg concentrations, ranging from 79 to 710 μg g -1 , and methyl-Hg from 0.32 to 3.9 ng g -1 . Total Hg in soil samples range from 0.33 to 320 μg g -1 and methyl-Hg from 0.69 to 20 ng g -1 . Vegetations present a high average total Hg concentration of 260 ng g -1 , which greatly exceeds the maximum Hg concentration of 20 ng g -1 recommended by the Chinese National Standard Agency for food sources. The rice samples contain elevated methyl-Hg concentrations, ranging from 4.2 to 18 ng g -1 . Stream water collected from Hg-mining areas is also contaminated, containing Hg as high as 360 ng l -1 , and methyl-Hg reaches up to 5.7 ng l -1 . Data indicate heavy Hg-contaminations and significant conversion of methyl-Hg in the study areas. - Mercury mining activities in Wuchun, Guizhou, China have resulted in seriously mercury contamination to the local environment

  6. Investigation on the level and movement of Mercury contaminants around storage areas and food processing factories in Hassahesa town, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelrahman, Nawal Ahmed Mohamed

    1999-11-01

    A total of 62 surface soil samples were taken from various sites in Hassahesa town and analyzed for total mercury level using X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Sites were chosen to represent the soil of pesticide store, food processing factories (involved in using contaminated seeds as fuel), near stock of redundant cotton seeds and neighbouring cotton fields. Control soils were sampled from similar soil type south Hassahesa town. The results indicated an elevated mercury level in all samples analyzed far exceeding the background and normal range for mercury in soil. The highest level of contamination was found in soil of the pesticide store (51ppm), followed by the tow food factories (24 ppm and 19 ppm). Horizontal movement of mercury contaminants at various rates from foci of area selected was noticed, wind direction and/ or topography apparently had some role in this movement. The level of total mercury in the control soil was exceeding the background and normal range for mercury in soils reported from other places. Various aspects of levels of mercury contamination, their movements, transportation and toxicological impacts on various forms of life were discussed.(Author)

  7. Investigation on the level and movement of mercury contaminants around storage areas and food processing factories in Hassahesa town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelrahman, Nawal Ahmed Mohamed

    1999-11-01

    A total of 62 surface soil samples were taken from various sites in Hassahesa town and analyzed for total mercury level using x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Sites were chosen to represent the soil of pesticide store, food processing factories (involved in using contaminated seeds as fuel), nera stock of redundant cotton seeds and neighbouring cotton fields. Control soils were sampled from similar soil type south Hassahesa town. The results indicated an elevated mercury level in all samples analyzed far exceeding the background and normal range for mercury in soil. The highest level of contamination was found in soil of pesticide store (51 ppm), followed by the two food factories (24 ppm and 19 ppm). Horizontal movement of mercury contaminants at various rates from foci of areas selected was noticed, wind direction and/or topography apparently had some role in this movement. The level of total mercury in the control soil was exceeding the background and normal range for mercury in soils reported from other places. Various aspects of levels of mercury contamination, their movements, transportation and toxicological impacts on various forms of life were discussed. (Author)

  8. Removal of mercury (Hg) from contaminated water at traditional gold mining area in Central Kalimantan

    OpenAIRE

    Wilopo, Wahyu; Rahman, Denizar; Eka Putra, Doni Prakasa; Warmada, I Wayan

    2015-01-01

    There are many traditional gold mining and processing in Murung Raya Regency, Central Kalimantan. The processing of gold mostly uses mercury (Hg) and produces a lot of waste water. It just throws to the river without any treatment. Therefore the concentration of mercury (Hg) in the river water is over than the standard of drinking water and reach up to 0.346 mg dm-3. This situation is very dangerous because almost of the people in the downstream area depend on the river water for their daily ...

  9. Mercury contamination in the Amazon

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nancy Minogue

    contamination is mainly caused by deforestation upstream. ... The team expected to find that the mercury levels in the water, sediment, and soil decreased as they ... Methylmercury poisoning — known as Minamata Disease after the Japanese ...

  10. Human exposure and risk assessment associated with mercury contamination in artisanal gold mining areas in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilhos, Zuleica; Rodrigues-Filho, Saulo; Cesar, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Villas-Bôas, Roberto; de Jesus, Iracina; Lima, Marcelo; Faial, Kleber; Miranda, Antônio; Brabo, Edilson; Beinhoff, Christian; Santos, Elisabeth

    2015-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination is an issue of concern in the Amazon region due to potential health effects associated with Hg exposure in artisanal gold mining areas. The study presents a human health risk assessment associated with Hg vapor inhalation and MeHg-contaminated fish ingestion, as well as Hg determination in urine, blood, and hair, of human populations (about 325 miners and 321 non-miners) from two gold mining areas in the Brazilian Amazon (São Chico and Creporizinho, Pará State). In São Chico and Creporizinho, 73 fish specimens of 13 freshwater species, and 161 specimens of 11 species, were collected for total Hg determination, respectively. The hazard quotient (HQ) is a risk indicator which defines the ratio of the exposure level and the toxicological reference dose and was applied to determine the threat of MeHg exposure. The mean Hg concentrations in fish from São Chico and Creporizinho were 0.83 ± 0.43 and 0.36 ± 0.33 μg/g, respectively. More than 60 and 22 % of fish collected in São Chico and Creporizinho, respectively, were above the Hg limit (0.5 μg/g) recommended by WHO for human consumption. For all sampling sites, HQ resulted from 1.5 to 28.5, except for the reference area. In Creporizinho, the values of HQ are close to 2 for most sites, whereas in São Chico, there is a hot spot of MeHg contamination in fish (A2-São Chico Reservoir) with the highest risk level (HQ = 28) associated with its human consumption. Mean Hg concentrations in urine, blood, and hair samples indicated that the miners group (in São Chico: urine = 17.37 μg/L; blood = 27.74 μg/L; hair = 4.50 μg/g and in Creporizinho: urine = 13.75 μg/L; blood = 25.23 μg/L; hair: 4.58 μg/g) was more exposed to mercury compared to non-miners (in São Chico: urine = 5.73 μg/L; blood = 16.50 μg/L; hair = 3.16 μg/g and in Creporizinho: urine = 3.91 μg/L; blood = 21.04 μg/L, hair = 1.88 μg/g). These high Hg levels (found

  11. MERCURY AND ARSENIC CONTAMINATION FROM SMALL SCALE GOLD MINING ACTIVITIES AT SELOGIRI AREA, CENTRAL JAVA, INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Harijoko, Agung; Htun, Tin May; Saputra, Rodhie; Warmada, I Wayan; Setijadji, Lucas Donny; Imai, Akira; Watanabe, Koichiro

    2015-01-01

    Small scale gold mines discussed here are located at Selogiri area, Central Java, Indonesia which was mined by local community mainly during gold rush in 1990s. This Selogiri gold deposit genetically is characterized by porphyry mineralization overprinted by epithermal system. The ore minerals assemblage consists of pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena, chalcocite and rare arsenopyrite. Chemical analysis of soil and stream sediment sampled over 1.5 km across at the Selogiri gold extra...

  12. Seasonal fluctuations of tissue mercury contents in the European shore crab Carcinus maenas from low and high contamination areas (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, E; Abreu, S N; Coelho, J P; Lopes, C B; Pardal, M A; Vale, C; Duarte, A C

    2006-11-01

    The main objective was to study the seasonal variation of mercury concentrations in different tissues (muscle, hepatopancreas and gills) of Carcinus maenas from low and high Hg contaminated areas, a valuable resource in temperate estuaries and a possible pathway for human uptake. Individuals of two size classes (around 35 and 55 mm cephalothorax wide) were captured monthly between March 1999 and May 2000 in two areas of Ria de Aveiro: in the main navigation channel that connects the lagoon to the sea, and in the inner lagoon area heavily contaminated by mercury (maximum Hg in sediments of 5.4 microg g(-1)). Pronounced decreases in salinity and temperature and reduced food availability in winter seemed to be the responsible for the decline of the crab condition index (0.75-0.45) in larger individuals. Muscle and hepatopancreas exhibited higher mercury concentrations than gills, with concentrations in the contaminated site ranging from 0.03 to 0.63 microg g(-1) and 0.02 to 0.34 microg g(-1), respectively. Linear regressions between muscle and hepatopancreas (r=0.94, pcrabs presented elimination rates from 18 to 34 ng g(-1) per week, while the smaller crabs showed lower elimination rates (10-24 ng g(-1) per week). The uptake was similar in both size classes (11-15 ng g(-1) and 8.1-15 ng g(-1) per week, respectively for large and small crabs). Our results suggest that C. maenas harvested in the contaminated areas must be considered with caution, since Hg concentrations were found to exceed the threshold concentration allowed for human consumption (0.5 microg g(-1)).

  13. Thiosulphate assisted phytoextraction of mercury contaminated soils at the Wanshan Mercury Mining District, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wanshan, known as the “Mercury Capital” of China, is located in the Southwest of China. Due to the extensive mining and smelting works in the Wanshan area, the local ecosystem has been serious contaminated with mercury. In the present study, a number of soil samples were taken from the Wanshan mercury mining area and the mercury fractionations in soils were analyzed using sequential extraction procedure technique. The obtained results showed that the dominate mercury fractions (represent 95% of total mercury were residual and organic bound mercury. A field trial was conducted in a mercury polluted farmland at the Wanshan mercury mine. Four plant species Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var. ASKYC (ASKYC, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.DPDH (DPDH, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.CHBD(CHBD, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.LDZY (LDZY were tested their ability to extract mercury from soil with thiosulphate amendment. The results indicated that the mercury concentration in the roots and shoots of the four plants were significantly increased with thiosulphate treatment. The mercury phytoextraction yield of ASKYC, DPDH, CHBD and LDZY were 92, 526, 294 and 129 g/ha, respectively

  14. Thiosulphate assisted phytoextraction of mercury contaminated soils at the Wanshan Mercury Mining District, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wanshan, known as the “Mercury Capital” of China, is located in the Southwest of China. Due to the extensive mining and smelting works in the Wanshan area, the local ecosystem has been serious contaminated with mercury. In the present study, a number of soil samples were taken from the Wanshan mercury mining area and the mercury fractionations in soils were analyzed using sequential extraction procedure technique. The obtained results showed that the dominate mercury fractions (represent 95% of total mercury were residual and organic bound mercury. A field trial was conducted in a mercury polluted farmland at the Wanshan mercury mine. Four plant species Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var. ASKYC (ASKYC, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.DPDH (DPDH, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.CHBD(CHBD, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.LDZY (LDZY were tested their ability to extract mercury from soil with thiosulphate amendment. The results indicated that the mercury concentration in the roots and shoots of the four plants were significantly increased with thiosulphate treatment. The mercury phytoextraction yield of ASKYC, DPDH, CHBD and LDZY were 92, 526, 294 and 129 g/ha, respectively.

  15. The Use of Bacteria for Remediation of Mercury Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many processes of mercury transformation in the environment are bacteria mediated. Mercury properties cause some difficulties of remediation of mercury contaminated environment. Despite the significance of the problem of mercury pollution, methods of large scale bioremediation ...

  16. Micrometeorological methods for measurements of mercury emissions over contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.H.; Lindberg, S.E.; Hanson, P.J.; Owens, J.; Myers, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    As part of a larger study involving development and application of field and laboratory methods (micrometeorological, dynamic enclosure chamber, and controlled laboratory chamber methods) to measure the air/surface exchange of Hg vapor, we performed a series of preliminary measurements over contaminated soils. From March--April 1993, we used the modified Bowen ratio (MBR) method to measure emission rates of mercury over a floodplain contaminated with mercury near Oak Ridge, TN. The mercury emission rates measured from contaminated EFPC soils using the MBR method during early spring show that (1) in all cases, the contaminated soils acted as a source of mercury to the atmosphere with source strengths ranging from 17 to 160 ng m -2 h -1 ; and (2) the strengths of mercury emissions can be greatly influenced by the combined effects of surface soil temperature, residence time of air masses over the source area, and turbulence conditions. The mercury fluxes measured in a controlled flow chamber indicate that contaminated soils can exhibit up to an order of magnitude higher emission rates of Hg under conditions of elevated soil temperature, soil structure disturbance, and high turbulence. Mercury emissions from contaminated soils exceeded emissions from background soils by one to two orders of magnitude

  17. Mangifera indica as Bioindicator of Mercury Atmospheric Contamination in an ASGM Area in North Gorontalo Regency, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Hendra Prasetia; Masayuki Sakakibara; Koji Omori; Jamie S. Laird; Koichiro Sera; Idham A. Kurniawan

    2018-01-01

    We report the atmospheric Hg contamination in an artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) area in North Gorontalo, Indonesia. It is well known that atmospheric Hg contaminates the air, water, soil, and living organisms, including trees. In this study, we calculated total weight of heavy metals, especially Hg, and quantitatively measure the concentrations of heavy metals, especially Hg, in tree bark from an ASGM area. Tree bark can be used for the environmental assessment of atmospheric co...

  18. Mercury contamination and its potential health effects in a lead-zinc mining area in the karst region of Guangxi, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Chaobing; Zhang Chaolan; Li Lihe; Li Zhongyi; Li Ning

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Soil in the investigated area is severely contaminated by mercury. → Contamination of T-Hg in paddy field soils is more severe than that in dry land soils. → Vertical distributions of T-Hg are different in the paddy and dry land samples. → T-Hg contents in the agricultural products exceed the Chinese tolerance value. - Abstract: Mercury contamination of the environment is of worldwide concern because of its global presence and its potent neurotoxicity. Mining, smelting and the electronics industry are the main sources of Hg pollution. However, few studies have been performed to investigate systemic Hg contamination in metal mining regions. In this study, concentrations of Hg in air, farmland soil, and crops were measured in a Pb-Zn mining area in the karst region of Guangxi, China. Key factors that could affect Hg distribution, such as the fate of waste ore and waste residue, were analyzed. Geo-statistical methods were adopted to analyze the characteristics of spatial structure and distribution of Hg. The results show that Hg contamination in this region is serious. The total mercury (T-Hg) content is far higher than the Level II Limit Value of Chinese Soil Standards of 0.30 mg kg -1 , showing obvious directional characteristics from WNW to ESE. Highest Hg concentrations were found in the WNW portion of the study area. The contamination of paddy soil is higher than that in dry farmland soil. The vertical distribution of T-Hg and its decrease with depth suggest that the important sources are waste water irrigation and the improper disposal of the waste ore and waste rock. The T-Hg concentrations in the agricultural products examined exceed the Chinese tolerance value (0.02 mg kg -1 for rice and 0.01 mg kg -1 for vegetables), indicating the seriousness of the problem. The ecological environment and the safety of food grown in this mining area are being affected, with the result that human health is possibly being affected.

  19. Mercury contamination and its potential health effects in a lead-zinc mining area in the karst region of Guangxi, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Chaobing [Guangxi University, Nanning 530001 (China)] [Environmental Monitoring Station of Guangxi, Nanning 530022 (China); Zhang Chaolan, E-mail: zhangcl@gxu.edu.cn [Guangxi University, Nanning 530001 (China); Li Lihe [Environmental Monitoring Station of Guangxi, Nanning 530022 (China); Li Zhongyi [Guangxi University, Nanning 530001 (China); Li Ning [Environmental Monitoring Station of Guangxi, Nanning 530022 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Soil in the investigated area is severely contaminated by mercury. {yields} Contamination of T-Hg in paddy field soils is more severe than that in dry land soils. {yields} Vertical distributions of T-Hg are different in the paddy and dry land samples. {yields} T-Hg contents in the agricultural products exceed the Chinese tolerance value. - Abstract: Mercury contamination of the environment is of worldwide concern because of its global presence and its potent neurotoxicity. Mining, smelting and the electronics industry are the main sources of Hg pollution. However, few studies have been performed to investigate systemic Hg contamination in metal mining regions. In this study, concentrations of Hg in air, farmland soil, and crops were measured in a Pb-Zn mining area in the karst region of Guangxi, China. Key factors that could affect Hg distribution, such as the fate of waste ore and waste residue, were analyzed. Geo-statistical methods were adopted to analyze the characteristics of spatial structure and distribution of Hg. The results show that Hg contamination in this region is serious. The total mercury (T-Hg) content is far higher than the Level II Limit Value of Chinese Soil Standards of 0.30 mg kg{sup -1}, showing obvious directional characteristics from WNW to ESE. Highest Hg concentrations were found in the WNW portion of the study area. The contamination of paddy soil is higher than that in dry farmland soil. The vertical distribution of T-Hg and its decrease with depth suggest that the important sources are waste water irrigation and the improper disposal of the waste ore and waste rock. The T-Hg concentrations in the agricultural products examined exceed the Chinese tolerance value (0.02 mg kg{sup -1} for rice and 0.01 mg kg{sup -1} for vegetables), indicating the seriousness of the problem. The ecological environment and the safety of food grown in this mining area are being affected, with the result that human health is

  20. Risk assessment of mercury contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempel, M.

    1993-01-01

    At two sites, highly contaminated with mercury, risk assessment was executed. Methods were developed to determine organomercury compounds in water, air and soil. Toxicity tests demonstrated the high toxicity of organomercury compounds compared to inorganic mercury. Besides highly toxic methylmercury, ethylmercury was found in soils close to a chemical plant in Marktredwitz. In ultrafiltration-experiments mercury showed great affinity to high molecular substances in water. Lysimeter-experiments proved, that organomercury compounds are adsorbed and transformed to inorganic and elemental mercury. (orig.) [de

  1. Evaluation of the Possibility of Cultivation of Eggplant and Common Vetch in a Mercury Contaminated Area; Evaluacion de la posibilidad de cultivo de veza y berenjena en un area contaminada con mercurio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, M J; Millan, R; Esteban, E

    2006-12-18

    This study is framed in the project Recuperacion de Terrenos Afectados por Mercurio Ambiental (RETAMA) which determines the behaviour of mercury in the soil-plant system within the area of Almaden. It forms part of experimental work of doctoral thesis carried out by Maria Jose Sierra and directed by Rocio Millan and Elvira Esteban. The objective of this work was to study the mercury absorption capacity of Solanum melongena (eggplant) and Vicia sativa (common vetch), and the distribution of this metal in this crop. The possible use of eggplant culture as an economic alternative in a mercury contaminated area has been evaluated. The present study has been carried out using a soil from the mercury mining district of Almaden (Spain). The total mercury concentration of this soil is 14.16 + 0.65 mg kg-1 on average. The selected crops are typical in the area of study, eggplant is much appreciated for human consumption and common vetch is an important forage crop. At the end of the document (Anexo V) a critical reading of several articles related to the study subject have been enclosed. (Author) 50 refs.

  2. Recovery of Mercury From Contaminated Liquid Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Base Contract program emphasized the manufacture and testing of superior sorbents for mercury removal, testing of the sorption process at a DOE site, and determination of the regeneration conditions in the laboratory. During this project, ADA Technologies, Inc. demonstrated the following key elements of a successful regenerable mercury sorption process: (1) sorbents that have a high capacity for dissolved, ionic mercury; (2) removal of ionic mercury at greater than 99% efficiency; and (3) thermal regeneration of the spent sorbent. ADA's process is based on the highly efficient and selective sorption of mercury by noble metals. Contaminated liquid flows through two packed columns that contain microporous sorbent particles on which a noble metal has been finely dispersed. A third column is held in reserve. When the sorbent is loaded with mercury to the point of breakthrough at the outlet of the second column, the first column is taken off-line and the flow of contaminated liquid is switched to the second and third columns. The spent column is regenerated by heating. A small flow of purge gas carries the desorbed mercury to a capture unit where the liquid mercury is recovered. Laboratory-scale tests with mercuric chloride solutions demonstrated the sorbents' ability to remove mercury from contaminated wastewater. Isotherms on surrogate wastes from DOE's Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee showed greater than 99.9% mercury removal. Laboratory- and pilot-scale tests on actual Y-12 Plant wastes were also successful. Mercury concentrations were reduced to less than 1 ppt from a starting concentration of 1,000 ppt. The treatment objective was 50 ppt. The sorption unit showed 10 ppt discharge after six months. Laboratory-scale tests demonstrated the feasibility of sorbent regeneration. Results show that sorption behavior is not affected after four cycles

  3. Understanding the paradox of selenium contamination in mercury mining areas: high soil content and low accumulation in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Feng, Xinbin; Jiang, Chengxin; Li, Qiuhua; Liu, Yi; Gu, Chunhao; Shang, Lihai; Li, Ping; Lin, Yan; Larssen, Thorjørn

    2014-05-01

    Rice is an important source of Se for billions of people throughout the world. The Wanshan area can be categorized as a seleniferous region due to its high soil Se content, but the Se content in the rice in Wanshan is much lower than that from typical seleniferous regions with an equivalent soil Se level. To investigate why the Se bioaccumulation in Wanshan is low, we measured the soil Se speciation using a sequential partial dissolution technique. The results demonstrated that the bioavailable species only accounted for a small proportion of the total Se in the soils from Wanshan, a much lower quantity than that found in the seleniferous regions. The potential mechanisms may be associated with the existence of Hg contamination, which is likely related to the formation of an inert Hg-Se insoluble precipitate in soils in Wanshan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantification of methylmercury and geochemistry of mercury in sediments from a contaminated area of Descoberto (MG), Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Louise Aparecida; Carvalho de Lena, Jorge; Magalhães do Valle, Cláudia; Fleming, Peter Marshall; Windmöller, Cláudia Carvalhinho

    2016-01-01

    In 2002, metallic Hg was found buried in a rural area of Descoberto city, Brazil. The origin of the Hg was a gold mining explotation plant established nearly one century ago. Although a number of studies have been conducted in order to assess the contamination of the area, none of them investigated the presence of methylated Hg in the hydric system. In this work methylmercury (CH_3Hg"+) was determined using gas chromatography-pyrolysis-atomic fluorescence detection (CG-pyro-AFS) in material from rain sedimentation boxes and stream sediments near the contaminated area. Total Hg concentration (HgT) along with the chemical speciation by thermo-desorption were performed. HgT in material from the sedimentation boxes was found to be very high, up to 41,580 μg kg"−"1, even in the rainy season, when in general HgT were much lower than in dry season. The samples from the Grama and Rico streams show a range of HgT from 5.8 to 266 μg kg"−"1. The thermo-desorption analysis showed predominance of Hg"2"+, possibly linked to organic sulfur, suggested by a good positive correlation between Hg"2"+, HgT, organic mater (OM) and total S. The CH_3Hg"+ concentration in stream sediment samples ranged from <0.07 to 1.87 μg kg"−"1 and in the samples of sedimentation boxes the concentrations were 1.33 and 8.0 μg kg"−"1 during dry season. The sample with the highest percentage of HgT as Hg"2"+ (98%) presented also the highest percentage of CH_3Hg"+ (0.7%). These are high values, showing that care should be taken to avoid the transport of this material to the hydrological system. Further studies on the transfer through the food chain would be very important. - Highlights: • Hg at concentrations that exceed quality values in sediments from Descoberto (MG-Brazil) has been confirmed. • Chemical speciation showed the predominance of Hg"2"+ species in the sediment samples. • It was observed the presence of CH_3Hg"+ in sedimentation boxes at concentrations up 8.0

  5. MERCURY CONTAMINATED MATERIAL DECONTAMINATION METHODS: INVESTIGATION AND ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    Over the years mercury has been recognized as having serious impacts on human health and the environment. This recognition has led to numerous studies that deal with the properties of various mercury forms, the development of methods to quantify and speciate the forms, fate and transport, toxicology studies, and the development of site remediation and decontamination technologies. This report reviews several critical areas that will be used in developing technologies for cleaning mercury from mercury-contaminated surfaces of metals and porous materials found in many DOE facilities. The technologies used for decontamination of water and mixed wastes (solid) are specifically discussed. Many technologies that have recently appeared in the literature are included in the report. Current surface decontamination processes have been reviewed, and the limitations of these technologies for mercury decontamination are discussed. Based on the currently available technologies and the processes published recently in the literature, several processes, including strippable coatings, chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, chemisorbing surface wipes with forager sponge and grafted cotton, and surface/pore fixation through amalgamation or stabilization, have been identified as potential techniques for decontamination of mercury-contaminated metal and porous surfaces. Their potential merits and applicability are discussed. Finally, two processes, strippable coatings and chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, were experimentally investigated in Phase II of this project.

  6. Mercury pollution in Asia: a review of the contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Feng, X B; Qiu, G L; Shang, L H; Li, Z G

    2009-09-15

    This article describes the mercury contaminated sites in Asia. Among the various regions, Asia has become the largest contributor of anthropogenic atmospheric mercury (Hg), responsible for over half of the global emission. Based on different emission source categories, the mercury contaminated sites in Asia were divided into various types, such as Hg pollution from Hg mining, gold mining, chemical industry, metal smelting, coal combustion, metropolitan cities, natural resources and agricultural sources. By the review of a large number of studies, serious Hg pollutions to the local environment were found in the area influenced by chemical industry, mercury mining and gold mining. With the probable effects of a unique combination of climatic (e.g. subtropical climate), environmental (e.g. acid rain), economic (e.g. swift growth) and social factors (e.g. high population density), more effort is still needed to understand the biogeochemistry cycle of Hg and associated health effects in Asia. Safer alternatives and cleaner technologies must be developed and effectively implemented to reduce mercury emission; remedial techniques are also required to restore the historical mercury pollution in Asia.

  7. MERCURY CONTAMINATED MATERIAL DECONTAMINATION METHODS: INVESTIGATION AND ASSESSMENT; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    Over the years mercury has been recognized as having serious impacts on human health and the environment. This recognition has led to numerous studies that deal with the properties of various mercury forms, the development of methods to quantify and speciate the forms, fate and transport, toxicology studies, and the development of site remediation and decontamination technologies. This report reviews several critical areas that will be used in developing technologies for cleaning mercury from mercury-contaminated surfaces of metals and porous materials found in many DOE facilities. The technologies used for decontamination of water and mixed wastes (solid) are specifically discussed. Many technologies that have recently appeared in the literature are included in the report. Current surface decontamination processes have been reviewed, and the limitations of these technologies for mercury decontamination are discussed. Based on the currently available technologies and the processes published recently in the literature, several processes, including strippable coatings, chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, chemisorbing surface wipes with forager sponge and grafted cotton, and surface/pore fixation through amalgamation or stabilization, have been identified as potential techniques for decontamination of mercury-contaminated metal and porous surfaces. Their potential merits and applicability are discussed. Finally, two processes, strippable coatings and chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, were experimentally investigated in Phase II of this project

  8. Mercury pollution in Wuchuan mercury mining area, Guizhou, Southwestern China: the impacts from large scale and artisanal mercury mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Guangle; Shang, Lihai; Wang, Shaofeng

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the environmental impacts from large scale mercury mining (LSMM) and artisanal mercury mining (AMM), total mercury (THg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) were determined in mine waste, ambient air, stream water and soil samples collected from Wuchuan mercury (Hg) mining area, Guizhou, Southwestern China. Mine wastes from both LSMM and AMM contained high THg concentrations, which are important Hg contamination sources to the local environment. Total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in the ambient air near AMM furnaces were highly elevated, which indicated that AMM retorting is a major source of Hg emission. THg concentrations in the stream water varied from 43 to 2100 ng/L, where the elevated values were mainly found in the vicinity of AMM and mine waste heaps of LSMM. Surface soils were seriously contaminated with Hg, and land using types and organic matter played an important role in accumulation and transportation of Hg in soil. The results indicated heavy Hg contaminations in the study area, which were resulted from both LSMM and AMM. The areas impacted by LSMM were concentrated in the historical mining and smelting facilities, while Hg pollution resulted from AMM can be distributed anywhere in the Hg mining area. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mercury: Aspects of its ecology and environmental toxicity. [physiological effects of mercury compound contamination of environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of mercury pollution on the environment. The possible sources of mercury contamination in sea water are identified. The effects of mercury on food sources, as represented by swordfish, are analyzed. The physiological effects of varying concentrations of mercury are reported. Emphasis is placed on the situation existing in the Hawaiian Islands.

  10. Air Contamination by Mercury, Emissions and Transformations-a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gworek, Barbara; Dmuchowski, Wojciech; Baczewska, Aneta H; Brągoszewska, Paulina; Bemowska-Kałabun, Olga; Wrzosek-Jakubowska, Justyna

    2017-01-01

    The present and future air contamination by mercury is and will continue to be a serious risk for human health. This publication presents a review of the literature dealing with the issues related to air contamination by mercury and its transformations as well as its natural and anthropogenic emissions. The assessment of mercury emissions into the air poses serious methodological problems. It is particularly difficult to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic emissions and re-emissions from lands and oceans, including past emissions. At present, the largest emission sources include fuel combustion, mainly that of coal, and "artisanal and small-scale gold mining" (ASGM). The distinctly highest emissions can be found in South and South-East Asia, accounting for 45% of the global emissions. The emissions of natural origin and re-emissions are estimated at 45-66% of the global emissions, with the largest part of emissions originating in the oceans. Forecasts on the future emission levels are not unambiguous; however, most forecasts do not provide for reductions in emissions. Ninety-five percent of mercury occurring in the air is Hg 0 -GEM, and its residence time in the air is estimated at 6 to 18 months. The residence times of its Hg II -GOM and that in Hg p -TPM are estimated at hours and days. The highest mercury concentrations in the air can be found in the areas of mercury mines and those of ASGM. Since 1980 when it reached its maximum, the global background mercury concentration in the air has remained at a relatively constant level.

  11. Isolation, screening and identification of mercury resistant bacteria from mercury contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalczyk Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New bacterial strains resistant to high concentration of mercury were obtained and character iz ed focusing on their potential application in bioremediation. The biological material was isolated from soil contaminated with mercury. The ability to removal of Hg from the liquid medium and the effect of the various pH and mercury concentrations in the environment on bacterial strains growth kinetics were tested. The selected strains were identified by analysis of the 16S ribosome subunit coding sequenc es as Pseudomonas syringae. The analysis of Hg concentration in liquid medium as effect of microbial metabolism demonstrated that P. syringae is able to remove almost entire metal from medium after 120 hours of incubation. Obtained results revealed new ability of the isolated strain P. syringae. Analyzed properties of this soil bacteria species able to reduce concentration of Hg ors immobi lize this metal are promising for industrial wastewater treatment and bioremediation of the soils polluted especially by mercury lamps scrapping, measuring instruments, dry batteries, detonators or burning fuels made from crude oil, which may also contain mercury. Selected bacteria strains provide efficient and relatively low-cost bioremediation of the areas and waters contaminated with Hg.

  12. Biosensors for detection of mercury in contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bontidean, Ibolya; Mortari, Alessia; Leth, Suzanne; Brown, Nigel L.; Karlson, Ulrich; Larsen, Martin M.; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Corbisier, Philippe; Csoeregi, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    Biosensors based on whole bacterial cells and on bacterial heavy metal binding protein were used to determine the mercury concentration in soil. The soil samples were collected in a vegetable garden accidentally contaminated with elemental mercury 25 years earlier. Bioavailable mercury was measured using different sensors: a protein-based biosensor, a whole bacterial cell based biosensor, and a plant sensor, i.e. morphological and biochemical responses in primary leaves and roots of bean seedlings grown in the mercury-contaminated soil. For comparison the total mercury concentration of the soil samples was determined by AAS. Whole bacterial cell and protein-based biosensors gave accurate responses proportional to the total amount of mercury in the soil samples. On the contrary, plant sensors were found to be less useful indicators of soil mercury contamination, as determined by plant biomass, mercury content of primary leaves and enzyme activities

  13. Mixed Waste Focus Area Mercury Working Group: An integrated approach to mercury waste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.

    1998-03-01

    In May 1996, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) initiated the Mercury Working Group (HgWG). The HgWG was established to address and resolve the issues associated with mercury contaminated mixed wastes. During the MWFA's initial technical baseline development process, three of the top four technology deficiencies identified were related to the need for amalgamation, stabilization, and separation removal technologies for the treatment of mercury and mercury contaminated mixed waste. The HgWG is assisting the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing efforts to address these areas. The focus of the HgWG is to better establish the mercury related treatment technologies at the DOE sites, refine the MWFA technical baseline as it relates to mercury treatment, and make recommendations to the MWFA on how to most effectively address these needs. Based on the scope and magnitude of the mercury mixed waste problem, as defined by HgWG, solicitations and contract awards have been made to the private sector to demonstrate both the amalgamation and stabilization processes using actual mixed wastes. Development efforts are currently being funded that will address DOE's needs for separation removal processes. This paper discusses the technology selection process, development activities, and the accomplishments of the HgWG to date through these various activities

  14. Accumulation of mercury in selected plant species grown in soils contaminated with different mercury compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yi; Han, Fengxiang; Shiyab, Safwan; Chen, Jian; Monts, David L.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of our research is to screen and search for suitable plant species for phyto-remediation of mercury-contaminated soil. Currently our effort is specifically focused on mercury removal from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, where mercury contamination is a major concern. In order to cost effectively implement mercury remediation efforts, it is necessary now to obtain an improved understanding of biological means of removing mercury and mercury compounds.. Phyto-remediation is a technology that uses various plants to degrade, extract, contain, or immobilize contaminants from soil and water. In particular, phyto-extraction is the uptake of contaminants by plant roots and translocation within the plants to shoots or leaves. Contaminants are generally removed by harvesting the plants. We have investigated phyto-extraction of mercury from contaminated soil by using some of the known metal-accumulating plants since no natural plant species with mercury hyper-accumulating properties has yet been identified. Different natural plant species have been studied for mercury uptake, accumulation, toxicity and overall mercury removal efficiency. Various mercury compounds, such as HgS, HgCl 2 , and Hg(NO 3 ) 2 , were used as contaminant sources. Different types of soil were examined and chosen for phyto-remediation experiments. We have applied microscopy and diffuse reflectance spectrometry as well as conventional analytical chemistry to monitor the phyto-remediation processes of mercury uptake, translocation and accumulation, and the physiological impact of mercury contaminants on selected plant species. Our results indicate that certain plant species, such as beard grass (Polypogon monospeliensis), accumulated a very limited amount of mercury in the shoots ( 2 powder, respectively; no visual stress symptoms were observed. We also studied mercury phyto-remediation using aged soils that contained HgS, HgCl 2 , or Hg(NO 3 ) 2 . We have found that up to hundreds

  15. The mixed waste focus area mercury working group: an integrated approach for mercury treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I.; Holmes-Burns, H.; Petersell, J.; Schwendiman, L.

    1997-01-01

    In May 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) initiated the Mercury Work Group (HgWG), which was established to address and resolve the issues associated with mercury- contaminated mixed wastes. Three of the first four technology deficiencies identified during the MWFA technical baseline development process were related to mercury amalgamation, stabilization, and separation/removal. The HgWG will assist the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing all the efforts required to address these deficiencies. The focus of the HgWG is to better establish the mercury-related treatment needs at the DOE sites, refine the MWFA technical baseline as it relates to mercury treatment, and make recommendations to the MWFA on how to most effectively address these needs. The team will initially focus on the sites with the most mercury-contaminated mixed wastes, whose representatives comprise the HgWG. However, the group will also work with the sites with less inventory to maximize the effectiveness of these efforts in addressing the mercury- related needs throughout the entire complex

  16. Demonstration of GTS Duratek Process for Stabilizing Mercury Contaminated (<260 ppm) Mixed Wastes. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference No. 2409

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Mercury-contaminated wastes in many forms are present at various U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. At least 26 different DOE sites have this type of mixed low-level waste in their storage facilities, totaling approximately 6,000 m 3 . Mercury contamination in the wastes at DOE sites presents a challenge because it exists in various forms, such as soil, sludges, and debris, as well as in different chemical species of mercury. Stabilization is of interest for radioactively contaminated mercury waste (<260 ppm Hg) because of its success with particular wastes, such as soils, and its promise of applicability to a broad range of wastes. However, stabilization methods must be proven to be adequate to meet treatment standards. They must also be proven feasible in terms of economics, operability, and safety. This report summarizes the findings from a stabilization technology demonstration conducted by GTS Duratek, Inc. Phase I of the study involved receipt and repackaging of the material, followed by preparations for waste tracking. Phase II examined the bench-scale performance of grouting at two different loadings of waste to grouted mass. Phase III demonstrated in-drum mixing and solidification using repackaged drums of sludge. Phase IV initially intended to ship final residues to Envirocare for disposal. The key results of the demonstration are as follows: (1) Solidification tests were performed at low and high waste loading, resulting in stabilization of mercury to meet the Universal Treatment Standard of 0.025 mg/L at the low loading and for two of the three runs at the high loading. The third high-loading run had a Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) of 0.0314 mg/L. (2) Full-drum stabilization using the low loading formula was demonstrated. (3) Organic compound levels were discovered to be higher than originally reported, including the presence of some pesticides. Levels of some radionuclides were much higher than initially reported. (4

  17. Industrial-Scale Processes For Stabilizing Radioactively Contaminated Mercury Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broderick, T. E.; Grondin, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes two industrial-scaled processes now being used to treat two problematic mercury waste categories: elemental mercury contaminated with radionuclides and radioactive solid wastes containing greater than 260-ppm mercury. The stabilization processes were developed by ADA Technologies, Inc., an environmental control and process development company in Littleton, Colorado. Perma-Fix Environmental Services has licensed the liquid elemental mercury stabilization process to treat radioactive mercury from Los Alamos National Laboratory and other DOE sites. ADA and Perma-Fix also cooperated to apply the >260-ppm mercury treatment technology to a storm sewer sediment waste collected from the Y-12 complex in Oak Ridge, TN

  18. Assessing The Impact Of Mercury Contamination To Lake Balkyldak In Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjacent to Lake Balkyldak in Kazakhstan, there is a large wastewater holding pond from a former mercury cell chloralkali plant which contains high levels of mercury-contamination. The holding pond capacity is 74 million m3 with a water-surface area of 18 km2

  19. Mercury species in formerly contaminated soils and released soil gases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sysalová, J.; Kučera, Jan; Drtinová, B.; Červenka, R.; Zvěřina, O.; Komárek, J.; Kameník, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 584, APR (2017), s. 1032-1039 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : mercury contaminated soils * total mercury * elemental mercury * methylmercury * phynelmercury * gaseous elemental mercury Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  20. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites

  1. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  2. OCCURRENCE OF MICROORGANISMS RESISTANT TO MERCURY IN MERCURY CONTAMINATED SOILS AND SEDIMENTS IN PAVLODAR, KAZAKHSTAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is extensive mercury contamination of soil surrounding a chloralkali plant in Pavlodar, Kazakhstan that operated from 1970 to 1990. High-level mercury contamination exists within the confines of the plant, at nearby off-site waste storage and evaporation ponds, and in Balky...

  3. OCCURRENCE OF MERCURY-RESISTANT MICROORGANISMS IN MERCURY-CONTAMINATED SOILS AND SEDIMENTS IN PAVLODAR, KAZAKHSTAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is extensive mercury contamination of soil surrounding a chloralkali plant in Pavlodar, Kazakhstan that operated from 1970 to 1990. High-level mercury contamination exists within the confines of the plant, at nearby off-site waste storage and evaporation ponds, and in Balky...

  4. Cleanup of contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beone, G.; Carbone, A.I.; Zagaroli, M.

    1989-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of contaminated areas cleanup, in order to eliminate every possible damage for man safety and environment and to site recovery for some utilization, The first step of cleanup operation is site characterization, that is followed by a pianificazion activity for a better definition of staff qualification, technology to be used, protection and prevention instruments for the risks due to contaminants handling. The second section describes the different remedial technologies for contaminated sites. Remedial technologies may be divided into on-site/off-site and in-situ treatments, according to whether materials (waste, soil, water) are moved to another location or not, respectively. Finally, it is outlined that contaminated areas cleanup is a typical multidisciplinary activity because very different competences are required. (author)

  5. Environmental mercury contamination in China: Sources and impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L; Wong, M H [Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2007-01-15

    This review article focused on the current status of mercury (Hg) contamination in different ecological compartments in China, and their possible environmental and health impacts, focusing on some major cities. Mercury emission from non-ferrous metals smelting (especially zinc smelting), coal combustion and miscellaneous activities (of which battery and fluorescent lamp production and cement production are the largest), contributed about 45%, 38% and 17%, respectively, to the total Hg emission based on the data of 1999. Mercury contamination is widespread in different ecological compartments such as atmosphere, soil and water. There is evidence showing bioaccumulation and biomagnification of Hg in aquatic food chains, with higher concentrations detected in carnivorous fish. In terms of human exposure to Hg, fish consumption is the major exposure pathway for residents living in coastal cities such as Hong Kong, but inhalation may be another major source, affecting human health in areas with severe atmospheric Hg, such as Guiyang City (Guizhou Province). There is also increasing evidence showing that skin disorders and autism in Hong Kong children are related to their high Hg body loadings (hair, blood and urine), through prenatal methyl Hg exposure. There seems to be an urgent need to identify the sources of Hg, speciation and concentrations in different ecological compartments, which may lead to high body loadings in human beings.

  6. Isolation of Mercury-Resistant Fungi from Mercury-Contaminated Agricultural Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginawanti Hindersah

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Illegal gold mining and the resulting gold mine tailing ponds on Buru Island in Maluku, Indonesia have increased Mercury (Hg levels in agricultural soil and caused massive environmental damage. High levels of Hg in soil lowers plant productivity and threatens the equilibrium of the food web. One possible method of handling Hg-contaminated soils is through bioremediation, which could eliminate Hg from the rhizosphere (root zone. In this study, indigenous fungi isolated from Hg-contaminated soil exhibited Hg-resistance in vitro. Soil samples were collected from the rhizosphere of pioneer plants which grew naturally in areas contaminated with gold mine tailing. The fungi’s capacity for Hg-resistance was confirmed by their better growth in chloramphenicol-boosted potato dextrose agar media which contained various HgCl2 concentrations. Four isolates exhibited resistance of up to 25 mg kg−1 of Hg, and in an experiment with young Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. test plants, two fungi species (including Aspergillus were demonstrated to increase the soil’s availability of Hg. The results suggest that Hg-resistant indigenous fungi can mobilize mercury in the soil and serve as potential bioremediation agents for contaminated agricultural land.

  7. Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated SRS soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated soil were performed at the SRTC to determine the optimum waste loading obtainable in the glass product without sacrificing durability, leach resistance, and processability. Vitrifying this waste stream also required offgas treatment for the capture of the vaporized mercury. Four soil glasses with slight variations in composition were produced, which were capable of passing the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The optimum glass feed composition contained 60 weight percent soil and produced a soda-lime-silica glass when melted at 1,350 C. The glass additives used to produce this glass were 24 weight percent Na 2 CO 3 and 16 weight percent CaCO 3 . Volatilized mercury released during the vitrification process was released to the proposed mercury collection system. The proposed mercury collection system consisted of quartz and silica tubing with a Na 2 S wash bottle followed by a NaOH wash bottle. Once in the system, the volatile mercury would pass through the wash bottle containing Na 2 S, where it would be converted to Hg 2 S, which is a stable form of mercury. However, attempts to capture the volatilized mercury in a Na 2 S solution wash bottle were not as successful as anticipated. Maximum mercury captured was only about 3.24% of the mercury contained in the feed. Mercury capture efforts then shifted to condensing and capturing the volatilized mercury. These attempts were much more successful at capturing the volatile mercury, with a capture efficiency of 34.24% when dry ice was used to pack the condenser. This captured mercury was treated on a mercury specific resin after digestion of the volatilized mercury

  8. Isolation, screening and identification of mercury resistant bacteria from mercury contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalczyk Anna; Wilińska Magdalena; Chyc Marek; Bojko Monika; Latowski Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    New bacterial strains resistant to high concentration of mercury were obtained and character iz ed focusing on their potential application in bioremediation. The biological material was isolated from soil contaminated with mercury. The ability to removal of Hg from the liquid medium and the effect of the various pH and mercury concentrations in the environment on bacterial strains growth kinetics were tested. The selected strains were identified by analysis of the 16S ribosome subunit coding ...

  9. How important is biomass burning in Canada to mercury contamination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Annemarie; Dastoor, Ashu; Ryjkov, Andrei

    2018-05-01

    total biomass burning Hg emissions to be highly variable from year to year and estimate average 2010-2015 total atmospheric biomass burning emissions of Hg in Canada to be between 6 and 14 t during the biomass burning season (i.e. from May to September), which is 3-7 times the mercury emission from anthropogenic sources in Canada for this period. On average, 65 % of the emissions occur in the provinces west of Ontario. We find that while emissions from biomass burning have a small impact on surface air concentrations of GEM averaged over individual provinces/territories, the impact at individual sites can be as high as 95 % during burning events. We estimate average annual mercury deposition from biomass burning in Canada to be between 0.3 and 2.8 t, compared to 0.14 t of mercury deposition from anthropogenic sources during the biomass burning season in Canada. Compared to the biomass burning emissions, the relative impact of fires on mercury deposition is shifted eastward, with on average 54 % percent of the deposition occurring in provinces west of Ontario. While the relative contribution of Canadian biomass burning to the total mercury deposition over each province/territory is no more than 9 % between 2010 and 2015, the local contribution in some locations (including areas downwind of biomass burning) can be as high as 80 % (e.g. northwest of Great Slave Lake in 2014) from May to September. We find that northern Alberta and Saskatchewan, central British Columbia, and the area around Great Slave Lake in the Northwest Territories are at greater risk of mercury contamination from biomass burning. GEM is considered to be the dominant mercury species emitted from biomass burning; however, there remains an uncertainty in the speciation of mercury released from biomass burning. We find that the impact of biomass burning emissions on mercury deposition is significantly affected by the uncertainty in speciation of emitted mercury because PBM is more readily deposited closer

  10. RECOVERY OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED PRIMARY AND SECONDARY WASTES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Faucette; J. Bognar; T. Broderick; T. Battaglia

    2000-01-01

    Effective removal of mercury contamination from water is a complex and difficult problem. In particular, mercury treatment of natural waters is difficult because of the low regulatory standards. For example, the Environmental Protection Agency has established a national ambient water quality standard of 12 parts-per-trillion (ppt), whereas the standard is 1.8 ppt in the Great Lakes Region. In addition, mercury is typically present in several different forms, but sorption processes are rarely effective with more than one or two of these forms. To meet the low regulatory discharge limits, a sorption process must be able to address all forms of mercury present in the water. One approach is to apply different sorbents in series depending on the mercury speciation and the regulatory discharge limits. Four new sorbents have been developed to address the variety of mercury species present in industrial discharges and natural waters. Three of these sorbents have been field tested on contaminated creek water at the Y-12 Plant. Two of these sorbents have demonstrated very high removal efficiencies for soluble mercury species, with mercury concentrations at the outlet of a pilot-scale system less than 12 ppt for as long as six months. The other sorbent tested at the Y-12 Plant is targeted at colloidal mercury that is not removed by standard sorption or filtration processes. At the Y-12 Plant, colloidal mercury appears to be associated with iron, so a sorbent that removes mercury-iron complexes in the presence of a magnetic field was evaluated. Field results indicate good removal of this mercury fraction from the Y-12 waters. In addition, this sorbent is easily regenerated by simply removing the magnetic field and flushing the columns with water. The fourth sorbent is still undergoing laboratory development, but results to date indicate exceptionally high mercury sorption capacity. The sorbent is capable of removing all forms of mercury typically present in natural and

  11. Residential mercury contamination in adobe brick homes in Huancavelica, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Espinoza Gonzales, Ruben Dario; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production.

  12. A SUMMARY OF TOTAL MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN FLORA AND FAUNA NEAR CONTAMINANT SOURCES IN THE GULF OF MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes total mercury concentrations for environmental media collected from near-coastal areas including those impacted by contaminant sources common to the Gulf of Mexico. Water, sediment, fish, blue crabs, oysters, clams, mussels, periphyton and seagrasses were ...

  13. Contamination of mercury in the biological and physical environment of northwest Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delisle, C E

    1977-10-01

    Mercury and its compounds are present in the environment of northwest Quebec and present serious risks to human health. This study shows that all bodies of water investigated yield fish with mercury concentrations in excess of the Canadian safe limit (0.5 ppm) for human consumption. Data are reported for total mercury in 902 fishes from 58 bodies of water sampled between 1972 and 1976. Out of these, 158 were Coregonus clupeaformis with an average concentration of 0.27 ppm of mercury, 82 were Catostomus commersoni with 0.38 ppm, 287 were Stizostedion vitreum vitreum with 0.79 ppm, 364 were Esox lucius with 0.84 ppm, and 11 were Acipenser fulvescens with 0.36 ppm. It is concluded that walleye and pike are rarely safe to eat in northwest Quebec. Data on limited numbers of molluscs, benthic organisms, plankton, aquatic birds and aquatic mammals from this area are also reported and show only a few in excess of the safe level. Exceptions are found in ducks, grebes, mergansers and otters, mink and marten. Mercury in sediments varied from 50 ppb (background level) to more than 1000 ppb, depending on the body of water and its proximity to zones of influence of human activity. Surface waters rarely exceed 0.20 ppb mercury even in areas where sediment contamination is high. Ground water reached 48 ppb in some areas, however, suggesting contamination from natural sources.

  14. Mercury contamination of the Belgian avifauna 1970-1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbeke, K.; Joiris, C.; Decadt, G.

    1984-01-01

    Two hundred birds found dead in Belgium between 1970 and 1981, and belonging to 30 species, were analyzed for total mercury contamination. The contamination of aquatic birds ranged between 0.11 and 35 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ wet weight. For terrestrial birds, the extreme values were not detectable and 14 ..mu..g g/sup -1/. In both cases, differences in diet can explain the differences in contamination. The order of diets associated with increasing mercury contamination for aquatic birds was invertebrates, zooplankton and garbage, and fish; and for terrestrial birds this consisted of plants, invertebrates, mammals and birds. For raptors and owls, this effect of diet includes geographical variations within species. A higher mercury contamination level in the winter and early spring was noted for two species of owls. For aquatic birds, the contamination of liver was higher than that of kidney, with ratios varying between 1.2 and 2.5. For terrestrial birds, the ratio was closer to 1. A few determinations were also made for muscle and heart, giving respectively 0.25 and 0.6 of the liver contamination. Among the birds analyzed for their liver contamination, 15% showed levels higher than 3 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ and could have been affected in their reproduction; 3% had levels higher than 10 ..mu..g g/sup -1/, and could have died from mercury poisoning; and 6% showed an abnormally high liver:kidney ratio, which could reflect an acute intoxication. There exists a striking parallelism between the levels of mercury and of organochlorine residues (DDT) in birds of prey, suggesting the existence of common ecotoxicological mechanisms.

  15. From Midges to Spiders: Mercury Biotransport in Riparian Zones Near the Buffalo River Area of Concern (AOC), USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennuto, C M; Smith, M

    2015-12-01

    Riparian communities can receive environmental contaminants from adjacent aquatic 'donor' habitats. We investigated mercury biotransport from aquatic to terrestrial habitats via aquatic insect emergence and uptake by riparian spiders at sites within and upstream of the Buffalo River Area of Concern (AOC), a site with known sediment Hg contamination. Mercury concentration in emerging midges was roughly 10× less than contaminated sediment levels with the AOC, but biomagnification factors from midges to spiders ranged from 2.0 to 2.65 between sites. There was a significantly negative body mass:total mercury relationship in spiders (p Spiders contained significantly more mercury than their midge prey and spiders upstream of the AOC had higher mercury concentrations than spiders from within the AOC. Collectively, these data indicate that riparian spiders can be good mercury sentinels in urban environments, and that riparian communities upstream from the AOC may be at greater risk to mercury than has been previously considered.

  16. Total mercury, methylmercury and selenium in mercury polluted areas in the province Guizhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Milena; Nolde, Natasa; Fajon, Vesna; Jereb, Vesna; Logar, Martina; Lojen, Sonja; Jacimovic, Radojko; Falnoga, Ingrid; Liya, Qu; Faganeli, Jadran; Drobne, Damjana

    2003-03-20

    The province of Guizhou in Southwestern China is currently one of the world's most important mercury production areas. Emissions of mercury from the province to the global atmosphere have been estimated to be approximately 12% of the world total anthropogenic emissions. The main objective of this study was to assess the level of contamination with Hg in two geographical areas of Guizhou province. Mercury pollution in the areas concerned originates from mercury mining and ore processing in the area of Wanshan, while in the area of Quingzhen mercury pollution originates from the chemical industry discharging Hg through wastewaters and emissions to the atmosphere due to coal burning for electricity production. The results of this study confirmed high contamination with Hg in soil, sediments and rice in the Hg mining area in Wanshan. High levels of Hg in soil and rice were also found in the vicinity of the chemical plant in Quingzhen. The concentrations of Hg decreased with distance from the main sources of pollution considerably. The general conclusion is that Hg contamination in Wanshan is geographically more widespread, due to deposition and scavenging of Hg from contaminated air and deposition on land. In Quingzhen Hg contamination of soil is very high close to the chemical plant but the levels reach background concentrations at a distance of several km. Even though the major source of Hg in both areas is inorganic Hg, it was observed that active transformation of inorganic Hg to organic Hg species (MeHg) takes place in water, sediments and soils. The concentration of Hg in rice grains can reach up to 569 microg/kg of total Hg of which 145 microg/kg was in MeHg form. The percentage of Hg as MeHg varied from 5 to 83%. The concentrations of selenium can reach up to 16 mg/kg in soil and up to 1 mg/g in rice. A correlation exists between the concentration of Se in soil and rice, indicating that a portion of Se is bioavailable to plants. No correlation between Hg and Se

  17. Mitigation of mercury contamination through the acceleration of vegetation succession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIWIK EKYASTUTI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Ekyastuti W, Faridah E, Sumardi, Setiadi Y. 2016. Mitigation of mercury contamination through the acceleration of vegetation succession. Biodiversitas 17: 84-89. The success of the restoration of the tailings ex-gold mining through the succession is highly dependent on the ability of plants to grow and adapt to the troubled land. Restoration through natural succession takes a very long time. Therefore, human intervention is required to accelerate the succession. The purpose of this research was to improve the effectiveness of mitigation of mercury contamination through the acceleration of vegetation succession. This research has been carried out in a greenhouse using an experiment with a completely randomized design. There are 8 treatment consists of four indigenous species (Dillenia excelsa, Melastoma affine, Cinnamomum porrectum and Casuarina junghuhniana grown alone (one species and collective (more than one species in the tailing media with a mercury content of 20 ppm. The results showed that the planting collectively have a mutually supportive interaction, so that increased the plant growth. In addition, collective planting two or four different species of plants, and the D. excelsa itself could decrease the concentration of mercury in the tailing. The acceleration of vegetation succession through the right choice of plants species and planting collectively, capable to increasing the potential of mitigation of mercury contamination in the tailings.

  18. Summary of Pilot-Scale Activities with Mercury Contaminated Sludges (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero, C.A.; Hutson, N.D.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Smith, M.E.; Miller, D. H.; Ritter, J.A.; Hardy, B.J.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    Technologies for treatment of low level mixed wastes (LLMW) are currently being investigated by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE). The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has been chartered by the MWFA to study vitrification treatment of the wastes through an Office of Technology Development (OTD) Technical Task Plan (TTP). SRTC's efforts have included crucible-scale studies and pilot-scale testing on simulated LLMW sludges, resins, soils, and other solid wastes. Results from the crucible-scale studies have been used as the basis for the pilot-scale demonstrations. One of the streams to be investigated in fiscal year (FY) 1995 by SRTC was a mercury waste. In FY 1995, SRTC performed crucible-scale studies with mercury contaminated soil. This waste stream was selected because of the large number of DOE sites that have an inventory of contaminated or hazardous soil. More importantly, it was readily available for treatment. Pilot-scale studies were to be completed in FY 1995, but could not be completed due to a reduction in funding. Since the main driver for focusing on a mercury waste stream was to determine how the mercury could be treated, a compilation of pilot-scale tests with mercury sludges performed under the guidance of SRTC is provided in this report. The studies summarized in this report include several pilot-scale vitrification demonstrations with simulated radioactive sludges that contained mercury. The pilot-scale studies were performed at the SRTC in the Integrated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Melter System (IDMS). The studies involved complete glass and offgas product characterization. Future pilot-scale studies with mercury streams will likely be performed with mercury contaminated soils, sediments, or sludges because of the need to dispose of this technically challenging waste stream. (Abstract Truncated)

  19. LEVEL AND EXTENT OF MERCURY CONTAMINATION IN OREGON LOTIC FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the U.S. EPA's EMAP Oregon Pilot project, we conducted a probability survey of 154 Oregon streams and rivers to assess the spatial extent of mercury (Hg) contamination in fish tissue across the state. Samples consisted of whole fish analyses of both small (< 120 mm) a...

  20. Residential mercury contamination in adobe brick homes in Huancavelica, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Hagan

    Full Text Available This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (<0.5 µg/m(3 in most homes; however in homes with detectable levels, concentrations up to 5.1 µg/m(3 were observed. No statistically significant differences in Hg vapor measurements were observed between neighborhoods. This study demonstrates that building materials used widely in developing communities, such as adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production.

  1. Does seasonal snowpacks enhance or decrease mercury contamination of high elevation ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, A.; Fain, X.; Obrist, D.; Helmig, D.; Barth, C.; Jacques, H.; Chowanski, K.; Boyle, D.; William, M.

    2009-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is an extremely toxic pollutant globally dispersed in the environment. Natural and anthropogenic sources emit Hg to the atmosphere, either as gaseous elemental mercury (GEM; Hg0) or as divalent mercury species. Due to the long lifetime of GEM mercury contamination is not limited to industrialized sites, but also a concern in remote areas such as high elevation mountain environments. During winter and spring 2009, we investigated the fate of atmospheric mercury deposited to mountain ecosystems in the Sierra Nevada (Sagehen station, California, USA) and the Rocky Mountains (Niwot Ridge station, Colorado, USA). At Sagehen, we monitored mercury in snow (surface snow sampling and snow pits), wet deposition, and stream water during the snow-dominated season. Comparison of Hg stream discharge to snow Hg wet deposition showed that only a small fraction of Hg wet deposition reached stream in the melt water. Furthermore, Hg concentration in soil transects (25 different locations) showed no correlations to wet deposition Hg loads due to pronounced altitudinal precipitation gradient suggesting that Hg deposited to the snowpack was not transferred to ecosystems. At Niwot Ridge, further characterization of the chemical transformation involving mercury species within snowpacks was achieved by 3-months of continuous monitoring of GEM and ozone concentrations in the snow air at eight depths from the soil-snow interface to the top of the up to 2 meter deep snowpack. Divalent mercury concentrations were monitored as well (surface snow sampling and snow pits). GEM levels in snow air exhibited strong diurnal pattern indicative of both oxidation and reduction processes. Low levels of divalent mercury concentrations in snow pack suggest that large fractions of Hg originally deposited as wet deposition was reemitted back to the atmosphere after reduction. Hence, these results suggest that the presence of a seasonal snowpack may decrease effective wet deposition of mercury and

  2. Mercury concentrations at a historically mercury-contaminated site in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Williams, CR

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A mercury (Hg) processing plant previously operating in KwaZulu-Natal Province (South Africa) discharged Hg waste into a nearby river system causing widespread contamination since the 1980s. Although the processing plant ceased operation in the 1990...

  3. Mercury contamination and exposure assessment of fishery products in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hye-Ran; Kim, Na-Young; Hwang, Lae-Hong; Park, Ju-Sung; Kim, Jung-Hun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, total (T-Hg) and methyl mercury (Me-Hg) contamination was investigated in fishery products including canned fish, fish sauces, dried bonito and frozen tuna sashimi, collected from retail markets in Korea, to assess dietary exposure. Direct mercury analyser and gas chromatography-electron captured detector were employed to measure T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. The highest T-Hg and Me-Hg contamination was present in tuna sashimi, followed by dried bonito, respectively. Canned tuna showed more frequent detection and higher content than other canned fishery products. The weekly exposure estimate indicates that exposure to mercury from fishery products is safe, showing 2.59% provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) for T-Hg, 1.82% PTWI for Me-Hg and 4.16% reference dose for Me-Hg. However, it should be addressed to monitor the mercury contamination in fish and fishery products regularly, to safeguard vulnerable population such as children, to limit intake of these food products.

  4. Bioremediation techniques applied to aqueous media contaminated with mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez-Riaño, Möritz; Benavides-Otaya, Holman D

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, the environmental and human health impacts of mercury contamination have driven the search for alternative, eco-efficient techniques different from the traditional physicochemical methods for treating this metal. One of these alternative processes is bioremediation. A comprehensive analysis of the different variables that can affect this process is presented. It focuses on determining the effectiveness of different techniques of bioremediation, with a specific consideration of three variables: the removal percentage, time needed for bioremediation and initial concentration of mercury to be treated in an aqueous medium.

  5. Mercury emission and dispersion models from soils contaminated by cinnabar mining and metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, Willians; Kocman, David; Higueras, Pablo; Horvat, Milena

    2011-12-01

    The laboratory flux measurement system (LFMS) and dispersion models were used to investigate the kinetics of mercury emission flux (MEF) from contaminated soils. Representative soil samples with respect to total Hg concentration (26-9770 μg g(-1)) surrounding a decommissioned mercury-mining area (Las Cuevas Mine), and a former mercury smelter (Cerco Metalúrgico de Almadenejos), in the Almadén mercury mining district (South Central Spain), were collected. Altogether, 14 samples were analyzed to determine the variation in mercury emission flux (MEF) versus distance from the sources, regulating two major environmental parameters comprising soil temperature and solar radiation. In addition, the fraction of the water-soluble mercury in these samples was determined in order to assess how MEF from soil is related to the mercury in the aqueous soil phase. Measured MEFs ranged from less than 140 to over 10,000 ng m(-2) h(-1), with the highest emissions from contaminated soils adjacent to point sources. A significant decrease of MEF was then observed with increasing distance from these sites. Strong positive effects of both temperature and solar radiation on MEF was observed. Moreover, MEF was found to occur more easily in soils with higher proportions of soluble mercury compared to soils where cinnabar prevails. Based on the calculated Hg emission rates and with the support of geographical information system (GIS) tools and ISC AERMOD software, dispersion models for atmospheric mercury were implemented. In this way, the gaseous mercury plume generated by the soil-originated emissions at different seasons was modeled. Modeling efforts revealed that much higher emissions and larger mercury plumes are generated in dry and warm periods (summer), while the plume is smaller and associated with lower concentrations of atmospheric mercury during colder periods with higher wind activity (fall). Based on the calculated emissions and the model implementation, yearly emissions from

  6. Solid-phase partitioning of mercury in artisanal gold mine tailings from selected key areas in Mindanao, Philippines, and its implications for mercury detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opiso, Einstine M; Aseneiro, John Paul J; Banda, Marybeth Hope T; Tabelin, Carlito B

    2018-03-01

    The solid-phase partitioning of mercury could provide necessary data in the identification of remediation techniques in contaminated artisanal gold mine tailings. This study was conducted to determine the total mercury content of mine wastes and identify its solid-phase partitioning through selective sequential extraction coupled with cold vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy. Samples from mine tailings and the carbon-in-pulp (CIP) process were obtained from selected key areas in Mindanao, Philippines. The results showed that mercury use is still prevalent among small-scale gold miners in the Philippines. Tailings after ball mill-gravity concentration (W-BM and Li-BM samples) from Mt Diwata and Libona contained high levels of mercury amounting to 25.024 and 6.5 mg kg -1 , respectively. The most prevalent form of mercury in the mine tailings was elemental/amalgamated mercury, followed by water soluble, exchangeable, organic and strongly bound phases, respectively. In contrast, mercury content of carbon-in-pulp residues were significantly lower at only 0.3 and 0.06 mg kg -1 for P-CIP (Del Pilar) and W-CIP (Mt Diwata), respectively. The bulk of mercury in P-CIP samples was partitioned in residual fraction while in W-CIP samples, water soluble mercury predominated. Overall, this study has several important implications with regards to mercury detoxification of contaminated mine tailings from Mindanao, Philippines.

  7. Mixed Waste Focus Area Working Group: An Integrated Approach to Mercury Waste Treatment and Disposal. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.I.; Conley, T.B.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.

    1997-01-01

    May 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) initiated the Mercury Work Group (HgWG). The HgWG was established to address and resolve the issues associated with Mercury- contaminated mixed wastes (MWs). During the initial technical baseline development process of the MWFA, three of the top four technology deficiencies identified were related to (1) amalgamation, (2) stabilization, and (3) separation and removal for the treatment of mercury and mercury-contaminated mixed waste (MW). The HgWG is assisting the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing efforts to address these needs

  8. Mercury Contamination of Skin-whitening Creams in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Murphy

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion. Some producers of skin-whitening creams in Thailand, China and Taiwan appear to be aware of the risks of mercury contamination and have modified their products. However, other producers of skin-whitening creams continue to use mercury. XRF analysis allows for rapid screening of mercury in cosmetics and should be used to gather additional information on mercury content in cosmetics in support of public health efforts to stem the import, export and sales of skin creams containing mercury.

  9. Mercury contamination in humans and fishes in the municipality of Ayapel, Córdoba, Colombia, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisy Gracia H

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the concentration of total mercury (HgT in hair samples from inhabitants of the municipality of Ayapel (Córdoba and in fishes captured in the Ayapel swamp. Methodology: a total amount of 112 hair samples were taken from the inferior occipital area of settlers of the Ayapel swamp who were over 14 years old, and samples of muscle tissue of seven species of fishes were also chosen. These samples were analyzed by means of spectrometry of atomic absorption through cold steam after acid digestion. Surveys on clinical symptoms related to poisoning by mercury were applied after the acceptance of the informed consent. Results: the total amount of mercury present in hair displayed an average of 2.18 ± 1.77 μg/g with values between 0.11 and 12.76 μg/g. The highest value of Hg-T in fishes was identified in the carnivorous species Sorubin cuspicaudus, with an average concentration of 0.74 ± 0,19 µg/g, and the smaller concentration was found on the iliophagous species Prochilodus magdalenaewith 0.15±0.02 µg/g of fresh weight. Conclusions: the population studied in Ayapel showed mercury levels above those internationally allowed by the usepa. There were also signs and symptoms related to such mercury levels, which can probably be a consequence of the high consumption of fishes contaminated with mercury

  10. Mercury contaminated sediment sites—An evaluation of remedial options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, Paul M., E-mail: randall.paul@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Chattopadhyay, Sandip, E-mail: Sandip.Chattopadhyay@tetratech.com [Tetra Tech, Inc., 250 West Court Street, Suite 200W, Cincinnati, OH 45202 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally-occurring element that is ubiquitous in the aquatic environment. Though efforts have been made in recent years to decrease Hg emissions, historically-emitted Hg can be retained in the sediments of aquatic bodies where they may be slowly converted to methylmercury (MeHg). Consequently, Hg in historically-contaminated sediments can result in high levels of significant exposure for aquatic species, wildlife and human populations consuming fish. Even if source control of contaminated wastewater is achievable, it may take a very long time, perhaps decades, for Hg-contaminated aquatic systems to reach relatively safe Hg levels in both water and surface sediment naturally. It may take even longer if Hg is present at higher concentration levels in deep sediment. Hg contaminated sediment results from previous releases or ongoing contributions from sources that are difficult to identify. Due to human activities or physical, chemical, or biological processes (e.g. hydrodynamic flows, bioturbation, molecular diffusion, and chemical transformation), the buried Hg can be remobilized into the overlying water. Hg speciation in the water column and sediments critically affect the reactivity (i.e. conversion of inorganic Hg(II) to MeHg), transport, and its exposure to living organisms. Also, geochemical conditions affect the activity of methylating bacteria and its availability for methylation. This review paper discusses remedial considerations (e.g. key chemical factors in fate and transport of Hg, source characterization and control, environmental management procedures, remediation options, modeling tools) and includes practical case studies for cleaning up Hg-contaminated sediment sites. -- Highlights: ► Managing mercury-contaminated sediment sites are challenging to remediate. ► Remediation technologies are making a difference in managing these sites. ► Partitioning plays a dominant role in the distribution of mercury species. ► Mathematical

  11. The Lagoon of Ravenna (Italy). Characterisation of mercury-contaminated sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, D.; Lombardo, M.; Trombini, C.; Vassura, I. [Laboratorio di Chimica Ambientale, Universita di Bologna, Ravenna (Italy); Felisatti, O. [Ambiente SpA, Ravenna (Italy)

    1998-05-06

    Between 1958 and 1973, the wetland called Pialassa Baiona near Ravenna (Italy) had been heavily polluted by industrial effluents, among which mercury represented the most hazardous contaminant. Three sediment cores representative of a channel and a pond in the southern area, close to the discharge point, were analysed. Up to 244 {mu}g/g (dry weight) of mercury were observed in the top 0-20 cm layer. Among various parameters under study, good correlation was found between mercury and redox properties of the sediment, sulphur and organic matter. Styrene/butadiene based polymers, produced by the same industrial area since 1958, were found to be an important component of organic matter. Despite the analogy with the Minamata case, mercury appears to be efficiently trapped by the sediment, probably in the form of sulphide and/or bound to the organic matter and so far it has not represented a hazard for public health as confirmed by the lack of epidemiological effects in Ravenna area due to exposure to mercury

  12. Mercury-contaminated hydraulic mining debris in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouse, Robin M.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Smith, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    The hydraulic gold-mining process used during the California Gold Rush and in many developing countries today contributes enormous amounts of sediment to rivers and streams. Commonly, accompanying this sediment are contaminants such as elemental mercury and cyanide used in the gold extraction process. We show that some of the mercurycontaminated sediment created by hydraulic gold mining in the Sierra Nevada, between 1852 and 1884, ended up over 250 kilometers (km) away in San Francisco Bay; an example of the far-reaching extent of contamination from such activities.

  13. Chemical speciation and transformation of mercury in contaminated sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Drott, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Biomagnification of mercury (Hg) in aquatic food webs occurs almost exclusively as mono-methyl Hg (MeHg). In this thesis, the influence of chemical speciation and environmental conditions on transformations of inorganic Hg (HgII) and MeHg was studied at eight sites in Sweden with Hg contaminated sediments. The source of contamination was either Hg0(l) or phenyl-Hg, and total Hg concentrations ranged between 1.0-1100 nmol g-1. The environmental conditions, e.g. salinity, temperature climate, p...

  14. Mercury contamination in bats from the central United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korstian, Jennifer M; Chumchal, Matthew M; Bennett, Victoria J; Hale, Amanda M

    2018-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic metal that has detrimental effects on wildlife. We surveyed Hg concentrations in 10 species of bats collected at wind farms in the central United States and found contamination in all species. Mercury concentration in fur was highly variable both within and between species (range: 1.08-10.52 µg/g). Despite the distance between sites (up to 1200 km), only 2 of the 5 species sampled at multiple locations had fur Hg concentrations that differed between sites. Mercury concentrations observed in the present study all fell within the previously reported ranges for bats collected from the northeastern United States and Canada, although many of the bats we sampled had lower maximum Hg concentrations. Juvenile bats had lower concentrations of Hg in fur compared with adult bats, and we found no significant effect of sex on Hg concentrations in fur. For a subset of 2 species, we also measured Hg concentration in muscle tissue; concentrations were much higher in fur than in muscle, and Hg concentrations in the 2 tissue types were weakly correlated. Abundant wind farms and ongoing postconstruction fatality surveys offer an underutilized opportunity to obtain tissue samples that can be used to assess Hg contamination in bats. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:160-165. © 2018 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  15. Atmospheric mercury sources in the Mt. Amiata area, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrara, R.; Mazzolai, B.; Edner, H.; Svanberg, S.; Wallinder, E.

    1998-01-01

    Mt. Amiata, located in southern Tuscany (Italy), is part of the geologic anomaly of the Mediterranean basin, which contains about 65% of the world's cinnabar (HgS) deposits. Atmospheric mercury emissions from the main sources (geothermal power plants, abandoned mine structures and spoil banks of roasted cinnabar ore) were determined by flux chamber and by LIDAR remote sensing. Mercury emissions from five geothermal power plants were on the order of 24 g h -1 for each plant, a value that remains constant throughout the year. In the month of July, the mine spoils (covering an area of =200000 m 2 ) emit a few grams of mercury per hour, while the abandoned mine structures give off 100-110 g h -1 . These two mercury sources were strongly influenced by ambient temperature. The area affected by mercury sources displays an average air mercury concentration of 20 ng m -3 during the summer and 10 ng m -3 in winter

  16. Mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining in Antioquia, Colombia: The world's highest per capita mercury pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordy, Paul; Veiga, Marcello M; Salih, Ibrahim; Al-Saadi, Sari; Console, Stephanie; Garcia, Oseas; Mesa, Luis Alberto; Velásquez-López, Patricio C; Roeser, Monika

    2011-12-01

    The artisanal gold mining sector in Colombia has 200,000 miners officially producing 30tonnes Au/a. In the Northeast of the Department of Antioquia, there are 17 mining towns and between 15,000 and 30,000 artisanal gold miners. Guerrillas and paramilitary activities in the rural areas of Antioquia pushed miners to bring their gold ores to the towns to be processed in Processing Centers or entables. These Centers operate in the urban areas amalgamating the whole ore, i.e. without previous concentration, and later burn gold amalgam without any filtering/condensing system. Based on mercury mass balance in 15 entables, 50% of the mercury added to small ball mills (cocos) is lost: 46% with tailings and 4% when amalgam is burned. In just 5 cities of Antioquia, with a total of 150,000 inhabitants: Segovia, Remedios, Zaragoza, El Bagre, and Nechí, there are 323 entables producing 10-20tonnes Au/a. Considering the average levels of mercury consumption estimated by mass balance and interviews of entables owners, the mercury consumed (and lost) in these 5 municipalities must be around 93tonnes/a. Urban air mercury levels range from 300ng Hg/m(3) (background) to 1million ng Hg/m(3) (inside gold shops) with 10,000ng Hg/m(3) being common in residential areas. The WHO limit for public exposure is 1000ng/m(3). The total mercury release/emissions to the Colombian environment can be as high as 150tonnes/a giving this country the shameful first position as the world's largest mercury polluter per capita from artisanal gold mining. One necessary government intervention is to cut the supply of mercury to the entables. In 2009, eleven companies in Colombia legally imported 130tonnes of metallic mercury, much of it flowing to artisanal gold mines. Entables must be removed from urban centers and technical assistance is badly needed to improve their technology and reduce emissions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mercury contamination, a potential threat to the globally endangered aquatic warbler Acrocephalus paludicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacyna, Aneta Dorota; Martínez, Carlos Zumalacárregui; Miguélez, David; Jiguet, Frédéric; Polkowska, Żaneta; Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna

    2017-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination is considered a global concern for humans and wildlife, and although the number of studies dealing with that issue continues to increase, some taxonomic groups such as small passerine birds are largely understudied. In this paper, concentration of mercury in the aquatic warbler (Acrocephalus paludicola) feathers, a globally threatened passerine species, was examined. The concentration differences between two ages and sexes were investigated. The comparison of feathers taken on autumn migrants of two age categories act as a comparison of the species' exposure within the two different areas (European breeding or African wintering grounds). The average Hg concentration for all sampled individuals [2.32 μg/g dw (range 0.38-12.76)] is relatively high, compared with values found in other passerine species. An age difference was found, with first-year individuals displaying higher mercury concentrations than adults. This indicates that birds are exposed to mercury pollution during the breeding season, i.e., in the continental floodplains of eastern Europe. The average Hg concentration in feathers grown on the breeding grounds was 3.88 ± 2.59 μg/g dw, closer to the critical value of 5 μg/g dw, which is considered to impair the health of individuals. The findings suggest that mercury pollution may constitute a threat so far neglected for the endangered aquatic warbler.

  18. Total mercury in water and sediment from Honda Bay area in Palawan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapauan, A.F.; Kapauan, P.A.; Tan, E.O.; Verceluz, F.P.

    1980-01-01

    This project is intended to pinpoint the sources of mercury contamination from the Honda Bay area in Palawan. Sampling sites were pinpointed which water and sediment samples were to be taken and kept in virgin polyethylene liter bottles. Analytical procedures were applied. The results of the analysis for total mercury content vary cosiderably from ml, less than 0.003 ng/9 to high of 0.419 ng/g with a considerable number of the sample going above the 0.100 ng/g level. Sediment samples also gave similar results, from a low of 0.004 ng/g to value higher than 2 ng/g round the jetty. It can be concluded, therefore, that the area surveyed is contaminated with mercury but not severely so. (author)

  19. Sedentary nestlings of Wood Stork as monitors of mercury contamination in the gold mining region of the Brazilian Pantanal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassif Del Lama, Silvia, E-mail: dsdl@ufscar.br [Laboratorio Genetica de Aves, Departamento de Genetica e Evolucao, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Dosualdo Rocha, Cristiano [Laboratorio Genetica de Aves, Departamento de Genetica e Evolucao, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Figueiredo Jardim, Wilson [Institute of Chemistry, State University of Campinas, P.O. Box 6154, 13083-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Tsai, Jo-Szu; Frederick, Peter Crawford [Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, P.O. Box 110430, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Sedentary organisms that are at top trophic levels allow inference about the level of local mercury contamination. We evaluated mercury contamination in feather tissue of nestling Wood Storks (Mycteria americana), sampled in different parts of the Brazilian Pantanal that were variably polluted by mercury releases from gold mining activities. Levels of mercury in feathers sampled in seven breeding colonies were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy, and the mean value of mercury concentration was 0.557 {mu}g/g, dry weight (n=124), range 0.024-4.423 {mu}g/g. From this total sample, 21 feathers that represent 30% of nestlings collected in Porto da Fazenda and Tucum colonies, in the northern region, ranged from 1.0 to 4.43 {mu}g/g, dry weight (median value=1.87 {mu}g/g). We found significant differences among regions (H=57.342; p=0<0.05). Results suggest that permanently flooded areas, or along mainstream rivers are more contaminated by mercury than dry areas, regardless of the distance from the gold mining center, which is located in the northern Pantanal. Highest values found in nestlings feathers were similar to those found in feathers of adult birds and in tissues of adult mammals that are less sedentary and were captured in the same region of Pantanal. These findings indicate that mercury released has been biomagnified and it is present in high concentrations in tissues of top consumers. We suggest a program to monitor mercury availability in this ecosystem using sedentary life forms of top predators like Wood Storks or other piscivorous birds. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sedentary stork nestlings were used for the first time to show local mercury contamination of Pantanal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differences were found among regions but they are not explained only by distance from the gold mining. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Permanently flooded areas and areas along mainstream rivers are more contaminated than dry areas. Black

  20. Sedentary nestlings of Wood Stork as monitors of mercury contamination in the gold mining region of the Brazilian Pantanal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassif Del Lama, Silvia; Dosualdo Rocha, Cristiano; Figueiredo Jardim, Wilson; Tsai, Jo-Szu; Frederick, Peter Crawford

    2011-01-01

    Sedentary organisms that are at top trophic levels allow inference about the level of local mercury contamination. We evaluated mercury contamination in feather tissue of nestling Wood Storks (Mycteria americana), sampled in different parts of the Brazilian Pantanal that were variably polluted by mercury releases from gold mining activities. Levels of mercury in feathers sampled in seven breeding colonies were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy, and the mean value of mercury concentration was 0.557 μg/g, dry weight (n=124), range 0.024–4.423 μg/g. From this total sample, 21 feathers that represent 30% of nestlings collected in Porto da Fazenda and Tucum colonies, in the northern region, ranged from 1.0 to 4.43 μg/g, dry weight (median value=1.87 μg/g). We found significant differences among regions (H=57.342; p=0<0.05). Results suggest that permanently flooded areas, or along mainstream rivers are more contaminated by mercury than dry areas, regardless of the distance from the gold mining center, which is located in the northern Pantanal. Highest values found in nestlings feathers were similar to those found in feathers of adult birds and in tissues of adult mammals that are less sedentary and were captured in the same region of Pantanal. These findings indicate that mercury released has been biomagnified and it is present in high concentrations in tissues of top consumers. We suggest a program to monitor mercury availability in this ecosystem using sedentary life forms of top predators like Wood Storks or other piscivorous birds. - Highlights: ► Sedentary stork nestlings were used for the first time to show local mercury contamination of Pantanal. ► Differences were found among regions but they are not explained only by distance from the gold mining. ► Permanently flooded areas and areas along mainstream rivers are more contaminated than dry areas. ► Mercury has been biomagnified in Pantanal and it is found in high concentrations in top

  1. Sustainable remediation of mercury contaminated soils by thermal desorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, María J; Millán, Rocio; López, Félix A; Alguacil, Francisco J; Cañadas, Inmaculada

    2016-03-01

    Mercury soil contamination is an important environmental problem that needs the development of sustainable and efficient decontamination strategies. This work is focused on the application of a remediation technique that maintains soil ecological and environmental services to the extent possible as well as search for alternative sustainable land uses. Controlled thermal desorption using a solar furnace at pilot scale was applied to different types of soils, stablishing the temperature necessary to assure the functionality of these soils and avoid the Hg exchange to the other environmental compartments. Soil mercury content evolution (total, soluble, and exchangeable) as temperature increases and induced changes in selected soil quality indicators are studied and assessed. On total Hg, the temperature at which it is reduced until acceptable levels depends on the intended soil use and on how restrictive are the regulations. For commercial, residential, or industrial uses, soil samples should be heated to temperatures higher than 280 °C, at which more than 80 % of the total Hg is released, reaching the established legal total Hg level and avoiding eventual risks derived from high available Hg concentrations. For agricultural use or soil natural preservation, conversely, maintenance of acceptable levels of soil quality limit heating temperatures, and additional treatments must be considered to reduce available Hg. Besides total Hg concentration in soils, available Hg should be considered to make final decisions on remediation treatments and potential future uses. Graphical Abstract Solar energy use for remediation of soils affected by mercury.

  2. Maternal transfer of contaminants in birds: Mercury and selenium concentrations in parents and their eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hartman, C. Alex

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a detailed assessment of the maternal transfer of mercury and selenium to eggs in three bird species (n = 107 parents and n = 339 eggs), and developed predictive equations linking contaminant concentrations in eggs to those in six tissues of the mother (blood, muscle, liver, kidney, breast feathers, and head feathers). Mercury concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with mercury concentrations in each of the mother's internal tissues (R"2 ≥ 0.95), but generally not with feathers. For each species, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs decreased as mercury concentrations in the mother increased. At the same maternal mercury concentration, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs differed among species, such that Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) and black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) females transferred more methylmercury to their eggs than American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) females. Selenium concentrations in eggs also were correlated with selenium concentrations in the mother's liver (R"2 = 0.87). Furthermore, mercury and selenium concentrations in tern eggs were positively correlated with those in the father (R"2 = 0.84). Incubating male terns had 21% higher mercury concentrations in blood compared to incubating females at the same egg mercury concentration. We provide equations to predict contaminant concentrations in eggs from each of the commonly sampled bird tissues. - Highlights: • We developed predictive equations linking contaminant concentrations in eggs to those in the mother. • Mercury concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with those in the mother. • The proportion of mercury transferred to eggs decreased as mercury in the mother increased. • The proportion of mercury transferred to eggs differed among species. • Selenium concentrations in eggs also were correlated with those in the mother's liver. - We examined the maternal transfer of mercury and selenium to eggs in

  3. Remediation aspect of microbial changes of plant rhizosphere in mercury contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sas-Nowosielska, Aleksandra; Galimska-Stypa, Regina; Kucharski, Rafał; Zielonka, Urszula; Małkowski, Eugeniusz; Gray, Laymon

    2008-02-01

    Phytoremediation, an approach that uses plants to remediate contaminated soil through degradation, stabilization or accumulation, may provide an efficient solution to some mercury contamination problems. This paper presents growth chamber experiments that tested the ability of plant species to stabilize mercury in soil. Several indigenous herbaceous species and Salix viminalis were grown in soil collected from a mercury-contaminated site in southern Poland. The uptake and distribution of mercury by these plants were investigated, and the growth and vitality of the plants through a part of one vegetative cycle were assessed. The highest concentrations of mercury were found at the roots, but translocation to the aerial part also occurred. Most of the plant species tested displayed good growth on mercury contaminated soil and sustained a rich microbial population in the rhizosphere. The microbial populations of root-free soil and rhizosphere soil from all species were also examined. An inverse correlation between the number of sulfur amino acid decomposing bacteria and root mercury content was observed. These results indicate the potential for using some species of plants to treat mercury contaminated soil through stabilization rather than extraction. The present investigation proposes a practical cost-effective temporary solution for phytostabilization of soil with moderate mercury contamination as well as the basis for plant selection.

  4. Health impacts of mercury cycling in contaminated environments in China studied by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dingyong; Qing Changle; Shi Xiaojun; Zheng Yonghua; Li Bo; Yang Xuechun

    2001-01-01

    Mercury is a highly toxic non-essential element. The mercury cycling in natural environments is a complex process. In recent years, the stable mercury isotope tracer and related analytical techniques have been developed. They offer unique possibility to understand the biogeochemistry of mercury in various environmental conditions. So a new co-ordinated research project (CRP) on health impacts of mercury cycling in contaminated environments studied by nuclear techniques has been supported by the IAEA. This paper introduces the research project whose IAEA research contract number is CPR-10874. It includes the scientific background, scope of the project, methods, some results related to this CRP and the plans for future work. (author)

  5. Health impacts of mercury cycling in contaminated environments in China studied by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dingyong; Shi Xiaojun; Wei Shiqiang; Zheng Yonghua; Qing Changle

    2002-01-01

    Mercury is a highly toxic non-essential element. The mercury cycling in natural environments is a complex process. In recent years, the stable mercury isotope tracer and related analytical techniques have been developed. They offer unique possibility to understand the biogeochemistry of mercury in various environmental conditions. So a new coordinated research project (CRP), on health impacts of mercury cycling in contaminated environments studied by nuclear techniques, has been supported by the IAEA. This paper introduces the research project which is IAEA research contract number CPR-10874. It includes the scientific background, scope of the project, methods, some results related to this CRP and the plans for future work. (author)

  6. Game animals as bioindicators of environmental contamination by mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparova, Katarina

    2002-01-01

    The article deals with determination of Hg in the biological materials (furred game), which comes from 9 districts in Slovak Republic. In the fur there were determined the mercury contents, in μg·kg -1 , as follows: roe deer game - Lucenec District, 12.3; Poltar Dis., 12.8; Prievidza Dis., 42.6; Revuca Dis., 23.5; Rimavska Sobota Dis., 16.7; Spisska Nova Ves Dis., 262.5; Veliky Krtis Dis., 20.3; Zarnovica Dis., 11.5; Ziar nad Hronom Dis., 15.5; red deer game - Lucenec Dis., 13.6; Poltar Dis., 16.2; Rimavska Sobota Dis., 22.1; Zarnovica Dis., 9.6; fallow deer game - Poltar Dis., 41.9; boar game - Prievidza Dis., 257.6. The measurements were carried out by atomic absorption spectrometry using an AMA 254 instrument. The investigated animals were hunted during the hunting period in the year 1999. The biological samples were taken from healthy game without any strange changes of its behavior or colour. High mercury content in fur of roe deer game in Spisska Nova Ves District and also in fur of boar game in Prievidza District shows big air pollution in these districts, caused mainly by intensive industry, mining, reprocessing and energy technologies used in these districts. We can suppose that because of the environmental contamination there is also a high content of mercury in game internal organs. It would be useful to continue with analyzing the content of Hg in the biological material and environmental as well. (author)

  7. Evaluation of Agricultural Use of Vicia sativa L. in Mercury Contaminated Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres, A.; Millan, R.; Esteban, E.

    2010-01-01

    This study is framed in the project Recuperation de suelos contaminados por mercurio: recomendaciones de uso de suelos y plantas en la comarca minera de Almaden (REUSA), funded by Spanish Ministry of Education and Science. Moreover, this article is the result of the work carried out by Andres Andres for his Bachelors dissertation. Soils from the Almaden mining district are contaminated with high mercury concentrations, due to the extraction activities of that metal through the years. After the end of mining exploitation, which was the main source of wealth in the region, alternative uses of soils are needed in order to promote the socio-economic development of the studied area. The project here intends to evaluate the viability of the common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) crop in a substrate under similar conditions to the ones observed in the Almaden soils, by studying the mercury absorption capacity of the above mentioned species. (Author) 20 refs.

  8. Mercury bioaccumulation assessment for the St. Louis River Area of Concern (poster)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated mercury concentrations have been documented in fish and invertebrates within the St. Louis River Area of Concern (AOC). Mercury bioavailability is affected by multiple factors, including mercury sources, sediment and water geochemistry, food web structure, individual fis...

  9. Evaluation of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) as biomonitors of mercury contamination in aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Bradley D; Driscoll, Charles T; Spada, Michael E; Todorova, Svetoslava G; Montesdeoca, Mario R

    2013-03-01

    Zebra mussels have invaded many lakes in the United States and could be a useful tool for monitoring responses of aquatic biota to changes in mercury loading. The goal of the present study was to evaluate zebra mussels for use as a biomonitor of mercury contamination by comparing zebra mussel mercury concentrations between a lake with only indirect atmospheric mercury contamination (Otisco Lake, NY, USA) and a lake that was directly contaminated by mercury discharges (Onondaga Lake, NY, USA). Zebra mussels were sampled in both the spring and fall of 2004 and 2005. Total mercury (THg) concentrations in zebra mussels were approximately seven times greater in Onondaga Lake than in Otisco Lake, and water column mercury concentrations differed by an order of magnitude between the two lakes. Seasonal differences resulted in significantly higher zebra mussel THg concentrations during the fall for both lakes. There was also significant variation among different sampling sites in Onondaga Lake. Mussel methylmercury concentrations averaged 53% of THg concentrations but were highly variable. Strong relationships between water column THg and zebra mussel THg suggest that zebra mussels are a good indicator of aquatic mercury concentrations and could be used as an effective biomonitor of mercury contamination in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  10. Assessment of repeated harvests on mercury and arsenic phytoextraction in a multi-contaminated industrial soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Grifoni

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is widely distributed throughout the environment. In many contaminated soils other contaminants are present along with mercury; of these, arsenic is one of the most frequently found metals. In the presence of mixed contamination of this kind, remediation technologies must overcome many difficulties due to the different chemical characteristics of the various contaminants. In this study, repeated assisted phytoextraction cycles with Brassica juncea, were conducted on a laboratory scale to evaluate the removal efficiency of mercury and arsenic from a multi-contaminated industrial soil. The possibility of using only one additive, ammonium thiosulphate, to remove mercury and arsenic from co-contaminated soil simultaneously was also investigated. The thiosulfate addition greatly promoted the plant uptake of both contaminants, with an efficiency comparable to that of phosphate specifically used to mobilize specifically arsenic. Repeated additions of mobilizing agents increased metal availability in soil, promoted plant uptake and consequently increased the removal of contaminants in the studied soil. Repeated treatments with thiosulfate increased the concentration of mercury and arsenic in the Brassica juncea aerial part, but due to toxic effects of mercury that reduce biomass production, the total accumulation of both metals in plants tended to decrease at each subsequent re-growth.The use of a single additive to remove both contaminants simultaneously offers several new advantages to phytoextraction technology in terms of reducing cost and time.

  11. Characterization of mercury forms in contaminated floodplain soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, M.O.; Turner, R.R.; Henson, T.J.; Harris, L.A.; Melton, R.E.; Stevenson, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The chemical form or speciation of Hg in the floodplain soils of the East Fork Poplar Creek in Oak Ridge TN, a site contaminated from past industrial activity, was investigated. Hg speciation in the soils is an important factor in controlling the fate and effect of mercury at the site and in assessing human health and ecological risk. Application of 3 different sequential extraction speciation schemes indicated the Hg at the site was predominantly relatively insoluble mercuric sulfide or metallic Hg, though the relative proportions of each did not agree well between procedures. Application of x-ray and electron beam studies to site soils confirmed the presence of metacinnabar, a form of mercuric sulfide, the first known evidence of authigenic mercuric sulfide formation in soils

  12. Estimating chemical footprint: Contamination with mercury and its compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarasova, Natalia; Makarova, Anna; Fantke, Peter

    2018-01-01

    -SETAC scientific consensus model USEtox, which is recommended for and widely applied in life cycle impact assessment. Our approach was tested using the example of mercury, which has been shown to be a hazardous pollutant at regional and global scales. Results show that the main contribution to the overall chemical......Chemical pollution is a problem of global importance. However, there are currently no agreed approaches for integrated environmental impact assessment (EIA) of chemical effects at global scale. We present a new systems-based approach to EIA of chemicals. Our methodology considers propagation...... of chemical pollutants in the environment, in conjunction with the approach followed in the Russian regulatory system. To estimate chemical footprints related to environmental contamination by potentially toxic substances, measured environmental concentrations were combined with results from the UNEP...

  13. A preliminary study on health effects in villagers exposed to mercury in a small-scale artisanal gold mining area in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan; Schierl, Rudolf; Nowak, Dennis; Siebert, Uwe; William, Jossep Frederick; Owi, Fradico Teorgi; Ir, Yuyun Ismawati

    2016-08-01

    Cisitu is a small-scale gold mining village in Indonesia. Mercury (Hg) is used to extract gold from ore, heavily polluting air, soil, fish and rice paddy fields with Hg. Rice in Cisitu is burdened with mercury. The main staple food of the inhabitants of Cisitu is this polluted rice. Villagers were concerned that the severe diseases they observed in the community might be related to their mining activities, including high mercury exposure. Case report of the medical examinations and the mercury levels in urine and hair of 18 people with neurological symptoms. Typical signs and symptoms of chronic mercury intoxication were found (excessive salivation, sleep disturbances, tremor, ataxia, dysdiadochokinesia, pathological coordination tests, gray to bluish discoloration of the oral cavity and proteinuria). Mercury levels in urine were increased in eight patients (>7µg Hg/L urine). All 18 people had increased hair levels (>1µg Hg/g hair). 15 patients exhibited several, and sometimes numerous, symptoms in addition to having moderately to highly elevated levels of mercury in their specimens. These patients were classified as intoxicated. The situation in Cisitu is special, with rice paddy fields being irrigated with mercury-contaminated water and villagers consuming only local food, especially mercury-contaminated rice. Severe neurological symptoms and increased levels of mercury in urine and hair support are possibly caused by exposure to inorganic mercury in air, and the consumption of mercury-contaminated fish and rice. The mercury exposure needs to be reduced and treatment provided. Further research is needed to test the hypothesis that mercury-contaminated rice from small-scale gold mining areas might cause mercury intoxication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Does mercury contamination reduce body condition of endangered California clapper rails?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Overton, Cory T.; Casazza, Michael L.; Takekawa, John Y.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Keister, Robin A.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    We examined mercury exposure in 133 endangered California clapper rails (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) within tidal marsh habitats of San Francisco Bay, California from 2006 to 2010. Mean total mercury concentrations were 0.56 μg/g ww in blood (range: 0.15–1.43), 9.87 μg/g fw in head feathers (3.37–22.0), 9.04 μg/g fw in breast feathers (3.68–20.2), and 0.57 μg/g fww in abandoned eggs (0.15–2.70). We recaptured 21 clapper rails and most had low within-individual variation in mercury. Differences in mercury concentrations were largely attributed to tidal marsh site, with some evidence for year and quadratic date effects. Mercury concentrations in feathers were correlated with blood, and slopes differed between sexes (R 2 = 0.58–0.76). Body condition was negatively related to mercury concentrations. Model averaged estimates indicated a potential decrease in body mass of 20–22 g (5–7%) over the observed range of mercury concentrations. Our results indicate the potential for detrimental effects of mercury contamination on endangered California clapper rails in tidal marsh habitats. - Highlights: ► We examined mercury in endangered California clapper rails within tidal marshes. ► Differences in mercury concentrations were largely attributed to tidal marsh site. ► Mercury concentrations in blood, feathers, and eggs were considered elevated. ► Body condition was negatively related to mercury concentrations. ► Results indicate detrimental effects of mercury on endangered clapper rails. - Mercury contamination in endangered California clapper rails was influenced by tidal marsh site and increased mercury resulted in reduced bird body condition.

  15. Mercury and Cyanide Contaminations in Gold Mine Environment and Possible Solution of Cleaning Up by Using Phytoextraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NURIL HIDAYATI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Water contamination with heavy metals, mainly mercury and cyanide (CN due to small scale of public mines and large scale of industrial mines have been in concern to residents around the area. Surveys of heavy metal contamination in aquatic environments, such as rivers and paddy fields over two gold mine areas in West Jawa were conducted and possible solution of using indigenous plants for phytoremediation was studied. The results showed that most of the rivers and other aquatic environments were affected by gold mine activities. Rivers, ponds, and paddy fields around illegal public mines were mostly contaminated by mercury in considerably high levels, such as paddy fields in two locations (Nunggul and Leuwijamang, Pongkor were contaminated up to 22.68 and 7.73 ppm of Hg, respectively. Whereas rivers located around large scale industrial mines were contaminated by CN. Possible solution of cleaning up by using green technology of phytoremediation was examined. Some plant species grew in the contaminated sites showed high tolerance and potentially effective in accumulating cyanide or mercury in their roots and above ground portions. Lindernia crustacea (L. F.M., Digitaria radicosa (Presl Miq, Paspalum conjugatum, Cyperus kyllingia accumulated 89.13, 50.93, 1.78, and 0.77 ppm of Hg, respectively. Whereas, Paspalum conjugatum, Cyperus kyllingia accumulated 16.52 and 33. 16 ppm of CN respectively.

  16. Mercury Speciation in Contaminated Soils from Old Mining Activities in Mexico Using a Chemical Selective Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Gavilán-García, Irma; Santos-Santos, Elvira; Tovar-Gálvez, Luis R.; Gavilán-García, Arturo; Suárez, Sara; Olmos, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Amalgamation was heavily used in mining since 1557 in Spanish Colonies. In Mexico and other parts of Latin-America, this process generated tailings which were left aside in the mine backyards. In the valley of Zacatecas, tailings were carried out of the mines due to the run-off from the mountains and contaminated most of the Zacatecan Valley which most important economic activity is agricultural (crop and livestock raising). The main concern in this area is the high level of total mercury fou...

  17. Mercury uptake and allocation in Juncus maritimus: implications for phytoremediation and restoration of a mercury contaminated salt marsh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Etelvina; Freitas, Rosa; Pereira, Eduarda; Duarte, Armando

    2012-08-01

    Juncus maritimus is the most abundant macrophyte in Laranjo bay, a Portuguese salt marsh heavily polluted by mercury (Hg). With the aim to elucidate the role of this species in the salt marsh Hg cycling and restoration, plants were harvested between March 2006 and January 2008 from four locations differing in Hg contamination. Metal uptake and distribution between plant organs were evaluated, biomass and Hg pools were also determined. Results showed that J. maritimus may influence the sediment pH and Eh, thus increasing the Hg available for uptake. Most (95-98%) of the absorbed Hg was retained belowground, phytostabilizing the metal and reducing the amount of Hg in the sediments. These results suggest that in salt marshes dominated by J. maritimus the approach could be phytostabilization, where these plants can be used to immobilize metals and store them belowground, reducing the pool of bioavailable Hg within contaminated marshes and acting as a sink rather than a source of contamination to the surrounding areas.

  18. Atmospheric mercury in Changbai Mountain area, northeastern China II. The distribution of reactive gaseous mercury and particulate mercury and mercury deposition fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Qi; Feng, Xinbin; Lu, Julia; Zheng, Wei; Song, Xinjie; Li, Ping; Han, Shijie; Xu, Hao

    2009-08-01

    Reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particulate mercury (Hgp) concentrations in ambient air from a remote site at Changbai Mountain area in northeastern China were intermittently monitored from August 2005 to July 2006 totaling 93 days representing fall, winter-spring and summer season, respectively. Rainwater and snow samples were collected during a whole year, and total mercury (THg) in rain samples were used to calculate wet depositional flux. A throughfall method and a model method were used to estimate dry depositional flux. Results showed mean concentrations of RGM and Hgp are 65 and 77 pg m(-3). Compared to background concentrations of atmospheric mercury species in Northern Hemisphere, RGM and Hgp are significantly elevated in Changbai area. Large values for standard deviation indicated fast reactivity and a low residence time for these mercury species. Seasonal variability is also important, with lower mercury levels in summer compared to other seasons, which is attributed to scavenging by rainfall and low local mercury emissions in summer. THg concentrations ranged from 11.5 to 15.9 ng L(-1) in rainwater samples and 14.9-18.6 ng L(-1) in throughfall samples. Wet depositional flux in Changbai area is calculated to be 8.4 microg m(-2) a(-1), and dry deposition flux is estimated to be 16.5 microg m(-2) a(-1) according to a throughfall method and 20.2 microg m(-2) a(-1) using a model method.

  19. Seafood substitutions obscure patterns of mercury contamination in Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides or "Chilean sea bass".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter B Marko

    Full Text Available Seafood mislabeling distorts the true abundance of fish in the sea, defrauds consumers, and can also cause unwanted exposure to harmful pollutants. By combining genetic data with analyses of total mercury content, we have investigated how species substitutions and fishery-stock substitutions obscure mercury contamination in Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides, also known as "Chilean sea bass". Patagonian toothfish show wide variation in mercury concentrations such that consumers may be exposed to either acceptable or unacceptable levels of mercury depending on the geographic origins of the fish and the allowable limits of different countries. Most notably, stocks of Patagonian toothfish in Chile accumulate significantly more mercury than stocks closer to the South Pole, including the South Georgia/Shag Rocks stock, a fishery certified by the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC as sustainably fished. Consistent with the documented geography of mercury contamination, our analysis showed that, on average, retail fish labeled as MSC-certified Patagonian toothfish had only half the mercury of uncertified fish. However, consideration of genetic data that were informative about seafood substitutions revealed a complex pattern of contamination hidden from consumers: species substitutions artificially inflated the expected difference in mercury levels between MSC-certified and uncertified fish whereas fishery stock substitutions artificially reduced the expected difference in mercury content between MSC-certified and uncertified fish that were actually D. eleginoides. Among MSC-certified fish that were actually D. eleginoides, several with exogenous mtDNA haplotypes (i.e., not known from the certified fishery had mercury concentrations on par with uncertified fish from Chile. Overall, our analysis of mercury was consistent with inferences from the genetic data about the geographic origins of the fish, demonstrated the potential negative impact of

  20. Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilas, F.; Chapman, C.R.; Matthews, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Papers are presented on future observations of and missions to Mercury, the photometry and polarimetry of Mercury, the surface composition of Mercury from reflectance spectrophotometry, the Goldstone radar observations of Mercury, the radar observations of Mercury, the stratigraphy and geologic history of Mercury, the geomorphology of impact craters on Mercury, and the cratering record on Mercury and the origin of impacting objects. Consideration is also given to the tectonics of Mercury, the tectonic history of Mercury, Mercury's thermal history and the generation of its magnetic field, the rotational dynamics of Mercury and the state of its core, Mercury's magnetic field and interior, the magnetosphere of Mercury, and the Mercury atmosphere. Other papers are on the present bounds on the bulk composition of Mercury and the implications for planetary formation processes, the building stones of the planets, the origin and composition of Mercury, the formation of Mercury from planetesimals, and theoretical considerations on the strange density of Mercury

  1. Mercury contamination in soil, tailing and plants on agricultural fields near closed gold mine in Buru Island, Maluku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginawanti Hindersah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural productivity in Buru Island, Maluku is threatened by tailings which are generated from formerly gold mine in Botak Mountain in Wamsait Village. Gold that extracted by using mercury was carried out in mining area as well agricultural field.  High content of mercury in tailings and agricultural field pose a serious problem of food production and quality; and further endangers human health. The purpose of this research was to determine the contaminant level of mercury in tailing, soil and its accumulation in edible part of some food crops. Soil, tailing and plant samples for Hg testing were taken by purposive method based on mining activities in Waelata, Waeapo and Namlea sub district. Six soil samples had been analyzed for their chemical properties. Total mercury levels in tailings and plants were measured by Atomic Adsorption Spectrophotometer. This study showed that agricultural field where tailings were deposited contained Hg above the threshold but agricultural area which is far from hot spot did not. Most edible parts of food crops accumulated mercury more than Indonesian threshold for mercury content in food. This evidence explained that tailings deposited on the surface of agricultural field had an impact on soil quality and crop quality. Tailing accumulated on soil will decreased soil quality since naturally soil fertility in agricultural field in Buru is low.

  2. Mercury in contaminated coastal environments; a case study: the Gulf of Trieste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, M; Covelli, S; Faganeli, J; Logar, M; Mandić, V; Rajar, R; Sirca, A; Zagar, D

    1999-09-30

    Some general facts, uncertainties and gaps in current knowledge of Hg cycling in coastal and oceanic environments are given. As a case study the Gulf of Trieste is chosen. The Gulf is subject to substantial Hg pollution, originating from the Soca river, that drains the cinnabar deposits of the world's second largest Hg mining area, Idrija, Slovenia. The Gulf belongs to one of the most polluted areas in the Mediterranean. Apart from Hg problems, the Gulf is also a subject to industrial and sewage pollution. Due to deteriorating water quality in the Gulf there is a great concern that Hg can be remobilized from sediments to the water column as well as enhance methylation rates which may consequently increase already elevated Hg levels in aquatic organisms. The paper presents data from a recent study which aims to assess the extent of contamination of the Gulf of Trieste after the closure of the Hg mine. Mercury and methylmercury were measured in various environmental compartments (estuarine and marine waters, sediments, and organisms) during the period 1995-1997. Data obtained show that even 10 years after closure of the Hg mine, Hg concentrations in river sediments and water are still very high and did not show the expected decrease of Hg in the Gulf of Trieste. A provisional annual mercury mass balance was established for the Gulf of Trieste showing that the major source of inorganic mercury is still the River Soca (Isonzo) while the major source of methylmercury is the bottom sediment of the Gulf.

  3. Maternal transfer of contaminants in birds: Mercury and selenium concentrations in parents and their eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hartman, C. Alex

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a detailed assessment of the maternal transfer of mercury and selenium to eggs in three bird species (n = 107 parents and n = 339 eggs), and developed predictive equations linking contaminant concentrations in eggs to those in six tissues of the mother (blood, muscle, liver, kidney, breast feathers, and head feathers). Mercury concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with mercury concentrations in each of the mother's internal tissues (R2 ≥ 0.95), but generally not with feathers. For each species, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs decreased as mercury concentrations in the mother increased. At the same maternal mercury concentration, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs differed among species, such that Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) and black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) females transferred more methylmercury to their eggs than American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) females. Selenium concentrations in eggs also were correlated with selenium concentrations in the mother's liver (R2 = 0.87). Furthermore, mercury and selenium concentrations in tern eggs were positively correlated with those in the father (R2 = 0.84). Incubating male terns had 21% higher mercury concentrations in blood compared to incubating females at the same egg mercury concentration. We provide equations to predict contaminant concentrations in eggs from each of the commonly sampled bird tissues.

  4. Advances in encapsulation technologies for the management of mercury-contaminated hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, Paul; Chattopadhyay, Sandip

    2004-01-01

    Although industrial and commercial uses of mercury have been curtailed in recent times, there is a demonstrated need for the development of reliable hazardous waste management techniques because of historic operations that have led to significant contamination and ongoing hazardous waste generation. This study was performed to evaluate whether the U.S. EPA could propose treatment and disposal alternatives to the current land disposal restriction (LDR) treatment standards for mercury. The focus of this article is on the current state of encapsulation technologies that can be used to immobilize elemental mercury, mercury-contaminated debris, and other mercury-contaminated wastes, soils, sediments, or sludges. The range of encapsulation materials used in bench-scale, pilot-scale, and full-scale applications for mercury-contaminated wastes are summarized. Several studies have been completed regarding the application of sulfur polymer stabilization/solidification, chemically bonded phosphate ceramic encapsulation, and polyethylene encapsulation. Other materials reported in the literature as under development for encapsulation use include asphalt, polyester resins, synthetic elastomers, polysiloxane, sol-gels, Dolocrete TM , and carbon/cement mixtures. The primary objective of these encapsulation methods is to physically immobilize the wastes to prevent contact with leaching agents such as water. However, when used for mercury-contaminated wastes, several of these methods require a pretreatment or stabilization step to chemically fix mercury into a highly insoluble form prior to encapsulation. Performance data is summarized from the testing and evaluation of various encapsulated, mercury-contaminated wastes. Future technology development and research needs are also discussed

  5. Changes of mercury contamination in red-crowned cranes, Grus japonensis, in East Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraoka, Hiroki; Tagami, Yukari; Kudo, Moe; Miura, Yoshiaki; Okamoto, Erika; Matsumoto, Fumio; Koga, Kimiya; Uebayashi, Akiko; Shimura, Ryoji; Inoue, Masako; Momose, Kunikazu; Masatomi, Hiroyuki; Kitazawa, Takio; Hiraga, Takeo; Subramanian, Annamalai

    2012-07-01

    Red-crowned cranes (Grus japonensis) are native to eastern Hokkaido (island population), in contrast to the mainland, which migrates between the Amur River basin and eastern China-Korea peninsula. During the 1990s we found that Red-crowned cranes in Hokkaido were highly contaminated with mercury: however, the source was unknown. We investigated the time trend of mercury contamination in Red-crowned cranes. Total mercury levels in the livers and kidneys from cranes dead in the 2000s were lower than those dead in the 1990s. Feather is a major pathway of mercury excretion for many bird species and is used as an indicator of blood mercury level during feather growth. As internal organs from the specimens collected before 1988 were not available, we analyzed the flight feather shavings from stuffed Red-crowned cranes dead in 1959-1987 and found that the mercury level of feathers from cranes dead in the 1960s and 1970s was not more than those from the cranes dead in the 2000s. These results suggest that mercury contamination in Red-crowned cranes in Hokkaido decreased temporally during the 1990s-2000s. This indicates the possible occurrence of some mercury pollution in Red-crowned cranes' habitat in this region in the 1990s or before.

  6. Endophytic fungal communities of Polygonum acuminatum and Aeschynomene fluminensis are influenced by soil mercury contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietro-Souza, William; Mello, Ivani Souza; Vendruscullo, Suzana Junges; Silva, Gilvan Ferreira da; Cunha, Cátia Nunes da; White, James Francis; Soares, Marcos Antônio

    2017-01-01

    The endophytic fungal communities of Polygonum acuminatum and Aeschynomene fluminensis were examined with respect to soil mercury (Hg) contamination. Plants were collected in places with and without Hg+2 for isolation and identification of their endophytic root fungi. We evaluated frequency of colonization, number of isolates and richness, indices of diversity and similarity, functional traits (hydrolytic enzymes, siderophores, indoleacetic acid, antibiosis and metal tolerance) and growth promotion of Aeschynomene fluminensis inoculated with endophytic fungi on soil with mercury. The frequency of colonization, structure and community function, as well as the abundant distribution of taxa of endophytic fungi were influenced by mercury contamination, with higher endophytic fungi in hosts in soil with mercury. The presence or absence of mercury in the soil changes the profile of the functional characteristics of the endophytic fungal community. On the other hand, tolerance of lineages to multiple metals is not associated with contamination. A. fluminensis depends on its endophytic fungi, since plants free of endophytic fungi grew less than expected due to mercury toxicity. In contrast plants containing certain endophytic fungi showed good growth in soil containing mercury, even exceeding growth of plants cultivated in soil without mercury. The data obtained confirm the hypothesis that soil contamination by mercury alters community structure of root endophytic fungi in terms of composition, abundance and species richness. The inoculation of A. fluminensis with certain strains of stress tolerant endophytic fungi contribute to colonization and establishment of the host and may be used in processes that aim to improve phytoremediation of soils with toxic concentrations of mercury.

  7. Determination of mercury evasion in a contaminated headwater stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maprani, Antu C; Al, Tom A; Macquarrie, Kerry T; Dalziel, John A; Shaw, Sean A; Yeats, Phillip A

    2005-03-15

    Evasion from first- and second-order streams in a watershed may be a significant factor in the atmospheric recycling of volatile pollutants such as mercury; however, methods developed for the determination of Hg evasion rates from larger water bodies are not expected to provide satisfactory results in highly turbulent and morphologically complex first- and second-order streams. A new method for determining the Hg evasion rates from these streams, involving laboratory gas-indexing experiments and field tracer tests, was developed in this study to estimate the evasion rate of Hg from Gossan Creek, a first-order stream in the Upsalquitch River watershed in northern New Brunswick, Canada. Gossan Creek receives Hg-contaminated groundwater discharge from a gold mine tailings pile. Laboratory gas-indexing experiments provided the ratio of gas-exchange coefficients for zero-valent Hg to propane (tracer gas) of 0.81+/-0.16, suggesting that the evasion mechanism in highly turbulent systems can be described by the surface renewal model with an additional component of enhanced gas evasion probably related to the formation of bubbles. Deliberate field tracer tests with propane and chloride tracers were found to be a reliable and practical method for the determination of gas-exchange coefficients for small streams. Estimation of Hg evasion from the first 1 km of Gossan Creek indicates that about 6.4 kg of Hg per year is entering the atmosphere, which is a significant fraction of the regional sources of Hg to the atmosphere.

  8. Environmental hazard analysis - contamination of nutrients, mercury and cesium-137 in natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakanson, L.

    1990-01-01

    Results from some ongoing Swedish research projects on different types of contamination of limnic as well as marine areas are summarized. A brief theoretical outline on the central concepts of the 'meso-scale-type' of environmental hazard analysis, utilizing examples on eutrophication of coastal waters is given. The concepts are further substantiated in two subsequent parts dealing with radioactive cesium and mercury. The idea is to illustrate that the basic concepts for ('real' world/'meso scale') environmental hazard analysis can be used for different substances and different aquatic environments. It is important to give clear, quantifiable definitions of the effect, dose and environmental sensitivity parameters, which should be valid for a defined area and for a defined span of time. All other parameters should be compatible and have the same area and time resolution. (author)

  9. Sources and remediation for mercury contamination in aquatic systems--a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qianrui; Kim, Daekeun; Dionysiou, Dionysios D.; Sorial, George A.; Timberlake, Dennis

    2004-01-01

    Sources of mercury contamination in aquatic systems were studied in a comprehensive literature review. The results show that the most important anthropogenic sources of mercury pollution in aquatic systems are: (1) atmospheric deposition, (2) erosion, (3) urban discharges, (4) agricultural materials, (5) mining, and (6) combustion and industrial discharges. Capping and dredging are two possible remedial approaches to mercury contamination in aquatic systems, and natural attenuation is a passive decontamination alternative. Capping seems to be an economical and effective remedial approach to mercury-contaminated aquatic systems. Dredging is an expensive remedial approach. However, for heavily polluted systems, dredging may be more effective. Natural attenuation, involving little or no cost, is a possible and very economical choice for less contaminated sites. Proper risk assessment is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of remedial and passive decontamination methods as well as their potential adverse environmental effects. Modeling tools have a bright future in the remediation and passive decontamination of mercury contamination in aquatic systems. Existing mercury transport and transformation models were reviewed and compared

  10. Successful Characterization and Remedial Contour of Highly Contaminated Mercury Soil at the Y-12 National Security Complex - 13593

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Aaron; Rigas, Michael [U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Birchfield, Joseph W. III [1528 Paxton Drive Knoxville, TN 37918 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    An area known as the 81-10 pad within the footprint of the Y-12 National Security Complex, suspected to be heavily contaminated with mercury, was slated for characterization in support of a Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) milestone to be accomplished by September 30, 2012. A full remedial design report (RDR) required the soil in Exposure Unit -9 (EU-9) to be fully characterized for a number of contaminates of concern including mercury. The goal of this characterization effort was to determine what soil, if any, would need to be removed for the protection of industrial workers and impacts to the surface and ground water. Funding for this project was made available using buy-back scope under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). The EU-9 soil unit involved 3 different classifications which were determined as follows: Class 1: Known to have been impacted, contamination is likely; Class 2: Suspected to have been impacted, contamination is unknown; Class 3: Area not known to have been impacted, contamination unlikely. Due to various sampling and analysis events since the 1980's, significant mercury contamination was expected under the concrete pad of an area known as 81-10. Mercury contamination outside of the boundary of this pad within the EU-9 footprint was not known and therefore an original planned estimate of 1,461 cubic meters of material were expected to be heavily contaminated with mercury requiring removal, treatment and disposal. Through the use of a highly effective nature and extent sampling and analysis design that involved a hybrid of statistically-based and judgmental sampling, the actual remedial contour requiring removal was approximately 717 cubic meters, roughly 12% of the original estimate. This characterization approach was executed in full compliance with the Record of Decision (ROD) [1] documents that were agreed upon by the U.S. Department of Energy, Environmental Protection Agency and Tennessee Department of Environment and

  11. Study of high levels indoor air mercury contamination from mercury amalgam use in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khwaja, M.A.; Abbasi, M.S.; Mehmood, F.; Jahangir, S.

    2014-01-01

    In 2005, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) estimated that 362 tonnes of dental mercury are consumed annually worldwide. Dental mercury amalgams also called silver fillings and amalgam fillings are widely done. These fillings gave off mercury vapours. Estimated average absorbed concentrations of mercury vapours from dental fillings vary from 3,000 to 17,000 ng Hg. Mercury (Hg) also known as quick silver is an essential constituent of dental amalgam. It is a toxic substance of global concern. A persistent pollutant, mercury is not limited to its source but it travels, on time thousands of kilometers away from the source. Scientific evidence, including, UNEP Global Mercury report, establishes mercury as an extremely toxic substance, which is a major threat to wildlife, ecosystem and human health, at a global scale. Children are more at risk from mercury poisoning which affects their neurological development and brain. Mercury poisoning diminishes memory, attention, thinking and sight. In the past, a number of studies at dental sites in many countries have been carried out and reported which have been reviewed and briefly described. This paper describes and discusses the recent investigations, regarding mercury vapours level in air, carried out at 18 dental sites in Pakistan and other countries. It is evident from the data of 42 dental sites in 17 countries, including, selected dental sites in five main cities of Pakistan, described and discussed in this paper that at most dental sites in many countries including Pakistan, the indoor mercury vapours levels exceed far above the permissible limit, recommended for safe physical and mental health. At these sites, public, in general, and the medical, paramedical staff and vulnerable population, in particular, are at most serious risk to health resulting from exposure to toxic and hazardous mercury. (author)

  12. Assessment of mercury contamination in African sub-Saharan freshwater reservoirs (Burkina Faso)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ousseni, O.; Marc, A. [Montreal Univ., PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Despite an increase in artisanal gold mining with metallic mercury (Hg) amalgamation in Burkina Faso since 1990, there is no data on the potential impact of Hg contamination on aquatic systems. This presentation reported on a study that evaluated environmental mercury contamination by determining the total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in water and 350 muscle tissues of fish samples from 13 reservoirs in Burkina Faso. Mercury was analyzed by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry technique using Tekran 2600 mercury analyzer (CV-AFS) after oxidization by BrCl and reduction by SnCl{sub 2}. The range of Hg concentration for THg and MeHg in water was presented along with the Fish THg level range. The study showed that most mercury was in the particulate form as a result of rainfall runoff. Most fish mercury concentrations were below the Health Canada guideline limit. However, the Hg level in one fish species (Bagrus bajad) was above the World Health Organization (WHO) international trade guideline limit. The study showed that in general, most fish species are not highly contaminated by Hg, with the exception of Bagrus bajad. It was concluded that future studies should consider consumption patterns of different subpopulations in order to evaluate risk and develop policy recommendations.

  13. BACTERIA USED TO PRECIPITATE MERCURY IN CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER OF PAVLODAR, KAZAKHSTAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract for poster presentation: A number of regions in Kazakhstan are contaminated with soluble mercury originating from industrial sources. A chlor-alkali plant that operated from 1970-1990 caused contamination of ground water near a northern suburb of Pavlodar city. The plume...

  14. Hyperaccumulators of mercury in the industrial area of a PVC factory in Vlora (Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehu Julian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contamination by heavy metals is one of the major threats to soil and water as well as human health. Much attention is being paid to metal-accumulating plants that may be used for the phytoremediation of contaminated soils. Some plants can accumulate remarkable levels of metals, 100-1000-fold the levels normally accumulated in most species. This study evaluated the potential of mercury accumulation of 17 plant species growing on contaminated sites in the ex-industrial area of the PVC Factory, Vlora, Albania. Plant roots, shoots and soil samples were collected and analyzed for the selected metal concentration values. The biological accumulation coefficient (BAC was calculated to evaluate the potential use of plant species for phytoremediation purposes. The concentration of Hg in soils inside the contaminated area varied from 45-301 mg/kg-1. The concentration of Hg in plant shoots and roots varied from 0.1 to 12.9 mg/kg-1 and 0.1 to 4.2 mg/kg-1, respectively. Species Medicago sativa L. and Dittrichia viscosa (L. W. Greuter were found to be the most suitable plants for phytoremediation of the site contaminated with mercury (BAC values varied from 30-10 percent, respectively. Considering the BAC values, none of the plant species was found to be a hyperaccumulator; however, plants with high BCF (metal concentration ratio of plant root to soil and low BTC (metal concentration ratio of plant shoots to roots have the potential for phytostabilization and phytoextraction. The results of this study can be used for the management and decontamination of soils with mercury using plant species having phytoremediation potential/characteristics.

  15. Potential of aerobic bacteria use for remediation of groundwater of Pavlodar outskirt contaminated with soluble mercury compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Republic of Kazakhstan there are some regions contaminated with mercury as a result of technogenic releases from industrial enterprises. The mercury ingress into the environment has resulted in significant pollution of groundwater and surface water with soluble mercury com...

  16. Assessment and Comparison of Electrokinetic and Electrokinetic-bioremediation Techniques for Mercury Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Nabila, A. T. A.; Nurshuhaila, M. S.; Zaidi, E.; Azim, M. A. M.; Farhana, S. M. S.

    2016-11-01

    Landfills are major sources of contamination due to the presence of harmful bacteria and heavy metals. Electrokinetic-Bioremediation (Ek-Bio) is one of the techniques that can be conducted to remediate contaminated soil. Therefore, the most prominent bacteria from landfill soil will be isolated to determine their optimal conditions for culture and growth. The degradation rate and the effectiveness of selected local bacteria were used to reduce soil contamination. Hence, this enhances microbiological activities to degrade contaminants in soil and reduce the content of heavy metals. The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of isolated bacteria (Lysinibacillus fusiformis) to remove mercury in landfill soil. 5 kg of landfill soil was mixed with deionized water to make it into slurry condition for the purpose of electrokinetic and bioremediation. This remediation technique was conducted for 7 days by using 50 V/m of electrical gradient and Lysinibacillus fusiformis bacteria was applied at the anode reservoir. The slurry landfill soil was located at the middle of the reservoir while distilled water was placed at the cathode of reservoir. After undergoing treatment for 7 days, the mercury analyzer showed that there was a significant reduction of approximately up to 78 % of mercury concentration for the landfill soil. From the results, it is proven that electrokinetic bioremediation technique is able to remove mercury within in a short period of time. Thus, a combination of Lysinibacillus fusiformis and electrokinetic technique has the potential to remove mercury from contaminated soil in Malaysia.

  17. Demonstration of New Technologies Required for the Treatment of Mixed Waste Contaminated with {ge}260 ppm Mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, M.I.

    2002-02-06

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) defines several categories of mercury wastes, each of which has a defined technology or concentration-based treatment standard, or universal treatment standard (UTS). RCRA defines mercury hazardous wastes as any waste that has a TCLP value for mercury of 0.2 mg/L or greater. Three of these categories, all nonwastewaters, fall within the scope of this report on new technologies to treat mercury-contaminated wastes: wastes as elemental mercury; hazardous wastes with less than 260 mg/kg [parts per million (ppm)] mercury; and hazardous wastes with 260 ppm or more of mercury. While this report deals specifically with the last category--hazardous wastes with 260 ppm or more of mercury--the other two categories will be discussed briefly so that the full range of mercury treatment challenges can be understood. The treatment methods for these three categories are as follows: Waste as elemental mercury--RCRA identifies amalgamation (AMLGM) as the treatment standard for radioactive elemental mercury. However, radioactive mercury condensates from retorting (RMERC) processes also require amalgamation. In addition, incineration (IMERC) and RMERC processes that produce residues with >260 ppm of radioactive mercury contamination and that fail the RCRA toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) limit for mercury (0.20 mg/L) require RMERC, followed by AMLGM of the condensate. Waste with <260 ppm mercury--No specific treatment method is specified for hazardous wastes containing <260 ppm. However, RCRA regulations require that such wastes (other than RMERC residues) that exceed a TCLP mercury concentration of 0.20 mg/L be treated by a suitable method to meet the TCLP limit for mercury of 0.025 mg/L. RMERC residues must meet the TCLP value of {ge}0.20 mg/L, or be stabilized and meet the {ge}0.025 mg/L limit. Waste with {ge}260 ppm mercury--For hazardous wastes with mercury contaminant concentrations {ge}260 ppm and RCRA

  18. Distribution of total mercury, methyl mercury and selenium in pod of killer whales (Orcinus Orca) stranded in the northern area of Japan: Comparison of mature females with calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Tetsuya [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan)]. E-mail: endotty@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp; Kimura, Osamu [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan); Hisamichi, Yohsuke [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan); Minoshima, Yasuhiko [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan); Haraguchi, Koichi [Daiichi College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 22-1 Tamagawa-Cho, Minami-Ku, Fukuoka 815-8511 (Japan); Kakumoto, Chiharu [Marine Wildlife Center of JAPAN - Incorporated Non Profit Organization/NPO, 1-35-103, N21W6 Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0021 (Japan); Kobayashi, Mari [Marine Wildlife Center of JAPAN - Incorporated Non Profit Organization/NPO, 1-35-103, N21W6 Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0021 (Japan)

    2006-11-15

    Total mercury (T-Hg) and selenium (Se) concentrations in liver, kidney and muscle from a pod of killer whales including five mature females and three calves stranded in the northern area of Japan were analyzed. In the mature female, contamination level of T-Hg in the liver sample (62.2 {+-} 21.9 {mu}g/wet g) was markedly higher than that in kidney sample and muscle sample. The molar ratio of T-Hg to Se in the liver sample was approximately 1, and those in the kidney and muscle samples were markedly lower than 1. These results suggest that the formation of HgSe compound increases the hepatic accumulation of mercury (Hg). In contrast, contamination level of T-Hg in the calf organs was much lower than that in the mature female organs. These results suggest that the transfer of Hg from the mother to the fetus via placenta and/or to calf via milk is trace. - Total mercury, methyl mercury and selenium concentrations in liver, kidney and muscle from a pod of killer whales stranded in the northern area of Japan were analyzed.

  19. Distribution of total mercury, methyl mercury and selenium in pod of killer whales (Orcinus Orca) stranded in the northern area of Japan: Comparison of mature females with calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Tetsuya; Kimura, Osamu; Hisamichi, Yohsuke; Minoshima, Yasuhiko; Haraguchi, Koichi; Kakumoto, Chiharu; Kobayashi, Mari

    2006-01-01

    Total mercury (T-Hg) and selenium (Se) concentrations in liver, kidney and muscle from a pod of killer whales including five mature females and three calves stranded in the northern area of Japan were analyzed. In the mature female, contamination level of T-Hg in the liver sample (62.2 ± 21.9 μg/wet g) was markedly higher than that in kidney sample and muscle sample. The molar ratio of T-Hg to Se in the liver sample was approximately 1, and those in the kidney and muscle samples were markedly lower than 1. These results suggest that the formation of HgSe compound increases the hepatic accumulation of mercury (Hg). In contrast, contamination level of T-Hg in the calf organs was much lower than that in the mature female organs. These results suggest that the transfer of Hg from the mother to the fetus via placenta and/or to calf via milk is trace. - Total mercury, methyl mercury and selenium concentrations in liver, kidney and muscle from a pod of killer whales stranded in the northern area of Japan were analyzed

  20. Quality monitoring and assessment of mercury contamination in water and sediments of the Botafogo river, PE, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Moraes Ferreira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid 80's, the riverside population of Rio Botafogo, in the Santa Cruz channel, Itamaracá has undergone critical environmental situations due to poorly planned growth and inadequate soil occupation, and as a consequence, a loss in environmental quality resulted. In 1963, an industry for production of chlorine and caustic soda produced by electrolytic cell of mercury was installed in the Botafogo river. By mid-1987, a discharge of inorganic mercury between 22 and 35 tones of mercury in this river was estimated. In addition to this industry, others of different types were installed in recent years along the sides of this river. Based on previous studies, we conducted a new assessment of contaminated sites, comparing the changes over the years concerning the quality of water and sediment of the Botafogo river, in which the locations of collection, the need to increase the network of environmental monitoring were investigated. The parameters defined for analysis of water were: pH, dissolved oxygen (OD, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, ammonia and phosphorus concentration, color, turbidity and mercury content. It was monitored the concentration of mercury in the sediments. The values of pH, turbidity, DO, BOD and ammonia usually showed values within the limits established by CONAMA Resolution No 357. Color parameters have remained consistently high, probably caused by continuous withdrawal of sand before the points of collection. The content of phosphorus was high, until the beginning of 2005, and remained within standards required by legislation until the end of this research. In the studied area, it has been installed, since 1963, an industry for chlorine and caustic soda production, which uses in its manufacturing process electrolytic cell of mercury. In this experiment, the impact of mercury has been observed.

  1. Evaluation of mercury contamination in Smilax myosotiflora herbal preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Hooi-Hoon; Lee, Kheng-Leng

    2007-01-01

    The DCA (Drug Control Authority) of Malaysia implemented phase 3 registration of traditional medicines in January 1992 with special emphasis on the quality, efficacy, and safety of all dosage forms of these medicines. For this reason, a total of 100 herbal products containing Smilax myosotiflora were purchased in the Malaysian market and analyzed for mercury content, as mercury is a recognized reproductive toxicant. The products were analyzed using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. It was found that 89% of the above products do not exceed 0.5 ppm of mercury. Heavy metal poisoning such as mercury has been associated with traditional medicines. Therefore, it is important that doctors and health care practitioners are aware of these risks and finding ways to minimize them, including questions pertaining to the use of these remedies during the routine taking of a patient's history.

  2. Citric acid facilitated thermal treatment: An innovative method for the remediation of mercury contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Fujun; Peng, Changsheng; Hou, Deyi; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Qian; Li, Fasheng; Gu, Qingbao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hg content was reduced to <1.5 mg/kg when treated at 400 °C with citric acid. • The treated soil retained most of its original soil physicochemical properties. • Proton provided by citric acid facilitates thermal removal of mercury. • This thermal treatment method is expected to reduce energy input by 35%. - Abstract: Thermal treatment is a promising technology for the remediation of mercury contaminated soils, but it often requires high energy input at heating temperatures above 600 °C, and the treated soil is not suitable for agricultural reuse. The present study developed a novel method for the thermal treatment of mercury contaminated soils with the facilitation of citric acid (CA). A CA/Hg molar ratio of 15 was adopted as the optimum dosage. The mercury concentration in soils was successfully reduced from 134 mg/kg to 1.1 mg/kg when treated at 400 °C for 60 min and the treated soil retained most of its original soil physiochemical properties. During the treatment process, CA was found to provide an acidic environment which enhanced the volatilization of mercury. This method is expected to reduce energy input by 35% comparing to the traditional thermal treatment method, and lead to agricultural soil reuse, thus providing a greener and more sustainable remediation method for treating mercury contaminated soil in future engineering applications.

  3. REMOVAL OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS AT THE PAVLODAR CHEMICAL PLANT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KHRAPUNOV, V. YE.; ISAKOVA, R.A.; LEVINTOV, B.L.; KALB, P.D.; KAMBEROV, I.M.; TREBUKHOV, A.

    2004-09-25

    Soils beneath and adjacent to the Pavlodar Chemical Plant in Kazakhstan have been contaminated with elemental mercury as a result of chlor alkali processing using mercury cathode cell technology. The work described in this paper was conducted in preparation for a demonstration of a technology to remove the mercury from the contaminated soils using a vacuum assisted thermal distillation process. The process can operate at temperatures from 250-500 C and pressures of 0.13kPa-1.33kPa. Following vaporization, the mercury vapor is cooled, condensed and concentrated back to liquid elemental mercury. It will then be treated using the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory as described in a companion paper at this conference. The overall project objectives include chemical and physical characterization of the contaminated soils, study of the influence of the soil's physical-chemical and hydro dynamical characteristics on process parameters, and laboratory testing to optimize the mercury sublimation rate when heating in vacuum. Based on these laboratory and pilot-scale data, a full-scale production process will be designed for testing. This paper describes the soil characterization. This work is being sponsored by the International Science and Technology Center.

  4. Citric acid facilitated thermal treatment: An innovative method for the remediation of mercury contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Fujun [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Peng, Changsheng [The Key Lab of Marine Environmental Science and Ecology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Hou, Deyi [Geotechnical and Environmental Research Group, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Wu, Bin; Zhang, Qian; Li, Fasheng [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Gu, Qingbao, E-mail: guqb@craes.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Hg content was reduced to <1.5 mg/kg when treated at 400 °C with citric acid. • The treated soil retained most of its original soil physicochemical properties. • Proton provided by citric acid facilitates thermal removal of mercury. • This thermal treatment method is expected to reduce energy input by 35%. - Abstract: Thermal treatment is a promising technology for the remediation of mercury contaminated soils, but it often requires high energy input at heating temperatures above 600 °C, and the treated soil is not suitable for agricultural reuse. The present study developed a novel method for the thermal treatment of mercury contaminated soils with the facilitation of citric acid (CA). A CA/Hg molar ratio of 15 was adopted as the optimum dosage. The mercury concentration in soils was successfully reduced from 134 mg/kg to 1.1 mg/kg when treated at 400 °C for 60 min and the treated soil retained most of its original soil physiochemical properties. During the treatment process, CA was found to provide an acidic environment which enhanced the volatilization of mercury. This method is expected to reduce energy input by 35% comparing to the traditional thermal treatment method, and lead to agricultural soil reuse, thus providing a greener and more sustainable remediation method for treating mercury contaminated soil in future engineering applications.

  5. Screening of chelating ligands to enhance mercury accumulation from historically mercury-contaminated soils for phytoextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianxu; Xia, Jicheng; Feng, Xinbin

    2017-01-15

    Screening of optimal chelating ligands which not only have high capacities to enhance plant uptake of mercury (Hg) from soil but also can decrease bioavailable Hg concentration in soil is necessary to establish a viable chemically-assisted phytoextraction. Therefore, Brassica juncea was exposed to historically Hg-contaminated soil (total Hg, 90 mg kg -1 ) to investigate the efficiency of seven chelating agents [ammonium thiosulphate, sodium thiosulphate, ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride, sodium nitrate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and sodium sulfite] at enhancing Hg phytoextraction; the leaching of bioavailable Hg caused by these chelating agents was also investigated. The Hg concentration in control (treated with double-distilled water) plant tissues was below 1 mg kg -1 . The remarkably higher Hg concentration was found in plants receiving ammonium thiosulphate and sodium sulfite treatments. The bioaccumulation factors and translocation factors of ammonium thiosulphate and sodium sulfite treatments were significantly higher than those of the other treatments. The more efficient uptake of Hg by plants upon treatment with ammonium thiosulphate and sodium sulfite compared to the other treatments might be explained by the formation of special Hg-thiosulphate complexes that could be preferentially taken up by the roots and transported in plant tissues. The application of sulfite significantly increased bioavailable Hg concentration in soil compared with that in initial soil and control soil, whereas ammonium thiosulphate significantly decreased bioavailable Hg concentration. The apparent decrease of bioavailable Hg in ammonium thiosulphate-treated soil compared with that in sodium sulfite-treated soil might be attributable to the unstable Hg-thiosulphate complexes formed between thiosulphate and Hg; they could react to produce less bioavailable Hg in the soil. The results of this study indicate that ammonium thiosulphate may be an optimal chelating

  6. Mercury in environmental samples from a waterbody contaminated by gold mining in Colombia, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero, J; Solano, B

    1998-06-30

    Environmental samples from a marsh, which receives mercury discharges from a gold mine in Colombia (South America), were evaluated for total mercury content. Mercury concentrations were analyzed in sediments, macrophytes and fish species from different trophic levels. The Mean mercury levels in sediments oscillated between 140 and 355 micrograms/kg whereas in the macrophyte Eichornia crassipes levels were between 219 and 277 microgram/kg with practically no interseasonal variations. The mercury content in the muscle of fish varied depending on the position in the trophic chain and the feeding habits of each species, oscillating between non-detectable (< 7.4 microgram/kg) and 1084 micrograms/kg. Seasonal variations were only observed in fish species whose habitats are mostly the bottom sediment. The presence of mercury in some fish appeared to be the result of bioaccumulation rather than a biomagnification processes. This was clearly evidenced in the detritivorous species Triportheus magdalenae which obtain their food within the sediments and whose mercury concentrations were significantly higher when compared to the other species including carnivorous. The relatively low mercury concentrations found in fish may be due to both the dispersion of the contaminant once it reaches the waterbody and the migrational characteristics of the fish species.

  7. Green waste compost as an amendment during induced phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinska, Beata

    2015-03-01

    Phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soils is a new strategy that consists of using the higher plants to make the soil contaminant nontoxic. The main problem that occurs during the process is the low solubility and bioavailability of mercury in soil. Therefore, some soil amendments can be used to increase the efficiency of the Hg phytoextraction process. The aim of the investigation was to use the commercial compost from municipal green wastes to increase the efficiency of phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soil by Lepidium sativum L. plants and determine the leaching of Hg after compost amendment. The result of the study showed that Hg can be accumulated by L. sativum L. The application of compost increased both the accumulation by whole plant and translocation of Hg to shoots. Compost did not affect the plant biomass and its biometric parameters. Application of compost to the soil decreased the leaching of mercury in both acidic and neutral solutions regardless of growing medium composition and time of analysis. Due to Hg accumulation and translocation as well as its potential leaching in acidic and neutral solution, compost can be recommended as a soil amendment during the phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soil.

  8. Cleanup of contaminated areas; La bonifica di aree contaminate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beone, G; Carbone, A I; Zagaroli, M [ENEA - Dipartimento Protezione Ambientale e Salute dell' Uomo, Centro Ricerche Energia, Casaccia (Italy)

    1989-01-15

    The paper deals with the problem of contaminated areas cleanup, in order to eliminate every possible damage for man safety and environment and to site recovery for some utilization, The first step of cleanup operation is site characterization, that is followed by a pianificazion activity for a better definition of staff qualification, technology to be used, protection and prevention instruments for the risks due to contaminants handling. The second section describes the different remedial technologies for contaminated sites. Remedial technologies may be divided into on-site/off-site and in-situ treatments, according to whether materials (waste, soil, water) are moved to another location or not, respectively. Finally, it is outlined that contaminated areas cleanup is a typical multidisciplinary activity because very different competences are required. (author)

  9. Contamination of mercury in tongkat Ali hitam herbal preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, H H; Lee, K L

    2006-08-01

    The DCA (Drug Control Authority), Malaysia has implemented the phase three registration of traditional medicines on 1 January 1992. As such, a total of 100 products in various pharmaceutical dosage forms of a herbal preparation found in Malaysia, containing tongkat Ali hitam, either single or combined preparations, were analyzed for the presence of a heavy toxic metal, mercury, using atomic absorption spectrophotometer, after performing a simple random sampling to enable each sample an equal chance of being selected in an unbiased manner. Results showed that 26% of these products possessed 0.53-2.35 ppm of mercury, and therefore, do not comply with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia. The quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia is not exceeding 0.5 ppm for mercury. Out of these 26 products, four products have already registered with the DCA, Malaysia whilst the rest, however, have not registered with the DCA, Malaysia.

  10. Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In support of its vision for technological excellence, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) has identified three strategic goals. The three goals of the SCFA are: Contain and/or stabilize contamination sources that pose an imminent threat to surface and ground waters; Delineate DNAPL contamination in the subsurface and remediate DNAPL-contaminated soils and ground water; and Remove a full range of metal and radionuclide contamination in soils and ground water. To meet the challenges of remediating subsurface contaminants in soils and ground water, SCFA funded more than 40 technologies in fiscal year 1997. These technologies are grouped according to the following product lines: Dense Nonaqueous-Phase Liquids; Metals and Radionuclides; Source Term Containment; and Source Term Remediation. This report briefly describes the SCFA 1997 technologies and showcases a few key technologies in each product line

  11. Eco-geochemical peculiarities of mercury content in solid residue of snow in the industrial enterprises impacted areas of Tomsk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonenko, E. A.; Lyapina, E. E.; Talovskaya, A. V.; Parygina, I. A.

    2014-11-01

    Snow, as short-term consignation Wednesday, has several properties that lead to its widespread use in ecologicalgeochemical and geological research. By studying the chemical composition of the dust fallout you can indirectly assess the condition of atmospheric air.1-2. Determining the content of mercury in snow cover, you can define its contribution for the longest period of the year in our region, with the most intensive use of various types of fuel (coal, gas, firewood), that puts a strain on urban ecosystems in terms of ecology.3-4. In addition, snow cleans the atmosphere of mercury, but it accumulates in the snow, and during the spring melting of snow hits the ground and rivers, polluting them. Part of the mercury back into the atmosphere. It should also be note the special nature of the circulation of air masses over the city in winter, creating a heat CAP, which contributes to air pollution of the city. 5-6-7. The high load areas of industrial impact were detected during the eco-geochemical investigations of mercury load index in the impacted areas of enterprises of Tomsk. It was found out, that aerosol particles of industrial emissions in Tomsk contain mercury. The contamination transfer character of mercury sources and occurrence modes of pollutants in snow solid residue were detected during the researches of industrial impact.

  12. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury is an element that is found in air, water and soil. It has several forms. Metallic mercury is a shiny, silver-white, odorless liquid. If ... with other elements to form powders or crystals. Mercury is in many products. Metallic mercury is used ...

  13. Mercury and other Mining-Related Contaminants in Ospreys along the Upper Clark Fork River, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, H.; Domenech, R.; Greene, E.; Staats, M. F.

    2010-12-01

    Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) are widely recognized as bio-indicators of the health of aquatic ecosystems. Until the time of fledging, nestlings feed exclusively on fish caught within a few kilometers of the nest. Therefore, tissues of these young birds may reflect the level of contamination of local fish and more generally, the contamination status of the aquatic ecosystem they inhabit. Nests can often be accessed with a boom truck and obtaining small blood samples from the flightless chicks is fairly noninvasive. Ospreys are nesting along the Upper Clark Fork River, Montana, which is heavily contaminated with wastes left from a century of copper and precious metals mining. We have been monitoring the levels of priority pollutants (arsenic, cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, mercury and selenium) in Osprey chicks along a 250 km section of the river for four years. Objectives are to establish current contaminant status, pinpoint pollution hotspots, and assess the success of restoration efforts. Our results suggest that of highest concern may be the bioaccumulation of mercury with blood levels of up to 0.7 mg/L in the growing chicks. These concentrations are expected to increase many fold upon fledging as feather growth stops, which acts as the major sink for mercury. Interestingly, we found mercury levels increased in downstream direction, in contrast to concentrations of other pollutants. Reasons may be the different origin of mercury versus other contaminants and the distribution of wetlands where mercury can be transformed into highly bioavailable methylmercury. Blood levels of selenium are also elevated throughout the Upper Clark Fork River drainage. We discuss the implications for restoration and remediation of the Clark Fork River.

  14. Multiple regression analysis to assess the role of plankton on the distribution and speciation of mercury in water of a contaminated lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoichev, T; Tessier, E; Amouroux, D; Almeida, C M; Basto, M C P; Vasconcelos, V M

    2016-11-15

    Spatial and seasonal variation of mercury species aqueous concentrations and distributions was carried out during six sampling campaigns at four locations within Laranjo Bay, the most mercury-contaminated area of the Aveiro Lagoon (Portugal). Inorganic mercury (IHg(II)) and methylmercury (MeHg) were determined in filter-retained (IHgPART, MeHgPART) and filtered (algae and consumers' grazing pressure in the contaminated area can be involved to increase concentrations of IHg(II)DISS and MeHgPART. These processes could lead to suspended particles enriched with MeHg and to the enhancement of IHg(II) and MeHg availability in surface waters and higher transfer to the food web. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of gold mining associated with mercury contamination in soil, biota sediments and tailings in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odumo, Benjamin Okang'; Carbonell, Gregoria; Angeyo, Hudson Kalambuka; Patel, Jayanti Purshottam; Torrijos, Manuel; Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio

    2014-11-01

    This work considered the environmental impact of artisanal mining gold activity in the Migori-Transmara area (Kenya). From artisanal gold mining, mercury is released to the environment, thus contributing to degradation of soil and water bodies. High mercury contents have been quantified in soil (140 μg kg(-1)), sediment (430 μg kg(-1)) and tailings (8,900 μg kg(-1)), as expected. The results reveal that the mechanism for transporting mercury to the terrestrial ecosystem is associated with wet and dry depositions. Lichens and mosses, used as bioindicators of pollution, are related to the proximity to mining areas. The further the distance from mining areas, the lower the mercury levels. This study also provides risk maps to evaluate potential negative repercussions. We conclude that the Migori-Transmara region can be considered a strongly polluted area with high mercury contents. The technology used to extract gold throughout amalgamation processes causes a high degree of mercury pollution around this gold mining area. Thus, alternative gold extraction methods should be considered to reduce mercury levels that can be released to the environment.

  16. Non-isothermal kinetics of the thermal desorption of mercury from a contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López, Félix A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Almadén mining district (Ciudad Real, Spain was the largest cinnabar (mercury sulphide mine in the world. Its soils have high levels of mercury a consequence of its natural lithology, but often made much worse by its mining history. The present work examines the thermal desorption of two contaminated soils from the Almadén area under non-isothermal conditions in a N2 atmosphere, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. DSC was performed at different heating rates between room temperature and 600 °C. Desorption temperatures for different mercury species were determined. The Friedman, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa and Coasts–Redfern methods were employed to determine the reaction kinetics from the DSC data. The activation energy and pre-exponential factor for mercury desorption were calculated.El distrito minero de Almadén (Ciudad Real, España tiene la mayor mina de cinabrio (sulfuro de mercurio del mundo. Sus suelos tienen altos niveles de mercurio como consecuencia de su litología natural, pero a menudo su contenido en mercurio es mucho más alto debido a la historia minera de la zona. Este trabajo examina la desorción térmica de dos suelos contaminados procedentes de Almadén bajo condiciones isotérmicas en atmósfera de N2, empleando calorimetría diferencial de barrido (DSC. La calorimetría se llevó a cabo a diferentes velocidades de calentamiento desde temperatura ambiente hasta 600 °C. Se determinaron las diferentes temperaturas de desorción de las especies de mercurio presentes en los suelos. Para determinar la cinética de reacción a partir de los datos de DSC se utilizaron los métodos de Friedman, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa y Coasts–Redfern. Además se calcularon las energías de activación y los factores pre-exponenciales para la desorción del mercurio.

  17. Accumulation of total mercury and methylmercury in rice plants collected from different mining areas in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Mei; Li, Bing; Shao, Jun-juan; Wang, Thanh; He, Bin; Shi, Jian-bo; Ye, Zhi-hong; Jiang, Gui-bin

    2014-01-01

    A total of 155 rice plants were collected from ten mining areas in three provinces of China (Hunan, Guizhou and Guangdong), where most of mercury (Hg) mining takes place in China. During the harvest season, whole rice plants were sampled and divided into root, stalk and leaf, husk and seed (brown rice), together with soil from root zone. Although the degree of Hg contamination varied significantly among different mining areas, rice seed showed the highest ability for methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation. Both concentrations of total mercury (THg) and MeHg in rice plants were significantly correlated with Hg levels in soil, indicating soil is still an important source for both inorganic mercury (IHg) and MeHg in rice plants. The obvious discrepancy between the distribution patterns of THg and MeHg reflected different pathways of IHg and MeHg accumulation. Water soluble Hg may play more important role in MeHg accumulation in rice plants. -- Highlights: • Distribution patterns indicated different pathways of IHg and MeHg accumulation. • Soil is an important source for both THg and MeHg to rice plants. • Water soluble Hg may play more important role in MeHg accumulation in rice plants. -- The distribution patterns indicate different pathways of IHg and MeHg accumulation in rice plants

  18. Mercury contamination in vicinity of secondary copper smelters in Fuyang, Zhejiang Province, China: Levels and contamination in topsoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Xuebin; Yao Chunxia; Song Jing; Li Zhibo; Zhang Changbo; Qian Wei; Bi De; Li Chenxi; Teng Ying; Wu Longhua; Wan Hongdong; Luo Yongming

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we aim to investigate the extent of soil contamination by Hg, particularly by anthropogenic Hg, and tentatively estimate the total Hg (Hg T ) accumulation in topsoils (0-15 cm) in Fuyang, Zhejiang Province-a secondary Cu smelter of China. The results show that the levels of soil Hg in the vicinity of the smelters have been substantially elevated following local smelting activities. The spatial distribution of soil Hg in this area reveals a rapid decrease as the distance from the smelter reaches 1.5 km, which is probably due to the quick deposition process of particulate Hg and reactive gaseous Hg emitted from the smelters. The total accumulation of Hg T in the topsoils of the study area of 10.9 km 2 is approximately 365-561 kg and of which 346-543 kg might be contributed by anthropogenic emission alone with an annual emission of 17.3-27.2 kg Hg to the topsoils. - Secondary copper smelters in Fuyang release a considerable amount of mercury into topsoils.

  19. Comparison of mercury contamination in live and dead dolphins from a newly described species, Tursiops australis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa Monk

    Full Text Available Globally it is estimated that up to 37% of all marine mammals are at a risk of extinction, due in particular to human impacts, including coastal pollution. Dolphins are known to be at risk from anthropogenic contaminants due to their longevity and high trophic position. While it is known that beach-cast animals are often high in contaminants, it has not been possible to determine whether levels may also be high in live animals from the same populations. In this paper we quantitatively assess mercury contamination in the two main populations of a newly described dolphin species from south eastern Australia, Tursiops australis. This species appear to be limited to coastal waters in close proximity to a major urban centre, and as such is likely to be vulnerable to anthropogenic pollution. For the first time, we were able to compare blubber mercury concentrations from biopsy samples of live individuals and necropsies of beach-cast animals and show that beach-cast animals were highly contaminated with mercury, at almost three times the levels found in live animals. Levels in live animals were also high, and are attributable to chronic low dose exposure to mercury from the dolphin's diet. Measurable levels of mercury were found in a number of important prey fish species. This illustrates the potential for low dose toxins in the environment to pass through marine food webs and potentially contribute to marine mammal deaths. This study demonstrates the potential use of blubber from biopsy samples to make inferences about the health of dolphins exposed to mercury.

  20. Comparison of mercury contamination in live and dead dolphins from a newly described species, Tursiops australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Alissa; Charlton-Robb, Kate; Buddhadasa, Saman; Thompson, Ross M

    2014-01-01

    Globally it is estimated that up to 37% of all marine mammals are at a risk of extinction, due in particular to human impacts, including coastal pollution. Dolphins are known to be at risk from anthropogenic contaminants due to their longevity and high trophic position. While it is known that beach-cast animals are often high in contaminants, it has not been possible to determine whether levels may also be high in live animals from the same populations. In this paper we quantitatively assess mercury contamination in the two main populations of a newly described dolphin species from south eastern Australia, Tursiops australis. This species appear to be limited to coastal waters in close proximity to a major urban centre, and as such is likely to be vulnerable to anthropogenic pollution. For the first time, we were able to compare blubber mercury concentrations from biopsy samples of live individuals and necropsies of beach-cast animals and show that beach-cast animals were highly contaminated with mercury, at almost three times the levels found in live animals. Levels in live animals were also high, and are attributable to chronic low dose exposure to mercury from the dolphin's diet. Measurable levels of mercury were found in a number of important prey fish species. This illustrates the potential for low dose toxins in the environment to pass through marine food webs and potentially contribute to marine mammal deaths. This study demonstrates the potential use of blubber from biopsy samples to make inferences about the health of dolphins exposed to mercury.

  1. Comparison of Mercury Contamination in Live and Dead Dolphins from a Newly Described Species, Tursiops australis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Alissa; Charlton-Robb, Kate; Buddhadasa, Saman; Thompson, Ross M.

    2014-01-01

    Globally it is estimated that up to 37% of all marine mammals are at a risk of extinction, due in particular to human impacts, including coastal pollution. Dolphins are known to be at risk from anthropogenic contaminants due to their longevity and high trophic position. While it is known that beach-cast animals are often high in contaminants, it has not been possible to determine whether levels may also be high in live animals from the same populations. In this paper we quantitatively assess mercury contamination in the two main populations of a newly described dolphin species from south eastern Australia, Tursiops australis. This species appear to be limited to coastal waters in close proximity to a major urban centre, and as such is likely to be vulnerable to anthropogenic pollution. For the first time, we were able to compare blubber mercury concentrations from biopsy samples of live individuals and necropsies of beach-cast animals and show that beach-cast animals were highly contaminated with mercury, at almost three times the levels found in live animals. Levels in live animals were also high, and are attributable to chronic low dose exposure to mercury from the dolphin's diet. Measurable levels of mercury were found in a number of important prey fish species. This illustrates the potential for low dose toxins in the environment to pass through marine food webs and potentially contribute to marine mammal deaths. This study demonstrates the potential use of blubber from biopsy samples to make inferences about the health of dolphins exposed to mercury. PMID:25137255

  2. LEVEL AND EXTENT OF MERCURY CONTAMINATION IN OREGON, USA, LOTIC FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of growing concern with widespread mercury contamination of fish tissue, we sampled 154 streams and rivers throughout Oregon using a probability design. To maximize the sample size we took samples of small and large fish, where possible, from wadeable streams and boatable...

  3. IN SITU BIO TRANSFORMATION OF MERCURY-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER IN KAZAKHSTAN UTILIZING NATIVE BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several regions in the Republic of Kazakhstan and throughout the former USSR are contaminated with mercury resulting from industrial releases. Our studies conducted under the ISTC K-756 Project were directed towards determining the feasibility of developing a biological filter, w...

  4. Phytoremediation Of Mercury And Methylmercury Contaminated Sediments By Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoremediation has potential to be implemented at mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) contaminated sites. Water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) were investigated for their ability to assimilate Hg and MeHg into plant biomass, in both aquatic and sediment-associated f...

  5. Bench-Scale Investigation Of Mercury Phytoremediation By Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) In Heavily Contaminated Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoremediation has the potential to be implemented at mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) contaminated sites. Water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) were investigated for their ability to assimilate Hg and MeHg into plant biomass, in both aquatic and sediment-associat...

  6. Mercury (II) reduction and co-precipitation of metallic mercury on hydrous ferric oxide in contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Jan-Helge; Bischoff, Cornelia; Ahrens, Christian G M; Biester, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) speciation and sorption analyses in contaminated aquifers are useful for understanding transformation, retention, and mobility of Hg in groundwater. In most aquifers hydrous ferric oxides (HFOs) are among the most important sorbents for trace metals; however, their role in sorption or mobilization of Hg in aquifers has been rarely analyzed. In this study, we investigated Hg chemistry and Hg sorption to HFO under changing redox conditions in a highly HgCl2-contaminated aquifer (up to 870μgL(-1) Hg). Results from aqueous and solid phase Hg measurements were compared to modeled (PHREEQC) data. Speciation analyses of dissolved mercury indicated that Hg(II) forms were reduced to Hg(0) under anoxic conditions, and adsorbed to or co-precipitated with HFO. Solid phase Hg thermo-desorption measurements revealed that between 55 and 93% of Hg bound to HFO was elemental Hg (Hg(0)). Hg concentrations in precipitates reached more than 4 weight %, up to 7000 times higher than predicted by geochemical models that do not consider unspecific sorption to and co-precipitation of elemental Hg with HFO. The observed process of Hg(II) reduction and Hg(0) formation, and its retention and co-precipitation by HFO is thought to be crucial in HgCl2-contaminated aquifers with variable redox-conditions regarding the related decrease in Hg solubility (factor of ~10(6)), and retention of Hg in the aquifer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mercury and selenium contamination in waterbird eggs and risk to avian reproduction at Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hartman, Christopher A.; Isanhart, John P.; Herring, Garth; Vaughn, Sharon; Cavitt, John F.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Browers, Howard; Cline, Chris; Vest, Josh

    2015-01-01

    The wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem are recognized regionally, nationally, and hemispherically for their importance as breeding, wintering, and migratory habitat for diverse groups of waterbirds. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge is the largest freshwater component of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem and provides critical breeding habitat for more than 60 bird species. However, the Great Salt Lake ecosystem also has a history of both mercury and selenium contamination, and this pollution could reduce the health and reproductive success of waterbirds. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of mercury and selenium contamination to birds breeding within Great Salt Lake, especially at Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, and to identify the waterbird species and areas at greatest risk to contamination. We sampled eggs from 33 species of birds breeding within wetlands of Great Salt Lake during 2010 ̶ 2012 and focused on American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), Forster’s terns (Sterna forsteri), white-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi), and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) for additional studies of the effects of contaminants on reproduction.

  8. Bioavailability of mercury in contaminated Oak Ridge watershed and potential remediation of river/runoff/storm water by an aquatic plant - 16319

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yi; Han, Fengxiang X.; Chen, Jian; Xia, Yunju; Monts, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Historically as part of its national security mission, the U.S. Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Facility in Oak Ridge, TN, USA acquired a significant fraction of the world's supply of elemental mercury. During the 1950's and 1960's, a large amount of elemental mercury escaped confinement and is still present in the buildings and grounds of the Y-12 Facility and in the Y-12 Watershed. Because of the adverse effects of elemental mercury and mercury compounds upon human health, the Oak Ridge Site is engaged in an on-going effort to monitor and remediate the area. The main thrust of the Oak Ridge mercury remediation effort is currently scheduled for implementation in FY09. In order to more cost effectively implement those extensive remediation efforts, it is necessary now to obtain an improved understanding of the role that mercury and mercury compounds play in the Oak Ridge ecosystem. Most recently, concentrations of both total mercury and methylmercury in fish and water of lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) of Oak Ridge increased although the majority of mercury in the site is mercury sulfide. This drives the US DOE and the Oak Ridge Site to study the long-term bioavailability of mercury and speciation at the site. The stability and bioavailability of mercury sulfide as affected by various biogeochemical conditions -presence of iron oxides have been studied. We examined the kinetic rate of dissolution of cinnabar from Oak Ridge soils and possible mechanisms and pathways in triggering the most recent increase of mercury solubility, bioavailability and mobility in Oak Ridge site. The effects of pH and chlorine on oxidative dissolution of cinnabar from cinnabar-contaminated Oak Ridge soils is discussed. On the other hand, aquatic plants might be good candidate for phyto-remediate contaminated waste water and phyto-filtration of collective storm water and surface runoff and river. Our greenhouse studies on uptake of Hg by water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes

  9. Spatial patterns in PCBs, pesticides, mercury and cadmium in the common sole in the NW Mediterranean Sea, and a novel use of contaminants as biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierking, J.; Wafo, E.; Schembri, T.; Lagadec, V.; Nicolas, C.; Letourneur, Y.; Harmelin-Vivien, M.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed spatial patterns in 37 PCB congeners, eight pesticides, and the heavy metals mercury and cadmium in the flatfish Solea solea at four sites in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean). Overall contaminant concentrations generally exceeded those reported for S. solea elsewhere, but fell into the range of other Gulf fishes, testifying of a relatively high contaminant load of this area. Spatial patterns in all three contaminant classes were highly significant, but differed among classes. PCB congener and chlorination class profiles also differed among sites. The observed patterns would be consistent with (1) PCB point-sources in the Eastern Gulf (Marseille, Rhone River) versus dominance of atmospheric input in the West, (2) pesticide input by the Rhone and from agricultural fields in the West, and (3) mercury point-sources near Marseille. The unique, site-specific contaminant profiles prove to be a powerful tool to differentiate between S. solea populations from different sites.

  10. Effects of prescribed fire and post-fire rainfall on mercury mobilization and subsequent contamination assessment in a legacy mine site in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Joji; Dowling, Kim; Florentine, Singarayer

    2018-01-01

    Prescribed fire conducted in fire-prone areas is a cost-effective choice for forest management, but it also affects many of the physicochemical and bio-geological properties of the forest soil, in a similar manner to wild fires. The aim of this study is to investigate the nature of the mercury mobilization after a prescribed fire and the subsequent temporal changes in concentration. A prescribed fire was conducted in a legacy mine site in Central Victoria, Australia, in late August 2015 and soil sample collection and analyses were carried out two days before and two days after the fire, followed by collection at the end of each season and after an intense rainfall event in September 2016. Results revealed the occurrence of mercury volatilization (8.3-97%) during the fire, and the mercury concentration displayed a significant difference (p fire. Integrated assessment with number of pollution indices has shown that the study site is extremely contaminated with mercury during all the sampling events, and this poses a serious ecological risk due to the health impacts of mercury on human and ecosystems. In times of climate fluctuation with concomitant increase in forest fire (including prescribed fire), and subsequent precipitation and runoff, the potential for an increased amount of mercury being mobilized is of heighted significance. Therefore, it is recommended that prescribed fire should be cautiously considered as a forest management strategy in any mercury affected landscapes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of Indoor Mercury Vapor in Common Areas of Residential Buildings with Outdoor Levels in a Community Where Mercury Is Used for Cultural Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garetano, Gary; Gochfeld, Michael; Stern, Alan H.

    2006-01-01

    Elemental mercury has been imbued with magical properties for millennia, and various cultures use elemental mercury in a variety of superstitious and cultural practices, raising health concerns for users and residents in buildings where it is used. As a first step in assessing this phenomenon, we compared mercury vapor concentration in common areas of residential buildings versus outdoor air, in two New Jersey cities where mercury is available and is used in cultural practices. We measured mercury using a portable atomic absorption spectrometer capable of quantitative measurement from 2 ng/m3 mercury vapor. We evaluated the interior hallways in 34 multifamily buildings and the vestibule in an additional 33 buildings. Outdoor mercury vapor averaged 5 ng/m3; indoor mercury was significantly higher (mean 25 ng/m3; p < 0.001); 21% of buildings had mean mercury vapor concentration in hallways that exceeded the 95th percentile of outdoor mercury vapor concentration (17 ng/m3), whereas 35% of buildings had a maximum mercury vapor concentration that exceeded the 95th percentile of outdoor mercury concentration. The highest indoor average mercury vapor concentration was 299 ng/m3, and the maximum point concentration was 2,022 ng/m3. In some instances, we were able to locate the source, but we could not specifically attribute the elevated levels of mercury vapor to cultural use or other specific mercury releases. However, these findings provide sufficient evidence of indoor mercury source(s) to warrant further investigation. PMID:16393659

  12. Perception of mercury contamination by Brazilian adolescents in a gold mining community: an ethnographic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Gabriel; Câmara, Volney de Magalhães

    2009-01-01

    This study used ethnographic methods to examine the perception of mercury contamination by adolescents in the mining community of Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil. In Phase I, 53 students aged 13 to 16 years in six schools presented theatrical sketches about community health risks to generate key terms for a pile sorting activity in Phase II. Mercury was reported by four of the 15 groups (26%). In Phase II, researchers conducted semi-structured interviews and pile sorts with 31 students to assess adolescent attitudes about mercury and to generate an ethnomedical model of mercury perception. The lack of consensus evident in the model reveals that while students view mercury as an overall threat, many of them do not understand how its presence can harm human health. Few adolescents felt confident about their knowledge (3%) or could accurately explain how it was used (9%), even though many of them had relatives working as miners (55%). Further analysis of pile sort data suggests that mercury may not belong in a 'typical risks' domain. The authors argue that ethnographic methods are a useful tool for public health research, and hope that these findings can contribute to health education interventions in the field.

  13. Processing results of 1,800 gallons of mercury and radioactively contaminated mixed waste rinse solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiesen, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    The mercury-contaminated rinse solution (INEL waste ID number-sign 123; File 8 waste) was successfully treated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This waste was generated during the decontamination of the Heat Transfer Reactor Experiment 3 (HTRE-3) reactor shield tank. Approximately 1,800 gal of waste was generated and was placed into 33 drums. Each drum contained precipitated sludge material ranging from 1--10 in. in depth, with the average depth of about 2.5 in. The pH of each drum varied from 3--11. The bulk liquid waste had a mercury level of 7.0 mg/l, which exceeded the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) limit of 0.2 mg/l. The average liquid bulk radioactivity was about 2.1 pCi/ml, while the average sludge contamination was about 13,800 pci/g. Treatment of the waste required separation of the liquid from the sludge, filtration, pH adjustment, and ion exchange. Because of difficulties in processing, three trials were required to reduce the mercury levels to below the RCRA limit. In the first trial, insufficient filtration of the waste allowed solid particulate produced during pH adjustment to enter into the ion exchange columns and ultimately the waste storage tank. In the second trial, the waste was filtered down to 0.1 μ to remove all solid mercury compounds. However, before filtration could take place, a solid mercury complex dissolved and mercury levels exceeded the RCRA limit after filtration. In the third trial, the waste was filtered through 0.3-A filters and then passed through the S-920 resin to remove the dissolved mercury. The resulting solut

  14. Mercury contamination in the Laurentian Great Lakes region: Introduction and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiener, James G.; Evers, David C.; Gay, David A.; Morrison, Heather A.; Williams, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes region of North America contains substantial aquatic resources and mercury-contaminated landscapes, fish, and wildlife. This special issue emanated from a bi-national synthesis of data from monitoring programs and case studies of mercury in the region, here defined as including the Great Lakes, the eight U.S. states bordering the Great Lakes, the province of Ontario, and Lake Champlain. We provide a retrospective overview of the regional mercury problem and summarize new findings from the synthesis papers and case studies that follow. Papers in this issue examine the chronology of mercury accumulation in lakes, the importance of wet and dry atmospheric deposition and evasion to regional mercury budgets, the influence of land–water linkages on mercury contamination of surface waters, the bioaccumulation of methylmercury in aquatic foods webs; and ecological and health risks associated with methylmercury in a regionally important prey fish. - Highlights: ► We describe a bi-national synthesis of Hg data from the Great Lakes region. ► Emission controls have reduced Hg inputs to inland lakes about 20% since the 1980s. ► Wet and dry deposition and evasion are regionally important atmospheric Hg fluxes. ► Land use affects Hg inputs to surface waters and bioaccumulation of methylmercury. ► In some waters, Hg levels in yellow perch pose risks to fish, wildlife, and humans. - A synthesis of Hg data from the Great Lakes region reveals the chronology of contamination; the importance of wet and dry deposition and evasion to Hg budgets; the influence of land–water linkages; bioaccumulation in aquatic foods webs; and risks associated with Hg in an important prey fish.

  15. Co-ordinated research project on health impacts of mercury cycling in contaminated environments studied by nuclear techniques. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The specific research objective of this coordinated research project is to study and assess the factors influencing the dynamics of Hg cycling and its impact on human health in mercury contaminated ecosystems, especially in tropical environments, using radioisotopes and enriched stable isotope tracers and/or complementary analytical techniques. Areas of research include: Evaluation of the relevant environmental factors influencing mercury transformations, transportation (mass balances), and partitioning in ecosystems; Development, validation and application of appropriate methodologies for the measurement of Hg methylation and de-methylation rates in various environmental compartments; Development, validation and application of appropriate methodologies for the measurement of Hg fluxes at natural interfaces such as sediment-water, water-air, land-air, plant-air, and saline-water-fresh-water, etc.; Determination and evaluation of the human exposure to Hg using bio-indicators such as hair, blood, and urine in light of epidemiological requirements; Preparation of an appropriate test sample of tropical sediment for comparability studies. Expected research outputs are: Recommended approaches for the determination of mercury methylation and de-methylation rates and flux measurements; A compilation of reliable data on mercury methylation and de-methylation rates and fluxes in contaminated tropical ecosystems for comparison with existing data from temperate regions; Generated knowledge on factors influencing mercury transformations, transport and partitioning in various ecosystems; Test sample of tropical sediment for comparability studies; Database of bio-indicator measurements (hair, blood, and urine, etc.) of human Hg exposure in contaminated tropical ecosystems; and Recommended countermeasures for the prevention and/or reduction of mercury contamination in polluted areas. This compilation contains country reports on the Second Research Coordination Meeting, Minamata

  16. Co-ordinated research project on health impacts of mercury cycling in contaminated environments studied by nuclear techniques. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The specific research objective of this coordinated research project is to study and assess the factors influencing the dynamics of Hg cycling and its impact on human health in mercury contaminated ecosystems, especially in tropical environments, using radioisotopes and enriched stable isotope tracers and/or complementary analytical techniques. Areas of research include: Evaluation of the relevant environmental factors influencing mercury transformations, transportation (mass balances), and partitioning in ecosystems; Development, validation and application of appropriate methodologies for the measurement of Hg methylation and de-methylation rates in various environmental compartments; Development, validation and application of appropriate methodologies for the measurement of Hg fluxes at natural interfaces such as sediment-water, water-air, land-air, plant-air, and saline-water-fresh-water, etc.; Determination and evaluation of the human exposure to Hg using bio-indicators such as hair, blood, and urine in light of epidemiological requirements; Preparation of an appropriate test sample of tropical sediment for comparability studies. Expected research outputs are: Recommended approaches for the determination of mercury methylation and de-methylation rates and flux measurements; A compilation of reliable data on mercury methylation and de-methylation rates and fluxes in contaminated tropical ecosystems for comparison with existing data from temperate regions; Generated knowledge on factors influencing mercury transformations, transport and partitioning in various ecosystems; Test sample of tropical sediment for comparability studies; Database of bio-indicator measurements (hair, blood, and urine, etc.) of human Hg exposure in contaminated tropical ecosystems; and Recommended countermeasures for the prevention and/or reduction of mercury contamination in polluted areas. This compilation contains country reports on the Second Research Coordination Meeting, Minamata

  17. Co-ordinated research project on health impacts of mercury cycling in contaminated environments studied by nuclear techniques. Report on the first research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The specific research objective of this coordinated research project is to study and assess the factors influencing the dynamics of Hg cycling and its impact on human health in mercury contaminated ecosystems, especially in tropical environments, using radioisotopes and enriched stable isotope tracers and/or complementary analytical techniques. Areas of research include: Evaluation of the relevant environmental factors influencing mercury transformations, transportation (mass balances), and partitioning in ecosystems; Development, validation and application of appropriate methodologies for the measurement of Hg methylation and de-methylation rates in various environmental compartments; Development, validation and application of appropriate methodologies for the measurement of Hg fluxes at natural interfaces such as sediment-water, water-air, land-air, plant-air, and saline-water-fresh-water, etc.; Determination and evaluation of the human exposure to Hg using bio-indicators such as hair, blood, and urine in light of epidemiological requirements; Preparation of an appropriate test sample of tropical sediment for comparability studies. Expected research outputs are: Recommended approaches for the determination of mercury methylation and de-methylation rates and flux measurements; A compilation of reliable data on mercury methylation and de-methylation rates and fluxes in contaminated tropical ecosystems for comparison with existing data from temperate regions; Generated knowledge on factors influencing mercury transformations, transport and partitioning in various ecosystems; Test sample of tropical sediment for comparability studies; Database of bio-indicator measurements (hair, blood, and urine, etc.) of human Hg exposure in contaminated tropical ecosystems; and Recommended countermeasures for the prevention and/or reduction of mercury contamination in polluted areas.

  18. Co-ordinated research project on health impacts of mercury cycling in contaminated environments studied by nuclear techniques. Report on the first research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The specific research objective of this coordinated research project is to study and assess the factors influencing the dynamics of Hg cycling and its impact on human health in mercury contaminated ecosystems, especially in tropical environments, using radioisotopes and enriched stable isotope tracers and/or complementary analytical techniques. Areas of research include: Evaluation of the relevant environmental factors influencing mercury transformations, transportation (mass balances), and partitioning in ecosystems; Development, validation and application of appropriate methodologies for the measurement of Hg methylation and de-methylation rates in various environmental compartments; Development, validation and application of appropriate methodologies for the measurement of Hg fluxes at natural interfaces such as sediment-water, water-air, land-air, plant-air, and saline-water-fresh-water, etc.; Determination and evaluation of the human exposure to Hg using bio-indicators such as hair, blood, and urine in light of epidemiological requirements; Preparation of an appropriate test sample of tropical sediment for comparability studies. Expected research outputs are: Recommended approaches for the determination of mercury methylation and de-methylation rates and flux measurements; A compilation of reliable data on mercury methylation and de-methylation rates and fluxes in contaminated tropical ecosystems for comparison with existing data from temperate regions; Generated knowledge on factors influencing mercury transformations, transport and partitioning in various ecosystems; Test sample of tropical sediment for comparability studies; Database of bio-indicator measurements (hair, blood, and urine, etc.) of human Hg exposure in contaminated tropical ecosystems; and Recommended countermeasures for the prevention and/or reduction of mercury contamination in polluted areas

  19. Mercury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Irma

    2017-01-01

    Mercury is a naturally occurring metal that exists in several physical and chemical forms. Inorganic mercury refers to compounds formed after the combining of mercury with elements such as chlorine, sulfur, or oxygen. After combining with carbon by covalent linkage, the compounds formed are called

  20. Foraging and fasting can influence contaminant concentrations in animals: an example with mercury contamination in a free-ranging marine mammal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sarah; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Crocker, Daniel E.; Costa, Daniel P.

    2018-01-01

    Large fluctuations in animal body mass in relation to life-history events can influence contaminant concentrations and toxicological risk. We quantified mercury concentrations in adult northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) before and after lengthy at sea foraging trips (n = 89) or fasting periods on land (n = 27), and showed that mercury concentrations in blood and muscle changed in response to these events. The highest blood mercury concentrations were observed after the breeding fast, whereas the highest muscle mercury concentrations were observed when seals returned to land to moult. Mean female blood mercury concentrations decreased by 30% across each of the two annual foraging trips, demonstrating a foraging-associated dilution of mercury concentrations as seals gained mass. Blood mercury concentrations increased by 103% and 24% across the breeding and moulting fasts, respectively, demonstrating a fasting-associated concentration of mercury as seals lost mass. In contrast to blood, mercury concentrations in female's muscle increased by 19% during the post-breeding foraging trip and did not change during the post-moulting foraging trip. While fasting, female muscle mercury concentrations increased 26% during breeding, but decreased 14% during moulting. Consequently, regardless of exposure, an animal's contaminant concentration can be markedly influenced by their annual life-history events.

  1. Methylmercury compounds - main areas of contamination on a transsect of the river Elbe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintelmann, H.; Wilken, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The river Elbe and some of its tributaries are worldwide one of the most mercury polluted river systems. They are not only polluted by inorganic mercury compouns, but the contents of the highly toxic methylmercury compounds are also elevated. In order to determine the low levels of methylmercury compounds usually observed in sediments, a new HPLC/AFS-coupling was developed. In an oxidation/reduction interface the mercury species eluting from the HPLC collumn are transformed continuously to elemental mercury, which is then detected on-line by a highly sensitive atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer. The detection limit for the analysis of organic mercury species in sediments after extraction with hydrochloric acid/toluene, preconcentration and determination by HPLC/AFS is 0.1 μg/kg d. w. Hence, uncontaminated samples with very low methylmercury compounds contents could also be successfully analyzed. Main areas of total mercury contamination in the Elbe system were in the tributary rivers Saale and Mulde, with contents of up to 112 mg/kg d. w. but important emitters were also found in the Czech Republic (CR). This contamination was followed downstream to the Hamburg area and dropped to a background level of 0.06 mg/kg d. w. in the German Bight. The highest content of methylmercury compounds (119 μg/kg d. w.) was measured again in the river Mulde. The levels of methylmercury compounds were generally high at sites where the microbial activity was stimulated by high contents of organic matter, indicating a biotic methylation of mercury. The organic substrates originated either from municipal (sewage plants) or industrial sources (pulp mill effluents). (orig.) [de

  2. Mercury in breast milk - a health hazard for infants in gold mining areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan; Lettmeier, Beate; Roider, Gabriele; Siebert, Uwe; Drasch, Gustav

    2008-10-01

    Breast-feeding can be a source of mercury exposure for infants. The main concern up to now is methyl-mercury exposure of women at child-bearing age. Certain fish species have high levels of methyl-mercury leading to consumer's advisory guidelines in regard of fish consumption to protect infants from mercury exposure passing through breast milk. Little is known about the transfer of inorganic mercury passing through breast milk to infants. Epidemiological studies showed negative health effects of inorganic mercury in gold mining areas. Small-scale gold miners use mercury to extract the gold from the ore. Environmental and health assessments of gold mining areas in Indonesia, Tanzania and Zimbabwe showed a high exposure with inorganic mercury in these gold mining areas, and a negative health impact of the exposure to the miners and the communities. This paper reports about the analysis and the results of 46 breast milk samples collected from mercury-exposed mothers. The median level of 1.87mug/l is fairly high compared to other results from literature. Some breast milk samples showed very high levels of mercury (up to 149mug/l). Fourteen of the 46 breast milk samples exceed 4mug/l which is considered to be a "high" level. US EPA recommends a "Reference Dose" of 0.3mug inorganic mercury/kg body weight/day [United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1997. Volume V: Health Effects of Mercury and Mercury Compounds. Study Report EPA-452/R-97-007: US EPA]. Twenty-two of the 46 children from these gold mining areas had a higher calculated total mercury uptake. The highest calculated daily mercury uptake of 127mug exceeds by far the recommended maximum uptake of inorganic mercury. Further systematic research of mercury in breast milk from small-scale gold mining areas is needed to increase the knowledge about the bio-transfer of mercury from mercury vapour-exposed mothers passing through breast milk to the breast-fed infant.

  3. The effect of contaminants on the mercury consumption of fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakk, I P; Nyulaszi, L; Benkoe, N

    2009-01-01

    In order to study the effect of water adsorbed on the alumina coating of fluorescent lamps 35 W tubes were prepared by so setting the manufacturing process as not to fully remove contaminants. The light intensity has been measured along the tubes, showing a fast drop after the initial illumination at switching on. The minimum intensity was followed by a recovery of the light output, the brightening extending gradually from the liquid mercury reservoir of the tube. To explain the observations the reaction between mercury ions and water and its decomposition products (OH and H radicals) were considered, which decreases the free mercury concentration and thus the light output. Density functional calculations indeed indicate a strong binding between these species.

  4. The effect of contaminants on the mercury consumption of fluorescent lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakk, I. P.; Benkö, N.; Nyulászi, L.

    2009-05-01

    In order to study the effect of water adsorbed on the alumina coating of fluorescent lamps 35 W tubes were prepared by so setting the manufacturing process as not to fully remove contaminants. The light intensity has been measured along the tubes, showing a fast drop after the initial illumination at switching on. The minimum intensity was followed by a recovery of the light output, the brightening extending gradually from the liquid mercury reservoir of the tube. To explain the observations the reaction between mercury ions and water and its decomposition products (OH and H radicals) were considered, which decreases the free mercury concentration and thus the light output. Density functional calculations indeed indicate a strong binding between these species.

  5. Mercury Toxicity and Contamination of Households from the Use of Skin Creams Adulterated with Mercurous Chloride (Calomel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Copan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic mercury, in the form of mercurous chloride, or calomel, is intentionally added to some cosmetic products sold through informal channels in Mexico and the US for skin lightening and acne treatment. These products have led to multiple cases of mercury poisoning but few investigations have addressed the contamination of cream users’ homes. We report on several cases of mercury poisoning among three Mexican-American families in California from use of mercury-containing skin creams. Each case resulted in widespread household contamination and secondary contamination of family members. Urine mercury levels in cream users ranged from 37 to 482 µg/g creatinine and in non-users from non-detectable to 107 µg/g creatinine. Air concentrations of up to 8 µg/m3 of mercury within homes exceeded the USEPA/ATSDR health-based guidance and action level of <1.0 μg/m3. Mercury contamination of cream users’ homes presented a multi-pathway exposure environment to residents. Homes required extensive decontamination, including disposal of most household items, to achieve acceptable air levels. The acceptable air levels used were not designed to consider multi-pathway exposure scenarios. These findings support that the calomel is able to change valence form to elemental mercury and volatilize once exposed to the skin or surfaces in the indoor environment.

  6. Influence of the addition of fertilizers and organic matter amendment on mercury contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, S.; Millan, R.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the mercury mobilization in a soil where fertilizers and organic matter were added. The study was carried out using a soil from the mercury mining district of Almaden (Spain). This area constitutes the largest and most unusual concentration of mercury in the World. The soil has been classified as an Alfisol Xeralf Haploxeral (USDA taxonomy), and the total mercury content is 14,16 0,65 mg kg-1in average. The experimental work was performed in 1 L glass columns filled with 500 g of soil. It was carried out 3 different treatments. The fi rst one, a NPK fertilizer (15:15:15) that was applied at three different doses (recommended dose -by farmers, half recommended dose and double recommended dose). The second one, a peat (Sphagnum) with a ph between 5,5-7, and the third one, a liquid organic amendment (Molex). The experimental work was carried out using 21 columns in total, where 3 of them were used as a control (C). During ten consecutive weeks, the columns were irrigated with distilled water (150 ml) once a week. The contact time was two days; after that, the leachates were collected and filtered. Finally, the soil contained in glass columns at soil fi eld capacity was centrifuged to get the wilting point. Mercury was determined using an Advanced Mercury Analyzer (AMA-254). Results show that mercury content in all samples was under detection limit (0,5 μg L-1). It is according to the fact that mercury is mainly in a cinnabar form, which had a very low solubility. The addition of fertilizers and organic matter amendment do not increase the mercury content in the leachates either in the soil solution. (Author) 102 refs

  7. Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification Treatability Study of Mercury Contaminated Soil from the Y-12 Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalb P.; Milian, L.; Yim, S. P.

    2012-11-30

    As a result of past operations, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Plant) has extensive mercury-contamination in building structures, soils, storm sewer sediments, and stream sediments, which are a source of pollution to the local ecosystem. Because of mercury’s toxicity and potential impacts on human health and the environment, DOE continues to investigate and implement projects to support the remediation of the Y-12 site.URS and #9122;CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) under its prime contract with DOE has cleanup responsibilities on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation and is investigating potential mercury-contaminated soil treatment technologies through an agreement with Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) Y-12, the Y-12 operating contractor to DOE. As part of its investigations, UCOR has subcontracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to conduct laboratory-scale studies evaluating the applicability of the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process using surrogate and actual mixed waste Y-12 soils containing mercury (Hg) at 135, 2,000, and 10,000 ppm.SPSS uses a thermoplastic sulfur binder to convert Hg to stable mercury sulfide (HgS) and solidifies the chemically stable product in a monolithic solid final waste form to reduce dispersion and permeability. Formulations containing 40 – 60 dry wt% Y-12 soil were fabricated and samples were prepared in triplicate for Environmental Protection Agency Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing by an independent laboratory. Those containing 50 and 60 wt% soil easily met the study criteria for maximum allowable Hg concentrations (47 and 1 ppb, respectively compared with the TCLP limit of 200 ppb Hg). The lowest waste loading of 40 wt% yielded TCLP Hg concentrations slightly higher (240 ppb) than the allowable limit. Since the Y-12 soil tended to form clumps, the improved leaching at higher waste loadings was probably due to reduction in particle size

  8. Assessment of mercury contamination in the Bílina River (Czech Republic using indicator fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Kružíková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine mercury content in the muscle of indicator fish and to assess mercury pollution along the Bílina River, which is one of the most important tributaries of the Elbe River. A total of eight sites were chosen on the Bílina River for sampling. Indicator fish chub (Leuciscus cephalus L, roach (Rutilus rutilus L. and brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario L. in the total numbers of 24, 26 and 27, respectively, were sampled at four locations, since at the remaining sites fish were absent. Mercury concentrations in the muscle of sampled indicator fish were measured using cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry on an AMA 254 analyser. The highest mercury content (0.12 ± 0.027 mg·kg-1 was found in the muscle of roach at the Ústí nad Labem site and the lowest mercury content (0.04 ± 0.008 mg·kg-1 in the muscle of brown trout from the Březenec (the first upstream site site. A significant difference (P -1 and brown trout (0.04 mg·kg-1 at the Březenec site. The priority of this study was to assess the mercury contamination of the Bílina River because this river flows through a heavy industrial activity in the region (especially production of petrochemicals, agrochemicals, sorbents, plasticizers and textile auxiliaries. Despite the fact that the Bílina is an extensively polluted river, the obtained mercury results were very low and did not exceed the limit of 0.5 mg·kg-1 set by Commission Regulation No. 1881/2006.

  9. PILOT STUDIES OF IN-SITU BIO-TRANSFORMATION OF MERCURY-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER IN KAZAKHSTAN UTILIZING NATIVE BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several regions in the Republic of Kazakhstan and throughout the former USSR are contaminated with mercury resulting from industrial releases. Our studies directed towards determining the feasibility of developing a biological filter, which when placed into the path the groundwat...

  10. Mercury Contamination in Fish in Midcontinent Great Rivers of the United States: Importance of Species Traits and Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    We measured mercury (Hg) concentrations in whole fish from the Upper Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers to characterize the extent and magnitude of Hg contamination and to identify environmental factors influencing Hg accumulation. Concentrations were generally lower (80% of ...

  11. Egg turning behavior and incubation temperature in Forster’s terns in relation to mercury contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gregory T.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Shaffer, Scott A.

    2018-01-01

    Egg turning behavior is an important determinant of egg hatchability, but it remains relatively understudied. Here, we examined egg turning rates and egg temperatures in Forster’s terns (Sterna forsteri). We used artificial eggs containing a data logger with a 3-D accelerometer, a magnetometer, and a temperature thermistor to monitor parental incubation behavior of 131 tern nests. Overall, adults turned their eggs an average (±SD) of 3.8 ± 0.8 turns h-1, which is nearly two times higher than that of other seabirds. Egg turning rates increased with nest initiation date. We also examined egg turning rates and egg temperatures in relation to egg mercury contamination. Mercury contamination has been shown to be associated with reduced egg hatchability, and we hypothesized that mercury may decrease egg hatchability via altered egg turning behavior by parents. Despite the high variability in egg turning rates among individuals, the rate of egg turning was not related to mercury concentrations in sibling eggs. These findings highlight the need for further study concerning the potential determinants of egg turning behavior.

  12. A summary of total mercury concentrations in flora and fauna near common contaminant sources in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M; Chancy, C

    2008-02-01

    Total mercury concentrations are summarized for environmental media and biota collected from near-coastal areas, several impacted by contaminant sources common to the Gulf of Mexico. Water, sediment, fish, blue crabs, oysters, clams, mussels, periphyton and seagrasses were collected during 1993-2002 from targeted areas affected by point and non-point source contaminants. Mean concentrations in water and sediment were 0.02 (+/-1 standard deviation=0.06) microg l(-1) and 96.3 (230.8) ng g(-1) dry wt, respectively. Mean total mercury concentrations in fish, blue crabs, brackish clams and mussels were significantly greater than those in sediment, seagrass, colonized periphyton and oysters. Concentrations (ng g(-1) dry wt) averaged 23.1 (two seagrass species), 220.1 (oysters), 287.8 (colonized periphyton), 604.0 (four species of freshwater mussels), 772.4 (brackish clam), 857.9 (blue crabs) and 933.1 (nine fish species). Spatial, intraspecific and interspecific variability in results limited most generalizations concerning the relative mercury contributions of different stressor types. However, concentrations were significantly greater for some biota collected from areas receiving wastewater discharges and golf course runoff (fish), agricultural runoff (oysters) and urban stormwater runoff (colonized periphyton and sediment). Marine water quality criteria and proposed sediment quality guidelines were exceeded in 1-12% of total samples. At least one seafood consumption guideline, criteria or screening value were exceeded in edible tissues of blue crabs (6% total samples) and nine fish species (8-33% total samples) but all residues were less than the US Federal Drug Administration action limit of 1.0 ppm and the few reported toxic effect concentrations available for the targeted biota.

  13. Selection of mercury accumulator plants for gold mine tailing contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Muddarisna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation, which is more efficient with less side effects than conventional physical and chemical methods, is increasing in popularity as a remediation system. This paper provides a brief overview of developments in research and application of phytoremediation of soil contaminated with gold mine tailings containing mercury. Lindernia crustacea L., Digitaria radicosa Presl. Miq., Zingiber purpurium L, Paspalum conjugatum Berg., Cyperus kyllingia Endl., and Caladium bicolor Vent., that were selected for this study were planted in the planting media consisting of soil (70% and tailings (30% for 9 weeks. The results showed that after 9 weeks of planting, Paspalum conjugatum had growth rate, biomass production, Hg accumulation, and ratio of shoot Hg : root Hg higher than those of other plant species tested, both in the media consisted of amalgamation and cyanidation tailings. It can thus be concluded that Paspalum conjugatum is potential plant species for remediating mercury-contaminated soil.

  14. Selection of Mercury Accumulator Plants for Gold Mine Tailing Contaminated Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Muddarisna, N; Krisnayanti, B D

    2015-01-01

    Phytoremediation, which is more efficient with less side effects than conventional physical and chemical methods, is increasing in popularity as a remediation system. This paper provides a brief overview of developments in research and application of phytoremediation of soil contaminated with gold mine tailings containing mercury. Lindernia crustacea L., Digitaria radicosa Presl. Miq., Zingiber purpurium L, Paspalum conjugatum Berg., Cyperus kyllingia Endl., and Caladium bicolor Vent., that w...

  15. Mercury partition in the interface between a contaminated lagoon and the ocean: The role of particulate load and composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pato, P.; Otero, M.; Valega, M.; Lopes, C.B.; Pereira, M.E.; Duarte, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    After having estimated the patterns of flow to the ocean and found some seasonal and tidal differences, mainly with regard to the relative importance of dissolved and particulate fractions, mercury partitioning at the interface between a contaminated lagoon and the Atlantic Ocean was investigated during four tidal cycles in contrasting season and tidal regimes. Mercury was found to be located predominantely in the particulate fraction throughout the year, contributing to its retention within the system. Seasonal conditions, variations in marine and fluvial signals and processes affecting bed sediment resuspension influenced the character and concentration of suspended particulate matter in the water column. Variation in the nature, levels and partitioning of organic carbon in the particulate fraction affected levels of particulate mercury as well as mercury partitioning. These results highlight the dominant role of suspended particulate matter in the distribution of anthropogenic mercury and reinforce the importance of competitive behavior related to organic carbon in mercury scavenging.

  16. Feeding mice with diets containing mercury-contaminated fish flesh from French Guiana: a model for the mercurial intoxication of the Wayana Amerindians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossignol Rodrigue

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2005, 84% of Wayana Amerindians living in the upper marshes of the Maroni River in French Guiana presented a hair mercury concentration exceeding the limit set up by the World Health Organization (10 μg/g. To determine whether this mercurial contamination was harmful, mice have been fed diets prepared by incorporation of mercury-polluted fish from French Guiana. Methods Four diets containing 0, 0.1, 1, and 7.5% fish flesh, representing 0, 5, 62, and 520 ng methylmercury per g, respectively, were given to four groups of mice for a month. The lowest fish regimen led to a mercurial contamination pressure of 1 ng mercury per day per g of body weight, which is precisely that affecting the Wayana Amerindians. Results The expression of several genes was modified with mercury intoxication in liver, kidneys, and hippocampus, even at the lowest tested fish regimen. A net genetic response could be observed for mercury concentrations accumulated within tissues as weak as 0.15 ppm in the liver, 1.4 ppm in the kidneys, and 0.4 ppm in the hippocampus. This last value is in the range of the mercury concentrations found in the brains of chronically exposed patients in the Minamata region or in brains from heavy fish consumers. Mitochondrial respiratory rates showed a 35–40% decrease in respiration for the three contaminated mice groups. In the muscles of mice fed the lightest fish-containing diet, cytochrome c oxidase activity was decreased to 45% of that of the control muscles. When mice behavior was assessed in a cross maze, those fed the lowest and mid-level fish-containing diets developed higher anxiety state behaviors compared to mice fed with control diet. Conclusion We conclude that a vegetarian diet containing as little as 0.1% of mercury-contaminated fish is able to trigger in mice, after only one month of exposure, disorders presenting all the hallmarks of mercurial contamination.

  17. Determination of heavy metals concentration in raw sheep milk from mercury polluted area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Stanovič

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on determining the content of monitored contaminants (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn in 53 samples of raw sheep milk collected in 2013 and 2014 on the sites Poráč and Matejovce nad Hornádom (middle Spiš. The area is characterized by historical mining and metalworking activity (mining and processing of polymetallic ores rich in Hg, Cd and Pb. Currently, the area is one of the most mercury contaminated areas in Central Europe. All statistical analyses were carried out using the statistical software Statistica 10.0 (Statsoft, USA. Descriptive data analysis included minimum value, maximum value, arithmetic mean and standard deviation. The results of the studied contaminant content show that the limit value for cadmium (10 μg.kg-1 was exceeded in 25 samples. In the case of lead, the limit value of 20 μg.kg-1 was exceeded in 16 cases. The limit value for copper (0.4 mg.kg-1 was exceeded in one case. The limit value for zinc is not defined by a legislative standard. The risk level of the studied contaminants in the samples of raw sheep milk decreases as follows: Cd > Pb > Hg > Cu > Zn. It can be concluded that frequent and long-term consumption of the raw sheep milk originating from the studied sites poses a health risk. The content of the contaminants in the milk and their eventual transition into dairy products should be monitored over a longer term in more detail. Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE

  18. Reclamation of nuclear contaminated urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.; Andersson, Kasper; Sandalls, J.

    1991-01-01

    From a knowledge of the distribution and levels of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides on urban surfaces, the dose rate at various locations in an urban complex can be calculated. The information produced provides a quantitative guide of where decontamination would be of greatest benefit in terms of dose reduction. The efficiency and cost of practicable reclamation and decontamination procedures has been considered and, combined with dose rate calculations before and after treatment, a strategy for reclamation of various urban contamination scenarios has been developed. The study has shown that decontamination of green areas and streets is relatively highly cost-effective in terms of dose reduction and would rank highly in a list of priorities. Roofs are shown to make a significant contribution to dose rate but decontamination of roofs is difficult and not highly cost-effective. Decontamination of walls would rank lowly in a list of priorities, since they represent large areas carrying very little contamination. (3 refs., 4 tabs.)

  19. Use of preserved museum fish to evaluate historical and current mercury contamination in fish from two rivers in Oklahoma, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J Jaron; Chumchal, Matthew M; Drenner, Ray W; Pinder, John E; Drenner, S Matthew

    2010-02-01

    We examined the effects of a commonly used preservation technique on mercury concentration in fish tissue. After fixing fish muscle tissue in formalin followed by preservation in isopropanol, we found that mercury concentration in fish muscle tissue increased by 18%, reaching an asymptote after 40 days. We used formalin-isopropanol-preserved longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) from the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History to examine historical changes and predict current mercury concentrations in fish from two rivers in southeastern Oklahoma. Glover River was free-flowing, while Mountain Fork River was impounded in 1970 and a coldwater trout fishery was established upstream from the collection site in 1989. Mercury concentrations in longear sunfish from Glover River showed no historical changes from 1963 to 2001. Mercury concentrations in longear sunfish from Mountain Fork River showed no change from 1925 to 1993 but declined significantly from 1993 to 2003. We also compared mercury concentrations of the most recently collected longear sunfish in the museum to mercury concentrations of unpreserved fish collected from the rivers in 2006. Concentrations of mercury in museum fish were not significantly different from mercury concentrations in unpreserved fish we collected from the rivers. Our study indicates that preserved museum fish specimens can be used to evaluate historical changes and predict current levels of mercury contamination in fish.

  20. Mercury contamination in human hair and fish from Cambodia: levels, specific accumulation and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Iwata, Hisato; Monirith, In; Tana, Touch Seang; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2005-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations in human hair and fish samples from Phnom Penh, Kien Svay, Tomnup Rolork and Batrong, Cambodia, collected in November 1999 and December 2000 were determined to understand the status of contamination, and age- and sex-dependent accumulation in humans and to assess the intake of mercury via fish consumption. Mercury concentrations in human hair ranged from 0.54 to 190 μg/g dry wt. About 3% of the samples contained Hg levels exceeding the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) of WHO (50 μg/g) and the levels in some hair samples of women also exceeded the NOAEL (10 μg/g) associated with fetus neurotoxicity. A weak but significant positive correlation was observed between age and Hg levels in hair of residents. Mercury concentrations in muscle of marine and freshwater fish from Cambodia ranged from <0.01 to 0.96 μg/g wet wt. Mercury intake rates were estimated on the basis of the Hg content in fish and daily fish consumption. Three samples of marine fish including sharp-tooth snapper and obtuse barracuda, and one sample of sharp-tooth snapper exceeded the guidelines by US EPA and by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), respectively, which indicates that some fish specimens examined (9% and 3% for US EPA and JECFA guidelines, respectively) were hazardous for consumption at the ingestion rate of Cambodian people (32.6 g/day). It is suggested that fish is probably the main source of Hg for Cambodian people. However, extremely high Hg concentrations were observed in some individuals and could not be explained by Hg intake from fish consumption, indicating some other contamination sources of Hg in Cambodia. - A source other than fish may be responsible for high Hg in some Cambodians

  1. [Mercury concentration of fish in Tokyo Bay and the surrounding sea area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R; Kashima, Y; Matsui, M; Okabe, T; Doi, R

    2001-07-01

    Total mercury in the muscles of three fish species was analyzed in fish caught in Tokyo Bay and the surrounding sea areas, Sagami Bay and Choshi. Tokyo Bay is a semi-closed sea area surrounded by Tokyo, Kanagawa and Chiba prefectures. Sagami Bay and Choshi are open to the Pacific Ocean. A total of 412 fish consisting of northern whiting (Sillago japonica), flatfish (Limanda yokohamae) and sardine (Sardinops melanosticta) were caught in these areas over a 6 months period from November 1998 to April 1999. Total mercury concentration ranged from 0.008-0.092 microgram/g (wet wt.) in northern whiting, 0.006-0.065 microgram/g in flatfish and 0.001-0.045 microgram/g in sardine. All concentrations were below the restriction limit of fish mercury in Japan, 0.4 microgram/g of total mercury concentration. A significant correlation was found between mercury concentrations and body length or body weight in northern whiting and flatfish, irrespective of the sea area. A correlation was also found between mercury concentration in fish and their feeding habits: among the 3 species caught in the same area, crustacean feeding northern whiting had the highest, polychaete feeding flatfish moderate, and plankton feeding sardine had the lowest mercury concentration. In a comparison of mercury concentration in the same species caught in different sea areas, a higher concentration was noted in fish caught in the semi-closed sea area of Tokyo Bay, than in fish caught in the open sea areas of Sagami Bay and Choshi. This difference was most marked in fish caught at the bottom of Tokyo Bay and we considered that the mercury concentration of seawater and sediment in these areas was the cause of mercury accumulation in fish. These findings suggest that improved water quality control and environmental monitoring is necessary in semi-closed sea areas such as Tokyo Bay.

  2. Are red mullet efficient as bio-indicators of mercury contamination? A case study from the French Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresson, P.; Bouchoucha, M.; Miralles, F.; Elleboode, R.; Mahé, K.; Marusczak, N.; Thebault, H.; Cossa, D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hg was monitored in Mullus spp. from 5 French Mediterranean zones during 18 months. • All concentrations were below recommended European health safety levels. • Hg trends were consistent with environmental contamination except in Corsica. • Oligotrophy could explain the high and unexpected values in Corsica. • Biotic and abiotic parameters must been considered when using bioindicators. - Abstract: Mercury (Hg) is one of the main chemicals currently altering Mediterranean ecosystems. Red mullet (Mullus barbatus and M. surmuletus) have been widely used as quantitative bio-indicators of chemical contamination. In this study, we reassess the ability of these species to be used as efficient bio-indicators of Hg contamination by monitoring during 18 months Hg concentrations in muscle tissue of mullet sampled from 5 French Mediterranean coastal areas. Mean concentrations ranged between 0.23 and 0.78 μg g −1 dry mass for both species. Values were consistent with expected contamination patterns of all sites except Corsica. Results confirmed that red mullets are efficient bio-indicators of Hg contamination. Nevertheless, the observed variability in Hg concentrations calls for caution regarding the period and the sample size. Attention should be paid to environmental and biologic specificities of each studied site, as they can alter the bioaccumulation of Hg, and lead to inferences about environmental Hg concentrations

  3. Spatial variation of mercury levels in nesting Bonelli's eagles from Southwest Portugal: effects of diet composition and prey contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, Luis; Beja, Pedro; Tavares, Paula C.; Monteiro, Luis R.

    2005-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) was determined in adult Bonelli's eagles (Hieraaetus fasciatus) and their avian prey, from samples of feathers collected between 1992 and 2001 at the nesting sites of 21 pairs in Southwest Portugal. Eagle Hg levels showed great variation, reflecting primarily differences in diet composition and food chain biomagnification. Concentrations were positively correlated with the dietary proportion of insectivorous and omnivorous birds (e.g. egrets, corvids and thrushes), with very low levels for pairs feeding mainly on herbivores (e.g. rabbits, pigeons and partridges). Differences in prey contamination among breeding territories added to dietary effects in determining variation of Hg levels in eagles, shaping a spatial pattern that was largely consistent with a source of contamination in a coal-burning power-plant lying upwind of the study area. Despite this presumed contamination, Hg levels seemed to be of little concern to this eagle population, though there might be subtle deleterious effects on the reproductive output of a few pairs. This study emphasizes the need to account for dietary effects when biomonitoring Hg contamination using birds of prey. - The effects of diet composition and prey contamination added up to determine the spatial variation of Hg levels in breeding Bonelli's eagles

  4. Phytoremediation of Mercury- and Methyl Mercury-Contaminated Sediments by Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoremediation has the potential for implementation at Hg- (Hg) and methylHg (MeHg)-contaminated sites. Water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) were investigated for their ability to assimilate Hg and MeHg into plant biomass, in both aquatic and sediment-associated forms...

  5. Cytogenetic damage related to low levels of methyl mercury contamination in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÚCIA I. M. AMORIM

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The mercury rejected in the water system, from mining operations and lixiviation of soils after deforestation, is considered to be the main contributors to the contamination of the ecosystem in the Amazon Basin. The objectives of the present study were to examine cytogenetic functions in peripheral lymphocytes within a population living on the banks of the Tapajós River with respect to methylmercury (MeHg contamination, using hair mercury as a biological indicator of exposure. Our investigation shows a clear relation between methylmercury contamination and cytogenetic damage in lymphocytes at levels well below 50 micrograms/gram, the level at which initial clinical signs and symptoms of mercury poisoning occur. The first apparent biological effect with increasing MeHg hair level was the impairment of lymphocyte proliferation measured as mitotic index (MI. The relation between mercury concentration in hair and MI suggests that this parameter, an indicator of changes in lymphocytes and their ability to respond to culture conditions, may be an early marker of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in humans and should be taken into account in the preliminary evaluation of the risks to populations exposed in vivo. This is the first report showing clear cytotoxic effects of long-term exposure to MeHg. Although the results strongly suggest that, under the conditions examined here, MeHg is both a spindle poison and a clastogen, the biological significance of these observations are as yet unknown. A long-term follow-up of these subjects should be undertaken.

  6. Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations over a gradient of contamination in earthworms living in rice paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysinghe, Kasun S; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Goodale, Eben; Anderson, Christopher W N; Bishop, Kevin; Cao, Axiang; Feng, Xinbin; Liu, Shengjie; Mammides, Christos; Meng, Bo; Quan, Rui-Chang; Sun, Jing; Qiu, Guangle

    2017-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) deposited from emissions or from local contamination, can have serious health effects on humans and wildlife. Traditionally, Hg has been seen as a threat to aquatic wildlife, because of its conversion in suboxic conditions into bioavailable methylmercury (MeHg), but it can also threaten contaminated terrestrial ecosystems. In Asia, rice paddies in particular may be sensitive ecosystems. Earthworms are soil-dwelling organisms that have been used as indicators of Hg bioavailability; however, the MeHg concentrations they accumulate in rice paddy environments are not well known. Earthworm and soil samples were collected from rice paddies at progressive distances from abandoned mercury mines in Guizhou, China, and at control sites without a history of Hg mining. Total Hg (THg) and MeHg concentrations declined in soil and earthworms as distance increased from the mines, but the percentage of THg that was MeHg, and the bioaccumulation factors in earthworms, increased over this gradient. This escalation in methylation and the incursion of MeHg into earthworms may be influenced by more acidic soil conditions and higher organic content further from the mines. In areas where the source of Hg is deposition, especially in water-logged and acidic rice paddy soil, earthworms may biomagnify MeHg more than was previously reported. It is emphasized that rice paddy environments affected by acidifying deposition may be widely dispersed throughout Asia. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1202-1210. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  7. Assessment of mercury erosion by surface water in Wanshan mercury mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, ZhiHui; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Chao; Shang, Lihai; Qiu, Guangle

    2013-08-01

    Soil erosion is a main cause of land degradation, and in its accelerated form is also one of the most serious ecological environmental problems. Moreover, there are few studies on migration of mercury (Hg) induced by soil erosion in seriously Hg-polluted districts. This paper selected Wanshan Hg mining area, SW China as the study area. Revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) and Geographic information system (GIS) methods were applied to calculate soil and Hg erosion and to classify soil erosion intensity. Our results show that the soil erosion rate can reach up to 600,884tkm(-2)yr(-1). Surfaces associated with very slight and extremely severe erosion include 76.6% of the entire land in Wanshan. Furthermore, the cumulative erosion rates in the area impacted by extremely severe erosion make up 90.5% of the total. On an annual basis, Hg surface erosion load was predicted to be 505kgyr(-1) and the corresponding mean migration flux of Hg was estimated to be 3.02kgkm(-2)yr(-1). The erosion loads of Hg resulting from farmland and meadow soil were 175 and 319kgyr(-1) respectively, which were enhanced compared to other landscape types due to the fact that they are generally located in the steep zones associated with significant reclamation. Contributing to establish a mass balance of Hg in Wanshan Hg mining area, this study supplies a dependable scientific basis for controlling soil and water erosion in the local ecosystems. Land use change is the most effective way for reducing Hg erosion load in Wanshan mining area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lead, cadmium, and mercury contents of fungi in the Helsinki area and in unpolluted control areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuusi, T.; Liukkonen-Lilja, H.; Piepponen, S.; Laaksovirta, K.; Lodenius, M.

    1981-10-01

    More than 40 species of wild-growing fungi in Finland have been investigated with regard to their contents of lead, cadmium and mercury. A total of 326 samples was studied, 242 being from the urban area of Helsinki and 84 from unpolluted rural areas. The lead content ranged from < 0.5 to 78 mg/kg of dry matter. In the control areas the mean contents for the different species ranged from < 0.5 to 13 mg/kg, and in the urban area from 0.5 to 16.8 mg/kg. The cadmium content ranged from < 0.2 to 101 mg/kg of dry matter. In the control areas the mean contents for the different species ranged from < 0.2 to 16.8 mg/kg, and in the urban area from < 0.2 to 17.3 mg/kg. The mercury content ranged from < 0.01 to 95 mg/kg of dry matter. In the rural areas the mean contents for the diferent species ranged from 0.03 to 4.2 mg/kg, and in the urban area from 0.02 to 14.1 mg/kg. In conclusion, consumption of those fungi that grow in unpolluted rural areas carries no risk, particularly when they belong to mycorrhizal species. In urban areas the risk is somewhat greater. The Agaricus species show the highest contents of the metals studied and their use as food requires caution.

  9. Atmospheric Mercury Transport Across Southern Lake Michigan: Influence from the Chicago/Gary Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, L. E.; Keeler, G. J.; Dvonch, J. T.

    2008-12-01

    The local and regional impacts of mercury emissions from major urban and industrial areas are critical to quantify in order to further understand mercury cycling in the environment. The Chicago/Gary urban area is one such location in which mercury emissions from industrial sources are significant and regional mercury transport needs to be further examined. Speciated atmospheric mercury was measured in Chicago, IL and Holland, MI from July to November 2007 to better characterize the impact of Chicago/Gary on southwest Michigan. Previous work under the 1994-1995 Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study (LMMBS) indicated that the highest levels of mercury deposition in southwest Michigan occurred with transport from the Chicago/Gary area, particularly with rapid transport where less mercury was deposited close to sources(1). However, at that time it was not possible to measure reactive gas phase mercury (RGM), a highly-soluble form of mercury in industrial emissions that is readily removed from the atmosphere. Since the LMMBS, the development of speciated mercury systems has made it possible to continuously monitor gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0), particulate mercury (HgP), and RGM. These measurements are useful for understanding atmospheric mercury chemistry and differentiating between local and regional source impacts due to the different behaviors of reactive and elemental mercury. Results from 2007 show that, on average, Hg0 and HgP were 1.5 times higher and RGM was 2 times higher in Chicago than in Holland. Mean mercury wet deposition was nearly 3 times higher in Chicago than in Holland. Meteorological analysis indicates that transport across the lake from Chicago/Gary occurred frequently during the study. Additional measurements of O3, SO2, meteorological parameters, event mercury and trace element precipitation samples, and modeled back-trajectories are used to discern regional transport events from local deposition and characterize the impact of the Chicago/Gary urban

  10. Mercury transport between sediments and the overlying water of the St. Lawrence River area of concern near Cornwall, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delongchamp, Tania M., E-mail: tdelongchamp@intrinsikscience.co [Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Ridal, Jeffrey J. [St. Lawrence River Institute of Environmental Sciences, 2 Belmont Street, Cornwall, Ontario, K6H 4Z1 (Canada); Lean, David R.S. [Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Poissant, Laurier [Meteorological Service of Canada, Atmospheric Toxic Processes Section, Environment Canada, 105 McGill 7th floor (Youville), Montreal, Quebec H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Blais, Jules M., E-mail: jules.blais@uottawa.c [Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    Contaminated sediments in the St. Lawrence River remain a difficult problem despite decreases in emissions. Here, sediment and pore water phases were analyzed for total mercury (THg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) and diffusion from the sediment to the overlying water was 17.5 +- 10.6 SE ng cm{sup -2} yr{sup -1} for THg and 3.8 +- 1.7 SE ng cm{sup -2} yr{sup -1} for MeHg. These fluxes were very small when compared to the particle-bound mercury flux accumulating in the sediment (183 +- 30 SE ng cm{sup -2} yr{sup -1}). Studies have reported that fish from the westernmost site have higher Hg concentrations than fish collected from the other two sites of the Cornwall Area of Concern, which could not be explained by differences in the Hg flux or THg concentrations in sediments, but the highest concentrations of sediment MeHg, and the greatest proportions of MeHg to THg in both sediment and pore water were observed where fish had highest MeHg concentrations. - Sediments in the St. Lawrence area of concern near Cornwall are a net sink for mercury.

  11. Mercury biomagnification in a contaminated estuary food web: Effects of age and trophic position using stable isotope analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, J.P.; Mieiro, C.L.; Pereira, E.; Duarte, A.C.; Pardal, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► High trophic magnification potential of mercury in a temperate contaminated estuary. ► The use of age adjusted data provided better fitting to linear regression curves. ► Similar TMFs in other studies suggest stable magnification regardless of latitude. -- Abstract: The main aim of this study was to ascertain the biomagnification processes in a mercury-contaminated estuary, by clarifying the trophic web structure through stable isotope ratios. For this purpose, primary producers (seagrasses and macroalgae), invertebrates (detritivores and benthic predators) and fish were analysed for total and organic mercury and for stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures. Trophic structure was accurately described by δ 15 N, while δ 13 C reflected the carbon source for each species. An increase of mercury levels was observed with trophic level, particularly for organic mercury. Results confirm mercury biomagnification to occur in this estuarine food web, especially in the organic form, both in absolute concentrations and fraction of total mercury load. Age can be considered an important variable in mercury biomagnification studies, and data adjustments to account for the different exposure periods may be necessary for a correct assessment of trophic magnification rates and ecological risk

  12. History of mercury use and environmental contamination at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Scott C., E-mail: brookssc@ornl.go [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, MS 6038, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6038 (United States); Southworth, George R. [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, MS 6038, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6038 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Between 1950 and 1963 approximately 11 million kilograms of mercury (Hg) were used at the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 NSC) for lithium isotope separation processes. About 3% of the Hg was lost to the air, soil and rock under facilities, and East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) which originates in the plant site. Smaller amounts of Hg were used at other Oak Ridge facilities with similar results. Although the primary Hg discharges from Y-12 NSC stopped in 1963, small amounts of Hg continue to be released into the creek from point sources and diffuse contaminated soil and groundwater sources within Y-12 NSC. Mercury concentration in EFPC has decreased 85% from {approx}2000 ng/L in the 1980s. In general, methylmercury concentrations in water and in fish have not declined in response to improvements in water quality and exhibit trends of increasing concentration in some cases. - Mercury discharges from an industrial plant have created a legacy contamination problem exhibiting complex and at times counter-intuitive patterns in Hg cycling.

  13. Processing results of 1800 gallons of mercury and radioactively contaminated mixed waste rinse solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiesen, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    Mercury-contaminated rinse solution was successfully treated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This waste was generated during the decontamination of the Heat Transfer Reactor Experiment 3 reactor shield tank. Approximately 6.8 m 3 (1,800 pi) of waste was generated and placed into 33 drums. Each drum contained precipitated sludge material ranging from 2--5 cm in depth, with the average depth of about 6 cm. The pH of each drum varied from 3--11. The bulk liquid waste had a mercury level of 7.0 mg/l, which exceeded the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act limit of 0.2 mg/l. The average liquid bulk radioactivity was about 2.1 pCi/mL while the average sludge contamination was about 13,800 pCi/g. Treatment of the waste required separation of the liquid from the sludge, filtration, pH adjustment, and ion exchange. The resulting solution after treatment had mercury levels at 0.0186 mg/l and radioactivity of 0.282 pCi/ml

  14. Mercury bioaccumulation assessment for the St. Louis River Area of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both Minnesota and Wisconsin have posted fish consumption advisories within the St. Louis River Area of Concern (SLR AOC), in part because fish have elevated mercury concentrations. To assess mercury concentrations in fish tissue within the SLR AOC relative to reference condition...

  15. A cross-sectional survey on knowledge and perceptions of health risks associated with arsenic and mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Elias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An estimated 0.5 to 1.5 million informal miners, of whom 30-50% are women, rely on artisanal mining for their livelihood in Tanzania. Mercury, used in the processing gold ore, and arsenic, which is a constituent of some ores, are common occupational exposures that frequently result in widespread environmental contamination. Frequently, the mining activities are conducted haphazardly without regard for environmental, occupational, or community exposure. The primary objective of this study was to assess community risk knowledge and perception of potential mercury and arsenic toxicity and/or exposure from artisanal gold mining in Rwamagasa in northwestern Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional survey of respondents in five sub-villages in the Rwamagasa Village located in Geita District in northwestern Tanzania near Lake Victoria was conducted. This area has a history of artisanal gold mining and many of the population continue to work as miners. Using a clustered random selection approach for recruitment, a total of 160 individuals over 18 years of age completed a structured interview. Results The interviews revealed wide variations in knowledge and risk perceptions concerning mercury and arsenic exposure, with 40.6% (n=65 and 89.4% (n=143 not aware of the health effects of mercury and arsenic exposure respectively. Males were significantly more knowledgeable (n=59, 36.9% than females (n=36, 22.5% with regard to mercury (x2=3.99, px2=22.82, p= Conclusions The knowledge of individuals living in Rwamagasa, Tanzania, an area with a history of artisanal gold mining, varied widely with regard to the health hazards of mercury and arsenic. In these communities there was limited awareness of the threats to health associated with exposure to mercury and arsenic. This lack of knowledge, combined with minimal environmental monitoring and controlled waste management practices, highlights the need for health education, surveillance, and policy

  16. Mushroom contamination by mercury, cadmium and lead; Contaminazione di funghi commestibili con mercurio, cadmio e piombo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dojmi Di Delupis, G.; Dojmi Di Delupis, F. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Comparata ed Ecotossicologia

    1996-12-01

    Occurrence and bioaccumulation of mercury, cadmium and lead were found in mushrooms by various researchers. Such mushrooms were often found in polluted areas. Pollution was mainly caused by industrial or mining plants, by some agricultural treatments and by road traffic. Considerations and recommendations concerning food consumption are made.

  17. Determination of total mercury in aluminium industrial zones and soil contaminated with red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasulov, Oqil; Zacharová, Andrea; Schwarz, Marián

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated total mercury contents in areas impacted by aluminium plants in Tajikistan and Slovakia and in one area flooded with red mud in Hungary. We present the first determination of total mercury contents in the near-top soil (0-10 and 10-20 cm) in Tajikistan and the first comparative investigation of Tajikistan-Slovakia-Hungary. The Tajik Aluminium Company (TALCO) is one of the leading producers of primary aluminium in Central Asia. In the past 30 years, the plant has been producing large volumes of industrial waste, resulting in negative impacts on soil, groundwater and air quality of the surrounding region. Mercury concentrations were significant in Slovakia and Hungary, 6 years after the flooding. In studied areas in Slovakia and Hungary, concentrations of total mercury exceeded the threshold limit value (TLV = 0.5 mg Hg kg -1 ). However, in Tajikistan, values were below the TLV (0.006-0.074 mg kg -1 ) and did not significantly vary between depths. Total Hg in Slovakia ranged from 0.057 to 0.668 mg kg -1 and in Hungary from 0.029 to 1.275 mg kg -1 . However, in the plots near to the red mud reservoir and the flooded area, Hg concentrations were higher in the upper layers than in the lower ones.

  18. Rapid Monitoring of Mercury in Air from an Organic Chemical Factory in China Using a Portable Mercury Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yasutake

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A chemical factory, using a production technology of acetaldehyde with mercury catalysis, was located southeast of Qingzhen City in Guizhou Province, China. Previous research showed heavy mercury pollution through an extensive downstream area. A current investigation of the mercury distribution in ambient air, soils, and plants suggests that mobile mercury species in soils created elevated mercury concentrations in ambient air and vegetation. Mercury concentrations of up to 600 ng/m3 in air over the contaminated area provided evidence of the mercury transformation to volatile Hg(0. Mercury analysis of soil and plant samples demonstrated that the mercury concentrations in soil with vaporized and plant-absorbable forms were higher in the southern area, which was closer to the factory. Our results suggest that air monitoring using a portable mercury analyzer can be a convenient and useful method for the rapid detection and mapping of mercury pollution in advanced field surveys.

  19. Mini review of mercury contamination in environment and human with an emphasis on Malaysia: status and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveena, Sarva Mangala; de Burbure, Claire; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Hashim, Zailina

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of research on mercury (Hg) contamination in Malaysia and its evolution from 1979 to 2012. The objective of this paper was to review and provide an understanding of Hg exposures in the environment, humans, and food in Malaysia. Hg concentration in the environment is high in areas of West Port, Malacca Straits, Prai, and Johor because these areas receive anthropogenic metal loads brought about by industrial activities. Hg concentration in humans is related to seafood intake (dietary), environmental conditions, and different geographical locations. Hg levels in food showed higher concentration in the West coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Hg concentration is also present in the country's tropical fruits, which is related to agrochemical and fertilizer usage. This review showed that there is an urgent need to identify Hg toxicology and bioaccumulation as well as the health effects of Hg exposure in different ecological compartments. This review aims to provide helpful recommendations for future Hg biomonitoring and research in Malaysia.

  20. An innovative approach to bioremediation of mercury contaminated soils from industrial mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Damien; Edwards, Grant C; Gustin, Mae S; Care, Andrew; Miller, Matthieu B; Sunna, Anwar

    2017-10-01

    Soils contaminated with mercury (Hg) have proved expensive and logistically difficult to remediate. Research continues into finding suitable environmentally-friendly and efficient ways of achieving this end. Bioremediation is an option, which employs the strategies microorganisms have evolved to deal with Hg. One microbial strategy involves uptake and intracellular volatilisation of mercuric ions, which passively diffuse from the cell and back into the atmosphere. In this work, Pseudomonas veronii cells grown to stationary phase were immobilised in a xanthan gum-based biopolymer via encapsulation. The P. veronii-biopolymer mix was then coated onto natural zeolite granules. Zeolite immobilised cells remained viable for at least 16 weeks stored under ambient room temperature. Furthermore, the immobilised cells were shown to retain both viability and Hg volatilisation functionality after transportation from Australia to the USA, where they were applied to Hg contaminated soil. Maximum flux rates exceeded 10 μg Hg m 2  h -1 from mine tailings (≈7 mg kg -1  Hg with 50% v/v water). This was 4 orders of magnitude above background flux levels. It is envisioned that emitted gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) can be readily captured, and transformed back into metallic Hg, which can then be stored appropriately or recycled. This breaks the Hg cycle, as GEM is no longer translocated back to the atmospheric compartment. The immobilising excipients used in this research overcome many logistical issues with delivery of suitable microbial loads to locations of mercury contamination and presents a facile and inexpensive method of augmenting contaminated sites with selected microbial consortia for bioremediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that mercuric chloride and methylmercury are possible human carcinogens. top How does mercury affect children? Very young ... billion parts of drinking water (2 ppb). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has set a maximum ...

  2. [Environment spatial distribution of mercury pollution in Songhua River upstream gold mining areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ting-Ting; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Gang; Zhao, Dan-Dan

    2010-09-01

    Using Zeeman mercury spectrometer RA915+ monitoring the total gaseous mercury concentration were collected from gold mining area in Huadian, in the upper reaches of the Songhua River, during summer and autumn of 2008, where we simultaneously collected samples of air, water, sediment and soil. The research is focused on analyzing of the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of atmospheric mercury pollution and the correlation with other environmental factors. The results show that: the concentration of atmospheric mercury in summer is higher than that in autumn and in the evening is higher than at noon, and it present a gradual decay with the distance to the gold mining area as the center point increasing. The distribution rule of mercury pollution of environmental factors in the gold mining area is: in sediment > in soil > in plant > in water, the characteristics of mercury pollution distribution in plant is: root > stem and leaf, and the content of mercury in plant in autumn is commonly higher than that in summer. This is thought due to the accumulation of pollutant element from soil during the growth of plant. The atmospheric mercury has a significant correlation with the root of plant, respectively 0.83 in summer and 0.97 in autumn.

  3. Are red mullet efficient as bio-indicators of mercury contamination? A case study from the French Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresson, P; Bouchoucha, M; Miralles, F; Elleboode, R; Mahé, K; Marusczak, N; Thebault, H; Cossa, D

    2015-02-15

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the main chemicals currently altering Mediterranean ecosystems. Red mullet (Mullus barbatus and M. surmuletus) have been widely used as quantitative bio-indicators of chemical contamination. In this study, we reassess the ability of these species to be used as efficient bio-indicators of Hg contamination by monitoring during 18 months Hg concentrations in muscle tissue of mullet sampled from 5 French Mediterranean coastal areas. Mean concentrations ranged between 0.23 and 0.78 μg g(-1) dry mass for both species. Values were consistent with expected contamination patterns of all sites except Corsica. Results confirmed that red mullets are efficient bio-indicators of Hg contamination. Nevertheless, the observed variability in Hg concentrations calls for caution regarding the period and the sample size. Attention should be paid to environmental and biologic specificities of each studied site, as they can alter the bioaccumulation of Hg, and lead to inferences about environmental Hg concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Phyto-toxicity and Phyto-remediation Potential of Mercury in Indian Mustard and Two Ferns with Mercury Contaminated Water and Oak Ridge Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Y.; Han, F.X.; Chen, J.; Shiyab, S.; Monts, D.L.; Monts, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    Phyto-remediation is an emerging technology that uses various plants to degrade, extract, contain, or immobilize contaminants from soil and water. Certain fern and Indian mustard species have been suggested as candidates for phyto-remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil and water because of their high efficiency of accumulating metals in shoots and their high biomass production. Currently, no known hyper-accumulator plants for mercury have been found. Here we report the Hg uptake and phyto-toxicity by two varieties of fern and Indian mustard. Their potential for Hg phyto-remediation application was also investigated. Anatomical, histochemical and biochemical approaches were used to study mercury phyto-toxicity as well as anti-oxidative responses in ferns [Chinese brake fern (P. vittata) and Boston fern (N. exaltata)] and Indian mustard (Florida broadleaf and longstanding) (Brassica juncea L.) grown in a hydroponic system. Phyto-remediation potentials of these plant species were estimated based on their Hg uptake performance with contaminated soils from Oak Ridge (TN, USA). Our results show that mercury exposure led to severe phyto-toxicity accompanied by lipid peroxidation and rapid accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) in P. vittata, but not in N. exaltata. The two cultivars of fern responded differently to mercury exposure in terms of anti-oxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD; glutathione reductase, GR). Mercury exposure resulted in the accumulation of ascorbic acid (ASA) and glutathione (GSH) in the shoots of both cultivars of fern. On the other hand, Indian mustard effectively generated an enzymatic antioxidant defense system (especially CAT) to scavenge H 2 O 2 , resulting in lower H 2 O 2 in shoots with higher mercury concentrations. These two cultivars of Indian mustard demonstrated an efficient metabolic defense and adaptation system to mercury-induced oxidative stress. In both varieties of fern and Indian

  5. Mercury in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapauan, P.A.; Cruz, C.C.; Verceluz, F.P.

    1980-10-01

    The analysis of mercury (Hg) in scalp hair obtained from individuals residing in five different localities in the Philippines - Metro Manila, Naga City in Bicol, Bataan, Oriental Mindoro, and Palawan is presented. An overall mean of 1.46 ug/g of hair was obtained for all samples excluding those from Palawan and represents a baseline value.'' In terms of the mercury levels found in hair, the Honda Bay area in Palawan is, relatively, a ''contaminated area.'' (author)

  6. Total Mercury and Methylmercury Contamination in Fish from Sites along the Elbe River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Maršálek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate total mercury Hg and methylmercury MeHg contamination in muscle tissues of fish collected in 2002 from the Labe (Elbe river at sites upstream of Pardubice and downstream of Pardubice and Hřensko, and in 2004 from the Labe river upstream and downstream of the Spolana factory in Neratovice, and from the Vltava river downstream of Lenora. Eighty eight fish of the following species were sampled: bream (Abramis brama L., perch (Perca fluviatilis L., chub (Leuciscus cephalus L. and barbel (Barbus barbus L.. Total mercury content in chub, perch and bream was in the range of 0.05 - 1.96 mg kg-1 w.w., 0. 09 - 1.46 mg kg-1 w.w. and 0.35 - 0.82 mg kg-1 w.w., respectively. Methylmercury content in chub, perch and bream was in the range of 0.04 - 2.11 mg kg-1 w.w., 0.1 - 1.73 mg kg-1 w.w. and 0.371 - 0.650 mg kg-1 w.w., respectively. Significant correlation (p p < 0.05 between THg and MeHg contents were found between individual sites. In 2002, for example, the most contaminated fish were found downstream of Pardubice, followed by fish from upstream of Pardubice and from Hřensko. In 2004, fish from downstream and upstream of the Spolana factory in Neratovice were more contaminated than fish from the Vltava river downstream of Lenora. The methylmercury-tototal mercury ratio in muscle tissue was close to 1.0.

  7. Mercury contamination of fish and shrimp samples available in markets of Mashhad, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabzadeh, Maryam; Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Mousavi, Seyed-Reza; Moradi, Valiollah; Mokhtari, Mehrangiz; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad

    2013-09-01

    Fish and shrimp are common healthy sources of protein to a large percentage of the world's population. Hence, it is vital to evaluate the content of possible contamination of these marine-foods. Six species of fishes and two species of shrimps were collected from the local markets of Mashhad, Iran. The mercury (Hg) concentration of samples was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using a mercuric hydride system (MHS 10). High concentration of total Hg was found in Clupeonella cultriventris caspia (0.93 ± 0.14 μg/g) while the lowest level was detected in Penaeus indicus (0.37 ± 0.03 μg/g). Mean Hg levels in fish and shrimp samples were 0.77 ± 0.08 μg/g and 0.51 ± 0.05 μg/g, respectively. Farmed species (except for P. indicus) and all samples from Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea had mean mercury concentrations above 0.5 μg/g, which is the maximum standard level recommended by Joint FAO/WHO/Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). All samples had also mean Hg concentrations that exceeded EPA's established safety level of 0.3 μg/g. A little more extensive analysis of data showed that weekly intake of mercury for the proportion of the Iranian population consuming Hg contaminated fish and shrimp is not predicted to exceed the respective provisional tolerable weekly intakes recommended by JECFA. However, the Iranian health and environmental authorities should monitor Hg contamination of the fishes and shrimps before marketing.

  8. Assessing the difference of tolerance and phytoremediation potential in mercury contaminated soil of a non-food energy crop, Helianthus tuberosus L. (Jerusalem artichoke)

    OpenAIRE

    Shiqi Lv; Bin Yang; Yixuan Kou; Jun Zeng; Ruixiong Wang; Yumeng Xiao; Fencan Li; Ying Lu; Yuwen Mu; Changming Zhao

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of mercury stress on growth, photosynthesis and mercury accumulation in different cultivars of a non-food energy crop, Jerusalem artichoke, and to screen appropriate cultivars for their efficacy in the phytoremediation of mercury (Hg2+) contaminated soil. Cultivars LZJ033 (high above-ground biomass and nutrient content, and strongly sexual reproduction) and LZJ119 (a long period of vegetative growth) exhibited more tolerance to mercury stress t...

  9. Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Mahoney, T J

    2014-01-01

    This gazetteer and atlas on Mercury lists, defines and illustrates every named (as opposed to merely catalogued) object and term as related to Mercury within a single reference work. It contains a glossary of terminology used, an index of all the headwords in the gazetteer, an atlas comprising maps and images with coordinate grids and labels identifying features listed in the gazetteer, and appendix material on the IAU nomenclature system and the transcription systems used for non-roman alphabets. This book is useful for the general reader, writers and editors dealing with astronomical themes, and those astronomers concerned with any aspect of astronomical nomenclature.

  10. Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, André; Steiger, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Mercury, the planet closest to the Sun, is different in several respects from the other three terrestrial planets. In appearance, it resembles the heavily cratered surface of the Moon, but its density is high, it has a magnetic field and magnetosphere, but no atmosphere or ionosphere. This book reviews the progress made in Mercury studies since the flybys by Mariner 10 in 1974-75, based on the continued research using the Mariner 10 archive, on observations from Earth, and on increasingly realistic models of its interior evolution.

  11. SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION (SPSS) TREATABILITY OF SIMULATED MIXED-WASTE MERCURY CONTAMINATED SLUDGE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMA, J.W.; BOWERMAN, B.S.; KALB, P.D.

    2002-10-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently seeking to validate technologies that can directly treat radioactively contaminated high mercury (Hg) subcategory wastes without removing the mercury from the waste. The Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is one of several candidate technologies capable of successfully treating various Hg waste streams. To supplement previously supplied data on treatment of soils, EPA needs additional data concerning stabilization of high Hg subcategory waste sludges. To this end, a 5000 ppm sludge surrogate, containing approximately 50 wt% water, was successfully treated by pilot-scale SPSS processing. In two process runs, 85 and 95 wt% of water was recovered from the sludge during processing. At waste loadings of 30 wt% dry sludge, the treated waste form had no detectable mercury (<10 ppb) in TCLP leachates. Data gathered from the demonstration of treatment of this sludge will provide EPA with information to support revisions to current treatment requirements for high Hg subcategory wastes.

  12. SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION (SPSS) TREATABILITY OF SIMULATED MIXED-WASTE MERCURY CONTAMINATED SLUDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J. W.; Bowerman, B. S.; Kalb, P. D.

    2002-02-25

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently evaluating alternative treatment standards for radioactively contaminated high mercury (Hg) subcategory wastes, which do not require the removal of mercury from the waste. The Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is one of several candidate technologies capable of successfully treating various Hg waste streams. To supplement previously supplied data on treatment of soils, EPA needed additional data concerning stabilization of high Hg subcategory waste sludges. To this end, a 5000 ppm sludge surrogate, containing approximately 50 wt% water, was successfully treated by pilot-scale SPSS processing. In two process runs, 85 and 95 wt% of water was recovered from the sludge during processing. At waste loadings of 46 wt% (30 wt% dry) sludge, the treated waste form had no detectable mercury (<10 ppb) in TCLP leachates. Data gathered from the demonstration of treatment of this sludge will provide the EPA with information to support revisions to current treatment requirements for high Hg subcategory wastes.

  13. SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION (SPSS) TREATABILITY OF SIMULATED MIXED-WASTE MERCURY CONTAMINATED SLUDGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ADAMA, J.W.; BOWERMAN, B.S.; KALB, P.D.

    2002-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently seeking to validate technologies that can directly treat radioactively contaminated high mercury (Hg) subcategory wastes without removing the mercury from the waste. The Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is one of several candidate technologies capable of successfully treating various Hg waste streams. To supplement previously supplied data on treatment of soils, EPA needs additional data concerning stabilization of high Hg subcategory waste sludges. To this end, a 5000 ppm sludge surrogate, containing approximately 50 wt% water, was successfully treated by pilot-scale SPSS processing. In two process runs, 85 and 95 wt% of water was recovered from the sludge during processing. At waste loadings of 30 wt% dry sludge, the treated waste form had no detectable mercury (<10 ppb) in TCLP leachates. Data gathered from the demonstration of treatment of this sludge will provide EPA with information to support revisions to current treatment requirements for high Hg subcategory wastes

  14. SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION (SPSS) TREATABILITY OF SIMULATED MIXED-WASTE MERCURY CONTAMINATED SLUDGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J. W.; Bowerman, B. S.; Kalb, P. D.

    2002-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently evaluating alternative treatment standards for radioactively contaminated high mercury (Hg) subcategory wastes, which do not require the removal of mercury from the waste. The Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is one of several candidate technologies capable of successfully treating various Hg waste streams. To supplement previously supplied data on treatment of soils, EPA needed additional data concerning stabilization of high Hg subcategory waste sludges. To this end, a 5000 ppm sludge surrogate, containing approximately 50 wt% water, was successfully treated by pilot-scale SPSS processing. In two process runs, 85 and 95 wt% of water was recovered from the sludge during processing. At waste loadings of 46 wt% (30 wt% dry) sludge, the treated waste form had no detectable mercury (<10 ppb) in TCLP leachates. Data gathered from the demonstration of treatment of this sludge will provide the EPA with information to support revisions to current treatment requirements for high Hg subcategory wastes

  15. Influence of sulfur on the accumulation of mercury in rice plant (Oryza sativa L.) growing in mercury contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunyun; Zhao, Jiating; Guo, Jingxia; Liu, Mengjiao; Xu, Qinlei; Li, Hong; Li, Yu-Feng; Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Zhiyong; Gao, Yuxi

    2017-09-01

    Sulfur (S) is an essential element for plant growth and its biogeochemical cycling is strongly linked to the species of heavy metals in soil. In this work, the effects of S (sulfate and elemental sulfur) treatment on the accumulation, distribution and chemical forms of Hg in rice growing in Hg contaminated soil were investigated. It was found that S could promote the formation of iron plaque on the root surface and decrease total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation in rice grains, straw, and roots. Hg in the root was dominated in the form of RS-Hg-SR. Sulfate treatment increased the percentage of RS-Hg-SR to T-Hg in the rice root and changed the Hg species in soil. The dominant Hg species (70%) in soil was organic substance bound fractions. Sulfur treatment decreased Hg motility in the rhizosphere soils by promoting the conversion of RS-Hg-SR to HgS. This study is significant since it suggests that low dose sulfur treatment in Hg-containing water irrigated soil can decrease both T-Hg and MeHg accumulation in rice via inactivating Hg in the soil and promoting the formation of iron plaque in rice root, which may reduce health risk for people consuming those crops. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Applicability of two mobile analysers for mercury in urine in small-scale gold mining areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeuml, Jennifer; Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan; Lettmeier, Beate; Maydl, Alexandra; Messerer, Katalin; Roider, Gabriele; Drasch, Gustav; Siebert, Uwe

    2011-12-01

    Mercury is still used in developing countries to extract gold from the ore in small-scale gold mining areas. This is a major health hazard for people living in mining areas. The concentration of mercury in urine was analysed in different mining areas in Zimbabwe, Indonesia and Tanzania. First the urine samples were analysed by CV-AAS (cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry) during the field projects with a mobile mercury analyser (Lumex(®) or Seefelder(®)) and secondly, in a laboratory with a stationary CV-AAS mercury analyser (PerkinElmer(®)). Caused by the different systems (reduction agent either SnCl(2) (Lumex(®) or Seefelder(®))) or NaBH(4) (PerkinElmer(®)), with the mobile analysers only the inorganic mercury was obtained and with the stationary system the total mercury concentration was measured. The aims of the study were whether the results obtained in field with the mobile equipments can be compared with the stationary reference method in the laboratory and allow the application of these mobile analysers in screening studies on concerned populations to select those, who are exposed to critical mercury levels. Overall, the concentrations obtained with the two mobile systems were approximately 25% lower than determined with the stationary system. Nevertheless, both mobile systems seem to be very useful for screening of volunteers in field. Moreover, regional staff may be trained on such analysers to perform screening tests by themselves. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Mercury transformation and release differs with depth and time in a contaminated riparian soil during simulated flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Brett; Aiken, George R.; Nagy, Kathryn L.; Manceau, Alain; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Ryan, Joseph N.

    2016-01-01

    Riparian soils are an important environment in the transport of mercury in rivers and wetlands, but the biogeochemical factors controlling mercury dynamics under transient redox conditions in these soils are not well understood. Mercury release and transformations in the Oa and underlying A horizons of a contaminated riparian soil were characterized in microcosms and an intact soil core under saturation conditions. Pore water dynamics of total mercury (HgT), methylmercury (MeHg), and dissolved gaseous mercury (Hg0(aq)) along with selected anions, major elements, and trace metals were characterized across redox transitions during 36 d of flooding in microcosms. Next, HgT dynamics were characterized over successive flooding (17 d), drying (28 d), and flooding (36 d) periods in the intact core. The observed mercury dynamics exhibit depth and temporal variability. At the onset of flooding in microcosms (1–3 d), mercury in the Oa horizon soil, present as a combination of ionic mercury (Hg(II)) bound to thiol groups in the soil organic matter (SOM) and nanoparticulate metacinnabar (b-HgS), was mobilized with organic matter of high molecular weight. Subsequently, under anoxic conditions, pore water HgT declined coincident with sulfate (3–11 d) and the proportion of nanoparticulate b-HgS in the Oa horizon soil increased slightly. Redox oscillations in the intact Oa horizon soil exhausted the mobile mercury pool associated with organic matter. In contrast, mercury in the A horizon soil, present predominantly as nanoparticulate b-HgS, was mobilized primarily as Hg0(aq) under strongly reducing conditions (5–18 d). The concentration of Hg0(aq) under dark reducing conditions correlated positively with byproducts of dissimilatory metal reduction (P(Fe,Mn)). Mercury dynamics in intact A horizon soil were consistent over two periods of flooding, indicating that nanoparticulate b-HgS was an accessible pool of mobile mercury over recurrent reducing conditions. The

  18. Evaluation of mercury contamination in sediments from Santos - Sao Vicente Estuarine system, in period of 1996 -2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hortellani, Marcos Antonio

    2003-01-01

    The distribution of mercury contamination in the Santos - Sao Vicente Estuarine System was observed through the analysis of seventy seven surface sediments samples collected in two series. In different periods and points, since the Channel of Piacaguera, the head of the system, , through the estuarine arms of Santos and Sao Vicente as far as the Bay of Santos, about 30 Km downstream, and in different mangrove areas, including industrial and harbor influence zones. The obtained values ranged from 0.03 to 1.19 μg g -1 About 90% of the samples of the first series collected among 1997-1998 and 50% of the second series collected among 1999-2000 presented levels of Hg > 0,13 μg g -1 ,limit considered by the Canadian legislation and adopted by CETESB, below which doesn't happen adverse effect in the biological community. And about 35% of samples of the first series and 11 % of the second series presented concentrations of Hg > 0.698 μg g -1 probable level of occurrence of adverse effect in the biological community. These results indicate an increase of the mercury levels caused by the industrial, port and urban activities. The mercury concentration in sediments was determined by using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, coupling with a flow injection system by a cold vapor generation, using a manual injection valve (FIA-CVAAS). The estimate of the uncertainties associated to this procedure was calculated. The following elements were also determined: Fe, Al, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr and Co in 46 samples of the second series, by atomic absorption spectrometry. In order to verify possible relationship among all the investigated elements in the samples sediments, was carried out a statistical study, using the SPSS-8.0 software. Pearson correlation and Principal Component's analysis were used for with the objective to identify of major relationship for additional exploration of the general behavior of the data. (author)

  19. Characterization of mercury contamination in the Androscoggin River, Coos County, New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Ann; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Degnan, James R.; Coles, James; Agee, Jennifer L.; Luce, Darryl

    2013-01-01

    The former chloralkali facility in Berlin, New Hampshire, was designated a Superfund site in 2005. Historic paper mill activities resulted in the contamination of groundwater, surface water, and sediments with many organic compounds and mercury (Hg). Hg continues to seep into the Androscoggin River in elemental form through bedrock fractures. The objective of this study was to spatially characterize (1) the extent of Hg contamination in water, sediment, and biota; (2) Hg speciation and methylmercury (MeHg) production potential rates in sediment; (3) the availability of inorganic divalent Hg (Hg(II)) for Hg(II)-methylation (MeHg production); and (4) ancillary sediment geochemistry necessary to better understand Hg speciation and MeHg production potential rates in this system.

  20. Hair mercury concentrations and associated factors in an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Wenqing [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Chen, Yaowen [Central Laboratory of Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China); Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Zhang, Gairong [Central Laboratory of Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China); Luo, Jiayi [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Wu, Kusheng, E-mail: kswu@stu.edu.cn [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China)

    2014-01-15

    Objective: Toxic heavy metals are released to the environment constantly from unregulated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of mercury (Hg) and other heavy metals levels in human hair. We aimed to investigate concentrations of mercury in hair from Guiyu and potential risk factors and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste processing occurs. Methods: A total of 285 human hair samples were collected from three villages (including Beilin, Xianma, and Huamei) of Guiyu (n=205) and the control area, Jinping district of Shantou city (n=80). All the volunteers were administered a questionnaire regarding socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors contributed to hair mercury concentration. Hair mercury concentration was analyzed by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Results: Our results suggested that hair mercury concentrations in volunteers of Guiyu (median, 0.99; range, 0.18–3.98 μg/g) were significantly higher than those of Jinping (median, 0.59; range, 0.12–1.63 μg/g). We also observed a higher over-limit ratio (>1 μg/g according to USEPA) in Guiyu than in Jinping (48.29% vs. 11.25%, P<0.001). Logistic regression model showed that the variables of living house also served as an e-waste workshop, work related to e-waste, family income, time of residence in Guiyu, the distance between home and waste incineration, and fish intake were associated with hair mercury concentration. After multiple stepwise regression analysis, in the Guiyu samples, hair mercury concentration was found positively associated with the time residence in Guiyu (β=0.299, P<0.001), and frequency of shellfish intake (β=0.184, P=0.016); and negatively associated with the distance between home and waste incineration (β=−0.190, P=0.015) and whether house also served as e-waste workshop (β=−0.278, P=0.001). Conclusions: This study investigated human mercury exposure

  1. Hair mercury concentrations and associated factors in an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Gairong; Luo, Jiayi; Wu, Kusheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Toxic heavy metals are released to the environment constantly from unregulated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of mercury (Hg) and other heavy metals levels in human hair. We aimed to investigate concentrations of mercury in hair from Guiyu and potential risk factors and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste processing occurs. Methods: A total of 285 human hair samples were collected from three villages (including Beilin, Xianma, and Huamei) of Guiyu (n=205) and the control area, Jinping district of Shantou city (n=80). All the volunteers were administered a questionnaire regarding socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors contributed to hair mercury concentration. Hair mercury concentration was analyzed by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Results: Our results suggested that hair mercury concentrations in volunteers of Guiyu (median, 0.99; range, 0.18–3.98 μg/g) were significantly higher than those of Jinping (median, 0.59; range, 0.12–1.63 μg/g). We also observed a higher over-limit ratio (>1 μg/g according to USEPA) in Guiyu than in Jinping (48.29% vs. 11.25%, P<0.001). Logistic regression model showed that the variables of living house also served as an e-waste workshop, work related to e-waste, family income, time of residence in Guiyu, the distance between home and waste incineration, and fish intake were associated with hair mercury concentration. After multiple stepwise regression analysis, in the Guiyu samples, hair mercury concentration was found positively associated with the time residence in Guiyu (β=0.299, P<0.001), and frequency of shellfish intake (β=0.184, P=0.016); and negatively associated with the distance between home and waste incineration (β=−0.190, P=0.015) and whether house also served as e-waste workshop (β=−0.278, P=0.001). Conclusions: This study investigated human mercury exposure

  2. Contribution of environmental conditions in dental offices of Antioquia to the risk of mercury contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo A. Ruiz C

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is a product from the project “Environmental Management of Dental Amalgam in the State of Antioquia” which was carried out by the following research groups belonging to the University of Antioquia: Science and Biomedical Technology, Precious Materials, and Pirometallurgical and Materials Researches, as well as the private company New Stetic S. A., between February 2005 and February 2007. Objective: to describe the environmental conditions in 30 big dental offices of the State of Antioquia, Colombia. Those dental offices having more than five dental chairs in the same work place were defined as “big” for the purpose of this project. Due to the fact that these dental offices represents 85% of the population of reference, the results described in this article can be consequently considered as is they were derived from a census. The description is made bearing in mind the people who are exposed to the risk of mercury contamination due to their occupation. Materials and method: an observation tool was designed in order to be applied in each dental office. It contained aspects as floor and wall characteristics, ventilation, room temperature, storing place for mercury, elements for handling amalgam scraps, and those activities which deviate from the regular dental service in the same site. Each dental office was visited by a research engineer and an advanced engineering student on a previously defined date. The researchers were trained in advance to collect the information. Results: it was found that some big dental offices have inadequate conditions in their premises for offering their services, and do not have a good handling of the environmental conditions. That’s why immediate actions are mandatory to minimize the risk of mercury contamination.

  3. MERCURY IN EDIBLE WILD-GROWN MUSHROOMS FROM HISTORICAL MINING AREA – SLOVAKIA: BIOACCUMULATION AND RISK ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Július Árvay

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we focused on assessment of the contamination levels of five species (n = 33 of edible wild mushrooms (Macrolepiota procera, Boletus reticulatus, Suillus grevillei, Russula xerampelina and Xerocomellus chrysenteron. We collected samples of above-ground parts of the macroscopic fungi species in historical mining and processing area surrounding Banská Bystrica (Central Slovakia in 2014. Within 2 m radius of the samples, we also took samples of underlying substrate. On the basis of the substrate, along with the monitored contaminantmercury, we calculated bioaccumulation factors for individual species and their anatomical parts (cap and stipe. From the obtained results of the mercury content in the edible mushrooms, we then determined provisionally tolerable weekly intake (PTWI. The limit value for mercury (0.350 mg Hg kg-1 for an individual with average weight of 70 kg is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO. Our results suggest that despite the relatively low level of Hg in the underlying substrate, the species Macrolepiota procera (1.98 mg kg-1 ± 68.2 (0.41 - 3.20 mg kg-1 DW is characterized by extremely high bioaccumulation ability, as confirmed by the bioaccumulation factors (BAFc = 15.3; BAFs = 8.02. PTWI value was exceeded by almost 20%. In case of the other studied edible wild mushroom species, we did not record any increased risk of mercury intake by consumers. Generally it can be stated that consumption of wild mushrooms represents a relatively small but significant risk of negative impact on the consumer´s health.

  4. Remediation of contaminated areas. An overview of international guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Hedemann

    1999-01-01

    techniques as a function of contamination and site characteristics. The project includes analyses of existing remediation methodologies and contaminated sites, and is structured in the following steps:-characterisation of relevant contaminated sites -identification and characterisation of relevant...... contaminated with radioactive materials as a result of the operation of these installations. The areasconsidered for remedial measures include contaminated land areas, rivers and sediments in rivers, lakes, and sea areas. Criteria for clean-up of contaminated land and criteria for protection of the public...

  5. Long-Term (2002-2015) Changes in Mercury Contamination in NE Brazil Depicted by the Mangrove Oyster Crassostraea rhizophorae (Guilding, 1828).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, J H L; Marins, R V; Oliveira, K F; Lacerda, L D

    2016-10-01

    Mercury concentrations in oysters from four estuaries in northeastern Brazil varied following source changes during the past 13 years. Concentrations were higher in urban estuaries relative to rural areas, but decreased in the 13-years interval following improvements in solid wastes disposal and sewage treatment. In rural estuaries, the one located in an environmental protection area showed no changes in Hg concentrations in the period. However, in the Jaguaribe estuary, remobilization from soils and sediments due to regional environmental changes, increased Hg concentrations in oysters to values similar to the most contaminated metropolitan sites.

  6. Effects of modern and ancient human activities on mercury in the environment in Xi'an area, Shannxi Province, P.R. China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yongqing; Wang Xiaojuan; Lu Julia; Zhang Chengxiao; Duan Qingbo

    2008-01-01

    Samples of water, soil, sediment, and pomegranate were collected from Xi'an and the Qinshihuang Mausoleum in Shaanxi Province, China to assess the effects of human activities on mercury in the environment. The total mercury concentrations ranged from 3.9 to 992.7 ng L -1 for the water samples, 40.6 to 2204.0 ng g -1 for the soil samples, 14.2 to 376.7 ng g -1 for the sediment samples, and 0.22 to 1.74 ng g -1 for the pomegranates samples. The higher values in the water samples collected from the rivers closer to and downstream of the city resulted from wastewater discharges. The effects of the mercury buried in the Qinshihuang Mausoleum thousands of years ago on the environment were neither significant nor widespread. Immediate actions should be taken to stop the direct and continuous discharges of industrial and residential wastewaters to prevent mercury and other pollutants from accumulating and spreading in the area. - Urban activities are sources of mercury to the environment and the pomegranates grown over the burial mound of the Qinshihuang Mausoleum are not mercury-contaminated

  7. Effects of modern and ancient human activities on mercury in the environment in Xi'an area, Shannxi Province, P.R. China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Yongqing; Wang Xiaojuan [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Department of Chemistry and Biology, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, M5B 2K3 (Canada); Lu Julia [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Department of Chemistry and Biology, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, M5B 2K3 (Canada)], E-mail: julialu@ryerson.ca; Zhang Chengxiao [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China)], E-mail: cxzhang@snnu.edu.cn; Duan Qingbo [Shaanxi Archaeology Institute, Xi' an 710054 (China)

    2008-05-15

    Samples of water, soil, sediment, and pomegranate were collected from Xi'an and the Qinshihuang Mausoleum in Shaanxi Province, China to assess the effects of human activities on mercury in the environment. The total mercury concentrations ranged from 3.9 to 992.7 ng L{sup -1} for the water samples, 40.6 to 2204.0 ng g{sup -1} for the soil samples, 14.2 to 376.7 ng g{sup -1} for the sediment samples, and 0.22 to 1.74 ng g{sup -1} for the pomegranates samples. The higher values in the water samples collected from the rivers closer to and downstream of the city resulted from wastewater discharges. The effects of the mercury buried in the Qinshihuang Mausoleum thousands of years ago on the environment were neither significant nor widespread. Immediate actions should be taken to stop the direct and continuous discharges of industrial and residential wastewaters to prevent mercury and other pollutants from accumulating and spreading in the area. - Urban activities are sources of mercury to the environment and the pomegranates grown over the burial mound of the Qinshihuang Mausoleum are not mercury-contaminated.

  8. Mercury content in electrum from artisanal mining site of Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murao, Satoshi; Naito, Kazuki; Dejidmaa, Gunchin; Sie, Soey H.

    2006-01-01

    In Mongolia, artisanal gold mining, modern gold rush, in which people use mercury to extract gold, is being proliferated rapidly and the mercury contamination of mining site is becoming a serious social issue. For the risk assessment of mercury, it is necessary to understand how much mercury is introduced to the environment from what kind of materials during mining activity. It is already known that major contribution of the contamination comes from mercury that was bought at shops and brought to mining sites by miners. However, no information is available on how much mercury is removed from electrum (natural gold grain) to the environment. Since gold deposit is always accompanied by mercury anomaly, it is anticipated that electrum grains contain some amount of mercury of natural origin, and this mercury (primary mercury) contributes to some extent to the contamination. In order to clarify how much mercury is incorporated in electrum grains, micro-PIXE at CSIRO was used for grain-by-grain analysis. The result showed that electrum from study area contains mercury up to 8260 ppm. It is concluded that for the risk management of mercury contamination, release of natural mercury from electrum grains during smelting must not be ignored

  9. Assessing the difference of tolerance and phytoremediation potential in mercury contaminated soil of a non-food energy crop, Helianthus tuberosus L. (Jerusalem artichoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqi Lv

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of mercury stress on growth, photosynthesis and mercury accumulation in different cultivars of a non-food energy crop, Jerusalem artichoke, and to screen appropriate cultivars for their efficacy in the phytoremediation of mercury (Hg2+ contaminated soil. Cultivars LZJ033 (high above-ground biomass and nutrient content, and strongly sexual reproduction and LZJ119 (a long period of vegetative growth exhibited more tolerance to mercury stress than LZJ047 (the highest tuber yield and total sugar content. The lines LZJ119 and LZJ047 showed delays in emergence time of about four weeks, and LZJ047 exhibited the highest mortality rate, 85.19%, under treatment with 10 mg kg-1 mercury. The MDA (malondialdehyde content increased whereas and the Pn (net photosynthetic rate, Fv∕Fm (the maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry and chlorophyll content decreased in response to mercury stress. The stem diameter, stem biomass and photosynthetic rate of Jerusalem artichoke showed some modest increases in response to mercury stress and exhibited hormesis at least 1 mg kg-1 mercury treatment. Overall, LZJ119 produced more biomass under mercury stress, whereas LZJ033 exhibited a greater capacity for mercury bioaccumulation. Accordingly, LZJ119 may be a good candidate cultivar for use in cases of moderate—low mercury contamination, whereas LZJ033 may be a better candidate under conditions of high mercury contamination. When Jerusalem artichoke was cultivated in mercury contaminated soil, it not only removed the mercury from soil but also produced large amounts of tubers and shoots which could be used as feedstock for the production of bioethanol.

  10. Assessing the difference of tolerance and phytoremediation potential in mercury contaminated soil of a non-food energy crop, Helianthus tuberosus L. (Jerusalem artichoke).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shiqi; Yang, Bin; Kou, Yixuan; Zeng, Jun; Wang, Ruixiong; Xiao, Yumeng; Li, Fencan; Lu, Ying; Mu, Yuwen; Zhao, Changming

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of mercury stress on growth, photosynthesis and mercury accumulation in different cultivars of a non-food energy crop, Jerusalem artichoke, and to screen appropriate cultivars for their efficacy in the phytoremediation of mercury (Hg 2+ ) contaminated soil. Cultivars LZJ033 (high above-ground biomass and nutrient content, and strongly sexual reproduction) and LZJ119 (a long period of vegetative growth) exhibited more tolerance to mercury stress than LZJ047 (the highest tuber yield and total sugar content). The lines LZJ119 and LZJ047 showed delays in emergence time of about four weeks, and LZJ047 exhibited the highest mortality rate, 85.19%, under treatment with 10 mg kg -1 mercury. The MDA (malondialdehyde) content increased whereas and the P n (net photosynthetic rate), F v ∕ F m (the maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry) and chlorophyll content decreased in response to mercury stress. The stem diameter, stem biomass and photosynthetic rate of Jerusalem artichoke showed some modest increases in response to mercury stress and exhibited hormesis at least 1 mg kg -1 mercury treatment. Overall, LZJ119 produced more biomass under mercury stress, whereas LZJ033 exhibited a greater capacity for mercury bioaccumulation. Accordingly, LZJ119 may be a good candidate cultivar for use in cases of moderate-low mercury contamination, whereas LZJ033 may be a better candidate under conditions of high mercury contamination. When Jerusalem artichoke was cultivated in mercury contaminated soil, it not only removed the mercury from soil but also produced large amounts of tubers and shoots which could be used as feedstock for the production of bioethanol.

  11. A cross-sectional survey on knowledge and perceptions of health risks associated with arsenic and mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Elias; Thomas, Deborah S K; Dewey, Deborah; Davey, Mark; Ngallaba, Sospatro E; Konje, Eveline

    2013-01-25

    An estimated 0.5 to 1.5 million informal miners, of whom 30-50% are women, rely on artisanal mining for their livelihood in Tanzania. Mercury, used in the processing gold ore, and arsenic, which is a constituent of some ores, are common occupational exposures that frequently result in widespread environmental contamination. Frequently, the mining activities are conducted haphazardly without regard for environmental, occupational, or community exposure. The primary objective of this study was to assess community risk knowledge and perception of potential mercury and arsenic toxicity and/or exposure from artisanal gold mining in Rwamagasa in northwestern Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey of respondents in five sub-villages in the Rwamagasa Village located in Geita District in northwestern Tanzania near Lake Victoria was conducted. This area has a history of artisanal gold mining and many of the population continue to work as miners. Using a clustered random selection approach for recruitment, a total of 160 individuals over 18 years of age completed a structured interview. The interviews revealed wide variations in knowledge and risk perceptions concerning mercury and arsenic exposure, with 40.6% (n=65) and 89.4% (n=143) not aware of the health effects of mercury and arsenic exposure respectively. Males were significantly more knowledgeable (n=59, 36.9%) than females (n=36, 22.5%) with regard to mercury (x²=3.99, pmining (n=63, 73.2%) were more knowledgeable about the negative health effects of mercury than individuals in other occupations. Of the few individuals (n=17, 10.6%) who knew about arsenic toxicity, the majority (n=10, 58.8%) were miners. The knowledge of individuals living in Rwamagasa, Tanzania, an area with a history of artisanal gold mining, varied widely with regard to the health hazards of mercury and arsenic. In these communities there was limited awareness of the threats to health associated with exposure to mercury and arsenic. This lack of

  12. Mercury uptake and phytotoxicity in terrestrial plants grown naturally in the Gumuskoy (Kutahya) mining area, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmaz, Merve; Akgül, Bunyamin; Yıldırım, Derya; Sasmaz, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated mercury (Hg) uptake and transport from the soil to different plant parts by documenting the distribution and accumulation of Hg in the roots and shoots of 12 terrestrial plant species, all of which grow naturally in surface soils of the Gumuskoy Pb-Ag mining area. Plant samples and their associated soils were collected and analyzed for Hg content by ICP-MS. Mean Hg values in the soils, roots, and shoots of all plants were 6.914, 460, and 206 µg kg(-1), respectively and lower than 1. The mean enrichment factors for the roots (ECR) and shoots (ECS) of these plants were 0.06 and 0.09, respectively and lower than 1. These results show that the roots of the studied plants prevented Hg from reaching the aerial parts of the plants. The mean translocation factor (TLF) was 1.29 and higher than 1. The mean TLF values indicated that all 12 plant species had the ability to transfer Hg from the roots to the shoots but that transfer was more efficient in plants with higher ECR and ECS. Therefore, these plants could be useful for the biomonitoring of environmental pollution and for rehabilitating areas contaminated by Hg.

  13. Kazakhstan In situ BioTransformation of Mercury-Contaminated Groundwater utilizing Native Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our final international work on the biological decontamination of the mercury contamination of soils in the Northern outskirts of Pavlodar as a result of activity at the former PO “Khimprom” chemical plant is reported here. The plant produced chlorine and alkali from the 1970s i...

  14. Mercury in Nordic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munthe, John; Waengberg, Ingvar (IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (SE)); Rognerud, Sigurd; Fjeld, Eirik (Norwegian Inst. for Water Research (NIVA), Oslo (Norway)); Verta, Matti; Porvari, Petri (Finnish Environment Inst. (SYKE), Helsinki (Finland)); Meili, Markus (Inst. of Applied Environmental Research (ITM), Stockholm (Sweden))

    2007-12-15

    This report provides a first comprehensive compilation and assessment of available data on mercury in air, precipitation, sediments and fish in the Nordic countries. The main conclusion is that mercury levels in Nordic ecosystems continue to be affected by long-range atmospheric transport. The geographical patterns of mercury concentrations in both sediments and fish are also strongly affected by ecosystem characteristics and in some regions possibly by historical pollution. An evaluation of geographical variations in mercury concentrations in precipitation indicates that the influence from anthropogenic sources from Central European areas is still significant. The annual variability of deposition is large and dependant of precipitation amounts. An evaluation of data from stations around the North Sea has indicated a significant decrease in mercury concentrations in precipitation indicating a continuous decrease of emissions in Europe (Waengberg et al., 2007). For mercury in air (TGM), the geographical pattern is less pronounced indicating the influence of mercury emissions and distribution over a larger geographical area (i.e. hemispherical transport). Comparison of recent (surficial) and historical lake sediments show significantly elevated concentrations of mercury most likely caused by anthropogenic atmospheric deposition over the past century. The highest pollution impact was observed in the coastal areas of southern Norway, in south western Finland and in Sweden from the coastal areas in the southwest across the central parts to the north-east. The general increase in recent versus old sediments was 2-5 fold. Data on mercury in Nordic freshwater fish was assembled and evaluated with respect to geographical variations. The fish data were further compared with temporal and spatial trends in mercury deposition and mercury contamination of lake sediments in order to investigate the coupling between atmospheric transport and deposition of mercury and local mercury

  15. Evaluation of Agricultural Use of Vicia sativa L. in Mercury Contaminated Soils; Evaluacion del Uso Agricola de Vicia sativa L. en Suelos Contaminados con Mercurio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, A.; Millan, R.; Esteban, E.

    2010-03-08

    This study is framed in the project Recuperation de suelos contaminados por mercurio: recomendaciones de uso de suelos y plantas en la comarca minera de Almaden (REUSA), funded by Spanish Ministry of Education and Science. Moreover, this article is the result of the work carried out by Andres Andres for his Bachelors dissertation. Soils from the Almaden mining district are contaminated with high mercury concentrations, due to the extraction activities of that metal through the years. After the end of mining exploitation, which was the main source of wealth in the region, alternative uses of soils are needed in order to promote the socio-economic development of the studied area. The project here intends to evaluate the viability of the common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) crop in a substrate under similar conditions to the ones observed in the Almaden soils, by studying the mercury absorption capacity of the above mentioned species. (Author) 20 refs.

  16. Compared efficiency of four chelates for the internal decontamination of rats contaminated with radioactive mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiadot, Pierre

    1964-11-01

    The author, using rats contaminated with 5 microcuries of 203 HgCl 2 has realised: 1) one autoradiographic study of the radioactivity anatomical distribution. Liver and particularly kidneys concentrate rapidly the greatest part of the administered 203 mercury. 2) one study of the decontamination obtained by different chelates injected intraperitoneally. Total excretion at the end of an eleven days period was 62,1 pc of injected radio-activity after treatment with E.D.T.A. - Ca(II), 78,4 pc with D.T.P.A. - Ca (II), 87,5 pc with B.A.L. and 93,5 pc with D.L. Penicillamine instead of 48,7 pc in check-rats. Consequently, D.L. Penicillamine having very good effectiveness and moderate toxicity contrary to B.A.L., asserts itself as the best internal decontaminating agent of radioactive mercury and in a wider sense for treatment of common hydrargyrism. (author) [fr

  17. A reactive transport model for mercury fate in contaminated soil--sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leterme, Bertrand; Jacques, Diederik

    2015-11-01

    We present a sensitivity analysis of a reactive transport model of mercury (Hg) fate in contaminated soil systems. The one-dimensional model, presented in Leterme et al. (2014), couples water flow in variably saturated conditions with Hg physico-chemical reactions. The sensitivity of Hg leaching and volatilisation to parameter uncertainty is examined using the elementary effect method. A test case is built using a hypothetical 1-m depth sandy soil and a 50-year time series of daily precipitation and evapotranspiration. Hg anthropogenic contamination is simulated in the topsoil by separately considering three different sources: cinnabar, non-aqueous phase liquid and aqueous mercuric chloride. The model sensitivity to a set of 13 input parameters is assessed, using three different model outputs (volatilized Hg, leached Hg, Hg still present in the contaminated soil horizon). Results show that dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentration in soil solution and the binding constant to DOM thiol groups are critical parameters, as well as parameters related to Hg sorption to humic and fulvic acids in solid organic matter. Initial Hg concentration is also identified as a sensitive parameter. The sensitivity analysis also brings out non-monotonic model behaviour for certain parameters.

  18. Aerobic and anaerobic biosynthesis of nano-selenium for remediation of mercury contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Daoyong; Pan, Xiangliang; Lee, Duu-Jong; Al-Misned, Fahad A; Mortuza, M Golam; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2017-03-01

    Selenium (Se) nanoparticles are often synthesized by anaerobes. However, anaerobic bacteria cannot be directly applied for bioremediation of contaminated top soil which is generally aerobic. In this study, a selenite-reducing bacterium, Citrobacter freundii Y9, demonstrated high selenite reducing power and produced elemental nano-selenium nanoparticles (nano-Se 0 ) under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The biogenic nano-Se 0 converted 45.8-57.1% and 39.1-48.6% of elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) in the contaminated soil to insoluble mercuric selenide (HgSe) under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. Addition of sodium dodecyl sulfonate enhanced Hg 0 remediation, probably owing to the release of intracellular nano-Se 0 from the bacterial cells for Hg fixation. The reaction product after remediation was identified as non-reactive HgSe that was formed by amalgamation of nano-Se 0 and Hg 0 . Biosynthesis of nano-Se 0 both aerobically and anaerobically therefore provides a versatile and cost-effective remediation approach for Hg 0 -contaminated surface and subsurface soils, where the redox potential often changes dramatically. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Analysis of genetic susceptibility to mercury contamination evaluated through molecular biomarkers in at-risk Amazon Amerindian populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Nazare Klautau-Guimarães

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated Individual differences in susceptibility to methylmercury (MeHg contamination and its relationship with polymorphisms of the detoxifying enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST. In Brazil, some Amerindian tribes from the Amazon region have an increased level of mercury in their hair. Samples of hair and blood were taken from inhabitants of two villages in the Kayabi and Munduruku Amerindian communities to investigate mercury levels in association with genetic polymorphism of GSTs. Other molecular biological markers were also studied, such as hemoglobin, haptoglobin and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH. Higher levels of mercury contamination were found in the Kayabi villagers, who had a null genotype (GSTM1 0/0, also denominated GSTM1 null frequency of 26%, than in the Munduruku villagers, for which the null genotype frequency was 0%. Individuals with the GSTM1 null phenotype had higher concentrations of mercury in their hair than individuals with GSTM1+/+ phenotypes (F = 21.51, p < 0.0001. No association with other markers studied was observed. This study suggests that GSTM1 may be involved in the biotransformation of mercury in humans.

  20. Mercury Contamination in an Indicator Fish Species from Andean Amazonian Rivers Affected by Petroleum Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jena; Coomes, Oliver T; Mainville, Nicolas; Mergler, Donna

    2015-09-01

    Elevated mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish from Amazonia have been associated with gold-mining, hydroelectric dams and deforestation but few studies consider the role of petroleum extraction. Hg levels were determined in fish samples collected in three river basins in Ecuador and Peru with contrasting petroleum exploitation and land-use characteristics. The non-migratory, piscivorous species, Hoplias malabaricus, was used as a bioindicator. The rate of Hg increase with body weight for this species was significantly higher on the Corrientes River, near the site of a recent oil spill, than on the other two rivers. In the absence of substantial deforestation and other anthropogenic sources in the Corrientes River basin, this finding suggests that oil contamination in Andean Amazonia may have a significant impact on Hg levels in fish.

  1. A laboratory based experimental study of mercury emission from contaminated soils in the River Idrijca catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kocman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Results obtained by a laboratory flux measurement system (LFMS focused on investigating the kinetics of the mercury emission flux (MEF from contaminated soils of the Idrija Hg-mine region, Slovenia are presented. Representative soil samples with respect to total Hg concentrations (4–417 μg g−1 and land cover (forest, meadow and alluvial soil alongside the River Idrijca were analysed to determine the variation in MEF versus distance from the source, regulating three major environmental parameters comprising soil temperature, soil moisture and solar radiation. MEFs ranged from less than 2 to 530 ng m−2 h−1, with the highest emissions from contaminated alluvial soils and soils near the mining district in the town of Idrija. A significant decrease of MEF was then observed with increasing distance from these sites. The results revealed a strong positive effect of all three parameters investigated on momentum MEF. The light-induced flux was shown to be independent of the soil temperature, while the soil aqueous phase seems to be responsible for recharging the pool of mercury in the soil available for both the light- and thermally-induced flux. The overall flux response to simulated environmental conditions depends greatly on the form of Hg in the soil. Higher activation energies are required for the overall process to occur in soils where insoluble cinnabar prevails compared to soils where more mobile Hg forms and forms available for transformation processes are dominant.

  2. Age standardized cancer mortality ratios in areas heavily exposed to methyl mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Tsuda, Toshihide; Kawakami, Norito

    2007-08-01

    Methyl-mercury (MeHg) was discharged from a chemical factory in Minamata, and consequently spread throughout the Shiranui Sea in Kumamoto, Japan. Although many studies have focused on MeHg-induced neurological disorders, the association between MeHg and malignant neoplasms has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, we explored this association using the age standardized mortality ratio (ASMR) in an ecologic study over a wide area allowing for a long empirical induction period. The subjects were residents in areas around the Shiranui Sea. We divided these areas into exposure groups 1 (Minamata and Ashikita regions) and 2 (Amakusa region). Exposure group 1 was contaminated from the late 1930s, and exposure group 2 was contaminated from the late 1950s. In addition, exposure group 1 was contaminated more heavily than exposure group 2. There were 92,525 and 152,541 residents in each group in 1960, respectively. We analyzed the cancer ASMR in both exposure groups using data from two reference populations (Japan and Kumamoto prefecture) from 1961 to 1997. There were 94,301,494 and 1,856,192 people in each reference group in 1960, respectively. We abstracted population and mortality data from the censuses and the vital statistics of the prefecture and Japan. An increased leukemia ASMR and a decreased gastric cancer ASMR were observed in both exposure groups, while other ASMRs were around unity and less precise. Furthermore, the leukemia ASMRs were elevated differently between the two exposure groups: the leukemia ASMR was already elevated early in the study period in exposure group 1 and increased gradually in exposure group 2. While the negative association between MeHg and gastric cancer might be explained by salt intake, the positive association between MeHg and leukemia could not be explained by potential confounders. Despite some limitations mainly due to its ecologic design, this study indicates the necessity of an individual-level study evaluating the

  3. Soil mercury levels in the area surrounding the Cerro Prieto geothermal complex, MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastrana-Corral, M A; Wakida, F T; García-Flores, E; Rodriguez-Mendivil, D D; Quiñonez-Plaza, A; Piñon-Colin, T D J

    2016-08-01

    Even though geothermal energy is a renewable energy source that is seen as cost-effective and environmentally friendly, emissions from geothermal plants can impact air, soil, and water in the vicinity of geothermal power plants. The Cerro Prieto geothermal complex is located 30 km southeast of the city of Mexicali in the Mexican state of Baja California. Its installed electricity generation capacity is 720 MW, being the largest geothermal complex in Mexico. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the emissions generated by the geothermal complex have increased the soil mercury concentration in the surrounding areas. Fifty-four surface soil samples were collected from the perimeter up to an approximate distance of 7660 m from the complex. Additionally, four soil depth profiles were performed in the vicinity of the complex. Mercury concentration in 69 % of the samples was higher than the mercury concentration found at the baseline sites. The mercury concentration ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 mg/kg. Our results show that the activities of the geothermal complex have led to an accumulation of mercury in the soil of the surrounding area. More studies are needed to determine the risk to human health and the ecosystems in the study area.

  4. Mercury transfer from soil to olive trees. A comparison of three different contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higueras, Pablo L; Amorós, José Á; Esbrí, José Maria; Pérez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad; López-Berdonces, Miguel A; García-Navarro, Francisco J

    2016-04-01

    Mercury contents in soil and olive tree leaves have been studied in 69 plots around three different source areas of this element in Spain: Almadén (Ciudad Real), Flix (Tarragona) and Jódar (Jaén). Almadén was the world's largest cinnabar (HgS) mining district and was active until 2003, Flix is the oldest Spanish chlor-alkali plant (CAP) and has been active from 1898 to the present day and Jódar is a decommissioned CAP that was active for 14 years (1977-1991). Total mercury contents have been measured by high-frequency modulation atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman effect (ZAAS-HFM) in the soils and olive tree leaves from the three studied areas. The average soil contents range from 182 μg kg(-1) in Flix to 23,488 μg kg(-1) in Almadén, while the average leaf content ranges from 161 μg kg(-1) in Jódar to 1213 μg kg(-1) in Almadén. Despite the wide range of data, a relationship between soil-leaf contents has been identified: in Almadén and Jódar, multiplicative (bilogarithmic) models show significant correlations (R = 0.769 and R = 0.484, respectively). Significant correlations were not identified between soil and leaf contents in Flix. The continuous activity of the Flix CAP, which remains open today, can explain the different uptake patterns for mercury, which is mainly atmospheric in origin, in comparison to the other two sites, where activity ceased more than 10 years ago and only soil uptake patterns based on the Michaelis-Menten enzymatic model curve are observed.

  5. Historical record of mercury contamination in sediments from the Babeni Reservoir in the Olt River, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Andrea Garcia; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Ancey, Lydie; Ungureanu, Viorel Gheorghe; Dominik, Janusz

    2009-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a ubiquitous and hazardous contaminant in the aquatic environment showing a strong biomagnification effect along the food chain. The most common transfer path of Hg to humans is contaminated fish consumption. In severely exposed humans, Hg poisoning may lead to damage in the central nervous system. Thus, it is important to examine current and past contamination levels of Hg in aquatic milieu. The Olt River is the largest Romanian tributary of the Danube River. The use of Hg as an electrode in a chlor-alkali plant contributed to the contamination of the aquatic environment in the Rm Valcea region. The purpose of this study was to compare the current state of Hg contamination with the past contamination using a historical record obtained from a dated sediment core from one of the Olt River reservoirs (Babeni) located downstream from the chlor-alkali plant. To our knowledge, no published data on Hg contamination in this region are available. The Babeni Reservoir was selected for this study because it is situated downstream from the chlor-alkali plant, whilst the other reservoirs only retain the pollutants coming from the upstream part of the watershed. Preliminary analyses (unpublished) showed high Hg concentrations in the surface sediment of the Babeni Reservoir. One core was taken in the upstream Valcea Reservoir to provide a local background level of Hg concentrations in sediments. Sediment texture was uniform in the cores from both reservoirs. Laminated sediment structure, without any obvious discontinuities, was observed. Hg concentrations in the sediment core from the Valcea Reservoir were low and constant (0.01-0.08 mg/kg). In Babeni Reservoir sediments, Hg concentrations were very high in the deeper core section (up to 45 mg/kg in the longest core) and decreased to lower concentrations toward the top of the cores (1.3-2.4 mg/kg). This decrease probably reflects technological progress in control of emissions from the Hg-cell-based chlor

  6. Geochemical characterization of water, sediment, and biota affected by mercury contamination and acidic drainage from historical gold mining, Greenhorn Creek, Nevada County, California, 1999-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, Charles N.; Hunerlach, Michael P.; May, Jason T.; Hothem, Roger L.; Taylor, Howard E.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; De Wild, John F.; Lawler, David A.

    2005-01-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated studies of mercury and methylmercury occurrence, transformation, and transport in the Bear River and Yuba River watersheds of the northwestern Sierra Nevada. Because these watersheds were affected by large-scale, historical gold extraction using mercury amalgamation beginning in the 1850s, they were selected for a pilot study of mercury transport by the USGS and other cooperating agencies. This report presents data on methylmercury (MeHg) and total mercury (THg) concentrations in water, bed sediment, invertebrates, and frogs collected at 40 stations during 1999-2001 in the Greenhorn Creek drainage, a major tributary to Bear River. Results document several mercury contamination ?hot spots? that represent potential targets for ongoing and future remediation efforts at abandoned mine sites in the study area. Water-quality samples were collected one or more times at each of 29 stations. The concentrations of total mercury in 45 unfiltered water samples ranged from 0.80 to 153,000 nanograms per liter (ng/L); the median was 9.6 ng/L. Total mercury concentrations in filtered water (41 samples) ranged from less than 0.3 to 8,000 ng/L; the median was 2.7 ng/L. Concentrations of methylmercury in the unfiltered water (40 samples) ranged from less than 0.04 to 9.1 ng/L; the median was 0.07 ng/L. Methylmercury in filtered water (13 samples) ranged from less than 0.04 to 0.27 ng/L; the median was 0.04 ng/L. Acidic drainage with pH values as low as 3.4 was encountered in some of the mined areas. Elevated concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, and zinc were found at several stations, especially in the more acidic water samples. Total mercury concentrations in sediment were determined by laboratory and field methods. Total mercury concentrations (determined by laboratory methods) in ten samples from eight stations ranged from about 0.0044 to 12 ?g/g (microgram per gram, equivalent to parts per

  7. Effects of mercury contamination on the culturable heterotrophic, functional and genetic diversity of the bacterial community in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lasse Dam; Sørensen, S. J.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of mercury contamination on the culturable heterotrophic, functional and genetic diversity of the bacterial community in soil. The changes in diversity were monitored in soil microcosms, enriched with 25 mug Hg(II) g(-1) soil, over a period of 3 months...... by purification of total soil DNA and amplification of bacterial 16S rDNA fragments by polymerase chain reaction. Concentrations of bioavailable and total mercury were measured throughout the experiment. The effect on the culturable heterotrophic and genetic diversity was very similar, showing an immediate...... decrease after mercury addition but then slowly increasing throughout the entire experimental period. Pre-exposure levels were not reached within the time span of this investigation. The DGGE band pattern indicated that a shift in the community structure was responsible for recovered diversity. When...

  8. Groundwater Contamination by Uranium and Mercury at the Ridaura Aquifer (Girona, NE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Navarro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Elevated concentrations of uranium and mercury have been detected in drinking water from public supply and agricultural wells in alluvial and granitic aquifers of the Ridaura basin located at Catalan Coastal Ranges (CCR. The samples showed high concentrations of U above the U.S. standards and the World Health Organization regulations which set a maximum value of 30 µg/L. Further, high mercury concentrations above the European Drinking Water Standards (1 μg/L were found. Spatial distribution of U in groundwater and geochemical evolution of groundwater suggest that U levels appear to be highest in granitic areas where groundwater has long residence times and a significant salinity. The presence of high U concentrations in alluvial groundwater samples could be associated with hydraulic connection through fractures between the alluvial system and deep granite system. According to this model, oxidizing groundwater moving through fractures in the leucocratic/biotitic granite containing anomalous U contents are the most likely to acquire high levels of U. The distribution of Hg showed concentrations above 1 μg/L in 10 alluvial samples, mainly located near the limit of alluvial aquifer with igneous rocks, which suggests a possible migration of Hg from granitic materials. Also, some samples showed Hg concentrations comprised between 0.9 and 1.5 μg/L, from wells located in agricultural areas.

  9. Vapor phase elemental sulfur amendment for sequestering mercury in contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.; Jackson, Dennis G.

    2014-07-08

    The process of treating elemental mercury within the soil is provided by introducing into the soil a heated vapor phase of elemental sulfur. As the vapor phase of elemental sulfur cools, sulfur is precipitated within the soil and then reacts with any elemental mercury thereby producing a reaction product that is less hazardous than elemental mercury.

  10. Absorption of Mercury from Polluted Soil by Rice Plant(Case Study: Farms of Amol Industrial Suburban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ahmadipour

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mercury has recognized as one of the most toxic heavy metals, which many industries generate and dispose to the environment. Few studies are done about mercury accumulation in soil and bioconcentration and transfer factor of mercury in rice plant cultivated in industrial areas. In this study samples were taken randomly from 10 farms in vicinity of Amol industrial suburban area with three replications. Samples were measured by the LECO AMA 254 Advanced Mercury Analyzer according to ASTM D-6733method. Also the parameters related to the quality of the soil were measured. The mean of mercury concentration in soil, root, stem and grain were found 0.031 ±0.012 mg/kg, 0.074 ±0.0163 mg/kg, 0.058 ±0.008 mg/kg and 0.051 ±0.0083 mg/kg respectively. The calculated transfer factor of mercury to various organs and bioconcentration factor were < 1 and 2.46 respectively. Pearson correlation test showed a positive correlation between mercury concentration in soil with mercury concentration in grain and also a negative correlation between pH with mercury concentration in root and soil. It is concluded that rice plant have high potential for phytoremediation of mercury from soil.

  11. Egg laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Yee, Julie L.; Hartman, C. Alex

    2016-01-01

    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intra-clutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. We examined the influence of egg laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last egg laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg laying order were inconsistent among species and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were mercury concentrations generally declined by 16% between the first and second eggs laid. Despite the strong effect of egg laying sequence, most of the variance in egg mercury concentrations still occurred among clutches (75%-91%) rather than within clutches (9%-25%). Using simulations, we determined that to accurately estimate a population's mean egg mercury concentration using only a single random egg from a subset of nests, it would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained <100 nests (20% accuracy).

  12. Tissue Mercury Concentrations and Survival of Tree Swallow Embryos, Nestlings and Young Adult Females on a Contaminated Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Capwell E; Cristol, Daniel A

    2015-10-01

    Tree swallows nesting on mercury-contaminated sites along the South River in Virginia, USA were monitored for reproductive success. The bodies of nestlings found deceased in their nest boxes were collected, along with blood and feather samples from the adult parents and surviving siblings. We also measured hatching and fledging success of the clutches and the annual recapture rate of adults. We found that the body feathers of deceased nestlings contained significantly higher concentrations of mercury (12.89 ± 8.42 μg/g, n = 15) than those of nestlings that survived to fledge (7.41 ± 4.79 μg/g, n = 15). However, mothers of more successful clutches (>75 % hatching) did not differ in mercury concentrations from females with less successful clutches (<50 % hatching). Additionally, adult females breeding for the first time that returned to breed the following year did not differ in blood mercury from females of the same age that bred once but never returned. Our results suggest that mercury had its greatest effect on these songbirds during the nestling stage, whereas for embryos or first-time breeding females, other factors likely played larger roles in mortality.

  13. Inter- and intraspecific variation in mercury bioaccumulation by snakes inhabiting a contaminated river floodplain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewett, David V V; Willson, John D; Cristol, Daniel A; Chin, Stephanie Y; Hopkins, William A

    2013-04-01

    Although mercury (Hg) is a well-studied contaminant, knowledge about Hg accumulation in snakes is limited. The authors evaluated Hg bioaccumulation within and among four snake species (northern watersnakes, Nerodia sipedon; queen snakes, Regina septemvittata; common garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis; and rat snakes, Elaphe obsoleta [Pantherophis alleghaniensis]) from a contaminated site on the South River (Waynesboro, VA, USA) and two nearby reference sites. Total Hg (THg) concentrations in northern watersnake tail tissue at the contaminated site ranged from 2.25 to 13.84 mg/kg dry weight (mean: 4.85 ± 0.29), or 11 to 19 times higher than reference sites. Blood THg concentrations (0.03-7.04 mg/kg wet wt; mean: 2.24 ± 0.42) were strongly correlated with tail concentrations and were the highest yet reported in a snake species. Within watersnakes, nitrogen stable isotope values indicated ontogenetic trophic shifts that correlated with THg bioaccumulation, suggesting that diet plays a substantial role in Hg exposure. Female watersnakes had higher mean THg concentrations (5.67 ± 0.46 mg/kg) than males (4.93 ± 0.49 mg/kg), but no significant differences between sexes were observed after correcting for body size. Interspecific comparisons identified differences in THg concentrations among snake species, with more aquatic species (watersnakes and queen snakes) accumulating higher mean concentrations (5.60 ± 0.40 and 4.59 ± 0.38 mg/kg in tail tissue, respectively) than the more terrestrial species, garter snakes and rat snakes (1.28 ± 0.32 and 0.26 ± 0.09 mg/kg, respectively). The results of the present study warrant further investigation of potential adverse effects and will aid in prioritizing conservation efforts. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  14. Accumulation of Mercury (Hg) and Methyl Mercury (Me Hg) Concentrations In Selected Marine Biota From Manjung Coastal Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisa Abdullah; Zaini Hamzah; Ahmad Saat; Ahmad Saat; Abd Khalik Wood; Masitah Alias

    2015-01-01

    Level of mercury (Hg) and methyl mercury (Me Hg) in marine ecosystem has been intensively studied as these toxic substances could be accumulated in the marine biota. This study is focusing on the Hg and Me Hg content in marine biota in Manjung coastal area. This area has high potential being affected by rapid socio-economic development of Manjung area such as heavy industrial activities (coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories), agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge, quarries, housing constructions. It may has a potential risk when released into the atmosphere and dispersed on the surface of water and continue deposited at the bottom of the water and sediment and being absorbed by marine biota. The concentrations of Hg and Me Hg in marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. In this study, five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) technique. The Hg concentrations for dry and rainy season are in the range 65.13-102.12 μg/ kg and 75.75-106.10 μg/ kg respectively, while for MeHg concentrations for dry and rainy seasons are in the range 4.35-6.26 μg/ kg and 5.42-6.46 μg/ kg, respectively. These results are below the limit set by Malaysia Food Act (1983). Generally, marine biota from the Manjung coastal area is safe to consume due to low value of ingestion dose rate and health risk index (HRI) for human health. (author)

  15. The determination of levels of mercury, cadmium and lead in water samples from Naivasha area, Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muigai, P.G.; Kamau, G.N.; Kinyua, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of mercury, cadmium and lead in water samples from different environments (Lake Naivasha, River Malewa boreholes and Olkaria geothermal wells) in Naivasha region and their possible origins are reported. The levels of mercury and lead in the water samples were above the maximum permissible limits of 0.005 mg/1 and 0.1 mg/1 respectively, as stipulated by the WHO. On the other hand, 83.3% of the samples had cadmium levels above the maximum permissible limit of 0.01mg/1 in drinking water by WHO. The mercury and lead levels were also higher than those previously obtained from different regions of Kenya, while those for cadmium were within the corresponding range. Possible sources of elevated values were the geology of the surrounding area, sewage treatment works, use of phosphate rock fertilizers and lead fuels.(author)

  16. [Concentrations of mercury in ambient air in wastewater irrigated area of Tianjin City and its accumulation in leafy vegetables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shun-An; Han, Yun-Lei; Zheng, Xiang-Qun

    2014-11-01

    Gaseous Hg can evaporate and enter the plants through the stomata of plat leaves, which will cause a serious threat to local food safety and human health. For the risk assessment, this study aimed to characterize atmospheric mercury (Hg) as well as its accumulation in 5 leafy vegetables (spinach, edible amaranth, rape, lettuce, allium tuberosum) from sewage-irrigated area of Tianjin City. Bio-monitoring sites were located in paddy (wastewater irrigation for 30 a), vegetables (wastewater irrigation for 15 a) and grass (control) fields. Results showed that after long-term wastewater irrigation, the mean values of mercury content in paddy and vegetation fields were significantly higher than the local background value and the national soil environment quality standard value for mercury in grade I, but were still lower than grade II. Soil mercury contents in the studied control grass field were between the local background value and the national soil environment quality standard grade I . Besides, the atmospheric environment of paddy and vegetation fields was subjected to serious mercury pollution. The mean values of mercury content in the atmosphere of paddy and vegetation fields were 71.3 ng x m(-3) and 39.2 ng x m(-3), respectively, which were markedly higher than the reference gaseous mercury value on the north sphere of the earth (1.5-2.0 ng x m(-3)). The mean value of ambient mercury in the control grass fields was 9.4 ng x m(-3). In addition, it was found that the mercury content in leafy vegetables had a good linear correlation with the ambient total gaseous mercury (the data was transformed into logarithms as the dataset did not show a normal distribution). The comparison among 5 vegetables showed that the accumulations of mercury in vegetables followed this order: spinach > edible amaranth > allium tuberosum > rape > lettuce. Median and mean values of mercury contents in spinach and edible amaranth were greater than the hygienic standard for the allowable

  17. Characteristics of total gaseous mercury concentrations at a coastal area of the Yangtze Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Chunyan; Li, Jianfeng; Zhang, Bin; Tang, Shichuang

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we report on total gaseous mercury (TGM) field observations made in the rural area of Shanghai, Chongming Island, China, from September 2009 to April 2012. The average TGM was 2.65 ± 1.73 ng m -3 in Chongming Island, which is higher than the TGM background value of the Northern Hemisphere (1.5-1.7 ng m -3 ); this indicates that to some extent, the Chongming area has been affected by anthropogenic mercury emissions. The observed TGM follows a seasonal pattern; concentrations are highest in winter, followed by autumn, summer, and spring. There is also a clear diurnal variation in TGM. All peak values appear between 7:00 and 9:00 in all four seasons; this appears to be the result of the height change in the atmospheric boundary layer that occurs between day and night. TGM concentrations in Chongming remain high in the westerly wind direction, especially in the southwest direction because of its low frequency, so the greatest source contribution to TGM in Chongming lies to the northwest. Wind speed is also a significant factor affecting TGM, and was negatively correlated with TGM concentrations. TGM is also closely related to carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations, indicating that TGM is impacted by human activities. The slope of the linear fitting of TGM and CO demonstrates that the contribution of noncoal source emissions to TGM in summer is greater than in autumn, mainly because the high temperature and intensive sunlight in summer increase mercury emissions from natural sources. Except for some studies in the coastal areas (e.g., Kang Hwa Island by Kim et al., 2006, An-Myun Island by Kim et al., 2002, and Okinawa by Chan et al., 2008), data specifically for coastal areas are lacking. Monitoring of total gaseous mercury (TGM) in the rural area of Shanghai, Chongming Island, can help us understand mercury distribution.

  18. Enhanced sorption of mercury from compact fluorescent bulbs and contaminated water streams using functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Avinash; Vidyarthi, S.R.; Sankararamakrishnan, Nalini

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Oxidized (CNT-OX), CNT-I, CNT-S were prepared. • Capacity of CNT-S (151.5 mg/g) was higher than other CNTs. • Applied to the removal of Hg(II) from spiked and natural coal wash waters. • Applied to the removal of Hg(0) from compact fluorescent lamps. - Abstract: Three different functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes were prepared, namely, oxidized CNTs (CNT-OX), iodide incorporated MWCNT (CNT-I) and sulfur incorporated MWCNT (CNT-S). The as prepared adsorbents were structurally characterized by various spectral techniques like scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX), Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. Loading of iodide and sulfur was evident from the EDAX graphs. The adsorption properties of Hg 2+ as a function of pH, contact time and initial metal concentration were characterized by Cold vapor AAS. The adsorption kinetics fitted the Pseudo second order kinetics and equilibrium was reached within 90 min. The experimental data were modeled with Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Redushkevich and Temkin isotherms and various isotherm parameters were evaluated. It was found that the mercury adsorption capacity for the prepared adsorbents were in the order of CNT-S > CNT-I > CNT-OX > CNT. Studies have been conducted to demonstrate the applicability of the sorbent toward the removal of Hg(0) from broken compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs and Hg(II) from contaminated water streams

  19. Phytoremediation of mercury in pristine and crude oil contaminated soils: Contributions of rhizobacteria and their host plants to mercury removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkhoh, N A; Ali, N; Al-Awadhi, H; Dashti, N; Al-Mailem, D M; Eliyas, M; Radwan, S S

    2010-11-01

    The rhizospheric soils of three tested legume crops: broad beans (Vicia faba), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and pea (Pisum sativum), and two nonlegume crops: cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and tomato, (Lycopersicon esculentum) contained considerable numbers (the magnitude of 10(5)g(-1) soil) of bacteria with the combined potential for hydrocarbon-utilization and mercury-resistance. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA coding genes of rhizobacteria associated with broad beans revealed that they were affiliated to Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Exiquobacterium aurantiacum, Pseudomonas veronii, Micrococcus luteus, Brevibacillus brevis, Arthrobacter sp. and Flavobacterium psychrophilum. These rhizobacteria were also diazotrophic, i.e. capable of N(2) fixation, which makes them self-sufficient regarding their nitrogen nutrition and thus suitable remediation agents in nitrogen-poor soils, such as the oily desert soil. The crude oil attenuation potential of the individual rhizobacteria was inhibited by HgCl(2), but about 50% or more of this potential was still maintained in the presence of up to 40 mgl(-1) HgCl(2). Rhizobacteria-free plants removed amounts of mercury from the surrounding media almost equivalent to those removed by the rhizospheric bacterial consortia in the absence of the plants. It was concluded that both the collector plants and their rhizospheric bacterial consortia contributed equivalently to mercury removal from soil. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reconstructing suspended sediment mercury contamination of a steep, gravel-bed river using reservoir theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalak, Katherine; Pizzuto, James

    2014-01-01

    We use sediment ages and mercury (Hg) concentrations to estimate past and future concentrations in the South River, Virginia, where Hg was released between 1930 and 1950 from a manufacturing process related to nylon production. In a previous study, along a 40 km (25 mi) reach, samples were collected from 26 of 54 fine-grained deposits that formed in the lee of large wood obstructions in the channel and analyzed for grain size, Hg concentration, and organic content. We also obtained radiometric dates from six deposits. To create a history that reflects the full concentration distribution (which contains concentrations as high as 900 mg/kg [900 ppm]), here, we treat the deposits as a single reservoir exchanging contaminated sediments with the overlying water column, and assume that the total sediment mass in storage and the distribution of sediment ages are time invariant. We use reservoir theory to reconstruct the annual history of Hg concentration on suspended sediment using data from our previous study and new results presented here. Many different reconstructed histories fit our data. To constrain results, we use information from a well-preserved core (and our estimate of the total mass of Hg stored in 2007) to specify the years associated with the peak concentration of 900 mg/kg. Our results indicate that around 850 kg (1874 lb) of Hg was stored in the deposits between 1955 and 1961, compared to only 80 kg (176 lb) today. Simulations of future Hg remediation suggest that 100-yr timescales will be needed for the South River to remove Hg-contaminated sediments from the channel perimeter through natural processes.

  1. Spatial variation of mercury levels in nesting Bonelli's eagles from Southwest Portugal: effects of diet composition and prey contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, Luis [CCMAR, Universidade do Algarve, FCMA, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)]. E-mail: lpalma@ualg.pt; Beja, Pedro [CCMAR, Universidade do Algarve, FCMA, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); ERENA, Av. Visconde Valmor, 11-3, 1000-289 Lisbon (Portugal); Tavares, Paula C. [IMAR, Universidade dos Acores, Departamento de Pescas e Oceanografia, Cais Sta. Cruz, 9901-862 Horta (Portugal); Monteiro, Luis R. [IMAR, Universidade dos Acores, Departamento de Pescas e Oceanografia, Cais Sta. Cruz, 9901-862 Horta (Portugal)

    2005-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) was determined in adult Bonelli's eagles (Hieraaetus fasciatus) and their avian prey, from samples of feathers collected between 1992 and 2001 at the nesting sites of 21 pairs in Southwest Portugal. Eagle Hg levels showed great variation, reflecting primarily differences in diet composition and food chain biomagnification. Concentrations were positively correlated with the dietary proportion of insectivorous and omnivorous birds (e.g. egrets, corvids and thrushes), with very low levels for pairs feeding mainly on herbivores (e.g. rabbits, pigeons and partridges). Differences in prey contamination among breeding territories added to dietary effects in determining variation of Hg levels in eagles, shaping a spatial pattern that was largely consistent with a source of contamination in a coal-burning power-plant lying upwind of the study area. Despite this presumed contamination, Hg levels seemed to be of little concern to this eagle population, though there might be subtle deleterious effects on the reproductive output of a few pairs. This study emphasizes the need to account for dietary effects when biomonitoring Hg contamination using birds of prey. - The effects of diet composition and prey contamination added up to determine the spatial variation of Hg levels in breeding Bonelli's eagles.

  2. Redox oscillation affecting mercury mobility from highly contaminated coastal sediments: a mesocosm incubation experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emili A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg mobility at the sediment-water interface was investigated during a laboratory incubation experiment on highly contaminated sediments (up to 23 μg g−1 of the Gulf of Trieste. Undisturbed sediment was collected in front of the Isonzo River mouth, which inflows Hg-rich suspended material originating from the Idrija (NW Slovenia mining district. Since hypoxic and anoxic conditions at the bottom are frequently observed, a redox oscillation was simulated in the laboratory at in situ temperature, using a dark flux chamber. Temporal variations of several parameters were monitored simultaneously: dissolved Hg and methylmercury (MeHg, O2, NH4+, NO3−+NO2−, PO43−, H2S, dissolved Fe and Mn, dissolved inorganic and organic carbon (DIC and DOC. Benthic fluxes of Hg and MeHg were higher under anoxic conditions while re-oxygenation caused concentrations of MeHg and Hg to rapidly drop, probably due to re-adsorption onto Fe/Mn oxyhydroxides and enhanced demethylation. Hence, during anoxic events, sediments of the Gulf of Trieste may be considered as an important source of dissolved Hg species for the water column. However, re-oxygenation of the bottom compartment mitigates Hg and MeHg release from the sediment, thus acting as a natural “defence” from possible interaction between the metal and the aquatic organisms.

  3. Lidar mapping of atmospheric atomic mercury in the Wanshan area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Ming; Shang, Lihai; Duan, Zheng; Li, Yiyun; Zhao, Guangyu; Zhu, Shiming; Qiu, Guangle; Meng, Bo; Sommar, Jonas; Feng, Xinbin; Svanberg, Sune

    2018-05-08

    A novel mobile laser radar system was used for mapping gaseous atomic mercury (Hg 0 ) atmospheric pollution in the Wanshan district, south of Tongren City, Guizhou Province, China. This area is heavily impacted by legacy mercury from now abandoned mining activities. Differential absorption lidar measurements were supplemented by localized point monitoring using a Lumex RA-915M Zeeman modulation mercury analyzer. Range-resolved concentration measurements in different directions were performed. Concentrations in the lower atmospheric layers often exceeded levels of 100 ng/m 3 for March conditions with temperature ranging from 5 °C to 20 °C. A flux measurement of Hg 0 over a vertical cross section of 0.12 km 2 resulted in about 29 g/h. Vertical lidar sounding at night revealed quickly falling Hg 0 concentrations with height. This is the first lidar mapping demonstration in a heavily mercury-polluted area in China, illustrating the lidar potential in complementing point monitors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Red fox Vulpes vulpes (L., 1758) as a bioindicator of mercury contamination in terrestrial ecosystems of north-western Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Lisowski, Piotr; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta Izabela

    2012-02-01

    In this study, we determined the concentrations of total mercury (Hg) in samples of liver, kidney and skeletal muscle of 27 red foxes Vulpes vulpes (L., 1758) from north-western Poland, and examined the morphometric characteristics of the collected specimens. The analysis also included the relationship between Hg concentration and the fox size, and the suitability of individual organs as bioindicators in indirect evaluation of environmental mercury contamination. Determination of Hg concentration was performed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. In the analysed samples, the Hg concentration was low and the maximum value did not exceed 0.85 mgHg/kg dry weight (dw). There were no significant differences in Hg concentrations in the analysed material between males and females or between immature and adult groups. The median concentrations of Hg in the liver, kidney and skeletal muscle were 0.22, 0.11 and 0.05 mgHg/kg dw, respectively. The correlation coefficients were significant between the concentrations of mercury in the liver, kidney and skeletal muscle (positive) and between the kidney Hg concentration and kidney mass (negative). Taking into account our results and findings of other authors, it may be argued that the red fox exhibits a measurable response to mercury environmental pollution and meets the requirements of a bioindicator.

  5. Control system for mapping contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, Soares; Becker, Paulo H. B.

    2006-01-01

    Some Member states reported to the IAEA an interest in developing a system to be applied in the control of a detector for mapping a surface and defining the distribution of the radioactive material over this area. One of the possible applications would be refurbishment of Rectilinear Scanners (the predecessor of Gamma Cameras) that are old machines but might be still useful for some countries. The IAEA supported this development and a control system for this type of application was designed. in cooperation with the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Brazil. The system is based on a board developed by the Forschungszentrum Julich in Germany (also in cooperation with the IAEA) and which is based on a Xilinx FPGA SPARTAN XC25150. It contains an MCA (1024 channels based on a fast ADC with software controlled peek detection) and two stepper motor controllers. The human-machine interface developed using Lab View is able to control two stepper motors in order to map an area with a radiation detector. During the mapping the pulse height distributions are collected and an intensity graph for the scanned area is presented on a PC screen. The system was successfully tested using a commercial X-Y table and two commercial stepper motors drivers.. In the next step this system will be used in real applications in the IAEA Member States

  6. Fall 1998 200 East area biological vector contamination report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CONNELL, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the investigation into the cause of the spread of radioactive contamination in September and October 1998 at the Hanford Site's 200 East Area and its subsequent spread to the City of Richland Landfill; identify the source of the contamination; and present corrective actions. The focus and thrust of managing the incident was based on the need to accomplish the following, listed in order of importance: (1) protect the health and safety of the Site workers and the public; (2) contain and control the spread of contamination; (3) identify the source of contamination and the pathways for its spread; and (4) identify the causal factors enabling the contamination

  7. Fall 1998 200 East area biological vector contamination report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CONNELL, D.J.

    1999-03-17

    The purpose of this report is to document the investigation into the cause of the spread of radioactive contamination in September and October 1998 at the Hanford Site's 200 East Area and its subsequent spread to the City of Richland Landfill; identify the source of the contamination; and present corrective actions. The focus and thrust of managing the incident was based on the need to accomplish the following, listed in order of importance: (1) protect the health and safety of the Site workers and the public; (2) contain and control the spread of contamination; (3) identify the source of contamination and the pathways for its spread; and (4) identify the causal factors enabling the contamination.

  8. A Portable Smart-Phone Readout Device for the Detection of Mercury Contamination Based on an Aptamer-Assay Nanosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xiao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The detection of environmental mercury (Hg contamination requires complex and expensive instruments and professional technicians. We present a simple, sensitive, and portable Hg2+ detection system based on a smartphone and colorimetric aptamer nanosensor. A smartphone equipped with a light meter app was used to detect, record, and process signals from a smartphone-based microwell reader (MR S-phone, which is composed of a simple light source and a miniaturized assay platform. The colorimetric readout of the aptamer nanosensor is based on a specific interaction between the selected aptamer and Hg2+, which leads to a color change in the reaction solution due to an aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs. The MR S-phone-based AuNPs-aptamer colorimetric sensor system could reliably detect Hg2+ in both tap water and Pearl River water samples and produced a linear colorimetric readout of Hg2+ concentration in the range of 1 ng/mL–32 ng/mL with a correlation of 0.991, and a limit of detection (LOD of 0.28 ng/mL for Hg2+. The detection could be quickly completed in only 20 min. Our novel mercury detection assay is simple, rapid, and sensitive, and it provides new strategies for the on-site detection of mercury contamination in any environment.

  9. A Portable Smart-Phone Readout Device for the Detection of Mercury Contamination Based on an Aptamer-Assay Nanosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei; Xiao, Meng; Fu, Qiangqiang; Yu, Shiting; Shen, Haicong; Bian, Hongfen; Tang, Yong

    2016-11-08

    The detection of environmental mercury (Hg) contamination requires complex and expensive instruments and professional technicians. We present a simple, sensitive, and portable Hg 2+ detection system based on a smartphone and colorimetric aptamer nanosensor. A smartphone equipped with a light meter app was used to detect, record, and process signals from a smartphone-based microwell reader (MR S-phone), which is composed of a simple light source and a miniaturized assay platform. The colorimetric readout of the aptamer nanosensor is based on a specific interaction between the selected aptamer and Hg 2+ , which leads to a color change in the reaction solution due to an aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The MR S-phone-based AuNPs-aptamer colorimetric sensor system could reliably detect Hg 2+ in both tap water and Pearl River water samples and produced a linear colorimetric readout of Hg 2+ concentration in the range of 1 ng/mL-32 ng/mL with a correlation of 0.991, and a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.28 ng/mL for Hg 2+ . The detection could be quickly completed in only 20 min. Our novel mercury detection assay is simple, rapid, and sensitive, and it provides new strategies for the on-site detection of mercury contamination in any environment.

  10. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit 342: Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO, CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 342, the Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit (FTP), which is located in Area 23 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 88 km (55 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 342 is comprised of CAS 23-56-01. The FTP is an area approximately 100 m by 140 m (350 ft by 450 ft) located west of the town of Mercury, Nevada, which was used between approximately 1965 and 1990 to train fire-fighting personnel (REECo, 1991; Jacobson, 1991). The surface and subsurface soils in the FTP have likely been impacted by hydrocarbons and other contaminants of potential concern (COPC) associated with burn activities and training exercises in the area.

  11. Speciation and bioaccessibility of mercury in adobe bricks and dirt floors in Huancavelica, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Huancavelica, Peru, a historic cinnabar refining site, is one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Residents’ exposures are amplified because residents build their adobe brick homes from contaminated soil. Objectives: The objectives of th...

  12. Recent mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining on Buru Island, Indonesia – Potential future risks to environmental health and food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male, Yusthinus Thobias; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda Jean; Pocock, Matt; Nanlohy, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Recent mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining, Buru Island, Indonesia. • Measured dispersal into the marine environment. • Implications for food safety. • Challenges for introducing mercury reduction strategies. -- Abstract: In November 2011 gold was found at Mount Botak, Buru Island, Mollucas Province, Indonesia. Since 2012 mercury has been used to extract the gold requiring large volumes of water and resulting in deposition of mercury into Wamsait River and Kayeli Bay. Total mercury in waste ponds was over 680 mg/kg. In sediments at the mouth of the local river and a small feeder creek >3.00 mg/kg and >7.66 mg/kg respectively. River and bay sediments were proportionately higher in available mercury than elemental mercury and more strongly bound mercuric sulfide compared to that in trommel waste. This preliminary investigation raises concerns about the long term distribution and speciation of mercury. The floodplain is an important agricultural resource, and Mollucas Province is recognised nationally as the centre for Indonesian fish stocks. Challenges for management include communicating the potential future risks to the community and leaders and identifying mechanisms to reduce mercury waste

  13. Mercury (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in contact with) to mercury is by eating fish or shellfish that have high levels of mercury. You can also get sick from: Touching it Breathing it in Drinking contaminated water How can mercury ...

  14. Long-term airborne contamination studied by attic dust in an industrial area: Ajka, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völgyesi, P.; Jordan, G.; Szabo, Cs.

    2012-04-01

    , Sr, Ti, V, Zn) were measured with ICP-OES and the mercury content was measured with atom absorption spectrometry. Our results show a good spatial correlation of contamination sources and attic dust sampling locations reveal spatial trends as well. Attic dust seems to be an efficient and cheep sampling medium to study long-term airborne contamination and possibly associated human health risk in an industrial area.

  15. Guidelines for Posting Soil Contamination Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcnaughton, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Eisele, William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-01

    All soil guidelines were determined using RESRAD, version 6.1. All offsite guidelines are based on 15 mrem/year. This dose rate is sufficiently low to protect human health and is in accordance with DOE guidance and the proposed EPA 40-CFR-196 regulations for members of the public (never promulgated). For those onsite areas where general employees (non-radiological workers) could have routine access, soil concentrations should be based on a dose rate of 30 mrem/year (approximately one-third of the onsite LANL non-radiological worker dose of 100 mrem/year). In this case, soil concentration guidelines may be obtained by doubling the 15 mrem/year guidelines. Several scenarios were developed to provide maximum flexibility for application of the guidelines. The offsite guidelines were developed using: residential scenarios for both adults and children; a construction worker scenario; a resource user (e.g., a hunter) scenario; a child playing within canyon reaches scenario, a trail using jogger within canyon reaches scenario, and a trail using hiker within canyon reaches scenario. The residential guidelines represent the lowest values from both the adult residential scenario and the child residential scenario.

  16. The Effect of Mercury Mining Activities on Oak Forest in the Almaden Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villadoniga, M.; Sierra, M. J.; Millan, R.

    2009-01-01

    This scientific-technical report is the result of the research work carried out by Maite Villadoniga Garcia, to obtain the Master's Final Project, this has been developed at the Unit of Soil Degradation in the Department of Environment at CIEMAT. Two main reasons are important for the study of the vegetation in Almaden, firstly to ascertain the state in which they find the different landscapes surrounding the mine and secondly, it would be interesting to know the potential applications for recovery areas, degraded by this type of mining. This report presents the initial analysis of a natural area where there has not been activity related to mining of mercury, but their lithologic conditions and proximity to the mine of Almaden (within 3 km) make it a space in which they are both elevated mercury concentrations in soil (1.25 to 35.55 mg kg - 1) and plant species (Quercus ilex: 0.10-2.29 mg kg - 1; Pseudovernia sp. 1.10-21.06 mg kg - 1). We can conclude after this study that the natural vegetation of the area if they had been affected by years of mining, although not find any obvious signs of damage to these ecosystems and that different factors affect the uptake of mercury by of different species. (Author) 37 refs.

  17. Mercury contamination and potential impacts from municipal waste incinerator on Samui Island, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenhor, Dudsadee; Satayavivad, Jutamaad; Limpaseni, Wongpun; Parkpian, Preeda; Delaune, R D; Gambrell, R P; Jugsujinda, Aroon

    2009-03-01

    In recent years, mercury (Hg) pollution generated by municipal waste incinerators (MWIs) has become the subject of serious public concern. On Samui Island, Thailand, a large-scale municipal waste incinerator has been in operation for over 7 years with a capacity of 140 tons/day for meeting the growing demand for municipal waste disposal. This research assessed Hg contamination in environmental matrices adjacent to the waste incinerating plant. Total Hg concentrations were determined in municipal solid waste, soil and sediment within a distance of 100 m to 5 km from the incinerator operation in both wet and dry seasons. Hg analyses conducted in municipal solid waste showed low levels of Hg ranging between 0.15-0.56 mg/kg. The low level was due to the type of waste incinerator. Waste such as electrical appliances, motors and spare parts, rubber tires and hospital wastes are not allowed to feed into the plant. As a result, low Hg levels were also found in fly and bottom ashes (0.1-0.4 mg/kg and Stack concentration of Hg were less than 0.4 microg/Nm(3). Since Hg emissions were at low concentrations, Hg in soil from atmospheric fallout near this incinerator including uptake by local weeds were very low ranging from non detectable to 399 micro g/kg. However, low but elevated levels of Hg (76-275 micro g/kg) were observed in surface soil and deeper layers (0-40 cm) in the predominant downwind direction of incinerator over a distance of between 0.5-5 km. Soil Hg concentrations measured from a reference/background track opposite of the prevailing wind direction were lower ranging between 7-46 micro g/kg. Nevertheless, the trend of Hg build up in soil was clearly seen in the wet season only, suggesting that wet deposition process is a major Hg pollution source. Hg concentrations in the sea bottom sediment collected next to the last station track was small with values between 35-67 micro g/kg. Based upon the overall findings, in terms of current potential environmental risk

  18. Characterization of soils from an industrial complex contaminated with elemental mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Carrie L.; Watson, David B.; Lester, Brian P.; Lowe, Kenneth A.; Pierce, Eric M.; Liang, Liyuan

    2013-01-01

    Historical use of liquid elemental mercury (Hg(0) l ) at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, TN, USA, resulted in large deposits of Hg(0) l in the soils. The fate and distribution of the spilled Hg(0) are not well characterized. In this study we evaluated analytical tools for characterizing the speciation of Hg in the contaminated soils and then used the analytical techniques to examine the speciation of Hg in two soil cores collected at the site. These include x-ray fluorescence (XRF), soil Hg(0) headspace analysis, and total Hg determination by acid digestion coupled with cold vapor atomic absorption (HgT). XRF was not found to be suitable for evaluating Hg concentrations in heterogeneous soils containing low concentration of Hg or Hg(0) because Hg concentrations determined using this method were lower than those determined by HgT analysis and the XRF detection limit is 20 mg/kg. Hg(0) g headspace analysis coupled with HgT measurements yielded good results for examining the presence of Hg(0) l in soils and the speciation of Hg. The two soil cores are highly heterogeneous in both the depth and extent of Hg contamination, with Hg concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 8400 mg/kg. In the first core, Hg(0) l was distributed throughout the 3.2 m depth, whereas the second core, from a location 12 m away, contained Hg(0) l in a 0.3 m zone only. Sequential extractions showed organically associated Hg dominant at depths with low Hg concentration. Soil from the zone of groundwater saturation showed reducing conditions and the Hg is likely present as Hg-sulfide species. At this depth, lateral Hg transport in the groundwater may be a source of Hg detected in the soil at the deeper soil depths. Overall, characterization of soils containing Hg(0) l is difficult because of the heterogeneous distribution of Hg within the soils. This is exacerbated in industrial facilities where fill materials make up much of the soils and historical and continued reworking of the

  19. Mercury pollution in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Jinap, S; Ismail, Ahmad; Mahyudin, Nor Ainy

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have been published on levels of mercury contamination of the environment, and of food and human tissues in Peninsular Malaysia, there is a serious dearth of research that has been performed in East Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak). Industry is rapidly developing in East Malaysia, and, hence, there is a need for establishing baseline levels of mercury contamination in environmental media in that part of the country by performing monitoring studies. Residues of total mercury and inorganic in food samples have been determined in nearly all previous studies that have been conducted; however, few researchers have analyzed samples for the presence of methlymercury residues. Because methylmercury is the most toxic form of mercury, and because there is a growing public awareness of the risk posed by methylmercury exposure that is associated with fish and seafood consumption, further monitoring studies on methylmercury in food are also essential. From the results of previous studies, it is obvious that the economic development in Malaysia, in recent years, has affected the aquatic environment of the country. Primary areas of environmental concern are centered on the rivers of the west Peninsular Malaysian coast, and the coastal waters of the Straits of Malacca, wherein industrial activities are rapidly expanding. The sources of existing mercury input to both of these areas of Malaysia should be studied and identified. Considering the high levels of mercury that now exists in human tissues, efforts should be continued, and accelerated in the future, if possible, to monitor mercury contamination levels in the coastal states, and particularly along the west Peninsular Malaysian coast. Most studies that have been carried out on mercury residues in environmental samples are dated, having been conducted 20-30 years ago; therefore, the need to collect much more and more current data is urgent. Furthermore, establishing baseline levels of mercury exposure to

  20. Remediation of contaminated areas. An overview of international guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann Jensen, Per

    1999-05-01

    The work described in this report has been performed as a part of the RESTRAT Project FI4P-CT95-0021a (PL 950128) co-funded by the Nuclear Fission Safety Programme of the European Commission. The RESTRAT project has the overall objective of developing generic methodologies for ranking restoration techniques as a function of contamination and site characteristics. The project includes analyses of existing remediation methodologies and contaminated sites, and is structured in the following steps: characterisation of relevant contaminated sites; identification and characterisation of relevant restoration techniques; assessment of the radiological impact; development and application of a selection methodology for restoration options; formulation of generic conclusions and development of a manual. The project is intended to apply to situations in which sites with nuclear installations have been contaminated with radioactive materials as a result of the operation of these installations. The areas considered for remedial measures include contaminated land areas, rivers and sediments in rivers, lakes, and sea areas. Criteria for clean-up of contaminated land and criteria for protection of the public against chronic exposure are being developed by Advisory Groups and Task Groups within the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This work has been reviewed and a status as of the beginning of 1998 is given. For illustrative purposes , the basic radiation protection principles of justification and optimisation have been applied to derive generic action levels for clean-up of residential areas contaminated with radioactive materials. These generic action levels are based upon cost-benefit analyses that include avertable doses and monetary costs of clean-up. (au)

  1. Remediation of contaminated areas. An overview of international guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedemann Jensen, Per

    1999-05-01

    The work described in this report has been performed as a part of the RESTRAT Project FI4P-CT95-0021a (PL 950128) co-funded by the Nuclear Fission Safety Programme of the European Commission. The RESTRAT project has the overall objective of developing generic methodologies for ranking restoration techniques as a function of contamination and site characteristics. The project includes analyses of existing remediation methodologies and contaminated sites, and is structured in the following steps: characterisation of relevant contaminated sites; identification and characterisation of relevant restoration techniques; assessment of the radiological impact; development and application of a selection methodology for restoration options; formulation of generic conclusions and development of a manual. The project is intended to apply to situations in which sites with nuclear installations have been contaminated with radioactive materials as a result of the operation of these installations. The areas considered for remedial measures include contaminated land areas, rivers and sediments in rivers, lakes, and sea areas. Criteria for clean-up of contaminated land and criteria for protection of the public against chronic exposure are being developed by Advisory Groups and Task Groups within the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This work has been reviewed and a status as of the beginning of 1998 is given. For illustrative purposes , the basic radiation protection principles of justification and optimisation have been applied to derive generic action levels for clean-up of residential areas contaminated with radioactive materials. These generic action levels are based upon cost-benefit analyses that include avertable doses and monetary costs of clean-up. (au) 3 tabs., 4 ills., 10 refs. (Internet)

  2. Subsurface Contamination Focus Area technical requirements. Volume 1: Requirements summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickelson, D.; Nonte, J.; Richardson, J.

    1996-10-01

    This document summarizes functions and requirements for remediation of source term and plume sites identified by the Subsurface Contamination Focus Area. Included are detailed requirements and supporting information for source term and plume containment, stabilization, retrieval, and selective retrieval remedial activities. This information will be useful both to the decision-makers within the Subsurface Contamination Focus Area (SCFA) and to the technology providers who are developing and demonstrating technologies and systems. Requirements are often expressed as graphs or charts, which reflect the site-specific nature of the functions that must be performed. Many of the tradeoff studies associated with cost savings are identified in the text

  3. [Characteristics of mercury pollution in soil and atmosphere in Songhua River upstream Jia-pi-gou gold mining area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Wang, Ning; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Te; Ai, Jian-Chao

    2012-09-01

    In the studied area of Jia-pi-gou at the upstream area of Songhua River, algamation process has been applied as a dominant method to extract gold for more than one hundred and eighty years, resulting in severe mercury environmental pollution. The total mercury contents in the atmosphere and soil have been determined by mercury analyzer (Zeeman RA915+) and cold atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GB/T 17136-1997), respectively. To study the pollution characteristics of mercury in the soil and atmosphere, the mercury flux at the interface between the soil and the atmosphere of 4 sampling sites Lao-jin-chang, Er-dao-gou, Er-dao-cha and community of Jia-pi-gou have been determined with the method of dynamic flux chamber. Furthermore, linear regression analyses on the total mercury contents between soil and atmosphere have been carried out and the correlation coefficient of mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere and meteorological factors has been studied. The results are as follows: (1) The mean value of mercury content in the atmosphere is (71.08 +/- 38.22) ng x m(-3). (2) The mean value of mercury content in the soil is (0.913 1 +/- 0.040 8) mg x kg(-1); it shows remarkably positive correlation between the mercury contents in soil and in the atmosphere. (3) The mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere in different locations are Lao-jin-chang [(129.13 +/- 496.07) ng (m2 x h)(-1)], Er-dao-gou [(98.64 +/- 43.96) ng x (m2 x h)(-1)], Er-dao-cha [(23.17 +/- 171.23) ng x (m2 x h)(-1)], and community of Jia-pi-gou [(7.12 +/- 46.33) ng x (m2 x h)(-1)]. (4) Solar radiation is the major influential factor in the mercury exchange flux between the soil and atmosphere in Lao-jin-chang, Er-dao-cha and community of Jia-pi-gou. Solar radiation, air temperature and soil temperature jointly influence the process of the mercury exchange flux between the soil and atmosphere in Er-dao-gou. Under the disturbance of terrain, three noticeably distinctive trend features

  4. Avian mercury exposure and toxicological risk across western North America: A synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark; Hartman, Christopher; Peterson, Sarah; Evers, David C.; Jackson, Allyson K.; Elliott, John E.; Vander Pol, Stacy S.; Bryan, Colleen E.

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury contamination of the environment is an important issue globally, and birds are useful bioindicators for mercury monitoring programs. The available data on mercury contamination of birds in western North America were synthesized. Original data from multiple databases were obtained and a literature review was conducted to obtain additional mercury concentrations. In total, 29219 original bird mercury concentrations from 225 species were compiled, and an additional 1712 mean mercury concentrations, representing 19998 individuals and 176 species, from 200 publications were obtained. To make mercury data comparable across bird tissues, published equations of tissue mercury correlations were used to convert all mercury concentrations into blood-equivalent mercury concentrations. Blood-equivalent mercury concentrations differed among species, foraging guilds, habitat types, locations, and ecoregions. Piscivores and carnivores exhibited the greatest mercury concentrations, whereas herbivores and granivores exhibited the lowest mercury concentrations. Bird mercury concentrations were greatest in ocean and salt marsh habitats and lowest in terrestrial habitats. Bird mercury concentrations were above toxicity benchmarks in many areas throughout western North America, and multiple hotspots were identified. Additionally, published toxicity benchmarks established in multiple tissues were summarized and translated into a common blood-equivalent mercury concentration. Overall, 66% of birds sampled in western North American exceeded a blood-equivalent mercury concentration of 0.2 μg/g wet weight (ww; above background levels), which is the lowest-observed effect level, 28% exceeded 1.0 μg/g ww (moderate risk), 8% exceeded 3.0 μg/g ww (high risk), and 4% exceeded 4.0 μg/g ww (severe risk). Mercury monitoring programs should sample bird tissues, such as adult blood and eggs, that are most-easily translated into tissues with well-developed toxicity benchmarks and that

  5. Mercury contamination in facial skin lightening creams and its health risks to user.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yu Bin; Abdullah, Nor Hidayu; Hamsan, Hazwanee; Tan, Eugenie Sin Sing

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to determine concentrations of mercury in facial skin lightening cream according to different price categories (category I: mercury in samples were less than the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) permitted trace levels (mercury in facial skin lightening creams ranged from not detected to 1.13 mg kg -1 . There was no significant association between concentrations of mercury with price categories (p = 0.12). There was no significant non-carcinogenic health risk due to daily application of the facial skin lightening creams based on assumption of 30 years exposure period (HQ < 1). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Avian Conservation Areas as a Proxy for Contaminated Soil Remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Chih; Lin, Yu-Pin; Anthony, Johnathen; Ding, Tsun-Su

    2015-07-17

    Remediation prioritization frequently falls short of systematically evaluating the underlying ecological value of different sites. This study presents a novel approach to delineating sites that are both contaminated by any of eight heavy metals and have high habitat value to high-priority species. The conservation priority of each planning site herein was based on the projected distributions of eight protected bird species, simulated using 900 outputs of species distribution models (SDMs) and the subsequent application of a systematic conservation tool. The distributions of heavy metal concentrations were generated using a geostatistical joint-simulation approach. The uncertainties in the heavy metal distributions were quantified in terms of variability among 1000 realization sets. Finally, a novel remediation decision-making approach was presented for delineating contaminated sites in need of remediation based on the spatial uncertainties of multiple realizations and the priorities of conservation areas. The results thus obtained demonstrate that up to 42% of areas of high conservation priority are also contaminated by one or more of the heavy metal contaminants of interest. Moreover, as the proportion of the land for proposed remediated increased, the projected area of the pollution-free habitat also increased. Overall uncertainty, in terms of the false positive contamination rate, also increased. These results indicate that the proposed decision-making approach successfully accounted for the intrinsic trade-offs among a high number of pollution-free habitats, low false positive rates and robustness of expected decision outcomes.

  7. Avian Conservation Areas as a Proxy for Contaminated Soil Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chih Lin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Remediation prioritization frequently falls short of systematically evaluating the underlying ecological value of different sites. This study presents a novel approach to delineating sites that are both contaminated by any of eight heavy metals and have high habitat value to high-priority species. The conservation priority of each planning site herein was based on the projected distributions of eight protected bird species, simulated using 900 outputs of species distribution models (SDMs and the subsequent application of a systematic conservation tool. The distributions of heavy metal concentrations were generated using a geostatistical joint-simulation approach. The uncertainties in the heavy metal distributions were quantified in terms of variability among 1000 realization sets. Finally, a novel remediation decision-making approach was presented for delineating contaminated sites in need of remediation based on the spatial uncertainties of multiple realizations and the priorities of conservation areas. The results thus obtained demonstrate that up to 42% of areas of high conservation priority are also contaminated by one or more of the heavy metal contaminants of interest. Moreover, as the proportion of the land for proposed remediated increased, the projected area of the pollution-free habitat also increased. Overall uncertainty, in terms of the false positive contamination rate, also increased. These results indicate that the proposed decision-making approach successfully accounted for the intrinsic trade-offs among a high number of pollution-free habitats, low false positive rates and robustness of expected decision outcomes.

  8. Microbiological stimulation of phytoremediation process using Salvinia natans to mercury contamined water

    OpenAIRE

    Filyarovskaya Viktoriya; Sitarska Magdalena; Traczewska Teodora; Wolf Mirela

    2017-01-01

    An alternative to traditional cleaning methods of heavy metals in the water environment is phytoremediation. They efficiency depends on used technological process conditions as well as plant species. One of the most dangerous metallic elements mercury plays a particular role, which is a trace element and a physiologically foreign in living organisms. Mercury has a high degree of toxicity with strong affinity to thiol groups. This may cause an adverse effect on the enzymatic processes and cons...

  9. Microbiological stimulation of phytoremediation process using Salvinia natans to mercury contamined water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filyarovskaya, Viktoriya; Sitarska, Magdalena; Traczewska, Teodora; Wolf, Mirela

    2017-11-01

    An alternative to traditional cleaning methods of heavy metals in the water environment is phytoremediation. They efficiency depends on used technological process conditions as well as plant species. One of the most dangerous metallic elements mercury plays a particular role, which is a trace element and a physiologically foreign in living organisms. Mercury has a high degree of toxicity with strong affinity to thiol groups. This may cause an adverse effect on the enzymatic processes and consequently inhibiting the physiological functions. Because of high risk for human health, water environment treatment from mercury is essential proecological action. Mercury removal studies were conducted using Salvinia natans pleustofit, sampled from its natural water environment. In the first step, epiphytic bacteria, which was resistant to high concentrations of mercury (0,6 mgHg/l), was isolated from the plant and than selected by the tiles gradient mthod. In the next step, the identification using molecular biology methods was made. In the following step plant Salvinia natans was exposure to high levels of mercury in the presence of the three isolated Pseudomonas strains with exceptional resistance characteristics to environmental factors. Has been found a positive bacteria effect on the plant condition because the selected strains belong to Pseudomonas species producing materials supporting plant growth. The use of microbial stimulation to phytoremediation by hyperaccumulator Salvinia natans can multiply the effectiveness of the process.

  10. Microbiological stimulation of phytoremediation process using Salvinia natans to mercury contamined water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filyarovskaya Viktoriya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An alternative to traditional cleaning methods of heavy metals in the water environment is phytoremediation. They efficiency depends on used technological process conditions as well as plant species. One of the most dangerous metallic elements mercury plays a particular role, which is a trace element and a physiologically foreign in living organisms. Mercury has a high degree of toxicity with strong affinity to thiol groups. This may cause an adverse effect on the enzymatic processes and consequently inhibiting the physiological functions. Because of high risk for human health, water environment treatment from mercury is essential proecological action. Mercury removal studies were conducted using Salvinia natans pleustofit, sampled from its natural water environment. In the first step, epiphytic bacteria, which was resistant to high concentrations of mercury (0,6 mgHg/l, was isolated from the plant and than selected by the tiles gradient mthod. In the next step, the identification using molecular biology methods was made. In the following step plant Salvinia natans was exposure to high levels of mercury in the presence of the three isolated Pseudomonas strains with exceptional resistance characteristics to environmental factors. Has been found a positive bacteria effect on the plant condition because the selected strains belong to Pseudomonas species producing materials supporting plant growth. The use of microbial stimulation to phytoremediation by hyperaccumulator Salvinia natans can multiply the effectiveness of the process.

  11. Global Trends in Mercury Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyunghee

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Environmental Program Governing Council has regulated mercury as a global pollutant since 2001 and has been preparing the mercury convention, which will have a strongly binding force through Global Mercury Assessment, Global Mercury Partnership Activities, and establishment of the Open-Ended Working Group on Mercury. The European Union maintains an inclusive strategy on risks and contamination of mercury, and has executed the Mercury Export Ban Act since December in 2010. The US Environmental Protection Agency established the Mercury Action Plan (1998) and the Mercury Roadmap (2006) and has proposed systematic mercury management methods to reduce the health risks posed by mercury exposure. Japan, which experienced Minamata disease, aims vigorously at perfection in mercury management in several ways. In Korea, the Ministry of Environment established the Comprehensive Plan and Countermeasures for Mercury Management to prepare for the mercury convention and to reduce risks of mercury to protect public health. PMID:23230466

  12. Mercury contamination in Khramulia (Capoeta capoeta) from the Cheshme Kile and Zarrin Gol Rivers in Iran and human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvandi, Hassan; Sari, Abbas Esmaili; Aliabadian, Mansour

    2014-10-01

    Total mercury concentrations were determined in muscle tissue of Khramulia (Capoeta capoeta) captured in the Cheshme Kile and Zarrin Gol Rivers, Iran. In Cheshme Kile River, 49 fish samples were collected. The mean total mercury concentration in the muscles of C. capoeta from this area was 249 ng g(-1) dw. In Zarrin Gol River, where 62 fish samples were collected, the total mercury in muscles averaged 164 ng g(-1) dw. A significant difference was found between means of mercury in the rivers (p rivers had mean mercury concentrations below the maximum allowable limits for mercury set by the Food and Agriculture Organization, World Health Organization, Standardization Administration of China and Environmental Protection Agency. The results of this study indicate that the values of hazard target quotient and estimated weekly intake are low and represent a negligible risk for human health.

  13. Arsenic in soil and vegetation of a contaminated area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karimi, N.; Ghaderian, S.M.; Schat, H.

    2013-01-01

    Plant and soil samples were collected from one uncontaminated and four contaminated sites (in the Dashkasan mining area western Iran). Total and water-soluble arsenic in the soil ranged from 7 to 795 and from 0.007 to 2.32 mg/kg, respectively. The highest arsenic concentration in soil was found at

  14. Analysis of mercury in rock varnish samples in areas impacted by coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowinski, Piotr; Hodge, Vernon F.; Gerstenberger, Shawn; Cizdziel, James V.

    2013-01-01

    Rock varnish is a manganese–iron rich coating that forms on rocks, most often in arid climates. To assess its utility as an environmental monitor of mercury contamination, cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS) was used for analysis. Samples were collected in the fallout patterns of two coal-fired power plants in southern Nevada: the defunct Mohave Power Plant (MPP) and the operating Reid Gardner Power Plant (RGPP). The resultant Hg concentrations in rock varnishes were plotted as a function of the distance from each power plant. The highest concentrations of Hg occurred at locations that suggest the power plants are the main source of pollutants. In addition, past tracer plume studies carried out at MPP show that the highest tracer concentrations coincide with the highest rock varnish Hg concentrations. However, additional samples are required to further demonstrate that power plants are indeed the sources of mercury in varnishes. -- Highlights: •We analyze desert varnish samples collected in the fallout patterns of two coal-fired and analyzed for Hg by CVAA. •The resultant Hg concentrations in the desert varnish samples were plotted as a function of the distance from each power plant. •The highest concentrations of Hg occurred at locations that suggest the power plants are the main source of pollutants. •Data indicate the utility of desert varnish as a passive environmental monitor for Hg atmospheric pollution. -- Cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS) was used for analysis of mercury in varnished rocks collected in the fallout zones of two coal-fired power plants

  15. Egg-laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Herzog, Mark P; Yee, Julie L; Hartman, C Alex

    2016-06-01

    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intraclutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. The authors examined the influence of egg-laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last eggs laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg-laying order were inconsistent among species, and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were eggs laid. Despite the strong effect of egg-laying sequence, most of the variance in egg mercury concentrations still occurred among clutches (75-91%) rather than within clutches (9%-25%). Using simulations, the authors determined that accurate estimation of a population's mean egg mercury concentration using only a single random egg from a subset of nests would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained <100 nests (20% accuracy). Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1458-1469. Published 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  16. Environmental restoration of mercury contamination of East Fork Poplar Creek at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge, Tennessee, reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    During the open-quotes Cold Warclose quotes era, approximately 239,000 pounds of mercury were released from the Y-12 Nuclear Weapons Plant to the East Fork Poplar Creek watershed. As a result, approximately 75 tons of the contaminant resides within the floodplain soils beyond the confines of the DOE reservation, a Federal Superfund Site. The EFPC watershed encompasses multiple land uses whose ownership varies from private citizens, municipal government, and federal government. DOE, in cooperation with the State of Tennessee and EPA, proposes to clean up the contamination to a risk based standard of 400 ppm. This level has been determined to be protective of human health and the environment. The remedial process and development of the remedial alternative are the result of close interagency cooperation between the State, EPA, U.S. Fish ampersand Wildlife Service, and the Army Corps of Engineers. This case study outlines that process

  17. Assessment of environmental and health risks in former polymetallic ore mining and smelting area, Slovakia: Spatial distribution and accumulation of mercury in four different ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Árvay, Július; Demková, Lenka; Hauptvogl, Martin; Michalko, Miloslav; Bajčan, Daniel; Stanovič, Radovan; Tomáš, Ján; Hrstková, Miroslava; Trebichalský, Pavol

    2017-10-01

    Former long-term mining and smelting of pollymetallic ores in the Middle Spiš area caused a serious contamination problem of the environment with heavy metals and metalloids, especially mercury (Hg). Several studies have reported concentration of Hg in the area but this paper provides first detailed characterization of Hg contamination of different environmental components in agricultural, forest, grassland and urban ecosystems. The ecosystems are in different distances from emission sources - former mercury and copper smelting plants in NE Slovakia. Total Hg content was studied in soil/substrate samples (n = 234) and characteristic biological samples (Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth, Macrolepiota procera (Scop.) Singer, Boletus edulis Bull., Cyanoboletus pulverulentus (Opat.) Gelardi, Vizzini & Simonini, Triticum aestivum (L.), Poa pratensis (L.)) (n = 234) collected in the above-mentioned ecosystems. The level of contamination and environmental risks were assessed by contamination factor (C f ), index of geoaccumulation (I geo ) and potential environmental risk index (PER). To determine the level of transition of Hg from abiotic to biotic environment, bioconcentration factor (BCF) was used. To determine a health risk resulting from regular and long-term consumption of the locally available species, the results of the Hg content were compared with the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) for Hg defined by World Health Organization. The results suggest that almost 63% of the area belong to the very high risk category and 80% of the sampling sites shown very high contamination factor. Geoaccumulation index showed that almost 30% of the area is very strongly contaminated and only 8% is not contaminated with Hg. Spearman's correlation relationship confirmed that the values of PER, BCF, C f and I geo decreased with an increasing distance from the pollution source. The percentage of contribution to PTWI ranged between 5.76-69.0% for adults and 11.5-138% for

  18. Contaminant plumes containment and remediation focus area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    EM has established a new approach to managing environmental technology research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE. The Contaminant Plumes Containment and Remediation (Plumes) Focus Area is one of five areas targeted to implement the new approach, actively involving representatives from basic research, technology implementation, and regulatory communities in setting objectives and evaluating results. This document presents an overview of current EM activities within the Plumes Focus Area to describe to the appropriate organizations the current thrust of the program and developing input for its future direction. The Plumes Focus Area is developing remediation technologies that address environmental problems associated with certain priority contaminants found at DOE sites, including radionuclides, heavy metals, and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Technologies for cleaning up contaminants of concern to both DOE and other federal agencies, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other organics and inorganic compounds, will be developed by leveraging resources in cooperation with industry and interagency programs

  19. Contaminant plumes containment and remediation focus area. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    EM has established a new approach to managing environmental technology research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE. The Contaminant Plumes Containment and Remediation (Plumes) Focus Area is one of five areas targeted to implement the new approach, actively involving representatives from basic research, technology implementation, and regulatory communities in setting objectives and evaluating results. This document presents an overview of current EM activities within the Plumes Focus Area to describe to the appropriate organizations the current thrust of the program and developing input for its future direction. The Plumes Focus Area is developing remediation technologies that address environmental problems associated with certain priority contaminants found at DOE sites, including radionuclides, heavy metals, and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Technologies for cleaning up contaminants of concern to both DOE and other federal agencies, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other organics and inorganic compounds, will be developed by leveraging resources in cooperation with industry and interagency programs.

  20. Bacterial contamination of groundwater in urban area of Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubair, A.; Rippey, B.

    1999-01-01

    Well-water samples (in=193) were collected from urban areas of five districts of Karachi during the period 1993 to 1995 to evaluate its bacteriological quality and their impact on city environment and morbidity patterns of inhabitants. Samples were analyzed by the standard method American Public Health Association. The bacteriological contamination level suggest that the groundwater of Chaahi is mainly affected by contamination of wastewater containing high levels of coliform and faecal coliform bacteria. This study points towards serious need to control the seepage from sewerage system and use of contaminated well-water should be discouraged to reduce the incidence of water-borne diseases in order to improve the quality of life and health. (author)

  1. Manganese and Mercury Levels in Water, Sediments, and Children Living Near Gold-Mining Areas of the Nangaritza River Basin, Ecuadorian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Merizalde, Max V; Menezes-Filho, José A; Cruz-Erazo, Claudia Teresa; Bermeo-Flores, Santos Amable; Sánchez-Castillo, María Obdulia; Hernández-Bonilla, David; Mora, Abrahan

    2016-08-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold-mining activities performed in mountain areas of the Southern Ecuadorian Amazon have incorporated several heavy metals into the aquatic systems, thus increasing the risk of exposure in populations living in adjacent zones. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the contamination levels of mercury (Hg) and manganese (Mn) in several rivers of the Nangaritza River basin and assess the exposure in school-aged children residing near the gold-mining zones. River water and sediment samples were collected from a highly contaminated (HEx) and a moderately contaminated (MEx) zones. Hair Mn (MnH) and urinary Hg (HgU) levels were determined in school-aged children living in both zones. High concentrations of dissolved Mn were found in river waters of the HEx zone (between 2660 and 3990 µg l(-1)); however, Hg levels, in general, were lower than the detection limit (DL; MnH in children of the HEx and MEx zones were 5.5 and 3.4 µg g(-1), respectively, whereas the median values of HgU concentrations in children living in the HEx and MEx zones were 4.4 and 0.62 µg g-creat(-1), respectively. Statistically significant differences were observed between both biomarkers in children from the HEx and MEx zones. In addition, boys presented significantly greater MnH levels in both zones. The greater MnH values were found in children living in alluvial areas, whereas children living in the high mountain areas, where some ore-processing plants are located close to or inside houses and schools, had the greater HgU concentrations. In summary, the data reported in this paper highlights that artisanal and small-scale gold-mining activities can not only produce mercurial contamination, that can also release other heavy metals (such as Mn) that may pose a risk to human health.

  2. Biogeochemistry of mercury in contaminated environment in the wider Idrija region and the Gulf of Trieste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvat, Milena; Jereb, Vesna; Fajon, Vesna; Lgar, Martina; Faganeli, Jadram; Hines, Mark

    2002-01-01

    During the reporting period work three main topics have been addressed in order to achieve the objectives of the CRP: 1. Methylmercury formation and degradation in sediments of the Gulf of Trieste. 2. Preparation of SOIL-1 intercomparison sample. 3. Validation of techniques for determination of the rates for methylation and demethylation of mercury in various matrices. The present report covers the first two topics, while the third is presented as a separate manuscript in this report, dealing with methylation of mercury in Isopod Porcellio scaber and in lichens. (author)

  3. Using group-specific PCR to detect predation of mayflies (Ephemeroptera) by wolf spiders (Lycosidae) at a mercury-contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, Weston T; Allison, Lizabeth A; Cristol, Daniel A

    2012-02-01

    Bioaccumulation of contaminants can occur across ecosystem boundaries via transport by emergent aquatic insects. In the South River, Virginia, USA, aquatic mercury has contaminated songbirds nesting in adjacent riparian forests. Spiders contribute the majority of mercury to these songbirds' diets. We tested the hypothesis that massive annual mayfly emergences provide a vector for mercury from river sediments to the Lycosid spiders most frequently eaten by contaminated songbirds. We designed mayfly-specific PCR primers that amplified mtDNA from 76% of adult mayflies collected at this site. By combining this approach with an Agilent 2100 electrophoresis system, we created a highly sensitive test for mayfly predation by Lycosids, commonly known as wolf spiders. In laboratory spider feeding trials, mayfly DNA could be detected up to 192h post-ingestion; however, we detected no mayfly predation in a sample of 110 wolf spiders collected at the site during mayfly emergence. We suggest that mayfly predation is not an important mechanism for dietary transfer of mercury to wolf spiders and their avian predators at the South River. Instead, floodplain soil should be considered as a potential proximate source for mercury in the terrestrial food web. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Wood ash or dolomite treatment of catchment areas - effects of mercury in runoff water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkman, H; Munthe, J [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-11-01

    A future increased use of biomass as a source of energy, and the planned restoration of mineral nutrient balance in the forest soils by returning the wood ashes, has led to concern for new environmental disturbances. The objectives of the present study were to investigate if the outflow of total mercury (TotHg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) from catchment areas treated with granulated wood ash (1988, 2.2 tons/ha, `ashed area`) or dolomite (1985, 5 tons/ha, `limed area`) differed from the outflow from an untreated (reference) area, and if variations in Hg outflow were correlated with changes in the outflow of organic substances or pH. The study areas are situated in Vaermland, Sweden. Samples of run-off water were taken weekly or monthly (depending on water-flow) during on year (1993-94). The outflow of MeHg, TotHg as well as H+ and dissolved organic material (DOC) was lower from the limed area compared to the other two areas, which did not differ significantly. There was a strong covariation between concentrations of DOC and MeHg and a weaker relation between DOC and TotHg in the run-off waters. MeHg also covaried with temperature while TotHg covaried with pH and water-supply. No difference was found when comparing Hg-data from the limed area before, directly after and eight years after the liming event. 13 refs, 12 figs, 1 tab

  5. Waste Area Grouping 2 Remedial Investigation Phase 1 Seep Task data report: Contaminant source area assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, D.S.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the findings of the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2, Phase 1 Remedial Investigation (RI) Seep Task efforts during 1993 and 1994 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results presented here follow results form the first year of sampling, 1992, which are contained in the Phase 1 RI report for WAG 2 (DOE 1995a). The WAG 2 Seep Task efforts focused on contaminants in seeps, tributaries, and main streams within the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed. This report is designed primarily as a reference for contaminants and a resource for guiding remedial decisions. Additional in-depth assessments of the Seep Task data may provide clearer understandings of contaminant transport from the different source areas in the WOC watershed. WAG 2 consists of WOC and its tributaries downstream of the ORNL main plant area, White Oak Lake, the White Oak Creek Embayment of the Clinch River, and the associated flood plains and subsurface environment. The WOC watershed encompasses ORNL and associated WAGs. WAG 2 acts as an integrator for contaminant releases from the contaminated sites at ORNL and as the conduit transporting contaminants to the Clinch River. The main objectives of the Seep Task were to identify and characterize seeps, tributaries and source areas that are responsible for the contaminant releases to the main streams in WAG 2 and to quantify their input to the total contaminant release from the watershed at White Oak Dam (WOD). Efforts focused on 90 Sr, 3 H, and 137 Cs because these contaminants pose the greatest potential human health risk from water ingestion at WOD. Bimonthly sampling was conducted throughout the WOC watershed beginning in March 1993 and ending in August 1994. Samples were also collected for metals, anions, alkalinity, organics, and other radionuclides

  6. Assessment of mercury contamination of the Svitava and Svratka rivers and muscle of chub (Leuciscus cephalus L. in the urban agglomeration of Brno in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Kružíková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the total mercury and methylmercury content in the muscle of chub (Leuciscus cephalus L., the total mercury in the river sediments and the evaluation of health risks associated with fish contamination. Chub were caught at seven localities on the Svratka and Svitava rivers in the agglomeration of Brno in 2008. The results were compared to those obtained from the same sites in 2007. Total mercury was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using an AMA 245 analyzer, and methylmercury was determined by gas chromatography (using an electron-capture detector after acid digestion and toluene extraction in chub muscle. The highest concentrations of total mercury and methylmercury (0.12 ± 0.14 and 0.07 ± 0.02 mg·kg-1 fresh weight, respectively were found in Svratka before junction (south of Brno, whereas the lowest concentration of mercury and methylmercury in chub (0.06 ± 0.01 and 0.04 ± 0.01 mg·kg-1 was detected in Svitava before junction with the Svratka River. Total mercury in sediments ranged from 0.01 to 1.05 mg·kg-1 dry weight, the highest value was detected in the sediment from Rajhradice. The lowest content (0.01 mg·kg-1 was at Kníničky. Hazard indices calculated for the selected localities showed no health risk for either a standard consumer or a fishing family. Fish from the Svitava and Svratka rivers show very low mercury concentration and hazard index and their consumption poses no health risk from total mercury and methylmercury contamination.

  7. Mercury Contamination in Tree Swallows Nesting at Northern Wisconsin Inland Lakes that Differ in Methylation Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) are a useful species to assess the bioavailability and effects of trace elements, including mercury, because they will nest in boxes in relatively close proximity to one another. Because tree swallows feed on the aerial stages of benthic aquat...

  8. ADVANCES IN ENCAPSULATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF MERCURY-CONTAMINATED HAZARDOUS WASTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although industrial and commercial uses of mercury have been curtailed in recent times, there is a demonstrated need for the development of reliable hazardous waste management techniques because of ongoing hazardous waste generation and historic operations that have led to signif...

  9. Mercury in western North America: A synthesis of environmental contamination, fluxes, bioaccumulation, and risk to fish and wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Wiener, James G.; Eckley, Chris S.; Willacker, James J.; Evers, David C.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Obrist, Daniel; Fleck, Jacob; Aiken, George R.; Lepak, Jesse M.; Jackson, Allyson K.; Webster, Jackson; Stewart, Robin; Davis, Jay; Alpers, Charles N.; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2016-01-01

    Western North America is a region defined by extreme gradients in geomorphology and climate, which support a diverse array of ecological communities and natural resources. The region also has extreme gradients in mercury (Hg) contamination due to a broad distribution of inorganic Hg sources. These diverse Hg sources and a varied landscape create a unique and complex mosaic of ecological risk from Hg impairment associated with differential methylmercury (MeHg) production and bioaccumulation. Understanding the landscape-scale variation in the magnitude and relative importance of processes associated with Hg transport, methylation, and MeHg bioaccumulation requires a multidisciplinary synthesis that transcends small-scale variability. The Western North America Mercury Synthesis compiled, analyzed, and interpreted spatial and temporal patterns and drivers of Hg and MeHg in air, soil, vegetation, sediments, fish, and wildlife across western North America. This collaboration evaluated the potential risk from Hg to fish, and wildlife health, human exposure, and examined resource management activities that influenced the risk of Hg contamination. This paper integrates the key information presented across the individual papers that comprise the synthesis. The compiled information indicates that Hg contamination is widespread, but heterogeneous, across western North America. The storage and transport of inorganic Hg across landscape gradients are largely regulated by climate and land-cover factors such as plant productivity and precipitation. Importantly, there was a striking lack of concordance between pools and sources of inorganic Hg, and MeHg in aquatic food webs. Additionally, water management had a widespread influence on MeHg bioaccumulation in aquatic ecosystems, whereas mining impacts where relatively localized. These results highlight the decoupling of inorganic Hg sources with MeHg production and bioaccumulation. Together the findings indicate that developing

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in arsenic-contaminated areas in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jerusa; Stürmer, Sidney Luiz; Guilherme, Luiz Roberto Guimarães; de Souza Moreira, Fatima Maria; Soares, Claudio Roberto Fonsêca de Sousa

    2013-11-15

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are ubiquitous and establish important symbiotic relationships with the majority of the plants, even in soils contaminated with arsenic (As). In order to better understand the ecological relationships of these fungi with excess As in soils and their effects on plants in tropical conditions, occurrence and diversity of AMF were evaluated in areas affected by gold mining activity in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Soils of four areas with different As concentrations (mg dm(-3)) were sampled: reference Area (10); B1 (subsuperficial layer) (396); barren material (573), and mine waste (1046). Soil sampling was carried out in rainy and dry seasons, including six composite samples per area (n = 24). AMF occurred widespread in all areas, being influenced by As concentrations and sampling periods. A total of 23 species were identified, belonging to the following genus: Acaulospora (10 species), Scutellospora (4 species), Racocetra (3 species), Glomus (4 species), Gigaspora (1 species) and Paraglomus (1 species). The most frequent species occurring in all areas were Paraglomus occultum, Acaulospora morrowiae and Glomus clarum. The predominance of these species indicates their high tolerance to excess As. Although arsenic contamination reduced AMF species richness, presence of host plants tended to counterbalance this reduction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Decision support handbook for recovery of contaminated inhabited areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.G. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Ammann, M. (STUK, Helsinki (Finland)); Backe, S. (IFE, Kjeller (Norway)); Rosen, K. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-07-15

    The handbook is aimed at providing Nordic decision-makers and their expert advisors with required background material for the development of an optimised, operational preparedness for situations where airborne radioactive matter has contaminated a Nordic inhabited area. The focus is on the mitigation of long-term problems. It should be stressed that the information given in the handbook is comprehensive, and many details require careful consideration well in time before implementation of countermeasures in a specific area. Training sessions are therefore recommended. The handbook describes the current relevant Nordic preparedness (dissemination routes) in detail, and suggests methods for measurement of contamination and prognoses of resultant doses, and data for evaluation of countermeasures and associated waste management options. A number of non-technical aspects of contamination in inhabited areas, and of countermeasures for its mitigation, are discussed, and a series of recommendations on the application of all the handbook data in a holistic countermeasure strategy are given. A part of the handbook development has been a dialogue with end-user representatives in each of the Nordic countries, to focus the work of the specific needs of the users. (au)

  12. Decision support handbook for recovery of contaminated inhabited areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.G.; Ammann, M.; Backe, S.; Rosen, K.

    2008-07-01

    The handbook is aimed at providing Nordic decision-makers and their expert advisors with required background material for the development of an optimised, operational preparedness for situations where airborne radioactive matter has contaminated a Nordic inhabited area. The focus is on the mitigation of long-term problems. It should be stressed that the information given in the handbook is comprehensive, and many details require careful consideration well in time before implementation of countermeasures in a specific area. Training sessions are therefore recommended. The handbook describes the current relevant Nordic preparedness (dissemination routes) in detail, and suggests methods for measurement of contamination and prognoses of resultant doses, and data for evaluation of countermeasures and associated waste management options. A number of non-technical aspects of contamination in inhabited areas, and of countermeasures for its mitigation, are discussed, and a series of recommendations on the application of all the handbook data in a holistic countermeasure strategy are given. A part of the handbook development has been a dialogue with end-user representatives in each of the Nordic countries, to focus the work of the specific needs of the users. (au)

  13. Species composition of insects in contaminated areas of Apsheron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseynzadeh, G.A; Mamedova, T.G; Atakishiyeva, A.M; Hajiyeva, S.A

    2010-01-01

    Full text:The main area of the Apsheron Peninsula, semi-complete urbanization area, where as a result of human impact, in particular oil production and processing large areas of once fertile land have been ruined. As a result, formed locally contaminated sites where the oil soaks into the soil to a depth of 1m or more, the mold is completely ruined. The aim of our research was to study the species composition of bugs, beetles, butterflies, bees in these locally contaminated areas of Absheron, their relationships and nutritive degree of occurrence. Expeditionary trips were made in the following areas: Karadag, Seaside, Bibi Geybatsky, Surakhani, Sabunchu Oil Gas Mining Management, Ramaninsky iodine plant. These areas are divided into three gradations of anthropogenic strain:1) The weak degree of load-zone relatively clean; 2) The average degree of load-space of moderate economic use; A strong degree of load-immediately adjacent to the locally-contaminated sites. According to the results of environmental monitoring of terrestrial invertebrates group found: bugs, 22 species, 10 species of beetles, butterflies, eight species of bee-25, found food and the degree of occurrence of communication. Identified several types of bee-bioindicators: Zholletes similes, Schylaeus variegate, Andrew Flavipes. Identification of these species will provide an opportunity to determine in advance the impact of background radiation in this ecosystem and to conduct cleaning, remediation work. On the basis of faunal material collected in Table 1 shows the species composition of the above insects, food relations and the degree of occurrence.

  14. Analysis of Atmospheric Mercury and Associated Trace Gases in Dallas Fort Worth, TX (Barnett Shale area)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, P. L.; Talbot, R. W.; Lefer, B. L.; Flynn, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    Throughout the month of June 2011, a variety of air quality measurements were obtained in the Dallas Fort Worth (Barnett Shale) field campaign. Species such as Hg0, O3, CO, NO, NO2, SO2 were monitored continuously along with a variety of volatile organic carbon (VOC) species ranging in size from C2 (ethane) to C9 aromatics to sesquiterpines. Mixed layer boundary heights were also monitored by Ceilometer measurements. At first glance, the mercury data has peaks that reach as high as 750 ppqv (parts per quadrillion by volume) which is approximately a 5 fold increase over the typical background values observed (~ 150 ppqv). The Fort Worth area has underlying Barnett Shale with thousands of natural gas compressor stations scattered throughout the surrounding landscape. We believe that a potential source of the elevated Hg0 is the result of leakage from these stations under the nocturnal boundary layer. A closer look at diurnal variations and backward wind trajectories will yield information pertaining to the types of air masses spanning the area. We will utilize the suite of chemical and meteorological measurements conducted during the campaign to facilitate source identification for specific time periods. Analysis of these data should provide new information on as yet unexplored sources of atmospheric mercury.

  15. Subsurface contaminant transport from the liquid disposal area, CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killey, R.W.D.; Munch, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes geologic, hydrogeologic and geochemical information obtained from a detailed study of the aquifer receiving contaminated waste-waters from the Chemical Pit. Geologically, the study area features wind-deposited sand overlying a continuous lacustrine clayey silt and a bouldery basal till. Medium to coarse sands locally found at the base of the sand sequence appear to represent stream channel deposits following a buried drainage course towards Perch Lake. These channel sands significantly influence groundwater flow; 3-dimensional models will be required to mathematically simulate the system. Based on the subsurface data, calculated groundwater residence times between the infiltration pit and points of discharge to surface into the East Swamp range from 4 to 22 months. The shortest observed residence time for a non-reactive radio-nuclide is 5 months. Tritium data confirm that contamination is confined to the sands, but show that within the sand aquifer there is considerable heterogeneity in the distribution and rates of groundwater flow. Samples of contaminated groundwaters collected during this study featured increased redox potentials, increased acidity, and minor increases in some major ions relative to local uncontaminated groundwater. Extensive oxidation of the sands in contaminated portions of the aquifer may reflect much greater chemical differences in plume groundwaters in the past

  16. Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Dry Deposition Measurements in the FourCorners Area and Eastern Oklahoma, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) dry deposition measurements using surrogate surface passive samplers were collected in the Four Corners area and eastern Oklahoma from August, 2009–August, 2011. Using data from a six site area network, a characterization of the magnitude and spatia...

  17. Consolidation of the landfill stabilization and contaminant plumes focus areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.P.; Wright, J.; Chamberlain, G.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Assistant Secretary of the Office of Environmental Management (EM) on January 25, 1994, formally established five focus areas to implement A New Approach to Environmental Research and Technology Development at the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) - Action Plan. The goal of this new approach was to conduct a research and technology development program that is focused on overcoming the major obstacles to cleaning up DOE sites and ensuring that the best talent within the Department and the national science communities is used. Two of the five focus areas established were Landfill Stabilization Focus Area (LSFA) and Contaminant Plumes Containment and Remediation Focus Area (PFA), which were located at the Savannah River Operations Office (SR)

  18. Monosilicic acid potential in phytoremediation of the contaminated areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xionghui; Liu, Saihua; Huang, Juan; Bocharnikova, Elena; Matichenkov, Vladimir

    2016-08-01

    The contamination of agricultural areas by heavy metals has a negative influence on food quality and human health. Various remediation techniques have been developed for the removal and/or immobilization of heavy metals (HM) in contaminated soils. Phytoremediation is innovative technology, which has advantages (low cost, easy monitoring, high selectivity) and limitations, including long time for procedure and negative impact of contaminants on used plants. Greenhouse investigations have shown that monosilicic acid can be used for regulation of the HM (Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn) mobility in the soil-plant system. If the concentration of monosilicic acid in soil was increased from 0 to 20 mg L(-1) of Si in soil solution, the HM bioavailability was increased by 30-150%. However, the negative influence on the barley by HM was reduced under monosilicic acid application. If the concentration of monosilicic acid was increased more than 20 mg L(-1), the HM mobility in the soil was decreased by 40-300% and heavy metal uptake by plants was reduced 2-3 times. The using of the monosilicic acid may increase the phytoremediation efficiency. However the technique adaptation will be necessary for phytoremediation on certain areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Human exposure to mercury in a compact fluorescent lamp manufacturing area: By food (rice and fish) consumption and occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Peng; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Chan; Zhang, Jin; Cao, Yucheng; You, Qiongzhi; Leung, Anna Oi Wah; Wong, Ming-Hung; Wu, Sheng-Chun

    2015-01-01

    To investigate human Hg exposure by food consumption and occupation exposure in a compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) manufacturing area, human hair and rice samples were collected from Gaohong town, Zhejiang Province, China. The mean values of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in local cultivated rice samples were significantly higher than in commercial rice samples which indicated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in Hg accumulation in local rice samples. For all of the study participants, significantly higher THg concentrations in human hair were observed in CFL workers compared with other residents. In comparison, MeHg concentrations in human hair of residents whose diet consisted of local cultivated rice were significantly higher than those who consumed commercial rice. These results demonstrated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in THg accumulation in the hair of CFL workers. However, MeHg in hair were mainly affected by the sources of rice of the residents. - Highlights: • Rice samples were contaminated by Compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) manufacturing. • CFL manufacturing lead to THg accumulation in human hair. • MeHg in human hair were mainly affected by the sources of rice. • MeHg intake from fish consumption was lower than that from rice consumption. • PDI of MeHg by food consumption was below the guidelines for public health concern. - CFL manufacturing activities result in Hg accumulation in local rice samples and hair of CFL workers. However, MeHg in hair were mainly affected by sources of rice

  20. Contamination and decontamination of vehicles when driven in radioactive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulvsand, T.; Nygren, U.

    1999-10-01

    There is reason to ask whether it is beneficial to decontaminate vehicles, in view of the great effort applied. If the level of contamination is low before the decontamination process, then the cost is not motivated, even if the decontamination is shown to be effective in relative terms. The report describes two trials at the National NBC Defence School in Umeaa and one trial at the French test site in Bourges. The aim is to investigate how vehicles are contaminated and at which ground deposition levels troublesome levels of contamination will arise. In the trials, a non-radioactive agent substituting real radioactivity was used. The trials in Sweden so far have used the oversnow vehicle BV 206, during both winter and summer conditions. The vehicles were driven a specific distance along a road on which a known amount of the test substance had been dispersed. Samples were taken on pre-determined areas on one side of the vehicles to measure the amount of test substance. Later, the vehicles continued along a 'clean' road where additional samples were taken, but on the other side of the vehicles. The largest amount of test substance was collected on the tracks and on the back of the vehicle. The tracks and mud-flaps were effectively decontaminated when the vehicles were driven along a clean road, while most of the contamination remained on the backside. The purpose of the trials in France was to compare the results from our non-radioactive and their radioactive method, based on the radioactive La-140. Due to ground conditions, the level of contamination on the vehicles was much less than in the trials in Umeaa, but the effect decontamination could be measured after all

  1. Contamination and decontamination of vehicles driven in radioactive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulvsand, T.; Nygren, U.

    1999-03-01

    There is reason to ask whether it is beneficial to decontaminate vehicles, in view of the great effort applied. If the level of contamination is low before the decontamination process, then the cost is not motivated, even if the decontamination is shown to be effective in relative terms. The report describes two trials at the National NBC Defence School in Umeaa and one trial at the French test site in Bourges. The aim is to investigate how vehicles are contaminated and at which ground deposition levels troublesome levels of contamination will arise. In the trials, a non-radioactive agent substituting real radioactivity was used. The trials in Sweden so far have used the oversnow vehicle BV 206, during both winter and summer conditions. The vehicles were driven a specific distance along a road on which a known amount of the test substance had been dispersed. Samples were taken on pre-determined areas on one side of the vehicles to measure the amount of test substance. Later, the vehicles continued along a 'clean' road where additional samples were taken, but on the other side of the vehicles. The largest amount of test substance was collected on the tracks and on the back of the vehicle. The tracks and mud-flaps were effectively decontaminated when the vehicles were driven along a clean road, while most of the contamination remained on the backside. The purpose of the trials in France was to compare the results from our non-radioactive and their radioactive method, based on the radioactive La-140. Due to ground conditions, the level of contamination on the vehicles was much less than in the trials in Umeaa, but the effect decontamination could be measured after all

  2. Nike (Awaous melanocephalus) Fishery and Mercury Contamination in the Estuary of BoneBolango River

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz Salam; Femy M Sahami; Citra Panigoro

    2016-01-01

    Nike fish (Awaous melanocephalus) is a tiny-kind of fish harvested lunar-monthly in the estuary of BoneBolango River in the City of Gorontalo. The fishing activity is showing steady increase recently as the commodity finds its way to the international market. Fishermen are putting more efforts by escalating the catching capacity of their gears. Meanwhile, mercury used by the artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in the headwaters for amalgamation put another aspect to the A...

  3. Method for fixating sludges and soils contaminated with mercury and other heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Thomas E.; Roth, Rachel L.; Carlson, Allan L.

    2005-06-28

    The invention relates to a method, composition and apparatus for stabilizing mercury and other heavy metals present in a particulate material such that the metals will not leach from the particulate material. The method generally involves the application of a metal reagent, a sulfur-containing compound, and the addition of oxygen to the particulate material, either through agitation, sparging or the addition of an oxygen-containing compound.

  4. Mercury in Some Lakes of Gold Mining Area of the Southern Ural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsy Y. G.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The mercury content in bottom sediments of Kalkan Lake, of the Uchala district, the Southern Ural. It was assumed that high concentrations of mercury in fish due to pollution of bottom sediments as a result of amalgamation at developing of gold placers. Detailed study of distribution of different elements in sediments show close association Hg with the chalcophylic elements, whose anomalies do not have technogenic nature. Association of mercury with the elements-companions of gold placers is evidence of basic contribution of natural mercury to its anomalous accumulation in sediments and fish. This is result of steady long-term natural mercury pollution.

  5. Anthropogenic mercury deposition to arctic lake sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanson, M.H. [Westchester University, Westchester, PA (United States). Dept. of Health

    1998-01-01

    The history of atmospheric mercury inputs to remote arctic regions can be measured in lake sediment cores using lead-210 chronology. In the investigation, total mercury deposition is measured in sediments from Imitavik and Annak Lakes on the Belcher Islands in southeastern Hudson Bay, an area in the southern Canadian Arctic with no history of local industrial or agricultural sources of contamination. Both lakes received background and atmospheric inputs of mercury while Annak also received mercury from raw domestic sewage from the Hamlet of Sanikiluaq, a growing Inuit community of about 550 established in the late 1960s. Results from Imitavik show that anthropogenic mercury inputs, apparently transported through the atmosphere, began to appear in the mid-eighteenth century, and continued to the 1990s. Annak had a similar mercury history until the late 1960s when disposal of domestic sewage led to increased sediment and contaminant accumulation. The high input of mercury to Annak confirms that Sanikiluaq residents are exposed to mercury through native food sources. 39 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Method for the removal and recovery of mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterly, Clay E.; Vass, Arpad A.; Tyndall, Richard L.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.

  7. Geochemistry and mercury contamination in receiving environments of artisanal mining wastes and identified concerns for food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J., E-mail: amanda.reichelt-brushett@scu.edu.au [Marine Ecology Research Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); School of Environment, Science and Engineering Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); Stone, Jane [School of Environment, Science and Engineering Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); Howe, Pelli [Marine Ecology Research Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); School of Environment, Science and Engineering Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); Thomas, Bernard [School of Environment, Science and Engineering Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); Clark, Malcolm [Marine Ecology Research Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); School of Environment, Science and Engineering Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); Male, Yusthinus [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Pattimura University, Ambon (Indonesia); Nanlohy, Albert [Department of Fisheries and Marine Science, Pattimura University, Ambon (Indonesia); Butcher, Paul [School of Environment, Science and Engineering Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); NSW Department of Primary Industries, National Marine Science Centre, PO Box 4321, Coffs Harbour, NSW (Australia)

    2017-01-15

    Artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) using mercury (Hg) amalgamation has been occurring on Buru Island, Indonesia since early 2012, and has caused rapid accumulation of high Hg concentrations in river, estuary and marine sediments. In this study, sediment samples were collected from several sites downstream of the Mount Botak ASGM site, as well as in the vicinity of the more recently established site at Gogrea where no sampling had previously been completed. All sediment samples had total Hg (THg) concentrations exceeding Indonesian sediment quality guidelines and were up to 82 times this limit at one estuary site. The geochemistry of sediments in receiving environments indicates the potential for Hg-methylation to form highly bioavailable Hg species. To assess the current contamination threat from consumption of local seafood, samples of fish, molluscs and crustaceans were collected from the Namlea fish market and analysed for THg concentrations. The majority of edible tissue samples had elevated THg concentrations, which raises concerns for food safety. This study shows that river, estuary and marine ecosystems downstream of ASGM operations on Buru Island are exposed to dangerously high Hg concentrations, which are impacting aquatic food chains, and fisheries resources. Considering the high dietary dependence on marine protein in the associated community and across the Mollucas Province, and the short time period since ASGM operations commenced in this region, the results warrant urgent further investigation, risk mitigation, and community education. - Highlights: • Mercury contamination of sediments and seafood due to artisanal gold mining. • Considerable risks to human and ecosystem health are identified. • Results emphasise the urgent need for risk mitigation and community education.

  8. Geochemistry and mercury contamination in receiving environments of artisanal mining wastes and identified concerns for food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J.; Stone, Jane; Howe, Pelli; Thomas, Bernard; Clark, Malcolm; Male, Yusthinus; Nanlohy, Albert; Butcher, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) using mercury (Hg) amalgamation has been occurring on Buru Island, Indonesia since early 2012, and has caused rapid accumulation of high Hg concentrations in river, estuary and marine sediments. In this study, sediment samples were collected from several sites downstream of the Mount Botak ASGM site, as well as in the vicinity of the more recently established site at Gogrea where no sampling had previously been completed. All sediment samples had total Hg (THg) concentrations exceeding Indonesian sediment quality guidelines and were up to 82 times this limit at one estuary site. The geochemistry of sediments in receiving environments indicates the potential for Hg-methylation to form highly bioavailable Hg species. To assess the current contamination threat from consumption of local seafood, samples of fish, molluscs and crustaceans were collected from the Namlea fish market and analysed for THg concentrations. The majority of edible tissue samples had elevated THg concentrations, which raises concerns for food safety. This study shows that river, estuary and marine ecosystems downstream of ASGM operations on Buru Island are exposed to dangerously high Hg concentrations, which are impacting aquatic food chains, and fisheries resources. Considering the high dietary dependence on marine protein in the associated community and across the Mollucas Province, and the short time period since ASGM operations commenced in this region, the results warrant urgent further investigation, risk mitigation, and community education. - Highlights: • Mercury contamination of sediments and seafood due to artisanal gold mining. • Considerable risks to human and ecosystem health are identified. • Results emphasise the urgent need for risk mitigation and community education.

  9. Measurements of Mercury Released From Solidified/Stabilized Waste Forms-FY2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattus, C.H.

    2003-01-01

    This report covers work performed during FY 2002 in support of treatment demonstrations conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) Mercury Working Group. To comply with the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as implemented by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), DOE must use one of the following procedures for mixed low-level radioactive wastes containing mercury at levels above 260 ppm: a retorting/roasting treatment or (if the wastes also contain organics) an incineration treatment. The recovered radioactively contaminated mercury must then be treated by an amalgamation process prior to disposal. The DOE MWFA Mercury Working Group is working with EPA to determine whether some alternative processes could be used to treat these types of waste directly, thereby avoiding a costly recovery step for DOE. In previous years, demonstrations were performed in which commercial vendors applied their technologies for the treatment of radiologically contaminated elemental mercury as well as radiologically contaminated and mercury-contaminated waste soils from Brookhaven National Laboratory. The test results for mercury release in the headspace were reported in two reports, ''Measurements of Mercury Released from Amalgams and Sulfide Compounds'' (ORNL/TM-13728) and ''Measurements of Mercury Released from Solidified/Stabilized Waste Forms'' (ORNL/TM-2001/17). The current work did not use a real waste; a surrogate sludge had been prepared and used in the testing in an effort to understand the consequences of mercury speciation on mercury release

  10. Restoration of contaminated soils in abandoned mine areas (Tuscany, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    In Italy ore research and exploitation have been nearly exhausted since the end of the last century, and have left on the land a huge amount of mine waste, therefore provoking evident environmental damage including surface and groundwater, soils, vegetation and the food chain, and a potential threat to human health. The main processes occurring at these sites are: rock disgregation, fragments migration, dust dispersion, oxidation (Eh>250mV), acidification (pHhazard. The increasing environmental consciousness of general population compelled Public Administrators to set down effective legislation acts on this subject (e.g. D.L. 152/2006), and more generally on environmental contamination. In this work we present the results of a survey carried out at several mixed sulphides mine sites in Tuscany, exploited for at least a millennium, and closed in the last century. Biogeochemical analyses carried out on representative soil profiles (Spolic Technosols) and vegetation in the proximal and distal areas of ore exploitation show heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) overcoming legislation limits on average. Ni, Cr and Mn concentrations, instead, are generally below the reference levels. The results obtained suggest that the abandoned mine sites represent actual natural laboratories where to experiment new opportunities for restoration of anthropogenically contaminated areas, and to study new pedogenetic trends from these peculiar parent materials. Moreover, plants growing on these substrates are genetically adapted to metal-enriched soils, and therefore may be utilized in phytoremediation of contaminated sites. Furthermore, the institution of natural parks in these areas could enhance their educational and scientific value, contributing in the meantime to general population amusement and recreation. Finally, it is the occasion for soil scientists to submit to the scientific community new classification proposals of this new kind of soils. Key-words: mine waste

  11. Evaluation of leafy vegetables as bioindicators of gaseous mercury pollution in sewage-irrigated areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shun-An; Wu, Zeying; Chen, Chun; Liang, Junfeng; Huang, Hongkun; Zheng, Xiangqun

    2018-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) can evaporate and enter the plants through the stomata of plant leaves, which will cause a serious threat to local food safety and human health. For the risk assessment, this study aimed to investigate the concentration and accumulation of total gaseous mercury (TGM) in five typical leafy vegetables (Chinese chives (Allium tuberosum Rottler), amaranth (Amaranthus mangostanus L.), rape (Brassica campestris L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)) grown on sewage-irrigated areas in Tianjin, China. The following three sites were chosen to biomonitor Hg pollution: a paddy field receiving sewage irrigation (industrial and urban sewage effluents) for the last 30 years, a vegetable field receiving sewage irrigation for 15 years, and a grass field which did not receive sewage irrigation in history. Results showed that the total Hg levels in the paddy (0.65 mg kg -1 ) and vegetation fields (0.42 mg kg -1 ) were significantly higher than the local background level (0.073 mg kg -1 ) and the China national soil environment quality standard for Hg in grade I (0.30 mg kg -1 ). The TGM levels in ambient air were significantly higher in the paddy (71.3 ng m -3 ) and vegetable fields (39.2 ng m -3 ) relative to the control (9.4 ng m -3 ) and previously reported levels (1.45 ng m -3 ), indicating severe Hg pollution in the atmospheric environment of the sewage-irrigated areas. Furthermore, gaseous mercury was the dominant form of Hg uptake in the leaves or irreversibly bound to leaves. The comparison of Hg uptake levels among the five vegetables showed that the gradient of Hg accumulation followed the order spinach > red amaranth > Chinese chives > rape > lettuce. These results suggest that gaseous Hg exposure in the sewage-irrigated areas is a dominant Hg uptake route in leafy vegetables and may pose a potential threat to agricultural food safety and human health.

  12. Development of international criteria for the cleanup of contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann-Jensen, P.; Barraclough, I.; Meck, R.; Gnugnoli, G.; Stegnar, P.

    1999-01-01

    IAEA TECDOC-987, Application of radiation protection principles to the cleanup of contaminated areas, provides a coherent framework and consistent guidance needed for approaches to cleanup that encompass the entire range of contamination situations. A major goal of cleanup is usually to re-establish that the environment can acceptably support habitation and use. Difficult situations include chronic exposures due to radioactivity associated with the discovery of contamination from a previously discontinued practice and post-accident situations. and post-accident situations. The concepts of justification, optimization, and limitation can be applied to cleanup from 'trivial' to 'intolerable' situations by taking into account not only radiological risk, but the entire range of social values including the ability of the society to feed and shelter itself and to sustain a productive economy. TECDOC-987 proposes six ranges, or bands, of doses that correspond to trivial, acceptable, tolerable - clean-up unlikely (unless constrained), tolerable - clean-up likely, unacceptable, and intolerable risks. Remedial actions may vary from 'none' to elaborate decontamination or restricted or prohibited use. (author)

  13. GPS-based handheld device for mapping contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paridaens, J.

    2005-01-01

    Sometimes one is confronted with the challenge to map large areas with enhanced radioactivity. Examples are mine tailings or waste rock piles, deposits of the phosphate industry, flooding zones contaminated by effluents of plants processing ores containing enhanced natural radiation, nuclear accident sites etc. Car borne measuring equipment is not always an option, as the terrain might be rough and only accessible by foot. Airborne mapping with helicopters on the other hand is fast, but expensive, not readily available, shows difficulties with complex topography and lacks the necessary detail. The objective of this study was to create a portable and easily usable tool for the real time logging of radiation and location data, allowing mapping the radioactivity by simply walking over any kind of terrain with the portable equipment and post processing the data in the office. We also assessed the performance of the GPS based system on contaminated sites with areas varying from less than a hectare to several tens of hectares, with respect to speed, precision and ease of use. At sites of large scale mining and processing of uranium ore, tailings and waste rock piles are today the most visible relics of the uranium extractive industry. These mining relics are constantly subjected to weathering and leaching processes causing the dissemination of radioactive and toxic elements and sometimes requiring remedial operations. The in situ remediation of waste rock piles usually includes their revegetation for minimizing the water infiltration and for increasing surface soil stability. Thanks to its biomass density and longevity, the perennial vegetation plays an important role in stabilisation of the water cycling. The buffer role of forest vegetation can reduce water export from watersheds as well as erosion and hydrological losses of chemicals including radionuclides from contaminated sites. If long term reduction of contaminant dispersion at revegetated uranium mining sites is

  14. Assessment of soil contamination in area surrounding Tuwaitha nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Taii, A.A.F.; AI-Jobori, S.H.; Al-Maadhidi, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    The wide spread looting of the Tuwaitha Nuclear Facilities as well as damaging of some buildings in 2003, had offered possibilities of contamination of soil environment inside the Site. The objective of the present work was to investigate soil contamination to help in future decontamination programs. A total of 25 soil surface samples (including one reference sample) covered different locations in the Site were collected in March 2011. High purity Ge detector was used for gamma spectrometry of soil samples. Data of total and spectral gamma for U series, Th series, 40 K and 137 Cs are presented. Slight variations were observed in specific activity of the U series 214 Bi or 214 Pb and 226 Ra among measured soil samples where the range was 10.3-12.7 for 214 Bi as compared with 12.2-33.4 Bq/kg for 226 Ra. Values of both 214 Bi and 226 Ra are in the range of reference sample specific activity indicating that no evidence of contamination had occurred in the investigated area. Results of activity concentrations of thorium series 228 Ac or 208 Tl, 212 Pb, and 212 Bi are in the range of reference sample and close to those values given worldwide for natural uranium in soil. The levels of 40 K in soil are within the natural abundance of this isotope in the soil where the range was 207.6-266.1 with 220.3 Bq/kg for the reference sample. On the other hand, 137 Cs specific activities showed great variation among measured samples. The minimum value for 137 Cs was 0.6 and the maximum 7.6 compared with 0.8 Bq/kg for the control soil sample. The non-uniformity of radioactivity concentration of 137 Cs suggest the presence of contamination in some locations although this level is considered as an acceptable level and no hazardous effect will be generated.

  15. Phytoremediation and land management of radionuclide contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanek, T.; Valenova, S.; Soudek, P.

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the feasibility of using radiophytoremediation for wastewater treatment, where the conditions of contaminants can be similar to hydroponic arrangement. Due to the fact that large doses of radiation can cause cellular damage, the remediation of radionuclides from the environment is important for human health. These high risk pollutants are introduced into the environment at uranium ore processing factories, nuclear power plants, and nuclear bomb testing sites. Following the Chernobyl accident in 1986, various studies were conducted to analyze the dynamic of 137 Cs radionuclide in natural and semi-natural environments. The use of plants to clean up soils, sediments, surface and ground waters contaminated by radionuclides or toxic elements has been extensively tested. This study in particular, examined the uptake, translocation and distribution of 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 125 I uptake from a radioactive hydroponic solution. It also examined the activity distribution within different plant tissues. The influence of K + , Ca 2+ and NH 4 + on 137 Cs and 90 Sr uptake and accumulation by sunflowers was also studied in order to evaluate the effects of these ions that are normally present in the soil. The study examined which plant species could grow in contaminated areas and accumulate large amounts of radionuclides which would be suitable for radiophytoremediation purposes. Approximately 44 plant species were tested in greenhouse experiments, field studies and constructed wetlands. It was concluded that for soil-cleaning purposes, the solubility of the contaminant and its mobility in soil is the main limiting factor along with the extent of root-zone of certain plant species

  16. Phytoremediation and land management of radionuclide-contaminated areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanek, T.; Valenova, S.; Soudek, P. [Czech Academy of Science, Inst. of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, (Czech Republic). Dept. of Plant Tissue Cultures

    2006-07-01

    A study was conducted to examine the feasibility of using radiophytoremediation for wastewater treatment, where the conditions of contaminants can be similar to hydroponic arrangement. Due to the fact that large doses of radiation can cause cellular damage, the remediation of radionuclides from the environment is important for human health. These high risk pollutants are introduced into the environment at uranium ore processing factories, nuclear power plants, and nuclear bomb testing sites. Following the Chernobyl accident in 1986, various studies were conducted to analyze the dynamic of {sup 137}Cs radionuclide in natural and semi-natural environments. The use of plants to clean up soils, sediments, surface and ground waters contaminated by radionuclides or toxic elements has been extensively tested. This study in particular, examined the uptake, translocation and distribution of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 125}I uptake from a radioactive hydroponic solution. It also examined the activity distribution within different plant tissues. The influence of K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} on {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr uptake and accumulation by sunflowers was also studied in order to evaluate the effects of these ions that are normally present in the soil. The study examined which plant species could grow in contaminated areas and accumulate large amounts of radionuclides which would be suitable for radiophytoremediation purposes. Approximately 44 plant species were tested in greenhouse experiments, field studies and constructed wetlands. It was concluded that for soil-cleaning purposes, the solubility of the contaminant and its mobility in soil is the main limiting factor along with the extent of root-zone of certain plant species. 38 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs.

  17. Evaluation of surface contamination due to alpha using large area contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavayya, M.

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive contamination at work places is evaluated routinely using either the swipe sampling technique or a contamination monitor. Commercially available alpha probes used for the purpose are usually circular and have a face diameter of 50 or 100 mm. Square faced probes are also available. A thin aluminized mylar membrane of thickness 0.45 to 0.9 mg.cm -2 is used to screen the phosphor in the alpha probe to protect it from external light. The membrane cuts off more alphas from low energy emitters than from higher energy alpha emitters. Moreover the response of the detector for alphas originating at all points under the detector face is not uniform, especially when the large area alpha monitors are used. These factors can introduce errors as high as 40% into the measurements. This paper aims to quantify these errors and describe a procedure to overcome the limitations. (author)

  18. Mercury contamination in agricultural soils from abandoned metal mines classified by geology and mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Sik; Jung, Myung Chae

    2012-01-01

    This survey aimed to compare mercury concentrations in soils related to geology and mineralization types of mines. A total of 16,386 surface soils (0~15 cm in depth) were taken from agricultural lands near 343 abandoned mines (within 2 km from each mine) and analyzed for Hg by AAS with a hydride-generation device. To meaningfully compare mercury levels in soils with geology and mineralization types, three subclassification criteria were adapted: (1) five mineralization types, (2) four valuable ore mineral types, and (3) four parent rock types. The average concentration of Hg in all soils was 0.204 mg kg(-1) with a range of 0.002-24.07 mg kg(-1). Based on the mineralization types, average Hg concentrations (mg kg(-1)) in the soils decreased in the order of pegmatite (0.250) > hydrothermal vein (0.208) > hydrothermal replacement (0.166) > skarn (0.121) > sedimentary deposits (0.045). In terms of the valuable ore mineral types, the concentrations decreased in the order of Au-Ag-base metal mines ≈ base metal mines > Au-Ag mines > Sn-W-Mo-Fe-Mn mines. For parent rock types, similar concentrations were found in the soils derived from sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks followed by heterogeneous rocks with igneous and metamorphic processes. Furthermore, farmland soils contained relatively higher Hg levels than paddy soils. Therefore, it can be concluded that soils in Au, Ag, and base metal mines derived from a hydrothermal vein type of metamorphic rocks and pegmatite deposits contained relatively higher concentrations of mercury in the surface environment.

  19. Penguins as bioindicators of mercury contamination in the Southern Ocean: birds from the Kerguelen Islands as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carravieri, Alice; Bustamante, Paco; Churlaud, Carine; Cherel, Yves

    2013-06-01

    Seabirds have been used extensively as bioindicators of mercury (Hg) contamination in the marine environment, although information on flightless species like penguins remains limited. In order to assess the use of penguins as bioindicators of Hg contamination in subantarctic and Antarctic marine ecosystems, Hg concentrations were evaluated in the feathers of the four species that breed on the Kerguelen Islands in the southern Indian Ocean. Compared to other seabirds, adult Kerguelen penguins had low to moderate feather Hg concentrations, with an average ranging from 1.96 ± 0.41 μgg(-1) dry weight in the southern rockhopper penguin to 5.85 ± 3.00 μg g(-1) dry weight in the gentoo penguin. The species was a major determinant of Hg contamination, with feather Hg concentrations being lower in the oceanic species (king and crested penguins) than in the coastal one (gentoo penguin). In all species however, feather Hg concentrations were higher in adults than in chicks, reflecting the different periods of Hg bioaccumulation in the internal tissues of the two age classes. The relationship between adult penguin trophic ecology and Hg burdens was investigated using stable isotopes. Feeding habits (reflected by δ(15)N values) had a greater effect on adult feather Hg concentrations when compared to foraging habitats (reflected by δ(13)C values), indicating Hg biomagnification in Kerguelen neritic and oceanic waters. Dietary preferences were crucial in explaining individual feather Hg concentrations, as highlighted by intra-specific variation in Hg levels of gentoo penguins sampled at two different breeding sites of the archipelago. Penguins appear to reflect Hg bioavailability reliably in their foraging environment and could serve as efficient bioindicators of Hg contamination in the Southern Ocean on different spatial and temporal scales. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Contamination by mercury in air of the mining district of San Martin de Loba in Bolivar's Department, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivero V, J.; Young C, F.; Caballero G, K.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a heavy metal, considered a highly toxic pollutant. In its elemental state is volatile, making it easy to transport over long distances through the atmosphere, so that environmental pollution caused by it is a serious problem worldwide. Activities such as gold mining, where metallic Hg is used, have contributed with its global distribution, affecting ecosystems and human health. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of total mercury (T-Hg) in air in gold mining areas in Southern Bolivar, particularly in the mining district of San Martin de Loba, in the municipalities of San Martin de Loba and Barranco de Loba (Mina Santa Cruz), Colombia. In situ analyses were performed by atomic absorption spectroscopy, using a portable Ra-915 + Zeeman mercury analyzer. In Mina Santa Cruz, one of the most important gold mines in Colombia, concentrations of Hg in air ranged between 163.7 ± 6.6 and 40 455 ± 2154 mg/m 3 , while in the urban area of San Martin de Loba varied from 223.6 ± 20.8 to 27 140 ± 212.5 ng/m 3 . In those places where an amalgam burning process was taking place at the time of the measurements, Hg concentrations reached values of 40 455 ± 2154 ng/m 3 . These data imply a severe occupational exposure to Hg for operators and citizens living in cities located near mines. Therefore, it is important to regulate and control the use of Hg in gold mining, avoiding a chronic impact of the metal on the health of people and the environment. (author)

  1. Investigating respirable particulates (PM10) around the world's largest mercury mine, Almaden, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, W.; Jones, T. [Cardiff Univ., Cardiff, Wales (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Moreno, T.; Richards, R. [Cardiff Univ., Cardiff, Wales (United Kingdom). School of Biosciences; Higueras, P. [Almaden Univ. of Castilla-La Mancha, Almaden (Spain). Dept. of Geological Engineering

    2003-07-01

    The Almaden area in Spain has been mined for mercury since pre-Roman days. There is no evidence for significant contamination of the groundwater supply, since the lack of pyrite in the mercury deposits has prevented the formation of acid mine drainage. However, the main recognized environmental problem related to mercury mining has been the progressive poisoning of workers who are in direct contact with mercury vapours. This paper presents results of a study in which dust samples were collected from former mining and urban locations around Almaden. The samples were processed to extract their fine, respirable fraction. Mining activities have left contaminated ground, which under semi-arid conditions has created respirable mercury-bearing dusts. In some places the ground is severely contaminated with mercury as cinnabar and as schuetteite. Some of the contaminated areas are used for livestock grazing and growing plants for human consumption. A higher incidence of mercury-bearing particles is found in the finer fraction. The sizes of the mercury-bearing resuspended particles at all sites varies from inhalable dust, through respirable dust, to fine and ultrafine size capable of reaching the deepest levels of the lung alveoli. The most significant contamination is associated with old processing plants. Dust samples collected from Almaden, a town of 6,500 inhabitants, were found to contain significant amounts of respirable mercury-bearing aerosols.

  2. Mercury in the nation's streams - Levels, trends, and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, Dennis A.; Brigham, Mark E.; Chasar, Lia C.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is a potent neurotoxin that accumulates in fish to levels of concern for human health and the health of fish-eating wildlife. Mercury contamination of fish is the primary reason for issuing fish consumption advisories, which exist in every State in the Nation. Much of the mercury originates from combustion of coal and can travel long distances in the atmosphere before being deposited. This can result in mercury-contaminated fish in areas with no obvious source of mercury pollution.Three key factors determine the level of mercury contamination in fish - the amount of inorganic mercury available to an ecosystem, the conversion of inorganic mercury to methylmercury, and the bioaccumulation of methylmercury through the food web. Inorganic mercury originates from both natural sources (such as volcanoes, geologic deposits of mercury, geothermal springs, and volatilization from the ocean) and anthropogenic sources (such as coal combustion, mining, and use of mercury in products and industrial processes). Humans have doubled the amount of inorganic mercury in the global atmosphere since pre-industrial times, with substantially greater increases occurring at locations closer to major urban areas.In aquatic ecosystems, some inorganic mercury is converted to methylmercury, the form that ultimately accumulates in fish. The rate of mercury methylation, thus the amount of methylmercury produced, varies greatly in time and space, and depends on numerous environmental factors, including temperature and the amounts of oxygen, organic matter, and sulfate that are present.Methylmercury enters aquatic food webs when it is taken up from water by algae and other microorganisms. Methylmercury concentrations increase with successively higher trophic levels in the food web—a process known as bioaccumulation. In general, fish at the top of the food web consume other fish and tend to accumulate the highest methylmercury concentrations.This report summarizes selected stream studies

  3. The distribution of mercury around the small-scale gold mining area along the Cikaniki river, Bogor, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyasu, Takashi; Kono, Yuriko; Kodamatani, Hitoshi; Hidayati, Nuril; Rahajoe, Joeni Setijo

    2013-08-01

    The distribution of mercury in the soil, sediment and river water around the artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) area along the Cikaniki River, West Java, Indonesia, was investigated. The total mercury concentration (T-Hg) in the forest soil ranged from 0.11 to 7.0mgkg(-1), and the highest value was observed at the ASGM village. In the vertical T-Hg profile around the villages, the highest value was observed at the soil surface, and the concentration decreased with depth. This result suggested that the mercury released by mining activity was dispersed through the atmosphere and deposited on the surface. The total organic carbon content (TOC) showed a similar vertical profile as the T-Hg, and a linear relationship was found between T-Hg and TOC. Mercury deposited on the surface can be absorbed by organic matter. The slope of the line was larger near the ASGM village, implying a higher rate of deposition of mercury. The T-Hg in the sediment ranged from 10 to 70mgkg(-1), decreasing gradually toward the lower reaches of the river. Mining waste can be transported with the river flow and deposited along the river. The distribution of the mining waste can be determined using the mineralogical composition measured by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of the addition of fertilizers and organic matter amendment on mercury contaminated soil; Influencia de la adicion de fertilizantes y enmendantes organicos en suelos contaminados de mercurio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, S; Millan, R

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the mercury mobilization in a soil where fertilizers and organic matter were added. The study was carried out using a soil from the mercury mining district of Almaden (Spain). This area constitutes the largest and most unusual concentration of mercury in the World. The soil has been classified as an Alfisol Xeralf Haploxeral (USDA taxonomy), and the total mercury content is 14,16 0,65 mg kg-1in average. The experimental work was performed in 1 L glass columns filled with 500 g of soil. It was carried out 3 different treatments. The fi rst one, a NPK fertilizer (15:15:15) that was applied at three different doses (recommended dose -by farmers, half recommended dose and double recommended dose). The second one, a peat (Sphagnum) with a ph between 5,5-7, and the third one, a liquid organic amendment (Molex). The experimental work was carried out using 21 columns in total, where 3 of them were used as a control (C). During ten consecutive weeks, the columns were irrigated with distilled water (150 ml) once a week. The contact time was two days; after that, the leachates were collected and filtered. Finally, the soil contained in glass columns at soil fi eld capacity was centrifuged to get the wilting point. Mercury was determined using an Advanced Mercury Analyzer (AMA-254). Results show that mercury content in all samples was under detection limit (0,5 {mu}g L-1). It is according to the fact that mercury is mainly in a cinnabar form, which had a very low solubility. The addition of fertilizers and organic matter amendment do not increase the mercury content in the leachates either in the soil solution. (Author) 102 refs.

  5. Penguins as bioindicators of mercury contamination in the Southern Ocean: Birds from the Kerguelen Islands as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carravieri, Alice; Bustamante, Paco; Churlaud, Carine; Cherel, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Seabirds have been used extensively as bioindicators of mercury (Hg) contamination in the marine environment, although information on flightless species like penguins remains limited. In order to assess the use of penguins as bioindicators of Hg contamination in subantarctic and Antarctic marine ecosystems, Hg concentrations were evaluated in the feathers of the four species that breed on the Kerguelen Islands in the southern Indian Ocean. Compared to other seabirds, adult Kerguelen penguins had low to moderate feather Hg concentrations, with an average ranging from 1.96 ± 0.41 μg g −1 dry weight in the southern rockhopper penguin to 5.85 ± 3.00 μg g −1 dry weight in the gentoo penguin. The species was a major determinant of Hg contamination, with feather Hg concentrations being lower in the oceanic species (king and crested penguins) than in the coastal one (gentoo penguin). In all species however, feather Hg concentrations were higher in adults than in chicks, reflecting the different periods of Hg bioaccumulation in the internal tissues of the two age classes. The relationship between adult penguin trophic ecology and Hg burdens was investigated using stable isotopes. Feeding habits (reflected by δ 15 N values) had a greater effect on adult feather Hg concentrations when compared to foraging habitats (reflected by δ 13 C values), indicating Hg biomagnification in Kerguelen neritic and oceanic waters. Dietary preferences were crucial in explaining individual feather Hg concentrations, as highlighted by intra-specific variation in Hg levels of gentoo penguins sampled at two different breeding sites of the archipelago. Penguins appear to reflect Hg bioavailability reliably in their foraging environment and could serve as efficient bioindicators of Hg contamination in the Southern Ocean on different spatial and temporal scales. - Highlights: • Hg contamination was evaluated in 4 species of penguins at the Kerguelen Islands. • Adults displayed

  6. Penguins as bioindicators of mercury contamination in the Southern Ocean: Birds from the Kerguelen Islands as a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carravieri, Alice, E-mail: carravieri@cebc.cnrs.fr [Centre d' Etudes Biologiques de Chizé, UPR 1934 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, BP 14, 79360 Villiers-en-Bois (France); Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMRi 7266 CNRS-Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Bustamante, Paco, E-mail: pbustama@univ-lr.fr [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMRi 7266 CNRS-Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Churlaud, Carine [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMRi 7266 CNRS-Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Cherel, Yves [Centre d' Etudes Biologiques de Chizé, UPR 1934 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, BP 14, 79360 Villiers-en-Bois (France)

    2013-06-01

    Seabirds have been used extensively as bioindicators of mercury (Hg) contamination in the marine environment, although information on flightless species like penguins remains limited. In order to assess the use of penguins as bioindicators of Hg contamination in subantarctic and Antarctic marine ecosystems, Hg concentrations were evaluated in the feathers of the four species that breed on the Kerguelen Islands in the southern Indian Ocean. Compared to other seabirds, adult Kerguelen penguins had low to moderate feather Hg concentrations, with an average ranging from 1.96 ± 0.41 μg g{sup −1} dry weight in the southern rockhopper penguin to 5.85 ± 3.00 μg g{sup −1} dry weight in the gentoo penguin. The species was a major determinant of Hg contamination, with feather Hg concentrations being lower in the oceanic species (king and crested penguins) than in the coastal one (gentoo penguin). In all species however, feather Hg concentrations were higher in adults than in chicks, reflecting the different periods of Hg bioaccumulation in the internal tissues of the two age classes. The relationship between adult penguin trophic ecology and Hg burdens was investigated using stable isotopes. Feeding habits (reflected by δ{sup 15}N values) had a greater effect on adult feather Hg concentrations when compared to foraging habitats (reflected by δ{sup 13}C values), indicating Hg biomagnification in Kerguelen neritic and oceanic waters. Dietary preferences were crucial in explaining individual feather Hg concentrations, as highlighted by intra-specific variation in Hg levels of gentoo penguins sampled at two different breeding sites of the archipelago. Penguins appear to reflect Hg bioavailability reliably in their foraging environment and could serve as efficient bioindicators of Hg contamination in the Southern Ocean on different spatial and temporal scales. - Highlights: • Hg contamination was evaluated in 4 species of penguins at the Kerguelen Islands. • Adults

  7. Does temporal variation of mercury levels in Arctic seabirds reflect changes in global environmental contamination, or a modification of Arctic marine food web functioning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort, Jérôme; Grémillet, David; Traisnel, Gwendoline; Amélineau, Françoise; Bustamante, Paco

    2016-01-01

    Studying long-term trends of contaminants in Arctic biota is essential to better understand impacts of anthropogenic activities and climate change on the exposure of sensitive species and marine ecosystems. We concurrently measured temporal changes (2006–2014) in mercury (Hg) contamination of little auks (Alle alle; the most abundant Arctic seabird) and in their major zooplankton prey species (Calanoid copepods, Themisto libellula, Gammarus spp.). We found an increasing contamination of the food-chain in East Greenland during summer over the last decade. More specifically, bird contamination (determined by body feather analyses) has increased at a rate of 3.4% per year. Conversely, bird exposure to Hg during winter in the northwest Atlantic (determined by head feather analyses) decreased over the study period (at a rate of 1.5% per year), although winter concentrations remained consistently higher than during summer. By combining mercury levels measured in birds and zooplankton to isotopic analyses, our results demonstrate that inter-annual variations of Hg levels in little auks reflect changes in food-chain contamination, rather than a reorganization of the food web and a modification of seabird trophic ecology. They therefore underline the value of little auks, and Arctic seabirds in general, as bio-indicators of long-term changes in environmental contamination. - Highlights: • We examined temporal trends of Hg in Arctic seabirds and major zooplankton species. • We investigated the role of underlying ecological drivers in seabird contamination. • Hg contamination of the East Greenland marine food web increased over the last decade. • Hg levels in Arctic seabirds reflect changes in the food-chain contamination. • Little auks are bio-indicators of long-term changes in environmental contamination. - Temporal increase of seabird exposure to Hg reflects changes in Arctic environmental contamination.

  8. Fecal contamination in several rivers of the Greater Metropolitan Area and the Osa Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo-Brenes, Guillermo; Mora-Molina, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of rivers in Costa Rica is an issue that requires special attention. The term “river con- tamination” means the incorporation of strange matter such as microorganisms (total and fecal coliforms), chemical products (soaps, fertilizers, pesti- cides), heavy metals (such as chrome, lead, mercury), or organic matter, the last one coming from soil through superficial water runoff as well as domestic wastewaters. All of them deteriorate the water qua- lity and reduce the different wat...

  9. Terrestrial Eco-Toxicological Tests as Screening Tool to Assess Soil Contamination in Krompachy Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ol'ga, Šestinová; Findoráková, Lenka; Hančuľák, Jozef; Fedorová, Erika; Tomislav, Špaldon

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we present screening tool of heavy metal inputs to agricultural and permanent grass vegetation of the soils in Krompachy. This study is devoted to Ecotoxicity tests, Terrestrial Plant Test (modification of OECD 208, Phytotoxkit microbiotest on Sinapis Alba) and chronic tests of Earthworm (Dendrobaena veneta, modification of OECD Guidelines for the testing of chemicals 317, Bioaccumulation in Terrestrial Oligochaetes) as practical and sensitive screening method for assessing the effects of heavy metals in Krompachy soils. The total Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Hg concentrations and eco-toxicological tests of soils from the Krompachy area were determined of 4 sampling sites in 2015. An influence of the sampling sites distance from the copper smeltery on the absolutely concentrations of metals were recorded for copper, lead, zinc, arsenic and mercury. The highest concentrations of these metals were detected on the sampling sites up to 3 km from the copper smeltery. The samples of soil were used to assess of phytotoxic effect. Total mortality was established at earthworms using chronic toxicity test after 7 exposure days. The results of our study confirmed that no mortality was observed in any of the study soils. Based on the phytotoxicity testing, phytotoxic effects of the metals contaminated soils from the samples 3KR (7-9) S.alba seeds was observed.

  10. Ensuring the population living safety in the contaminated areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Voronov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The state policy of the Russian Federation to ensure population, living in the contaminated areas, life safety is implemented by means of federal programs.12 programs for overcoming the Chernobyl accident consequences, children’s population protection and housing provision for the Chernobyl accident liquidators are adopted and realized during this time. Total financing amount from the federal budget is more than 9,2 billion rubles. The main efforts are directed to create necessary infrastructure in settlements, development and deployment rehabilitation measures for agricultural lands and forests, creation of radiation situation monitoring systems, increase housekeeping safety culture in the contaminated territories, informational support and social and psychological rehabilitation of the population. Within the state programs are developing complex systems of a radiation situation monitoring in 12 subjects of the Russian Federation. Experts training for the outreach work with population, concerning radiation safety, increasing population knowledge level about radiation in a format of seminars, conferences, with use of online technologies is provided. The project on creation the uniform interdepartmental information system on overcoming radiation accidents aftermath, integrating the operating information systems of The Ministry of the Russian Federation for Civil Defence, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters, Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, the Russian Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing and the Russian Academy of Sciences is realized.However, the problem of overcoming the radiation accidents aftermath remains relevant up to date.In 14 subjects of the Russian Federation there are territories contaminated by radioactive materials as a result of the Chernobyl accident where more than 1,5 million people live.

  11. Corrective action plan for corrective action Unit 342: Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nacht, S.

    1999-01-01

    The Mercury Fire Training Pit is a former fire training area located in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Mercury Fire Training Pit was used from approximately 1965 to the early 1990s to train fire-fighting personnel at the NTS, and encompasses an area approximately 107 meters (m) (350 feet [ft]) by 137 m (450 ft). The Mercury Fire Training Pit formerly included a bermed burn pit with four small burn tanks, four large above ground storage tanks an overturned bus, a telephone pole storage area, and areas for burning sheds, pallets, and cables. Closure activities will include excavation of the impacted soil in the aboveground storage tank and burn pit areas to a depth of 1.5 m (5 ft), and excavation of the impacted surface soil downgradient of the former ASTs and burnpit areas to a depth of 0.3 m (1 ft). Excavated soil will be disposed in the Area 6 Hydrocarbon Landfill at the NTS

  12. Effects of remediation train sequence on decontamination of heavy metal-contaminated soil containing mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Huang, Yu-Tuan; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    When a contaminated site contains pollutants including both nonvolatile metals and Hg, one single remediation technology may not satisfactorily remove all contaminants. Therefore, in this study, chemical extraction and thermal treatment were combined as a remediation train to remove heavy metals, including Hg, from contaminated soil. A 0.2 M solution of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) was shown to be the most effective reagent for extraction of considerable amounts of Cu, Pb, and Zn (> 50%). Hg removal was ineffective using 0.2 M EDTA, but thermogravimetric analysis suggested that heating to 550 degrees C with a heating rate of 5 degrees C/min for a duration of 1 hr appeared to be an effective approach for Hg removal. With the employment of thermal treatment, up to 99% of Hg could be removed. However executing thermal treatment prior to chemical extraction reduced the effectiveness of the subsequent EDTA extraction because nonvolatile heavy metals were immobilized in soil aggregates after the 550 degrees C treatment. The remediation train of chemical extraction followed by thermal treatment appears to remediate soils that have been contaminated by many nonvolatile heavy metals and Hg. Implications: A remediation train conjoining two or more techniques has been initialized to remove multiple metals. Better understandings of the impacts of treatment sequences, namely, which technique should be employed first on the soil properties and the decontamination efficiency, are in high demand. This study provides a strategy to remove multiple heavy metals including Hg from a contaminated soil. The interactions between thermal treatment and chemical extraction on repartitioning of heavy metals was revealed. The obtained results could offer an integrating strategy to remediate the soil contaminated with both heavy metals and volatile contaminants.

  13. Age-related mercury contamination and relationship with luteinizing hormone in a long-lived Antarctic bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Tartu

    Full Text Available Seabirds, as long-lived top predators, accumulate contaminants such as mercury (Hg, an established endocrine disruptor. In long lived species hormonal secretion varies with age; therefore, Hg-induced endocrine disruption may be exacerbated in some age classes. Here we investigated relationships between blood total Hg and luteinizing hormone (LH, a key pituitary hormone for the onset of breeding, in pre-laying known-age (11-45 years old snow petrels (Pagodroma nivea from Adélie Land, Antarctica. We predicted that 1 blood Hg would increase with advancing age as a consequence of bio-accumulation; and that 2 increasing blood Hg would be related to decreased concentrations of LH in the most Hg-contaminated individuals. Hg concentrations were higher in females than in males (p<0.001, and contrary to our prediction, decreased with advancing age in males (p = 0.009 and tended to do so in females (p = 0.06. The analysis of stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N suggested that this unexpected pattern could originate from age and sex-related variations in trophic niche, and hence Hg exposure. Regarding LH, our prediction was only supported in young birds (≤23 years where baseline LH was inversely correlated with Hg concentrations (p = 0.04. Hg burden did not predict baseline LH or GnRH-induced LH in birds that were more than 23 years old. These results show that age and contaminants may interfere with major endocrine mechanisms and, together with other recent studies, support the view that Hg could be connected to LH secretion and could then impair the fitness of long-lived birds.

  14. MERCURY-CONTAMINATED FISH AND ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cropotova Janna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish consumption is an important part of human diet due to essential omega-3 fatty acids found naturally in this product. Many researchers from all over the world found that high mercury concentrations in the body reduced the heart-protective effects of the fatty acids in fish oils. People shouldn't be constrained by choosing between the health hazards related to toxins caused by industrial pollution and the nutritional benefits provided by consummation of essential fatty acids contained in oily fish. It is very important to find an alternative natural source of essential omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA to restore an optimal ratio between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the human diet.

  15. The development and testing of technologies for the remediation of mercury-contaminated soils, Task 7.52. Topical report, December 1992--December 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepan, D.J.; Fraley, R.H.; Charlton, D.S.

    1994-02-01

    The release of elemental mercury into the environment from manometers that are used in the measurement of natural gas flow through pipelines has created a potentially serious problem for the gas industry. Regulations, particularly the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR), have had a major impact on gas companies dealing with mercury-contaminated soils. After the May 8, 1993, LDR deadline extension, gas companies were required to treat mercury-contaminated soils by designated methods to specified levels prior to disposal in landfills. In addition, gas companies must comply with various state regulations that are often more stringent than the LDR. The gas industry is concerned that the LDRs do not allow enough viable options for dealing with their mercury-related problems. The US Environmental Protection Agency has specified the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) as thermal roasting or retorting. However, the Agency recognizes that treatment of certain wastes to the LDR standards may not always be achievable and that the BDAT used to set the standard may be inappropriate. Therefore, a Treatability Variance Process for remedial actions was established (40 Code of Federal Regulations 268.44) for the evaluation of alternative remedial technologies. This report presents evaluations of demonstrations for three different remedial technologies: a pilot-scale portable thermal treatment process, a pilot-scale physical separation process in conjunction with chemical leaching, and a bench-scale chemical leaching process

  16. Eco-monitoring of highly contaminated areas: historic heavy metal contamination in tree ring records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baross, Norbert; Jordán, Győző; Albert, Julianna; Abdaal, Ahmed; Anton, Attila

    2014-05-01

    This study examines and compares tree rings of trees grown in a mining area highly contaminated with heavy metals. Tree rings offers an excellent opportunity for eco-monitoring polluted areas. Contamination dispersion from the source to the receptors can be studied in time and space. The sampled area is located in the eastern part of the Matra Mts. of the Inner-Carpathian calc-alkaline Volcanic Arc (Hungary) with abundant historical ore (Pb, Zn, Cu, etc.) mining in the area. Dense forests are composed of the most typical association of the Turkey oak (Quercus cerris). Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), European black pine (Pinus nigra), oak (Quercus robur), beech (Fagus sylvatica), and hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) also occurs in the landscape. Sampled trees are located within a 1km radius of the abandoned historic ore mines. Sample sites were located above the old mines and waste rock heaps, under the waste rock heaps and on the floodplain of the Ilona Creek. The sampled trees were selected by the following criteria: the tree should be healthy, showing no signs of thunderbolt or diseases and having a minimum diameter of 50 cm. Samples were taken with a tree borer at the height of 150 cm. At the same time, soil samples were also taken near the trees in a 25 cm depth. Prior to laboratory analysis, the samples measured and air dried. Every fifth years tree ring was taken from the samples under microscope, working backwards from the most recent outer ring (2012, the year of the sampling). Samples were digested with a mixture of H2SO4 and H2O2m in Teflon vessels in a microwave unit. The samples were analyzed by ICP-OES instrument. The results were evaluated with statistical method. Results revealed a consistent picture showing distinct locations and years of the contamination history in the former mining area. Some elements are built into the trees more efficiently than other elements depending on mobility in the soil solution that is influenced by soil chemical properties

  17. Evaluation of mercury levels in hair of children resident in artisanal gold mining area in the city of Chapada de Natividade-Tocantins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Seyna Ueno R., E-mail: seynaueno@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFTO), Palmas,TO (Brazil). Coordenação de Medicina; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Catharino, Marília Gabriela M., E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CRPQ/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro do Reator de Pesquisa; Quinaglia, Gilson A.; Held, Barbara, E-mail: gquinaglia@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo (CETESB), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Análises Toxicológicas

    2017-07-01

    The objective of the work is to evaluate the mercury exposure of children living in an artisanal gold mining area and in a control area, without mining. A cross-sectional study was conducted with children living in the municipalities of Chapada de Natividade and Porto Nacional, in the State of Tocantins, where hair samples were collected for laboratorial analysis of mercury concentrations, comparing between municipalities, gender, monthly fish consumption, profession of parents and the presence of amalgam in dental restorations. The hair samples were analyzed by the methods of neutron activation analysis and also by means of the DMA (Direct Mercury Analyzer) equipment, in the last case being a partnership with CETESB. There was no evidence of mercury-related diseases in the studied children. The mean concentration of mercury in children in Chapada de Natividade was significantly higher than in Porto Nacional. Children exposed to artisanal gold mining areas have higher concentrations of mercury than children living in non- artisanal gold mining areas. There was no significant relationship between mercury concentrations and gender, monthly fish consumption, parental profession and amalgam presence in dental restorations. The results suggest that the children living in an area exposed to mining experience greater environmental exposure to mercury, regardless of their eating habits or gender. (author)

  18. Evaluation of mercury levels in hair of children resident in artisanal gold mining area in the city of Chapada de Natividade-Tocantins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Seyna Ueno R.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Catharino, Marília Gabriela M.; Quinaglia, Gilson A.; Held, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the work is to evaluate the mercury exposure of children living in an artisanal gold mining area and in a control area, without mining. A cross-sectional study was conducted with children living in the municipalities of Chapada de Natividade and Porto Nacional, in the State of Tocantins, where hair samples were collected for laboratorial analysis of mercury concentrations, comparing between municipalities, gender, monthly fish consumption, profession of parents and the presence of amalgam in dental restorations. The hair samples were analyzed by the methods of neutron activation analysis and also by means of the DMA (Direct Mercury Analyzer) equipment, in the last case being a partnership with CETESB. There was no evidence of mercury-related diseases in the studied children. The mean concentration of mercury in children in Chapada de Natividade was significantly higher than in Porto Nacional. Children exposed to artisanal gold mining areas have higher concentrations of mercury than children living in non- artisanal gold mining areas. There was no significant relationship between mercury concentrations and gender, monthly fish consumption, parental profession and amalgam presence in dental restorations. The results suggest that the children living in an area exposed to mining experience greater environmental exposure to mercury, regardless of their eating habits or gender. (author)

  19. Does temporal variation of mercury levels in Arctic seabirds reflect changes in global environmental contamination, or a modification of Arctic marine food web functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Jérôme; Grémillet, David; Traisnel, Gwendoline; Amélineau, Françoise; Bustamante, Paco

    2016-04-01

    Studying long-term trends of contaminants in Arctic biota is essential to better understand impacts of anthropogenic activities and climate change on the exposure of sensitive species and marine ecosystems. We concurrently measured temporal changes (2006-2014) in mercury (Hg) contamination of little auks (Alle alle; the most abundant Arctic seabird) and in their major zooplankton prey species (Calanoid copepods, Themisto libellula, Gammarus spp.). We found an increasing contamination of the food-chain in East Greenland during summer over the last decade. More specifically, bird contamination (determined by body feather analyses) has increased at a rate of 3.4% per year. Conversely, bird exposure to Hg during winter in the northwest Atlantic (determined by head feather analyses) decreased over the study period (at a rate of 1.5% per year), although winter concentrations remained consistently higher than during summer. By combining mercury levels measured in birds and zooplankton to isotopic analyses, our results demonstrate that inter-annual variations of Hg levels in little auks reflect changes in food-chain contamination, rather than a reorganization of the food web and a modification of seabird trophic ecology. They therefore underline the value of little auks, and Arctic seabirds in general, as bio-indicators of long-term changes in environmental contamination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Human health risk assessment of mercury vapor around artisanal small-scale gold mining area, Palu city, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Koyomi; Nagafuchi, Osamu; Kawakami, Tomonori; Inoue, Takanobu; Yokota, Kuriko; Serikawa, Yuka; Cyio, Basir; Elvince, Rosana

    2016-02-01

    Emissions of elemental mercury, Hg(0), from artisanal small-scale gold mining activities accounted for 37% of total global Hg(0) emissions in 2010. People who live near gold-mining areas may be exposed to high concentrations of Hg(0). Here, we assessed the human health risk due to Hg(0) exposure among residents of Palu city (Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia). The area around the city has more than 60t of gold reserves, and the nearby Poboya area is the most active gold-mining site in Indonesia. Owing to its geography, the city experiences alternating land and sea breezes. Sampling was done over a period of 3 years (from 2010 Aug. to 2012 Dec.) intermittently with a passive sampler for Hg(0), a portable handheld mercury analyzer, and a mercury analyzer in four areas of the city and in the Poboya gold-processing area, as well as wind speeds and directions in one area of the city. The 24-h average concentration, wind speed, and wind direction data show that the ambient air in both the gold-processing area and the city was always covered by high concentration of mercury vapor. The Hg(0) concentration in the city was higher at night than in the daytime, owing to the effect of land breezes. These results indicate that the inhabitants of the city were always exposed to high concentrations of Hg(0). The average daytime point-sample Hg(0) concentrations in the city, as measured with a handheld mercury analyzer over 3 days in July 2011, ranged from 2096 to 3299ngm(-3). In comparison, the average daytime Hg(0) concentration in the Poboya gold-processing area was 12,782ngm(-3). All of these concentrations are substantially higher than the World Health Organization air-quality guideline for annual average Hg exposure (1000ngm(-3)). We used the point-sample concentrations to calculate hazard quotient ratios by means of a probabilistic risk assessment method. The results indicated that 93% of the sample population overall was at risk (hazard quotient ratio ≥1 and cut off at

  1. Oral bioaccessibility and human exposure to anthropogenic and geogenic mercury in urban, industrial and mining areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, S.M.; Coelho, C.; Cruz, N.; Monteiro, R.J.R.; Henriques, B.; Duarte, A.C.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Pereira, E.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the link between bioaccessibility and fractionation of mercury (Hg) in soils and to provide insight into human exposure to Hg due to inhalation of airborne soil particles and hand-to-mouth ingestion of Hg-bearing soil. Mercury in soils from mining,

  2. Radioactive contamination of former Semipalatinsk test site area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artem'ev, O.I.; Akhmetov, M.A.; Ptitskaya, L.D.

    2001-01-01

    The nuclear weapon infrastructure elimination activities and related surveys of radioactive contamination are virtually accomplished at the Semipalatinsk test site (STS). The radioecological surveys accompanied closure of tunnels which were used for underground nuclear testing at Degelen technical field and elimination of intercontinental ballistic missile silo launchers at Balapan technical field. At the same time a ground-based route survey was carried out at the Experimental Field where aboveground tests were conducted and a ground-based area survey was performed in the south of the test site where there are permanent and temporary inhabited settlements. People dwelling these settlements are mainly farmers. The paper presents basic results of radiological work conducted in the course of elimination activities. (author)

  3. ARCTOX: a pan-Arctic sampling network to track mercury contamination across Arctic marine food webs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fort, Jerome; Helgason, Halfdan; Amelineau, Francoise

    and is still a source of major environmental concerns. In that context, providing a large-scale and comprehensive understanding of the Arctic marine food-web contamination is essential to better apprehend impacts of anthropogenic activities and climate change on the exposure of Arctic species and humans to Hg....... In 2015, an international sampling network (ARCTOX) has been established, allowing the collection seabird samples all around the Arctic. Seabirds are indeed good indicators of Hg contamination of marine food webs at large spatial scale. Gathering researchers from 10 countries, ARCTOX allowed......Arctic marine ecosystems are threatened by new risks of Hg contamination under the combined effects of climate change and human activities. Rapid change of the cryosphere might for instance release large amounts of Hg trapped in sea-ice, permafrost and terrestrial glaciers over the last decades...

  4. Long-term ongoing impact of arsenic contamination on the environmental compartments of a former mining-metallurgy area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, B; Rodríguez-Valdés, E; Boente, C; Menéndez-Casares, E; Fernández-Braña, A; Gallego, J R

    2018-01-01

    Arsenic and mercury are potentially toxic elements of concern for soil, surficial and ground waters, and sediments. In this work various geochemical and hydrogeological tools were used to study a paradigmatic case of the combined effects of the abandonment of Hg- and As-rich waste on these environmental compartments. Continuous weathering of over 40years has promoted As and Hg soil pollution (thousands of ppm) in the surroundings of a former Hg mining-metallurgy site and affected the water quality of a nearby river and shallow groundwater. In particular, the high availability of As both in soils and waste was identified as one of the main determinants of contaminant distribution, whereas the impact of Hg was found to be minor, which is explained by lower mobility. Furthermore, potential additional sources of pollution (coal mining, high natural backgrounds, etc.) discharging into the study river were revealed less significant than the contaminants generated in the Hg-mining area. The transport and deposition of pollutants within the water cycle has also affected several kilometres downstream of the release areas and the chemistry of stream sediments. Overall, the environmental compartments studies held considerable concentrations of Hg and As, as remarkably revealed by the average contaminant load released in the river (several tons of As per year) and the accumulation of toxic elements in sediments (enrichment factors of As and Hg above 35). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mercury nano-trap for effective and efficient removal of mercury(II) from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baiyan; Zhang, Yiming; Ma, Dingxuan; Shi, Zhan; Ma, Shengqian

    2014-11-01

    Highly effective and highly efficient decontamination of mercury from aqueous media remains a serious task for public health and ecosystem protection. Here we report that this task can be addressed by creating a mercury ‘nano-trap’ as illustrated by functionalizing a high surface area and robust porous organic polymer with a high density of strong mercury chelating groups. The resultant porous organic polymer-based mercury ‘nano-trap’ exhibits a record-high saturation mercury uptake capacity of over 1,000 mg g-1, and can effectively reduce the mercury(II) concentration from 10 p.p.m. to the extremely low level of smaller than 0.4 p.p.b. well below the acceptable limits in drinking water standards (2 p.p.b.), and can also efficiently remove >99.9% mercury(II) within a few minutes. Our work therefore presents a new benchmark for mercury adsorbent materials and provides a new perspective for removing mercury(II) and also other heavy metal ions from contaminated water for environmental remediation.

  6. A cross-sectional survey on knowledge and perceptions of health risks associated with arsenic and mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Charles, Elias; Thomas, Deborah SK; Dewey, Deborah; Davey, Mark; Ngallaba, Sospatro E; Konje, Eveline

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background An estimated 0.5 to 1.5 million informal miners, of whom 30-50% are women, rely on artisanal mining for their livelihood in Tanzania. Mercury, used in the processing gold ore, and arsenic, which is a constituent of some ores, are common occupational exposures that frequently result in widespread environmental contamination. Frequently, the mining activities are conducted haphazardly without regard for environmental, occupational, or community exposure. The primary objectiv...

  7. Determination of the total mercury in contaminated soils by direct solid sampling atomic absorption spectrometry using an AMA-254 device and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sysalová, J.; Kučera, Jan; Fikrle, Marek; Drtinová, B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 110, SEP (2013), s. 691-694 ISSN 0026-265X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/12/0682; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Mercury * contaminated soils * AMA-254 * RNAA Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.583, year: 2013

  8. SEM/EDS analysis of soil and roasting vessels fragments from ancient mercury ore roasting sites at Idrija area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Teršič

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous roasting vessels fragments can be found at ancient roasting site areas in the surroundings of Idrija town, which were used for ore roasting in the first 150 years of Hg production in Idrija. The earthen vessels fragments lay just below the surface humus layer and in some parts they stretch more than 1 meter deep; they arecovered with red (cinnabar or black (metacinnabar coatings.SEM/EDS analysis of roasting vessels fragments and soil samples from roasting site areas P{enk and Frbejžene trate was performed in order to characterize the solid forms of Hg in applied sampling material. Mercuric sulphide HgS was found to be the main mercury compound present in the samples. Analysis of earthen vessels fragmentsshowed abundant HgS coatings on the surface of ceramics, forming either crust-like aggregates on matrix or isolated grains. Some well-shaped grains with indicated structure and the size of up to 200 μm could also be observed. In soil HgS was present as powder-like concentrations scattered in soil samples, frequently coating silicate and quartz crystals and clay-minerals. Polycristalline, mercury- and sulphur- rich particles comprising silica, clay mineralsand Al-, Fe- and Mg-oxides that were also observed in the samples were interpreted as soil aggregates infiltrated by mercuric and sulphur vapours and by liquid mercury spilled during roasting. These particles suggest a possible presence of mercury-sulphur associations other than HgS.

  9. Influence of hydrogen contamination by mercury on the lifetime of the PEM-type fuel cell

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bouzek, K.; Paidar, M.; Mališ, J.; Jakubec, Ivo; Janík, L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2010), s. 889-895 ISSN 0013-4686 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : fuel cell * power output * hydrogen contamination Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.642, year: 2010

  10. The Use of Haz-Flote to Efficiently Remove Mercury from Contaminated Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Brown

    2009-03-03

    There are thousands of known contaminated sites in the United Stated, including Superfund sites (1500 to 2100 sites), RCRA corrective action sites (1500 to 3500 sites), underground storage tanks (295,000 sites), U.S. Department of Defense sites (7300 sites), U.S. Department of Energy sites (4,000 sites), mining refuse piles, and numerous other hazardous metals and organic contamination sites. Only a small percentage of these sites has been cleaned up. The development of innovative technologies to handle the various clean-up problems on a national and international scale is commonplace. Many innovative technologies have been developed that can be used to effectively remediate contaminated materials. Unfortunately, many of these technologies are only effective for materials coarser than approximately 200 mesh. In addition, these technologies usually require considerable investment in equipment, and the clean-up costs of soil material are relatively high - in excess of $100 to $500 per yd{sup 3}. These costs result from the elaborate nature of the processes, the costs for power, and the chemical cost. The fine materials are disposed of or treated at considerable costs. As a result, the costs often associated with amelioration of contaminated sites are high. Western Research institute is in the process of developing an innovative soil washing technology that addresses the removal of contaminants from the fine size-fraction materials located at many of the contaminated sites. This technology has numerous advantages over the other ex-situ soil washing techniques. It requires a low capital investment, low operating costs and results in high levels of re-emplacement of the cleaned material on site. The process has the capability to clean the fine fraction (<200 mesh) of the soil resulting in a replacement of 95+% of the material back on-side, reducing the costs of disposal. The Haz-Flote{trademark} technology would expand the application of soil washing technology to heavy

  11. Mobility and contamination assessment of mercury in coal fly ash, atmospheric deposition, and soil collected from Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zheng; Wu, Guanghong; Su, Ruixian; Li, Congwei; Liang, Peiyu

    2011-09-01

    Samples of class F coal fly ash (levels I, II, and III), slag, coal, atmospheric deposition, and soils collected from Tianjin, China, were analyzed using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Method 3052 and a sequential extraction procedure, to investigate the pollution status and mobility of Hg. The results showed that total mercury (HgT) concentrations were higher in level I fly ash (0.304 µg/g) than in level II and level III fly ash and slag (0.142, 0.147, and 0.052 µg/g, respectively). Total Hg in the atmospheric deposition was higher during the heating season (0.264 µg/g) than the nonheating season (0.135 µg/g). Total Hg contents were higher in suburban area soils than in rural and agricultural areas. High HgT concentrations in suburban area soils may be a result of the deposition of Hg associated with particles emitted from coal-fired power plants. Mercury in fly ash primarily existed as elemental Hg, which accounted for 90.1, 85.3, and 90.6% of HgT in levels I, II, and III fly ash, respectively. Mercury in the deposition existed primarily as sulfide Hg, which accounted for 73.8% (heating season) and 74.1% (nonheating season) of HgT. However, Hg in soils existed primarily as sulfide Hg, organo-chelated Hg and elemental Hg, which accounted for 37.8 to 50.0%, 31.7 to 41.8%, and 13.0 to 23.9% of HgT, respectively. The percentage of elemental Hg in HgT occurred in the order fly ash > atmospheric deposition > soils, whereas organo-chelated Hg and sulfide Hg occurred in the opposite order. The present approach can provide a window for understanding and tracing the source of Hg in the environment in Tianjin and the risk associated with Hg bioaccessibility. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  12. In-situ subaqueous capping of mercury-contaminated sediments in a fresh-water aquatic system, Part II-evaluation of sorption materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, Paul M.; Yates, Brian J.; Lal, Vivek; Darlington, Ramona; Fimmen, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    The function and longevity of traditional, passive, isolation caps can be augmented through the use of more chemically active capping materials which have higher sorptive capacities, ideally rendering metals non-bioavailable. In the case of Hg, active caps also mitigate the rate and extent of methylation. This research examined low cost, readily available, capping materials for their ability to sequester Hg and MeHg. Furthermore, selected capping materials were evaluated to inhibit the methylation of Hg in an incubation study as well as the capacity of a selected capping material to inhibit translocation of Hg and MeHg with respect to ebullition-facilitated contaminant transport in a column study. Results indicated that bauxite had a better capacity for mercury sorption than the other test materials. However, bauxite as well as soil capping materials did not decrease methylation to a significant extent. Materials with larger surface areas, higher organic matter and acid volatile sulfide (AVS) content displayed a larger partitioning coefficient. In the incubation experiments, the presence of a carbon source (lactate), electron acceptor (sulfate) and the appropriate strains of SRB provided the necessary conditions for Hg methylation to occur. The column study showed effectiveness in sequestering Hg and MeHg and retarding transport to the overlying water column; however, disturbances to the soil capping material resulting from gas ebullition negated its effectiveness

  13. In-situ subaqueous capping of mercury-contaminated sediments in a fresh-water aquatic system, Part II-evaluation of sorption materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, Paul M., E-mail: randall.paul@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Yates, Brian J.; Lal, Vivek; Darlington, Ramona [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, Columbus, OH 43201 (United States); Fimmen, Ryan [Geosyntec Consultants, 150 E. Wilson Bridge Road, Suite 232, Worthington, OH 43085 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The function and longevity of traditional, passive, isolation caps can be augmented through the use of more chemically active capping materials which have higher sorptive capacities, ideally rendering metals non-bioavailable. In the case of Hg, active caps also mitigate the rate and extent of methylation. This research examined low cost, readily available, capping materials for their ability to sequester Hg and MeHg. Furthermore, selected capping materials were evaluated to inhibit the methylation of Hg in an incubation study as well as the capacity of a selected capping material to inhibit translocation of Hg and MeHg with respect to ebullition-facilitated contaminant transport in a column study. Results indicated that bauxite had a better capacity for mercury sorption than the other test materials. However, bauxite as well as soil capping materials did not decrease methylation to a significant extent. Materials with larger surface areas, higher organic matter and acid volatile sulfide (AVS) content displayed a larger partitioning coefficient. In the incubation experiments, the presence of a carbon source (lactate), electron acceptor (sulfate) and the appropriate strains of SRB provided the necessary conditions for Hg methylation to occur. The column study showed effectiveness in sequestering Hg and MeHg and retarding transport to the overlying water column; however, disturbances to the soil capping material resulting from gas ebullition negated its effectiveness.

  14. Mercury speciation driven by seasonal changes in a contaminated estuarine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratkič, Arne, E-mail: arne.bratkic@ijs.si [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ogrinc, Nives, E-mail: nives.orginc@ijs.si [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kotnik, Jože, E-mail: joze.kotnik@ijs.si [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Faganeli, Jadran, E-mail: faganeli@mbss.org [Marine Biology Station, Fornače 41, 6330 Piran (Slovenia); Žagar, Dušan, E-mail: dusan.zagar@fgg.uni-lj.si [Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, Jamova 2, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Yano, Shinichiro [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Tada, Akihide, E-mail: tada@civil.nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Engineering, Nagasaki University, Bunkyo-machi 1-14, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan); Horvat, Milena, E-mail: milena.horvat@ijs.si [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-08-15

    In this study, seasonal changes of mercury (Hg) species in the highly variable estuary of Soča/Isonzo River (northern Adriatic Sea) were investigated. Samplings were performed on a seasonal basis (September 2009, May, August and October 2010) and Hg species (total Hg, methylmercury (MeHg), dissolved gaseous Hg (DGM)) in waters, sediments and pore waters were determined. In addition, a range of ancillary parameters were measured (salinity, nutrients, organic carbon (OC), nitrogen species). Hg values were interpreted using these parameters and hydrological conditions (river flow, wave height) around the time of sampling. There were no significant changes in Hg load from river to the gulf, compared to previous studies. The load was temporarily higher in May 2010 due to higher river flow. Wave height, through changing hydrostatic pressure, was most likely to cause resuspension of already deposited Hg from the bottom (August 2010). The estuary is a net source of DGM to the atmosphere as suggested by DGM profiles, with salinity, redox potential and organic matter as the most probable controls over its production. MeHg is produced in situ in sediment or in water column, rather than transported by river, as indicated by its correlation with OC of the marine origin. Calculated fluxes for THg and MeHg showed sediment as a source for both the water column. In pore waters, OC in part affects partitioning of both THg and MeHg; however other factors (e.g. sulphide and/or oxyhydroxides precipitation and dissolution) are also probably important. -- Highlights: ► Water, sediment and pore water mercury species in front of Soča River estuary were measured. ► Seasonally variable hydrological conditions were shown to influence water column Hg speciation. ► Fluxes for total Hg and MeHg from sediment to water were calculated. ► Sediment is a source of total Hg and MeHg to the water column. ► Correlation of MeHg with organic carbon of marine origin suggests in situ formation.

  15. Experiment Study on Determination of Surface Area of Finegrained Soils by Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X. Q.; Zhou, C. Y.; Fang, Y. G.; Lin, L. S.

    2017-12-01

    The specific surface area (SSA) has a great influence on the physical and chemical properties of fine-grained soils. Determination of specific surface area is an important content for fine-grained soils micro-meso analysis and characteristic research. In this paper, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) was adopted to determine the SSA of fine-grained soils including quartz, kaolinite, bentonite and natural Shenzhen soft clay. The test results show that the average values of SSA obtained by MIP are 0.78m2/g, 11.31m2/g, 57.28m2/g and 27.15m2/g respectively for very fine-grained quartz, kaolin, bentonite and natural Shenzhen soft clay, and that it is feasible to apply MIP to obtain the SSA of fine-grained soils through statistical analysis of 97 samples. Through discussion, it is necessary to consider the state of fine-grained soils such as pore ratio when the SSA of fine-grained soils is determined by MIP.

  16. Characterization of the potential mercury contamination in the Apolobamba gold mining area, Bolivia Caracterización de la contaminación potencial por mercurio en el área minera de Apolobamba, Bolivia Caracterizaçao da potencial contaminaçao por mercúrio na área mineira de Apolobamba, Bolívia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Acosta

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available

    A large amount of Hg is used for gold extraction through the amalgamation process in the Apolobamba gold mining area located in the northwest part of La Paz, Bolivia. This mining operation may produce a very serious impact on the ecosystems, as well as on the health of miners and inhabitants, mainly due to the primitive methods used in the gold recovery. The objective of this work was to characterize the potential contamination of total Hg in soils, sediments, water, and plants in a mining area of Bolivia. Results showed that there was atmospheric deposition of Hg in the study area. Accumulation of this metal in the studied soils and sediments was one of the highest in the world, but Hg in aquatic solution was below the detection limit of the analytical method of the studied lakes and rivers. The highest concentration of Hg was found in the river sediments of the Sunchullí- Viscachani (102 mg kg-1, and in the sediments of Sunchullí and Viscachani lakes (12.3 and 11.7 mg kg-1, respectively. These concentrations may pose a serious problem for aquatic life, related ecosystems and human health. Therefore, there is a need to study Hg availability and speciation in soils and sediments to better understand the cycling of Hg in the area.

    Una gran cantidad de Hg se utiliza para la extracción de oro mediante el proceso de amalgamación en la zona minera de Apolobamba, localizada al noroeste de La Paz, Bolivia. Este tipo de actividad puede estar generando un impacto muy grave tanto para los ecosistemas, como para la salud de los mineros y habitantes de la zona, principalmente debido a los métodos poco tecnificados utilizados en la recuperación del oro. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar la contaminación potencial que supone la presencia de Hg total en suelos, sedimentos, agua y plantas. Los resultados mostraron que existía una deposición atmosf

  17. A comparison of mercury levels in feathers and eggs of osprey (Pandion haliaetus) in the North American Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, K D; Ewins, P J; Clark, K E

    1997-11-01

    Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs and chick feathers were collected for mercury analysis from nests at four Great Lakes study areas in Ontario (three "naturally formed" lakes in southern Ontario and one reservoir in northern Ontario) and two New Jersey study areas in 1991-1994. Adult osprey feathers were sampled from three Great Lakes study areas in 1991. Feathers sampled from chicks (approximately 28-35 days old) appear to be better indicators of local contaminant conditions since spatial patterns of mercury in known prey, yellow perch (Perca flavescens), also collected in these areas, were more similar to chick feathers than to eggs. Mercury levels were less variable in chick feathers than in eggs. Estimates of biomagnification factors using prey of known size at these areas were also less variable in feathers than in eggs. At naturally formed lakes, no significant correlation in mercury levels between eggs and chick feathers from the same nest was apparent, suggesting that the source of mercury contamination was not the same in these two tissues: mercury levels in eggs reflect mercury acquired on the breeding grounds, wintering grounds, and migratory route; mercury levels in chick feathers reflect local dietary conditions on the breeding grounds. Mercury levels in both osprey eggs and chick feathers were higher at the Ogoki Reservoir than at naturally formed lakes. Adult osprey feathers had higher mercury concentrations than chick feathers. Mercury levels in osprey eggs, chick feathers, and adult feathers did not approach levels associated with toxic reproductive effects.

  18. The long-term management of contaminated areas; the principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baverstock, K.; Cherp, A.; Gray, P.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: There are three primary aspects to be considered in the remediation of areas contaminated by the accidental release of radioactivity, these are: the environment; health and well-being, including the psychological impact on the resident and adjaqent populations; the economic and social status of the affected populations. These aspects cannot be seen as independent of one another. In the case of the Chernobyl accident they have mutually interacted to produce a downward spiral in the quality of life of the affected populations. This paper will discuss the lessons that have emerged from that experience and propose ways in which. There is much, in practical terms, that can be done to manage, in both the short and the long term, the environmental aspects of the contamination, both at the collective and the individual levels. How effectively this is done and is seen to be done, will be a powerful determinant of the success in dealing with the other two primary aspects. Ring fencing the risk into the contaminated areas by the prohibition of processes that disperse the risk to populations outside the affected areas can be counterproductive for the affected population with minimal real detriment for the wider unaffected populations. In the case of the Chernobyl accident it can be argued that health and well-being have been more adversely affected by the psychosocial aspects of the accident than by the direct effects of radiation. A larger than real effect an health is perceived and this leads to the five dimensions of the psychosocial effect, social disruption of communities, illness behaviour, readiness to attribute illness to radiation, changed lifestyle habits, stress related illness. The effects of radiation exposure, if any, will appear after a few to tens of years. Their incidence should be carefully monitored in relation to the previous experience and the experience in comparable populations, in an open and objective way. The perception that health

  19. Contamination level of mercury in red meat products from cetaceans available from South Korea markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Tetsuya [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan)]. E-mail: endotty@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp; Yong-Un, Ma [Korean Federation for Environmental Movement, 251 Nuha-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-806, Republic of Korea (Korea); Baker, C. Scott [School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Marine Mammal Program and Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Newport, OR 97365 (United States); Funahashi, Naoko [International Fund for Animal Welfare, 1-6-10-203, Saiwaicho, Higashikurume, Tokyo 203-0052 (Japan); Lavery, Shane [School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Dalebout, Merel L. [School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Lukoschek, Vimoksalehi [School of Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811 (Australia); Haraguchi, Koichi [Daiichi College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 22-1 Tamagawa-Cho, Minami-Ku, Fukuoka 815-8511 (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    Levels of total mercury (T-Hg) were surveyed in red meat (n = 73) and liver (n = 3) from toothed whales, dolphins and porpoises (odontocetes) sold for human consumption in the coastal cities of South Korea. High concentrations of T-Hg were found in the liver products of finless porpoises (18.7 and 156 {mu}g/wet g) and common dolphins (13.2 {mu}g/wet g). The T-Hg concentrations in red meat products were highest in the false killer whale (9.66 {+-} 12.3 {mu}g/wet g, n = 9), bottlenose dolphin (10.6 {+-} 12.6 {mu}g/wet g, n = 3) and killer whale (13.3 {mu}g/wet g, n = 1), and lowest in Cuvier's beaked whale and the harbour porpoise (0.4-0.5 {mu}g/wet g). Thus, most of the products that originated from odontocetes exceeded the safety limit of 0.5 {mu}g/wet g for T-Hg set by the South Korean health authorities for the fishery industry. Pregnant women and other vulnerable sectors of the population living in South Korea should therefore limit their consumption of odontocete products.

  20. Contamination level of mercury in red meat products from cetaceans available from South Korea markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Tetsuya; Yong-Un, Ma; Baker, C. Scott; Funahashi, Naoko; Lavery, Shane; Dalebout, Merel L.; Lukoschek, Vimoksalehi; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2007-01-01

    Levels of total mercury (T-Hg) were surveyed in red meat (n = 73) and liver (n = 3) from toothed whales, dolphins and porpoises (odontocetes) sold for human consumption in the coastal cities of South Korea. High concentrations of T-Hg were found in the liver products of finless porpoises (18.7 and 156 μg/wet g) and common dolphins (13.2 μg/wet g). The T-Hg concentrations in red meat products were highest in the false killer whale (9.66 ± 12.3 μg/wet g, n = 9), bottlenose dolphin (10.6 ± 12.6 μg/wet g, n = 3) and killer whale (13.3 μg/wet g, n = 1), and lowest in Cuvier's beaked whale and the harbour porpoise (0.4-0.5 μg/wet g). Thus, most of the products that originated from odontocetes exceeded the safety limit of 0.5 μg/wet g for T-Hg set by the South Korean health authorities for the fishery industry. Pregnant women and other vulnerable sectors of the population living in South Korea should therefore limit their consumption of odontocete products

  1. Towards Safer Seafood: What Indonesian Law Should “Say” about Mercury-Contaminated Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaretha Quina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish is a popular culinary dish in Indonesian culture and a major economic resource on which many people depend their livelihood. However, with severe pollution in Indonesian water, including uncontrolled mercury pollution which persists in the food chain and eventually gets into humans’ body as the top predator, fish safety is particularly worrying – especially taking into account the frequency of average Indonesians’ consumption of fish. In various jurisdictions, the management tool used by lawmakers and regulators with regard to this issue is information disclosure, or known as “fish advisory warning,” to cover the failure of command and control. This paper analyses whether Indonesian laws have provided the mandate or authority to issue fish advisory warning under Fishery Law, Food Law, Environmental Protection and Management Law, and Public Information Disclosure Law. It concluded that Indonesian law implies a statutory mandate for the government to issue fish advisory warning, at least in a situation involving the threat to general life – not specifically through the Fishery Law, Food Law, or EPML, but through PIDL’s immediate information mandate.  

  2. Subsurface contamination focus area technical requirements. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickelson, D.; Nonte, J.; Richardson, J.

    1996-10-01

    This is our vision, a vision that replaces the ad hoc or open-quotes delphiclose quotes method which is to get a group of open-quotes expertsclose quotes together and make decisions based upon opinion. To fulfill our vision for the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA), it is necessary to generate technical requirements or performance measures which are quantitative or measurable. Decisions can be supported if they are based upon requirements or performance measures which can be traced to the origin (documented) and are verifiable, i.e., prove that requirements are satisfied by inspection (show me), demonstration, analysis, monitoring, or test. The data from which these requirements are derived must also reflect the characteristics of individual landfills or plumes so that technologies that meet these requirements will necessarily work at specific sites. Other subjective factors, such as stakeholder concerns, do influence decisions. Using the requirements as a basic approach, the SCFA can depend upon objective criteria to help influence the areas of subjectivity, like the stakeholders. In the past, traceable requirements were not generated, probably because it seemed too difficult to do so. There are risks that the requirements approach will not be accepted because it is new and represents a departure from the historical paradigm

  3. Subsurface contamination focus area technical requirements. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickelson, D.; Nonte, J.; Richardson, J.

    1996-10-01

    This is our vision, a vision that replaces the ad hoc or {open_quotes}delphi{close_quotes} method which is to get a group of {open_quotes}experts{close_quotes} together and make decisions based upon opinion. To fulfill our vision for the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA), it is necessary to generate technical requirements or performance measures which are quantitative or measurable. Decisions can be supported if they are based upon requirements or performance measures which can be traced to the origin (documented) and are verifiable, i.e., prove that requirements are satisfied by inspection (show me), demonstration, analysis, monitoring, or test. The data from which these requirements are derived must also reflect the characteristics of individual landfills or plumes so that technologies that meet these requirements will necessarily work at specific sites. Other subjective factors, such as stakeholder concerns, do influence decisions. Using the requirements as a basic approach, the SCFA can depend upon objective criteria to help influence the areas of subjectivity, like the stakeholders. In the past, traceable requirements were not generated, probably because it seemed too difficult to do so. There are risks that the requirements approach will not be accepted because it is new and represents a departure from the historical paradigm.

  4. Monitoring and abatement of environmental mercury pollution using human hair as absorbant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, S.S.; Cortes, E.; Cassorla, V.; Munoz, L.; Gras, N.

    1985-01-01

    Mercury pollution in the industrial environment of Chile was studied using hair as monitor. Data from samples representing people living in non-polluted and also from polluted areas show that hair is an effective and convenient indicator of environmental mercury pollution. A major source of mercury pollution and its transport is contaminated water. The method discussed is an inexpensive and convenient alternative to conventional ion-exchange processes which are generally very expensive, particulary for developing countries. (author)

  5. Biomonitoring of Mercury Contamination at Petroleum Production Platforms in the Gulf of Thailand using Transplanted Green Mussel, Perna viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatree Ritthong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of mercury contamination was conducted using transplanted green mussels (Perna viridis. Mussels were first exposed to HgCl2 at 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 nmol/L for 8 weeks at laboratory conditions. The result showed that Hg level in the water decreased rapidly, while Hg in mussels increased coincidentally with the applied doses. After 8 weeks the Hg, levels in tissue were a thousand-fold higher than that in the water. Mussels were then transplanted to 3 petroleum production platforms for field study. The result revealed that survival and growth rates of transplanted mussels at all 3 stations were in close to each other but significantly lower than that from the reference site. Hg concentrations in the tissues of transplanted mussels ranged from less than 0.010 to 0.173 µg/g, and Hg concentrations in mussel tissues from all stations were significantly increased within 2 months, while Hg levels in mussel tissues from reference site were not changed. Hg levels of transplanted mussels increased with increasing depths of the water. The transplanted mussels showed no signs of any physical anomalies, indicating that transplanted mussels could be maintained for up to 3 months in an un-natural habitat, such as petroleum production platforms, where food is much less abundant.

  6. Effect of mercury and arsenic from industrial effluents on the drinking water and comparison of the water quality of polluted and non-polluted areas: a case study of Peshawar and Lower Dir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, M; Jan, F Akbar; Khan, Murad Ali; Ihsanullah, I; Ahmad, I; Shakirullah, M; Roohullah

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to find out the sources of mercury and arsenic pollution of water in the industrial area of Peshawar, the capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Samples of effluents, mud, and water were collected from the target area (industrial area of Peshawar), the area of water supply source, and from the less polluted area, the Lower Dir district, as the control. Hg was determined by the cold vapor generation technique, while arsenic was determined using the electrothermal atomic absorption technique. Data of the water from the industrial area were compared with that of the source area, control area, as well as with the WHO and some international drinking water quality standards. The results show that some parameters, i.e., TDS, DO, pH, and hardness, were more than the permissible limits. Textile and glass industries were found to be the major sources of Hg and As pollution. Downstream dilution of these contaminants was also observed.

  7. Lifespan mercury accumulation pattern in Liza aurata : Evidence from two southern European estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, S.; Oliveira, H.; Coelho, J. P.; Pereira, M. E.; Duarte, A. C.; Pardal, M. A.

    2011-10-01

    Mercury accumulation throughout the lifespan of Liza aurata (Risso, 1810) was analysed in four tissues (muscle, gills, liver and brain) in two southern European coastal ecosystems with distinct mercury contamination. Specimens from four to five age classes were captured in two sampling sites in the Ria de Aveiro (Laranjo bay and Mira), a system historically contaminated by industrial mercury, and in one site in the Mondego estuary, assumed as a mercury-free ecosystem. Mercury concentration in all tissues was found to be significantly higher in the Ria de Aveiro (Laranjo bay) compared to the Mondego, in accordance with the environmental contamination (water, sediments and suspended particulate matter). Significant differences inside the Ria de Aveiro (between the Mira and Laranjo bay) were only detected in the liver. This tissue registered the highest levels of mercury (ranging from 0.11 to 4.2 μg g -1 ) in all sampling sites, followed by muscle, brain, and gills. In all sampling sites and tissues was denoted a mercury dilution pattern along the lifecycle (except in liver at the Mondego, the reference area where the concentrations are always very low). An exponential trend was found in the metal age variation patterns in Laranjo (the most contaminated area) and a linear trend in the Mira and the Mondego (the least contaminated areas). Organic mercury concentration in muscle generally accounted for over 95% of total mercury concentration, and followed the same accumulation pattern of total mercury. This fish species is of lesser importance in mercury transfer to adjacent coastal areas and although the consumption of fish from Laranjo may present some risk for the humans, this risk decreases with fish age/size.

  8. Speciation of methylmercury in rice grown from a mercury mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Lu [Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing100085 (China); Wang Feiyue, E-mail: wangf@ms.umanitoba.c [Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Meng Bo [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Road, Guiyang, Guizhou 550002 (China); Lemes, Marcos [Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Feng Xinbin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Road, Guiyang, Guizhou 550002 (China); Jiang Guibin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing100085 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Monomethylmercury (CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +} and its complexes; MeHg hereafter) is a known developmental neurotoxin. Recent studies have shown that rice (Oryza sativa L.) grain grown from mercury (Hg) mining areas may contain elevated MeHg concentrations, raising concerns over the health of local residents who consume rice on a daily basis. An analytical method employing high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) following enzymatic hydrolysis was developed to analyze the speciation of MeHg in uncooked and cooked white rice grain grown from the vicinity of a Hg mine in China. The results revealed that the MeHg in the uncooked rice is present almost exclusively as CH{sub 3}Hg-L-cysteinate (CH{sub 3}HgCys), a complex that is thought to be responsible for the transfer of MeHg across the blood-brain and placental barriers. Although cooking does not change the total Hg or total MeHg concentration in rice, no CH{sub 3}HgCys is measurable after cooking, suggesting that most, if not all, of the CH{sub 3}HgCys is converted to other forms of MeHg, the identity and toxicity of which remain elusive. - Methylmercury in uncooked rice occurs predominantly as methylmercury-L-cysteinate, which is effectively removed during the cooking process.

  9. Mercury and selenium binding biomolecules in terrestrial mammals (Cervus elaphus and Sus scrofa) from a mercury exposed area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropero, M J Patiño; Fariñas, N Rodríguez; Krupp, E; Mateo, R; Nevado, J J Berzas; Martín-Doimeadios, R C Rodríguez

    2016-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) is likely bound to large biomolecules (e.g. proteins) in living organisms, and in order to assess Hg metabolic pathways and possible toxicological effects, it is essential to study these Hg containing biomolecules. However, the exact nature of most metal binding biomolecules is unknown. Such studies are still in their infancy and information on this topic is scarce because the analysis is challenging, mainly due to their lability upon digestion or extraction from the tissue. New analytical methods that allow complex Hg-biomolecules to be analysed intact are needed and only few very recent studies deal with this approach. Therefore, as an initial step towards the characterization of Hg containing biomolecules, an analytical procedure has been optimised using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. We applied this technique to elucidate the distribution and elution profile of Hg and Se, and some physiological important elements such as Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu, to assess metal binding profiles in liver and kidney samples of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) who roam freely within the largest Hg mining district on Earth, Almadén in Spain. Elemental fractionation profiles of the extracts from different tissues were obtained using two different SEC columns (BioSep-SEC-S2000 GL 300-1kDa and Superdex 75 10/300 GL 70-3kDa). Similar profiles of Hg were observed in red deer and wild boar; however, significant differences were evident for liver and kidney. Moreover, the profiles of Se showed a single peak at high-medium molecular weight in all investigated tissues, while co-elution of Hg with Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu was observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterizing toxicity of metal-contaminated sediments from mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besser, John M.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We review methods for testing toxicity of sediments affected by metals. • Toxicity testing provides site-specific assessment of impacts on resident biota. • Goals are to document extent of toxicity and associations with metal exposure. • Need to characterize bioavailability of metals in sediment and pore water. • Toxicity data is basis for guidelines used to predict hazards of metal toxicity. - Abstract: This paper reviews methods for testing the toxicity of metals associated with freshwater sediments, linking toxic effects with metal exposure and bioavailability, and developing sediment quality guidelines. The most broadly applicable approach for characterizing metal toxicity is whole-sediment toxicity testing, which attempts to simulate natural exposure conditions in the laboratory. Standard methods for whole-sediment testing can be adapted to test a wide variety of taxa. Chronic sediment tests that characterize effects on multiple endpoints (e.g., survival, growth, and reproduction) can be highly sensitive indicators of adverse effects on resident invertebrate taxa. Methods for testing of aqueous phases (pore water, overlying water, or elutriates) are used less frequently. Analysis of sediment toxicity data focuses on statistical comparisons between responses in sediments from the study area and responses in one or more uncontaminated reference sediments. For large or complex study areas, a greater number of reference sediments is recommended to reliably define the normal range of responses in uncontaminated sediments – the ‘reference envelope’. Data on metal concentrations and effects on test organisms across a gradient of contamination may allow development of concentration-response models, which estimate metal concentrations associated with specified levels of toxic effects (e.g. 20% effect concentration or EC20). Comparisons of toxic effects in laboratory tests with measures of impacts on resident benthic invertebrate

  11. Characterizing toxicity of metal-contaminated sediments from mining areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews methods for testing the toxicity of metals associated with freshwater sediments, linking toxic effects with metal exposure and bioavailability, and developing sediment quality guidelines. The most broadly applicable approach for characterizing metal toxicity is whole-sediment toxicity testing, which attempts to simulate natural exposure conditions in the laboratory. Standard methods for whole-sediment testing can be adapted to test a wide variety of taxa. Chronic sediment tests that characterize effects on multiple endpoints (e.g., survival, growth, and reproduction) can be highly sensitive indicators of adverse effects on resident invertebrate taxa. Methods for testing of aqueous phases (pore water, overlying water, or elutriates) are used less frequently. Analysis of sediment toxicity data focuses on statistical comparisons between responses in sediments from the study area and responses in one or more uncontaminated reference sediments. For large or complex study areas, a greater number of reference sediments is recommended to reliably define the normal range of responses in uncontaminated sediments – the ‘reference envelope’. Data on metal concentrations and effects on test organisms across a gradient of contamination may allow development of concentration-response models, which estimate metal concentrations associated with specified levels of toxic effects (e.g. 20% effect concentration or EC20). Comparisons of toxic effects in laboratory tests with measures of impacts on resident benthic invertebrate communities can help document causal relationships between metal contamination and biological effects. Total or total-recoverable metal concentrations in sediments are the most common measure of metal contamination in sediments, but metal concentrations in labile sediment fractions (e.g., determined as part of selective sediment extraction protocols) may better represent metal bioavailability. Metals released by the weak-acid extraction

  12. Maternal Steller sea lion diets elevate fetal mercury concentrations in an area of population decline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rea, Lorrie D., E-mail: lorrie.rea@alaska.gov [Division of Wildlife Conservation, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fairbanks, AK 99701 (United States); Castellini, J. Margaret, E-mail: maggie.c@alaska.edu [Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Correa, Lucero, E-mail: lucero.correa@alaska.gov [Division of Wildlife Conservation, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fairbanks, AK 99701 (United States); Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Fadely, Brian S., E-mail: brian.fadely@noaa.gov [National Marine Mammal Laboratory, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, Seattle, WA 98115 (United States); O' Hara, Todd M., E-mail: tmohara@alaska.edu [Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Total mercury concentrations ([THg]) measured in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lion pup hair were the highest maximum [THg] documented in this endangered species to date. Some pups exceeded concentrations at which other fish-eating mammals can exhibit adverse neurological and reproductive effects (21% and 15% pups above 20 and 30 μg/g in hair, respectively). Of particular concern is fetal exposure to mercury during a particularly vulnerable stage of neurological development in late gestation. Hair and blood [THg] were highly correlated and 20% of pups sampled in the western Aleutian Islands of Alaska exceeded mammalian risk thresholds established for each of these tissues. Higher nitrogen isotope ratios suggested that pups accumulated the highest [THg] when their dams fed on higher trophic level prey during late gestation. - Highlights: • High total mercury concentrations in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lions • Some pups exceeded thresholds for adverse neurological and reproductive effects. • Fetal exposure to mercury during a vulnerable stage of neurological development • Mercury concentrations in hair were highly correlated with circulating blood levels. • High mercury levels in pups related to dams feeding on high trophic level prey.

  13. Maternal Steller sea lion diets elevate fetal mercury concentrations in an area of population decline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rea, Lorrie D.; Castellini, J. Margaret; Correa, Lucero; Fadely, Brian S.; O'Hara, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    Total mercury concentrations ([THg]) measured in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lion pup hair were the highest maximum [THg] documented in this endangered species to date. Some pups exceeded concentrations at which other fish-eating mammals can exhibit adverse neurological and reproductive effects (21% and 15% pups above 20 and 30 μg/g in hair, respectively). Of particular concern is fetal exposure to mercury during a particularly vulnerable stage of neurological development in late gestation. Hair and blood [THg] were highly correlated and 20% of pups sampled in the western Aleutian Islands of Alaska exceeded mammalian risk thresholds established for each of these tissues. Higher nitrogen isotope ratios suggested that pups accumulated the highest [THg] when their dams fed on higher trophic level prey during late gestation. - Highlights: • High total mercury concentrations in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lions • Some pups exceeded thresholds for adverse neurological and reproductive effects. • Fetal exposure to mercury during a vulnerable stage of neurological development • Mercury concentrations in hair were highly correlated with circulating blood levels. • High mercury levels in pups related to dams feeding on high trophic level prey

  14. Systematic differentiation of contaminated and non-contaminated areas in the Korma region

    CERN Document Server

    Dederichs, H; Hille, R; Konoplya, E

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of body counts and environmental measurements taken from June 1998 till June 2001 in two communities in the district of Korma, Belarus. The measurements were carried out together with the Radiobiological Institute of the National Academy of Science within the framework of a projekt supported by the BMU/BfS. The results are listed in the table. The results show that the population dose in the highly contaminated areas following the Tschernobyl catastrophe does not decrease at the rate predicted. The external load decreases due to the physical decay and the continual migration into deeper soil layers. However, due to an internal accumulation of cesium in the population in many cases, the total dose load has either hardly decreased, remained constant or even increased in some areas. The aim of this work is, together with continuing body counts, to give individual advice which helps change the habits of the population and consequently the internal load. These measures appear to be...

  15. Development of Triad approach based system for ecological risk assessment for contaminated areas of Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kydralieva, Kamilia; Uzbekov, Beksultan; Khudaibergenova, Bermet; Terekhova, Vera; Jorobekova, Sharipa

    2014-05-01

    This research is aimed to develop a high-effective system of an ecological risk assessment and risk-based decision making for anthropogenic ecosystems, with particular focus on the soils of the Kyrgyz Republic. The study is focused on the integration of Triad data including chemical, biological and ecotoxicological soil markers to estimate the potential risk from soils of highly anthropized areas impacted by deposition of different pollutants from mining operation. We focus on technogenic areas of Kyrgyzstan, the former uranium-producing province. Triad-based ecological risk assessment for technogenic sites are not currently used in Kyrgyzstan. However, the vitality of such research is self-evident. There are about 50 tailing dumps and more than 80 tips of radioactive waste which are formed as a result of uranium and complex ores (mercury, antimony, lead, cadmium and etc) mining around the unfavorable aforementioned places. According to the Mining Wastes' Tailings and Fills Rehabilitation Centre established in 1999 by a special Government's Resolution, one of the most ecologically dangerous uranium tailings resides in Kadzhi-Say. Although uranium processing is no longer practiced in Kadzhi-Say, a large number of open landfills and uranium ore storages still remain abandoned at the vicinity of this settlement. These neglected sites have enormous problems associated with soil erosion known as "technogenic deserts". The upper soil horizons are deprived of humus and vegetation, which favor the formation of low-buffer landscapes in the zones of maximum contamination. As a result, most of these areas are not re-cultivated and remain in critical environmental condition (Bykovchenko, et al., 2005; Tukhvatshin, 2005; Suranova, 2006). Triad data for assessing environmental risk and biological vulnerability at contaminated sites will be integrated. The following Triad-based parameters will be employed: 1) chemical soil analyses (revealing the presence of potentially dangerous

  16. Analysis of predictors related to soil contamination in recreational areas of Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagiu, C; Pica, E M; Querol, X; Botezan, C S

    2015-12-01

    Soil contamination in recreational areas can considerably affect children's health, as they are the segment of the population most sensitive to anthropogenic contamination. Soil contamination in recreational areas is influenced by a number of factors such as type and age of the recreational area, nearby traffic intensity, proximity to industrial areas, presence of vegetation, level of usage, treated wood structures, and the extent of maintenance operations carried out in the area. These can most often be observed during a simple site visit. The purpose of the present research is to analyze to which extent the presence of these factors can trigger an alarm signal, highlighting soil contamination in urban recreational areas. In this regard, soil contamination was scaled using the integrated pollution index applied on nine distinctive contaminants (As, Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Hg, Co, Ni, Mg) identified using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Multiple linear regression analysis was performed in order to assess predictors of soil contamination. The research was carried out in a number of 88 recreational areas, parks, and playgrounds from 19 Romanian cities, revealing the fact that proximity to industrial areas and intensive traffic had statistically significant effects on soil contamination. Furthermore, it was observed that in 78 out of the 88 analyzed locations, the concentrations of contaminants exceeded the guidelines established through national legislation, thus confirming the presumption that high concentrations of contaminants exist in the parks and playgrounds of Romania.

  17. Radiation protection of radioactively contaminated large areas by phytoremediation and subsequent utilization of the contaminated plant residues (PHYTOREST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirgorodsky, Daniel; Ollivier, Delphine; Merten, Dirk; Bergmann, Hans; Buechel, Georg; Willscher, Sabine; Wittig, Juliane; Jablonski, Lukasz; Werner, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Much progress has been achieved over the past 20 years in remediating sites contaminated by heavy metal. However, very large contaminated areas have presented major problems to this day because of remediation costs. Phytoremediation is a new, emerging, sustainable technique of remediating areas with low heavy-metal contamination. One advantage of phytoremediation is the comparatively low cost of the process, which may make it usable also on large areas with low levels of contamination. Besides extracting and immobilizing metals, respectively, phytoremediation among other things also contributes to improving soil quality in terms of physics, chemistry, and ecology. Consequently, phytoremediation offers a great potential for the future. Research into phytoremediation of an area contaminated by heavy metals and radionuclides is carried out on a site in a former uranium mining district in Eastern Thuringia jointly by the Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, and the Technical University of Dresden in a project funded by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research. The project serves to promote the introduction of soft, biocompatible methods of long-term remediation and to develop conceptual solutions to the subsequent utilization of contaminated plant residues. Optimizing area management is in the focus of phytoremediation studies. (orig.)

  18. Decreasing aqueous mercury concentrations to achieve safe levels in fish: examining the water-fish relationship in two point-source contaminated streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, Teresa J [ORNL; Southworth, George R [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Roy, W Kelly [ORNL; Ketelle, Richard H [ORNL; Valentine, Charles S [ORNL; Gregory, Scott M [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) and White Oak Creek (WOC) are two mercury-contaminated streams located on the Department of Energy s Oak Ridge Reservation in east Tennessee. East Fork Poplar Creek is the larger and more contaminated of the two, with average aqueous mercury (Hg) concentrations exceeding those in reference streams by several hundred-fold. Remedial actions over the past 20 years have decreased aqueous Hg concentrations in EFPC by 85 %. Fish fillet concentrations, however, have not responded to this decrease in aqueous Hg and remain above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency s ambient water quality criterion (AWQC) of 0.3 mg/kg. The lack of correlation between aqueous and fish tissue Hg concentrations in this creek has led to questions regarding the usefulness of target aqueous Hg concentrations and strategies for future remediation efforts. White Oak Creek has a similar contamination history but aqueous Hg concentrations in WOC are an order of magnitude lower than in EFPC. Despite the lower aqueous Hg concentrations, fish fillet concentrations in WOC have also been above the AWQC, making the most recent aqueous Hg target of 200 ng/L in EFPC seem unlikely to result in an effective decrease in fillet Hg concentrations. Recent monitoring efforts in WOC, however, suggest an aqueous total Hg threshold above which Hg bioaccumulation in fish may not respond. This new information could be useful in guiding remedial actions in EFPC and in other point-source contaminated streams.

  19. Mercury contamination history of an estuarine floodplain reconstructed from a 210Pb-dated sediment core (Berg River, South Africa)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kading, TJ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available in this 210Pb-dated sediment core at <50 ng g_1 HgT throughout the core, but with 1.3 ng g_1 methylmercury in surface sediments. The 210Pb dating of the core provides a first record of mercury deposition to the site and reveals the onset of enhanced mercury...

  20. Chernobyl catastrophe: Information for people living in the contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisevich, Nikolaj

    2001-01-01

    medical examinations; acknowledgement dissonance connected with information about the radiation situation and the possible negative consequences as well; complex character of the effect of different factors. Besides, the economic crisis in the republic has put the radioactively contaminated areas into especially complicated socio-economic conditions. The common features of the crisis are especially acute there: drop of production, population outflow from these regions, the undeveloped state of the consumer's sector, the low level of social and medical services of the population. All residents of the contaminated territories belong to the group of increased risk taking into account the scale of the accident together with a complex of unfavourable factors of non-radiation nature. After the Chernobyl disaster it became evident that adequate perception of radiation risk should be fostered through teaching radiation safety basics to a wide range of people who influence the process of formation of peoples opinion (e.g. teachers, doctors, agronomists, etc.) as well as through public awareness raising. It is of significant importance to provide population with objective and available information on radioecological situation, radiation safety and protective measures when solving social and economical problems. At the first stage the population had a distrust of the information related to the consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident. This distrust was originally caused by concealment of many facts due to their secrecy and also by contradictory information had to be analysed first of all by specialists and only then discussed in public. Therefore, population affected by 'information distress' needs in true information about possibilities to decrease radiation risks and to become aware of conditions to provide safe living on contaminated territories. The vast stock of scientific and practical material in the field of radiobiology, radioecology, radiation medicine has been collected

  1. Application of organic matter to enhance phytoremediation of mercury contaminated soils using local plant species: a case study on small-scale gold mining locations in Banyuwangi of East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Muddarisna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The discharge of small-scale gold mine tailing to agricultural lands at Pesanggaran village of Banyuwangi Regency caused soil degradation as indicated by reduced crop production. This soil degradation is mainly due to the toxicity of mercury contained in the tailing. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential of three local plant species, i.e. Lindernia crustacea, Digitaria radicosa, and Cyperus kyllingia for phytoremediation of agricultural land contaminated gold mine waste containing mercury, and its influence on the growth of maize. Six treatments (three plant species, and two levels of organic matter application were arranged in a randomized block design with three replicates. Maize was grown on soil after phytoremediation for 8 weeks. The results showed that among the three plant species tested, Cyperus kyllingia was the potential candidate plant species for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with gold mine tailing containing mercury because of its ability to accumulate mercury from 32.06 to 73.90 mg / kg of soil in 60 days. Phytoremediation of mercury contaminated soil using Cyperus kyllingia using increased maize yield by 126% compared to that the biomass yield of maize grown on soil without phytoremediation. Induce phytoremediation needs to be carried out to accelerate the process of remediation of mercury contaminated soils

  2. Mercury speciation and dispersion from an active gold mine at the West Wits area, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusilao-Makiese, J G; Tessier, E; Amouroux, D; Tutu, H; Chimuka, L; Weiersbye, I; Cukrowska, E M

    2016-01-01

    Total mercury (HgTOT), inorganic mercury (IHg), and methylmercury (MHg) were determined in dry season waters, sediments, and tailings from an active mine which has long history of gold exploitation. Although HgTOT in waters was generally low (0.03 to 19.60 ng L(-1)), the majority of the samples had proportions of MHg of at least 90 % of HgTOT which denotes a substantial methylation potential of the mine watersheds. Mercury was relatively high in tailing materials (up to 867 μg kg(-1)) and also in the mine sediments (up to 837 μg kg(-1)) especially in samples collected near tailing storage facilities and within a receiving water dam. Sediment profiles revealed mercury enrichment and enhanced methylation rate at deeper layers. The presence of IHg and decaying plants (organic matter) in the watersheds as well as the anoxic conditions of bulk sediments are believed to be some of the key factors favoring the mercury methylation at the site.

  3. Mercury contamination level and speciation inventory in Lakes Titicaca & Uru-Uru (Bolivia): Current status and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guédron, S; Point, D; Acha, D; Bouchet, S; Baya, P A; Tessier, E; Monperrus, M; Molina, C I; Groleau, A; Chauvaud, L; Thebault, J; Amice, E; Alanoca, L; Duwig, C; Uzu, G; Lazzaro, X; Bertrand, A; Bertrand, S; Barbraud, C; Delord, K; Gibon, F M; Ibanez, C; Flores, M; Fernandez Saavedra, P; Ezpinoza, M E; Heredia, C; Rocha, F; Zepita, C; Amouroux, D

    2017-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystems of the Bolivian Altiplano (∼3800 m a.s.l.) are characterized by extreme hydro-climatic constrains (e.g., high UV-radiations and low oxygen) and are under the pressure of increasing anthropogenic activities, unregulated mining, agricultural and urban development. We report here a complete inventory of mercury (Hg) levels and speciation in the water column, atmosphere, sediment and key sentinel organisms (i.e., plankton, fish and birds) of two endorheic Lakes of the same watershed differing with respect to their size, eutrophication and contamination levels. Total Hg (THg) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) concentrations in filtered water and sediment of Lake Titicaca are in the lowest range of reported levels in other large lakes worldwide. Downstream, Hg levels are 3-10 times higher in the shallow eutrophic Lake Uru-Uru than in Lake Titicaca due to high Hg inputs from the surrounding mining region. High percentages of MMHg were found in the filtered and unfiltered water rising up from <1 to ∼50% THg from the oligo/hetero-trophic Lake Titicaca to the eutrophic Lake Uru-Uru. Such high %MMHg is explained by a high in situ MMHg production in relation to the sulfate rich substrate, the low oxygen levels of the water column, and the stabilization of MMHg due to abundant ligands present in these alkaline waters. Differences in MMHg concentrations in water and sediments compartments between Lake Titicaca and Uru-Uru were found to mirror the offset in MMHg levels that also exist in their respective food webs. This suggests that in situ MMHg baseline production is likely the main factor controlling MMHg levels in fish species consumed by the local population. Finally, the increase of anthropogenic pressure in Lake Titicaca may probably enhance eutrophication processes which favor MMHg production and thus accumulation in water and biota. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mercury concentrations in bats (Chiroptera) from a gold mining area in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Brush, Mónica; Portillo, Alejandro; Brändel, Stefan Dominik; Storch, Ilse; Tschapka, Marco; Biester, Harald

    2018-01-01

    In the southeastern Peruvian Amazon, artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is estimated to have released up to 300 tonnes of mercury (Hg) to the environment between 1995 and 2007 alone, and is claimed to be responsible for Hg concentrations above international thresholds for aquatic wildlife species. Here, we examined whether Hg concentrations in bat populations are potentially related to regional ASGM-Hg releases. We determined Hg concentrations in the fur of bats collected at three different distances from the major ASGM areas in Peru. Our findings from 204 individuals of 32 species indicate that Hg concentrations in bat fur mainly resulted from differences in feeding habits, because Hg concentrations were significantly higher in omnivorous bats than in frugivorous bats. At least in two species, populations living in ASGM-affected sites harbored higher Hg concentrations than did populations in unaffected sites. Because Hg concentrations reflect Hg dietary exposure, Hg emissions from amalgam roasting sites appear to deposit locally and enter the terrestrial food web. Although our study demonstrates that ASGM activities (and Hg point sources) increase Hg exposure in wildlife, the overall Hg concentrations reported here are relatively low. The measured Hg concentrations were below the toxicity threshold at which adverse neurological effects have been reported in rodents and mink (>10 µg g -1 ), and were in the range of Hg concentrations in the fur of bats from nonpoint source affected sites in other latitudes. This study emphasizes the importance of considering feeding habits when evaluating Hg concentrations in bats and other vertebrates.

  5. Below a Historic Mercury Mine: Non-linear Patterns of Mercury Bioaccumulation in Aquatic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, J.; Ichikawa, G.; Ode, P.; Salsbery, D.; Abel, J.

    2001-12-01

    Unlike most heavy metals, mercury is capable of bioaccumulating in aquatic food-chains, primarily because it is methylated by bacteria in sediment to the more toxic methylmercury form. Mercury concentrations in a number of riparian systems in California are highly elevated as a result of historic mining activities. These activities included both the mining of cinnabar in the coastal ranges to recover elemental mercury and the use of elemental mercury in the gold fields of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. The most productive mercury mining area was the New Almaden District, now a county park, located in the Guadalupe River drainage of Santa Clara County, where cinnabar was mined and retorted for over 100 years. As a consequence, riparian systems in several subwatersheds of the Guadalupe River drainage are contaminated with total mercury concentrations that exceed state hazardous waste criteria. Mercury concentrations in fish tissue frequently exceed human health guidelines. However, the potential ecological effects of these elevated mercury concentrations have not been thoroughly evaluated. One difficulty is in extrapolating sediment concentrations to fish tissue concentrations without accounting for physical and biological processes that determine bioaccumulation patterns. Many processes, such as methylation and demethylation of mercury by bacteria, assimilation efficiency in invertebrates, and metabolic rates in fish, are nonlinear, a factor that often confounds attempts to evaluate the effects of mercury contamination on aquatic food webs. Sediment, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish tissue samples were collected in 1998 from the Guadalupe River drainage in Santa Clara County at 13 sites upstream and downstream from the historic mining district. Sediment and macroinvertebrate samples were analyzed for total mercury and methylmercury. Fish samples were analyzed for total mercury as whole bodies, composited by species and size. While linear correlations of sediment

  6. Mercury concentrations in fish from Canadian Great Lakes areas of concern: an analysis of data from the Canadian Department of Environment database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, I.M.

    2004-01-01

    The tissue mercury concentrations in six species of fish collected at the 17 Areas of Concern identified by the International Joint Commission on the Canadian side of the Great Lakes were analyzed using an Environment Canada database. A linear increase in mercury concentration with fish length was found, but slopes differed among locations. The temporal pattern over the period 1971-1997 differed across species in fish collected in Lake St. Clair; in at least two species there was evidence of increased mercury concentration during the 1990s that had been suggested in an earlier analysis. Areas of Concern differed significantly in observed tissue concentrations. Differences observed did not consistently parallel expectations associated with the historical presence of chlor-alkali plants in the vicinities of some locations. An attempt to correlate the fish tissue mercury concentration with the frequency of occurrence of infantile cerebral palsy at Areas of Concern was unsuccessful

  7. MERCURY IN MARINE LIFE DATABASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the Mercury in Marine Life Project is to organize information on estuarine and marine species so that EPA can better understand both the extent of monitoring for mercury and level of mercury contamination in the biota of coastal environments. This report follows a ...

  8. Recent Approaches to Modeling Transport of Mercury in Surface Water and Groundwater - Case Study in Upper East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, TN - 13349

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary; Tachiev, Georgio; Malek-Mohammadi, Siamak

    2013-01-01

    In this case study, groundwater/surface water modeling was used to determine efficacy of stabilization in place with hydrologic isolation for remediation of mercury contaminated areas in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Watershed in Oak Ridge, TN. The modeling simulates the potential for mercury in soil to contaminate groundwater above industrial use risk standards and to contribute to surface water contamination. The modeling approach is unique in that it couples watershed hydrology with the total mercury transport and provides a tool for analysis of changes in mercury load related to daily precipitation, evaporation, and runoff from storms. The model also allows for simulation of colloidal transport of total mercury in surface water. Previous models for the watershed only simulated average yearly conditions and dissolved concentrations that are not sufficient for predicting mercury flux under variable flow conditions that control colloidal transport of mercury in the watershed. The transport of mercury from groundwater to surface water from mercury sources identified from information in the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System was simulated using a watershed scale model calibrated to match observed daily creek flow, total suspended solids and mercury fluxes. Mercury sources at the former Building 81-10 area, where mercury was previously retorted, were modeled using a telescopic refined mesh with boundary conditions extracted from the watershed model. Modeling on a watershed scale indicated that only source excavation for soils/sediment in the vicinity of UEFPC had any effect on mercury flux in surface water. The simulations showed that colloidal transport contributed 85 percent of the total mercury flux leaving the UEFPC watershed under high flow conditions. Simulation of dissolved mercury transport from liquid elemental mercury and adsorbed sources in soil at former Building 81-10 indicated that dissolved concentrations are orders of magnitude

  9. Recent Approaches to Modeling Transport of Mercury in Surface Water and Groundwater - Case Study in Upper East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, TN - 13349

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary [Professional Project Services, Inc., Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN, 37922 (United States); Tachiev, Georgio [Florida International University, Applied Research Center 10555 W. Flagler St., EC 2100 Miami Florida 33174 (United States); Malek-Mohammadi, Siamak [Bradley University, 413A Jobst Hall, Preoria, IL 61625 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In this case study, groundwater/surface water modeling was used to determine efficacy of stabilization in place with hydrologic isolation for remediation of mercury contaminated areas in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Watershed in Oak Ridge, TN. The modeling simulates the potential for mercury in soil to contaminate groundwater above industrial use risk standards and to contribute to surface water contamination. The modeling approach is unique in that it couples watershed hydrology with the total mercury transport and provides a tool for analysis of changes in mercury load related to daily precipitation, evaporation, and runoff from storms. The model also allows for simulation of colloidal transport of total mercury in surface water. Previous models for the watershed only simulated average yearly conditions and dissolved concentrations that are not sufficient for predicting mercury flux under variable flow conditions that control colloidal transport of mercury in the watershed. The transport of mercury from groundwater to surface water from mercury sources identified from information in the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System was simulated using a watershed scale model calibrated to match observed daily creek flow, total suspended solids and mercury fluxes. Mercury sources at the former Building 81-10 area, where mercury was previously retorted, were modeled using a telescopic refined mesh with boundary conditions extracted from the watershed model. Modeling on a watershed scale indicated that only source excavation for soils/sediment in the vicinity of UEFPC had any effect on mercury flux in surface water. The simulations showed that colloidal transport contributed 85 percent of the total mercury flux leaving the UEFPC watershed under high flow conditions. Simulation of dissolved mercury transport from liquid elemental mercury and adsorbed sources in soil at former Building 81-10 indicated that dissolved concentrations are orders of magnitude

  10. Mercury and selenium in blue shark (Prionace glauca, L. 1758) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius, L. 1758) from two areas of the Atlantic Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branco, Vasco [National Institute for Agronomy and Fisheries Research (INIAP/IPIMAR), Avenida de Brasilia, 1449-006 Lisbon (Portugal)], E-mail: vbranco@ipimar.pt; Vale, Carlos; Canario, Joao [National Institute for Agronomy and Fisheries Research (INIAP/IPIMAR), Avenida de Brasilia, 1449-006 Lisboa (Portugal); Santos, Miguel Neves dos [National Institute for Agronomy and Fisheries Research (INIAP/IPIMAR), South Regional Center for Fisheries Research (IPIMAR/CRIPSul), Avenida 5 de Outubro s/n, 8700-305 Olhao (Portugal)

    2007-12-15

    Muscle, liver and stomach contents of 64 blue sharks and 52 swordfishes, caught between September 2004 and February 2005 near the Azores (area A) and the Equator (area E), were analysed for mercury and selenium. Levels of mercury were relatively high (blue shark: 0.032-2.5 {mu}g g{sup -1}; swordfish: 0.031-9.8 {mu}g g{sup -1}) and comparable to values reported in the literature. However, mercury and organic mercury concentrations in muscle and liver of specimens from E were significantly higher than those from A. A similar trend was registered in stomach contents, suggesting higher uptake of Hg in specimens from E. This difference was also observed in the relationship between concentration in muscle and size, indicating a higher accumulation rate in specimens from E. The accumulation of Se in the liver of both species showed a positive correlation with inorganic mercury concentrations, pointing to a detoxifying mechanism of organic mercury in these species through Se-Hg liaisons. - Mercury levels differ in Azores and Equator, and detoxification by selenium occurs.

  11. Mercury and selenium in blue shark (Prionace glauca, L. 1758) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius, L. 1758) from two areas of the Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, Vasco; Vale, Carlos; Canario, Joao; Santos, Miguel Neves dos

    2007-01-01

    Muscle, liver and stomach contents of 64 blue sharks and 52 swordfishes, caught between September 2004 and February 2005 near the Azores (area A) and the Equator (area E), were analysed for mercury and selenium. Levels of mercury were relatively high (blue shark: 0.032-2.5 μg g -1 ; swordfish: 0.031-9.8 μg g -1 ) and comparable to values reported in the literature. However, mercury and organic mercury concentrations in muscle and liver of specimens from E were significantly higher than those from A. A similar trend was registered in stomach contents, suggesting higher uptake of Hg in specimens from E. This difference was also observed in the relationship between concentration in muscle and size, indicating a higher accumulation rate in specimens from E. The accumulation of Se in the liver of both species showed a positive correlation with inorganic mercury concentrations, pointing to a detoxifying mechanism of organic mercury in these species through Se-Hg liaisons. - Mercury levels differ in Azores and Equator, and detoxification by selenium occurs

  12. Mercury accumulation in soils and plants in the Almadén mining district, Spain: one of the most contaminated sites on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, José Antonio; Oyarzun, Roberto; Esbrí, José María; Higueras, Pablo

    2006-10-01

    Although mercury (Hg) mining in the Almadén district ceased in May 2002, the consequences of 2000 years of mining in the district has resulted in the dissemination of Hg into the surrounding environment where it poses an evident risk to biota and human health. This risk needs to be properly evaluated. The uptake of Hg has been found to be plant-specific. To establish the different manners in which plants absorb Hg, we carried out a survey of Hg levels in the soils and plants in the most representative habitats of this Mediterranean area and found that the Hg concentrations varied greatly and were dependent on the sample being tested (0.13-2,695 microg g(-1) Hg). For example, the root samples had concentrations ranging from 0.06 (Oenanthe crocata, Rumex induratus) to 1095 (Polypogon monspeliensis) microg g(-1) Hg, while in the leaf samples, the range was from 0.16 (Cyperus longus) to 1278 (Polypogon monspeliensis) microg g(-1) Hg. There are four well-differentiated patterns of Hg uptake: (1) the rate of uptake is constant, independent of Hg concentration in the soil (e.g., Pistacia lentiscus, Quercus rotundifolia); (2) after an initial linear relationship between uptake and soil concentration, no further increase in Hg(plant) is observed (e.g., Asparagus acutifolius, Cistus ladanifer); (3) no increase in uptake is recorded until a threshold is surpassed, and thereafter a linear relationship between Hg(plant) and Hg(soil) is established (e.g., Rumex bucephalophorus, Cistus crispus); (4) there is no relationship between Hg(plant) and Hg(soil )(e.g., Oenanthe crocata and Cistus monspeliensis). Overall, the Hg concentrations found in plants from the Almadén district clearly reflect the importance of contamination processes throughout the study region.

  13. Concentration of plutonium in desert plants from contaminated area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hui; Jin Yuren; Tian Mei; Li Weiping; Zeng Ke; Wang Yaoqin; Wang Yu

    2012-01-01

    The investigation of plutonium in desert plants from contaminated sites contributes to the evaluation of its pollution situation and to the survey of plutonium hyper accumulator. The concentration of 239 Pu in desert plants collected from a contaminated site was determined, and the influence factors were studied. The concentration of 239 Pu in plants was (1.8±4.9) Bq/kg in dry weight, and it means that the plants were contaminated, moreover, the resuspension results in dramatic plutonium pollution of plant surface. The concentration of plutonium in plants depends on species, live stages and the content of plutonium in the rhizosphere soil. The concentration of plutonium in herbage is higher than that in woody plant, and for the seven species of desert plants investigated, it decreases in the order of Hexinia polydichotoma, Phragmites australis, Halostashys caspica, Halogeton arachnoideus, Lycium ruthenicum, Tamarix hispida and Calligonum aphyllum. (authors)

  14. Consumption of homegrown products does not increase dietary intake of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury by young children living in an industrialized area of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, Michael; Wittsiepe, Juergen; Schrey, Petra; Hilbig, Annett; Kersting, Mathilde

    2005-01-01

    The dietary intake of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) was studied among young German children with different food consumption behaviour (consumption of own grown foodstuffs and of products from the supermarket). The study area comprised an industrialized and a rural area of West Germany. Dietary intake of contaminants was measured by the duplicate method according to the WHO guideline. A total 588 duplicate portions were collected daily from 84 individuals between May and September 1998. Intake of food groups was calculated from dietary records. Determination of As, Cd, Hg, and Pb was performed following high-pressure digestion of lyophilized samples by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Geometric mean weekly intake [μg/(kg bw .week)] was as follows: As 1.4, Cd 2.3, Hg 0.16, and Pb 5.3. Geometric mean intake corresponded to the percentage of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) as follows: As 9.7%, Cd 32%, Hg 3.3%, Pb 21%. As and Hg intake were mainly influenced by fish consumption. The amount of cereals and bakery wares mainly determined the Cd and Pb intake. Children living in the industrialized area with a substantial food consumption of own grown vegetables or products from domestic animals products had no increased dietary intake of the metals

  15. Getting Mercury out of Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    This guide was prepared while working with many Massachusetts schools to remove items that contain mercury and to find suitable alternatives. It contains fact sheets on: mercury in science laboratories and classrooms, mercury in school buildings and maintenance areas, mercury in the medical office and in medical technology classrooms in vocational…

  16. Mercury isotope constraints on the source for sediment-hosted lead-zinc deposits in the Changdu area, southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunxia; Yin, Runsheng; Peng, Jiantang; Hurley, James P.; Lepak, Ryan F.; Gao, Jianfeng; Feng, Xinbin; Hu, Ruizhong; Bi, Xianwu

    2018-03-01

    The Lanuoma and Cuona sediment-hosted Pb-Zn deposits hosted by Upper Triassic limestone and sandstone, respectively, are located in the Changdu area, SW China. Mercury concentrations and Hg isotopic compositions from sulfide minerals and potential source rocks (e.g., the host sedimentary rocks and the metamorphic basement) were investigated to constrain metal sources and mineralization processes. In both deposits, sulfide minerals have higher mercury (Hg) concentrations (0.35 to 1185 ppm) than the metamorphic basement rocks (0.05 to 0.15 ppm) and sedimentary rocks (0.02 to 0.08 ppm). Large variations of mass-dependent fractionation (3.3‰ in δ202Hg) and mass-independent fractionation (0.3‰ in Δ199Hg) of Hg isotopes were observed. Sulfide minerals have Hg isotope signatures that are similar to the hydrothermal altered rocks around the deposit, and similar to the metamorphic basement, but different from barren sedimentary rocks. The variation of Δ199Hg suggests that Hg in sulfides was mainly derived from the underlying metamorphic basement. Mercury isotopes could be a geochemical tracer in understanding metal sources in hydrothermal ore deposits.

  17. Atmospheric mercury dispersion modelling from two nearest hypothetical point sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Razi, Khandakar Md Habib; Hiroshi, Moritomi; Shinji, Kambara [Environmental and Renewable Energy System (ERES), Graduate School of Engineering, Gifu University, Yanagido, Gifu City, 501-1193 (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    The Japan coastal areas are still environmentally friendly, though there are multiple air emission sources originating as a consequence of several developmental activities such as automobile industries, operation of thermal power plants, and mobile-source pollution. Mercury is known to be a potential air pollutant in the region apart from SOX, NOX, CO and Ozone. Mercury contamination in water bodies and other ecosystems due to deposition of atmospheric mercury is considered a serious environmental concern. Identification of sources contributing to the high atmospheric mercury levels will be useful for formulating pollution control and mitigation strategies in the region. In Japan, mercury and its compounds were categorized as hazardous air pollutants in 1996 and are on the list of 'Substances Requiring Priority Action' published by the Central Environmental Council of Japan. The Air Quality Management Division of the Environmental Bureau, Ministry of the Environment, Japan, selected the current annual mean environmental air quality standard for mercury and its compounds of 0.04 ?g/m3. Long-term exposure to mercury and its compounds can have a carcinogenic effect, inducing eg, Minamata disease. This study evaluates the impact of mercury emissions on air quality in the coastal area of Japan. Average yearly emission of mercury from an elevated point source in this area with background concentration and one-year meteorological data were used to predict the ground level concentration of mercury. To estimate the concentration of mercury and its compounds in air of the local area, two different simulation models have been used. The first is the National Institute of Advanced Science and Technology Atmospheric Dispersion Model for Exposure and Risk Assessment (AIST-ADMER) that estimates regional atmospheric concentration and distribution. The second is the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) that estimates the atmospheric

  18. Fish Mercury and Surface Water Sulfate Relationships in the Everglades Protection Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few published studies present data on relationships between fish mercury and surface or pore water sulfate concentrations, particularly on an ecosystem-wide basis. Resource managers can use these relationships to identify the sulfate conditions that contain fish with health-conce...

  19. Health impacts of mercury cycling in contaminated environments of central India studied by NAA and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, K.S.

    2001-01-01

    The heavy metal pollution in the Indian continent is increasing due to rapid industrialisation. Among heavy metals, the element: mercury is considered as global pollutant. In central India it is considered as global pollutant. Central India has been chosen for the investigation of the mercury pollution and their health impacts in the proposed project. The concentration and flux levels of the organic, inorganic and total mercury and their variations, sources and co-relation are investigated in various atmospheric and environmental compartments air, dry deposit, wet deposits, water, soil, sediment, etc. of central India lying between 18-23 deg. N latitude and 80-84 deg. longitude. The techniques CVAAS, NAA, XFS, ICP-MS, etc. would be used for monitoring the various chemical species of mercury employing established methodologies. (author)

  20. Source-receptor relationships for speciated atmospheric mercury at the remote Experimental Lakes Area, northwestern Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cheng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Source-receptor relationships for speciated atmospheric mercury measured at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA, northwestern Ontario, Canada were investigated using various receptor-based approaches. The data used in this study include gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, mercury bound to fine airborne particles (<2.5 μm (PHg, reactive gaseous mercury (RGM, major inorganic ions, sulphur dioxide, nitric acid gas, ozone, and meteorological variables, all of which were measured between May 2005 and December 2006. The source origins identified were related to transport of industrial and combustion emissions (associated with elevated GEM, photochemical production of RGM (associated with elevated RGM, road-salt particles with absorption of gaseous Hg (associated with elevated PHg and RGM, crustal/soil emissions, and background pollution. Back trajectory modelling illustrated that a remote site, like ELA, is affected by distant Hg point sources in Canada and the United States. The sources identified from correlation analysis, principal components analysis and K-means cluster analysis were generally consistent. The discrepancies between the K-means and Hierarchical cluster analysis were the clusters related to transport of industrial/combustion emissions, photochemical production of RGM, and crustal/soil emissions. Although it was possible to assign the clusters to these source origins, the trajectory plots for the Hierarchical clusters were similar to some of the trajectories belonging to several K-means clusters. This likely occurred because the variables indicative of transport of industrial/combustion emissions were elevated in at least two or more of the clusters, which means this Hg source was well-represented in the data.

  1. Identifying and characterizing major emission point sources as a basis for geospatial distribution of mercury emissions inventories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuisen, Frits; Wilson, Simon J.

    Mercury is a global pollutant that poses threats to ecosystem and human health. Due to its global transport, mercury contamination is found in regions of the Earth that are remote from major emissions areas, including the Polar regions. Global anthropogenic emission inventories identify important

  2. Distribution and assessment of residual mercury from gold mining in Changbai Mountain Range Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, D.; Wang, N.; Ai, J. C.; Zhang, G.; Liu, X. J.

    2016-08-01

    Gold mining was first initiated in Jiapigou area, Huadian city of Northeastern China about 200 years ago. Before 2006, the mercury amalgamation technique was used in the gold mining process, which led to severe mercury contamination. The aim of this paper is to explore the influences of residual mercury on the environment media after eliminating the amalgamation process to extract gold. The mercury concentrations of the atmosphere and the soil were determined in autumn of 2011 and spring of 2012. The soil environmental quality was assessed by the index of geoaccumulation. The results indicated that the maximum value of gaseous mercury was 25ng•m-3 in autumn and 19.5ng•m-3 in spring; the maximum value of mercury in the soil was 2.06mg•kg-1 in autumn and 2.51mg•kg-1in spring. It can be seen that the peak concentrations of the gaseous mercury happened at the gold mine area and tailings, while the peak mercury concentrations in the soil were located at the places near the mining sites and the residential area in the valley. Furthermore, the regression analysis of the total mercury contents between the atmosphere and the soil showed a significant correlation, which indicated that there was certain circulation of the mercury between the regional atmosphere and soil. In general, after the elimination of the amalgamation technique in gold extraction, the distance to the mercury source, the special conditions of hilly weather and landforms and the mercury exchange flux are the main factors of mercury contamination.

  3. Mercury contamination and effects on survival of American avocet and black-necked stilt chicks in San Francisco Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Takekawa, John Y; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Iverson, Samuel A

    2008-02-01

    We evaluated whether mercury influenced survival of free-ranging American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) and black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) chicks in San Francisco Bay, California. Using radio telemetry, we radio-marked 158 avocet and 79 stilt chicks at hatching and tracked them daily until their fate was determined. We did not find strong support for an influence of in ovo mercury exposure on chick survival, despite observing a wide range of mercury concentrations in chick down feathers at hatching (0.40-44.31 microg g(-1) fw). We estimated that chick survival rates were reduced by nest monitoring. In contrast to the telemetry results, we found that mercury concentrations in down feathers of dead chicks were higher than those in randomly-sampled live chicks of similar age. However, capture site was the most important variable influencing mercury concentrations, followed by year, species, and hatching date. Although laboratory studies have demonstrated negative effects of environmentally relevant mercury concentrations on chick survival, our results concur with the small number of previous field studies that have not been able to detect reduced survival in the wild.

  4. Heavy Metal Contamination Assessment and Partition for Industrial and Mining Gathering Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrial and mining activities have been recognized as the major sources of soil heavy metal contamination. This study introduced an improved Nemerow index method based on the Nemerow and geo-accumulation index. Taking a typical industrial and mining gathering area in Tianjin (China as example, this study then analyzed the contamination sources as well as the ecological and integrated risks. The spatial distribution of the contamination level and ecological risk were determined using Geographic Information Systems. The results are as follows: (1 Zinc showed the highest contaminant level in the study area; the contamination levels of the other seven heavy metals assessed were relatively lower. (2 The combustion of fossil fuels and emissions from industrial and mining activities were the main sources of contamination in the study area. (3 The overall contamination level of heavy metals in the study area ranged from heavily contaminated to extremely contaminated and showed an uneven distribution. (4 The potential ecological risk showed an uneven distribution, and the overall ecological risk level ranged from low to moderate. This study also emphasized the importance of partition in industrial and mining areas, the extensive application of spatial analysis methods, and the consideration of human health risks in future studies.

  5. Heavy Metal Contamination Assessment and Partition for Industrial and Mining Gathering Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yang; Shao, Chaofeng; Ju, Meiting

    2014-01-01

    Industrial and mining activities have been recognized as the major sources of soil heavy metal contamination. This study introduced an improved Nemerow index method based on the Nemerow and geo-accumulation index. Taking a typical industrial and mining gathering area in Tianjin (China) as example, this study then analyzed the contamination sources as well as the ecological and integrated risks. The spatial distribution of the contamination level and ecological risk were determined using Geographic Information Systems. The results are as follows: (1) Zinc showed the highest contaminant level in the study area; the contamination levels of the other seven heavy metals assessed were relatively lower. (2) The combustion of fossil fuels and emissions from industrial and mining activities were the main sources of contamination in the study area. (3) The overall contamination level of heavy metals in the study area ranged from heavily contaminated to extremely contaminated and showed an uneven distribution. (4) The potential ecological risk showed an uneven distribution, and the overall ecological risk level ranged from low to moderate. This study also emphasized the importance of partition in industrial and mining areas, the extensive application of spatial analysis methods, and the consideration of human health risks in future studies. PMID:25032743

  6. Aqueous mercury treatment technology review for NPDES Outfall 49 Y-12 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanning, J.M.

    1993-04-01

    During 1950 to 1955, Building 9201-2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was used to house development facilities for processes that employed elemental mercury to separate lithium isotopes as part of the thermonuclear weapons production operations. As a result of several spills, this building area and several other areas associated with the separation process were contaminated with mercury and became a source of continuing contamination of the Y-12 Plant discharge water to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). Mercury concentrations in the outfalls south of Building 9201-2 have ranged up to 80 ppb, with the highest concentrations being experienced at Outfall 49. As a result, this outfall was chosen as a test site for future mercury treatment technology evaluation and development at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. A literature review and vendor survey has identified several promising materials and technologies that may be applicable to mercury removal at the Outfall 49 site. This document summarizes those findings.

  7. [Evaluation and source analysis of the mercury pollution in soils and vegetables around a large-scale zinc smelting plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Wang, Shu-Xiao; Wu, Qing-Ru; Lin, Hai

    2013-02-01

    The farming soil and vegetable samples around a large-scale zinc smelter were collected for mercury content analyses, and the single pollution index method with relevant regulations was used to evaluate the pollution status of sampled soils and vegetables. The results indicated that the surface soil and vegetables were polluted with mercury to different extent. Of the soil samples, 78% exceeded the national standard. The mercury concentration in the most severely contaminated area was 29 times higher than the background concentration, reaching the severe pollution degree. The mercury concentration in all vegetable samples exceeded the standard of non-pollution vegetables. Mercury concentration, in the most severely polluted vegetables were 64.5 times of the standard, and averagely the mercury concentration in the vegetable samples was 25.4 times of the standard. For 85% of the vegetable samples, the mercury concentration, of leaves were significantly higher than that of roots, which implies that the mercury in leaves mainly came from the atmosphere. The mercury concentrations in vegetable roots were significantly correlated with that in soils, indicating the mercury in roots was mainly from soil. The mercury emissions from the zinc smelter have obvious impacts on the surrounding soils and vegetables. Key words:zinc smelting; mercury pollution; soil; vegetable; mercury content

  8. Co-ordinated research project on health impact of mercury cycling in contaminated environments studied by nuclear techniques. Report on the final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Mercury is a global pollutant because of its ability to undergo long distance transport into the atmosphere. In view of these global concerns the IAEA has organised a CRP to elucidate the biological, chemical, and physical factors, which influence the transformations of Hg and its compounds in the ecosystem and the dynamics of the mercury recycling. Under the title 'Health impacts of mercury cycling in contaminated environments studied by nuclear techniques' the CRP was started in October 1999 and concluded in February 2004. This report provides an overview of the various activities performed under the CRP by the various participants. The overall achievements are summarized and those aspects that require a further deeper look are also pointed out. The individual country reports are also given which detail on the progress made by the respective participants, during the CRP period. It is hoped that the results would encourage further research activities on these and related issues in the respective countries with the CRP participant as a catalyst to further these studies

  9. Metallic mercury recycling. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, M.A.

    1994-07-01

    Metallic mercury is known to be a hazardous material and is regulated as such. The disposal of mercury, usually by landfill, is expensive and does not remove mercury from the environment. Results from the Metallic Mercury Recycling Project have demonstrated that metallic mercury is a good candidate for reclamation and recycling. Most of the potential contamination of mercury resides in the scum floating on the surface of the mercury. Pinhole filtration was demonstrated to be an inexpensive and easy way of removing residues from mercury. The analysis method is shown to be sufficient for present release practices, and should be sufficient for future release requirements. Data from tests are presented. The consistently higher level of activity of the filter residue versus the bulk mercury is discussed. Recommendations for the recycling procedure are made.

  10. Metallic mercury recycling. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Metallic mercury is known to be a hazardous material and is regulated as such. The disposal of mercury, usually by landfill, is expensive and does not remove mercury from the environment. Results from the Metallic Mercury Recycling Project have demonstrated that metallic mercury is a good candidate for reclamation and recycling. Most of the potential contamination of mercury resides in the scum floating on the surface of the mercury. Pinhole filtration was demonstrated to be an inexpensive and easy way of removing residues from mercury. The analysis method is shown to be sufficient for present release practices, and should be sufficient for future release requirements. Data from tests are presented. The consistently higher level of activity of the filter residue versus the bulk mercury is discussed. Recommendations for the recycling procedure are made

  11. Semiquantitative mercury determination in fish: a tool for poisoning prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YALLOUZ ALLEGRA V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to mercury intoxication through contaminated fish ingestion has been well studied, mainly among Japanese population. The Brazilian population, particulaly in the Amazon region, is now in focus due to findings of fish contamination. Major health impacts caused by mercury affect mostly people who have a regular fish diet. A continuous checking for mercury content in the most consumed fish could prevent human intoxication. A simple, non-instrumental method to allow a continuous checking of the mercury content in fish was developed. Based on this method, we are proposing a prevention action where community agents can be trained to perform fish analysis. Technical Schools and Universities located nearby the affected areas would be in charge of quality control programs for the fish analysis as well as for the selection, training and update for operators.

  12. Treatability study for removal of leachable mercury in crushed fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.D.; Beck, D.E.; Bowser, K.T.

    1996-02-01

    Nonserviceable fluorescent lamps removed from radiological control areas at the Oak Ridge Department of Energy facilities have been crushed and are currently managed as mixed waste (hazardous and radiologically contaminated). We present proposed treatment flowsheets and supporting treatability study data for conditioning this solid waste residue so that it can qualify for disposal in a sanitary landfill. Mercury in spent fluorescent lamps occurs primarily as condensate on high-surface-area phosphor material. It can be solubilized with excess oxidants (e.g., hypochlorite solution) and stabilized by complexation with halide ions. Soluble mercury in dechlorinated saline solution is effectively removed by cementation with zero-valent iron in the form of steel wool. In packed column dynamic flow testing, soluble mercury was reduced to mercury metal and insoluble calomel, loading > 1.2 g of mercury per grain of steel wool before an appreciable breakthrough of soluble mercury in the effluent

  13. Treatability study for removal of leachable mercury in crushed fluorescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, W.D.; Beck, D.E.; Bowser, K.T. [and others

    1996-02-01

    Nonserviceable fluorescent lamps removed from radiological control areas at the Oak Ridge Department of Energy facilities have been crushed and are currently managed as mixed waste (hazardous and radiologically contaminated). We present proposed treatment flowsheets and supporting treatability study data for conditioning this solid waste residue so that it can qualify for disposal in a sanitary landfill. Mercury in spent fluorescent lamps occurs primarily as condensate on high-surface-area phosphor material. It can be solubilized with excess oxidants (e.g., hypochlorite solution) and stabilized by complexation with halide ions. Soluble mercury in dechlorinated saline solution is effectively removed by cementation with zero-valent iron in the form of steel wool. In packed column dynamic flow testing, soluble mercury was reduced to mercury metal and insoluble calomel, loading > 1.2 g of mercury per grain of steel wool before an appreciable breakthrough of soluble mercury in the effluent.

  14. Huerta del Rey: Edafic Characterization of a Historic Area of the Mercury Mining and Study of the Transfer of Mercury from the Soil to Plantago Major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, C.; Manero, L.; Sierra, M. J.; Rodriguez-Alonso, M.; Millan, R.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this scientific-technical report is to carry out a characterization of study plot called Huerta del Rey in the mercury (Hg) mining district of Almaden. For this goal, an edaphic characterization has been performed and the Hg behavior in the soil study has been evaluated. Then, total Hg concentration and easily available Hg for plants have been determined and the absorption and distribution of Hg in Plantago major L (typical specie from the study area) have been studied. The results showed that the total Hg concentrations in the soil ranged from 530 ± 32 mg kg - 1 to 4300 ± 339 mg kg - 1 even to 12378 ± 1051mg kg - 1. It is in accordance with the normal values measured in a Hg mining area. Otherwise, the percentage of soluble Hg in soil with respect to the total Hg concentration is low ( - 1 that could mean a potential risk of pollution of groundwater by leaching process. Finally a brief description about different technologies for decreasing Hg concentration in the study soil, including phytoremediation, has been performed. (Author) 96 refs.

  15. Mercury transformations in resuspended contaminated sediment controlled by redox conditions, chemical speciation and sources of organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Song, Yu; Adediran, Gbotemi A.; Jiang, Tao; Reis, Ana T.; Pereira, Eduarda; Skyllberg, Ulf; Björn, Erik

    2018-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) contaminated sediments can be significant sources of Hg in aquatic ecosystems and, through re-emission processes, to the atmosphere. Transformation and release of Hg may be enhanced by various sediment perturbation processes, and controlling biogeochemical factors largely remain unclear. We investigated how rates of Hg transformations in pulp-fiber enriched sediment contaminated by Hg from chlor-alkali industry were controlled by (i) transient redox-changes in sulfur and iron chemistry, (ii) the chemical speciation and solubility of Hg, and (iii) the sources and characteristics of organic matter (OM). Sediment-bottom water microcosm systems were exposed to four combinations of air and nitrogen gas for a total time of 24 h. The treatments were: 24 h N2, 0.5 h air + 23.5 h N2, 4 h air + 20 h N2 and 24 h of air exposure. As a result of these treatments, microcosms spanned a wide range of redox potential, as reflected by the dissolved sulfide concentration range of ≤0.3-97 μM. Four different chemical species of inorganic divalent Hg (HgII) and methyl mercury (MeHg), enriched in different Hg isotope tracers, were added to the microcosms: 201Hg(NO3)2(aq), 202HgII adsorbed to OM (202HgII-OM(ads)), 198HgII as microcrystalline metacinnabar (β-198HgS(s)) and Me204HgCl(aq). Microcosm systems were composed of bottom water mixed with sediment taken at 0-2, 0-5 and 0-10 cm depth intervals. The composition of OM varied with sediment depth such that compared to deeper sediment, the 0-2 cm depth-interval had a 2-fold higher contribution of labile OM originating from algal and terrestrial inputs, serving as metabolic electron-donors for microorganisms. The potential methylation rate constant (kmeth) of Hg tracers and net formation of ambient MeHg (MeHg/THg molar ratio) increased up to 50% and 400%, respectively at intermediate oxidative conditions, likely because of an observed 2-fold increase in sulfate concentration stimulating the activity of sulfate reducing

  16. Measurements of Mercury Released from Solidified/Stabilized Waste Forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattus, C.H.

    2001-01-01

    This report covers work performed during FY 1999-2000 in support of treatment demonstrations conducted for the Mercury Working Group of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area. In order to comply with the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as implemented by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), DOE must use one of these procedures for wastes containing mercury at levels above 260 ppm: a retorting/roasting treatment or an incineration treatment (if the wastes also contain organics). The recovered radioactively contaminated mercury must then be treated by an amalgamation process prior to disposal. The DOE Mixed Waste Focus Area and Mercury Working Group are working with the EPA to determine if some alternative processes could treat these types of waste directly, thereby avoiding for DOE the costly recovery step. They sponsored a demonstration in which commercial vendors applied their technologies for the treatment of two contaminated waste soils from Brookhaven National Laboratory. Each soil was contaminated with ∼4500 ppm mercury; however, one soil had as a major radioelement americium-241, while the other contained mostly europium-152. The project described in this report addressed the need for data on the mercury vapor released by the solidified/stabilized mixed low-level mercury wastes generated during these demonstrations as well as the comparison between the untreated and treated soils. A related work began in FY 1998, with the measurement of the mercury released by amalgamated mercury, and the results were reported in ORNL/TM-13728. Four treatments were performed on these soils. The baseline was obtained by thermal treatment performed by SepraDyne Corp., and three forms of solidification/stabilization were employed: one using sulfur polymer cement (Brookhaven National Laboratory), one using portland cement [Allied Technology Group (ATG)], and a third using proprietary additives (Nuclear Fuel Services)

  17. Mercury bioaccumulation in cartilaginous fishes from Southern New England coastal waters: Contamination from a trophic ecology and human health perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David L.; Kutil, Nicholas J.; Malek, Anna J.; Collie, Jeremy S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined total mercury (Hg) concentrations in cartilaginous fishes from Southern New England coastal waters, including smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis), spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), little skate (Leucoraja erinacea), and winter skate (L. ocellata). Total Hg in dogfish and skates were positively related to their respective body size and age, indicating Hg bioaccumulation in muscle tissue. There were also significant inter-species differences in Hg levels (mean ± 1 SD, mg Hg/kg dry weight, ppm): smooth dogfish (3.3 ± 2.1 ppm; n = 54) > spiny dogfish (1.1 ± 0.7 ppm; n = 124) > little skate (0.4 ± 0.3 ppm; n = 173) ~ winter skate (0.3 ± 0.2 ppm; n = 148). The increased Hg content of smooth dogfish was attributed to its upper trophic level status, determined by stable nitrogen (δ15N) isotope analysis (mean δ15N = 13.2 ± 0.7‰), and the consumption of high Hg prey, most notably cancer crabs (0.10 ppm). Spiny dogfish had depleted δ15N signatures (11.6 ± 0.8‰), yet demonstrated a moderate level of contamination by foraging on pelagic prey with a range of Hg concentrations, e.g., in order of dietary importance, butterfish (Hg = 0.06 ppm), longfin squid (0.17 ppm), and scup (0.11 ppm). Skates were low trophic level consumers (δ15N = 11.9-12.0‰) and fed mainly on amphipods, small decapods, and polychaetes with low Hg concentrations (0.05-0.09 ppm). Intra-specific Hg concentrations were directly related to δ15N and carbon (δ13C) isotope signatures, suggesting that Hg biomagnifies across successive trophic levels and foraging in the benthic trophic pathway increases Hg exposure. From a human health perspective, 87% of smooth dogfish, 32% of spiny dogfish, and < 2% of skates had Hg concentrations exceeding the US Environmental Protection Agency threshold level (0.3 ppm wet weight). These results indicate that frequent consumption of smooth dogfish and spiny dogfish may adversely affect human health, whereas skates present minimal risk. PMID

  18. Addressing the impact of mercury estuarine contamination in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L., 1758) - An early diagnosis in glass eel stage based on erythrocytic nuclear morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, D; Mieiro, C L; Coelho, J P; Guilherme, S; Marques, A; Santos, M A; Duarte, A C; Pereira, E; Pacheco, M

    2018-02-01

    The decline of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L., 1758) population throughout Europe has been partially attributed to pollution. As glass eel estuarine migration may represent a considerable threat, the impact of mercury (Hg) contamination at this stage was evaluated through an in situ experiment (7days). Total Hg (tHg) bioaccumulation was evaluated concomitantly with erythrocytic nuclear morphology alterations: erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities assay (ENA), frequency of immature erythrocytes (IE) and the erythrocytic maturity index (EMI). The ENA results suggested a genotoxic pressure at the most contaminated sites, in line with the tHg increase. The EMI data, together with IE frequency, showed that fish exposed to high levels of Hg exhibited alterations of haematological dynamics, translated into an erythropoiesis increment. Despite the presence of these compensatory mechanisms, the present findings suggest a harmful impact of Hg on genome integrity at this early development stage, potentially affecting eels' condition and ultimately the population sustainability. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Maternal Steller sea lion diets elevate fetal mercury concentrations in an area of population decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Lorrie D; Castellini, J Margaret; Correa, Lucero; Fadely, Brian S; O'Hara, Todd M

    2013-06-01

    Total mercury concentrations ([THg]) measured in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lion pup hair were the highest maximum [THg] documented in this endangered species to date. Some pups exceeded concentrations at which other fish-eating mammals can exhibit adverse neurological and reproductive effects (21% and 15% pups above 20 and 30 μg/g in hair, respectively). Of particular concern is fetal exposure to mercury during a particularly vulnerable stage of neurological development in late gestation. Hair and blood [THg] were highly correlated and 20% of pups sampled in the western Aleutian Islands of Alaska exceeded mammalian risk thresholds established for each of these tissues. Higher nitrogen isotope ratios suggested that pups accumulated the highest [THg] when their dams fed on higher trophic level prey during late gestation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Decreasing aqueous mercury concentrations to meet the water quality criterion in fish: examining the water-fish relationship in two point-source contaminated streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Teresa J; Southworth, George; Peterson, Mark J; Roy, W Kelly; Ketelle, Richard H; Valentine, Charles; Gregory, Scott

    2013-01-15

    East Fork Poplar Creek (EF) and White Oak Creek (WC) are two mercury-contaminated streams located on the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation in East Tennessee. East Fork Poplar Creek is the larger and more contaminated of the two, with average aqueous mercury (Hg) concentrations exceeding those in reference streams by several hundred-fold. Remedial actions over the past 20 years have decreased aqueous Hg concentrations in EF by 85% (from >1600 ng/L to Fish fillet concentrations, however, have not responded to this decrease in aqueous Hg and remain above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Recommended Water Quality Criteria (NRWQC) of 0.3 mg/kg. The lack of correlation between aqueous and fish tissue Hg concentrations in this creek has led to questions regarding the usefulness of target aqueous Hg concentrations and strategies for future remediation efforts. White Oak Creek has a similar contamination history but aqueous Hg concentrations in WC are an order of magnitude lower than in EF. Despite the lower aqueous Hg concentrations (fish fillet concentrations in WC have also been above the NRWQC, making the aqueous Hg remediation goal of 200 ng/L in EF seem unlikely to result in an effective decrease in fillet Hg concentrations. Recent monitoring efforts in WC, however, suggest an aqueous total Hg threshold above which Hg bioaccumulation in fish may not respond. This new information could be useful in guiding remedial actions in EF and in other point-source contaminated streams. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Risk of contamination of different areas of dentist′s face during dental practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Nejatidanesh

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: During dental practice, central areas of the face such as inner part of the eyes and around the nose were most contaminated areas. These parts are the important areas for transmission of infection. It is recommended to use protective means like glasses, mask, and protective shield, which have more protection field in these areas.

  2. Measuring total mercury due to small-scale gold mining activities to determine community vulnerability in Cihonje, Central Java, In